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1

Intense alpha-particle emitting crystallites in uranium mill wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nuclear emulsion microscopy has demonstrated the presence of small, intense ??-particle emitting crystallites in laboratory-produced tailings derived from the sulfuric acid milling of uranium ores. The ??-particle activity is associated with the isotope pair 210Pb 210Po, and the host mineral appears to be PbSO4 occurring as inclusions in gypsum laths. These particles represent potential inhalation hazards at uranium mill tailings disposal areas. ?? 1994.

Landa, E. R.; Stieff, L. R.; Germani, M. S.; Tanner, A. B.; Evans, J. R.

1994-01-01

2

Quality factors for alpha particles emitted in tissue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept of a mean or dose averaged quality factor was defined in ICRP Publication 26 using relationships for quality factor as a function of LET. The concept of radiation weighting factors, wR, was introduced in ICRP Publication 60 in 1990. These are meant to be generalized factors that modify absorbed dose to reflect the risk of stochastic effects as a function of the quality of the radiation incident on the body or emitted by radioactivity within the body. The values of wr are equal to 20 for all alpha particles externally or internally emitted. This note compares the dose averaged quality factor for alpha particles originating in tissue using the old and revised recommendations for quality factor as a function of LET. The dose averaged quality factor never exceeds 20 using the old recommendations and is never less than 20 with the revised recommendations.

Borak, Thomas B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

3

Bismuth212-labeled anti-Tac monoclonal antibody: alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides as modalities for radioimmunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-Tac, a monoclonal antibody directed to the human interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, has been successfully conjugated to the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide bismuth-212 by use of a bifunctional ligand, the isobutylcarboxycarbonic anhydride of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The physical properties of 212Bi are appropriate for radioimmunotherapy in that it has a short half-life, deposits its high energy over a short distance, and can be

R. W. Kozak; R. W. Atcher; O. A. Gansow; A. M. Friedman; J. J. Hines; T. A. Waldmann

1986-01-01

4

Alpha-Particle Emitting 213Bi-Anti-EGFR Immunoconjugates Eradicate Tumor Cells Independent of Oxygenation  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia is a central problem in tumor treatment because hypoxic cells are less sensitive to chemo- and radiotherapy than normoxic cells. Radioresistance of hypoxic tumor cells is due to reduced sensitivity towards low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation. High LET ?-emitters are thought to eradicate tumor cells independent of cellular oxygenation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate that cell-bound ?-particle emitting 213Bi immunoconjugates kill hypoxic and normoxic CAL33 tumor cells with identical efficiency. For that purpose CAL33 cells were incubated with 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb or irradiated with photons with a nominal energy of 6 MeV both under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Oxygenation of cells was checked via the hypoxia-associated marker HIF-1?. Survival of cells was analysed using the clonogenic assay. Cell viability was monitored with the WST colorimetric assay. Results were evaluated statistically using a t-test and a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). Survival and viability of CAL33 cells decreased both after incubation with increasing 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb activity concentrations (9.25 kBq/ml–1.48 MBq/ml) and irradiation with increasing doses of photons (0.5–12 Gy). Following photon irradiation survival and viability of normoxic cells were significantly lower than those of hypoxic cells at all doses analysed. In contrast, cell death induced by 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb turned out to be independent of cellular oxygenation. These results demonstrate that ?-particle emitting 213Bi-immunoconjugates eradicate hypoxic tumor cells as effective as normoxic cells. Therefore, 213Bi-radioimmunotherapy seems to be an appropriate strategy for treatment of hypoxic tumors.

Gaertner, Florian C.; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Essler, Markus; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard

2013-01-01

5

Alpha-particle emitting 213Bi-anti-EGFR immunoconjugates eradicate tumor cells independent of oxygenation.  

PubMed

Hypoxia is a central problem in tumor treatment because hypoxic cells are less sensitive to chemo- and radiotherapy than normoxic cells. Radioresistance of hypoxic tumor cells is due to reduced sensitivity towards low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation. High LET ?-emitters are thought to eradicate tumor cells independent of cellular oxygenation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate that cell-bound ?-particle emitting (213)Bi immunoconjugates kill hypoxic and normoxic CAL33 tumor cells with identical efficiency. For that purpose CAL33 cells were incubated with (213)Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb or irradiated with photons with a nominal energy of 6 MeV both under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Oxygenation of cells was checked via the hypoxia-associated marker HIF-1?. Survival of cells was analysed using the clonogenic assay. Cell viability was monitored with the WST colorimetric assay. Results were evaluated statistically using a t-test and a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). Survival and viability of CAL33 cells decreased both after incubation with increasing (213)Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb activity concentrations (9.25 kBq/ml-1.48 MBq/ml) and irradiation with increasing doses of photons (0.5-12 Gy). Following photon irradiation survival and viability of normoxic cells were significantly lower than those of hypoxic cells at all doses analysed. In contrast, cell death induced by (213)Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb turned out to be independent of cellular oxygenation. These results demonstrate that ?-particle emitting (213)Bi-immunoconjugates eradicate hypoxic tumor cells as effective as normoxic cells. Therefore, (213)Bi-radioimmunotherapy seems to be an appropriate strategy for treatment of hypoxic tumors. PMID:23724085

Wulbrand, Christian; Seidl, Christof; Gaertner, Florian C; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Essler, Markus; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard

2013-01-01

6

Bismuth-212-labeled anti-Tac monoclonal antibody: alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides as modalities for radioimmunotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Anti-Tac, a monoclonal antibody directed to the human interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, has been successfully conjugated to the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide bismuth-212 by use of a bifunctional ligand, the isobutylcarboxycarbonic anhydride of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The physical properties of 212Bi are appropriate for radioimmunotherapy in that it has a short half-life, deposits its high energy over a short distance, and can be obtained in large quantities from a radium generator. Antibody specific activities of 1-40 microCi/microgram (1 Ci = 37 GBq) were achieved. Specificity of the 212Bi-labeled anti-Tac was demonstrated for the IL-2 receptor-positive adult T-cell leukemia line HUT-102B2 by protein synthesis inhibition and clonogenic assays. Activity levels of 0.5 microCi or the equivalent of 12 rad/ml of alpha radiation targeted by anti-Tac eliminated greater than 98% the proliferative capabilities of HUT-102B2 cells with more modest effects on IL-2 receptor-negative cell lines. Specific cytotoxicity was blocked by excess unlabeled anti-Tac but not by human IgG. In addition, an irrelevant control monoclonal antibody of the same isotype labeled with 212Bi was unable to target alpha radiation to cell lines. Therefore, 212Bi-labeled anti-Tac is a potentially effective and specific immunocytotoxic reagent for the elimination of IL-2 receptor-positive cells. These experiments thus provide the scientific basis for use of alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides in immunotherapy.

Kozak, R.W.; Atcher, R.W.; Gansow, O.A.; Friedman, A.M.; Hines, J.J.; Waldmann, T.A.

1986-01-01

7

Cytotoxicity of alpha-particle-emitting astatine-211-labelled antibody in tumour spheroids: no effect of hyperthermia.  

PubMed Central

The high linear energy transfer, alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide astatine-211 (211At) is of interest for certain therapeutic applications; however, because of the 55- to 70-microm path length of its alpha-particles, achieving homogeneous tracer distribution is critical. Hyperthermia may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-particle endoradiotherapy if it can improve tracer distribution. In this study, we have investigated whether hyperthermia increased the cytotoxicity of an 211At-labelled monoclonal antibody (MAb) in tumour spheroids with a radius (approximately 100 microm) greater than the range of 211At alpha-particles. Hyperthermia for 1 h at 42 degrees C was used because this treatment itself resulted in no regrowth delay. Radiolabelled chimeric MAb 81C6 reactive with the extracellular matrix antigen tenascin was added to spheroids grown from the D-247 MG human glioma cell line at activity concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 250 kBq ml(-1). A significant regrowth delay was observed at 125 and 250 kBq ml(-1) in both hyperthermia-treated and untreated spheroids. For groups receiving hyperthermia, no increase in cytotoxicity was seen compared with normothermic controls at any activity concentration. These results and those from autoradiographs indicate that hyperthermia at 42 degrees C for 1 h had no significant effect on the uptake or distribution of this antitenascin MAb in D-247 MG spheroids. Images Figure 4 Figure 5

Hauck, M. L.; Larsen, R. H.; Welsh, P. C.; Zalutsky, M. R.

1998-01-01

8

THE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF ALPHA PARTICLES EMITTED BY ORIENTED Np²³⁷ NUCLEI (thesis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neptunium-237 nuclei were aligned when a monocrystalline sample of ; neptunyl rubidium nitrate was cooled to 0.2 to 4.2 deg K. The rotatable sample ; was placed in a capsule filled with He³ gas for heat transfer. Also in tbe ; capsule were a germanium surface-barrier alpha-particle counter, a thermometer, ; and rotation indicators. The capsule was in thermal contact

S. H. Hanauer; J. W. T. Dabbs; L. D. Roberts; G. W. Parker

1960-01-01

9

Nucleon-Alpha Particle Disequilibrium and Short-Lived r-Process Radioactivities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

r-Process yields can be extremely sensitive to expansion parameters when a persistent disequilibrium between free nucleons and alpha particles is present. This may provide a natural scenario for understanding the variation of heavy and light r-process isotopes in different r-process events. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Meyer, B. S.; Clayton, D. D.; Chellapilla, S.; The, L.-S.

2002-01-01

10

Short-lived uncertainty?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived greenhouse gases and black-carbon aerosols have contributed to past climate warming. Curbing their emissions and quantifying the forcing by all short-lived components could both mitigate climate change in the short term and help to refine projections of global warming.

Penner, Joyce E.; Prather, Michael J.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Stevenson, David S.

2010-09-01

11

Hit rates and radiation doses to nuclei of bone lining cells from alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

Factors relating the local concentration of a bone-seeking alpha-particle emitter to the mean hit rate have been determined for nuclei of bone lining cells using a Monte Carlo procedure. Cell nuclei were approximated by oblate spheroids with dimensions and location taken from a previous histomorphometric study. The Monte Carlo simulation is applicable for planar and diffuse labels at plane or cylindrical bone surfaces. Additionally, the mean nuclear dose per hit, the dose mean per hit, the mean track segment length and its second moment, the percentage of stoppers, and the frequency distribution of the dose have been determined. Some basic features of the hit statistics for bone lining cells have been outlined, and the consequences of existing standards of radiation protection with regard to the hit frequency to cell nuclei are discussed. PMID:1641467

Polig, E; Jee, W S; Kruglikov, I L

1992-08-01

12

Hit rates and radiation doses to nuclei of bone lining cells from alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors relating the local concentration of a bone-seeking alpha-particle emitter to the mean hit rate have been determined for nuclei of bone lining cells using a Monte Carlo procedure. Cell nuclei were approximated by oblate spheroids with dimensions and location taken from a previous histomorphometric study. The Monte Carlo simulation is applicable for planar and diffuse labels at plane or cylindrical bone surfaces. Additionally, the mean nuclear dose per hit, the dose mean per hit, the mean track segment length and its second moment, the percentage of stoppers, and the frequency distribution of the dose have been determined. Some basic features of the hit statistics for bone lining cells have been outlined, and the consequences of existing standards of radiation protection with regard to the hit frequency to cell nuclei are discussed.

Polig, E.; Jee, W. S.; Kruglikov, I. L.

1992-01-01

13

First In Vivo Evaluation of Liposome-encapsulated 223Ra as a Potential Alpha-particle-emitting Cancer Therapeutic Agent  

SciTech Connect

Liposomes carrying chemotherapeutics have had some success in cancer treatment and may be suitable carriers for therapeutic radionuclides. This study was designed to evaluate the biodistribution of and to estimate the radiation doses from the alpha emitter 223Ra loaded into pegylated liposomes in selected tissues. 223Ra was encapsulated in pegylated liposomal doxorubicin by ionophore-mediated loading. The biodistribution of liposomal 223Ra was compared to free cationic 223Ra in Balb/C mice. We showed that liposomal 223 Ra circulated in the blood with an initial half-time in excess of 24 hours, which agreed well with that reported for liposomal doxorubicin in rodents, while the blood half-time of cationic 223Ra was considerably less than one hour. When liposomal 223 Ra was catabolized, the released 223Ra was either excreted or taken up in the skeleton. This skeletal uptake increased up to 14 days after treatment, but did not reach the level seen with free 223Ra. Pre-treatment with non-radioactive liposomal doxorubicin 4 days in advance lessened the liver uptake of liposomal 223 Ra. Dose estimates showed that the spleen, followed by bone surfaces, received the highest absorbed doses. Liposomal 223 Ra was relatively stable in vivo and may have potential for radionuclide therapy and combination therapy with chemotherapeutic agents.

Jonasdottir, Thora J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Larsen, Roy H.

2006-09-13

14

Treatment of HER2-Expressing Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Cells With Alpha Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-Trastuzumab  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of low-dose-rate alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-DOTA-trastuzumab ({sup 227}Th-trastuzumab [where DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]) internalized by breast and ovarian cancer cell lines in order to assess the potential of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab as a therapeutic agent against metastatic cancers that overexpress the HER2 oncogene. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival and cell growth rates of breast cancer cells treated with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab were compared with rates of cells treated with nonbinding {sup 227}Th-rituximab, cold trastuzumab, and X-radiation. Cell growth experiments were also performed with ovarian cancer cells. Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at several time points, and the mean radiation dose to cells was calculated. Results: SKBR-3 cells got 50% of the mean absorbed radiation dose from internalized activity and 50% from cell surface-bound activity, while BT-474 and SKOV-3 cells got 75% radiation dose from internalized activity and 25% from cell surface-bound activity. Incubation of breast cancer cells with 2.5 kBq/ml {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab for 1 h at 4{sup o}C, followed by washing, resulted in mean absorbed radiation doses of 2 to 2.5 Gy. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and an increase in apoptosis were induced in all cell lines. Conclusions: Clinically relevant activity concentrations of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab induced a specific cytotoxic effect in three HER2-expressing cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab was higher than that of single-dose X-radiation (relative biological effectiveness = 1.2). These results warrant further studies of treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab.

Heyerdahl, Helen; Krogh, Cecilie [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway); Borrebaek, Jorgen [Algeta ASA, Kjelsas, Oslo (Norway); Larsen, Asmund [Algeta ASA, Kjelsas, Oslo (Norway); Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway); Dahle, Jostein, E-mail: jostein.dahle@rr-research.n [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway)

2011-02-01

15

X Alpha Method as a Tool for Structure Elucidation of Short Lived Transients Generated by Pulse Radiolysis or Flash Photolysis. 1. The PtCl sub 63- , PtCl sub 52- , and PtCl sub 4- Cases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Relativistic MS-X alpha calculations have been performed on Ptsup(III)Cl sub 63- , PtCl sub 52- and PtCl sub 4- complexes which have been proposed as models for short-lived transients generated by pulse radiolysis or flash photolysis. Ptsup(III)Cl sub 63-...

A. Goursot H. Chermette E. Penigault M. Chanon W. L. Waltz

1983-01-01

16

Skylab short-lived event alert program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

Citron, R. A.

1974-01-01

17

Monitoring of short-lived radon progeny in mines.  

PubMed

Obligatory measurements of the potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny have been performing in the Polish underground mines since 1989. In consideration of economic aspects, an attempt was made from the very beginning to combine it with measurements of the dust concentration. Therefore the developed measuring units were an integral part of the dust samplers complying with the requirements of the State Mining Authority to apply them in underground mines. This way the developed devices could fulfil two measurement tasks simultaneously: measurement of the dust concentration and potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny. The new device based on the thermoluminescence detectors is able to cooperate with the dust samplers made by the SKC company and equipped with a cyclone making it possible to operate them constantly for one working day. The lower limit of detection was equal about 0.04 microJ m(-3) at a 95% confidence level and 1 h pumping. PMID:12678386

Skubacz, K; Bywalec, T

2003-01-01

18

Counting Particles Emitted by Stratospheric Aircraft and Measuring Size of Particles Emitted by Stratospheric Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There were two principal objectives of the cooperative agreement between NASA and the University of Denver. The first goal was to modify the design of the ER-2 condensation nuclei counter (CNC) so that the effective lower detection limit would be improved at high altitudes. This improvement was sought because, in the instrument used prior to 1993, diffusion losses prevented the smallest detectable particles from reaching the detection volume of the instrument during operation at low pressure. Therefore, in spite of the sensor's ability to detect particles as small as 0.008 microns in diameter, many of these particles were lost in transport to the sensing region and were not counted. Most of the particles emitted by aircraft are smaller than 0.1 micron in diameter. At the start date of this work, May 1990, continuous sizing techniques available on the ER-2 were only capable of detecting particles larger than 0.17 micron. Thus, the second objective of this work was to evaluate candidate sizing techniques in an effort to gain additional information concerning the size of particles emitted by aircraft.

Wilson, James Charles

1994-01-01

19

Sinusoidal Regge Oscillations from Short Lived Resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that a resonance with a large angular life can produce sharp Breit-Wigner peaks in the energy dependence of integral cross sections [1,2]. Here we show that a short-lived resonance whose angular life is of order of one full rotation may produce a different kind of contribution to the integral cross section. This contribution has a sinousoidal form and its frequency is determined by the rotational constant of the complex. As one of the examples, we analyze the Regge oscillations observed in numerical simulations of the F+H2(v=0,j=0,?=0) ->FH(v'=2,j'=0,?'=0) + H reaction. In particular, we show that these oscillations are produced by two overlapping resonances located near the transition state and the van der Waals well, respectively [3]. [1] J. H. Macek, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 183202, (2004). [2] Z. Felfli et al., J. Phys. B 39, L353 (2006) [3] D. Sokolovski, D. De Fazio, S. Cavalli and V. Aquilanti, J. Chem. Phys. (2007) (submitted).

Sokolovski, D.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

2007-06-01

20

Studies of images of short lived events using ERTS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The program to study short-lived events with the ERTS-1 satellite has evaluated 97 events reported by the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena. Forty-eight of these events were listed as candidates for ERTS-1 coverage and 8 of these were considered significant enough to immediately alert the ERTS operation staff by telephone. Studies of the images received from six events indicate that useful data on short-lived events can be obtained from ERTS-1 that would be difficult or impossible to obtain by other methods.

Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

21

Fast automated NMR spectroscopy of short-lived biological samples.  

PubMed

Faster than death: NMR techniques that make use of nonlinear sampling and hyperdimensional processing enable the recording of complete NMR data sets for the automated assignment of the backbone and side-chain resonances of short-lived protein samples of cell lysates. PMID:22492650

Tikole, Suhas; Jaravine, Victor; Rogov, Vladimir V; Rozenknop, Alexis; Schmöe, Kerstin; Löhr, Frank; Dötsch, Volker; Güntert, Peter

2012-05-01

22

Conversion-electron spectroscopy of short-lived nuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple technique for obtaining conversion-electron spectra of short-; lived activities with a Si(Li) detector is described. The method employs the ; helium-jet technique to produce sources repetitively for subsequent counting ; through a 0.90 mg\\/cm² aluminized Mylar window. The effects of the Mylar ; window on resolution and line shape were investigated and shown to give ; acceptable results

D. R. Zolnowski; T. T. Sugihara

1974-01-01

23

Study of Short-Lived Nuclear Decays by Digital Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new generation of pulse processing electronics based on digital signal processing technology has been successfully tested on-line and applied for the first time in particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. Systems based on commercially available Digital Gamma Finder (DGF) modules [1] were used to study the decays of short-lived states in exotic nuclei. Since the DGFs incorporate a RTPU, they

C. R. Bingham; E. Badura; J. C. Batchelder; C. J. Gross; R. Grzywacz; Z. Janas; M. Karny; W. Krolas; C. Mazzocchi; J. W. McConnell; M. Momayezi; M. Pfützner; K. Rykaczewski; K. Schmidt

2001-01-01

24

Short-lived nuclides in the early solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic records in meteorites provide evidence for the presence of several short-lived nuclides in the early solar system\\u000a with half-lives varying from 105 to ?8x107 years. Most of the nuclides with longer half-life (> 107 years) are considered to be products of stellar nucleosynthesis taking place over long time scales in our galaxy. However,\\u000a for the relatively shorter-lived nuclides, two

J. N. Goswami

1998-01-01

25

Short-lived positron emitter labeled radiotracers - present status  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of labelled compounds is important for the application of positron emission transaxial tomography (PETT) in biomedical sciences. This paper describes problems and progress in the synthesis of short-lived positron emitter (/sup 11/C, /sup 18/F, /sup 13/N) labelled tracers for PETT. Synthesis of labelled sugars, amino acids, and neurotransmitter receptors (pimozide and spiroperidol tagged with /sup 11/C) is discussed in particular. (DLC)

Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

1982-01-01

26

Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers  

PubMed Central

Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04–0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy.

Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew

2013-01-01

27

Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers.  

PubMed

Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04-0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy. PMID:23940357

Smith, Steven J; Mizrahi, Andrew

2013-08-27

28

Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A leading model for the source of many of the short-lived radioactivities in the early solar nebula is direct incorporation from a massive star [1]. A recent and promising incarnation of this model includes an injection mass cut, which is a boundary between the stellar ejecta that become incorporated into the solar cloud and those ejecta that do not [2-4]. This model also includes a delay time between ejection from the star and incorporation into early solar system solid bodies. While largely successful, this model requires further validation and comparison against data. Such evaluation becomes easier if we have a better sense of the nature of the synthesis of the various radioactivities in the star. That is the goal of this brief abstract.

Meyer, B. S.

2004-01-01

29

Short-lived Isotopes from a Close-by AGB Star Triggering the Protosolar Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of short-lived isotopes in the early solar system, in particular 26Al, 41Ca, 60Fe, and 107Pd, point to a close-by and fresh nucleosynthesis source, possibly triggering the collapse of the protosolar nebula. We present the results of nucleosynthesis calculations based on an AGB polluting hypothesis. A general concordance of the predicted yields of the above radioactivities relative to 26Al can be obtained in the case of an intermediate mass AGB star with hot bottom burning in the envelope (thus producing 26Al), and mixing through a series of third dredge-up episodes a fraction of the C-rich and s-processed material from the He intershell with the extended envelope. Polution of the protosolar nebula with freshly synthesized material may derive from the efficient winds of the AGB star. In AGB stars, the s-process nucleosynthesis occurs both during the maximum phase of every thermal runaway, driven by the partial activation of the 22Ne(alpha,n)25Mg reaction, and in the interpulse phase, where the 13C nuclei are fully consumed in radiative conditions by the activation of the 13C(alpha,n)16O reaction. We have used different prescriptions for the amount of the 13C nuclei present in the intershell. A minimum amount of 13C is naturally expected in the ashes of H-shell burning. Possible formation of an extra "13C-pocket" derives from the injection of a small amount of protons from the envelope into the 12C-rich intershell during any third dredge-up episode, when the H-shell is inactivated. Prediction for other short-lived, 36Cl, 135Cs, and 205Pb, are given. General consequences for the pollution of the protosolar nebula with newly synthesized stable isotopes from the AGB winds are outlined. The origin of other detected short-lived nuclei, in particular 53Mn, 129I, and 182Hf, which cannot come from an AGB source, is analysed. The alternative trigger hypothesis by a close-by Supernova is discussed.

Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Straniero, O.

30

Production of ?-particle emitting (211)At using 45 MeV ?-beam.  

PubMed

Among the ?-particle emitting radionuclides, (211)At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of (211)At are less than 70 µm in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130 keV µm(-1), which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce (211)At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions (209)Bi(?,2n)(211)At. Production of the radionuclide (211)At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the ?-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate ?-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an E?, av of 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of (210)At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of (211)At isotope. PMID:24819557

Kim, Gyehong; Chun, Kwonsoo; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Byungil

2014-06-01

31

Production of ?-particle emitting 211At using 45 MeV ?-beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the ?-particle emitting radionuclides, 211At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of 211At are less than 70 µm in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130 keV µm?1, which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce 211At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions 209Bi(?,2n)211At. Production of the radionuclide 211At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the ?-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate ?-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an E?, av of 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of 210At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of 211At isotope.

Kim, Gyehong; Chun, Kwonsoo; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Byungil

2014-06-01

32

Discrimination of positive particles emitted in deuterium plasma focus device using SSNTD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yields of different positive particles emitted in deutherium plasma focus device were measured. The ? particles, among the other particles, were detected. CR-39 and LR-115 (Kodak) SSNTD were used.

Ž. Todorovi?; R. Antanasijevi?; D. Ševi?; A. Zari?; D. J. Konjevi?; J. Vukovi?; J. Puri?; M. ?uk

1995-01-01

33

Search for Short-Lived Isomers in ^180Ta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of recent photoexcitation and Coulomb excitation experiments suggest the existence of level(s) around 1 MeV excitation energy in ^180Ta that communicate with both the 8-hr ground state and the long-lived isomeric level at 75 keV. However, in-beam gamma-gamma coincidence experiments have failed to identify such levels. If these communicating levels were isomeric, they might have escaped previous detection. We, therefore, conducted a search for short-lived isomers in ^180Ta. We produced ^180Ta via the ^180Hf(p,n) reaction using 9.5-MeV protons from LBNL's 88" Cyclotron. A pneumatic rabbit transfer system was used to shuttle the target between the irradiation site and a shielded gamma-ray counting station. Bombarding times and counting intervals were varied in such a way as to search effectively for isomers in the half-life range of 1 second - 1 hour. Gamma-ray spectra were acquired in various length time bins using an ORTEC PC-based data acquistion system. Results of this search and their implications for the nucleosynthesis of ^180Ta will be presented.

Larimer, R.-M.; Norman, E. B.; Browne, E.; Rech, G. A.; Goldman, I. D.; Hindi, M. M.

1999-10-01

34

AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

2005-11-01

35

Convective transport of very short lived bromocarbons to the stratosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of the two most important brominated very short lived substances (VSLSs), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLSs from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the tropical western Pacific, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ~8 ppt total bromine to the base of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, ~150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (~7.8-8.4 ppt) in the active convective lofting regions mentioned above. Of the total ~8 ppt VSLS bromine that enters the base of the TTL at ~150 hPa, half is in the form of organic source gases and half in the form of inorganic product gases. Only a small portion (<10%) of the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On average, globally, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 together contribute ~7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep-convection strength between maximum (strongest) and minimum (weakest) convection conditions can introduce a ~2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLSs to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, and thus a significant increase in product gas injection (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relatively minor decrease in source gas injection (a few 10ths ppt).

Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.

2014-06-01

36

Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results are the continued detection of short-lived events. The following have been detected and analyzed: forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes. It is hoped that the Mississippi River flood scenes will arrive shortly and then floods be added to the list of identified short-lived events.

Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

37

Crantor, a short-lived horseshoe companion to Uranus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Stable co-orbital motion with Uranus is vulnerable to planetary migration, but temporary co-orbitals may exist today. So far, only two candidates have been suggested, both moving on horseshoe orbits: 83982 Crantor (2002 GO9) and 2000 SN331. Aims: (83982) Crantor is currently classified in the group of the Centaurs by the MPC although the value of its orbital period is close to that of Uranus. Here we revisit the topic of the possible 1:1 commensurability of (83982) Crantor with Uranus, explore its dynamical past, and look into its medium-term stability and future orbital evolution. Methods: Our analysis is based on the results of N-body calculations that use the most updated ephemerides and include perturbations by the eight major planets, the Moon, the barycenter of the Pluto-Charon system, and the three largest asteroids. Results: (83982) Crantor currently moves inside Uranus' co-orbital region on a complex horseshoe orbit. The motion of this object is primarily driven by the influence of the Sun and Uranus, although Saturn plays a significant role in destabilizing its orbit. The precession of the nodes of (83982) Crantor, which is accelerated by Saturn, controls its evolution and short-term stability. Although this object follows a temporary horseshoe orbit, more stable trajectories are possible and we present 2010 EU65 as a long-term horseshoe librator candidate in urgent need of follow-up observations. Available data indicate that the candidate 2000 SN331 is not a Uranus' co-orbital. Conclusions: Our calculations confirm that (83982) Crantor is currently trapped in the 1:1 commensurability with Uranus but it is unlikely to be a primordial 1:1 librator. Although this object follows a chaotic, short-lived horseshoe orbit, longer term horseshoe stability appears to be possible. We also confirm that high-order resonances with Saturn play a major role in destabilizing the orbits of Uranus co-orbitals. Figures 2 and 6 (animations) are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

2013-03-01

38

Short-Lived Radionuclides and Solar System Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evidence for live 26Al in Allende refractory inclusions [1] implies that no more than about 1 Myr elapsed between the nucleosynthesis of the 26Al and its incorporation into cm-sized inclusions in the solar nebula [2]. A supernova was immediately suggested as the source of the 26Al, and the supernova shock front was implicated both as a means for transporting the 26Al from the supernova to the presolar cloud, and for triggering the collapse of the cloud by the impact of the shock [3]. Evidence of other exotic stellar environments comes from isotopic anomalies in presolar grains, which suggest grain formation in novae, Wolf-Rayet stars, or asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars [4]. Nucleosynthesis in the hydrogen- and helium-burning layers of an AGB star can account for the approximate abundances of several short-lived radionuclei (26Al, 60Fe, and 107Pd) found in chondritic meteorites, assuming a mass mixing ratio of about 100:1 between the presolar cloud and the AGB star ejecta [2]. The same 100:1 mixing ratio is necessary to explain the solar system abundance of 3He if the 3He was derived from the planetary nebula phase of an AGB star [5]. 3D hydrodynamical models of the interaction of stellar shock waves with dense cloud cores suggest a mixing ratio of about 100:1 between the mass of the presolar cloud and the mass of the material from the shock wave that is injected into the collapsing protostellar cloud [6]. The agreement between these three independent estimates of mixing ratios is very remarkable, especially considering the diverse techniques employed in their derivations. AGB stars are also capable of synthesizing the 41Ca [7] that has recently been inferred to have been present in the solar nebula [8]. The presence of live 41Ca in the solar nebula would shorten the time interval between synthesis and crystallization of refractory inclusions to about 0.5 to 0.7 Myr [7]. Considering that the 'standard theory' of star formation involves a 10 Myr period of quasistatic contraction prior to the onset of the rapid collapse phase [9], the 41Ca time constraint further strengthens the need for collapse to be triggered by the arrival of the stellar shock front. A supernova has been re-proposed as the source of 26Al and other short-lived radionuclei [10]; in order to achieve the proper dilution of supernova ejecta with the presolar cloud, a distance of a few to about 10 parsecs is inferred [10]. In order to learn whether AGB stars or supernovae are better suited to triggering the collapse of the presolar cloud, we have developed a 2D gravitational hydrodynamics code and used it to study the interaction of shock waves with dense cloud cores [11]. We reproduced previous simulations of the impact of an adiabatic shock wave (appropriate for a nearby supernova), showing that in this case the cloud is destroyed by small-scale instabilities [12,13]. We find that the key factor permitting cloud collapse rather than destruction is the shock thermodynamics -- isothermal shocks (appropriate for AGB star winds or distant supernovae) can lead to sustained protostellar collapse [11]. A distant (10 or more parsecs) supernova shock has just about enough momentum to induce collapse. However, planetary nebulae appear to be somewhat deficient in momentum, and require the compressive effects of warm post-shock gas to trigger collapse. References: [1] Lee T. et al. (1976) GRL, 3, 109. [2] Wasserburg G. J. et al. (1994) Astrophys. J., 424, 412. [3] Cameron A. G. W. and Truran J. W. (1977) Icarus, 30, 447. [4] Anders E. and Zinner E. (1993) Meteoritics, 28, 490. [5] Palla F. (1995) Workshop on Galactic Star Formation and Early Stellar Evolution, Ringberg Castle, Germany. [6] Boss A. P. (1995) Astrophys. J., 439, 224. [7] Wasserburg G. J. et al. (1995) Astrophys. J. Lett., 440, L101. [8] Srinivasan G. et al. (1994) Astrophys. J. Lett., 431, L67. [9] Shu F. H. et al. (1987) Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 25, 23. [10] Cameron A. G. W. et al. (1995) Astrophys. J., in press. [11] Foster P. N. and Boss A. P. (1995) Astrophys. J., in preparation. [12] K

Foster, P. N.; Boss, A. P.

1995-09-01

39

First Demonstration of Electron Scattering Using a Novel Target Developed for Short-Lived Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

We carried out a demonstrative electron scattering experiment using a novel ion-trap target exclusively developed for short-lived highly unstable nuclei. Using stable {sup 133}Cs ion as a target, this experiment completely mimicked electron scattering off short-lived nuclei. Achieving a luminosity higher than 10{sup 26} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with around only 10{sup 6} trapped ions on the electron beam, the angular distribution of elastic scattering was successfully measured. This experiment clearly demonstrates that electron scattering off rarely produced short-lived nuclei is practical with this target technique.

Suda, T.; Wakasugi, M.; Emoto, T.; Ito, S.; Wang, S.; Yano, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Kurita, K. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Kuwajima, A.; Tamae, T. [Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 982-0826 (Japan); Noda, A.; Shirai, T.; Tongu, H. [Institute of Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2009-03-13

40

Detection and localization of particle-emitting sources with compound-eye inspired detector arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop methods to detect and localize particle-emitting sources using detector arrays that are inspired by biological compound eyes. The sources of interest may be optical, nuclear, or cosmic; they emit particles such as visible photons, neutrons, protons, or charged particles. Our results may have wide applications to artificial vision, which can be important in robotics (robot vision) or medicine

Zhi Liu

2007-01-01

41

Production of Short-Lived Radioactive Nuclei in Super Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the production of short-lived radionuclides in a Super Asymptotic Giant Branch star (initial mass ~7 - 11 solar masses) candidate to have polluted the early Solar System, including for the first time radionuclides heavier than Fe.

Doherty, C. L.; Lugaro, M.; Lau, H.; Siess, L.; Lattanzio, J. C.; Gil-Pons, P.

2012-09-01

42

Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Of significance are the continued detection and analysis of such short-lived events as forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes.

Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

43

TRIGA fuel enrichment verification based on the measurement of short-lived fission products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is developed to verify the 235U content of TRIGA fresh fuel using gamma-ray spectrometry of the short-lived fission products 97Zr\\/97Nb, 132I and 140La. The short-lived fission-product activities can be established by irradiating the fuel in a nuclear reactor. Based on the measured activities, the 235U content can be deduced by iterative calculations. The aim of this work is

Jinn-Jer Peir; Tien-Ko Wang; Chao-Chin Liu

1999-01-01

44

Short-Lived Isomeric States of Se83 and Ge77  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extractions of Br from neutron irradiated SeO3= solutions and of As from irradiated GeS3= solutions revealed the presence of short-lived isotopes of Se83 and Ge77 decaying by ??-emission to 2.4-hr. Br83 and 40-hr. As77, respectively. Direct observation of the radiations from a short-lived Se, effected by measuring the activity of Se irradiated for 20 sec. through Al absorbers, led to

James R. Arnold; Nathan Sugarman

1947-01-01

45

Age-dependent inhalation doses to members of the public from indoor short-lived radon progeny.  

PubMed

The main contribution of radiation dose to the human lungs from natural exposure originates from short-lived radon progeny. In the present work, the inhalation doses from indoor short-lived radon progeny, i.e., (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, and (214)Po, to different age groups of members of the public were calculated. In the calculations, the age-dependent systemic biokinetic models of polonium, bismuth, and lead published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were adopted. In addition, the ICRP human respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract models were applied to determine the deposition fractions in different regions of the lungs during inhalation and exhalation, and the absorption fractions of radon progeny in the alimentary tract. Based on the calculated contribution of each progeny to equivalent dose and effective dose, the dose conversion factor was estimated, taking into account the unattached fraction of aerosols, attached aerosols in the nucleation, accumulation and coarse modes, and the potential alpha energy concentration fraction in indoor air. It turned out that for each progeny, the equivalent doses to extrathoracic airways and the lungs are greater than those to other organs. The contribution of (214)Po to effective dose is much smaller compared to that of the other short-lived radon progeny and can thus be neglected in the dose assessment. In fact, 90 % of the effective dose from short-lived radon progeny arises from (214)Pb and (214)Bi, while the rest is from (218)Po. The dose conversion factors obtained in the present study are 17 and 18 mSv per working level month (WLM) for adult female and male, respectively. This compares to values ranging from 6 to 20 mSv WLM(-1) calculated by other investigators. The dose coefficients of each radon progeny calculated in the present study can be used to estimate the radiation doses for the population, especially for small children and women, in specific regions of the world exposed to radon progeny by measuring their concentrations, aerosol sizes, and unattached fractions. PMID:24831865

Brudecki, K; Li, W B; Meisenberg, O; Tschiersch, J; Hoeschen, C; Oeh, U

2014-08-01

46

Measurement of formation cross sections of short-lived nuclei by 14 MeV neutrons: Mg, Si, S, Cl, Cr, Zn, Ga, Y, In  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixteen neutron activation cross sections for (n,2n), (n,p), (n,n(prime)p), (n,t) and (n, alpha) reactions producing short-lived nuclei with half-lives between 0.5 and 20 m have been measured in the energy range of 13.4 to 14.9 MeV for Mg, Si, S, Cl, Cr, Zn, Ga, Y and In. Five half-lives of short-lived nuclei produced by 14 MeV or thermal neutron bombardments were measured with Ge detectors for Cu-66, Zr-89m, Mo-91m, Nb-97m, and Rh-104m in the spectrum multi-scaling mode.

Kawade, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamada, Takashi; Katoh, Toshio; Iida, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Akito

1990-10-01

47

Interaction of alpha particles at the cellular level--implications for the radiation weighting factor.  

PubMed

Since low dose effects of alpha particles are produced by cellular hits in a relatively small fraction of exposed cells, the present study focuses on alpha particle interactions in bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to inhaled radon progeny. A computer code was developed for the calculation of microdosimetric spectra, dose and hit probabilities for alpha particles emitted from uniform and non-uniform source distributions in cylindrical and Y-shaped bronchial airway geometries. Activity accumulations at the dividing spur of bronchial airway bifurcations produce hot spots of cellular hits, indicating that a small fraction of cells located at such sites may receive substantially higher doses. While presently available data on in vitro transformation frequencies suggest that the relative biological effectiveness for alpha particles ranges from about 3 to 10, the effect of inhomogeneous activity distributions of radon progeny may slightly increase the radiation weighting factor relative to a uniform distribution. Thus a radiation weighting factor of about 10 may be more realistic than the current value of 20, at least for lung cancer risk following inhalation of short-lived radon progeny. PMID:15623884

Hofmann, W; Fakir, H; Aubineau-Laniece, I; Pihet, P

2004-01-01

48

QA programme for radon and its short-lived progeny measuring instruments in NRPI Prague.  

PubMed

To subserve the institutional research and tasks coming out from the Czech National Radon Programme, a new QA programme to calibrate all the known types of devices that measure radon and its short-lived progeny was developed at the Department of Radon mobile group of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) at Prague. The programme also included calibration of instruments measuring a unique quantity of unattached and attached fractions of short- lived radon progeny Generally, NRPI declares estimation of radon concentration during all routine calibration measurements with an overall uncertainty <5% (one sigma) and of equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration with an overall uncertainty <10% (one sigma). The results of the comparative measurements of the unattached and attached fractions of each short-lived radon progeny carried out with a comparing continuous monitor Fritra 4 in the German reference radon chamber at PTB Braunschweig indicated an acceptable level of agreement, up to 10%. PMID:18440962

Jílek, K; Thomas, J; Brabec, M

2008-01-01

49

Advanced short-lived nuclide NAA with application in the life sciences.  

PubMed

A new technique for short-lived nuclide activation analysis has been developed that compensates the rapid radioactive decay during the counting period by simultaneous approach of the sample holder to the detector with a mechanical device, permitting prolongation of the counting time and reduction of the required complementary cyclic activation to avoid sample container damage. The operation of the analytical system is automated by a programmable logic controller (PLC). This improvement of short-lived nuclide activation analysis, providing a high throughput, is important in biological and environmental research, where often a large number of samples has to be analyzed for sufficient sampling statistics. PMID:7710819

Papadopoulos, N N; Tsagas, N F

1994-01-01

50

Short Lived Radon Progeny as a Tracer for the Mixing Processes in the PBL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural short lived beta radionuclides in the atmospheric boundary layer are decay products of radon isotopes emitted from the earth surface. The main source of 222Rn, 220Rn and 219Rn into the atmosphere are soil and rock surfaces while the water reservoirs release radon to much lower degree. The source of radon in the atmosphere might be considered as continuous

Blagorodka VELEVA; Nedialko VALKOV; Ekaterina BATCHVAROVA; Maria KOLAROVA

2008-01-01

51

Preliminary results on the production of short-lived radioisotopes with a Plasma Focus device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental campaign was conducted to assess the feasibility of short-lived radioisotope (SLR) production within the pulsed discharges of a Plasma Focus (PF) device. This so-called “endogenous production” technique rests on the exploitation of nuclear reactions for the creation of SLR directly within the plasma, rather than on irradiating an external target. Until now only one research group has published

E. Angeli; A. Tartari; M. Frignani; D. Mostacci; F. Rocchi; M. Sumini

2005-01-01

52

Waste-resource flows of short-lived goods in households of Santiago de Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we apply the method of material flow analysis to analyze the consumption and waste mass flows of short-lived goods and we provide first insights into the waste management behavior of households in Santiago de Cuba. The goods analyzed are glass, aluminum, organic material and PET. The necessary data were gathered in personal interviews with 1171 households using

Claudia R. Binder; Hans-Joachim Mosler

2007-01-01

53

Short-Lived Ontology Approach for Agent\\/HLA Federated Enterprise Interoperability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at proposing an implementation of the federation oriented enterprise interoperability concept, using the rising notion of short-lived ontology. We give first, a review of ongoing researches on enterprise interoperability. Then, we recall on artificial agent concept and HLA standard that appear to be adequate to support execution of the studied concept. Indeed, on the one hand agent

Gregory Zacharewicz; David Chen; Bruno Vallespir

2009-01-01

54

Production of Short-Lived Isotopes at the ISOLDE on-Line Mass-Separator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of the target and ion-source techniques used at the ISOLDE isotope separators for production of short-lived mass-separated nuclei is given. The production of high intensity beams of radioactive nuclei by bombardment of thick targets with 600 MeV ...

E. Hagebo P. Hoff O. C. Jonsson E. Kugler H. L. Ravn

1988-01-01

55

Extremely fast gas/liquid reactions in flow microreactors: carboxylation of short-lived organolithiums.  

PubMed

Carboxylation of short-lived organolithiums bearing electrophilic functional groups such as nitro, cyano, and alkoxycarbonyl groups with CO2 to give carboxylic acids and active esters was accomplished in a flow microreactor system. The successful reactions indicate that gas/liquid mass transfer and the subsequent chemical reaction with CO2 are extremely fast. PMID:24863501

Nagaki, Aiichiro; Takahashi, Yusuke; Yoshida, Jun-Ichi

2014-06-23

56

Synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals containing short-lived radionuclides. Progress report, March 1, 1985-February 26, 1986  

SciTech Connect

Methods for the rapid introduction of short-lived radionuclides into agents for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine are reported. Methods to synthesize radioiodinated fatty acids, lipids, and amphetamine derivatives are described. New routes for the introduction of bromine-77, chlorine-34m, and carbon-11 into agents of interest are elaborated. 46 refs.

Kabalka, G.W.

1985-09-01

57

Gamma interferon enhances macrophage transcription of the tumor necrosis factor/cachectin, interleukin 1, and urokinase genes, which are controlled by short-lived repressors  

PubMed Central

Exposure of mouse resident and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages to IFN-gamma leads to a marked increase in the TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor/cachectin), IL-1 and u-PA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) mRNA levels. Nuclear run-on experiments show that IFN-gamma acts by enhancing the transcription of these three genes. Transcription of these three genes is also rapidly and transiently induced by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, indicating that they are under the control of short-lived repressors.

1986-01-01

58

Experimental Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Products from Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium  

SciTech Connect

Fission yields are especially well characterized for long-lived fission products. Modeling techniques incorporate numerous assumptions and can be used to deduce information about the distribution of short-lived fission products. This work is an attempt to gather experimental (model-independent) data on the short-lived fission products. Fissile isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated under pulse conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor to achieve ~108 fissions. The samples were placed on a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector to begin counting in less than 3 minutes post irradiation. The samples were counted for various time intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 1 hour. The data was then analyzed to determine which radionuclides could be quantified and compared to the published fission yield data.

Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.

2009-11-01

59

Efficient adsorption of waterborne short-lived radon decay products by glass fiber filters.  

PubMed

Glass fiber filters of a certain brand were found to be very efficient (retention > 95%) for adsorption of short-lived radon decay products during filtration of water. Carrier-free samples are obtained in a convenient geometry for efficient gross beta counting. Adsorption of "hot atoms" is not disturbed by the presence of "cold" lead ions. Approximate radioactive equilibrium between radon and its short-lived decay products may or may not exist in water at the source, but does exist after 3 h in PET bottles. These bottles are shown to be gas-tight for radon. Calibration of activity concentration in Bq L(-1) (radon gas concentration approximately equilibrium equivalent radon concentration) was performed by several standard procedures. Limit of detection is 2 Bq L(-1) within 10 min (total time) or 10 Bq L(-1) within 5 min for a net signal of 5 times standard deviation. PMID:9003713

von Philipsborn, H

1997-02-01

60

Transfer Delay Analysis of WAP 2.0 for Short-Lived Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an analytical framework for studying the transfer delay of wireless application protocol (WAP) 2.0 for short-lived flows is developed based on a two-state Markov chain that approximates both correlated and independent packet losses. For a given wireless link and protocol parameters, an explicit mathematical expression which yields a good estimate of the WAP 2.0 transfer delay is

Humphrey Rutagemwa; Jon W. Mark

2007-01-01

61

Health co-benefits of mitigating short-lived climate forcers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), are associated with premature mortality and disrupt global and regional climate. While attention to their impacts on climate is relatively new, these pollutants have been regulated under health-based standards in the US and elsewhere in the world for decades. Understanding the health benefits of reducing short-lived climate forcers may help inform mitigation strategies, since health will likely continue to drive concern over air quality in the future. Several recent studies have examined the health and climate co-benefits of control measures targeting BC and methane, an ozone precursor. This talk will highlight the health benefits of 14 presently available BC and methane mitigation measures examined in the United Nations Environment Programme/World Meteorological Organization Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Ozone. Fully implementing these specific measures is estimated to avoid 1-5 million annual ozone and PM2.5-related premature deaths globally in 2030, >80% of which occur in Asia. BC mitigation measures are estimated to achieve ~98% of the avoided deaths from all measures, due to associated reductions of non-methane ozone precursor and organic carbon emissions and stronger mortality relationships for PM2.5 relative to ozone. These substantial public health co-benefits of mitigating short-lived climate forcers are independent of whether CO2 measures are enacted. Further analyses are needed to improve economic valuation of the varied impacts of short-lived climate forcers and quantify the benefits and costs of these measures in individual countries or regions to support policy decisions made at the national level.

Anenberg, S.

2011-12-01

62

Role of a short-lived ?* resonance in formic-acid O—H bond breaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review briefly the recent work on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to formic acid. Using Feshbach resonance theory we present results calculating the forces on various atoms during resonance processes that can arise at different electron impact energies. The conclusion is that DEA to formic acid happens through a short-lived ?* resonance with minimal involvement from ?-? symmetry breaking as suggested elsewhere. We conclude that rehybridization on a C atom caused by the ?-? mixing is too far from the O—H bond to detect its effect on the DEA cross section. A recent experimental confirmation is also reported.

Gallup, G. A.

2013-11-01

63

Inducible transgenic expression in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrates inducible transgenic expression in the exceptionally short-lived turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri, which is a useful vertebrate model for ageing research. Transgenic N. furzeri bearing a green fluorescent protein (GFP), containing construct under the control of a heat shock protein 70 promoter were generated, heat shock-induced and reversible GFP expression was demonstrated, and germline transmission of the transgene to the F1 and F2 generations was achieved. The availability of this inducible transgenic expression system will make the study of ageing-related antagonistically pleiotropic genes possible using this unique vertebrate model organism.

ALLARD, J. B.; KAMEI, H.; DUAN, C.

2013-01-01

64

Mass Measurement of Short-lived Nuclei at HIRFL-CSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four campaigns of mass measurements for short-lived nuclei have been conducted using an isochronous mass spectrometry (IMS) technique at HIRFL-CSR(Cooler Storage Ring) in Lanzhou. The radioactive nuclei were produced by projectile fragmentation and injected into the experimental storage ring CSRe. Revolution times of the ions stored in the CSRe were measured from which masses of 78Kr, 58Ni, 86Kr and 112Sn fragments have been determined with a relative uncertainty of about 10-6-10-7. The experimental results are presented and their impacts on nucleosynthesis in the rp process and nuclear structure are discussed.

Wang, M.; Xu, H. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Tu, X. L.; Litvinov, Yu. A.

2014-03-01

65

Transport of short-lived species into the Tropical Tropopause Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use NAME, a trajectory model, to investigate the routes and timescales over which air parcels reach the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Our aim is to assist the planning of aircraft campaigns focussed on improving knowledge of such transport. We focus on Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific which appears to be a particularly important source of air that enters the TTL. We first study the TTL above Borneo in November 2008, under neutral El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions. Air parcels (trajectories) arriving in the lower TTL (below ~15 km) are most likely to have travelled from the boundary layer (BL; <1 km) above the West Pacific. Few air parcels found above ~16 km travelled from the BL in the previous 15 days. We then perform similar calculations for moderate El Niño (2006) and La Niña (2007) conditions and find year-to-year variability consistent with the phase of ENSO. Under El Niño conditions fewer air parcels travel from the BL to the TTL above Borneo. During the La Niña year, more air parcels travel from the BL to the mid and upper TTL (above ~15 km) than in the ENSO-neutral year, and again they do so from the BL above the West Pacific. We also find intra-month variability in all years, with day-to-day differences of up to an order of magnitude in the fraction of an idealised short-lived tracer travelling from the BL to the TTL above Borneo. These calculations were performed as a prelude to the SHIVA field campaign, which took place in Borneo during November 2011. So finally, to validate our approach, we consider measurements made in two previous campaigns. The features of vertical profiles of short-lived species observed in the TTL during CR-AVE and TC4 are in broad agreement with calculated vertical profiles of idealised short-lived tracers. It will require large numbers of observations to fully describe the statistical distribution of short-lived species in the TTL. This modelling approach should prove valuable in planning flights for the long-duration aircraft now capable of making such measurements.

Ashfold, M. J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Atlas, E. L.; Manning, A. J.; Pyle, J. A.

2012-07-01

66

Phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance measurements for short-lived nuclides.  

PubMed

A novel approach based on the projection of the Penning-trap ion motion onto a position-sensitive detector opens the door to very accurate mass measurements on the ppb level even for short-lived nuclides with half-lives well below a second. In addition to the accuracy boost, the new method provides a superior resolving power by which low-lying isomeric states with excitation energy on the 10-keV level can be easily separated from the ground state. A measurement of the mass difference of ^{130}Xe and ^{129}Xe has demonstrated the great potential of the new approach. PMID:23473137

Eliseev, S; Blaum, K; Block, M; Droese, C; Goncharov, M; Minaya Ramirez, E; Nesterenko, D A; Novikov, Yu N; Schweikhard, L

2013-02-22

67

Evolution of the distribution of charged particles emitted from the surface of a sphere in a magnetic dipole field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time evolution of the distribution of charged particles emitted by the surface of a sphere in the field of a point magnetic dipole is studied for the case of a uniform, nonsteady surface distribution function along longitude lines. The evolution of the distribution function at an arbitrary point in the field is determined in a drift approximation. Explicit expressions

E. K. Kolesnikov; A. I. Solovianov

1974-01-01

68

Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies  

SciTech Connect

Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

2007-09-24

69

Below-regulatory-concern rulemaking in Texas: Disposal of short-lived wastes in municipal landfills  

SciTech Connect

In June 1986, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, with Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation, completed a technical report analyzing the impact to Texas of disposing radioactive wastes containing low concentrations of short-lived radionuclides in permitted municipal landfills. The report establishes concentration and annual curie limits for radionuclides with half-lives <300 days such that no individual would receive a dose >1 mrem/yr. This method of disposal would result in a 50% reduction in the Texas institutional low-level waste volume and save waste generators $600,000 a year in disposal costs. In July 1986, the authority requested the Texas Department of Health to develop a rule to allow the municipal landfill disposal of short-lived wastes below the concentration and annual curie limits established in the technical report. The technical report was the support document for the request. Staff of the Bureau of Radiation Control, Texas Department of Health, reviewed the request for a rule change in August 1986 and revised the draft rule in response to regulatory concerns. The rule change was formally proposed on January 2, 1987, and will be a final rule in May 1987.

Pollard, C.G.; McBurney, R.E.; Bryant, H.W.

1988-01-01

70

A stellar origin for the short-lived nuclides in the early solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While short-lived, early solar system nuclides could have originated from a single stellar object, such as a nearby red-giant or a supernova, observations of enhanced ion fluxes in a molecular cloud have led to other models in which they are formed by energetic particle irradiation of gas and dust in the protosolar molecular cloud. Alternatively, irradiation by energetic particles from the active early sun may have occurred within the solar nebula itself. We show that there is a correlation between the initial abundances of Ca-41 and Al-26 in samples of primitive meteorite, implying a common origin for the short-lived nuclides. We can therefore rule out the mechanisms based on energetic particle irradiation, as they cannot produce simultaneously the inferred initial abundances of both nuclides. If, as our results suggest, a single stellar source is responsible for generating these nuclides, we can constrain to less than one million years the timescale for the collapse of the protosolar cloud to form the sun.

Sahijpal, S.; Goswami, J. N.; Davis, A. M.; Lewis, R. S.; Grossman, L.

1998-02-01

71

Cohort variation, climate effects and population dynamics in a short-lived lizard.  

PubMed

1. Demographic theory and empirical studies indicate that cohort variation in demographic traits has substantial effects on population dynamics of long-lived vertebrates but cohort effects have been poorly investigated in short-lived species. 2. Cohort effects were quantified in the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara Jacquin 1787), a short-lived ectothermic vertebrate, for body size, reproductive traits and age-specific survival with mark-recapture data collected from 1989 to 2005 in two wetlands. We assessed cohort variation and covariation in demographic traits, tested the immediate and delayed effects of climate conditions (temperature and rainfall), and predicted consequences for population growth. 3. Most demographic traits exhibited cohort variation, but this variation was stronger for juvenile growth and survival, sub-adult survival and breeding phenology than for other traits. 4. Cohort variation was partly explained by a web of immediate and delayed effects of climate conditions. Rainfall and temperature influenced distinct life-history traits and the periods of gestation and early juvenile life were critical stages for climate effects. 5. Cohort covariation between demographic traits was usually weak, apart from a negative correlation between juvenile and sub-adult body growth suggesting compensatory responses. An age-structured population model shows that cohort variation influences population growth mainly through direct numerical effects of survival variation early in life. 6. An understanding of cohort effects is necessary to predict critical life stages and climatic determinants of population dynamics, and therefore demographic responses to future climate warming. PMID:20649911

Le Galliard, Jean François; Marquis, Olivier; Massot, Manuel

2010-11-01

72

Contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine loading: uncertainties and constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very short-lived substances (VSLS) still represent a major factor of uncertainty in the quantification of stratospheric bromine loading. One of the major obstacles for short-lived source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be loss of inorganic bromine (Bry) in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) due to dehydration. We use sensitivity calculations with a~three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parametrization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme to investigate the associated processes. The model considers the two most important bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2). The organic bromine source gases as well as the resulting profile of inorganic bromine in the model are consistent with available observations. In contrast to its organic precursors, Bry is assumed to have a~significant sorption capacity regarding sedimenting liquid or frozen particles thus the fraction of intact source gases during their ascent through the TTL is a critical factor. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway into the stratosphere, about 50% of CHBr3 and 93% of CH2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the interannual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. In principal, the same applies as well to CH2Br2, though it is considerably less responsive due to its longer lifetime. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from short-lived sources is clearly shifted away from HBr, according to our current state of knowledge the only member of the Bry family which is efficiently adsorbed on ice particles. This effect is caused by very efficient heterogeneous reactions on ice surfaces which reduce the HBr/Bry fraction below 15% at the tropical tropopause. Under these circumstances there is no significant loss of Bry due to dehydration in the model, VSLS contribute fully to stratospheric bromine. In addition, we conduct several sensitivity calculations to test the robustness of this result. If heterogeneous chemistry is ignored, the HBr/Bry fraction exceeds 50% and about 10% of bromine from VSLS is scavenged. Dehydration plays a minor role for Bry removal under the assumption that HOBr is efficiently adsorbed on ice as well since the heterogeneous reactions alter the partitioning equilibrium of Bry in favor of HOBr. In this case, up to 12% of bromine from VSLS is removed. Even in the extreme and unrealistic case that adsorbed species on ice particles are instantaneously removed the maximum loss of bromine does not exceed 25%. In conclusion, considering the average abundance of bromine short-lived source gases in convective updrafts of 6 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) we find a most likely contribution of VSLS to stratospheric bromine in the range of 4.5-6 pptv.

Aschmann, J.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.

2012-11-01

73

Prolonged marital stress is associated with short-lived responses to positive stimuli.  

PubMed

Marital stress is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders, in particular major depression. One pathway through which marital stress may impact emotional health is by compromising emotion-responding processes. We examined a longitudinal sample of adults (N?=?116; 59 males; 39-84 years) to verify how marital stress predicts reactivity to, and recovery from, emotional provocation. Individuals watched positive, neutral, and negative pictures while an objective measure of affective state, corrugator supercilii muscle activity, was recorded continuously. Our results indicate that marital stress is associated with short-lived responses to positive pictures, indexed by a less persistent decrease in corrugator activity after picture offset. Extending beyond the prior focus on negative emotional processes, these results suggest that social stress may impact health by influencing the time course of responding to positive events. PMID:24660957

Lapate, Regina C; van Reekum, Carien M; Schaefer, Stacey M; Greischar, Lawrence L; Norris, Catherine J; Bachhuber, David R W; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

2014-06-01

74

Probing short-lived protein ligand interactions with single-molecule force spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen bonding plays an important role in stabilizing biomolecular complexes. Although life time of individual bonds can be extremely short, cooperativity among many interactions increase the overall life time of the complex. To probe short-lived individual interactions, we have employed a recently developed atomic force microscopy technique that can carry out single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments on the microsecond timescale. Our loading-rate dependent measurements provide experimental evidence for an additional energy barrier in the biotin-streptavidin complex. The width of this barrier, estimated from the measurements, is both close to theoretical predictions based on steered molecular dynamics simulations and to the characteristic width of individual hydrogen bonds. We will present our experimental methodology and analysis of the results on biotin-streptavidin complex.

Sahin, Ozgur; Dong, Mingdong

2012-02-01

75

The role of short-lived climate pollutants in meeting temperature goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some recent high-profile publications have suggested that immediately reducing emissions of methane, black carbon and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) may contribute substantially towards the goal of limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Although this literature acknowledges that action on long-lived climate pollutants (LLCPs) such as CO2 is also required, it is not always appreciated that SLCP emissions in any given decade only have a significant impact on peak temperature under circumstances in which CO2 emissions are falling. Immediate action on SLCPs might potentially 'buy time' for adaptation by reducing near-term warming; however early SLCP reductions, compared with reductions in a future decade, do not buy time to delay reductions in CO2.

Bowerman, Niel H. A.; Frame, David J.; Huntingford, Chris; Lowe, Jason A.; Smith, Stephen M.; Allen, Myles R.

2013-12-01

76

Inter-laboratory comparisons of short-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in nuclear reactor water.  

PubMed

Inter-laboratory comparisons of gamma-emitting nuclides in nuclear power plant coolant water have been carried out in Finland since 1994. The reactor water samples are taken and prepared by one of the two nuclear power plants and delivered to the participants. Since all the participants get their sample within just a few hours it has been possible to analyse and compare results of nuclides with half-lives shorter than 1h. The total number of short-lived nuclides is 26. All the main nuclides are regularly identified and the activities have been obtained with reasonable accuracy throughout the years. The overall deviation of the results has decreased in 13 years. The effects of true coincidence summing and discrepancies in nuclear data have been identified as potential sources of remaining discrepancies. All the participants have found this type of comparison very useful. PMID:18378157

Klemola, S K

2008-01-01

77

Separation efficiency of the MASHA facility for short-lived mercury isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass-separator MASHA built to identify Super Heavy Elements by their mass-to-charge ratios is described. The results of the off- and on-line measurements of its separation efficiency are presented. In the former case four calibrated leaks of noble gases were used. In the latter the efficiency was measured via 284 MeV Ar beam and with using the hot catcher. The ECR ion source was used in both cases. The -radioactive isotopes of mercury produced in the complete fusion reaction Ar+SmHg+xn were detected at the mass-separator focal plane. The half-lives and the separation efficiency for the short-lived mercury isotopes were measured. Potentialities of the MEDIPIX detector system have been demonstrated for future use at the mass-separator MASHA.

Rodin, A. M.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Itkis, M. G.; Kliman, J.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Krupa, L.; Novoselov, A. S.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Salamatin, V. S.; Sivá?ek, I.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Vanin, D. V.; Vedeneev, V. Yu.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

2014-06-01

78

CARIBIC observations of short-lived halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very short lived halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of short-lived halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.

Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

2013-12-01

79

Neutron-induced capture cross sections of short-lived actinides with the surrogate reaction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of neutron-capture cross sections of short-lived nuclei is opening the way to understand and clarify the properties of many nuclei of interest for nuclear structure physics, nuclear astrophysics and particularly for transmutation of nuclear wastes. The surrogate approach is well-recognized as a potentially very useful method to extract neutron cross sections for low-energy compound-nuclear reactions and to overcome the difficulties related to the target radioactivity. In this work we will assess where we stand on these neutron-capture cross section measurements and how we can achieve the short-lived Minor Actinides nuclei involved in the nuclear fuel cycle. The CENBG collaboration applied the surrogate method to determine the neutron-capture cross section of 233Pa (T1/2 = 27 d). The 233Pa (n,?) cross section is then deduced from the measured gamma decay probability of 234Pa compound nucleus formed via the surrogate 232Th(3He,p) reaction channel. The obtained cross section data, covering the neutron energy range 0.1 to 1 MeV, have been compared with the predictions of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. The importance of establishing benchmarks is stressed for the minor actinides region. However, the lack of desired targets led us to propose recently the 174Yb (3He,p?) reaction as a surrogate reaction for the (n,?) predetermined benchmark cross section of 175Lu. An overview of the experimental setup combining gamma ray detectors such as Ge and C6D6 in coincidence with light charged particles ?E-E Telescopes will be presented and preliminary results will be discussed.

Aïche, M.; Boutoux, G.; Jurado, B.; Barreau, G.; Matthieu, L.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassie, D.; Haas, B.; Méot, V.; Roig, O.; Gaudefroy, L.; Taieb, J.; Pillet, N.; Faul, T.; Sérot, O.; Bauge, E.; Gunsing, F.

2010-03-01

80

High concentrations of coarse particles emitted from a cattle feeding operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Housing roughly 10 million head of cattle in the United States alone, open air cattle feedlots represent a significant but poorly constrained source of atmospheric particles. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of physical and chemical properties of particles emitted from a large representative cattle feedlot in the Southwest United States. In the summer of 2008, measurements and samplings were conducted at the upwind and downwind edges of the facility. A series of far-field measurements and samplings was also conducted 3.5 km north of the facility. Two instruments, a GRIMM Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer (PAS), were used to measure particle size distributions over the range of 0.01 to 25 ?m diameter. Raman microspectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of particles on a single particle basis. Volume size distributions of dust were dominated by coarse mode particles. Twenty-four hour averaged concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 ?m or less) were as high as 1200 ?g m-3 during the campaign. The primary constituents of the particulate matter were carbonaceous materials, such as humic acid, water soluble organics, and less soluble fatty acids, including stearic acid and tristearin. A significant fraction of the organic particles was present in internal mixtures with salts. Basic characteristics such as size distribution and composition of agricultural aerosols were found to be different than the properties of those found in urban and semi-urban aerosols. Failing to account for such differences may lead to errors in estimates of aerosol effects on local air quality, visibility, and public health.

Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Gramann, J.; Auvermann, B. W.

2011-08-01

81

XRF-analysis of fine and ultrafine particles emitted from laser printing devices.  

PubMed

In this work, the elemental composition of fine and ultrafine particles emitted by ten different laser printing devices (LPD) is examined. The particle number concentration time series was measured as well as the particle size distributions. In parallel, emitted particles were size-selectively sampled with a cascade impactor and subsequently analyzed by the means of XRF. In order to identify potential sources for the aerosol's elemental composition, materials involved in the printing process such as toner, paper, and structural components of the printer were also analyzed. While the majority of particle emissions from laser printers are known to consist of recondensated semi volatile organic compounds, elemental analysis identifies Si, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Fe as well as traces of Ni and Zn in different size fractions of the aerosols. These elements can mainly be assigned to contributions from toner and paper. The detection of elements that are likely to be present in inorganic compounds is in good agreement with the measurement of nonvolatile particles. Quantitative measurements of solid particles at 400 °C resulted in residues of 1.6 × 10(9) and 1.5 × 10(10) particles per print job, representing fractions of 0.2% and 1.9% of the total number of emitted particles at room temperature. In combination with the XRF results it is concluded that solid inorganic particles contribute to LPD emissions in measurable quantities. Furthermore, for the first time Br was detected in significant concentrations in the aerosol emitted from two LPD. The analysis of several possible sources identified the plastic housings of the fuser units as main sources due to substantial Br concentrations related to brominated flame retardants. PMID:21809840

Barthel, Mathias; Pedan, Vasilisa; Hahn, Oliver; Rothhardt, Monika; Bresch, Harald; Jann, Oliver; Seeger, Stefan

2011-09-15

82

Significant Antitumor Effect from Bone-seeking, -Particle-emitting 223Ra Demonstrated in an Experimental Skeletal Metastases Model1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic efficacy of the -particle-emitting radionuclide 223Ra (t1\\/2 11.4 days) in the treatment against experimental skeletal metasta- ses in rats was addressed. Biodistribution studies, involving measurement of 223Ra in bone marrow samples, were performed in rats after i.v. injection. To study the therapeutic effect of 223Ra, an experimental skel- etal metastases model in nude rats was used. Animals that

Gjermund Henriksen; Knut Breistøl; Øyvind S. Bruland; Øystein Fodstad; Roy H. Larsen

2002-01-01

83

Recalculation of data for short-lived radionuclide systems using less-biased ratio estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract-Ratios determined from counting a subset of atoms in a sample are positively biased relative to the true ratio in the sample (Ogliore et al. 2011). The relative magnitude of the bias is approximately equal to the inverse of the counts in the denominator of the ratio. SIMS studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides are particularly subject to the problem of ratio bias because the abundance of the daughter element is low, resulting in low count rates. In this paper, we discuss how ratio bias propagates through mass-fractionation corrections into an isochron diagram, thereby affecting the inferred initial ratio of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides. The slope of the biased isochron can be either too high or too low, depending on how it is calculated. We then reanalyze a variety of previously published data sets and discuss the extent to which they were affected by ratio bias. New, more accurate, results are presented for each study. In some cases, such as for 53Mn-53Cr in pallasite olivines and 60Fe-60Ni in chondrite sulfides, the apparent excesses of radiogenic isotopes originally reported disappear completely. Many of the reported initial 60Fe/56Fe ratios for chondrules from ordinary chondrites are no longer resolved from zero, though not all of them. Data for 10Be-10B in CAIs were only slightly affected by bias because of how they were reduced. Most of the data sets were recalculated using the ratio of the total counts, which increases the number of counts in the denominator isotope and reduces the bias. However, if the sum of counts is too low, the ratio may still be biased and a less-biased estimator, such as Beale's estimator, must be used. Ratio bias must be considered in designing the measurement protocol and reducing the data. One can still collect data in cycles to permit editing of the data and to monitor and correct for changes in ion-beam intensity, even if total counts are used to calculate the final ratio. The cycle data also provide a more robust estimate of the uncertainties from temporal variations in the secondary ion signal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Telus, M.; Huss, G. R.; Ogliore, R. C.; Nagashima, K.; Tachibana, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........93F"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ozone precursors on climate and air quality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ozone precursors not only degrade air quality and health, but indirectly affect climate via chemical effects on ozone, methane, and aerosols. Some have advocated for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants in near-term climate mitigation strategies, in addition to national air quality programs, but their radiative forcing (RF) impacts are uncertain and vary based on emission location. In this work, global chemical transport modeling is combined with radiative transfer modeling to study the impacts of regional ozone precursor emissions (NOx, CO, and NMVOCs) on climate, via changes in ozone, methane, and sulfate, and on regional and global air quality. The first study evaluates NOx, CO, and NMVOC emission reductions from four regions across an ensemble of models, finding that NMVOC and CO reductions from all four regions cool climate (negative RF) by decreasing ozone and methane, while improving air quality. NOx and NMVOC global warming potentials (GWPs), a measure of the relative radiative effects of individual climate forcers, vary strongly among regions, while CO GWPs show less variability. The second and third studies investigate further the RF and air quality impacts of CO and NMVOC emission reductions from 10 world regions. The greatest benefits to RF and air quality (per unit emissions) are achieved by CO reductions from the tropics, due to more active photochemistry and convection. CO GWPs are fairly independent of the reduction region (GWP20: 3.71 to 4.37; GWP100: 1.26 to 1.44), while NMVOC GWPs are more variable (GWP 20: -1.13 to 18.9; GWP100: 0.079 to 6.05). Accounting for additional forcings from CO and NMVOC emissions would likely change RF and GWP estimates. Regionally-specific GWPs for NOx and NMVOCs and a globally-uniform GWP for CO may allow these gases to be included in a multi-gas emissions trading framework, and enable comprehensive strategies for meeting climate and air quality goals simultaneously. Future research could investigate full climate responses using coupled chemistry-climate models, and perform regional analyses of specific emission control measures to maximize climate and air quality benefits.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fry, Meridith McGee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5575A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Be and Be In Refractory Inclusions From 7 10</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The source of 26Al [1] and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclides (e.g. 41Ca or 53Mn) found in Ca-Al-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) of chondritic meteorites is still controversial between the tenants of an external seeding of the protosolar nebula (e.g. by supernova produced Al) and the tenants of an internal source of 26 26Al within the solar system (e.g. by irradiation processes occurring in the vicinity of the young Sun). The resolution of this issue is of importance for (i) early solar system chronology and for (ii) models of the formation of the solar system. Recently we showed that 10Be, which decays to B with a half-life of 1.5 My, was 10 also incorporated in CAIs during their formation [2]. The incorporation of 10 Be in CAIs is a strong hint for the existence of irradiation processes that may have occurred in the early solar system, producing 10Be and a fraction (or all) of other extinct radioactive nuclides. However, because of its long half life, 10Be could have been produced by spallation reactions taking place in supernovae envelopes and transported into the protosolar nebula. To progress in this debate we have looked for traces of another <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope of Be, Be which decays to Li 7 7 with a half life of 53 days. Large Li isotopic variations have been found in a few Allende CAIs, with 7Li excesses positively correlated to Be/Li concentration ratios. These observations are best explained by the incorporation of lived Be in 7 CAIs during their formation. The Be/10Be ratio which is deduced for CAIs is of 7 220+/-130, i.e. close within errors to the production ratio modelled for irradiation processes at low energy around the young Sun. Because of its very short half life of 53 days, the presence of Be in CAIs demonstrates that Be (and 7 7 10Be) were produced within the solar system. It is also a strong indication that the formation of CAIs was likely linked in space and time to these irradiation processes. [1] T. Lee, D. Papanastassiou and G. J. Wasserburg (1976) Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 109-112. [2] K. D. McKeegan, M. Chaussidon, F. Robert (2000) Science 289, 1334-1347.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allende Meteorite, The</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JMS....42...83G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of sediment dynamics in coastal systems via <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Neuse and Pamlico River Estuaries are shallow, dynamic systems that have been plagued with symptoms of eutrophication over the past two decades. Extensive research has been conducted over the last 5-10 years to better understand the complex nutrient dynamics of these systems. However, most of these studies have concentrated on nutrient cycling in the water column. Only recently have studies focused on the benthic environment, and most sediment studies have neglected the dynamic nature of the benthos, focusing instead on diffusion as the dominant transport process delivering nutrients to the water column. Although diffusion of nutrients across the sediment-water interface may be important during quiescent periods of sediment deposition and short-term storage, wind events associated with storms throughout the year will resuspend newly deposited sediments resulting in the advective transport of sediment porewater, rich with nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon, into the water column. Sediment resuspension may increase water column nutrient concentrations, and therefore present estimates of nutrient and carbon inputs from the sediments may be too low. This study evaluated short-term sediment dynamics of natural resuspension events and deposition rates in these two estuaries with the use of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes, 7Be, 137Cs, and 234Th. Sediment cores at nine sites in the estuaries have been collected at least bimonthly since May 2001. In general, tracers indicate a depositional environment with minimal episodes of removal. The largest sediment removal occurred in August 2001 in the Neuse River where an estimated 2.2 cm of sediment were removed over the previous 6-week period. This removal mechanism essentially advects porewater nutrients into the water column. Calculated advective fluxes of ammonium and phosphate based on this resuspension event were approximately six times greater than the average diffusive flux measured in the same general area of the river. Longer-term deposition rates, using 137Cs, ranged from 1.4 to greater than 5 mm year -1, comparable to earlier studies in the area and agree well with the interpretation of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> tracers. In addition, meteorological (wind speed and direction), turbidity, and bottom current data were collected and indicated that these resuspension events occur when passing fronts developed wind speeds in excess of 4 m s -1 with rapid shifts in direction. Currents exhibited estuarine flow reversals associated with wind events and apparently have some control over the sediment removal processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giffin, Dan; Corbett, D. Reide</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........14L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detection and localization of <span class="hlt">particle-emitting</span> sources with compound-eye inspired detector arrays</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop methods to detect and localize <span class="hlt">particle-emitting</span> sources using detector arrays that are inspired by biological compound eyes. The sources of interest may be optical, nuclear, or cosmic; they emit particles such as visible photons, neutrons, protons, or charged particles. Our results may have wide applications to artificial vision, which can be important in robotics (robot vision) or medicine (e.g., artificial eyes for the blind); security, where the detection of nuclear materials is needed; or astronomy. This dissertation consists of three parts. First, we detect a far-field particle source using two directional detector arrays: cubic and spherical. We propose a mean-difference test (MDT) detector, analyze its statistical performance, and show that the MDT has a number of advantages over the generalized likelihood- ratio test (GLRT). Second, we localize the source by proposing a novel biologically inspired detector array, whose configuration generalizes the compound eye of insects. This array combines the advantages of compound eyes (e.g., large field-of-view) and human eyes (e.g., high angular resolution). Based on a statistical model of the array measurements, we analyze the array performance by computing the Cramérao bound (CRB) on the error in estimating the source direction. We also derive lower bounds on the mean-square angular error (MSAE) of the source localization and investigate the MSAE of two source- direction estimators. Numerical examples, including the optimal array design, are presented to further illustrate the array performance. Third, we derive a statistical angular resolution limit (ARL) on resolving two closely spaced point sources in a three-dimensional frame, which is applicable to various measurement models (e.g., radar, sonar, or astronomy). Using the asymptotic analysis of the GLRT, we derive the ARL with constraints on the probabilities of false alarm and detection. Our results give explicit analytical expression for the ARL that is proportional to the square root of the CRB on the angular source separation, or equivalently to the lower bound on the MSAE.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Zhi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16445924"> <span id="translatedtitle">Planar chromatographic analysis and quantification of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive metabolites from microdialysis fractions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A sensitive radiochromatographic method for the quantitative determination of compounds labelled with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> beta-emitting radionuclides in microdialysates is described. The method is well suited for microdialysis (MD) samples, which have small volumes and low concentrations of compounds. An 18F-labelled (beta+; T(1/2)=109.8 min) radiopharmaceutical, (1R,2S)-4-[18F]fluorometaraminol (FMR), was injected intravenously into rats, and microdialysis fractions were then collected from the blood at 15 min intervals. Fractions were analyzed for FMR and its radioactive metabolites by planar chromatography combined with digital photostimulated luminescence autoradiography. The lowest detectable 18F-radioactivity was 0.24 Bq/application and the limit of quantification was 0.31 Bq/application with 4-16 h exposure. The method was found to be highly sensitive and linear in the range of 0.1 Bq-2 kBq. This method thus allows the quantification of beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in sequential microdialysis fractions with good time-resolution. PMID:16445924</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haaparanta, Merja; Grönroos, Tove; Eskola, Olli; Bergman, Jörgen; Solin, Olof</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPB.295....1S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a resonant laser ionization gas cell for high-energy, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new laser ion source configuration based on resonant photoionization in a gas cell has been developed at RIBF RIKEN. This system is intended for the future PArasitic RI-beam production by Laser Ion-Source (PALIS) project which will be installed at RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS. A novel implementation of differential pumping, in combination with a sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG), has been developed. A few small scroll pumps create a pressure difference from 1000 hPa-10-3 Pa within a geometry drastically miniaturized compared to conventional systems. This system can utilize a large exit hole for fast evacuation times, minimizing the decay loss for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei during extraction from a buffer gas cell, while sufficient gas cell pressure is maintained for stopping high energy RI-beams. In spite of the motion in a dense pressure gradient, the photo-ionized ions inside the gas cell are ejected with an assisting force gas jet and successfully transported to a high-vacuum region via SPIG followed by a quadrupole mass separator. Observed behaviors agree with the results of gas flow and Monte Carlo simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Tomita, H.; Sakamoto, C.; Takatsuka, T.; Furukawa, T.; Iimura, H.; Ito, Y.; Kubo, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Mita, H.; Naimi, S.; Nakamura, S.; Noto, T.; Schury, P.; Shinozuka, T.; Wakui, T.; Miyatake, H.; Jeong, S.; Ishiyama, H.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Hirayama, Y.; Okada, K.; Takamine, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15985375"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary results on the production of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes with a Plasma Focus device.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental campaign was conducted to assess the feasibility of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope (SLR) production within the pulsed discharges of a Plasma Focus (PF) device. This so-called "endogenous production" technique rests on the exploitation of nuclear reactions for the creation of SLR directly within the plasma, rather than on irradiating an external target. Until now only one research group has published data relevant to PF endogenous production of SLR, and the data seem to confirm that the PF has the capability to breed SLR. The campaign demonstrated production of (15)O, (17)F and (13)N from the (14)N(d,n)(15)O, (12)C(d,n)(13)N and (16)O(d,n)(17)F reactions. A 7kJ, 17kV Mather-type PF was operated with natural nitrogen, oxygen, CO(2) and deuterium in the vacuum chamber. Results to date confirm that, with a PF of this type, up to 1microCi of SLRs per discharge can be obtained. PMID:15985375</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Angeli, E; Tartari, A; Frignani, M; Mostacci, D; Rocchi, F; Sumini, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C41D..01R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Saving the Cryosphere in the Arctic and the Himalayas: Mitigation of <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Pollutants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations reveal that the polar warming is hastened by the pole ward retreat of the extra-tropical storm track clouds and the sea-ice albedo feedback. The cloud systems associated with the storm tracks are the dominant radiative cooling cloud systems in the planet and their retreat adds more solar energy to the extra-tropical oceans. This is further amplified by the observed reduction in the arctic albedo due to the retreat of the sea-ice. Complicating this situation is the darkening of the arctic cryosphere by black carbon deposition. Over the Himalayas on the other hand, the thermo dynamical feedback involving water vapor amplifies surface warming over the elevated regions of Himalayas-Tibet by factors ranging from1 .5 to 2. This elevated warming is further amplified by black carbon in two distinctly different ways: First absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere by black carbon has been shown to warm the layers above 5 km by as much as the warming due to CO2. Next, long range transport of black carbon, leads to deposition of black carbon over the bright snow and ice darkens them and enhances the absorption of intense tropical solar radiation over the Himalayas. After summarizing recent observations over the arctic and the Himalayas, we will show how mitigation of the four <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate pollutants (methane, black carbon, ozone and HFCs) can significantly slow down the arctic warming and the large warming observed over the elevated regions of the Himalayas-Tibet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramanathan, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........11D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Supernova injection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides into the presolar cloud: A feasibility study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Meteorite inclusions show that the early solar system was radioactive with species of short lifetimes compared to the formation time of the solar system. Transporting the radioactive material from the creation site to the formation site of the sun was expected to take enough time that these species should have decayed to nonexistence. Some special series of events seems necessary to speed the process along. Cameron & Truran (1977) suggested that the source of these <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides could have been a supernova. Numerical hydrodynamic studies have shown that slow shockwaves can inject material into a small, dense cloud core. Most stars are not born in lone dense cores. Thus any core that might have become the solar system was probably shrouded with an envelope that the ejecta from supernova would have had to penetrate along with the intervening interstellar medium. We present numerical hydrodynamic studies using Zeus-2D investigating how a supernova can inject its material into a moderately dense molecular cloud. We model a self-similar explosion colliding with a spherical cloud and examine the results for injection. We have modified Zeus-2D by adding three tracking dyes and changing the effective adiabatic index of the fluid in response to the shock-cloud collision. We find that if the effective adiabatic index of the gas is less than 5/3 then injection can occur, and we describe the basics of the mechanism by which this occurs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, Keith W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/41285"> <span id="translatedtitle">Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals. Final report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Harvard-MIT Research Program in <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-lived radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors` 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adelstein, S.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Office of Sponsored Programs</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23172645"> <span id="translatedtitle">An improved <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fluorescent protein transcriptional reporter for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ideal reporter genes for temporal transcription programmes have short half-lives that restrict their detection to the window in which their transcripts are present and translated. In an effort to meet this criterion for reporters of transcription in individual living cells, we adapted the ubiquitin fusion strategy for programmable N-end rule degradation to generate an N-degron version of green fluorescent protein (GFP) with a half-life of ~7?min. The GFP variant we used here (designated GFP*) has excellent fluorescence brightness and maturation properties, which make the destabilized reporter well suited for tracking the induction and attenuation kinetics of gene expression in living cells. These attributes are illustrated by its ability to track galactose- and pheromone-induced transcription in S. cerevisiae. We further show that the fluorescence measurements using the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> N-degron GFP* reporter gene accurately predict the transient mRNA profile of the prototypical pheromone-induced FUS1 gene. PMID:23172645</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houser, John R; Ford, Eintou; Chatterjea, Sudeshna M; Maleri, Seth; Elston, Timothy C; Errede, Beverly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23968082"> <span id="translatedtitle">Highlighting <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> excited electronic states with pump-degenerate-four-wave-mixing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> transient species is a major challenge in femtosecond spectroscopy, especially when third-order techniques like transient absorption are used. Higher order methods employ additional interactions between light and matter to highlight such transient species. In this work we address numerically and experimentally the detection of ultrafast species with pump-Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (pump-DFWM). In this respect, conclusive identification of ultrafast species requires the proper determination of time-zero between all four laser pulses (pump pulse and the DFWM sequence). This is addressed here under the light of experimental parameters as well as molecular properties: The role of pulse durations, amount of pulse chirp as well as excited state life time is investigated by measuring a row of natural pigments differing mainly in the number of conjugated double bonds (N = 9 to 13). A comparison of the different signals reveals a strikingly unusual behavior of spheroidene (N = 10). Complete analysis of the pump-DFWM signal illustrates the power of the method and clearly assigns the uniqueness of spheroidene to a mixing of the initially excited state with a dark excited electronic state. PMID:23968082</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marek, Marie S; Buckup, Tiago; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Motzkus, Marcus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6708V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation and modeling of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> oxygenated hydrocarbons in the tropical free troposphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange experiment TORERO (Jan/Feb 2012) probed the influence of air-sea exchange of organic carbon species and very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> halogen species on the oxidative capacity of the tropical free troposphere over the full tropospheric air column above the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Organic carbon is important in the atmosphere, because it influences the reactive chemistry and lifetime of climate active gases (e.g., methane, ozone, dimethyl sulfide), and because of its relevance for the formation, composition and climate impact of aerosols. This presentation summarizes unequivocal evidence for the presence of numerous oxygenated hydrocarbons (i.e., glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, MVK, MEK, aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols etc.) in the remote marine boundary layer, and in the tropical free troposphere. These species were detected by means of both Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (Airborne MAX-DOAS), and online GC-MS (TOGA) aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft. We employ atmospheric modeling constrained by observations of gas-phase hydrocarbons, aerosols, photolysis frequencies, and meterological parameters measured aboard the plane to elucidate the formation mechanism of this as of yet unaccounted source for oxidized organic carbon, and quantify the influence on the OVOCs on hydroxyl, bromine, chlorine and iodine radical abundances.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Volkamer, Rainer; Apel, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17346255"> <span id="translatedtitle">Short telomeres in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> males: what are the molecular and evolutionary causes?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Telomere length regulation is an important aspect of cell maintenance in eukaryotes, since shortened telomeres can lead to a number of defects, including impaired cell division. Although telomere length is correlated with lifespan in some bird species, its possible role in aging and lifespan determination is still poorly understood. Here we investigate telomere dynamics (changes in telomere length and attrition rate) and telomerase activity in the ant Lasius niger, a species in which different groups of individuals have evolved extraordinarily different lifespans. We found that somatic tissues of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> males had dramatically shorter telomeres than those of the much longer-lived queens and workers. These differences were established early during larval development, most likely through faster telomere shortening in males compared with females. Workers did not, however, have shorter telomeres than the longer-lived queens. We discuss various molecular mechanisms that are likely to cause the observed sex-specific telomere dynamics in ants, including cell division, oxidative stress and telomerase activity. In addition, we discuss the evolutionary causes of such patterns in ants and in other species. PMID:17346255</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jemielity, Stephanie; Kimura, Masayuki; Parker, Karen M; Parker, Joel D; Cao, Xiaojian; Aviv, Abraham; Keller, Laurent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23713909"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct detection and reactivity of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> phenyloxenium ion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photolysis of protonated phenylhydroxylamine was studied using product analysis, trapping experiments, and laser flash photolysis experiments (UV-vis and TR(3) detection) ranging from the femtosecond to the microsecond time scale. We find that the excited state of the photoprecursor is followed by two species: a longer-lived transient (150 ns) that we assign to the phenoxy radical and a shorter-lived (3-20 ns) transient that we assign to the singlet phenyloxenium ion. Product studies from photolysis of this precursor show rearranged protonated o-/p-aminophenols and solvent water adducts (catechol, hydroquinone) and ammonium ion. The former products can be largely ascribed to radical recombination or ion recombination, while the latter are ascribed to solvent water addition to the phenyloxenium ion. The phenyloxenium ion is apparently too <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> under these conditions to be trapped by external nucleophiles other than solvent, giving only trace amounts of o-/p-chloro adducts upon addition of chloride trap. Product studies upon thermolysis of this precursor give the same products as those generated from photolysis, with the difference being that the ortho adducts (o-aminophenol, hydroquinone) are formed in a higher ratio in comparison to the photolysis products. PMID:23713909</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hanway, Patrick J; Xue, Jiadan; Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Milot, Maeia J; Ruixue, Zhu; Phillips, David Lee; Winter, Arthur H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2016K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemistry of Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Halogens in the Troposphere: Pre-Industrial to Present day</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ozone in the troposphere is one of the most important <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gases contributing to greenhouse radiative forcing (IPCC, 2007) and is of central importance to the chemistry of this region of the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone is produced by photochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide, methane and other non-methane volatile organic compounds in the presence of nitrogen oxide. A large fraction of the tropospheric ozone loss occurs within the tropical marine boundary layer via photolysis to excited oxygen atoms followed by reaction with water vapor, reactions with odd hydrogen radical, and surface deposition. In addition, inorganic halogens (i.e., chlorine, bromine, and iodine species) are known to destroy ozone through efficient catalytic reaction cycles. In this study, we use the NCAR 3D chemistry climate model (CAM-Chem), including a detailed representation of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Its scope has been extended to include halogen sources, reactive halogen chemistry, and related atmospheric processes (Ordonez et al., ACP, 2012; Saiz-Lopez et al., ACP,. 2012). The purpose of this work is to contrast the pre-industrial importance of tropospheric halogen driven ozone loss to present day conditions, specifically the importance of iodine and bromine chemistry. The sensitivity to inorganic nitrogen abundance will be shown. The model results compared to the pre-industrial surface ozone measurements at Montsouris (Volz and Kley, 1988) will also be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kinnison, Douglas; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...745...11G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Star-forming Giant Clumps in Cosmological Simulations of z ? 2 Disks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many observed massive star-forming z ? 2 galaxies are large disks that exhibit irregular morphologies, with ?1 kpc, ?108-1010Modot clumps. We present the largest sample to date of high-resolution cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that zoom-in on the formation of individual M * ? 1010.5Modot galaxies in ?1012Modot halos at z ? 2. Our code includes strong stellar feedback parameterized as momentum-driven galactic winds. This model reproduces many characteristic features of this observed class of galaxies, such as their clumpy morphologies, smooth and monotonic velocity gradients, high gas fractions (f g ? 50%), and high specific star formation rates (gsim1 Gyr-1). In accord with recent models, giant clumps (M clump ? (5 × 108-109)Modot) form in situ via gravitational instabilities. However, the galactic winds are critical for their subsequent evolution. The giant clumps we obtain are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and are disrupted by wind-driven mass loss. They do not virialize or migrate to the galaxy centers as suggested in recent work neglecting strong winds. By phenomenologically implementing the winds that are observed from high-redshift galaxies and in particular from individual clumps, our simulations reproduce well new observational constraints on clump kinematics and clump ages. In particular, the observation that older clumps appear closer to their galaxy centers is reproduced in our simulations, as a result of inside-out formation of the disks rather than inward clump migration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Genel, Shy; Naab, Thorsten; Genzel, Reinhard; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Sternberg, Amiel; Oser, Ludwig; Johansson, Peter H.; Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Burkert, Andreas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return 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onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.2318L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distribution of brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances in the eastern Pacific</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seawater concentrations and distributions of brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (BrVSLS), including bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), were measured in the upper water column (5-750 m) in the eastern Pacific. Inorganic nutrient, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton cell counts were measured to determine biogeochemical factors that affect the production and distribution of these BrVSLS. Elevated concentrations of BrVSLS were observed in coastal and tropical seawater. Concentration maxima for CHBr3, CH2Br2, and CHClBr2 were observed below the mixed layer, near the subsurface chlorophyll a maxima, which suggest BrVSLS production may be related to photosynthetic biomass production. Our results also suggest that heterotrophic bacteria may also contribute to CH2Br2 and CHBrCl2 production in the water column. The maximum CHBrCl2 concentration was observed at a depth much deeper than the euphotic zone, which suggests sources other than photosynthetic biomass. Elevated CHBrCl2 concentrations in deeper waters were coincident with elevated CHCl3 concentrations, which may be an evidence for successive chlorine substitution of CHBr3 in deeper and older water masses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Yina; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Campbell, Lisa; Bianchi, Thomas S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhRvC..58..905T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Yields of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products produced following 235U(nth,f)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of gamma-ray spectra, following the thermal neutron fission of 235U have been made using a high purity germanium detector at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) Van de Graaff facility. The gamma spectra were measured at delay times ranging from 0.2 s to nearly 10 000 s following the rapid transfer of the fission fragments with a helium-jet system. On the basis of the known gamma transitions, forty isotopes have been identified and studied. By measuring the relative intensities of these transitions, the relative yields of the various precursor nuclides have been calculated. The results are compared with the recommended values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission product data base (for the lifetimes and the relative yields) and those published in the Nuclear Data Sheets (for the beta branching ratios). This information is particularly useful for the cases of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products with lifetimes of the order of fractions of a second or a few seconds. Independent yields of many of these isotopes have rather large uncertainties, some of which have been reduced by the present study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tipnis, S. V.; Campbell, J. M.; Couchell, G. P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H. V.; Pullen, D. J.; Schier, W. A.; Seabury, E. H.; England, T. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58600977"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear Moments and Differences in Mean Square Charge Radii of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Neon Isotopes by Collinear Laser Spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nuclear moments and charge radii of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> neon isotopes were measured by the use of collinear laser spectroscopy at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. After a general introduction the semiclassical theory of atomic spectra is given and the relevant properties are calculated for neon. The atomic physics section is followed by a description of the experimental setup</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R W Geithner; R Neugart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811835"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector CD8 T Cells Induced by Genetically Attenuated Malaria Parasite Vaccination Express CD11c</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8+ T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-?), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8+ T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8+ T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3+ CD8b+ T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are predominantly CD11ahi CD44hi CD62L?, indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c+ CD8+ T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-?, tumor necrosis factor <span class="hlt">alpha</span> (TNF-?), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c? CD8+ T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8+ T cells. Coculture of CD11c+, but not CD11c?, CD8+ T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8+ T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c+ CD8+ T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8+ T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are primarily KLRG1+ CD127? terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1? CD127+ memory precursor effector cells are CD11c? CD8+ T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected hepatocytes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooney, Laura A.; Gupta, Megha; Thomas, Sunil; Mikolajczak, Sebastian; Choi, Kimberly Y.; Gibson, Claire; Jang, Ihn K.; Danziger, Sam; Aitchison, John; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6122796"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design considerations for thin film coated semiconductor thermal neutron detectors—I: basics regarding <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> neutron reactive films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Semiconductor-based thermal neutron detectors provide a compact technology for neutron detection and imaging. Such devices can be produced by externally coating semiconductor-charged-particle detectors with neutron reactive films that convert free neutrons into charged-particle reaction products. Commonly used films for such devices utilize the 10B(n,?)7Li reaction or the 6Li(n,?)3H reaction, which are attractive due to the relatively high energies imparted to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. S. McGregor; M. D. Hammig; Y.-H. Yang; H. K. Gersch; R. T. Klann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..11021302Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coastal water source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons in New England</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> halocarbon tracers were used to investigate marine influences on air quality in a coastal region of New England. Atmospheric measurements made at the University of New Hampshire's Observing Station at Thompson Farm (TF) in Durham, New Hampshire, indicate that relatively large amounts of halocarbons are emitted from local estuarine and coastal oceanic regions. Bromine-containing halocarbons of interest in this work include bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2). The mean mixing ratios of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 from 11 January to 5 March 2002 were 2.6 pptv and 1.6 pptv, and from 1 June to 31 August 2002 mean mixing ratios were 5.9 pptv and 1.4 pptv, respectively. The mean mixing ratio of CHBr3 was not only highest during summer, but both CHBr3 and CH2Br2 exhibited large variability in their atmospheric mixing ratios during this season. We attribute the greater variability to increased production combined with faster atmospheric removal rates. Other seasonal characteristics of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 in the atmosphere, as well as the impact of local meteorology on their distributions at this coastal site, are discussed. Tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4) and trichloroethene (C2HCl3) were used to identify time periods influenced by urban emissions. Additionally, measurements of CHBr3, CH2Br2, C2Cl4, methyl iodide (CH3I), and ethyl iodide (C2H5I) were made at TF and five sites throughout the nearby Great Bay estuarine area between 18 and 19 August 2003. These measurements were used to elucidate the effect of the tidal cycle on the distributions of these gases. The mean mixing ratios of CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH3I, and C2H5I were ˜82%, 46%, 14%, and 17% higher, respectively, near the coast compared to inland sites, providing evidence for a marine source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons at TF. Correlation between the tidal cycle and atmospheric concentrations of marine tracers on the night of 18 August 2003 showed that the highest values for the brominated species occurred ˜2-3 hours after high tide. Emission fluxes of CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH3I, and C2H5I on this night were estimated to be 26 ± 57, 4.7 ± 5.4, 5.9 ± 4.6, and 0.065 ± 0.20 nmol m-2 h-1, respectively. Finally, the anthropogenic source strength of CHBr3 was calculated to determine its impact on atmospheric levels observed in this region. Although our results indicate that anthropogenic contributions could potentially range from 15 to 60% of the total dissolved CHBr3 in the Great Bay, based on the observed ratio of CH2Br2/CHBr3 and surface seawater measurements in the Gulf of Maine, it appears unlikely that anthropogenic activities are a significant source of CHBr3 in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Yong; Varner, Ruth K.; Russo, Rachel S.; Wingenter, Oliver W.; Haase, Karl B.; Talbot, Robert; Sive, Barkley C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140005411&hterms=Volume+14&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2522Volume%2B14%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Convective Transport of Very-<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Bromocarbons to the Stratosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies 8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, 150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total 8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at 150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute 7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a 2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liang, Qing; Atlas, Elliot Leonard; Blake, Donald Ray; Dorf, Marcel; Pfeilsticker, Klaus August; Schauffler, Sue Myhre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polyhalogenated Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Live</span> Substances in the Atlantic Ocean, and their Linkages with Ocean Primary Production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Atlantic (HalocAST-A) cruise was conducted aboard FS Polarstern during the ANT-XXVII/1 expedition. The ship departed from Bremerhaven, Germany on October 25th and arrived in Cape Town, South Africa on November 24th in 2010. The HalocAST-A cruise was devoted to studying air-sea fluxes of a suite of halocarbon compounds. Atmospheric mixing ratios and seawater concentrations of the halocarbons were continuously measured with the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). This study focuses on the polyhalogenated very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> substances (VSLSs) such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), and bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2). The goal of this study is to examine the distributions of these compounds and possible relationship between their emissions and oceanic primary production. Therefore, along with the halocarbon concentrations, parameters like dissolved organic carbon concentrations, nutrient concentrations, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria counts were also determined. The observed saturation anomalies indicated these VSLSs were supersaturated for almost the entire duration of the cruise. The highest seawater concentrations for these compounds were observed near the Canary Islands. Air mixing ratios were also elevated in this region. The net fluxes for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2 were 13.8 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1 and 1.2 nmol m-2 d-1, respectively. During the HalocAST-A cruise, these compounds exhibit similar trends with total chlorophyll a. Contributions from selected phytoplankton group will be further assessed through the use of individual pigment biomarkers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.; Smith, R. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...789...86A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distributions of <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioactive Nuclei Produced by Young Embedded Star Clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most star formation in the Galaxy takes place in clusters, where the most massive members can affect the properties of other constituent solar systems. This paper considers how clusters influence star formation and forming planetary systems through nuclear enrichment from supernova explosions, where massive stars deliver <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei (SLRs) to their local environment. The decay of these nuclei leads to both heating and ionization, and thereby affects disk evolution, disk chemistry, and the accompanying process of planet formation. Nuclear enrichment can take place on two spatial scales: (1) within the cluster itself (l ~ 1 pc), the SLRs are delivered to the circumstellar disks associated with other cluster members. (2) On the next larger scale (l ~ 2-10 pc), SLRs are injected into the background molecular cloud; these nuclei provide heating and ionization to nearby star-forming regions and to the next generation of disks. For the first scenario, we construct the expected distributions of radioactive enrichment levels provided by embedded clusters. Clusters can account for the SLR mass fractions inferred for the early Solar Nebula, but typical SLR abundances are lower by a factor of ~10. For the second scenario, we find that distributed enrichment of SLRs in molecular clouds leads to comparable abundances. For both the direct and distributed enrichment processes, the masses of 26Al and 60Fe delivered to individual circumstellar disks typically fall in the range 10-100 pM ? (where 1 pM ? = 10–12 M ?). The corresponding ionization rate due to SLRs typically falls in the range ?SLR ~ 1-5 × 10–19 s–1. This ionization rate is smaller than that due to cosmic rays, ?CR ~ 10–17 s–1, but will be important in regions where cosmic rays are attenuated (e.g., disk mid-planes).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adams, Fred C.; Fatuzzo, Marco; Holden, Lisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...773....5B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mixing and Transport of <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> and Stable Isotopes and Refractory Grains in Protoplanetary Disks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analyses of primitive meteorites and cometary samples have shown that the solar nebula must have experienced a phase of large-scale outward transport of small refractory grains as well as homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes. The stable oxygen isotopes, however, were able to remain spatially heterogeneous at the ~6% level. One promising mechanism for achieving these disparate goals is the mixing and transport associated with a marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU) disk, a likely cause of FU Orionis events in young low-mass stars. Several new sets of MGU models are presented that explore mixing and transport in disks with varied masses (0.016 to 0.13 M ?) around stars with varied masses (0.1 to 1 M ?) and varied initial Q stability minima (1.8 to 3.1). The results show that MGU disks are able to rapidly (within ~104 yr) achieve large-scale transport and homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous distributions of disk grains or gas. In addition, the models show that while single-shot injection heterogeneity is reduced to a relatively low level (~1%), as required for early solar system chronometry, continuous injection of the sort associated with the generation of stable oxygen isotope fractionations by UV photolysis leads to a sustained, relatively high level (~10%) of heterogeneity, in agreement with the oxygen isotope data. These models support the suggestion that the protosun may have experienced at least one FU Orionis-like outburst, which produced several of the signatures left behind in primitive chondrites and comets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boss, Alan P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18290493"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Physical and chemical characteristics of fine <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from cooking emissions and its contribution to particulate organic matter in Beijing].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigated the current status of Beijing restaurants, conducting measurements of cooking emission from 4 kinds of typical Chinese restaurants with different cooking styles in Beijing. Mass concentration, morphology and chemical compositions of PM2.5 were analyzed based on filter samples. Mass concentrations of cooking source are about 8 - 35 times of those of ambient air simultaneously. Both PM1.0 and PM2.5 emitted from the restaurants were monitored by on-line equipment, and PM1.0 took 50% - 85% of PM2.5 in mass concentration. <span class="hlt">Particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from cooking source are mostly in solid and liquid morphology. Chemical concentrations of organic matter, inorganic ions and elemental carbon account for about 70%, 5% - 11%, and less than 2%, respectively. The total amount of fine <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by cooking source and its contribution to total POM for Beijing are roughly estimated. POM in fine particles from cooking source is approximately the same magnitude as transportation source emission and becomes one of the main sources of POM in fine particles in Beijing. Therefore it's quite urgent to understand the physical and chemical characteristics of cooking emission in order to improve Beijing air quality and secure residents' health. PMID:18290493</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wen, Meng-Ting; Hu, Min</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614183C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical characterization of soot <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by Wood-Burning Cook Stoves: A XPS and HRTEM study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and electronic structure of soot <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> directly from biofuel cook stoves have been studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to obtain freshly emitted soot particles, copper grids for Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were placed on the last two of an 8-stages MOUDI cascade impactor. The analysis of HRTEM micrographs revealed the nanostructure and the particle size of soot chain. Additionally, the morphology of soot particles was analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles sampled on the first heating stage exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df, which are present as aggregates formed by carbon ceno-spheres. The XPS survey spectrum for soot particles shows that the main particle composition is carbon. We also observed differences in the carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio of the particles, which probably depends on the combustion process efficiency of each cook-stove analyzed. The XPS C-1s spectra show carbon with two peaks that correspond to sp2 and sp3 hybridization. Also, real-time absorption (?a) and scattering (?s) coefficients of the <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by cook stoves were measured. The trend in ?a and ?s indicate that the cooking process has two important combustion stages which varied in its flaming strength, being vigorous in the first stage and soft in the second one.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carabali, Giovanni; Peralta, Oscar; Castro, Telma; Torres, Ricardo; Ruiz, Gerardo; Molina, Luisa; Saavedra, Isabel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47.1998L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radioactivity in the early solar system: The Super-AGB star hypothesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The composition of the most primitive solar system condensates, such as calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and micron-sized corundum grains, show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLR), e.g., 26Al, were present in the early solar system. Their abundances require a local or stellar origin, which, however, is far from being understood. We present for the first time the abundances of several SLR up to 60Fe predicted from stars with initial mass in the range approximately 7-11 M?. These stars evolve through core H, He, and C burning. After core C burning they go through a "Super"-asymptotic giant branch (Super-AGB) phase, with the H and He shells activated alternately, episodic thermal pulses in the He shell, a very hot temperature at the base of the convective envelope (approximately 108 K), and strong stellar winds driving the H-rich envelope into the surrounding interstellar medium. The final remnants of the evolution of Super-AGB stars are mostly O-Ne white dwarfs. Our Super-AGB models produce 26Al/27Al yield ratios approximately 0.02-0.26. These models can account for the canonical value of the 26Al/27Al ratio using dilutions with the solar nebula of the order of 1 part of Super-AGB mass per several 102 to several 103 of solar nebula mass, resulting in associated changes in the O-isotope composition in the range ?17O from 3 to 20‰. This is in agreement with observations of the O isotopic ratios in primitive solar system condensates, which do not carry the signature of a stellar polluter. The radionuclides 41Ca and 60Fe are produced by neutron captures in Super-AGB stars and their meteoritic abundances are also matched by some of our models, depending on the nuclear and stellar physics uncertainties as well as the meteoritic experimental data. We also expect and are currently investigating Super-AGB production of SLR heavier than iron, such as 107Pd.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lugaro, Maria; Doherty, Carolyn L.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Maddison, Sarah T.; Liffman, Kurt; García-Hernández, D. A.; Siess, Lionel; Lattanzio, John C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012A%26A...545A...4G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar system genealogy revealed by extinct <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in meteorites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context. Little is known about the stellar environment and the genealogy of our solar system. <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs, mean lifetime ? shorter than 100 Myr) that were present in the solar protoplanetary disk 4.56 Gyr ago could potentially provide insight into that key aspect of our history, were their origin understood. Aims: Previous models failed to provide a reasonable explanation of the abundance of two key SLRs, 26Al (?26 = 1.1 Myr) and 60Fe (?60 = 3.7 Myr), at the birth of the solar system by requiring unlikely astrophysical conditions. Our aim is to propose a coherent and generic solution based on the most recent understanding of star-forming mechanisms. Methods: Iron-60 in the nascent solar system is shown to have been produced by a diversity of supernovae belonging to a first generation of stars in a giant molecular cloud. Aluminum-26 is delivered into a dense collected shell by a single massive star wind belonging to a second star generation. The Sun formed in the collected shell as part of a third stellar generation. Aluminum-26 yields used in our calculation are based on new rotating stellar models in which 26Al is present in stellar winds during the star main sequence rather than during the Wolf-Rayet phase alone. Our scenario eventually constrains the time sequence of the formation of the two stellar generations that just preceded the solar system formation, along with the number of stars born in these two generations. Results: We propose a generic explanation for the past presence of SLRs in the nascent solar system, based on a collect-injection-and-collapse mechanism, occurring on a diversity of spatial/temporal scales. In that model, the presence of SLRs with a diversity of mean lifetimes in the solar protoplanetary disk is simply the fossilized record of sequential star formation within a hierarchical interstellar medium. We identify the genealogy of our solar system's three star generations earlier. In particular, we show that our Sun was born together with a few hundred stars in a dense collected shell situated at a distance of 5-10 pc from a parent massive star having a mass greater than about 30 solar masses and belonging to a cluster containing ~1200 stars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gounelle, M.; Meynet, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3870992"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal variation in the behaviour of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> rodent</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span>, iteroparous animals in seasonal environments experience variable social and environmental conditions over their lifetime. Animals can be divided into those with a “young-of-the-year” life history (YY, reproducing and dying in the summer of birth) and an “overwinter” life history (OW, overwintering in a subadult state before reproducing next spring). We investigated how behavioural patterns across the population were affected by season and sex, and whether variation in behaviour reflects the variation in life history patterns of each season. Applications of pace-of-life (POL) theory would suggest that long-lived OW animals are shyer in order to increase survival, and YY are bolder in order to increase reproduction. Therefore, we expected that in winter and spring samples, when only OW can be sampled, the animals should be shyer than in summer and autumn, when both OW and YY animals can be sampled. We studied common vole (Microtus arvalis) populations, which express typical, intra-annual density fluctuation. We captured a total of 492 voles at different months over 3 years and examined boldness and activity level with two standardised behavioural experiments. Results Behavioural variables of the two tests were correlated with each other. Boldness, measured as short latencies in both tests, was extremely high in spring compared to other seasons. Activity level was highest in spring and summer, and higher in males than in females. Conclusion Being bold in laboratory tests may translate into higher risk-taking in nature by being more mobile while seeking out partners or valuable territories. Possible explanations include asset-protection, with OW animals being rather old with low residual reproductive value in spring. Therefore, OW may take higher risks during this season. Offspring born in spring encounter a lower population density and may have higher reproductive value than offspring of later cohorts. A constant connection between life history and animal personality, as suggested by the POL theory, however, was not found. Nevertheless, correlations of traits suggest the existence of animal personalities. In conclusion, complex patterns of population dynamics, seasonal variation in life histories, and variability of behaviour due to asset-protection may cause complex seasonal behavioural dynamics in a population.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212705H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transport and Chemistry of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Bromocarbons in the Tropics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have developed a detailed chemical scheme for the degradation of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> source gases bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2) and implemented it in the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT three-dimensional (3D) chemical transport model (CTM). The CTM has been used to predict the distribution of the two source gases (SGs) and 11 of their organic product gases (PGs). These first global calculations of the organic PGs show that their abundance is small. The longest lived organic PGs are CBr2O and CHBrO, but their peak tropospheric abundance relative to the surface volume mixing ratio (vmr) of the SGs is less than 5%. We calculate their mean local tropospheric lifetimes in the tropics to be ~7 and ~2 days (due to photolysis), respectively. Therefore, the assumption in previous modelling studies that SG degradation leads immediately to inorganic bromine seems reasonable. We have compared observed tropical SG profiles from a number of aircraft campaigns with various model experiments. In the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) we find that the CTM run using p levels (TOMCAT) and vertical winds from analysed divergence overestimates the abundance of CH2Br2, and to a lesser extent CHBr3, although the data is sparse and comparisons are not conclusive. Better agreement in the TTL is obtained in the sensitivity run using ? levels (SLIMCAT) and vertical motion from diabatic heating rates. Trajectory estimates of residence times in the two model versions show slower vertical transport in the SLIMCAT ?-level version. In the p-level model even when we switch off convection we still find significant amounts of the SGs considered may reach the cold point tropopause; the stratospheric source gas injection (SGI) is only reduced by ~16% for CHBr3 and ~2% for CH2Br2 without convection. Overall, the relative importance of the SG pathway and the PG pathway for transport of bromine to the stratospheric overworld (?>380 K) has been assessed. Assuming a 10-day washout lifetime of Bry in TOMCAT, we find the delivery of total Br from CHBr3 to be 0.72 pptv with ~53% of this coming from SGI. Similary, for CH2Br2 we find a total Br value of 1.69 pptv with ~94% coming from SGI. We infer that these species contribute ~2.4 pptv of inorganic bromine to the lower stratosphere with SGI being the dominant pathway. Slower transport to and through the TTL would decrease this estimate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Monge-Sanz, Beatriz; Richards, Nigel; Atlas, Elliot; Blake, Donald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730041155&hterms=radon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dradon"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Apollo <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Spectrometer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22243307"> <span id="translatedtitle">First use of high charge states for mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides in a Penning trap.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Penning trap mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly charged ions, using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q=8-12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivaled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides such as the superallowed ? emitter 74Rb (T(1/2)=65??ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved Q(EC) value are presented. PMID:22243307</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ettenauer, S; Simon, M C; Gallant, A T; Brunner, T; Chowdhury, U; Simon, V V; Brodeur, M; Chaudhuri, A; Mané, E; Andreoiu, C; Audi, G; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Delheij, P; Gwinner, G; Lapierre, A; Lunney, D; Pearson, M R; Ringle, R; Ullrich, J; Dilling, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005NIMPB.241..983I"> <span id="translatedtitle">A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer for mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to determine binding energies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei we have developed a time-of-flight mass spectrometer of high mass resolving power m/? m. This spectrometer achieves a very long ion flight path by repeatedly reflecting ions between two electrostatic ion mirrors. The nuclei to be investigated are produced in heavy ion fragmentations and separated in-flight by a fragment separator. These energetic ions are thermalized in a catcher gas cell injected into an RF ion-guide and then into an ion trap to be cooled, bunched and entered into the time-of-flight spectrometer. This technique should allow to determine the masses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei with high efficiency. Using stable ions, the so far achieved mass resolving power m/? m exceeded 65,000.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ishida, Y.; Wada, M.; Wollnik, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21471124"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results of the 2010 National Radiation Protection Institute intercomparison of radon and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay product continuous monitors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the Sixth European Conference on Protection Against Radon at Home and at Work held in autumn 2010 in Prague, the first intercomparison of continuous radon and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay product monitors was organised and held by the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague. Eight laboratories submitted eight continuous radon monitors, two electronic monitors, three passive integral systems based on charcoal and three continuous radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay product monitors. The intercomparison included exposures to both the radon gas concentration and equivalent equilibrium radon concentration (EEC) under different ambient conditions similar to the ones in dwellings. In particular, the influence of the equilibrium factor F, unattached fraction of EEC f(p) and absolute air humidity were investigated. The results of the radon gas measurements were performed on a calibration level of about 8  kBq m(-3). The results of all monitors were compared with the reference NRPI monitor. PMID:21471124</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jílek, K; Marušiaková, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/859189"> <span id="translatedtitle">IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) and activity ratios of {sup 224}Ra/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra/{sup 223}Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the {sup 210}Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high {sup 210}Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup 3} at PB, (1.68 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at Pozos, and (1.19 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 {micro}m at PB, 0.37 {micro}m at Posos, and 4.0 {micro}m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that in addition to <span class="hlt">alpha</span> recoil, decay of {sup 226}Ra from the adsorbed phases also contributes a significant source of {sup 222}Rn to groundwater. It appears that the information obtained from this study provides useful testing and validation for the Yucca Mountain total system performance assessment model (TSPA).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Luo; T.L. Ku; V. Todd; M. Murrell; J. Alfredo Rodriguez Pineda; J. Dinsmoor; A. Mitchell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34417639"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation and optimization of cyclic activation Analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes with 14MeV neutron generator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A program of simulation and optimization is developed for the case of cyclic activation analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes with\\u000a 14-MeV neutrons. The background line under the photopeaks of interest is simulated using Zikovsky's model. The reliability\\u000a of the program is checked on real conditions with a geological reference sample “Soil 5” provided by the IAEA. Optimum experimental\\u000a conditions (timing parameters,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Khelifi; Z. Idiri; S. Tobbeche</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19182720"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of the Production of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Particles in a High-Resolution Streamer-Chamber Experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> particles produced in association with muons have been observed in the interactions of 350-GeV\\/c protons with neon in a high-resolution streamer chamber. The characteristics of these events are consistent with the expected properties of charmed particles if the average lifetime lies between 10-13 and 2×10-12 sec. With the assumption that the observed events are mainly D+\\/- mesons with lifetimes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Sandweiss; T. Cardello; P. Cooper; S. Dhawan; R. Kellogg; D. Ljung; T. Ludlam; R. Majka; P. McBride; P. Némethy; L. Rosselet; A. J. Slaughter; H. D. Taft; L. Teig; L. Tzeng; S. Ecklund; M. Johnson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jz/v071/i006/JZ071i006p01525/JZ071i006p01525.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disequilibrium between the <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radon Daughter Products in the Lower Atmosphere Resulting from Their Washout by Rain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concentration changes of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> daughter products of Rn ' in air due to washout have been computed according to a three-phase (gas-aerosol-raindrop) model for a wide range of values of the system parameters. It is shown that the ratio of Pb TM to Bi TM concentrations is a sensitive measure of the relative washout efficiences of free atoms</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. R. Gat; G. Assaf; A. Miko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26278018"> <span id="translatedtitle">A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer for mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to determine binding energies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei we have developed a time-of-flight mass spectrometer of high mass resolving power m\\/?m. This spectrometer achieves a very long ion flight path by repeatedly reflecting ions between two electrostatic ion mirrors. The nuclei to be investigated are produced in heavy ion fragmentations and separated in-flight by a fragment separator. These energetic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Ishida; M. Wada; H. Wollnik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A41A0025M"> <span id="translatedtitle">PANTHER Data from SOLVE-II Through CR-AVE: A Contrast Between Long and <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Compounds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">PANTHER (PAN and other Trace Hydrohalocarbons ExpeRiment) is an airborne 6-channel gas chromatograph that measures approximately 20 important atmospheric trace gases whose changing burdens impact air quality, climate change and both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. In this presentation we will contrast measurements of the long-lived compounds against the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds. The long-lived compounds tend to have well-defined troposphere boundary conditions and develop spatial gradients due to stratospheric processing. These measurements have played a major role in quantifying stratospheric transport, stratosphere- troposphere exchange, and ozone loss. In contrast the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species develop spatial and temporal gradients in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), due to variations in the surface boundary layer concentrations and the coupling of this surface boundary layer to the TTL via convective processes. Deep convection acts like a "conveyor belt" between the source region in the boundary layer and the relatively stable TTL region, often bypassing the free troposphere where scavenging of these <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> species takes place. Loss rates due to reaction with OH and thermal decomposition are reduced in the cold, dry air of the TTL, resulting in longer survival times. Isolation of the TTL region from the free troposphere can last from days to over a month. Significant amounts of these <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compound and their byproducts can therefore be transported into the lower stratosphere (LS). Of particular interest are compounds that contain bromine, iodine, and sulfur, not only because of their intrinsic harmful effects in the atmosphere, but also because they have unique source and sink regions that can help to de- convolve transport.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moore, F. L.; Dutton, G. S.; Elkins, J. W.; Hall, B. D.; Hurst, D. F.; Nance, J. D.; Thompson, T. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40558087"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radium isotopes in the Hawaiian margin: Evidence for large fluid fluxes through the Puna Ridge</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We measured significant activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium isotopes, 223Ra (half-life=11 days) and 224Ra (half-life=3.7 days), around the margins of the Hawaiian Islands to water depths of 3500 m. These measurements suggest fluid inputs from the basalt to the surrounding ocean. In general 223Ra activities were considerably greater than 224Ra in spite of the expected higher production rate of 224Ra activity in basalt. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Willard S. Moore; William Ussler III; Charles K. Paull</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52220745"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radium Isotopes in the Hawaiian Margin: Evidence for Large Fluid Fluxes Through the Puna Ridge</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Techniques to sample and measure <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium isotopes have significantly advanced understanding of groundwater-seawater exchange in coastal areas. The established sampling protocol utilizes traditional wire-line samplers from surface vessels to recover large (200 L) seawater samples. These samples are subsequently passed through Mn-fiber columns at a slow rate (100 L per hour) to assure high radium stripping efficiency. But, sampling</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. S. Moore; C. K. Paull; W. Ussler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/v102/iD05/96JD02955/96JD02955.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation and intercomparison of global atmospheric transport models using 222Rn and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> tracers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simulations of 222Rn and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> tracers are used to evaluate and intercompare the representations of convective and synoptic processes in 20 global atmospheric transport models. Results show that most established three-dimensional models simulate vertical mixing in the troposphere to within the constraints offered by the observed mean 222Rn concentrations and that subgrid parameterization of convection is essential for this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel J. Jacob; Michael J. Prather; Philip J. Rasch; Run-Lie Shia; Yves J. Balkanski; Stephen R. Beagley; Daniel J. Bergmann; W. T. Blackshear; Margaret Brown; Masaru Chiba; Martyn P. Chipperfield; J. de Grandpré; Jane E. Dignon; Johann Feichter; Christophe Genthon; W. L. Grose; Prasad S. Kasibhatla; Ines Köhler; Mark A. Kritz; Kathy Law; Joyce E. Penner; Michel Ramonet; Claire E. Reeves; Douglas A. Rotman; Deianeira Z. Stockwell; Peter F. J. Van Velthoven; Gé Verver; Oliver Wild; Hu Yang; Peter Zimmermann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55230873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Very <span class="hlt">Short-live</span> Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance (and UV radiation) in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study we used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to explore the impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) bromocarbons on stratospheric ozone abundance and surface UV radiation under the influence of geoengineered aerosols. VSL bromocarbons have by definition a chemical lifetime of less than 0.5 years (WMO, 2006). In contrast to long-lived bromocarbons (e.g., CH3Br plus halons), these</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simone Tilmes; Doug Kinnison; Rolando Garcia; Ross Salawitch; Julia Lee-Taylor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........25L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides and early solar system chronology -- A hibonite perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Examination of the 41 Ca- 41 K, 26 Al- 26 Mg, 10 Be- 10 B, oxygen and titanium iso-topic systems in 26 hibonite-bearing inclusions extracted from the CM meteorite Murchison provide important constraints for origins of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, early solar system chronology, and chemical evolution. Magnesium isotopic compositions divide these hibonite grains into two distinct populations which correlate perfectly with their mineralogy and morphology, as previously discovered by Ireland (1988): Spinel-HIBonite spherules (SHIBs) bear evidence of in-situ decay of 26 Al, whereas PLAty hibonite Crystals (PLACs) and Blue AGgregates (BAGs) either lack resolvable D 26 Mg* excesses or exhibit 26 Mg deficits by up to ~4[per thousand]. High precision, multiple collector SIMS analyses show that 6 of 7 SHIBs investigated fall on a single correlation line implying 26 Al/ 27 Al = (4.4±0.2) × 10 -5 (2s) at the time of isotopic closure, consistent with the "canonical" 26 Al abundance characteristic of internal isochrons in many calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). One SHIB sample exhibits D 26 Mg* corresponding to a "supra-canonical" 26 Al/ 27 Al ratio 6.3 × 10 -5 which is close to the highest ratios observed in solar system materials. Eight out of 11 26 Al-free PLAC hibonite grains record excesses of radiogenic 10 B which correlate with Be/B; the inferred initial 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio of (5.1 ± 1.4) × 10 -4 is substantially lower than the best-constrained 10 Be/ 9 Be of (8.8±0.6) × 10 -4 in a CV CAI. The data demonstrate that 10 Be cannot be used as a relative chronometer for these objects and that most of the 10 Be observed in CAIs must be produced by energetic particle irradiation of refractory dust precursors in the early solar system. The lack of 26 Al in PLAC hibonites containing Mg isotope anomalies and 10 Be indicates that significant amounts of 26 Al was not formed in the same spallogenic processes that made 10 Be in PLAC precursors. Except for few hibonite grains exhibiting mixing with spallogenic components (from recent cosmic ray exposure), Li isotopes are normal within uncertainties, probably reflecting contamination and/or post-crystallization exchange. None of the eight hibonites examined here reveal evidence for in-situ decay of 41 Ca, regardless of mineralogy or morphology. The results fail to correlate the presence of 26 Al with 41 Ca in SHIB hibonites but confirm the lack of these two isotopes in PLACs and BAGs at the same time. The new data partially corroborate the discovery of Sahijpal et al. (1998) and indicate the formation of PLACs and BAGs in an 26 Al- 41 Ca-free environment. Although this environment is easily expected in a late-injection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides model (e.g. Sahijpal and Goswami 1998), a key for verification is to obtain an absolute age of PLACs/BAGs. In contrast, two out of 9 pyroxene points in the E44 CAI exhibit excesses of radiogenic 41 K, with one implying an inferred 41 Ca/ 49 Ca ratio ~ 1.5 × 10 -8 in good agreement with the discovery by Srinivasan et al. (1996) and the result in Ireland et al. (1999), and the other equivalent to ~ 7 × 10 -9 . All existing data suggest that the initial abundance of 41 Ca in the E44 CAI appears to be ~ 1.5 × 10 -8 ; however, it may not necessarily characterize the solar system initial due to the absence of adequate statistics for 41 Ca abundances in early solar system materials. Oxygen isotope compositions of SHIBs and PLACs are all highly 16 O-enriched, but are not derived from a homogeneous population with D 17 O values spanning a range from ~ -28[per thousand] to -15[per thousand]. The ranges of 16 O- enrichment in SHIBs and PLACs overlap strongly and are still significantly less "anomalous" than the most 16 O-enriched compositions found in meteorites. Both PLACs and SHIBs were formed in 16 O-rich reservoirs characterized by small scale heterogeneities in the gas phase. If such heterogeneities were generated by an admixture of relatively 16 O-poor poor gas created by self-shielding during CO photolysis and tr</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Ming-Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.7546T"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro immunotoxic and genotoxic activities of <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from two different small-scale wood combustion appliances</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Residential wood combustion appliances emit large quantities of fine particles which are suspected to cause a substantial health burden worldwide. Wood combustion particles contain several potential health-damaging metals and carbon compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which may determine the toxic properties of the emitted particles. The aim of the present study was to characterize in vitro immunotoxicological and chemical properties of PM 1 ( Dp ? 1 ?m) emitted from a pellet boiler and a conventional masonry heater. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed for 24 h to different doses of the emission particles. Cytotoxicity, production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-? and the chemokine MIP-2, apoptosis and phases of the cell cycle as well as genotoxic activity were measured after the exposure. The type of wood combustion appliance had a significant effect on emissions and chemical composition of the particles. All the studied PM 1 samples induced cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses in a dose-dependent manner. The <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from the conventional masonry heater were 3-fold more potent inducers of programmed cell death and DNA damage than those emitted from the pellet boiler. Furthermore, the particulate samples that induced extensive DNA damage contained also large amounts of PAH compounds. Instead, significant differences between the studied appliances were not detected in measurements of inflammatory mediators, although the chemical composition of the combustion particles differed considerably from each other. In conclusion, the present results show that appliances representing different combustion technology have remarkable effects on physicochemical and associated toxicological and properties of wood combustion particles. The present data indicate that the <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from incomplete combustion are toxicologically more potent than those emitted from more complete combustion processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tapanainen, Maija; Jalava, Pasi I.; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hakulinen, Pasi; Happo, Mikko S.; Lamberg, Heikki; Ruusunen, Jarno; Tissari, Jarkko; Nuutinen, Kati; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O.; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998nrao.pres....2."> <span id="translatedtitle">VLA Observations Confirm Origin of Gamma Ray Bursts in <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radio telescope studies of the fiery afterglow of a Gamma Ray Burst have provided astronomers with the best clues yet about the origins of these tremendous cosmic cataclysms since their discovery more than 30 years ago. Observations with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope confirm that a blast seen to occur on March 29 had its origin in a star-forming region in a distant galaxy. "There are two leading theories for the causes of Gamma Ray Bursts," said Dale Frail of the NSF National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. "According to one theory, the blasts occur in the death throes of pairs of old stars. The other requires them to arise from exploding, massive, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> stars that still reside within the star-forming gas and dust from which they formed. The VLA studies of the burst show that at least this one almost certainly occurred within a star-forming region. This result also explains why half of the Gamma Ray Burst afterglows are not detected by optical telescopes." Frail heads a VLA observing team including Greg Taylor, also of NRAO, and Shri Kulkarni of Caltech, that reported its findings to the American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, CA. The March 29 burst was seen clearly by radio telescopes (the accompanying image is GRB 980329 as seen by the VLA) but only very faintly with optical instruments. "That is extremely important," said Taylor. "This burst was very faint at visible wavelengths, brighter at infrared wavelengths and brighter still at radio wavelengths. This is a clear indication that the exploding object was surrounded by dust. Dust is most commonly found in star-forming regions." This strongly favors one of the two leading theories about Gamma Ray Bursts over the other. One explanation for these tremendously energetic fireballs is that a pair of superdense neutron stars collides. The other is that a single, very massive star explodes in a "hypernova," more powerful than a supernova, at the end of its normal life. The hypernova explosion, scientists believe, would come only a few million years after the giant star was formed, while it is still within the cloud of gas and dust from which it formed. Neutron stars, on the other hand, are formed by supernova explosions that give a "kick" to the resulting neutron star, propelling it at high speeds. An orbiting pair of neutron stars, astronomers think, would collide only after hundreds of millions of years of orbital decay, by which time they would be far away from the gas and dust of their birthplace. "The observations already have provided crucial insight; we intend to continue observing the relic of the March 29 burst with the VLA, and in the coming months, we will gain new information that will help further refine our ideas about these fireballs," Frail said. "We're going to learn about the size and expansion rate of the fireball and test predictions made by the models." "These observations indicate the extraordinary importance of radio astronomy for providing information that can be gained in no other way about one of the major frontier areas of astrophysics," said Hugh Van Horn, Director of the NSF's Division of Astronomical Sciences. The March 29 burst (GRB 980329) was the second such blast to have its afterglow detected at radio wavelengths. Last year, the VLA made the first radio detection of a GRB afterglow, finding radio emission coming from the location of a Gamma Ray Burst on May 8, 1997 (GRB 970508). "Of the world's radio telescopes, only the VLA has the sensitivity and resolving power to quickly detect these radio afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts and study them in detail over extended periods of time," Taylor said. "Even so, we only see the brightest one-third of them. With upgraded capabilities at the VLA, as planned by NRAO, we will see them all." The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agr</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5405656"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of the production of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles in a high-resolution streamer-chamber experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> particles produced in association with muons have been observed in the interactions of 350-GeV/c protons with neon in a high-resolution streamer chamber. The characteristics of these events are consistent with the expected properties of charmed particles if the average lifetime lies between 10/sup -13/ and 2 x 10/sup -12/ sec. With the assumption that the observed events are mainly D/sup + -/ mesons with lieftimes of approximately 10/sup -12/ sec, the production cross section is estimated to lie between 20 and 50 ..mu..b per nucleon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandweiss, J.; Cardello, T.; Cooper, P.; Dhawan, S.; Kellogg, R.; Ljung, D.; Ludlam, T.; Majka, R.; McBride, P.; Nemethy, P.; Rosselet, L.; Slaughter, A.J.; Taft, H.D.; Teig, L.; Tzeng, L.; Ecklund, S.; Johnson, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-04-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/q50w31mg7h402440.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Incidence of leukaemia and other malignant diseases following injections of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ?-emitter 224 Ra into man</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We performed an epidemiological study on 1,471 ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with repeated intravenous injections\\u000a of the <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> ?-emitter 224Ra (excluding radiation therapy with X-rays) between 1948 and 1975. These patients have been followed together with a control\\u000a group of 1,324 ankylosing spondylitis patients treated neither with radioactive drugs nor with X-rays. The mean follow-up\\u000a time was 26.3 years in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roland R. Wick; M. J. Atkinson; E. A. Nekolla</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8086N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of preindustrial to present-day changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe and evaluate atmospheric chemistry in the newly developed Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL AM3) and apply it to investigate the net impact of preindustrial (PI) to present (PD) changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions (ozone precursors, sulfur dioxide, and carbonaceous aerosols) and methane concentration on atmospheric composition and climate forcing. The inclusion of online troposphere-stratosphere interactions, gas-aerosol chemistry, and aerosol-cloud interactions (including direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects) in AM3 enables a more complete representation of interactions among <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species, and thus their net climate impact, than was considered in previous climate assessments. The base AM3 simulation, driven with observed sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice cover (SIC) over the period 1981-2007, generally reproduces the observed mean magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide. The global mean aerosol optical depth in our base simulation is within 5% of satellite measurements over the 1982-2006 time period. We conduct a pair of simulations in which only the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane concentrations are changed from PI (1860) to PD (2000) levels (i.e., SST, SIC, greenhouse gases, and ozone-depleting substances are held at PD levels). From the PI to PD, we find that changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane have caused the tropospheric ozone burden to increase by 39% and the global burdens of sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon to increase by factors of 3, 2.4, and 1.4, respectively. Tropospheric hydroxyl concentration decreases by 7%, showing that increases in OH sinks (methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane volatile organic compounds, and sulfur dioxide) dominate over sources (ozone and nitrogen oxides) in the model. Combined changes in tropospheric ozone and aerosols cause a net negative top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing perturbation (-1.05 W m-2) indicating that the negative forcing (direct plus indirect) from aerosol changes dominates over the positive forcing due to ozone increases, thus masking nearly half of the PI to PD positive forcing from long-lived greenhouse gases globally, consistent with other current generation chemistry-climate models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Ginoux, Paul; Mao, Jingqiu; Aghedo, Adetutu M.; Levy, Hiram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5546379"> <span id="translatedtitle">A rapid method for preparing undecalcified sections of bone for autoradiographic investigation with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To prepare sections of undecalcified bone suitable both for autoradiography with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides such as /sup 99m/Tc (t 1/2 . 6 hr) and for normal histology, rapid processing is necessary. By modifying the routine technique of embedding in plastic, sections can be obtained within 6 hours. The most important modification concerns the temperature used for the different steps in the process. The procedure has been used to localize /sup 99m/Tc labeled methylene diphosphonate for skeletal scintigraphy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Savelkoul, T.J.; Visser, W.J.; Roelofs, J.M.; Lentferink, M.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740005943&hterms=Oil+spills&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522Oil%2Bspills%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studies of images of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2447303"> <span id="translatedtitle">TCP vs. TCP: a systematic study of adverse impact of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> TCP flows on long-lived TCP flows</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">While earlier studies have pointed out that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> TCP flows (mice) may hurt long-lived TCP flows (elephants) in the long term, they provide insufficient insight for developing scenarios leading to drastic drop in throughputs of long-lived TCP flows. We have systematically developed TCP adversarial scenarios where we use <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> TCP flows to adversely influence long-lived TCP flows. Our scenarios are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shirin Ebrahimi-Taghizadeh; Ahmed Helmy; Sandeep K. S. Gupta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2981788"> <span id="translatedtitle">On some properties of 222Rn <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products in air.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simultaneous measurements were made of such properties as the fraction of charged and uncharged atoms, the balance of radioactive equilibrium between 222Rn and its daughters, and the concentration of aerosol particles and their mean radii in tunnel air. It became clear that the behavior of 222Rn decay products in tunnel air could be expressed well by equations based on a simple model, taking the following into account: the attachment of free atoms to aerosol particles, the deposition of radioactive particles on the tunnel wall, emission of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> recoils from aerosol particles and the surface of the tunnel wall, and radioactive decay. In addition, the effective attachment coefficient of an observed RaA-atom was found to agree well with that calculated. The results obtained should facilitate in the future estimation of the relation between 222Rn daughters and the lung dose to the population. PMID:2981788</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shimo, M; Asano, Y; Hayashi, K; Ikebe, Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24550490"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calpain-generated natural protein fragments as <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substrates of the N-end rule pathway.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calpains are Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular proteases. We show here that calpain-generated natural C-terminal fragments of proteins that include G protein-coupled receptors, transmembrane ion channels, transcriptional regulators, apoptosis controllers, kinases, and phosphatases (Phe-GluN2a, Lys-Ica512, Arg-Ankrd2, Tyr-Grm1, Arg-Atp2b2, Glu-Bak, Arg-Igfbp2, Glu-I?B?, and Arg-c-Fos), are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substrates of the Arg/N-end rule pathway, which targets destabilizing N-terminal residues. We also found that the identity of a fragment's N-terminal residue can change during evolution, but the residue's destabilizing activity is virtually always retained, suggesting selection pressures that favor a short half-life of the calpain-generated fragment. It is also shown that a self-cleavage of a calpain can result in an N-end rule substrate. Thus, the autoprocessing of calpains can control them by making active calpains <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. These and related results indicate that the Arg/N-end rule pathway mediates the remodeling of oligomeric complexes by eliminating protein fragments that are produced in these complexes through cleavages by calpains or other nonprocessive proteases. We suggest that this capability of the Arg/N-end rule pathway underlies a multitude of its previously known but mechanistically unclear functions. PMID:24550490</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piatkov, Konstantin I; Oh, Jang-Hyun; Liu, Yuan; Varshavsky, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19393011"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cerebral oxygen demand for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and steady-state events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Because of the importance of oxidative energetics for cerebral function, extraction of oxygen consumption (CMR(O2)) from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal using multi-modal measurements of blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) has become an accepted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. This approach, termed calibrated fMRI, is based on a biophysical model which describes tissue oxygen extraction at steady-state. A problem encountered for calculating dynamic CMR(O2) relates to concerns whether the conventional BOLD model can be applied transiently. In particular, it is unclear whether calculation of CMR(O2) differs between short and long stimuli. Linearity was experimentally demonstrated between BOLD-related components and neural activity, thereby making it possible to use calibrated fMRI in a dynamic manner. We used multi-modal fMRI and electrophysiology, in <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-chloralose anesthetized rats during forepaw stimulation to show that respective transfer functions (of BOLD, CBV, CBF) generated by deconvolution with neural activity are time invariant, for events in the millisecond to minute range. These results allowed extraction of a significant component of the BOLD signal that can be ascribed to CMR(O2) transients. We discuss the importance of minimizing residual signal, represented by the difference between modeled and raw signals, in convolution analysis of multi-modal signals. PMID:19393011</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Blumenfeld, Hal; Hyder, Fahmeed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24245691"> <span id="translatedtitle">Size distribution, chemical composition, and hygroscopicity of fine <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from an oil-fired heating plant.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is a commonly used fuel in industrial heating and power generation and for large marine vessels. In this study, the fine particle emissions of a 47 MW oil-fired boiler were studied at 30 MW power and with three different fuels. The studied fuels were HFO, water emulsion of HFO, and water emulsion of HFO mixed with light fuel oil (LFO). With all the fuels, the boiler emitted considerable amounts of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Further, these small particles were quite hygroscopic even as fresh and, in the case of HFO+LFO emulsion, the hygroscopic growth of the particles was dependent on particle size. The use of emulsions and the addition of LFO to the fuel had a reducing effect on the hygroscopic growth of particles. The use of emulsions lowered the sulfate content of the smallest particles but did not affect significantly the sulfate content of particles larger than 42 nm and, further, the addition of LFO considerably increased the black carbon content of particulate matter. The results indicate that even the fine <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from HFO based combustion can have a significant effect on cloud formation, visibility, and air quality. PMID:24245691</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Happonen, Matti; Mylläri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Frey, Anna; Saarikoski, Sanna; Carbone, Samara; Hillamo, Risto; Pirjola, Liisa; Häyrinen, Anna; Kytömäki, Jorma; Niemi, Jarkko V; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22114707"> <span id="translatedtitle">SProtP: a web server to recognize those <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins based on sequence-derived features in human cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Protein turnover metabolism plays important roles in cell cycle progression, signal transduction, and differentiation. Those proteins with short half-lives are involved in various regulatory processes. To better understand the regulation of cell process, it is important to study the key sequence-derived factors affecting <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> protein degradation. Until now, most of protein half-lives are still unknown due to the difficulties of traditional experimental methods in measuring protein half-lives in human cells. To investigate the molecular determinants that affect <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins, a computational method was proposed in this work to recognize <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins based on sequence-derived features in human cells. In this study, we have systematically analyzed many features that perhaps correlated with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> protein degradation. It is found that a large fraction of proteins with signal peptides and transmembrane regions in human cells are of short half-lives. We have constructed an SVM-based classifier to recognize <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins, due to the fact that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins play pivotal roles in the control of various cellular processes. By employing the SVM model on human dataset, we achieved 80.8% average sensitivity and 79.8% average specificity, respectively, on ten testing dataset (TE1-TE10). We also obtained 89.9%, 99% and 83.9% of average accuracy on an independent validation datasets iTE1, iTE2 and iTE3 respectively. The approach proposed in this paper provides a valuable alternative for recognizing the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins in human cells, and is more accurate than the traditional N-end rule. Furthermore, the web server SProtP (http://reprod.njmu.edu.cn/sprotp) has been developed and is freely available for users. PMID:22114707</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Hao; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhang, Xiaobai; Han, Ping; Sha, Jiahao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6138983"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resonant coherent excitation of Mg sup 11+ : Electronic collisions of state specified <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> excited states in a crystal channel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydrogenic ions passing through axial and planar channels can be excited from n = 1 to n = 2 when the frequency of perturbation by the atoms in the crystal spaced a distance d apart comes into resonance with the spacing between eigenstates i and j {Delta}E{sub ij} = hK(v{sub i}/d) where K is a harmonic 1,2,3{hor ellipsis} of the (v{sub i}/d) frequency. The degeneracy in the n = 2 levels is removed; first by the assymetry in the crystal field and second by Stark mixing of 2s with 2p{sub x} which is caused by the wake field. Thus, the resonant frequency, and hence velocity, for excitation to 2p{sub x,y} is different than that for 2p{sub x} and they can be excited selectively. In the present work we used Mg{sup 11+}, where the n = 2 ionization cross section is small enough to permit escape of some of the excited ions from the crystal without being ionized by subsequent collisions and with the subsequent emission of radiation. Since we can excite different orientations of the ion selectively by varying the velocity we can measure the separate ionization cross sections for these states by determining the yields of totally stripped ions compared to those which emit a Ly {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} x-ray. A comparison of the two channels shows that the probability of escape from the crystal without ionizations is greater for ions in the 2p{sub x} state than those in the 2p{sub x,y} state. These RCE data and are presented as proof of principal for experiments which measure electron bombardment ionization cross sections for <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> excited states with specific polarization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Krause, H.F.; Rosseel, T.M.; Vane, C.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Iwata, I.; Komaki, I.; Kimura, M.; Yamazaki, Y. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Fujimoto, F.; Honda, F. (Osaka Univ. (Japan))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988NIMPA.269..369L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical applications of a pressurized xenon wire chamber gamma camera utilizing the <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> agent 178Ta</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A pressurized xenon wire chamber camera has been developed for applications in nuclear medicine. The device employs a high speed delay-line readout and digital processing system providing a peak count rate of 850 000 cps, spatial resolution of 2.5 mm and highly uniform imaging characteristics. A <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> generator produced radionuclide, 178Ta, having an emission energy of 55-65 keV has also been developed. It provides greatly reduced radiation dosimetry compared with any commercial isotope in current use and is imaged very effectively with the wire chamber camera. Performance of this camera and isotope for first-pass radionuclide assessment of cardiac function compares favorably with the accepted standard of this technique, the multicrystal gamma camera and 99mTc. Currently ongoing studies in exercise cardiac assessment, bedside imaging in myocardial infarction patients and pediatric cardiac imaging, point the way to unique applications of this technology in cardiology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lacy, J. L.; Verani, M. S.; Ball, M. E.; Roberts, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072884"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying and quantifying <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products from thermal fission of HEU using portable HPGe detectors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to the emerging potential for trafficking of special nuclear material, research programs are investigating current capabilities of commercially available portable gamma ray detection systems. Presented in this paper are the results of three different portable high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors used to identify <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products generated from thermal neutron interrogation of small samples of highly enriched uranium. Samples were irradiated at the Washington State University (WSU) Nuclear Radiation Center’s 1MW TRIGA reactor. The three portable, HPGe detectors used were the ORTEC MicroDetective, the ORTEC Detective, and the Canberra Falcon. Canberra’s GENIE-2000 software was used to analyze the spectral data collected from each detector. Ultimately, these three portable detectors were able to identify a large range of fission products showing potential for material discrimination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pierson, Bruce D.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Metz, Lori A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17358897"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural determination of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> excited iron(II) complex by picosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Structural changes of the iron(II)-tris-bipyridine ([Fe(II)(bpy)(3)](2+)) complex induced by ultrashort pulse excitation and population of its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (< or =0.6 ns) quintet high spin state have been detected by picosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The structural relaxation from the high spin to the low spin state was followed over the entire lifetime of the excited state. A combined analysis of the x-ray-absorption near-edge structure and extended x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy features delivers an Fe-N bond elongation of 0.2 A in the quintet state compared to the singlet ground state. PMID:17358897</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gawelda, Wojciech; Pham, Van-Thai; Benfatto, Maurizio; Zaushitsyn, Yuri; Kaiser, Maik; Grolimund, Daniel; Johnson, Steven L; Abela, Rafael; Hauser, Andreas; Bressler, Christian; Chergui, Majed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050165546&hterms=207Pb&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522207Pb%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> and Long-lived Radionuclides</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to understand the timing of events in the early solar system, we rely on the radio-nuclide-based chronometers applied to materials in primitive meteorites. Because the time scale of early-solar system evolution was on the order of a few million years (Myr), we focus on so-called "<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides" with mean lives of less than 10 Myr (Table 1), as well as on the long-lived U-Pb system where high precision 207Pb-206Pb ages are applied. Note that the validity of some systems as chronometers (e.g., Be-B, Fe-Ni) has yet to be established. We summarize literature data for chondrules and CAIs and discuss how these chronometers constrain formation time scales in the early solar system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kita, N. T.; Huss, G. R.; Tachibana, S.; Amelin, Y.; Zinner, E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPB.317..789I"> <span id="translatedtitle">In situ diffusion measurements in solids using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive tracers of 8Li and 20Na</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We are developing in situ diffusion measurements in solids using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive ion beams provided from an isotope separator on-line (ISOL). We examined the feasibility of a new in situ nanoscale diffusion measurement method using a radioactive 8Li tracer by computer simulations. Under moderate experimental conditions, we have found that the detection limit of lithium diffusion coefficient can be improved to a low value of 1×10-12cm2/s. Also, in situ sodium diffusion measurement in Na battery materials can be applicable using a radioactive 20Na tracer. We found Na diffusion coefficients can be measured, ranging from 10-6 to 10-10cm2/s by computer simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ishiyama, HIronobu; Jeong, S. C.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Katayama, I.; Sataka, M.; Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Makii, H.; Nishio, K.; Sato, T. K.; Nakao, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2583440"> <span id="translatedtitle">Memory Inflation During Chronic Viral Infection is Maintained by Continuous Production of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Functional T Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary During persistent murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection the T cell response is maintained at extremely high levels for the life of the host. These cells closely resemble human CMV-specific cells which comprise a major component of the peripheral T cell compartment in most people. Despite a phenotype that suggests extensive antigen-driven differentiation, MCMV-specific T cells remain functional and respond vigorously to viral challenge. We hypothesized that a low rate of antigen-driven proliferation would account for the maintenance of this population. Instead, we found that most of these cells divide only sporadically in chronically infected hosts and have a short half-life in circulation. The overall population is supported, at least in part, by memory cells primed early in infection as well as recruitment of naïve T cells at late times. These data show that memory inflation is maintained by a continuous replacement of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, functional cells during chronic MCMV infection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Snyder, Christopher M.; Cho, Kathy S.; Morrison, Elizabeth L.; Dommelen, Serani van; Shellam, Geoffrey R.; Hill, Ann B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6034636"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters and external radiation exposure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JApA..tmp....8S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of the Galaxy and the Birth of the Solar System: The <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Nuclides Connection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An attempt is made, probably for the first time, to understand the origin of the solar system in context with the evolution of the galaxy as a natural consequence of the birth of several generations of stellar clusters. The galaxy is numerically simulated to deduce the inventories of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn and 60Fe, from the stellar nucleosynthetic contributions of the various stellar clusters using an N-body simulation with updated prescriptions of the astrophysical processes. The galaxy is evolved by considering the discreteness associated with the stellar clusters and individual stars. We estimate the steady state abundance of the radionuclides around 4.56 billion years ago at the time of formation of the solar system. Further, we also estimate the present 26Al/27Al and 60Fe/56Fe of the interstellar medium that match within a factor of two with the observed estimates. In contrary to the conventional Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE) model, the present adopted numerical approach provides a natural framework to understand the astrophysical environment related with the origin of the solar system. We deduce the nature of the two stellar clusters; the one that formed and evolved prior to the solar system formation, and the other within which the solar system that was probably formed. The former could have contributed to the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides 129I and 53Mn, whereas, the supernova associated with the most massive star in the latter contributed 26Al and 60Fe to the solar system. The analysis was performed with the revised solar metallicity of 0.014.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sahijpal, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212408T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Very <span class="hlt">Short-live</span> Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance (and UV radiation) in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study we used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to explore the impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) bromocarbons on stratospheric ozone abundance and surface UV radiation under the influence of geoengineered aerosols. VSL bromocarbons have by definition a chemical lifetime of less than 0.5 years (WMO, 2006). In contrast to long-lived bromocarbons (e.g., CH3Br plus halons), these VSL bromocarbons have natural sources (e.g., oceanic emissions) and their abundance will therefore not decrease in the future due to international protocols. They are eventually oxidized via reactions with OH and photolysis to form inorganic bromine product gases and get transported into the stratosphere. Observations suggest that VSL bromocarbons add an additional 4-10 pptv volume mixing ratios to the total stratospheric inorganic bromine abundance. Since inorganic bromine is ~60 times more efficient (relative to inorganic chlorine) at catalytic destroying ozone, this additional inorganic bromine loading could significantly affect stratospheric ozone. This is especially true in the Arctic, where the coupled BrO/ClO catalytic ozone loss cycle is as important as the ClO dimer ozone loss cycle. The chemical activation of chlorine is highly dependent on the amount of sulfate aerosol and VSL bromine provides a reaction partner for activated chlorine, resulting in a significant increase of ozone depletion in a geo-engineered aerosol environment in high latitudes. An additional impact of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons on the ozone abundance is expected and was not considered in earlier studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tilmes, Simone; Kinnison, Doug; Garcia, Rolando; Salawitch, Ross; Lee-Taylor, Julia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70..224C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Li and B isotopic variations in an Allende CAI: Evidence for the in situ decay of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 10Be and for the possible presence of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclide 7Be in the early solar system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concentrations and isotopic compositions of lithium, beryllium, and boron, analyzed in situ by ion microprobe in 66 spots of a type B1 Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI 3529-41) from the Allende meteorite, are reported. Large variations are observed for both the Li and the B isotopic ratios with 7Li/ 6Li ranging from 9.2 ± 0.22 to 12.22 ± 0.43 (a ?250‰ range in ?7Li values) and 10B/ 11B ranging from 0.2468 ± 0.0057 to 0.4189 ± 0.0493 (a 410‰ range in ?11B values). The very low Li concentrations (<1 ppb) observed in several anorthite and fassaite grains require that a correction for the contribution of spallogenic Li produced during irradiation of the Allende meteoroid by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) be made (after this correction 7Li/ 6Li ranges from 9.2 ± 0.22 to 13.44 ± 0.56, i.e., a ?350‰ range in ?7Li values). In 3529-41, the 10B/ 11B ratios are positively correlated with 9Be/ 11B in a manner indicating the in situ decay of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 10Be (half-life = 1.5 Ma) with a 10Be/ 9Be ratio at the time of formation of the CAI of 8.8 ± 0.6 × 10 -4, which is in agreement with previous findings [McKeegan, K.D., Chaussidon, M., Robert, F., 2000. Incorporation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 10Be in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion from the Allende meteorite. Science289, 1334-1337]. The present detailed investigation demonstrates that only minor perturbations of the 10Be- 10B system are present in 3529-41, contrary to the 26Al/ 26Mg system for which numerous examples of isotopic redistribution following crystallization were observed [Podosek, F.A., Zinner, E.K., MacPherson, G.J., Lundberg, L.L., Brannon, J.C., Fahey, A.J., 1991. Correlated study of initial 87Sr/ 86Sr and Al-Mg systematics and petrologic properties in a suite of refractory inclusions from the Allende meteorite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta55, 1083-1110]. Petrographically based criteria were developed to identify within the 66 analyzed spots in 3529-41, those where post-magmatic perturbation of the Li and Be distributions occurred. Li and Be concentrations measured in different analytical spots are compared with those predicted by using experimentally determined partition coefficients according to a model of closed-system crystallization of the CAI melt. These criteria show that 56% of the spots in melilite, 38% in anorthite, and 8% in fassaite suffered post-crystallization perturbations of Li and/or Be distributions. In the remaining spots, which do not show obvious indication of redistribution of Li or Be, the 7Li/ 6Li isotopic variations (corrected for GCR exposure) are positively correlated with 9Be/ 6Li suggesting the in situ decay of now-extinct 7Be. The derived isochron implies that at the time of its formation, the CAI melt had a 7Be/ 9Be ratio of 0.0061 ± 0.0013 and a 7Li/ 6Li ratio of 11.49 ± 0.13. In contrast, all the spots in 3529-41, which do show evidence for post-magmatic redistribution of Li and Be, have relatively constant 7Li/ 6Li, averaging 11.72 ± 0.56, which is consistent with mass balance calculations for Li isotopic homogenization in the CAI after the decay of 7Be. The incorporation of live 7Be in 3529-41 requires, because of the very short half-life of this nuclide (53 days), that it be produced essentially contemporaneously with the formation of the CAI. Therefore, the irradiation processes responsible for production of 7Be must have occurred within the solar accretion disk. Calculations developed in the framework of the x-wind model [Gounelle, M., Shu, F.H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A.E., Rehm, E.K., Lee, T., 2004. The origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides and early Solar System irradiation (abstract). Lunar Planet. Sci.35, 1829] reproduce the 7Be and 10Be abundances observed in 3529-41. The correlated presence of 7Be and 10Be in 3529-41 is thus a strong argument that 10Be, which is observed rather ubiquitously in CAIs, is also a product of irradiation in the early solar system, as might be a significant fraction of other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides observed in early solar system materials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chaussidon, Marc; Robert, François; McKeegan, Kevin D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.H51A1114D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Lake(s) on the Late Wisconsin Margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, Musselshell Basin, Montana</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Glacial Lake Musselshell is the middle link in a chain of lakes that formed along the Pleistocene Laurentide ice margin in central Montana. It was first recognized because scores of glacially-transported boulders from the Canadian Shield are found in the Musselshell River basin, yet there is no evidence that the Laurentide ice sheet advanced that far south. For a century, the ice-rafted boulders remained the only physical evidence associated with the lake. No other features typical of other large, ephemeral lakes - varved lacustrine sediment, inflow deltas, or lake shorelines - have been identified for Lake Musselshell. A sequence of nine river terraces and more than 100 previously located boulders provided the opportunity to place Lake Musselshell, and the corresponding Laurentide ice margin, in the context of regional and global chronologies. Terrace gradient and provenance, surface exposure ages of ice-rafted boulders, and identification of additional lake-related features were the most useful tools for establishing the extent and timing of Lake Musselshell. Lake Musselshell probably existed as one or more <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> stage(s) that reached a maximum altitude of approximately 920 m. The absence of varves, deltas and shorelines suggests against one or more stable levels. Deposits of sheet-like silt and fine sand are interpreted as slackwater sediment from one or more <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lakes. The lake(s) drained under or in front of the ice sheet, down the modern Missouri River channel. Strong evidence was found that Lake Musselshell existed during the Late Wisconsin stage. Twenty-seven Be-10 surface exposure ages from ice-rafted boulders are all Late Wisconsin and younger (5.2-21.7 ka). Canadian Shield gravel occurs only in the lowest (probably Late Wisconsin) Pleistocene terrace. Additionally, upstream convergence of the Musselshell River terraces implies that displacement of the Missouri River by the Laurentide ice sheet occurred only recently (possibly Late Wisconsin). Pre-Late Wisconsin glacial advances into central Montana cannot be ruled out. Older deposits may be buried, removed or modified by erosion. However, the ice-rafted boulders and glacially-derived alluvium in the Musselshell basin are probably Late Wisconsin in age. Therefore, the Late Wisconsin Laurentide ice sheet may have been the most extensive Pleistocene ice sheet in central Montana.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, N. K.; Locke, W. W.; Finkel, R. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002fqml.conf..299C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Quantum Entanglement of Protons and Dissociation of C-H Bonds in Condensed Matter -- a New Effect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In earlier neutron Compton scattering (NCS) experiments on H2O/D2O mixtures at T ? 298 K we observed, for the first time, a striking "anomalous" decrease of the ratio ?H/?D of the total scattering cross sections of H and D. This "anomaly" was found to depend strongly on the H/D composition of the liquid. Extending recent NCS results obtained from solid polystyrene, we present here new results concerning the quantum dynamics and dissociation of C-H bonds (at T ? 298 K) in: (a) liquid benzene and C6H6/C6D6 mixtures; (b) fully protonated and partially deuterated polystyrene; and (c) liquid mixtures of H-acetone (CH3COCH3) and D-acetone (CD3COCD3). The considered NCS effect was given a theoretical explanation based on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> protonic quantum entanglement (QE) and decoherence. The variety of the new results suggests that, in the short-time scale of the NCS experiment, protonic quantum dynamics is strongly correlated with that of electronic degrees of freedom participating in the various chemical bonds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C. A.; Abdul-Redah, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3640747"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neurodegeneration-Associated Protein Fragments As <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Substrates of the N-End Rule Pathway</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY Protein aggregates are a common feature of neurodegenerative syndromes. Specific protein fragments were found previously to be aggregated in disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. Here we show that the natural C-terminal fragments of Tau, TDP43, and ?-synuclein are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substrates of the Arg/N-end rule pathway, a processive proteolytic system that targets proteins bearing “destabilizing” N-terminal residues. Furthermore, a natural TDP43 fragment is shown to be metabolically stabilized in Ate1?/? fibroblasts that lack the arginylation branch of the Arg/N-end rule pathway, leading to accumulation and aggregation of this fragment. We also found that a fraction of A?42, the Alzheimer’s-associated fragment of APP, is N-terminally arginylated in the brains of 5xFAD mice and is degraded by the Arg/N-end rule pathway. The discovery that neurodegeneration-associated natural fragments of TDP43, Tau, ?-synuclein, and APP can be selectively destroyed by the Arg/N-end rule pathway suggests that this pathway counteracts neurodegeneration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brower, Christopher S.; Piatkov, Konstantin I.; Varshavsky, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JOptB...6S.706B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of quantum jumps in the squeezing of resonance fluorescence from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and long-lived atoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phase-sensitive squeezing in the resonance fluorescence of two-level atoms, that are coherently driven by a near-resonant laser field in free space, was observed recently (Lu et al 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3635). This was accomplished via homodyne detection at a phase near ± 45° relative to the driving field for strong off-resonant excitation of 'long-lived' atoms (where the atomic lifetime far exceeded the laser-atom interaction time, meaning that relaxation effects could be ignored). On the other hand, traditional theoretical predictions of phase-sensitive squeezing in the resonance fluorescence from two-level atoms have emphasized in- and out-of-phase (i.e., 0° and 90°) quadratures, and weak, on-resonant excitation of '<span class="hlt">short-lived</span>' atoms (where the observation time for laser-atom interaction far exceeded the natural atomic lifetime, meaning that relaxation effects dominate). Here, we calculate the probability of a delayed-coincidence detection in the interference field of a fluorescing dipole with a local oscillator (LO). We show that, despite the strikingly different conditions in which squeezing occurs in short- and long-lived atoms, squeezing in both cases can be shown to arise from a joint detection of two photons which are related by a quantum jump in the following way: the first photodetection precipitates a quantum jump of the atom to the ground state, and the second measures the mean amplitude of the fluorescent field subsequent to the quantum jump.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bali, Samir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660700"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes of mania like symptoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with short (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leigh, Eleanor; Smith, Patrick; Milavic, Gordana; Stringaris, Argyris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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<a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611708H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ozone Destruction in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere from <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Halogens and Climate Impacts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Halogens released from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) can deplete ozone in the upper-troposphere and lower stratosphere where the perturbation can exert a large climate impact. In addition to the known ozone loss from natural biogenic bromine VSLS, such as bromoform (CHBr3), using a global atmospheric model we show that anthropogenic chlorine VSLS such as dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) - not regulated by the Montreal Protocol - also contribute. Although this impact is small compared to bromine VSLS at present, CH2Cl2 has industrial sources and observations show its atmospheric loading is increasing rapidly. We estimate a significant radiative effect of the bromine and chlorine VSLS-driven lower stratospheric ozone destruction of -0.11 Wm-2. The largest impact comes from ozone loss at high latitudes, where column ozone decreases due to VSLS are up to 6%. The trend in anthropogenic chlorine VSLS could cause a significant radiative forcing, especially if augmented by any trend in natural bromine VSLS. We also used the model to study the impact of iodine-containing VSLS such as methyl iodide (CH3I). Of the three halogens iodine has the largest leverage to destroy lower stratospheric ozone, but current limits based on IO observations indicate only a minor impact at present.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Stephen; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2876012"> <span id="translatedtitle">Occurrence of adventitious sprouting in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monocarpic herbs: a field study of 22 weedy species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Aims Adventitious sprouting from the hypocotyle and roots in monocarpic herbs has been confirmed in previous experimental studies as a means to avoid bud limitation after severe injury in annual and biennial plants. Data regarding the role of adventitious sprouting in natural populations, however, were lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations and how it is affected by plant size, plant injury, plant cover and environmental characteristics. Methods Data were sampled from 14 037 individual plants from 389 populations belonging to 22 annual and biennial species. Growth parameters were measured in individual plants, species composition and plant cover in communities were evaluated, and environmental characteristics were estimated using Ellenberg indicator values. Key Results It was confirmed that adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations of all but five species examined. Adventitious sprouting was positively affected by plant size and plant injury. Environmental factors including availability of soil nitrogen were not shown to affect adventitious sprouting. Annual and biennial plants did not differ in sprouting, but upright annuals had a lower number of and longer adventitious shoots than prostrate annuals. Conclusions Adventitious bud formation is used to overcome meristem limitation when stem parts are lost due to injury, and thus resprouting in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monocarps should not be overlooked.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malikova, Lenka; Smilauer, Petr; Klimesova, Jitka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1262476"> <span id="translatedtitle">Excited states of tryptophan in cod parvalbumin. Identification of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> emitting triplet state at room temperature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra of model indole compounds and of cod parvalbumin III, a protein containing a single tryptophan and no tyrosine, were examined in the time scale ranging from subnanoseconds to milliseconds at 25 degrees C in aqueous buffer. For both Ca- bound and Ca-free parvalbumin and for model indole compounds that contained a proton donor, a phosphorescent species emitting at 450 nm with a lifetime of approximately 20-40 ns could be identified. A longer-lived phosphorescence is also apparent; it has approximately the same absorption and emission spectrum as the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> triplet molecule. For Ca parvalbumin, the decay of the long-lived triplet tryptophan is roughly exponential with a lifetime of 4.7 ms at 25 degrees C whereas for N-acetyltryptophanamide in aqueous buffer the decay lifetime was 30 microseconds. In contrast, the lifetime of the long-lived tryptophan species is much shorter in the Ca-free protein compared with Ca parvalbumin, and the decay shows complex nonexponential kinetics over the entire time range from 100 ns to 1 ms. It is concluded that the photochemistry of tryptophan must take into account the existence of two excited triplet species and that there are quenching moieties within the protein matrix that decrease the phosphorescence yield in a dynamic manner for the Ca-depleted parvalbumin. In contrast, for Ca parvalbumin, the tryptophan site is rigid on the time scale of milliseconds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sudhakar, K; Phillips, C M; Williams, S A; Vanderkooi, J M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059357"> <span id="translatedtitle">Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this report we review the health effects of three <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants—black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352 000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Kirk R.; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T.; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W.; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B.; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C. Arden; Thun, Michael J.; Thurston, George</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25073082"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> charge-transfer excitons in organic photovoltaic cells studied by high-field magneto-photocurrent.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main route of charge photogeneration in efficient organic photovoltaic cells based on bulk hetero-junction donor-acceptor blends involves <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> charge-transfer excitons at the donor-acceptor interfaces. The cell efficiency is critically affected by the charge-transfer exciton recombination and dissociation processes. By measuring the magneto-photocurrent under ambient conditions at room temperature, we show here that magnetic field-induced spin-mixing among the charge-transfer exciton spin sublevels occurs in fields up to at least 8.5?Tesla. The resulting magneto-photocurrent increases at high fields showing non-saturating behaviour up to the highest applied field. We attribute the observed high-field spin-mixing mechanism to the difference in the donor-acceptor g-factors. The non-saturating magneto-photocurrent response at high field indicates that there exist charge-transfer excitons with lifetime in the sub-nanosecond time domain. The non-Lorentzian high-field magneto-photocurrent response indicates a dispersive decay mechanism that originates due to a broad distribution of charge-transfer exciton lifetimes. PMID:25073082</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Devir-Wolfman, Ayeleth H; Khachatryan, Bagrat; Gautam, Bhoj R; Tzabary, Lior; Keren, Amit; Tessler, Nir; Vardeny, Z Valy; Ehrenfreund, Eitan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2787427"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping Loci Associated With Tail Color and Sex Determination in the <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Fish Nothobranchius furzeri</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The African fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-lived vertebrate species that can reproduce in captivity, with a median life span of 9–11 weeks for the shortest-lived strain. Natural populations of N. furzeri display differences in life span, aging biomarkers, behavior, and color, which make N. furzeri a unique vertebrate system for studying the genetic basis of these traits. We mapped regions of the genome involved in sex determination and tail color by genotyping microsatellite markers in the F2 progeny of a cross between a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, yellow-tailed strain and a long-lived, red-tailed strain of N. furzeri. We identified one region linked with the yellow/red tail color that maps close to melanocortin 1 receptor (mc1r), a gene involved in pigmentation in several vertebrate species. Analysis of the segregation of sex-linked markers revealed that N. furzeri has a genetic sex determination system with males as the heterogametic sex and markedly reduced recombination in the male sex-determining region. Our results demonstrate that both naturally-evolved pigmentation differences and sex determination in N. furzeri are controlled by simple genetic mechanisms and set the stage for the molecular genetic dissection of factors underlying such traits. The microsatellite-based linkage map we developed for N. furzeri will also facilitate analysis of the genetic architecture of traits that characterize this group of vertebrates, including short life span and adaptation to extreme environmental conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Valenzano, Dario Riccardo; Kirschner, Jeanette; Kamber, Roarke A.; Zhang, Elisa; Weber, David; Cellerino, Alessandro; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias; Reichwald, Kathrin; Brunet, Anne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC53D..06T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Very <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance and UV radiation in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of BrO from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) source species on stratospheric ozone is investigated for a hypothetical geo-engineered atmosphere in 2040, assuming the injection of sulfuric acid aerosols. An estimated amount of stratospheric halogens from VSL sources based on satellite observations, model results and previous studies, result in lower column ozone for nearly all seasons and nearly all latitudes, and up to 4% in summer mid- and high latitudes. Considering an upper limit of VSL sources, the annual increase in surface erythemal UV radiation (UV_ERY) due to the decrease in ozone as a result of geo-engineering is 12% and 6% in southern and northern high latitudes, respectively. The increase of UV_ERY due to a reduction of ozone for low and mid latitudes is balanced by the reduction of UV_ERY due to aerosol scattering, if VSL halogen sources are not considered. However, VSL halogens results in additional ozone depletion and in an increase of UV_ERY of up to 5% in spring and fall in mid- and high latitudes as a result of geo-engineering. This study demonstrates that VSL halogens should be considered in models that assess the impact of stratospheric sulfur injections on the ozone layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tilmes, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Garcia, R. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T. P.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, S.; Chance, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....1210945T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogens on stratospheric ozone abundance and UV radiation in a geo-engineered atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) halogenated source species on the ozone layer and surface erythemal ultraviolet radiation (UVERY) is investigated in the context of geo-engineering of climate by stratospheric sulfur injection. For a projected 2040 model atmosphere, consideration of VSL halogens at their upper limit results in lower ozone columns and higher UVERY due to geo-engineering for nearly all seasons and latitudes, with UVERY rising by 12% and 6% in southern and northern high latitudes, respectively. When VSL halogen sources are neglected, future UVERY increases due to declines in ozone column are nearly balanced by reductions of UVERY due to scattering by the higher stratospheric aerosol burden in mid-latitudes. Consideration of VSL sources at their upper limit tips the balance, resulting in annual average increases in UVERY of up to 5% in mid and high latitudes. Therefore, VSL halogens should be considered in models that assess the impact of stratospheric sulfur injections on the ozone layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tilmes, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Garcia, R. R.; Salawitch, R.; Canty, T.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, S.; Chance, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1221923T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogens on stratospheric ozone abundance and UV radiation in a geo-engineered atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) halogenated source species on the ozone layer and surface erythemal ultraviolet radiation (UVERY) is investigated in the context of geo-engineering of climate by stratospheric sulfur injection. For a projected 2040 model atmosphere, consideration of VSL halogens at their upper limit results in lower ozone columns and higher UVERY due to geo-engineering for nearly all seasons and latitudes, with UVERY rising by 12% and 6% in southern and northern high latitudes, respectively. When VSL halogen sources are neglected, future UVERY increases due to declines in ozone column are nearly balanced by reductions of UVERY due to scattering by the higher stratospheric aerosol burden in mid-latitudes. Consideration of VSL sources at their upper limit tips the balance, resulting in annual average increases in UVERY of up to 5% in mid and high latitudes. Therefore, VSL halogens should be considered in models that assess the impact of stratospheric sulfur injections on the ozone layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tilmes, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Garcia, R. R.; Salawitch, R.; Canty, T.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, S.; Chance, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970CzJPh..20.1209A"> <span id="translatedtitle">A complementary to 14 MeV neutron generator: Automatic system for the control of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope analysis equipment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A description of the system for both remote and automatic control of the entire process of the sample irradiation, transfer and counting is given in the paper. The system which is most frequently referred to as a sequence programmer has been found suitable for the control of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope analysis equipment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adámek, A.; Severa, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3246080"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> immunity against pertussis, age-specific routes of transmission, and the utility of a teenage booster vaccine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Pertussis incidence has been increasing for the past two decades in Norway, as in much of the highly vaccinated world. The greatest increase is in teenagers, although the most severe cases occur in infants. A teenage booster is recommended globally, largely with the aim of reducing infant incidence. However few countries have implemented the booster, and almost no data have been published on its utility in preventing infant cases. We aim to assess the duration of vaccine-induced immunity, and the possibility for a teenage-booster vaccine to protect infants in Norway. Methods and findings We used a unique data set that merged case reports with a national vaccine registry from Norway, 1996–2010, to assess age- and cohort-specific hazards of infection. We also developed and implemented a likelihood-based method for estimating the duration of immunity, taking into account age-contact data relevant for pertussis transmission. The risk of infection in thirteen-year olds increased nearly four-fold, however the hazard in infants did not significantly change. The seasonality of cases in pre-school-aged children differed from that of school-aged children. The introduction of a childhood booster vaccine provided indirect protection for unvaccinated members of the cohort, but little protection to neighboring cohorts. Additionally, we found evidence for increasingly rapid infection after three doses of vaccine, potentially caused by significant and heterogeneous loss of immunity. An estimated 15% of vaccinated individuals lost their immunity within five years after vaccination. Conclusions Immunity induced by the acellular pertussis vaccine prevents both disease and transmission, but is <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and heterogeneous. The age-mixing patterns lead to little contact between teenagers and infants. Therefore, while a teenage booster vaccine campaign would likely provide strong protection for cohorts of teenagers, it would provide little protection for infants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lavine, Jennie; Bj?rnstad, Ottar; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Storsaeter, Jann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3579214"> <span id="translatedtitle">ICV-Transplanted Human Glial Precursor Cells Are <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Yet Exert Immunomodulatory Effects in Mice with EAE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human glial precursor cells (hGPs) have potential for remyelinating lesions and are an attractive cell source for cell therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate whether transplanted hGPs can affect the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of transplanted hGPs together with the in vivo fate of these cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). At 14 days post-EAE induction, mice (n = 19) were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with 5 × 105 hGPs that were magnetically labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles as MR contrast agent and transduced with firefly luciferase for BLI of cell survival. Control mice (n = 18) received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) vehicle only. The severity of EAE clinical disability in the hGP-transplanted group was significantly suppressed (P < 0.05) with concomitant inhibition of ConA and MOG-specific T cell proliferation in the spleen. Astrogliosis was reduced and a lower activity of macrophages and/or microglia was observed in the spinal cord (P < 0.05). On MRI, SPIO signal was detected within the lateral ventricle from 1 day post-transplantation and remained there for up to 34 days. BLI indicated that most cells did not survive beyond 5–10 days, consistent with the lack of detectable migration into the brain parenchyma and the histological presence of an abundance of apoptotic cells. Transplanted hGPs could not be detected in the spleen. We conclude that ICV transplantation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> hGPs can have a remote therapeutic effect through immunomodulation from within the ventricle, without cells directly participating in remyelination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">KIM, HEECHUL; WALCZAK, PIOTR; MUJA, NASER; CAMPANELLI, JAMES T.; BULTE, JEFF W. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3437507"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adult neurogenesis in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> teleost Nothobranchius furzeri: localization of neurogenic niches, molecular characterization and effects of aging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied adult neurogenesis in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri and quantified the effects of aging on the mitotic activity of the neuronal progenitors and the expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) in the radial glia. The distribution of neurogenic niches is substantially similar to that of zebrafish and adult stem cells generate neurons, which persist in the adult brain. As opposed to zebrafish, however, the N. furzeri genome contains a doublecortin (DCX) gene. Doublecortin is transiently expressed by newly generated neurons in the telencephalon and optic tectum (OT). We also analyzed the expression of the microRNA miR-9 and miR-124 and found that they have complementary expression domains: miR-9 is expressed in the neurogenic niches of the telencephalon and the radial glia of the OT, while miR-124 is expressed in differentiated neurons. The main finding of this paper is the demonstration of an age-dependent decay in adult neurogenesis. Using unbiased stereological estimates of cell numbers, we detected an almost fivefold decrease in the number of mitotically active cells in the OT between young and old age. This reduced mitotic activity is paralleled by a reduction in DCX labeling. Finally, we detected a dramatic up-regulation of GFAP in the radial glia of the aged brain. This up-regulation is not paralleled by a similar up-regulation of S100B and Musashi-1, two other markers of the radial glia. In summary, the brain of N. furzeri replicates two typical hallmarks of mammalian aging: gliosis and reduced adult neurogenesis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tozzini, Eva Terzibasi; Baumgart, Mario; Battistoni, Giorgia; Cellerino, Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.420.2684C"> <span id="translatedtitle">PTF10iya: a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, luminous flare from the nuclear region of a star-forming galaxy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the discovery and characterization of PTF10iya, a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (?t? 10 d, with an optical decay rate of ˜0.3 mag d-1), luminous (? mag) transient source found by the Palomar Transient Factory. The ultraviolet/optical spectral energy distribution is reasonably well fitted by a blackbody with T? (1-2) × 104 K and peak bolometric luminosity LBB? (1-5) × 1044 erg s-1 (depending on the details of the extinction correction). A comparable amount of energy is radiated in the X-ray band that appears to result from a distinct physical process. The location of PTF10iya is consistent with the nucleus of a star-forming galaxy (z= 0.224 05 ± 0.000 06) to within 350 mas (99.7 per cent confidence radius), or a projected distance of less than 1.2 kpc. At first glance, these properties appear reminiscent of the characteristic 'big blue bump' seen in the near-ultraviolet spectra of many active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, emission-line diagnostics of the host galaxy, along with a historical light curve extending back to 2007, show no evidence for AGN-like activity. We therefore consider whether the tidal disruption of a star by an otherwise quiescent supermassive black hole may account for our observations. Though with limited temporal information, PTF10iya appears broadly consistent with the predictions for the early 'super-Eddington' phase of a solar-type star being disrupted by a ˜107 M? black hole. Regardless of the precise physical origin of the accreting material, the large luminosity and short duration suggest that otherwise quiescent galaxies can transition extremely rapidly to radiate near the Eddington limit; many such outbursts may have been missed by previous surveys lacking sufficient cadence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cenko, S. Bradley; Bloom, Joshua S.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Strubbe, Linda E.; Miller, Adam A.; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Quimby, Robert M.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; Quataert, Eliot; Bildsten, Lars; Poznanski, Dovi; Perley, Daniel A.; Morgan, Adam N.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Frail, Dale A.; Arcavi, Iair; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Cucchiara, Antonio; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Green, Yoav; Hook, Isobel M.; Howell, D. Andrew; Lagattuta, David J.; Law, Nicholas M.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nugent, Peter E.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Sullivan, Mark; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Yaron, Ofer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9729Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> bromocarbons?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Naturally produced very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), like bromocarbons, account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical increase in VSLS on ozone and how that impact depends on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for a ~5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the local ozone loss in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). There is more ozone loss following an increase in VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the rate of decline of the stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~3 ppb (present day) compared with Cly of ~0.8 ppb (apre-industrial or projected future situation). Although bromine plays an important role in destroying ozone, inorganic chlorine is the dominant halogen compound. Even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will be dominated by the recovery of anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recover date could be delayed by approximately 7 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.440.3738L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Starbursts and high-redshift galaxies are radioactive: high abundances of 26Al and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) like 26Al are synthesized by massive stars and are a byproduct of star formation. The abundances of SLRs in the gas of a star-forming galaxy are inversely proportional to the gas consumption time. The rapid evolution of specific star formation rate (SSFR) of normal galaxies implies they had mean SLR abundances ˜3-10 times higher at z = 2. During the epoch of Solar system formation, the background SLR abundances of the Galaxy were up to twice as high as at present, if SLR yields from massive stars do not depend on metallicity. If SLRs are homogenized in the gas of galaxies, the high SSFRs of normal galaxies can partly explain the elevated abundance of SLRs like 60Fe and 26Al in the early Solar system. Starburst galaxies have much higher SSFRs still, and have enormous mean abundances of 26Al (26Al/27Al ?10-3 for solar metallicity gas). The main uncertainty is whether the SLRs are mixed with the star-forming molecular gas: they could be trapped in hot gas and decay before entering the colder phases, or be blown out by starburst winds. I consider how variability in star formation rate affects the SLR abundances, and I discuss how SLR transport may differ in these galaxies. The enhanced 26Al of starbursts might maintain moderate ionization rates (10-18-10-17 s-1), possibly dominating ionization in dense clouds not penetrated by cosmic rays. Similar ionization rates would be maintained in protoplanetary discs of starbursts, if the SLRs are well mixed, and the radiogenic heating of planetesimals would likewise be much higher. In this way, galaxy evolution can affect the geological history of planetary systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lacki, Brian C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.8757J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coastal measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive iodocarbons and bromocarbons at Roscoff, Brittany during the RHaMBLe campaign</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric concentrations of the volatile reactive iodocarbons C2H5I, 1-C3H7I, 2-C3H7I, CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2 and bromocarbons CH2Br2 and CHBr3 were determined by GC/MS analysis of marine boundary layer air at Roscoff, Brittany on the northwest coast of France during September 2006. Comparison with other coastal studies suggests that emissions of these trace gases are strongly influenced by site topography, seaweed populations and distribution, as well as wind speed and direction and tide height. Concentrations of the very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dihalomethanes CH2IBr and CH2I2 in particular showed evidence of tidal dependence, with higher concentrations observed at low tide during maximum exposure of seaweed beds. We also present a limited number of halocarbon measurements in surface seawater and estimate sea-air fluxes based on these and simultaneous air measurements. CH2Br2 and CHBr3 were strongly correlated both in air and in seawater, with CH2Br2/CHBr3 ratios of 0.19 in air and 0.06 in water. The combined midday I atom flux from the photolabile diahlomethanes CH2I2, CH2IBr and CH2ICl of ~5×103 molecules cm-3 s-1 is several orders of magnitude lower than the estimated I atom flux from I2 based on coinciding measurements at the same site, which indicates that at Roscoff the major I atom precursor was I2 rather than reactive iodocarbons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, C. E.; Hornsby, K. E.; Dunk, R. M.; Leigh, R. J.; Carpenter, L. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....917125J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coastal measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive iodocarbons and bromocarbons at Roscoff, Brittany during the RHaMBLe campaign</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric concentrations of the volatile reactive iodocarbons C2H5I, 1-C3H7I, 2-C3H7I, CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2 and bromocarbons CH2Br2 and CHBr3 were determined by GC/MS analysis of marine boundary layer air at Roscoff, Brittany on the northwest coast of France during September 2006. Comparison with other coastal studies suggests that emissions of these trace gases are strongly influenced by site topography, seaweed populations and distribution, as well as tide height. Concentrations of the very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dihalomethanes CH2IBr and CH2I2 in particular showed evidence of tidal dependence, with higher concentrations observed at low tide during maximum exposure of seaweed beds. We also present a limited number of halocarbon concentrations in surface seawater and estimate sea-air fluxes based on simultaneous water and air measurements of these gases. CH2Br2 and CHBr3 were strongly correlated both in air and in seawater, with CH2Br2/CHBr3 ratios of 0.19 in air and 0.06 in water. The combined midday I atom flux from the photolabile diahlomethanes CH2I2, CH2IBr and CH2ICl of ~5×103 molecules cm-3 s-1 is several orders of magnitude lower than the estimated I atom flux from I2 based on coinciding measurements at the same site, which indicates that at Roscoff the major I atom precursor was I2 rather than reactive iodocarbons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, C. E.; Hornsby, K. E.; Dunk, R. M.; Leigh, R. J.; Carpenter, L. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SolE....5...13L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> tectonic switch mechanism for long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eruptive rates in volcanic arcs increase significantly after subduction mega-thrust earthquakes. Over short to intermediate time periods the link between mega-thrust earthquakes and arc response can be attributed to dynamic triggering processes or static stress changes, but a fundamental mechanism that controls long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes has not been proposed yet. Using geomechanical, geological, and geophysical arguments, we propose that increased eruption rates over longer timescales are due to the relaxation of the compressional regime that accompanies mega-thrust subduction zone earthquakes. More specifically, the reduction of the horizontal stress ?h promotes the occurrence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> strike-slip kinematics rather than reverse faulting in the volcanic arc. The relaxation of the pre-earthquake compressional regime facilitates magma mobilisation by providing a short-circuit pathway to shallow depths by significantly increasing the hydraulic properties of the system. The timescale for the onset of strike-slip faulting depends on the degree of shear stress accumulated in the arc during inter-seismic periods, which in turn is connected to the degree of strain-partitioning at convergent margins. We performed Coulomb stress transfer analysis to determine the order of magnitude of the stress perturbations in present-day volcanic arcs in response to five recent mega-thrust earthquakes; the 2005 M8.6, 2007 M8.5, and 2007 M7.9 Sumatra earthquakes; the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake; and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake. We find that all but one the shallow earthquakes that occurred in the arcs of Sumatra, Chile and Japan show a marked lateral component. We suggests that the long-term response of volcanic arcs to subduction zone mega-thrust earthquakes will be manifested as predominantly strike-slip seismic events, and that these future earthquakes may be followed closely by indications of rising magma to shallower depths, e.g. surface inflation and seismic swarms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A44E..02A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Very <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Halocarbons in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean and Atmosphere using Fully Automated Sampling Techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reactive halogen species, originating in part from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons (VSLH), play an important role in tropospheric chemistry, in particular their reaction with ozone to form halogen oxides. Oceanic iodocarbon production is believed to be a significant source of IO. Unfortunately, VSLH datasets are sparse compared to those of other important trace gases, especially in oligotrophic oceans and the equatorial Pacific where recent satellite retrievals from SCIAMACHY show elevated levels of iodine oxide in the free troposphere. A new, fully automated purge and trap- thermal desorption system coupled to a GC-MS was developed to provide continuous measurement of VSLH in water sampled from a ship's surface seawater inlet and semi-automated analysis of bottle samples from CTD (Conductivity, Temperature Depth) casts. This instrument was deployed on NOAA vessel Ka'imimoana, alongside a new system for continuous on-line air measurements (TD-GC-MS), during the Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Experiment of Reactive halogen species and OVOCs (TORERO) campaign. High frequency boundary layer and surface seawater measurements are presented here with ocean depth profiling of VSLH along the 110°W TOA buoy line. Owing to the high sample throughput and continuous sampling, photolysis driven processes of iodocarbons in the ocean have been observed which have previously only been predicted in modelling and laboratory studies. Sea-air fluxes have been calculated along the cruise track using corresponding meteorological data from the ship. Extensive, open-ocean VSLH flux data is presented which, for the region of this study, is missing or sparse in the WMO ozone assessment of 2010. Inter-comparison of a standard gas used during the campaign allows the use of a single calibration scale (NOAA GMD) between research groups which adds confidence to the results and allows collation of data from the ship with simultaneous measurements taken on-board the NSF/NCAR G-V aircraft using the NCAR Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA). The inter-comparison will additionally link these data sets with recent inter-comparisons in the UK and US.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, S. J.; Lidster, R.; Carpenter, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227744"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of mass spectrometric techniques for the trace analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by seaweed.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Knowledge of the composition and emission rates of iodine-containing volatiles from major widespread seaweed species is important for modeling the impact of halogens on gas-phase atmospheric chemistry, new particle formation, and climate. In this work, we present the application of mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by eight different seaweeds from the intertidal zone of Helgoland, Germany. A previously developed online time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric method was used to determine I(2) emission rates and investigate temporally resolved emission profiles. Simultaneously, iodocarbons were preconcentrated on solid adsorbent tubes and quantified offline using thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total iodine content of the seaweeds was determined using microwave-assisted tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction followed by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The highest total iodine content was found in the Laminariales, followed by the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus serratus, and both red algae Chondrus crispus and Delesseria sanguinea. Laminariales were found to be the strongest I(2) emitters. Time series of the iodine release of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea showed a strong initial I(2) emission when first exposed to air followed by an exponential decline of the release rate. For both species, I(2) emission bursts were observed. For Laminaria saccharina und F. serratus, a more continuous I(2) release profile was detected, however, F. serratus released much less I(2). A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus showed a completely different emission behavior. The I(2) emission rates of these species were slowly increasing with time during the first 1 to 2 h until a more or less stable I(2) emission rate was reached. The lowest I(2) emission rates were detected for the red algae C. crispus and D. sanguinea. Total iodocarbon emission rates showed almost the same general trend, however, the total iodocarbon emission rates were about one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of molecular iodine, demonstrating that I(2) is the major iodine containing volatile released by the investigated seaweed species. In addition, a clear dependency of iodocarbon emission from the ozone level (0-150 ppb O(3)) was found for L. digitata. PMID:22227744</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kundel, Michael; Thorenz, Ute R; Petersen, Jan H; Huang, Ru-Jin; Bings, Nicolas H; Hoffmann, Thorsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhST..156a4097S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cooling of highly-charged, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ions for precision mass spectrometry at TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear Science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear Science (TITAN), masses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides are measured accurately and precisely using Penning trap mass spectrometry. The achievable precision is primarily limited by the radioactive lifetime of the nuclides. To boost the precision TITAN has demonstrated that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes can be charge-bred to higher charge states within 10-100 s of ms using an electron beam ion trap. The charge breeding process increases the energy spread of the ions, which in turn affects the precision and the efficiency. A novel cooler Penning trap (CPET) has been developed to trap and cool highly-charged ions using electrons prior to the precision measurement. A discussion of electron cooling and the current status of CPET will be given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schultz, B. E.; Chowdhury, U.; Simon, V. V.; Andreoiu, C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Gallant, A. T.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Macdonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Dilling, J.; Gwinner, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014fpnr.conf..190B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent Measurements of Magnetic Moments of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> States in Stable (30 < Z < 40 and 30 < N < 50) and Progress Toward Measurements on Radioactive Nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The measurements of magnetic moments of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclear excited states are currently challenged by both the difficulty in exciting states of interest at higher spins and energies in stable nuclei and by populating exciting excited states in radioactive nuclei. These problems have been approached by developing new technologies and are discussed in this work. New measurements of the g factors of the 21^ + ,41^ + and 22^ + states in the 70,72,74,76Ge isotopes are reported.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benczer-Koller, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0720/2007JD008753/2007JD008753.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species under an A1B scenario from 2000–2050 in the GISS climate model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species and methane under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drew T. Shindell; Greg Faluvegi; Susanne E. Bauer; Dorothy M. Koch; Nadine Unger; Surabi Menon; Ron L. Miller; Gavin A. Schmidt; David G. Streets</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92..199E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Russian policy on methane emissions in the oil and gas sector: A case study in opportunities and challenges in reducing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> forcers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, 21 times as powerful as carbon dioxide in contributing to climate change on a ton-for-ton basis. Methane, along with other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> forcers such as black carbon and tropospheric ozone, could play an important role in addressing global climate change. This stems both from their overall effect on climate systems, and from their concentrated impact in the short term. Because reducing emissions of such <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants may have a large near-term impact in slowing climate change, the United States and other countries have come together to cooperate under the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants, and other partnerships such as the Global Methane Initiative. For global impact, the success of such partnerships depends on their ability to scale up project-specific emission reductions. This paper assesses options and challenges for scaling based on a case study of Russia's oil and gas sector. We examine the challenges to achieving far-reaching emission reductions, successes of companies to date, how Russia has sought to influence methane emissions through its environmental fine system, and options for helping companies achieve large-scale emission reductions in the future through simpler and clearer incentives.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24946731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pd(0) -Mediated Rapid Cross-Coupling Reactions, the Rapid C-[(11) C]Methylations, Revolutionarily Advancing the Syntheses of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> PET Molecular Probes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Positron emission tomography is a noninvasive method for monitoring drug (or diagnostic) behavior and its localization on the target molecules in the living systems, including the human body, using a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radionuclide. New methodologies for introducing representative <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, (11) C and (18) F, into the carbon frameworks of biologically active organic compounds have been established by developing rapid C-[(11) C]methylations and C-[(18) F]fluoromethylations using rapid Pd(0) -mediated cross-coupling reactions between [(11) C]methyl iodide (sp(3) -hybridized carbon) and an excess amount of organotributylstannane or organoboronic acid ester having sp(2) (phenyl, heteroaromatic, or alkenyl), sp(alkynyl), or sp(3) (benzyl and cinnamyl)-hybridized carbons; and [(18) F]fluoromethyl halide (iodide or bromide) and an organoboronic acid ester, respectively. These rapid reactions provide a firm foundation for an efficient and general synthesis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (11) C- or (18) F-labeled PET molecular probes to promote in vivo molecular imaging studies. PMID:24946731</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suzuki, Masaaki; Doi, Hisashi; Koyama, Hiroko; Zhang, Zhouen; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Onoe, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194968"> <span id="translatedtitle">Light <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> in coincidence with evaporation residues in {sup 79}Br(930 MeV) + {sup 27}Al collisions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exclusive measurements of light particles, deuterons, tritons and <span class="hlt">alphas</span>, in coincidence with Evaporation Residues (ER), were performed at the Holified Heavy Ion Research Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the large detector array HILI (Heavy Ion Light Ion). Heavy fragments produced in the reaction (Z 35), were stopped in the Ionisation Chamber, where their energy, atomic number (Z) and position were measured. Coincident light particles, were detected in the 192 element hodoscope placed behind the chamber, where its charge (Z) and energy were measured. Also the time of flight relative to the radio frequency of the cyclotron, allowed identification of protons deuterons and tritons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chavez Lomeli, E.; Dacal, A.; Ortiz, M.E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; D`Onofrio, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Gomez del Campo, J.; Kim, H.; Korolija, M.; Shapira, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034549&hterms=exposure+sources+contribute&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dexposure%2Bsources%2Bcontribute"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is also found that Fe-60 is produced in small but significant quantities that may be sufficient to explain the observations if the time elapsed delta from the contamination of the ISM to the formation of protoplanetary bodies is not higher than delta = 5 x 10(exp 6) yr. If delta is longer, up to 10 x 10(exp 6) yr, this would require the single AGB star to experience enhanced neutron densities (n(sub n) approximately 3 x 10(exp 9)n/cu cm) in the s-processing zone in order to compensate for the branching at Fe-59. The alternative model of long-term continuous ejection of matter from many AGB stars does not appear to match the observations. We also estimate the Al-26 production from the H-shell and find that the Al-26 abundance in the early solar system may be readily explained in a self-consistent manner. Moreover, Al-26 from AGB stars may contribute substantially to the galactic Al-26 gamma-source, while no significant gamma-flux from Co-60 (deriving from Fe-60 decay) is to be expected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30Q.492B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Fall of the St. Robert Meteorite: Interpretation of Eyewitness Accounts, Satellite Data, <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Isotope Activity, and Infrasound</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The St. Robert meteoroid (a monomict H5 breccia) entered the Earth's atmosphere at 00:02 UT on June 15, 1994 approximately one hour before local sunset. The resulting daylight fireball was widely observed from the provinces of Ontario and Quebec and the states of New York, Vermont and New Hampshire. The fireball was first observed over New York state at an altitude of ~60 km traveling in a N-NE direction to its point of terminal burst ~60 km northeast of Montreal. At least one observer noted electrophonic sounds heard simultaneously with the passage of the fireball. Several episodes of fragmentation occurred at the end point near an altitude of ~33 km with observers reporting several clumps of dust along the trajectory. Eyewitnesses to the explosion described multi-directional debris dispersal. A prominent dust trail persisted for ~10 minutes after the passage of the fireball. The terminal burst produced loud detonations audible for more than 200 km and of sufficient strength to shake buildings throughout metropolitan Montreal. Twenty fragments of this meteorite have been recovered in a fall ellipse of 7.5 X 4 km located near the farming community of St. Robert. Total recovered mass to date is ~25.4 kg, but the shower of meteorites was sufficiently dense, in at least the uprange part of the ellipse, so that one fragment partially penetrated the roof of a farmer's shed, and two fragments were found on roads. The most productive UTM grid square of 1 km sides yielded 6 meteorites. From the searched fraction of this square km, and a search efficiency of ~0.5 due to ground conditions and subsequent ground disturbance by farming, we estimate that ~25 meteorites fell in this grid square. This concentration implies that as many as 100 fragments greater than 55 g (the smallest recovered) may have fallen. Eighteen of the recovered fragments were completely covered by dark fusion crusts with surfaces showing varying degrees of ablation in accord with the multiple fragmentation episodes observed. Most fragments were found in shallow pits up to ~50 cm deep in the soft clay and sand soils of the region. Dedicated searches by interested local residents and members of the Meteorites and Impacts Advisory Committee to the Canadian Space Agency (and friends) recovered half of the known fragments. Interpretation of the eyewitness data suggest that the fireball traveled from SSW to NNE with a moderate slope from the horizontal of 15-35 degrees. An evaluation of the probable orbits for the meteoroid suggests an entry velocity in the range 12 -15 km/s. The object moved in a low- inclination orbit with perihelion very near the Earth's orbit. The total mass estimated to have reached the ground is 50-100 kg while the pre-atmospheric mass derived from visual observations is found to be of order 1,000 kg. The fireball of the St. Robert meteorite shower was also observed from above by sensors located on satellites of the Department of Defense. In the visual the fireball reached a peak magnitude of -18 during its terminal flare and the observations suggest a lengthy period of fragmentation lasting perhaps as long as one second near the endpoint. Data reduction is proceeding on infrared observations of the fireball, and initial mass estimates will be derived for the pre-atmospheric meteoroid from infrasound considerations, <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> isotope measurements for 8 of the 20 fragments, and dynamical information from eyewitness data in addition to satellite measurements. The St. Robert meteorite shower affords the first opportunity to combine satellite and eyewitness observations of the hypervelocity entry of a natural object into the Earth's atmosphere together with "ground truth" from the surviving remnants of the object's atmospheric passage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, P.; Hildebrand, A.; Green, D.; Page, D.; Jacobs, C.; Revelle, D.; Tagliaferri, E.; Wacker, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE86780362"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Study of the Shape Equilibration and Fission of the Compound Nucleus sup 161 Ho Accompanying <span class="hlt">alpha</span> Emission.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the system 200 MeV sup 37 Cl+ sup 124 Sn the angular correlation of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> before fission in coincidence with fission fragments was measured relatively to the spin direction of the compound-nucleus system sup 161 Ho*. Identificatio...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Lindl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934718"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species and methane under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several physical processes in determining radiative forcing, especially the effect of climate change on stratosphere-troposphere exchange, heterogeneous sulfate-nitrate-dust chemistry, and changes in methane oxidation and natural emissions. However, the impact of these fairly uncertain physical effects is substantially less than the difference between alternative emission scenarios for all <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. The net global mean annual average direct radiative forcing from the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species is .02 W/m{sup 2} or less in our projections, as substantial positive ozone forcing is largely offset by negative aerosol direct forcing. Since aerosol reductions also lead to a reduced indirect effect, the global mean surface temperature warms by {approx}0.07 C by 2030 and {approx}0.13 C by 2050, adding 19% and 17%, respectively, to the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases. Regional direct forcings are large, up to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. The ensemble-mean climate response shows little regional correlation with the spatial pattern of the forcing, however, suggesting that oceanic and atmospheric mixing generally overwhelms the effect of even large localized forcings. Exceptions are the polar regions, where ozone and aerosols may induce substantial seasonal climate changes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Unger, Nadine; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ron L.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Streets, David G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-03-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..101K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Freshly induced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity as a measure of fission rates in lightly re-irradiated spent fuel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new measurement technique has been developed to determine fission rates in burnt fuel, following re-irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. The development has been made in the frame of the LIFE@PROTEUS program at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which aims at characterizing the interfaces between fresh and highly burnt fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. To discriminate against the high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the burnt fuel, the proposed measurement technique uses high-energy gamma-rays, above 2000 keV, emitted by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products freshly produced in the fuel. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique, a fresh UO 2 sample and a 36 GWd/t burnt UO 2 sample were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor and their gamma-ray activities were recorded directly after irradiation. For both fresh and the burnt fuel samples, relative fission rates were derived for different core positions, based on the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 142La (2542 keV), 89Rb (2570 keV), 138Cs (2640 keV) and 95Y (3576 keV) gamma-ray lines. Uncertainties on the inter-position fission rate ratios were mainly due to the uncertainties on the net-area of the gamma-ray peaks and were about 1-3% for the fresh sample, and 3-6% for the burnt one. Thus, for the first time, it has been shown that the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity, induced in burnt fuel by irradiation in a zero-power reactor, can be used as a quantitative measure of the fission rate. For both fresh and burnt fuel, the measured results agreed, within the uncertainties, with Monte Carlo (MCNPX) predictions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kröhnert, H.; Perret, G.; Murphy, M. F.; Chawla, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvA..84b0503G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isotope shifts of the 6d2D3/2-7p2P1/2 transition in trapped <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 209-214Ra+</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laser spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium isotopes in a linear Paul trap has been performed. The isotope shifts of the 6d2D3/2-7p2P1/2 transition in 209-214Ra+, which are sensitive to the short-range part of the atomic wave functions, were measured. The results are essential experimental input for improving the precision of atomic structure calculations. This is indispensable for parity violation in Ra+ aiming at the determination of the weak mixing angle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giri, G. S.; Versolato, O. O.; van den Berg, J. E.; Böll, O.; Dammalapati, U.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Müller, S.; Nuñez Portela, M.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Santra, B.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7065457"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sister chromatid exchange induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monoadducts produced by the bifunctional agents mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen. [CHO cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To see if DNA crosslinks are involved in the induction of sister chromated exchange (SCE), Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to two bifunctional alkylating agents,mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen, and their monofunctional derivatives, decarbamoyl mitomycin C and angelicin. The data indicates that monoadducts, rather than crosslinks, are responsible for SCE formation. Furthermore, all agents but angelicin produced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lesions that led to SCEs in the first period of DNA replication after treatment (twin SCEs). In contrast, angelicin, like methyl methanesulfonate and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene, produced lesions that lasted more than one cycle, indicating that several different types of DNA lesions are capable of SCE induction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Linnainmaa, K.; Wolff, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24105791"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proteomic profiling identified multiple <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> members of the central proteome as the direct targets of the addicted oncogenes in cancer cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">"Oncogene addiction" is an unexplained phenomenon in the area of cancer targeted therapy. In this study, we have tested a hypothesis that rapid apoptotic response of cancer cells following acute inhibition of the addicted oncogenes is because of loss of multiple <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins whose activity normally maintain cell survival by blocking caspase activation directly or indirectly. It was shown that rapid apoptotic response or acute apoptosis could be induced in both A431 and MiaPaCa-2 cells, and quick down-regulation of 17 proteins, which were all members of the central proteome of human cells, was found to be associated with the onset of acute apoptosis. Knockdown of PSMD11 could partially promote the occurrence of acute apoptosis in both MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. These findings indicate that maintaining the stability of central proteome may be a primary mechanism for addicted oncogenes to maintain the survival of cancer cells through various signaling pathways, and quick loss of some of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> members of the central proteome may be the direct reason for the rapid apoptotic response or acute apoptosis following acute inhibition of the addicted oncogenes in cancer cells. These findings we have presented can help us better understand the phenomenon of oncogene-addiction and may have important implications for the targeted therapy of cancer. PMID:24105791</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qi, Tonggang; Zhang, Wei; Luan, Yun; Kong, Feng; Xu, Dawei; Cheng, Guanghui; Wang, Yunshan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20542253"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coronaviruses Hijack the LC3-I-positive EDEMosomes, ER-derived vesicles exporting <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ERAD regulators, for replication.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coronaviruses (CoV), including SARS and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), are enveloped RNA viruses that induce formation of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and target their replication and transcription complexes (RTCs) on the DMV-limiting membranes. The DMV biogenesis has been connected with the early secretory pathway. CoV-induced DMVs, however, lack conventional endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi protein markers, leaving their membrane origins in question. We show that MHV co-opts the host cell machinery for COPII-independent vesicular ER export of a <span class="hlt">short-living</span> regulator of ER-associated degradation (ERAD), EDEM1, to derive cellular membranes for replication. MHV infection causes accumulation of EDEM1 and OS-9, another <span class="hlt">short-living</span> ER chaperone, in the DMVs. DMVs are coated with the nonlipidated LC3/Atg8 autophagy marker. Downregulation of LC3, but not inactivation of host cell autophagy, protects cells from CoV infection. Our study identifies the host cellular pathway hijacked for supplying CoV replication membranes and describes an autophagy-independent role for nonlipidated LC3-I. PMID:20542253</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reggiori, Fulvio; Monastyrska, Iryna; Verheije, Monique H; Calì, Tito; Ulasli, Mustafa; Bianchi, Siro; Bernasconi, Riccardo; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Molinari, Maurizio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...788...20B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. III. Rotating Three-dimensional Cloud Cores</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A key test of the supernova triggering and injection hypothesis for the origin of the solar system's <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes is to reproduce the inferred initial abundances of these isotopes. We present here the most detailed models to date of the shock wave triggering and injection process, where shock waves with varied properties strike fully three-dimensional, rotating, dense cloud cores. The models are calculated with the FLASH adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Three different outcomes can result: triggered collapse leading to fragmentation into a multiple protostar system; triggered collapse leading to a single protostar embedded in a protostellar disk; or failure to undergo dynamic collapse. Shock wave material is injected into the collapsing clouds through Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, resulting in initially inhomogeneous distributions in the protostars and protostellar disks. Cloud rotation about an axis aligned with the shock propagation direction does not increase the injection efficiency appreciably, as the shock parameters were chosen to be optimal for injection even in the absence of rotation. For a shock wave from a core-collapse supernova, the dilution factors for supernova material are in the range of ~10–4 to ~3 × 10–4, in agreement with recent laboratory estimates of the required amount of dilution for 60Fe and 26Al. We conclude that a type II supernova remains as a promising candidate for synthesizing the solar system's <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes shortly before their injection into the presolar cloud core by the supernova's remnant shock wave.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2978061"> <span id="translatedtitle">A High-Throughput Screen for <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Particle Radiation Protectants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract <span class="hlt">Alpha-particle-emitting</span> elements are of increasing importance as environmental and occupational carcinogens, toxic components of radiation dispersal devices and accidents, and potent therapeutics in oncology. <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> particle radiation differs from radiations of lower linear energy transfer in that it predominantly damages DNA via direct action. Because of this, radical scavengers effective for other radiations have had only limited effect in mitigating <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle toxicity. We describe here a simple assay and a pilot screen of 3,119 compounds in a high-throughput screen (HTS), using the <span class="hlt">alpha-particle-emitting</span> isotope, 225Ac, for the discovery of compounds that might protect mammalian cells from <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles through novel mechanisms. The assay, which monitored the viability of a myeloid leukemic cell line upon <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle exposure, was robust and reproducible, yielding a Z' factor of 0.66 and a signal-to-noise ratio of nearly 10 to 1. Surprisingly, 1 compound emerged from this screen, epoxy-4,5-?-dihydroxysantonin (EDHS), that showed considerable protective activity. While the value of EDHS remains to be determined, its discovery is a proof of concept and validation of the utility of this HTS methodology. Further application of the described assay could yield compounds useful in minimizing the toxicity and carcinogenesis associated with <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle exposure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seideman, Jonathan H.; Shum, David; Djaballah, Hakim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004RScI...75.3610Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of the internal magnetic field of plasmas using an <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle source</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The internal magnetic fields of plasmas can be measured under certain conditions from the integrated v×B deflection of MeV <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by a small radioactive source. The <span class="hlt">alpha</span> source and large-area <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle detector would be located inside the vacuum vessel but outside the plasma. <span class="hlt">Alphas</span> with a typical energy of 5.5 MeV (241Am) can reach the center of almost all laboratory plasmas and magnetic fusion devices, so this method can potentially determine the q(r) profile of tokamaks or spherical toris (STs). Orbit calculations, background evaluations, and conceptual designs for such ? v×B (or ``AVB'') detector are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zweben, S. J.; Darrow, D. S.; Ross, P. W.; Lowrance, J. L.; Renda, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6992109"> <span id="translatedtitle">Osteosarcoma risk after simultaneous incorporation of the long-lived radionuclide sup 227 Ac and the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide sup 227 Th</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of injection of 1.85 kBq/kg of the long-lived radionuclide {sup 227}Ac on the induction of osteosarcomas in female NMRI mice by different dose levels (18.5, 74, and 185 kBq/kg) of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide {sup 227}Th was investigated. The highest absolute osteosarcoma incidence was observed with the highest doses of {sup 227}Th. Addition of {sup 227}Ac resulted in an additional osteosarcoma incidence only at the lowest dose of {sup 227}Th and did not affect the osteosarcoma incidence resulting from higher doses of {sup 227}Th. The longest times to tumor appearance were observed with {sup 227}Ac alone. The latent period in two different age groups (4 weeks and 10-12 weeks) appeared to be similar following injection with combined doses of {sup 227}Th and {sup 227}Ac but different after injection of each radionuclide alone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mueller, W.A.M.; Murray, A.B.; Linzner, U.; Luz, A. (GSF-Institut fuer Pathologie, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002NIMPA.483..593W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> fission products as a diagnostics tool for studying atom and ion behavior in a gas-based laser ion source</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A striking difference between gamma spectra of neutron-rich Rh isotopes obtained with the laser ion source at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line facility has been observed depending on the mode of operation. Although the global production rate of 112Rh g,m nuclei decreases considerably, the ratio between the productions of 112Rh g and 112Rh m increases strongly when no laser ionisation is used. This effect is caused by 112Ru atoms which decay during gas evacuation of the ion source gas cell, thereby producing 112Rh g ions. The comparison in time behaviour of reaction produced ions, ?-decay produced ions and laser produced ions makes it possible to study and characterise the different processes in the gas cell. The influence of these processes has to be considered when extracting nuclear information such as the relative feeding of different <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isomers and isotopes and fission cross-sections in a particular mass chain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weissman, L.; Prasad, N. V. S. V.; Bruyneel, B.; Huyse, M.; Kruglov, K.; Kudryavtsev, Y.; Muller, W. F.; Van Duppen, P.; Van Roosbroeck, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EL....10442001P"> <span id="translatedtitle">First experimental results of a cryogenic stopping cell with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, heavy uranium fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) has been commissioned with 238U projectile fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u. The spatial isotopic separation in flight was performed with the FRS applying a monoenergetic degrader. For the first time, a stopping cell was operated with exotic nuclei at cryogenic temperatures (70 to 100 K). A helium stopping gas density of up to 0.05\\ \\text{mg/cm}^3 was used, about two times higher than reached before for a stopping cell with RF ion repelling structures. An overall efficiency of up to 15%, a combined ion survival and extraction efficiency of about 50%, and extraction times of 24 ms were achieved for heavy ?-decaying uranium fragments. Mass spectrometry with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer has demonstrated the excellent cleanliness of the CSC. This setup has opened a new field for the spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Haettner, E.; Dendooven, P.; Dickel, T.; Geissel, H.; Ebert, J.; Jesch, C.; Plass, W. R.; Ranjan, M.; Weick, H.; Amjad, F.; Ayet, S.; Diwisch, M.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Greiner, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Lang, J.; Moore, I. D.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Petrick, M.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rink, A.-K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Winfield, J. S.; Yavor, M. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11D0084A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controls on the emission of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated gases from the East Tropical Pacific during the 2012 TORERO campaign</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oceanic emissions of organic halogen species impart a significant control on tropospheric and stratospheric ozone concentrations. Quantifying very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated gases (VSLS) in the tropics is of particular importance as deep convection in this region can rapidly transport reactive halogen species into the upper-troposphere/lower-stratosphere. Measurements in the tropical Pacific are sparse, especially in oligotrophic oceans and the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean- an area that accounts for approximately 10% of global oceanic primary production. Factors controlling the oceanic vertical distribution of VSLS are not fully understood and essentially determine surface concentrations, fluxes and subsequent atmospheric mixing ratios. VSLS measurements are presented here from the 2012 TORERO campaign which includes simultaneous analysis of the surface ocean and atmosphere as well as ocean depth profiles from NOAA ship Ka'imimoana. We examine the biological, chemical and physical controls on VSLS with the aim to identify emission drivers which can be used to constrain modeled data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, S.; Carpenter, L.; Lidster, R.; Volkamer, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24729560"> <span id="translatedtitle">International intercomparison of measuring instruments for radon/thoron gas and radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> daughter products in the NRPI Prague.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the 7th European Conference on Protection Against Radon at Home and at Work held in the autumn of 2013 in Prague, the second intercomparison of measuring instruments for radon and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products and the first intercomparison of radon/thoron gas discriminative passive detectors in mix field of radon/thoron were organised by and held at the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague. In total, 14 laboratories from 11 different countries took part in the 2013 NRPI intercomparison. They submitted both continuous monitors for the measurement of radon gas and equivalent equilibrium radon concentration in a big NRPI chamber (48 m(3)) and sets of passive detectors including radon/thoron discriminative for the measurement of radon gas in the big chamber and thoron gas in a small thoron chamber (150 dm(3)). PMID:24729560</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jílek, K; Hýža, M; Kotík, L; Thomas, J; Tomášek, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613982P"> <span id="translatedtitle">The very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ozone depleting substance CHBr3 (bromoform): Revised UV absorption spectrum, atmospheric lifetime and ozone depletion potential</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">CHBr3 (bromoform) is a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> atmospheric trace gas primarily of natural origin that represents a source of reactive bromine (Bry; Br + BrO) in the troposphere as well as the stratosphere. The transport of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> brominated species, and their brominated degradation products, to the stratosphere is known to be particularly impactful to stratospheric ozone due to the high efficiency of ozone destruction cycles involving bromine. Evaluating the impact of CHBr3 on stratospheric ozone requires not only a thorough understanding of its emissions, but also its atmospheric loss processes, which are primarily UV photolysis and reaction with the OH radical. The total global lifetime of CHBr3 is ~24 days and is mostly governed by its photolytic loss. Therefore, accurate CHBr3 UV absorption cross section data for wavelengths (?) in the actinic region, greater than 290 nm, are needed to calculate its photolysis loss rate. Currently, there is a single study (Moortgat et al., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1993; Vol. 17) that reports CHBr3 UV absorption cross sections and their temperature dependence in a wavelength and temperature range applicable for atmospheric photolysis rate calculations. However, there are indications that the reported longer wavelength cross section data, in the Moortgrat et al. study, might be subject to systematic errors which possibly lead to erroneous CHBr3 atmospheric photolysis rate calculations and a misleading picture of its impact on stratospheric ozone. In this study, UV absorption cross sections, ?(?,T), for CHBr3 were measured at wavelengths between 300 and 345 nm at temperatures between 260 and 330 K using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. A thorough investigation of possible sources of systematic error in the measurements is presented. The present UV absorption cross sections at longer wavelength (>310 nm) are systematically lower compared to currently recommended values for use in atmospheric models, with the deviation being more pronounced as wavelength increases and temperature decreases. The source of this discrepancy is further discussed. A parameterization of the CHBr3 UV spectrum for use in atmospheric models is developed and illustrative photolysis rate calculations are presented to highlight the impact of the revised ?(?,T) values on its calculated local lifetimes. For instance, CHBr3 atmospheric photolysis rate in the tropical region obtained with the present spectral data was found to be 10-15% lower (longer lifetime) than that obtained using the currently recommended values. Moreover, seasonally dependent ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) for CHBr3 emitted in the Indian sub-continent were calculated using the semi-empirical relationship of Brioude et al. (Brioude et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L19804, doi: 10.1029/2010GL044856, 2010) to evaluate the impact of the present results on stratospheric ozone. In conclusion, the present study reports improved UV absorption cross section data for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ozone depleting substance CHBr3, which are a result of high quality measurements and a thorough investigation of possible sources of systematic error. The CHBr3 UV cross section data, from this study, combined with OH kinetic data enables more accurate model predictions of stratospheric bromine loading and its impact on stratospheric ozone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Burkholder, James B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A53D0207S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study utilizes an upwelling diffusion energy balance model and focuses on the thermosteric part of sea-level rise. Example GSP results are 244, 15 and 278 for BC, CH4 and N2O for a time horizon of 100 years. Compare GWP and GTP values of 405, 24 and 288 as well as 62, 4.5 and 252. The main result of the study is that no climate forcer is in any absolute sense <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> when it comes to Sea Level impacts. All of the examined climate forcers have considerable influence on the thermosteric SLR, and the closely linked ocean heat content, on the time scale of centuries. The reason for this is that heat, once it has been induced by the climate drivers and warmed the surface ocean, is transported down into the slowly mixing oceans. References: Shindell, D. et al. Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security. Science 335, 183-189 (2012). Bond, T. C. et al. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 5380-5552 (2013). Hu, A., Xu, Y., Tebaldi, C., Washington, W. M. & Ramanathan, V. Mitigation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants slows sea-level rise. Nature Climate Change 3, 730-734 (2013).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1329947W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612868S"> <span id="translatedtitle">An alternative approach to comparing long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> emissions in light of the 2&amp;deg;C global temperature limit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">International climate policy has defined its goal in terms of limiting global average temperature, specifically to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Emissions of several different greenhouse gases (GHGs) are currently aggregated and traded in terms of their carbon dioxide equivalent. The metric used for aggregating and trading is the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100). Importantly though, the GWP100 does not measure temperature and so does clearly indicate the relative value of different emissions in the context of a global temperature limit. Recent developments in climate research have led to two different, potentially conflicting, perspectives on priorities in reducing emissions. First, a clear link has been demonstrated between cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide and peak temperature. This emphasises the need for carbon dioxide emissions to fall to near zero and provides a conceptually neat way to frame policy, but says little about the role of other GHGs. Second, other studies have shown that emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs), many of which currently lie outside climate policy, have a substantial near-term effect on climate. It has been suggested that immediate SLCP reductions will therefore increase the chance of staying below 2°C and may even "buy time" for carbon dioxide reductions. This presentation summarises two recent papers which clarify the roles of SLCPs and long-lived GHGs in determining peak global temperature, and propose new emission metrics to reflect these. SLCP emissions reductions in a given decade have a significant impact on peak temperature only if carbon dioxide emissions are already falling. Immediate action on SLCPs might potentially "buy time" for adaptation by reducing near-term warming, but it does not buy time to delay reductions in carbon dioxide compared with delayed SLCP reductions. Peak temperature is ultimately constrained by cumulative emissions of several long-lived gases (including carbon dioxide) and sustained emission rates of a separate basket of shorter-lived species (including methane and other SLCPs). For these two baskets we develop an emissions-equivalence metric which allows trading within, but not between, each basket. The 2°C limit could therefore be met by setting a limit to cumulative long-lived emissions while setting a maximum future rate for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> emissions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Stephen; Bowerman, Niel; Lowe, Jason; Huntingford, Chris; Frame, Dave; Allen, Myles; Gohar, Laila; Millar, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.3557W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and Southeast Asia during 2009-2013</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> organic brominated compounds make up a significant part of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLB-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ∼100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACPD...1127421O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bromine and iodine chemistry in a global chemistry-climate model: description and evaluation of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> oceanic sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The global chemistry-climate model CAM-Chem has been extended to incorporate an expanded bromine and iodine chemistry scheme that includes natural oceanic sources of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) halocarbons, gas-phase photochemistry and heterogeneous reactions on aerosols. Ocean emissions of five VSL bromocarbons (CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl) and three VSL iodocarbons (CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2) have been parameterised by a biogenic chlorophyll-a (chl-a) dependent source in the tropical oceans (20° N-20° S) as well as constant oceanic fluxes with a 2.5 coast-to-ocean emission ratio for the extratropics (latitudinal bands 20°-50° and 50°-90° in both hemispheres). Top-down emission estimates of bromocarbons have been derived using available measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, while iodocarbons have been constrained with observations in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Emissions of CH3I are based on a previous inventory and the longer lived CH3Br is set to a lower boundary condition. The global oceanic emissions estimated for the most abundant VSL bromocarbons - 533 Gg yr-1 for CHBr3 and 67.3 Gg yr-1 for CH2Br2 - are within the range of previous estimates. Overall the latitudinal and vertical distributions of modelled bromocarbons are in good agreement with observations. Nevertheless, we identify some issues such as the reduced number of aircraft observations to validate models in the Southern Hemisphere, the overestimation of CH2Br2 in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere and the underestimation of CH3I in the same region. Despite the difficulties involved in the global modelling of the most <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodocarbons (CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2), modelled results are in good agreement with published observations in the MBL. Finally, sensitivity simulations show that knowledge of the diurnal emission cycle for these species, in particular for CH2I2, is key to assess their global source strength.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ordóñez, C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Sousa Santos, G.; Brasseur, G.; Saiz-Lopez, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19955328"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation of the concept of a 'breathing zone' using a mannequin exposed to a point source of inertial/sedimenting <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> with momentum.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An inhaling mannequin, CALTOOL, was used in a specially ventilated room to compare the concentrations inhaled with those sampled by samplers mounted across the breathing zone. The CALTOOL is made from metal sheets and consists of a cylindrical torso (42 x 24 x 54 cm) with a circular cylinder as head. A circular nozzle simulates the mouth. This nozzle is part of a cassette that holds a filter. The inhalation rate is not periodic but kept constant at nominally 20 l min(-1). The CALTOOL was placed in a horizontal air stream ( approximately 10 cm s(-1)) either facing or back to the wind. In front of the lower chest of the CALTOOL, a particle source was mounted which emitted particles with a momentum directed upwards at an angle of 45 degrees towards the CALTOOL. Five monodisperse aluminium oxide powders were used as test aerosols. The mass median aerodynamic diameters of the test aerosols ranged approximately 10 to 95 mum. Six conically shaped aerosol samplers were mounted horizontally and over the breathing zone of the CALTOOL, one on each shoulder, three across the upper torso, and one at the lower torso centre. Four to six runs per test aerosol and CALTOOL orientation in the airflow were conducted. The samples were analysed gravimetrically. The concentration ratio aerosol sampler to the CALTOOL cassette was determined for the investigated mounting positions. The results showed that when the CALTOOL was exposed to <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> with momentum from a point source in front of the lower chest, the variation in concentration over the breathing zone was large. The ratio of the concentration sampled by an aerosol sampler mounted somewhere within the breathing zone to the CALTOOL cassette concentration, would, for specific particle sizes, easily differ by a factor of 3, but may extend up to 10-100, depending on the particular conditions. The basic concept of a breathing zone consisting of a hemisphere of radius 25-30 cm is therefore not well suited for workers handling a point source emitting large particles. For such sampling situations, it is suggested that the radius of the breathing zone is reduced to 10 cm, which may be achieved by a head-mounted sampler. PMID:19955328</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lidén, Göran; Waher, Jüri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7812K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal variation climatology of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> at atmospheric compositions (ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl) derived from SMILES NICT data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a diurnal variation climatology for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> at atmospheric compositions, such as ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl, as well as for longer life time species, like O3 and HCl from observations of unprecedented sensitivity with the Superconducting SubMIllimeter wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), which is installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) at the International Space Station (ISS). With its non sun synchronous orbit, SMILES measurements comprise observations at all local times. The target altitude range is between lower stratosphere and mesopause. Differences in diurnal variation chemistry of strato-, and mesospheric BrO and ClO of the diurnal climatology are presented. The data employed is produced by the SMILES level 2 retrieval algorithm version 2.1.5 at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The SMILES climatology data sets are available via the SMILES data distribution homepage in NICT at https://smiles-p6.nict.go.jp/products/research_latitude-longitude.jsf</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kreyling, Daniel; Sagawa, Hideo; Kasai, Yasuko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApJ...708.1268B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. I. Varied Shock Speeds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The discovery of decay products of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope (SLRI) in the Allende meteorite led to the hypothesis that a supernova shock wave transported freshly synthesized SLRI to the presolar dense cloud core, triggered its self-gravitational collapse, and injected the SLRI into the core. Previous multidimensional numerical calculations of the shock-cloud collision process showed that this hypothesis is plausible when the shock wave and dense cloud core are assumed to remain isothermal at ~10 K, but not when compressional heating to ~1000 K is assumed. Our two-dimensional models with the FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code have shown that a 20 km s-1 shock front can simultaneously trigger collapse of a 1 M sun core and inject shock wave material, provided that cooling by molecular species such as H2O, CO, and H2 is included. Here, we present the results for similar calculations with shock speeds ranging from 1 km s-1 to 100 km s-1. We find that shock speeds in the range from 5 km s-1 to 70 km s-1 are able to trigger the collapse of a 2.2 M sun cloud while simultaneously injecting shock wave material: lower speed shocks do not achieve injection, while higher speed shocks do not trigger sustained collapse. The calculations continue to support the shock-wave trigger hypothesis for the formation of the solar system, though the injection efficiencies in the present models are lower than desired.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.; Ipatov, Sergei I.; Myhill, Elizabeth A.; Vanhala, Harri A. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21056099"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri shows a typical teleost aging process reinforced by high incidence of age-dependent neoplasias.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-lived vertebrate which can be cultured in captivity. Here, we performed a histopathological analysis of age-related lesions in this species. Post-mortem analysis revealed lesions in liver (~90%), kidney (~75%), heart (~70%) and gonads (~40%) which are similar to those previously described in the small teleost Poecilia reticulata. In addition, a high incidence of neoplasias was observed in liver (~35%) and kidney (~25%). Different laboratory strains of N. furzeri show large genetic differences in longevity. Cross-sectional analysis revealed a clear age-dependent increase in the incidence of liver neoplasias which was accelerated in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> strain. Cross-sectional analysis of gonads revealed sex-specific differences in the occurrence of lesions, with males being more severely affected than females. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that short life span in N. furzeri is a consequence of a typical teleost aging process which determines systemic failure of homeostasis functions rather than of a single organ or apparatus. Unlike other teleosts, however, this scenario is reinforced by high incidence of age-dependent neoplasias, making this species a promising model to analyze the molecular pathways of age-dependent spontaneous tumorigenesis. PMID:21056099</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Cicco, Emiliano; Tozzini, Eva Terzibasi; Rossi, Giacomo; Cellerino, Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAESc..42..704Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Garnet-spinel-corundum-quartz-bearing titanohematite veins in eclogite from the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure terrane: Imprint of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high-temperature metamorphic stage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eclogite-hosted garnet-spinel-corundum-quartz-bearing titanohematite veins and lenses (10-20 cm in width) are described for the first time in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrane. Some of the lenses were aligned parallel to the foliation of the host eclogite, suggesting that they were the product of ductile deformation of one titanohematite layer. A vein composed of titanohematite + ilmenite + hematite + spinel + garnet + corundum + quartz + K-feldspar + albite was studied in detail. Ti-Fe oxides account for up to >80% and Al-rich phases for ˜15% of the total volume of this vein. Electron microprobe analyses show that the titanohematite solid solution was made up of 0.75 hematite + 0.25 ilmenite. The unusual mineral assemblage of garnet + spinel + corundum + quartz implies that this vein could have experienced high temperatures (>900 °C). Although the garnets showed well-defined Mg and Mn diffusion zoning in the rim as a result of the high temperature event, slight Mg and Mn growth zoning was preserved in the core. Thus, we suggest that the Sulu UHP terrane could have experienced a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high-temperature (>900 °C) stage during exhumation. Garnets in the titanohematite vein were characterized by extremely low trace-element contents. Petrological and geochemical features of the veins suggest that they could be metamorphic products of igneous cumulates composed of magnetite + plagioclase ± clinopyroxene.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zong, Keqing; Liu, Yongsheng; Gao, Changgui; Hu, Zhaochu; Gao, Shan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS31B1702D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous upwelling episodes at the western African coast: Intraseasonal <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> SST perturbations related to synoptic atmospheric structures as derived from satellite observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite scatterometers provide continuously valuable surface wind speed and direction estimates over the global ocean on a regular grid both in space and time (Level 3 data). The gridded data derived from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), available at 1/4° spatial resolution since 2007 (hereafter AS25), and Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT), available on 1/2° and 1/4° horizontal grids through November 2009 (QS50 and QS25 respectively), are studied at regional scales in both the Benguela and Canary upwelling systems. They are compared to the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) surface wind analysis, with insight into their intrinsic and effective spatial resolutions. In the coastal band, the finest spatial patterns are found in the QS25 winds and are O(75km). This demonstrates the sensitivity of the new high-resolution satellite-derived winds to the land-sea transition. Next, anomalous upwelling episodes (AUEs) calculated from sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are defined consistently with the QS25 effective spatial resolution. These cold events refer here to local, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> perturbations that add to seasonal upwelling variability. We characterize the concomitant atmospheric synoptic conditions by constructing composite maps of prevailing wind stress, wind stress curl and heat fluxes during AUEs identified at selected latitudes. Wind mechanisms, and especially the meridional wind stress component and the wind stress curl, are shown to affect local, short-term SST variability in both upwelling systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Desbiolles, F.; Blanke, B.; Bentamy, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A13I..04F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brick Kiln Emissions Quantified with the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory During the <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Forcing (SLCF) 2013 Campaign in Guanajuato Mexico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Brick kiln emissions are suspected to be a major source of atmospheric black carbon (BC) in developing countries; and black carbon's role as a <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcing (SLCF) pollutant is widely recognized. The SLCF-Mexico brick kiln study was conducted from 12-17 March 2013 in Mexico's Guanajuato state. Three different types of brick kilns were investigated (MK2, traditional, and traditional three tier) providing data on the effects of different kiln designs on particle and gas phase emissions. The BC and gaseous combustion emissions from these kilns were measured during both the fire stage and the subsequent smoldering stage with real-time instruments deployed on the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, and quantified utilizing flux tracer gases released adjacent to the brick kiln. This method allows examination of the brick kiln plume's evolution as it transits downwind from the source. Particulate measurements conducted by the mobile laboratory included the multi angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure black carbon mass, cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPSext) monitor to measure extinction and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) measurements of black carbon. The SP-AMS instrument combines the ability to measure black carbon with the ability to determine the chemical composition of the other particulate matter (PM) components associated with black carbon particles. The variance of PM chemical composition will be examined as a function of burning stage and kiln type and compared to other black carbon PM sources. Gas phase exhaust species measured included CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, CH4, C2H6, as well as a variety of VOCs (acetonitrile, benzene etc.) measured with a PTR-MS instrument. All of these measurements will be examined to construct emission ratios evaluating how these vary with different kiln types and different firing conditions. The evolution of particulate matter and gas phase species as they transit away from the source will also be examined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Zavala, M.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21392413"> <span id="translatedtitle">TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. I. VARIED SHOCK SPEEDS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The discovery of decay products of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope (SLRI) in the Allende meteorite led to the hypothesis that a supernova shock wave transported freshly synthesized SLRI to the presolar dense cloud core, triggered its self-gravitational collapse, and injected the SLRI into the core. Previous multidimensional numerical calculations of the shock-cloud collision process showed that this hypothesis is plausible when the shock wave and dense cloud core are assumed to remain isothermal at approx10 K, but not when compressional heating to approx1000 K is assumed. Our two-dimensional models with the FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code have shown that a 20 km s{sup -1} shock front can simultaneously trigger collapse of a 1 M{sub sun} core and inject shock wave material, provided that cooling by molecular species such as H{sub 2}O, CO, and H{sub 2} is included. Here, we present the results for similar calculations with shock speeds ranging from 1 km s{sup -1} to 100 km s{sup -1}. We find that shock speeds in the range from 5 km s{sup -1} to 70 km s{sup -1} are able to trigger the collapse of a 2.2 M{sub sun} cloud while simultaneously injecting shock wave material: lower speed shocks do not achieve injection, while higher speed shocks do not trigger sustained collapse. The calculations continue to support the shock-wave trigger hypothesis for the formation of the solar system, though the injection efficiencies in the present models are lower than desired.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.; Ipatov, Sergei I.; Myhill, Elizabeth A.; Vanhala, Harri A. T., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.ed, E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.ed, E-mail: siipatov@hotmail.co, E-mail: elizabeth.myhill@marymount.ed, E-mail: HarriVanhala@ncesse.or [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562732"> <span id="translatedtitle">FORMATION OF THE <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDE {sup 36}Cl IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK DURING LATE-STAGE IRRADIATION OF A VOLATILE-RICH RESERVOIR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S-isotope abundance in wadalite (<15 {mu}m), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 5} yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial {sup 36}Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {<=} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of {sup 36}Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that {sup 36}Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, {sup 36}Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin Qingzhu [Department of Geology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K. [Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, Chemical Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide [School of Ocean, Earth Science and Technology, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ishii, Hope A. [Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ciesla, Fred J., E-mail: jacobsen5@llnl.gov [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22139969"> <span id="translatedtitle">A LOWER INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> {sup 41}Ca IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide {sup 41}Ca plays an important role in constraining the immediate astrophysical environment and the formation timescale of the nascent solar system due to its extremely short half-life (0.1 Myr). Nearly 20 years ago, the initial ratio of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca in the solar system was determined to be (1.41 {+-} 0.14) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, primarily based on two Ca-Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) from the CV chondrite Efremovka. With an advanced analytical technique for isotopic measurements, we reanalyzed the potassium isotopic compositions of the two Efremovka CAIs and inferred the initial ratios of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca to be (2.6 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and (1.4 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} (2{sigma}), a factor of 7-10 lower than the previously inferred value. Considering possible thermal processing that led to lower {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios in the two CAIs, we propose that the true solar system initial value of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca should have been {approx}4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}. Synchronicity could have existed between {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, indicating a uniform distribution of the two radionuclides at the time of CAI formation. The new initial {sup 41}Ca abundance is 4-16 times lower than the calculated value for steady-state galactic nucleosynthesis. Therefore, {sup 41}Ca could have originated as part of molecular cloud materials with a free decay time of 0.2-0.4 Myr. Alternative possibilities, such as a last-minute input from a stellar source and early solar system irradiation, could not be definitively ruled out. This underscores the need for more data from diverse CAIs to determine the true astrophysical origin of {sup 41}Ca.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Ming-Chang [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chaussidon, Marc [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, CNRS, Nancy (France); Srinivasan, Gopalan [Center for Earth Science, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); McKeegan, Kevin D., E-mail: mcliu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005DSRII..52.3227K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of shelf basin interaction in the western Arctic by use of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium isotopes: The importance of mesoscale processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shelf-basin exchange in the western Arctic was evaluated by use of water-column analyses of 228Ra/ 226Ra ratios and the first measurements of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 224Ra ( T1/2=3.64 d) in the Arctic. During the 2002 shelf-basin interaction (SBI) program, excess 224Ra was detected over the shelf but was not found seaward of the shelf-break. Similarly, the 228Ra/ 226Ra ratio dropped rapidly from the shelf across the shelf-break. Consequently, the model age gradient (elapsed time since shelf residence) northward across the Chukchi Shelf increased from 1-5 years nearshore to approximately 14 years in surface waters sampled off shelf at the southern margin of the Beaufort Gyre. This steep gradient is consistent with very slow exchange between the Chukchi Shelf and the Beaufort Gyre, whereby Bering Strait inflow is constrained by the Earth's rotation to follow local isobaths and does not easily move into deeper water. The strong dynamic control inhibiting water that enters the system through Bering Strait from flowing north across isobaths also would lead to a long recirculation time of river water emptied into the Beaufort Gyre. Possible mechanisms that can generate cross-shelf currents that break the topographic constraint to follow isobaths, and thereby transport water (and associated properties) off the shelves include wind-induced upwelling/downwelling, meandering jets, and eddies. Evidence of such a process was found during the ICEX project in the Beaufort Sea in April 2003 when excess 224Ra was measured over 200 km from any shelf source. This required an NE offshore flow of ˜40 cm s -1 assuming that the source water derives from the mouth of Barrow Canyon. A weak northeastward flow was measured using an LADCP within the upper 300 m of the ocean, but was of lower speed than required by the 224Ra xs at the time of the ICEX occupation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kadko, David; Muench, Robin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24150242"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hypoxia-induced and A2A adenosine receptor-independent T-cell suppression is <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> and easily reversible.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tissue hypoxia plays a key role in establishing an immunosuppressive environment in vivo by, among other effects, increasing the level of extracellular adenosine, which then signals through A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) to elicit its immunosuppressive effect. Although the important role of the adenosine--A2AR interaction in limiting inflammation has been established, the current study revisited this issue by asking whether hypoxia can also exert its T-cell inhibitory effects even without A2AR. A similar degree of hypoxia-triggered inhibition was observed in wild-type and A2AR-deficient T cells both in vitro and, after exposure of mice to a hypoxic atmosphere, in vivo. This A2AR-independent hypoxic T-cell suppression was qualitatively and mechanistically different from immunosuppression by A2AR stimulation. The A2AR-independent hypoxic immunosuppression strongly reduced T-cell proliferation, while IFN-?-producing activity was more susceptible to the A2AR-dependent inhibition. In contrast to the sustained functional impairment after A2AR-mediated T-cell inhibition, the A2AR-independent inhibition under hypoxia was <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span>, as evidenced by the quick recovery of IFN-?-producing activity upon re-stimulation. These data support the view that T-cell inhibition by hypoxia can be mediated by multiple mechanisms and that both A2AR and key molecules in the A2AR-independent T-cell inhibition should be targeted to overcome the hypoxia-related immunosuppression in infected tissues and tumors. PMID:24150242</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ohta, Akio; Madasu, Manasa; Subramanian, Meenakshi; Kini, Radhika; Jones, Graham; Choukèr, Alexander; Ohta, Akiko; Sitkovsky, Michail</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1219698"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of polyamine levels on the degradation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and long-lived proteins in cultured L-132 human lung cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biogenic polyamines have important regulatory functions in various biological processes and it has also been suggested that they could modulate intracellular protein degradation. For an overall assessment of the role of polyamines in this process, we have investigated the effect that the decrease in intracellular polyamine levels caused by inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis brings about on the degradation of the pools of short- and long-lived proteins in cultured L-132 human lung cells. Treatment of cells with 100 microM (2R,5R)-delta-methyl acetylenic putrescine (MAP), a potent enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, or with 100 microM MAP plus 50 microM N-butyl 1,3-diaminopropane, a specific inhibitor of spermine synthase, caused a similar decrease (65-70% of control) in the total intracellular levels of polyamines, although they affected the concentrations of spermidine and spermine differently. The effect of the two treatments on protein degradation was essentially the same. In polyamine-depleted cells we observed an inhibition of degradation in long-lived proteins of 16% (P<0.05), with a significant increase in the half-life (t12) of this pool from 100.5 to 120.1 h. This was concomitant with an increase of 26% (P<0. 05) in degradation in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins, with a significant decrease in the t12 of this pool from 0.85 to 0.67 h. Recovery of polyamine levels by the addition of 50 microM spermidine to polyamine-depleted cells resulted in a restoration of the degradation rates in both pools of proteins. The way(s) by which polyamines could modulate proteolysis are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Corella, D; Guillen, M; Hernandez, J M; Hernandez-Yago, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210556M"> <span id="translatedtitle">More evidence for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substance contribution to stratospheric chlorine inferred from HCl balloon-borne in situ measurements in the tropics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydrogen chloride (HCl) has been measured in situ for the first time in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and the stratosphere (Teresina, 5.1°S-42.9°W), with the SPIRALE balloon-borne instrument, an infrared tunable diode laser spectrometer. Two series of vertical profiles obtained at three year interval (June 2005 and June 2008) are presented, from 15 to 31 km height, with very high vertical resolution (5 m). These measurements allow us to study the HCl content of the TTL and the tropical middle stratosphere as well as to estimate the contribution of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) to total stratospheric chlorine. Upper limits of HCl vmr as low as 20 pptv in June 2008 and 30 pptv in June 2005 are inferred in the upper part of the TTL, neither influenced by tropospheric nor stratospheric air according to backward trajectory calculations. Taking into account the recently reported VSL source gas measurements obtained in similar conditions (Laube et al., Atmos. Phys. Chem., 2008) and the main intermediate degradation product gas COCl2 (Fu et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2007), a total VSLS contribution of 85±40 pptv to stratospheric chlorine is inferred. This refines the WMO (2007) estimation of 50 to 100 pptv, which was not taking into account any HCl contribution. In addition, comparisons of HCl measurements between SPIRALE and the Aura-MLS satellite instrument in the tropical lower and middle stratosphere lead to a very good agreement. The previous agreement between MLS-deduced upper stratospheric total chlorine content and modelled values including 100 pptv of VSLS (Froidevaux et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2006) is thus supported by our present result about the VSLS contribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mébarki, Yassine; Catoire, Valéry; Huret, Nathalie; Berthet, Gwenaël.; Robert, Claude; Poulet, Gilles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10..397M"> <span id="translatedtitle">More evidence for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substance contribution to stratospheric chlorine inferred from HCl balloon-borne in situ measurements in the tropics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Volume mixing ratio (vmr) vertical profiles of hydrogen chloride (HCl) are retrieved from in situ measurements performed by a balloon-borne infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (SPIRALE) during two balloon flights in the tropics (Teresina, Brazil, 5.1° S-42.9° W) in June 2005 and June 2008. HCl vertical profiles obtained from 15 to 31 km are presented and analysed to estimate the contribution of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) to total stratospheric chlorine. Both retrieved vertical profiles of HCl from these flights agree very well with each other, with estimated overall uncertainties of 6% on vmr between 23 and 31 km. Upper limits of HCl vmr as low as 20 pptv in June 2008 and 30 pptv in June 2005 are inferred in the upper part of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Backward trajectory calculations and such low amounts suggest that the air masses sampled correspond to typical background conditions, i.e. neither influenced by recent tropospheric nor stratospheric air. Taking into account the recently reported VSL source gas measurements obtained in similar conditions (Laube et al., 2008) and the main intermediate degradation product gas COCl2 (Fu et al., 2007), a total VSLS contribution of 85±40 pptv to stratospheric chlorine is inferred. This refines the WMO (2007) estimation of 50 to 100 pptv, which was not taking into account any HCl contribution. In addition, comparisons of HCl measurements between SPIRALE and the Aura MLS satellite instrument in the tropical lower and middle stratosphere lead to a very good agreement. The previous agreement between MLS-deduced upper stratospheric total chlorine content and modelled values including 100 pptv of VSLS (Froidevaux et al., 2006) is thus supported by our present result about the VSLS contribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mébarki, Y.; Catoire, V.; Huret, N.; Berthet, G.; Robert, C.; Poulet, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3970264"> <span id="translatedtitle">Concentrated fish oil (Lovaza®) extends lifespan and attenuates kidney disease in lupus-prone <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (NZBxNZW)F1 mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A growing number of reports indicate that anti-inflammatory actions of fish oil (FO) are beneficial against systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the majority of pre-clinical studies were performed using 5–20% FO, which is higher than the clinically relevant dose for lupus patients. The present study was performed in order to determine the effective low dose of FDA-approved concentrated FO (Lovaza®) compared to the commonly used FO-18/12 (18-Eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]/12-Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]). We examined the dose-dependent response of Lovaza® (1% and 4%) on an SLE mouse strain (NZB×NZW)F1 and compared the same with 1% and 4% placebo, as well as 4% FO-18/12, maintaining standard chow as the control. Results show for the first time that 1% Lovaza® extends maximal lifespan (517 d) and 4% Lovaza® significantly extends both the median (502 d) and maximal (600 d) life span of (NZB×NZW)F1 mice. In contrast, FO-18/12 extends only median lifespan (410 d) compared to standard chow diet (301 d). Additionally, 4% Lovaza® significantly decreased anti-dsDNA antibodies, reduced glomerulonephritis and attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?) in splenocytes compared to placebo. 4% Lovaza® was also shown to reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?, while increasing renal anti-oxidant enzymes in comparison to placebo. Notably, NF?B activation and p65 nuclear translocation were lowered by 4% Lovaza® compared to placebo. These data indicate that 1% Lovaza® is beneficial, but 4% Lovaza® is more effective in suppressing glomerulonephritis and extending life span of SLE-prone <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mice, possibly via reducing inflammation signaling and modulating oxidative stress.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Halade, Ganesh V; Williams, Paul J; Veigas, Jyothi M; Barnes, Jeffrey L; Fernandes, Gabriel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018000"> <span id="translatedtitle">Formation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in the protoplanetary disk during late-stage irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (t{sub 1/2} < 5 Myr) and now extinct radionuclides ({sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe; hereafter SLRs) is fundamental to understanding the formation of the early solar system. Two distinct classes of models have been proposed to explain the origin of SLRs: (1) injection from a nearby stellar source (e.g., supernova, asymptotic giant branch star or Wolf-Rayet star) and (2) solar energetic particle irradiation of dust and gas near the proto-Sun. Recent studies have demonstrated that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system. However, its presence, initial abundance and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. Here we report {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S and {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg systematics for wadalite and grossular, secondary minerals in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the CV chondrite Allende that allow us to reassess the origin of SLRs. The inferred abundance of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {le} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular indicates that (1) {sup 36}Cl formed by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation and (2) the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by secondary minerals, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We conclude that 36Cl was produced by solar energetic particle irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the accretion region of the CV chondrite parent asteroid.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobsen, B; Matzel, J; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Yin, Q -; Nagashima, K; Ramon, E; Weber, P; Ishii, H; Ciesla, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615141M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tracing historical tropical cyclones and the 1883 Krakatoa tsunami in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> geological archives of the Ashburton Delta (NW Australia)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Records of coastal geological archives are discontinuous. They store traces of both episodic and long-term processes as particular depositional landforms, deposits or erosional features. In particular the identification and interpretation of episodic high-energy coastal flooding due to tropical cyclones (TCs) and tsunamis is associated with a number of difficulties, including the spatial and temporal variability of geological records as well as the application of different dating techniques. In addition, the differentiation between tsunami and storm deposits remains challenging, notably where modern deposits and/or historical reports on the event are absent. Analysing modern (or historic) analogues for which documentation of process-specific parameters and/or geomorphic and sedimentary effects are available contributes to a better understanding of their sedimentary signatures and related depositional processes. These studies are key components to unravel the fossil record and the history of past events. The NW coast of Western Australia (WA) is highly vulnerable to extreme wave events. On average 1-2 TCs impact the W Australian coast per year, and ten historically documented tsunami events are recorded since 1858, including the tsunami following the 1883 Krakatoa eruption. However, no sedimentary evidence on this particular event has been presented yet, and little is known about the geological imprint of both (pre)historic TCs and tsunamis in NW Australia in general. Here we present new data on the sedimentology and chronostratigraphy of historical washover events found in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> geological archives of the Ashburton River delta (NW part of Western Australia), where clearly distinguishable traces of both TCs and the 1883 Krakatoa tsunami are recorded. We aim at (i) establishing (at least locally valid) sedimentary criteria differentiating between TCs and tsunami deposits; (ii) presenting an OSL-based local chronostratigraphy with direct relation to historical events; and (iii) discussing the archive's overall significance for palaeoevent research. Our results show that the presented archive is discontinuous on different spatial and temporal levels, related to the episodic nature of extreme wave events and the general variability of geological archives.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">May, Simon Matthias; Brill, Dominik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Pint, Anna; Wennrich, Volker; Squire, Peter; Kelletat, Dieter; Brückner, Helmut</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP23A1027P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence For Three, <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span>, Geomagnetic Field Excursions Recorded In Postglacial (9-15,000 YBP) Carbonates Of The Tahitian Coral Reef</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A detailed composite record of inclinations and relative paleointensity for Late Quaternary (8-16,000 YBP) coral-reef framework rocks recovered from the island of Tahiti during IODP Expedition 310 yielded reproducible evidence for three, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> magnetic field excursions at 10,700±200 YBP, 12,900±200 YBP, and 14,200±200 YBP. Age estimates for these excursions, which are constrained by more than 250 radiocarbon dates from the same cores, make them younger than any other published well-documented and dated excursion from the continents or the continental margins. Samples for paleomagnetic analysis were recovered mainly from the abundant microbialites deposited in the interstices of the macro-coral framework. These carbonate rocks make up more than 60% of the Tahiti Coral Reef and 95% of all magnetic samples. Initial paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies showed that the microbialites carry a strong and stable natural magnetic remanence with an average value of -30.6° (?95=2.9°) that is not significantly different from Tahiti's expected axial-dipole inclination. Rock magnetic studies indicate that the NRM is carried almost entirely by detrital titanomagnetite grains (<1 ?m to ~20 ?m in grain size) that were derived from the Tahiti volcanic edifice, but the grains were locked-in by biological mediation during biogenic carbonate precipitation. To assess the spatial coherence of the paleomagnetic directions, paleointensities, and the rock magnetic variability of these young excursions, detailed re-sampling of all available material with a clear up-down direction, extending from one normal polarity interval through the recorded excursion to the following normal interval (±1m), was undertaken. In total we obtained inclination and relative paleointensity estimates (based on CHI, ARM, and SIRM) from more then 750 samples. General results of this analysis show that these young magnetic excursions are real and reproducible and often associated with paleointensity lows. NRM demagnetization reveals consistent changes in both inclination and occasionally, where we have intervals with sequential samples from unbroken core segments, declination. The duration of these young excursional events is constrained by the bulk framework rock accumulation rate (5-10 m/ky; 100-200 yrs/m) to timescales of 100's of years. These intriguing new observations have profound implications and may change our ideas about the number and frequency of magnetic excursions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Platzman, E. S.; Lund, S.; Camoin, G.; Thouveny, N.; Scientific Team IODP Expedition 310</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.1423O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bromine and iodine chemistry in a global chemistry-climate model: description and evaluation of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> oceanic sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The global chemistry-climate model CAM-Chem has been extended to incorporate an expanded bromine and iodine chemistry scheme that includes natural oceanic sources of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) halocarbons, gas-phase photochemistry and heterogeneous reactions on aerosols. Ocean emissions of five VSL bromocarbons (CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl) and three VSL iodocarbons (CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2) have been parameterised by a biogenic chlorophyll-a (chl-a) dependent source in the tropical oceans (20° N-20° S). Constant oceanic fluxes with 2.5 coast-to-ocean emission ratios are separately imposed on four different latitudinal bands in the extratropics (20°-50° and above 50° in both hemispheres). Top-down emission estimates of bromocarbons have been derived using available measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, while iodocarbons have been constrained with observations in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Emissions of CH3I are based on a previous inventory and the longer lived CH3Br is set to a surface mixing ratio boundary condition. The global oceanic emissions estimated for the most abundant VSL bromocarbons - 533 Gg yr-1 for CHBr3 and 67.3 Gg yr-1 for CH2Br2 - are within the range of previous estimates. Overall the latitudinal and vertical distributions of modelled bromocarbons are in good agreement with observations. Nevertheless, we identify some issues such as the reduced number of aircraft observations to validate models in the Southern Hemisphere, the overestimation of CH2Br2 in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere and the underestimation of CH3I in the same region. Despite the difficulties involved in the global modelling of the shortest lived iodocarbons (CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2), modelled results are in good agreement with published observations in the MBL. Finally, sensitivity simulations show that knowledge of the diurnal emission cycle for these species, in particular for CH2I2, is key to assess their global source strength.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ordóñez, C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Sousa Santos, G.; Brasseur, G.; Saiz-Lopez, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201706"> <span id="translatedtitle">Targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span> therapy: part I.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The possibility of pinpointing biological targets, and thereby potentially targeting and eradicating small tumors or even single cancer cells, is a tantalizing concept that has been discussed since the magic-bullet concept was first presented by Paul Erlich in the beginning of the 20th century in connection with his work on tissue staining for histological examinations and the work by Kohler and Milstein on antibody production published in 1975. This concept now seems feasible through the use of highly specific targeting constructs, chemical labeling of radioactive substances to these targeting constructs that results in high specific activities, radioimmunocomplexes with good stability even after injection, and the use of radionuclides emitting <span class="hlt">alpha</span>( ?)-particles having exceedingly high ionizing density and, therefore, a high probability of killing cells along its track in tissue. The short range of the emitted ?-particles makes them even more interesting by minimizing unwanted irradiation of normal tissue surrounding the targeted cancer cells of interest, assuming high specificity of the targeting construct and good stability of the chemical bonds between the targeting construct and the ?-particle emitter. Targeted <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Therapy (TAT), in which an ?-<span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclide is specifically directed to the biological target, is gaining more attention as new targets, targeting constructs, chemical labeling techniques, and ?-particle emitters are, respectively, identified, constructed, developed, and made available. Results and improvements are now being published at an increasing rate and the number of conceivable applications is expanding, especially in the field of cancer treatment. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to provide an overview of the overall progress in the research field of TAT on a regular basis. However, problems such as limited or delayed diffusion of the ?-radioimmunocomplex and inhomogeneous activity distributions in the targeted tumors, resulting in inhomogeneous absorbed dose distributions, are challenges that need to be addressed. These challenges need to be overcome before TAT becomes a standard treatment for diseases such as micrometastatic cancer. Hopefully, when enough funding will be provided and, hence, more treatment strategies of TAT will reach the clinical level the importance to conduct controlled, randomized trials with sufficient patient numbers, enabling statistical significance to occur must be emphasized in order to be able to properly compare and evaluate different approaches. In this issue, of the two hot-topic issues for targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span> therapy, articles discuss the recent developments in radionuclide availability, biomolecular targeting, labeling chemistry, and dosimetry for the most promising ?-particle emitters. In the first article, Zalutsky et al. discuss the possibilities and limitations of using the promising ?-particle emitter, 211At, and emphasize the need for funding new cyclotrons and prioritizing beam-times of already existing cyclotrons to improve the availability of 211At. Haddad et al. describe the status of the ARRONAX project through which a number of important nuclear medicine radionuclides will be produced, including some of those suitable for TAT. Relevant targeting constructs and their associated antigens used today and candidates for use in the future are discussed by Olafsen et al. in the third article. The next article, by Scott Wilbur, discusses chemical and radiochemical issues of radiolabeling using ?-<span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides, e.g. factors that are important in selecting chelation or bonding reagents during the development of ?-<span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radiopharmaceuticals. Lindegren at al. continue the discussion of chemical considerations in the following article, but focuses on pre-targeting techniques, which will hopefully enhance both the activity distribution in the targeted tumor and the tumor-to-normal tissue absorbed dose ratio. The two final articles discuss different aspects of the dosimetry related to ?-particles. The art</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elgqvist, Jorgen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cooleysanemia.org/updates/pdf/Alpha_Thalassemia.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Thalassemia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Thalassemia ? Physicians often mistake <span class="hlt">alpha</span> thalassemia trait for iron deficiency anemia and incorrectly prescribe iron supplements that have no effect on the anemia. Normal <span class="hlt">alpha</span> globin genes ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V33D2782B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking early Earth magma ocean crystallization and overturn with observed large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopic measurements in Archean rocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Motivated by the well-characterized discrepancy between measurements of 142Nd in chondrites and those in Earth rocks (e.g.,[1][2]) in addition to recent measurements of Archean rocks with anomalous 142Nd and 182W (e.g.,[3][4][5]), we model the crystallization and overturn of a terrestrial chondritic magma ocean, and track the isotopic reservoirs that may result. Following magma ocean solidification, solid-state overturn occurs because solidification produces a gravitationally unstable configuration where the last cumulates to solidify are densest and also enriched in incompatible elements. As suggested by [1][2], these originally shallow cumulates that, following overturn, would now reside near the core-mantle boundary are tantalizing targets for the hypothesized hidden reservoir(s) of incompatible elements. These last, dense, enriched cumulates may have evolved negative 142Nd and 182W isotopic anomalies, while cumulates that form earlier and deeper in the magma ocean would likely be poor in incompatible elements and have evolved complementary positive isotopic anomalies. Because crystal - liquid partition coefficients of Sm, Nd, Hf, and W in nucleating mantle phases are poorly constrained and vary over orders of magnitude, we use a Monte Carlo approach to cover the parameter space of reported partition coefficients. Although data are limited, Archean rocks appear to show a non-linear trend between age and 142Nd and 182W, suggesting inefficient heterogeneous mixing of some of the early enriched reservoir (EER or late stage cumulates) back into the early depleted reservoir (EDR or deeper cumulates) during or after overturn, also first suggested by [1][2]. To account for this, we model various mixing scenarios using post-overturn mantle stratigraphy. Additionally, because 142Nd and 182W are decay products of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes, the timing of magma ocean crystallization is critical to producing a modern day mantle consistent with measured compositions. We therefore iterate through time to determine the statistically most likely time of the last major mantle-melting event. Consistent with [2], we argue that the EER is not hidden but is instead the seismologically observed large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs), or the D'' region, and the ultra low velocity zones (ULVZs) are dense, iron-rich silicon-poor melts of the LLSVPs. Given this, the isotopic reservoirs produced by our models must mix such that the EER remaining after mixing is the same volume as the LLSVPs, or 2% of the mantle (e.g., [6][7]). Approximately two-thirds our run results are "successful" given known partition coefficients, and so our results suggest that this model is viable: magma ocean fractional solidification can produce mantle reservoirs consistent with isotopic compositions observed in some rocks, and can produce a dense lower mantle layer consistent in longevity and volume to the LLSVPs. [1]Boyet and Carlson,2005,Science,309(5743),576-81.[2]Carlson and Boyet,2008,Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A,366(1883),4077-103. [3]Willbold et al.,2011,Nature,477(7363), 195-8. [4]Touboul et al.,2012,Science,335(6072),1065-9. [5]Rizo et al.,Nature,491(7422),96-100. [6]Burke et al.,2008,EPSL,265(1-2),49-60. [7]Hernlund and Houser,2008,EPSL,265(3-4),423-37.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, S. M.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Walker, R. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JVGR...73..213G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen isotopic and geochemical evidence for a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high-temperature hydrothermal event in the Chegem caldera, Caucasus Mountains, Russia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Within the 2.8 Ma Chegem ash-flow caldera (11 × 15 km), a single cooling unit of rhyolitic to dacitic welded tuff more than 2 km thick is exposed in deep valleys incised during recent rapid uplift of the Caucasus Mountains. The intracaldera tuff is mineralogically fresh and unaltered, and is overlain by andesite lavas and cut by a resurgent granodiorite intrusion. Major- and trace-element compositions for a 1405-m stratigraphic section of intracaldera tuff display trends of upwardly increasing Na 2O, CaO, A1 2O 3, total Fe, MgO, TiO 2, Sr and Zr and decreasing SiO 2, K 2O and Rb. This mafic-upward zoning (from 76.1 to 69.9% SiO 2) reflects an inverted view of the upper part of the source magma chamber. Oxygen isotope studies of 35 samples from this 1405-m section define a striking profile with "normal" igneous ?18O values (+7.0 to +8.5) in the lower 600 m of tuff, much lower ?18O values (-4.0 to +4.3) in a 700-m zone above that and a shift to high ?18O values (+4.4 to +10.9) in the upper 100 m of caldera-fill exposure. Data from two other partial stratigraphic sections indicate that these oxygen isotope systematics are probably a caldera-wide phenomenon. Quartz and feldspar phenocrysts everywhere have "normal" igneous ?18O values of about +8.5 and +7.5, respectively, whereas groundmass and glass ?18O values range from -7.7 to +12.3. Consequently, the ?18O values of coexisting feldspar, groundmass and glass form a steep array in a plot of ?feldspar vs. ?groundmss/glass. Such pronounced disequilibrium between coexisting feldspar and groundmass or glass has never before been observed on this scale. It requires a hydrothermal event involving large amounts of low- 18O H 2O at sufficiently high temperatures and short enough time (tens of years or less) that glass exchanges thoroughly but feldspar does not. The most likely process responsible for the 18O depletions at Chegem is a very high temperature (500-600 °C), <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, vigorous meteoric-hydrothermal event that was focused within the upper 750 m of intracaldera tuff. Mass balance calculations indicate fluid fluxes of ? 6 × 10 -6 molcm -2 s -1. We believe that the closest historical analogue to this Chegem hydrothermal event is the situation observed in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (Alaska, USA), where hundreds of steam fumaroles with measured temperatures as high as 645 °C persisted for 10 to 15 years in the much smaller welded ash-flow tuff sheet (? 200 m thick) produced by the 1912 Katmai eruption.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gazis, Carey; Taylor, Hugh P.; Hon, Ken; Tsvetkov, Andrei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910004873&hterms=neufeld&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dneufeld"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation in external galaxies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Ly <span class="hlt">alpha</span> line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly <span class="hlt">alpha</span> line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, Ly <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly <span class="hlt">alpha</span> line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly <span class="hlt">alpha</span> observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvL.106k2501T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct Mass Measurements of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> A=2Z-1 Nuclides Ge63, As65, Se67, and Kr71 and Their Impact on Nucleosynthesis in the rp Process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mass excesses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> A=2Z-1 nuclei Ge63, As65, Se67, and Kr71 have been directly measured to be -46921(37), -46937(85), -46580(67), and -46320(141)keV, respectively. The deduced proton separation energy of -90(85)keV for As65 shows that this nucleus is only slightly proton unbound. X-ray burst model calculations with the new mass excess of As65 suggest that the majority of the reaction flow passes through Ge64 via proton capture, indicating that Ge64 is not a significant rp-process waiting point.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tu, X. L.; Xu, H. S.; Wang, M.; Zhang, Y. H.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Sun, Y.; Schatz, H.; Zhou, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Xia, J. W.; Audi, G.; Blaum, K.; Du, C. M.; Geng, P.; Hu, Z. G.; Huang, W. X.; Jin, S. L.; Liu, L. X.; Liu, Y.; Ma, X.; Mao, R. S.; Mei, B.; Shuai, P.; Sun, Z. Y.; Suzuki, H.; Tang, S. W.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, S. T.; Xiao, G. Q.; Xu, X.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yan, X. L.; Yang, J. C.; Ye, R. P.; Zang, Y. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhan, W. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1223801"> <span id="translatedtitle">Processing of N-linked glycans during endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> variant of ribophorin I.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, the role of N-linked glycans in the process of ERAD (endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation) of proteins has been widely recognized. In the present study, we attempted to delineate further the sequence of events leading from a fully glycosylated soluble protein to its deglycosylated form. Degradation intermediates of a truncated form of ribophorin I, namely RI(332), which contains a single N-linked oligosaccharide and is a substrate for the ERAD/ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, were characterized in HeLa cells under conditions blocking proteasomal degradation. The action of a deoxymannojirimycin- and kifunensine-sensitive <span class="hlt">alpha</span>1,2-mannosidase was shown here to be required for both further glycan processing and progression of RI(332) in the ERAD pathway. In a first step, the Man(8) isomer B, generated by ER mannosidase I, appears to be the major oligomannoside structure associated with RI(332) intermediates. Some other trimmed N-glycan species, in particular Glc(1)Man(7)GlcNAc(2), were also found on the protein, indicating that several mannosidases might be implicated in the initial trimming of the oligomannoside. Secondly, another intermediate of degradation of RI(332) accumulated after proteasome inhibition. We demonstrated that this completely deglycosylated form arose from the action of an N-glycanase closely linked to the ER membrane. Indeed, the deglycosylated form of the protein remained membrane-associated, while being accessible from the cytoplasm to ubiquitinating enzymes and to added protease. Our results indicate that deglycosylation of a soluble ERAD substrate glycoprotein occurs in at least two distinct steps and is coupled with the retro-translocation of the protein preceding its proteasomal degradation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kitzmuller, Claudia; Caprini, Andrea; Moore, Stuart E H; Frenoy, Jean-Pierre; Schwaiger, Eva; Kellermann, Odile; Ivessa, N Erwin; Ermonval, Myriam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12952521"> <span id="translatedtitle">Processing of N-linked glycans during endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> variant of ribophorin I.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, the role of N-linked glycans in the process of ERAD (endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation) of proteins has been widely recognized. In the present study, we attempted to delineate further the sequence of events leading from a fully glycosylated soluble protein to its deglycosylated form. Degradation intermediates of a truncated form of ribophorin I, namely RI(332), which contains a single N-linked oligosaccharide and is a substrate for the ERAD/ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, were characterized in HeLa cells under conditions blocking proteasomal degradation. The action of a deoxymannojirimycin- and kifunensine-sensitive <span class="hlt">alpha</span>1,2-mannosidase was shown here to be required for both further glycan processing and progression of RI(332) in the ERAD pathway. In a first step, the Man(8) isomer B, generated by ER mannosidase I, appears to be the major oligomannoside structure associated with RI(332) intermediates. Some other trimmed N-glycan species, in particular Glc(1)Man(7)GlcNAc(2), were also found on the protein, indicating that several mannosidases might be implicated in the initial trimming of the oligomannoside. Secondly, another intermediate of degradation of RI(332) accumulated after proteasome inhibition. We demonstrated that this completely deglycosylated form arose from the action of an N-glycanase closely linked to the ER membrane. Indeed, the deglycosylated form of the protein remained membrane-associated, while being accessible from the cytoplasm to ubiquitinating enzymes and to added protease. Our results indicate that deglycosylation of a soluble ERAD substrate glycoprotein occurs in at least two distinct steps and is coupled with the retro-translocation of the protein preceding its proteasomal degradation. PMID:12952521</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kitzmüller, Claudia; Caprini, Andrea; Moore, Stuart E H; Frénoy, Jean-Pierre; Schwaiger, Eva; Kellermann, Odile; Ivessa, N Erwin; Ermonval, Myriam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.132..440M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fe-Ni and Al-Mg isotope records in UOC chondrules: Plausible stellar source of 60Fe and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides in the early Solar System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> now-extinct nuclide 60Fe, present in the early Solar System, is a unique product of stellar nucleosynthesis. Even though the first hint for its presence in the early Solar System was obtained more than two decades back, a robust value for Solar System initial (SSI) 60Fe/56Fe is yet to be established. A combined study of 26Al-26Mg and 60Fe-60Ni isotope systematics in chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites of low petrologic type, Semarkona (LL3.0), LEW 86134 (L3.0), and Y 791324 (L3.1), has been conducted to infer the value of SSI 60Fe/56Fe. Seven of the analysed chondrules host resolved radiogenic excess in both 60Ni and 26Mg resulting from in situ decay of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides 60Fe and 26Al, respectively. The initial 26Al/27Al values for these chondrules range from (6.9 ± 5.8) × 10-6 to (3.01 ± 1.78) × 10-5 that suggest their formation between 2.1 and 0.6 Ma after CAIs. The initial 60Fe/56Fe at the time of formation of these chondrules ranges from (3.2 ± 1.3) × 10-7 to (1.12 ± 0.39) × 10-6 and show a good correlation with their initial 26Al/27Al values suggesting co-injection of the two <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides, 60Fe and 26Al, into the protosolar cloud from the same stellar source. Considering 26Al as a reliable early Solar System chronometer, this data set yield a SSI 60Fe/56Fe value of (7.0 ± 1.2) × 10-7, if we adopt a half-life value of 2.6 Ma for 60Fe reported in a recent study. Model stellar nucleosynthesis yields suggest that both a high mass (5-6.5 M?) Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star or a supernova (SN) could be the source of 60Fe and 26Al present in the early Solar System. A high mass (˜25 M?) SN appears more plausible because of the much higher probability of its close association with the protosolar molecular cloud than a high mass AGB star. Such a SN can also account for SSI abundance of 26Al and its correlated presence with 60Fe in chondrules.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mishra, R. K.; Goswami, J. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21469858"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> A=2Z-1 nuclides (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr and their impact on nucleosynthesis in the rp process.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mass excesses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> A=2Z-1 nuclei (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr have been directly measured to be -46,921(37), -46,937(85), -46,580(67), and -46,320(141)??keV, respectively. The deduced proton separation energy of -90(85)??keV for (65)As shows that this nucleus is only slightly proton unbound. X-ray burst model calculations with the new mass excess of (65)As suggest that the majority of the reaction flow passes through (64)Ge via proton capture, indicating that (64)Ge is not a significant rp-process waiting point. PMID:21469858</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tu, X L; Xu, H S; Wang, M; Zhang, Y H; Litvinov, Yu A; Sun, Y; Schatz, H; Zhou, X H; Yuan, Y J; Xia, J W; Audi, G; Blaum, K; Du, C M; Geng, P; Hu, Z G; Huang, W X; Jin, S L; Liu, L X; Liu, Y; Ma, X; Mao, R S; Mei, B; Shuai, P; Sun, Z Y; Suzuki, H; Tang, S W; Wang, J S; Wang, S T; Xiao, G Q; Xu, X; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Yan, X L; Yang, J C; Ye, R P; Zang, Y D; Zhao, H W; Zhao, T C; Zhang, X Y; Zhan, W L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a 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href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992HyInt..75..275P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromine isotopes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First experiments in the systematic study of the structure of ground states and isomeric states of Br isotopes as function of neutron number at ISOLDE, CERN are reported. The isotopes74g.74m,77,78,84g,84mBr have been implanted into iron and studied with the techniques of low temperature nuclear orientation and nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei (NMR/ON). The experiments were performed with the NICOLE on-line nuclear orientation set-up using the isotope separator ISOLDE-3. NMR/ON experiments were successful for74mBr with continuous on-line implantation and for77Br. Using as value of the hyperfine field Bhf(BrFe)=+81.3S (3) T we obtain |g (74mBr)|=0.455 (3) and |g (77Br)|=0.6492 (3). Static nuclear orientation data have been measured for all above mentioned isotopes. From these data we derive |?(78Br, I=1)|=0.13 (3) and |?(84gBr, I=2)|=1.9 (7). The results are discussed within the systematics of the bromine isotopes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prinz, J.; Berkes, I.; Herzog, P.; Hlimi, B.; de Jesus, M.; Massaq, M.; Romanski, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19082819"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proton scattering by <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> sulfur isotopes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Elastic and inelastic proton scattering has been measured in inverse kinematics on the unstable nucleus 40S. A phenomenological distorted wave Born approximation analysis yields a quadrupole deformation parameter beta2=0.35+\\/-0.05 for the 2+1 state. Consistent phenomenological and microscopic proton scattering analyses have been applied to all even-even sulfur isotopes from A=32 to A=40. The second analysis used microscopic collective model densities</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Maréchal; T. Suomijärvi; Y. Blumenfeld; A. Azhari; E. Bauge; D. Bazin; J. A. Brown; P. D. Cottle; J. P. Delaroche; M. Fauerbach; M. Girod; T. Glasmacher; S. E. Hirzebruch; J. K. Jewell; J. H. Kelley; K. W. Kemper; P. F. Mantica; D. J. Morrissey; L. A. Riley; J. A. Scarpaci; H. Scheit; M. Steiner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJMPE..20.1050K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pre-Equilibrium <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Particle Emission as a Probe to Explore <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Clustering in Nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental data of the double-differential spectra of light <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> at pre-equilibrium stage of nuclear processes were obtained at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro for the heavy-ion reactions 130 and 250 MeV 16O + 116Sn. Light charged particles were measured in coincidence with evaporation residues in order to avoid unwanted competing mechanisms. The experimental data were collected in a wide angular range from 29 to 82 degrees in the laboratory system. Theoretical model was developed in order to describe simultaneously evaporative and pre-equilibrium emission of the light particles in heavy-ion reactions. Griffin exciton model was used for the description of the pre-equilibrium stage of the compound nucleus formation, while the equilibrium evaporation processes were analyzed in the framework of the statistical theory of heavy-ion reactions. Experimental data were compared with the results of the model calculations and new approach was suggested to take into account <span class="hlt">alpha</span> cluster formation in the projectile nucleus by measuring and analyzing pre-equilibrium <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle spectra.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kravchuk, V. L.; Fotina, O. V.; Gramegna, F.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Sambi, S.; Barlini, S.; Casini, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/827055"> <span id="translatedtitle">DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN ANDRA'S ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT BY RADIOACTIVE WASTE GENERATORS AND AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF IL-LL <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> WASTE PACKAGES AND HL-IL LONG-LIVED WASTE PACKAGES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In both cases of packages for either low-level and intermediate-level <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (LL-IL/SL) or high-level and intermediate-level long-lived (HL-IL/LL) radioactive waste, Andra has defined a quality reference system, manages it, follows up its appropriate implementation in production plants and verifies its effectiveness in production. The purpose of such a reference system is to ensure, in the first case, that waste packages comply with the Centre de l'Aube's acceptance criteria and, in the second case, that the characteristics submitted by the waste generators to Andra as input data for the deep geological repository project reflect the actual production conditions. In that context, the three management steps of the quality reference system include differences due to the fact that HL-IL/SL packages have not been submitted yet to any technical acceptance criterion. Compliance with any such criterion should be the subject of a characterization report during the qualification phase and of a examination during the verification phase. The management of the quality reference system also involves similarities that facilitate the joint work carried out by Andra with the waste generators, especially in the facilities where both package types are produced.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trentesaux, C.; Cairon, P.; Dumont, J.-N.; Felix, B.; Losada, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-02-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NIMPA.656...55I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advanced <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrum analysis based on the fitting and covariance analysis of dependent variables</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The correct handling of statistical uncertainties is crucial especially when unfolding <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectra that contain a low number of counts or overlapping peaks from different nuclides. For this purpose, we have developed a new spectrum analysis software package called ADAM, which performs a full covariance calculus for <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides. By analyzing a large number of simulated and measured spectra, the program was proved to give unbiased peak areas and statistically correct uncertainty limits. This applies regardless of the peak areas and the number of unknown parameters during the fitting. In addition, ADAM performs reliable deconvolution for multiplets, which opens the way for the determination of isotope ratios, such as 239Pu/ 240Pu.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ihantola, S.; Pelikan, A.; Pöllänen, R.; Toivonen, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040105076&hterms=alpha&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dalpha"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro cell irradiation systems based on 210Po <span class="hlt">alpha</span> source: construction and characterisation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One way of studying the risk to human health of low-level radiation exposure is to make biological experiments on living cell cultures. Two 210Po <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> devices, with 0.5 and 100 MBq activity, were designed and constructed to perform such experiments irradiating monolayers of cells. Estimates of dose rate at the cell surface were obtained from measurements by a PIPS <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle spectrometer and from calculations by the SRIM 2000, Monte Carlo charged particle transport code. Particle fluence area distributions were measured by solid state nuclear track detectors. The design and dosimetric characterisation of the devices are discussed. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Szabo, J.; Feher, I.; Palfalvi, J.; Balashazy, I.; Dam, A. M.; Polonyi, I.; Bogdandi, E. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21587490"> <span id="translatedtitle">EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR NEBULA. IX. GRADIENTS IN THE SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY OF THE <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIOISOTOPES {sup 60}Fe AND {sup 26}Al AND THE STABLE OXYGEN ISOTOPES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radioisotopes (SLRIs) such as {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al were likely injected into the solar nebula in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous manner. Marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU) disks, of the type required to form gas giant planets, are capable of rapid homogenization of isotopic heterogeneity as well as of rapid radial transport of dust grains and gases throughout a protoplanetary disk. Two different types of new models of an MGU disk in orbit around a solar-mass protostar are presented. The first set has variations in the number of terms in the spherical harmonic solution for the gravitational potential, effectively studying the effect of varying the spatial resolution of the gravitational torques responsible for MGU disk evolution. The second set explores the effects of varying the initial minimum value of the Toomre Q stability parameter, from values of 1.4 to 2.5, i.e., toward increasingly less unstable disks. The new models show that the basic results are largely independent of both sets of variations. MGU disk models robustly result in rapid mixing of initially highly heterogeneous distributions of SLRIs to levels of {approx}10% in both the inner (<5 AU) and outer (>10 AU) disk regions, and to even lower levels ({approx}2%) in intermediate regions, where gravitational torques are most effective at mixing. These gradients should have cosmochemical implications for the distribution of SLRIs and stable oxygen isotopes contained in planetesimals (e.g., comets) formed in the giant planet region ({approx}5 to {approx}10 AU) compared to those formed elsewhere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boss, Alan P., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS11A0181B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Geologically <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Surface Water Perturbations on the Calcareous Nannoplankton as Exemplified by the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event OAE1d</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calcareous nannoplankton are obligate photoautotrophs restricted to the photic zone in the open ocean. Disruptions to the chemical and physical structure of the surface water mass constitute the most important environmental stresses forcing evolutionary changes. Surface-water environmental perturbations in ancient oceans provide opportunities to test the effects of these stresses on ancient plankton communities. Here we present data from the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at 55 Ma and mid-Cretaceous (late Albian) oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1d at 98 Ma, and compare changes in nannoplankton communities, including extinctions and originations (taxonomic turnover) and temporary assemblage shifts, with the extent and rate of change in environmental variables including temperature, thermal stratification, carbon export and alkalinity. In the case of the PETM, high rates of taxonomic turnover affected both oligotrophic and mesotrophic species. These taxa were relatively minor parts of the total assemblages, however, and the numerically abundant species were not affected permanently. The event is associated with a wholesale assemblage shift, including common and rare taxa, that varies from one oceanic setting to another. Highest rates of turnover and assemblage shift occurred during intervals when the rate of change of environmental variables including temperature, stratification and carbon export is highest. Relatively minor perturbations in the structure of the upper surface water mass, such as that associated with OAE1d, led to selective extinction of morphologically specialized oligotrophic taxa that were dependent upon maintaining a fixed position in a stable, stratified water column. These taxa were relatively rare components of the late Albian assemblages. In addition, the environmental changes associated with the anoxic event were coincident with originations and extinctions of less specialized clades undergoing adaptive radiation. These examples suggest that geologically brief perturbations of the upper water column affect only rare taxa permanently, while the more common calcareous nannoplankton exhibit a remarkable resilience to the effects of all but the most extreme <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> disruptions of the surface water mass.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bralower, T. J.; Watkins, D. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940028664&hterms=ainu+language&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2528ainu%2Blanguage%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Counting <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by stratospheric aircraft and measuring size of <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by stratospheric aircraft</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ER-2 condensation nuclei counter (CNC) has been modified to reduce the diffusive losses of particles within the instrument. These changes have been successful in improving the counting efficiency of small particles at low pressures. Two techniques for measuring the size distributions of particles with diameters less than 0.17 micrometers have been evaluated. Both of these methods, the differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and the diffusion battery, have fundamental problems that limit their usefulness for stratospheric applications. We cannot recommend either for this application. Newly developed, alternative methods for measuring small particles include inertial separation with a low-loss critical orifice and thin-plate impactor device. This technique is now used to collect particles in the multisample aerosol collector housed in the ER-2 CNC-2, and shows some promise for particle size measurements when coupled with a CNC as a counting device. The modified focused-cavity aerosol spectrometer (FCAS) can determine the size distribution of particles with ambient diameters as small as about 0.07 micrometers. Data from this instrument indicates the presence of a nuclei mode when CNC-2 indicates high concentrations of particles, but cannot resolve important parameters of the distribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilson, James Charles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..839P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers atmospheric variability at Kathmandu and at the WMO/GAW Global Station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (5079 m a.s.l.) in the Himalayas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aerosols and tropospheric ozone play a key role in the climate system, since they are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs). South Asia represents a "hot-spot" in terms of climate change, since a vast region extending from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas appears to be affected by large amounts of aerosols and pollutant gases (the so-called Atmospheric Brown Cloud). In the framework of the SusKat - ABC field campaign, a new measurement station has been installed in Pakanajol, Kathmandu (Nepal) on January 2013. This station is representative of the severe polluted conditions of the Kathmandu valley. Continuous measurements of equivalent black carbon (eqBC), surface ozone (O3), aerosol number concentration and size distribution, on-line PM10-PM1, as well as meteorological parameters, are carried out at this sampling site. In the high Himalayas (150 km north-east from Kathmandu), continuous atmospheric composition measurements are performed at the WMO/GAW Global Station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.) in the Southern Himalayas. This measurement site is representative of the background conditions of the Himalayan ridge and measurements of eqBC, O3, aerosol number size distribution and meteorological parameters are continuously carried out since March 2006. The aim of this work is to compare the variability of atmospheric composition between the two sampling sites, with a particular emphasis on SLCFs, thus providing two complementary perspectives about the Atmospheric Brown Cloud phenomenon. Moreover, hints about the possible role of vertical air-mass transport of SLCFs from the foothills to the high Himalayas will be provided. The seasonal trend of eqBC at Pakanajol is characterized by a decreasing behavior from winter to monsoon, while at NCO-P it is characterized by a clear pre-monsoon maximum. On the other hand, at both sampling sites, O3 and particle number (accumulation and coarse) showed highest values during the pre-monsoon (April-May), even if at NCO-P significantly lower levels of eqBC and aerosol particle number (ratio 7% for eqBC, 29% for accumulation and 12% for coarse particles) were observed in respect to Kathmandu. Moreover, case studies concerning simultaneous events of eqBC and O3 increases in Kathmandu and in the high Himalayas will be investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Putero, Davide; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Marinoni, Angela; Duchi, Rocco; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Landi, Tony Christian; Pietro Verza, Gian; Alborghetti, Marcello; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark; Bonasoni, Paolo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960211"> <span id="translatedtitle">RAPID DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES IN URINE BY INDUCTIVELY-COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> SPECTROMETRY: A HYBRID APPROACH</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new rapid separation method that allows separation and preconcentration of actinides in urine samples was developed for the measurement of longer lived actinides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> actinides by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry; a hybrid approach. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration, if required, is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation. Similar technology has been applied to separate actinides prior to measurement by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry, but this new method has been developed with elution reagents now compatible with ICP-MS as well. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry so that long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> actinide isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 24 samples (including QC samples) in less than 3 h. Simultaneous sample preparation can offer significant time savings over sequential sample preparation. For example, sequential sample preparation of 24 samples taking just 15 min each requires 6 h to complete. The simplicity and speed of this new method makes it attractive for radiological emergency response. If preconcentration is applied, the method is applicable to larger sample aliquots for occupational exposures as well. The chemical recoveries are typically greater than 90%, in contrast to other reported methods using flow injection separation techniques for urine samples where plutonium yields were 70-80%. This method allows measurement of both long-lived and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> actinide isotopes. 239Pu, 242Pu, 237Np, 243Am, 234U, 235U and 238U were measured by ICP-MS, while 236Pu, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm were measured by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry. The method can also be adapted so that the separation of uranium isotopes for assay is not required, if uranium assay by direct dilution of the urine sample is preferred instead. Multiple vacuum box locations may be set-up to supply several ICP-MS units with purified sample fractions such that a high sample throughput may be achieved, while still allowing for rapid measurement of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> actinides by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PMB....54.6009W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Absorbed fractions for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles in tissues of cortical bone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bone-seeking <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides are common health physics hazards. Additionally, they are under consideration as an option for therapeutic molecular radiotherapy applications. Current dose models do not account for energy or bone-site dependence as shown by <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle absorbed fractions given in ICRP Publication 30. Energy-dependent, yet bone-site independent, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle absorbed fractions have been presented by the models of Stabin and Siegel (2003 Health Phys. 85 294-310). In this work, a chord-based computational model of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle transport in cortical bone has been developed that explicitly accounts for both the bone-site and particle-energy dependence of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle absorbed fractions in this region of the skeleton. The model accounts for energy deposition to three targets: cortical endosteum, haversian space tissues and cortical bone. Path length distributions for cortical bone given in Beddoe (1977 Phys. Med. Biol. 22 298-308) provided additional transport regions in the absorbed fraction calculation. Significant variations in absorbed fractions between different skeletal sites were observed. Differences were observed between this model and the absorbed fractions given in ICRP Publication 30, which varied by as much as a factor of 2.1 for a cortical bone surface source irradiating cortical endosteum.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watchman, Christopher J.; Bolch, Wesley E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1336..423W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accelerator Production of 225Ac For <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Immunotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">225Ac has tremendous potential for the treatment of metastatic cancer due to the four <span class="hlt">alpha-particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> during its decay to stable 209Bi. Additionally, it is one of the few <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitters being considered for clinical trials. The anticipated 225Ac demand for these trials is expected to far exceed the annual worldwide supply of approximately 1,000 mCi/yr. Consequently, the DOE Office of Science has funded investigations into accelerator-based production of 225Ac. Existing 232Th(p,x)225Ac cross section data indicate that up to 480 mCi/day of 225Ac could be created by bombarding a thick target of natural thorium with 100 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility. To verify these predictions, experiments are underway at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to measure the 232Th(p,x)225Ac production cross sections for protons in the energy range 40-200 MeV, and at 800 MeV. For 800 MeV protons, preliminary results indicate that the 225Ac production cross section is 12.4+/-0.6 mb and the 225Ra production cross section is 3.2+/-0.2 mb. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that the 227Ac production cross section is 16+/-1 mb. Experiments to measure these same cross sections at proton energies below 200 MeV are planned for the last half of calendar year 2010.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weidner, J. W.; Nortier, F. M.; Bach, H. T.; John, K. D.; Couture, A.; Ullmann, J. L.; Fassbender, M. E.; Goff, G. S.; Taylor, W.; Valdez, F.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Cisneros, M.; Dry, D.; Gallegos, M.; Gritzo, R.; Bitteker, L. J.; Wender, S.; Baty, R. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://alpha-1foundation.org"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> One Foundation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">English Français ( French ) Deutsch ( German ) Italiano ( Italian ) Español ( Spanish ) Português ( Portuguese ) Svenska ( Swedish ) <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 Foundation in Google Plus <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 Foundation in Twitter <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 Foundation ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/heart/thalassemias.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Thalassemia (For Parents)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... it results in that type of thalassemia. About <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Thalassemia <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> thalassemia occurs when the gene that ... transport oxygen around the body. Continue Types of <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Thalassemia <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> globin is made by four genes ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1095772"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Backgrounds for HPGe Detectors in Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Majorana Experiment will use arrays of enriched HPGe detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Such a decay, if found, would show lepton-number violation and confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Searches for such rare events are hindered by obscuring backgrounds which must be understood and mitigated as much as possible. A potentially important background contribution to this and other double-beta decay experiments could come from decays of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitting isotopes in the 232Th and 238U decay chains on or near the surfaces of the detectors. An <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> external to an HPGe crystal can lose energy before entering the active region of the detector, either in some external-bulk material or within the dead region of the crystal. The measured energy of the event will only correspond to a partial amount of the total kinetic energy of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and might obscure the signal from neutrinoless double-beta decay. A test stand was built and measurements were performed to quantitatively assess this background. We present results from these measurements and compare them to simulations using Geant4. These results are then used to measure the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> backgrounds in an underground detector in situ. We also make estimates of surface contamination tolerances for double-beta decay experiments using solid-state detectors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, R. A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Burritt, T. H. [University of Washington, Seattle; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gehman, V. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Guiseppe, V.E. [University of South Dakota; Wilkerson, J. F. [UNC/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab, Durham, NC/ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6551410"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relative biological effectiveness of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle emitters in vivo at low doses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The therapeutic potential of radionuclides that emit [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>] particles, as well as their associated health hazards, have attracted considerable attention. The [sup 224]Ra daughters [sup 212]Pb and [sup 212]Bi, by virtue of their radiation properties which involve emission of [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>] and [beta] particles in their decay to stable [sup 208]Pb, have been proposed as candidates for radioimmunotherapy. Using mouse testes as the experimental model and testicular spermhead survival as the biological end point, the present work examines the radiotoxicity of [sup 212]Pb and its daughters. When [sup 212]Pb, in equilibrium with its daughters [sup 212]Bi, [sup 212]Po and [sup 208]Tl, was administered directly into the testis, the dose required to achieve 37% survival (D[sub 37]) was 0.143 [+-] 0.014 Gy and the corresponding RBE of the mixed radiation field was 4.7 when compared to the D[sub 37] for acute external 120 kVp X rays. This datum, in conjunction with our earlier results for [sup 210]Po, was used to obtain an RBE-LET relationship for [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>] <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by tissue-incorporated radionuclides: RBE[sub [<span class="hlt">alpha</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Howell, R.W.; Azure, M.T.; Narra, V.R.; Rao, D.V. (Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NIMPA.693...51J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> backgrounds for HPGe detectors in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The MAJORANA Experiment will use arrays of enriched HPGe detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Such a decay, if found, would show lepton-number violation and confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Searches for such rare events are hindered by obscuring backgrounds which must be understood and mitigated as much as possible. A potentially important background contribution to this and other double-beta decay experiments could come from decays of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitting isotopes in the 232Th and 238U decay chains on or near the surfaces of the detectors. An <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> external to an HPGe crystal can lose energy before entering the active region of the detector, either in some external-bulk material or within the dead region of the crystal. The measured energy of the event will only correspond to a partial amount of the total kinetic energy of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and might obscure the signal from neutrinoless double-beta decay. A test stand was built and measurements were performed to quantitatively assess this background. We present results from these measurements and compare them to simulations using Geant4. These results are then used to measure the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> backgrounds in an underground detector in situ. We also make estimates of surface contamination tolerances for double-beta decay experiments using solid-state detectors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, R. A.; Burritt, T. H.; Elliott, S. R.; Gehman, V. M.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Wilkerson, J. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IJMSI.125...55Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metastable ion study of fluorinated organic compounds. Part 3. [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>], [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>], [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>]-trifluoroanisole and [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>], [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>], [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>]-trifluorocresols</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spontaneous unimolecular dissociation reactions of the molecular ions of the C7H5F3O positional isomers [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>], [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>], [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>]-trifluoroanisole (1), o-[<span class="hlt">alpha</span>], [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>], [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>],-trifluorocresol (2) and m-[<span class="hlt">alpha</span>], [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>], [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>]-trilfluorocresol (3), have been investigated by mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy (MIKE) spectrometry and deuterium-labellin. The results are compared with those of the non-fluorinated analogues anisole (4), o-cresol (5) and m-cresol (6). Ions 1.+ and 4.+ fragment in an analogue fashion yielding MIKE spectra which are characteristically different from those isaomers of the isomers 2.+, 3.+, 5.+ and 6.+ whose MIKE spectra are closely similar, the fluorinated analogues 2.+ and 2.+ have different characteristics. This is because a pronounced ortho-effect is operative in 2.+.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yanagisawa, Tamae; Tajima, Susumu; Iizuka, Masaki; Tobita, Seiji; Mitani, Motohiro; Matsumoto, Takeo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050000162&hterms=radon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dradon"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles on survival and chromosomal aberrations in human mammary epithelial cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied the radiation responses of a human mammary epithelial cell line, H184B5 F5-1 M/10. This cell line was derived from primary mammary cells after treatment with chemicals and heavy ions. The F5-1 M/10 cells are immortal, density-inhibited in growth, and non-tumorigenic in athymic nude mice and represent an in vitro model of the human epithelium for radiation studies. Because epithelial cells are the target of <span class="hlt">alpha-particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from radon daughters, we concentrated our studies on the efficiency of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles. Confluent cultures of M/10 cells were exposed to accelerated <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles [beam energy incident at the cell monolayer = 3.85 MeV, incident linear energy transfer (LET) in cell = 109 keV/microns] and, for comparison, to 80 kVp x-rays. The following endpoints were studied: (1) survival, (2) chromosome aberrations at the first postirradiation mitosis, and (3) chromosome alterations at later passages following irradiation. The survival curve was exponential for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles (D0 = 0.73 +/- 0.04 Gy), while a shoulder was observed for x-rays (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>/beta = 2.9 Gy; D0 = 2.5 Gy, extrapolation number 1.6). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-LET <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles for human epithelial cell killing was 3.3 at 37% survival. Dose-response curves for the induction of chromosome aberrations were linear for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles and linearquadratic for x-rays. The RBE for the induction of chromosome aberrations varied with the type of aberration scored and was high (about 5) for chromosome breaks and low (about 2) for chromosome exchanges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Gialanella, G.; Pugliese, M.; Nappo, M.; Yang, T. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.alpha1portal.org"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> One Foundation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">What is <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1? A lpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (<span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1) is a genetic (inherited) condition – it is passed from parents to their children through their genes. <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 may result in serious lung disease in ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21513392"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accelerator Production of {sup 225}Ac For <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Immunotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">{sup 225}Ac has tremendous potential for the treatment of metastatic cancer due to the four <span class="hlt">alpha-particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> during its decay to stable {sup 209}Bi. Additionally, it is one of the few <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitters being considered for clinical trials. The anticipated {sup 225}Ac demand for these trials is expected to far exceed the annual worldwide supply of approximately 1,000 mCi/yr. Consequently, the DOE Office of Science has funded investigations into accelerator-based production of {sup 225}Ac. Existing {sup 232}Th(p,x){sup 225}Ac cross section data indicate that up to 480 mCi/day of {sup 225}Ac could be created by bombarding a thick target of natural thorium with 100 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility. To verify these predictions, experiments are underway at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to measure the {sup 232}Th(p,x){sup 225}Ac production cross sections for protons in the energy range 40-200 MeV, and at 800 MeV. For 800 MeV protons, preliminary results indicate that the {sup 225}Ac production cross section is 12.4{+-}0.6 mb and the {sup 225}Ra production cross section is 3.2{+-}0.2 mb. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that the {sup 227}Ac production cross section is 16{+-}1 mb. Experiments to measure these same cross sections at proton energies below 200 MeV are planned for the last half of calendar year 2010.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weidner, J. W.; Nortier, F. M.; Bach, H. T.; John, K. D.; Couture, A.; Ullmann, J. L.; Fassbender, M. E.; Goff, G. S.; Taylor, W.; Valdez, F.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Cisneros, M.; Dry, D.; Gallegos, M.; Gritzo, R.; Bitteker, L. J.; Wender, S.; Baty, R. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5971476"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phenyl-/<span class="hlt">alpha/,/alpha</span>/,/omega/-trihydropolyfluoroalkyliodonium fluoroborates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The reaction of difluoroiodo-/<span class="hlt">alpha/,/alpha</span>/,/omega/-trihydrofluoroalkanes (I) with boron trifluoride and benzene gave phenyl-/<span class="hlt">alpha/,/alpha</span>/,/omega/-trihydropolyfluoroalkyliodonium fluoroborates (II). It was established that the polyfluoroalkyl radical adds at the sulfur atom in reaction with p-chlorothiophenol, the N-polyfluoroalkylation product is formed with aniline, pyridine is polyfluoroalkylated at the nitrogen atom with the formation of a quaternary salt, and a mixture of products from polyfluoroalkylation at the nitrogen atom of the dimethylamino group and at the para position of the benzene ring is formed with dimethylaniline.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mironova, A.A.; Soloshonok, I.V.; Maletina, I.I.; Orda, V.V.; Yagupol'skii, L.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-08-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012sptz.prop90221B"> <span id="translatedtitle">WISE Discovered Ly-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> Blobs at High-z: AGN Feeback Caught in the Act?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using data from the WISE mission coupled with deep optical spectroscopy, we have discovered a new population of dusty z~2 galaxies surrounded by large spatially extended Lyman-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission (40-130kpc). These galaxies have redder mid-IR colors than any other population, IR luminosities of L_FIR>10^13, and are rare on the sky, implying a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> phase. These unique properties suggest intense AGN/supernova feedback, making them strong candidates for being one of the 'missing links' in the evolution of massive ellipticals. They provide a new regime where spatially extended Ly?<span class="hlt">alpha</span> and large amounts of dust are likely linked at the key transition from a dusty starburst to a QSO. We request 2.5hrs of Spitzer-IRAC imaging for 12 spectroscopically confirmed WISE Ly-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> blobs, completing the mid-IR imaging of this rare population. Spitzer is the only facilty that can probe rest-frame near-IR, where the red stellar populations peak at these redshifts. These observations are required to 1) fully sample the SED and constrain the stellar mass and dust extinction, 2) model the separate contributions from star formation and AGN, 3) determine if AGN luminosity or stellar mass correlates with Lyman-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 4) place this new class of extreme object in context with the other well studied z~2 dusty galaxies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bridge, Carrie; Blain, Andrew; Borys, Colin; Petty, Sara; Farrah, Duncan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730035024&hterms=radon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dradon"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of lunar radon emanation with the Apollo 15 <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle spectrometer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle spectrometer, a component of the orbital Sim Bay group of 'geochemistry' experiments on Apollo 15, was designed to detect <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> during the decay of isotopes of radon gas and her daughter products. The purpose was to measure the gross activity of radon on the lunar surface and to find possible regions of increased local activity. Results are presented from a partial analysis of Apollo 15 data. For the moon as a whole, Rn220 was not observed and the upper limit on its decay rate above the lunar surface is 0.00038 disintegrations/sq cm-sec. Rn222 was marginally observed. Possible variations of radon activity on the lunar surface are being investigated. Po210 (a daughter product of Rn222) has been detected in a broad region from west of Mare Crisium to the Van de Graaff-Orlov region. The observed count rate is (4.6 plus or minus 1.4) x 0.001 disintegrations/sq cm-sec. The observed level of Po210 activity is in excess of the amount that would be in equilibrium with Rn222 by about an order of magnitude. This implies that larger levels of radon emanation have occurred on the moon within a time scale of 10 to 100 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.yourlunghealth.org/lung_disease/alpha1/emphysema/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emphysema and <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... be carriers of the defective gene that causes <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1. About 100,000 people in the U.S. ... of people with COPD may actually have undiagnosed <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 deficiency. © 2014 American Association for Respiratory Care</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=47943"> <span id="translatedtitle">ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF SIZED <span class="hlt">PARTICLES</span> <span class="hlt">EMITTED</span> FROM STATIONARY SOURCES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses several approaches for obtaining the elemental and, in a few cases, inorganic compound identification in sized particles. The elemental analyses are done by wavelength dispersion x-ray fluorescence (WXRF). Fourier Transform infrared is being used for inorgani...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=74902"> <span id="translatedtitle">GROSS <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> RADIUM REGULATION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The determination of concentrations of natural radioactivity in public water supplies begins with the measurement of the gross <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle activity. The gross <span class="hlt">alpha</span> activity measurement is used as a screening technique. The gross <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle activity measurement may be su...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21290805"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of the dual scintillator sheet and Phoswich detector for simultaneous <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>- and Beta-rays measurement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thin sheet type of ZnS(Ag)/plastic dual scintillator for simultaneous counting of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>- and beta-particles using a organic and inorganic scintillator widely used in the radiation measurement was manufactured, which could be applicable in the contamination monitoring systems. Counting materials were manufactured by solidification of the scintillator solution which mixed scintillator, solvent, and polymer. Prepared dual scintillator is a counting material which can simultaneously measure the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>- and beta-particles. It was divided into two parts : an inorganic scintillator layer for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle detection and an organic one for beta-particle detection. The organic layer was composed of 2,5-diphenyloxazole [PPO] and 1,4,-bis[5-phenyl(oxazolyl)benzene] [POPOP] acting as the scintillator and polysulfone acting as the polymer. The inorganic layer was composed of ZnS(Ag) as scintillator and polysulfone as paste. The ZnS(Ag) scintillator layer was printed onto the organic layer using screen printing method. To estimate the detection ability of the prepared counting materials, <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> nuclide, Am-241, and beta emitting nuclide, Sr/Y-90, were used. The scintillations produced by interaction between radiation and scintillator were measured by photomultiplier tube. The overall counting results reveal that the developed detector is efficient for simultaneous counting of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>- and beta-particles. For application test, the dual scintillator was fabricated with a Phoswich detector for monitoring the in-pipe <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and beta contamination. To deploy inside a pipe, two types of Phoswich detectors, sheets and cylinders, were prepared. For in-pipe monitoring, it was found that the cylindrical type was excellent. In the study, polymer composite counting material and Phoswich detectors were prepared using organic and inorganic scintillator for detecting different radiations. In the future, it will be applied to the contamination monitoring system for nuclear decommissioning sites, waste treatment sites, and similar areas. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seo, B.K.; Kim, G.H.; Park, C.H.; Jung, Y.H.; Jung, C.H.; Lee, K.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, M.J. [Kyungil Univ. (Korea, Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/387380"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of cell position relative to planar <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle sources on survival and preneoplastic transformation of primary rat tracheal epithelial cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rat tracheal epithelial cells exposed directly on planar {sup 210}Po sources exhibited exponential cell killing; however, no significant increase in induction of preneoplastic transformation was observed over a range of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle fluences (0.017-0.050 {mu}m{sup {minus}2}). In contrast, up to 10-fold increases in frequencies of preneoplastic transformants, above control levels, were observed after exposure of rat tracheal epithelial cells to similar {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle fluences on {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am sources. Two alternative hypotheses are evaluated as an explanation for this apparent difference in the biological effect of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from different sources: (a) possible interactions between effects produced by {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} particles and by low-energy photons, which occur with {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am but not with {sup 210}Po; and (b) the influence of spatial relationships between exposed cells and the surface of the planar source. The data suggest that the cell-to-source spatial relationships affect both survival and transformation markedly. 29 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Terzaghi-Howe, M.; Turner, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Ford, J.R. [Medical Research Council, Oxon (United Kingdom)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23149399"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> ants take greater risks during food collection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Life-history theory predicts that organisms should alter their behavior if life expectancy declines. Recent theoretical work has focused on worker life expectancy as an ultimate factor in allocating risk-related tasks among the workforce in social insects. A key prediction of this evolutionary model is that workers with shorter life expectancy should perform riskier tasks. We tested this hypothesis, using laboratory colonies of the ant Myrmica scabrinodis. We modified foraging so that it differed in level of risk by manipulating distances, temperatures, and the presence of competitors on foraging patches. The life expectancies of foragers were shortened by poisoning with carbon dioxide or by injury through removal of their propodeal spines. Both treatments significantly shortened worker life expectancy in comparison with untreated ants. We show, for the first time, that foragers with a shorter life expectancy foraged under risk more often than foragers in the control group. Thus, a worker's strategy of foraging under risky circumstances appears to be fine-tuned to its life expectancy. PMID:23149399</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moro?, Dawid; Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Woyciechowski, Micha?</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1549..205P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Rn-222 daughters in cryogenic liquids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper a detection method of ? emitters from 222Rn decay chain, present in cryogenic liquids, using bare Si-PIN diodes immersed in the liquids is presented. Properties of ionized 222Rn daughters deduced from conducted measurements are outlined. Life-time of positive ions was found to be of the order of 10 s, and nonzero content of electronegative ions was observed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pelczar, Krzysztof; Frodyma, Nikodem; Wójcik, Marcin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218182"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Rn-222 daughters in cryogenic liquids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper a detection method of ? emitters from {sup 222}Rn decay chain, present in cryogenic liquids, using bare Si-PIN diodes immersed in the liquids is presented. Properties of ionized {sup 222}Rn daughters deduced from conducted measurements are outlined. Life-time of positive ions was found to be of the order of 10 s, and nonzero content of electronegative ions was observed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pelczar, Krzysztof; Frodyma, Nikodem; Wójcik, Marcin [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland)] [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5266735"> <span id="translatedtitle">Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents research on radiopharmaceuticals. The following topics are discussed: antibody labeling with positron-emitting radionuclides; antibody modification for radioimmune imaging; labeling antibodies; evaluation of technetium acetlyacetonates as potential cerebral blood flow agents; and studies in technetium chemistry. (CBS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adelstein, S.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5007582"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides in nuclear medicine - II</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Positron emission tomography (PET) has been applied effectively in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, the prognosis of stroke, and the evaluation of the efficacy of tumor therapy. In addition, PET has been applied to studies of the neuroreceptor distribution in the human brain, to studies of epilepsy and congenital disorders of the brain, and to the study of flow and metabolism of the human heart muscle. Of the many current investigations of PET, the three discussed here are now of clinical importance for patient care.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Budinger, T.F.; Peng, C.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A13I..01C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emissions and Impacts of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study we estimate emission sector contributions to air pollution levels and their impacts on weather and climate in Asia at urban to regional scales. The two way interactions between pollution and meteorology are evaluated using the WRF-Chem model configured to include direct and indirect effects. A sector based analysis is performed to assess the contributions to pollution and direct radiative forcing from transport, residential, power and industrial emissions. We explore methods to better constrain the estimates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carmichael, G. R.; Marrapu, P.; Cheng, Y.; Saide, P. E.; Beig, G.; Spak, S.; Schultz, M. G.; Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Sahu, S. K.; Gao, M.; Liu, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120011730&hterms=climate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dclimate"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tropospheric Ozone as a <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemical Climate Forcer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropospheric ozone is the third most important greenhouse gas according to the most recent IPCC assessment. However, tropospheric ozone is highly variable in both space and time. Ozone that is located in the vicinity of the tropopause has the greatest effect on climate forcing. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the most important precursors for ozone In most of the troposphere. Therefore, pollution that is lofted upward in thunderstorm updrafts or NOx produced by lightning leads to efficient ozone production in the upper troposphere, where ozone is most important climatically. Global and regional model estimates of the impact of North American pollution and lightning on ozone radiative forcing will be presented. It will be shown that in the Northern Hemisphere summer, the lightning effect on ozone radiative forcing can dominate over that of pollution, and that the radiative forcing signal from North America extends well into Europe and North Africa. An algorithm for predicting lightning flash rates and estimating lightning NOx emissions is being incorporated into the NASA GEOS-5 Chemistry and Climate Model. Changes in flash rates and emissions over an ENSO cycle and in future climates will be assessed, along with the resulting changes in upper tropospheric ozone. Other research on the production of NOx per lightning flash and its distribution in the vertical based on cloud-resolving modeling and satellite observations will be presented. Distributions of NO2 and O3 over the Middle East from the OMI instrument on NASA's Aura satellite will also be shown.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pickering, Kenneth E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=BNL19894"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radiopharmaceuticals for the Diagnosis of Ocular Melanoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental procedure has been established to evaluate radiopharmaceuticals for the specific purpose of melanoma detection by scintiscanning. By using the Greene melanoma in the hamster several labeled compounds were compared. Specifically the tumor u...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Packer R. Lambrecht H. L. Atkins A. P. Wolf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55597216"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gamma Rays from <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Fission-Fragment Isomers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of the energy spectra of isomeric gamma rays from the neutron fission of U235 and Pu239 at a number of time intervals between 50 and 600 musec showed six prominent gamma rays for both cases of fission. The intensities and half-lives for these gamma rays indicate that there are three fission-fragment isomers, each giving rise to a pair of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. E. Sund; R. B. Walton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930072495&hterms=radioactivity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dradioactivity"> <span id="translatedtitle">On Al-26 and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> interstellar radioactivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several authors have shown that massive stars exploding at a rate of about three per century can account for a large portion, if not all, of the observed interstellar Al-26. In a separate argument using models of Galactic chemical evolution, Clayton (1984) showed that the Al-26/Al-27 production ratio was not large enough to maintain enough Al-26 in the Galactic disk gas of about 10 exp 10 solar masses having solar composition. We present a resolution of those conflicting arguments. A past history of Galactic infall growing the Galactic disk so dilutes the stable Al-27 concentration that the two approaches can be brought into near agreement. If massive stars dominate the production of Al-26, we suggest that the apparent shortfall of their Al-26/Al-27 yield ratio is to be interpreted as evidence for significant growth of the Galactic disk. We also discuss the implications of these arguments for other extinct radioactivities in meteorites, using I-129 and Sm-146 as examples.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clayton, Donald D.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Leising, Mark D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......170W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Skeletal dosimetry models for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles for use in molecular radiotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molecular radiotherapy is a cancer treatment methodology whereby a radionuclide is combined with a biologically active molecule to preferentially target cancer cells. <span class="hlt">Alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides show significant potential for use in molecular radiotherapy due to the short range of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles in tissue and their high rates of energy deposition. Current radiation dosimetry models used to assess <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitter dose in the skeleton were developed originally for occupational applications. In medical dosimetry, individual variability in uptake, translocation and other biological factors can result in poor correlation of clinical outcome with marrow dose estimates determined using existing skeletal models. Methods presented in this work were developed in response to the need for dosimetry models which account for these biological and patient-specific factors. Dosimetry models are presented for trabecular bone <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle dosimetry as well as a model for cortical bone dosimetry. These radiation transport models are the 3D chord-based infinite spongiosa transport model (3D-CBIST) and the chord-based infinite cortical transport model (CBICT), respectively. Absorbed fraction data for several skeletal tissues for several subjects are presented. Each modeling strategy accounts for biological parameters, such as bone marrow cellularity, not previously incorporated into <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle skeletal dosimetry models used in radiation protection. Using these data a study investigating the variability in <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle absorbed fractions in the human skeleton is also presented. Data is also offered relating skeletal tissue masses in individual bone sites for a range of ages. These data are necessary for dose calculations and have previously only been available as whole body tissue masses. A revised 3D-CBIST model is also presented which allows for changes in endosteum thickness to account for revised target cell location of tissues involved in the radiological induction of bone cancer. In addition, new data are presented on the location of bone-marrow stem cells within the marrow cavities of trabecular bone of the pelvis. All results presented in this work may be applied to occupational exposures, but their greatest utility lies in dose assessments for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitters in molecular radiotherapy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watchman, Christopher J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34576445"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> factor analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A distinction is made between statistical inference and psychometric inference in factor analysis. After reviewing Rao's canonical factor analysis (CFA), a fundamental statistical method of factoring, a new method of factor analysis based upon the psychometric concept of generalizability is described. This new procedure (<span class="hlt">alpha</span> factor analysis, AFA) determines factors which have maximum generalizability in the Kuder-Richardson, or <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, sense.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henry F. Kaiser; John Caffrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1965-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N9120091"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">alpha</span> Inlets.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high <span class="hlt">alpha</span> inlet research effort at Lewis is part of the High <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Technology Program (HATP) within NASA. A key goal of HATP is to develop concepts that provide a high level of control and maneuverability for high performance aircraft at low subsonic...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. R. Burley B. H. Anderson C. F. Smith G. J. Harloff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://alpha-1foundation.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Liver-Brochure-7.25.12.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liver and <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (<span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... protein over time leads to liver damage. How Common Is Liver Disease In People With <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 And In <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>- ... or scarring of the liver, is the most common liver disease in adults related to <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1. The risk ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5095965"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-particle diagnostics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Young, K.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/865504"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaging <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle detector</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle signal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21596725"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reexamination of the {<span class="hlt">alpha}-{alpha</span>}''fishbone'' potential</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fishbone potential of composite particles simulates the Pauli effect by nonlocal terms. We determine the {<span class="hlt">alpha}-{alpha</span>} fishbone potential by simultaneously fitting to two-{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} resonance energies, experimental phase shifts, and three-{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} binding energies. We found that, essentially, a simple Gaussian can provide a good description of two-{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} and three-{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} experimental data without invoking three-body potentials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Day, J. P.; McEwen, J. E.; Elhanafy, M.; Smith, E.; Woodhouse, R.; Papp, Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Long Beach, Long Beach, California (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54536854"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-cluster formation on <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dependence of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-cluster and pp- and nn-cluster formation on high-lying configurations (continuum) in nuclei is studied. Its importance for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-decay calculations is discussed. RADIOACTIVITY <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-decay, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-transfer reactions, high-lying configurations (continuum).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. A. Janouch; R. J. Liotta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969021"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Particle Diagnostic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined <span class="hlt">alphas</span> to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined <span class="hlt">alphas</span>, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the <span class="hlt">alphas</span> in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fisher, Ray, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/986346"> <span id="translatedtitle">RAPID DETERMINATION OF 237 NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN WATER BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> SPECTROMETRY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new method that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in water samples was developed for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry; a hybrid approach. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via peak tailing. The method provide enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then moving Pu to DGA resin for additional removal of uranium. The decontamination factor for uranium from Pu is almost 100,000 and the decontamination factor for U from Np is greater than 10,000. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation method. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry so that long and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Pu isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 20 samples (including QC samples) in 4 to 6 hours, and can also be used for emergency response. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu were measured by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.; Culligan, B.; Nichols, S.; Noyes, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD648988"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature Dependence of J(Ff) in 2-Fluoro-<span class="hlt">alpha-Chloro-alpha</span>, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-Difluoro-Toluene and 2-Fluoro-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>, <span class="hlt">alpha-Dichloro-alpha</span>-Fluoro-Toluene.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The F-F coupling constants J(FF) between the fluorine atom at the 2-position and the fluorines in the CFCl2 and CF2Cl groups were measured and found to have an appreciable temperature dependence in 2-fluoro-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>, <span class="hlt">alpha-dichloro-alpha</span>-fluoro-toluene and 2...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Jonas L. Borowski H. S. Gutowsky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20793437"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mitigation of radiation nephropathy after internal {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle irradiation of kidneys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: Internal irradiation of kidneys as a consequence of radioimmunotherapy, radiation accidents, or nuclear terrorism can result in radiation nephropathy. We attempted to modify pharmacologically, the functional and morphologic changes in mouse kidneys after injection with the actinium ({sup 225}Ac) nanogenerator, an in vivo generator of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}- and {beta}-<span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> elements. Methods and Materials: The animals were injected with 0.35 {mu}Ci of the {sup 225}Ac nanogenerator, which delivers a dose of 27.6 Gy to the kidneys. Then, they were randomized to receive captopril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), L-158,809 (angiotensin II receptor-1 blocker), spironolactone (aldosterone receptor antagonist), or a placebo. Results: Forty weeks after the {sup 225}Ac injection, the placebo-control mice showed a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (87.6 {+-} 6.9 mg/dL), dilated Bowman spaces, and tubulolysis with basement membrane thickening. Captopril treatment accentuated the functional (BUN 119.0 {+-} 4.0 mg/dL; p <0.01 vs. placebo controls) and histopathologic damage. In contrast, L-158,809 offered moderate protection (BUN 66.6 {+-} 3.9 mg/dL; p = 0.02 vs. placebo controls). Spironolactone treatment, however, significantly prevented the development of histopathologic and functional changes (BUN 31.2 {+-} 2.5 mg/dL; p <0.001 vs. placebo controls). Conclusions: Low-dose spironolactone and, to a lesser extent, angiotensin receptor-1 blockade can offer renal protection in a mouse model of internal {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle irradiation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jaggi, Jaspreet Singh [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Seshan, Surya V. [Department of Pathology, Cornell University Weill Medical College, New York, NY (United States); McDevitt, Michael R. [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Sgouros, George [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Hyjek, Elizabeth [Department of Pathology, Cornell University Weill Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Scheinberg, David A. [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States) and Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: d-scheinberg@ski.mskcc.org</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20711531"> <span id="translatedtitle">Varying-{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} monopoles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study static magnetic monopoles in the context of varying-{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} theories and show that there is a group of models for which the 't Hooft-Polyakov solution is still valid. Nevertheless, in general static magnetic monopole solutions in varying-{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} theories depart from the classical 't Hooft-Polyakov solution with the electromagnetic energy concentrated inside the core seeding spatial variations of the fine-structure constant. We show that Equivalence Principle constraints impose tight limits on the allowed variations of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} induced by magnetic monopoles which confirms the difficulty to generate significant spatial variation of the fine-structure constant found in previous works. This is true even in the most favorable case where magnetic monopoles are the source for these variations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menezes, J.; Avelino, P.P.; Santos, C. [Centro de Fisica do Porto e Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007, Porto (Portugal)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770062973&hterms=AMR&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAMR"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> coronagraph</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The rocket-borne Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> coronagraph (RLAC) is to be used in the absence of a natural solar eclipse to determine coronal temperatures from measurements of the line width of Lyman-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> and to determine neutral hydrogen densities of coronal material from the absolute intensity. The coronagraph consists of a 75-cm Fastie-Ebert scanning spectrometer with an AMR 641 photoelectric detection system, an off-axis parabolic primary mirror, and an occulting system. A special optical arrangement achieves rejection of radiation from the solar disk.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kohl, J. L.; Reeves, E. M.; Kirkham, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/79277"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of uranium to gross <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radioactivity in some environmental samples in Kuwait</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was done in connection with the use of uranium-tipped antitank shells during the Gulf War and possible contamination of the environment of Kuwait. It was found that uranium concentrations in the soil samples ranged from 0.3 {mu}g/g to 1.85 {mu}g/g. The average value of 0.7 {mu}g/g was lower than the world average value of 2.1 {mu}g/g for surface soils. Its contribution to the total natural <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radioactivity (excluding Rn and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> daughters) varied from 1.1% to 14%. The solid fall-out samples showed higher uranium concentration which varied from 0.35 {mu}g/g to 1.73 {mu}/g (average 1.47 {mu}g/g) but its contribution to the gross <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radioactivity was in the same range, from 1.1 to 13.2%. The difference in the concentration of uranium in suspended air matter samples during the summer of 1993 and the winter of 1994 was found to be 2.0 {mu}g/g and 1.0 {mu}g/g, respectively. The uranium contribution to the natural <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radioactivity in these samples was in the same range but lower for the winter period. The isotopic ratio of {sup 235}U to {sup 238}U for the measured samples was basically within an experimental error of {+-}0.001, close to the theoretical value of 0.007. The calculated total annual intake of uranium via inhalation for the Kuwait population was 0.07 Bq, e.g., 0.2% of the annual limit on intake. 13 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bou-Rabee, F. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait)] [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait); Bakir, Y.; Bem, H. [Ministry of Health, Qadsiya (Kuwait)] [Ministry of Health, Qadsiya (Kuwait)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JNuM..448..184D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Swelling induced by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decay in monazite and zirconolite ceramics: A XRD and TEM comparative study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Zirconolite and monazite matrices are potential ceramics for the containment of actinides (Np, Cm, Am, Pu) which are produced over the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Actinides decay mainly through the emission of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles, which in turn causes most ceramics to undergo structural and textural changes (amorphization and/or swelling). In order to study the effects of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decays on the above mentioned ceramics two parallel approaches were set up. The first involved the use of an external irradiation source, Au, which allowed the deposited recoil energy to be simulated. The second was based on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> actinide doping with 238Pu, (i.e. an internal source), via the incorporation of plutonium oxide into both the monazite and zirconolite structures during synthesis. In both types of irradiation experiments, the zirconolite samples became amorphous at room temperature with damage close to 0.3 dpa; corresponding to a critical dose of 4 × 1018 ? g-1 (i.e. ?1.3 × 1021 keV cm-3). Both zirconolite samples also showed the same degree of macroscopic swelling at saturation (?6%), with ballistic processes being the predominant damaging effect. In the case of the monazite however, the macroscopic swelling and amorphization were dependent on the nature of the irradiation. Externally, (Au), irradiated samples became amorphous while also demonstrating a saturation swelling of up to 8%. In contrast to this, the swelling of the 238Pu doped samples was much smaller at ?1%. Also, unlike the externally (Au) irradiated monazite these 238Pu doped samples remained crystalline up to 7.5 × 1018 ? g-1 (0.8 dpa). XRD, TEM and swelling measurements were used to fully characterize and interpret this behavior. The low swelling and the conservation of the crystalline state of 238Pu doped monazite samples indicates that <span class="hlt">alpha</span> annealing took place within this material.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deschanels, X.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A. M.; Magnin, V.; Mesbah, A.; Tribet, M.; Moloney, M. P.; Serruys, Y.; Peuget, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Animal+AND+testing&pg=2&id=EJ920335"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">alpha</span>]-Oxocarboxylic Acids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30273213"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-mannosidosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dag Malm; Øivind Nilssen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=belize&pg=3&id=EJ742482"> <span id="translatedtitle">From <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> to Omega</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> point of the authors' life as a Montessori educator began in 1959, when he was a graduate student studying philosophy at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York. While studying the works of the great American philosopher William James, the author came across the writings of Maria Montessori and immediately became captivated by her…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Czaja, Paul Clement</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1008504"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stereoselective Synthesis of [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>][superscript ']-Biprolines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A means to induce dehydrodimerization of Seebach's oxazolidinone (5), the stereochemical outcome of which is entirely temperature dependent, is described. The resultant dimers 3 and 4 are precursors to (R,R)-<span class="hlt">alpha,alpha</span>'-biproline (1) and meso-<span class="hlt">alpha,alpha</span>'-biproline (2), respectively. An organohypobromite and an iminium halide are proposed to serve as electrophiles in the reaction with the enolate of 5 to give 3 and 4, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vartak, Ashish P.; Young, Jr., Victor G.; Johnson, Rodney L. (Minnesota)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6551018"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> particles are extremely damaging to developing hemopoiesis compared to gamma irradiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimates of risk of stochastic effects from contamination with [<span class="hlt">alpha]-particle-emitting</span> radionuclides are based on equivalent doses which take into account the RBE of the high-LET radiation. It is assumed that the RBEs for deterministic effects are considerably less than those for stochastic effects. However, the offspring of mice injected with 30 Bq g[sup [minus]1] [sup 239]Pu at 13 days gestation develop a persistent deficit in hemopoietic stem cells which is primarily the result of damage to their regulatory microenvironment. Their spatial distribution in the marrow is also perturbed, and recent observations on those mice suggested a considerably higher factor than 20. To define a more realistic RBE for hemopoiesis, the effects of external [gamma] irradiation during the fetal development period have been compared directly with those of [sup 239]Pu incorporated via placental transfer on the development of hemopoietic tissue. Pregnant mice were irradiated with [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays (a) continuously from day 13 of gestation to birth at 0.15 or 0.6 Gy/day; (b) six repeated acute doses (0.6 Gy/min) at 0.1 or 0.3 Gy from day 13 of gestation; (c) one acute dose of 0.6 or 1.8 Gy on day 15 of gestation. The spatial distribution of hemopoietic stem cells in 8-week-old offspring was then determined and compared to that resulting from [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>]-particle irradiation. In each case, the higher dose was required to match the results for [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>] particles, suggesting an RBE for developing hemopoiesis of 250-360 compared to a continuous [gamma]-ray dose and a rather lower value of 130-180 compared to a single acute dose of [gamma] rays. This contrasts greatly to values for direct irradiation of the stem cells but argues that the effective RBE, measured for long-term effects in vivo, is the more realistic. It is concluded that an all-embracing factor can be grossly misleading and can greatly underestimate the risks of exposure to [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>] particles. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tie-Nan Jiang (Institute of Radiation Medicine, Tianjin (China)); Lord, B.I.; Hendry, J.H. (Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (United Kingdom))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://chemteacher.chemeddl.org/services/chemteacher/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=65"> <span id="translatedtitle">ChemTeacher: <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Decay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Decay page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decay.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21333873"> <span id="translatedtitle">{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-Decay half-lives, {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-capture, and {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-nucleus potential</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-Decay half-lives and {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-capture cross sections are evaluated in the framework of a unified model for {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-decay and {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-capture. In this model {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-decay and {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-capture are considered as penetration of the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle through the potential barrier formed by the nuclear, Coulomb, and centrifugal interactions between the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle and nucleus. The spins and parities of the parent and daughter nuclei as well as the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations of the daughter nuclei are taken into account for evaluation of the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-decay half-lives. The {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-decay half-lives for 344 nuclei and the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-capture cross sections of {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ca, {sup 59}Co, {sup 208}Pb, and {sup 209}Bi agree well with the experimental data. The evaluated {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-decay half-lives within the range of 10{sup -9}{<=}T{sub 1/2}{<=}10{sup 38} s for 1246 {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-emitters are tabulated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Denisov, V. Yu. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospect Nauki 47, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine)], E-mail: denisov@kinr.kiev.ua; Khudenko, A.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospect Nauki 47, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=BNWLSA5328"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microstructure and Kinetics of the Plutonium beta Implies <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and gamma Implies <span class="hlt">alpha</span> Transformations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Supported-discharge cathodic etching and SEM examination techniques were developed for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> -Pu and used to investigate the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> microstructures formed by the beta /sub <span class="hlt">alpha</span> / implies <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and beta /sub gamma / implies <span class="hlt">alpha</span> transformations in high-pu...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. P. Allen H. W. Arrow Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.alphagalileo.org"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>Galileo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Billed as "The world's leading resource for European research", <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>Galileo is a tremendous resource for those with a penchant for keeping tabs on Continental scholarship that deals with science, art, technology, health, society, and the humanities. The team at <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>Galileo includes a multilingual group of specialists and their coverage is very broad, a fact that will be welcomed in many quarters. Visitors need to complete a brief registration before using the site, and after that they can browse and search through the materials offered here. The site also allows users to perform thematic searches and the opportunity to look over press releases. It's also worth noting that after logging in, visitors can also post their own items.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1038083"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 21264 microprocessor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The third generation <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> microprocessor from Compaq Computer Corporation (formerly Digital Equipment) is the 21264. This microprocessor can execute 2.0-2.4 billion instructions per second with a 500-600 MHz cycle time in a 0.35 um CMOS process, resulting in the industry-leading performance of 30+ SPECint95 and 58+ SPECfp95 in early system offerings. This paper focuses on the overall 21264 architecture, as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard E. Kessler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nationaljewish.org/healthinfo/conditions/alpha-1/inherited-emphysema/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Inherited Emphysema</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... C-ANP <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 Coordinator View full profile <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency or ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Program Doctors at National Jewish ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6809184"> <span id="translatedtitle">ORNL <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> MIS user's manual</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> is the most powerful and versatile of the Management Information Systems (MISs) sponsored and developed by the Finance and Materials Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A general-purpose MIS, <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> can perform at least 75% of the common tasks required of MISs; it allows users to access any System 1022 data base on ORNL's PDP-10 computer to obtain information for use in the management process. This user's manual contains a description of the function of each <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> command and option. Besides the explanation of <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span>'s commands and options, this manual also contains a description of the <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> system, pointers on using <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span>, an explanation of <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span>'s design in terms of its working vocabulary, and a sample problem.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Lambdin, H.D.; Bowen, P.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD733019"> <span id="translatedtitle">Property of the Function Phi(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) Defined by 2 sup (N sub <span class="hlt">alpha</span>) Equals N sub(<span class="hlt">alpha</span> + phi(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>)).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For every ordinal number <span class="hlt">alpha</span> define the ordinal-valued function phi(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) by means of the relation 2 sup (N sub <span class="hlt">alpha</span>) = N sub(<span class="hlt">alpha</span> + phi(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>)). The authors prove the following theorem which generalizes Patai's result. The assertions phi(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) > or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Bagemihl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18651971"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-mannosidosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life), skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum), hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss), gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-mannosidase deficiency. <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12). Diagnosis is made by measuring acid <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating manifestations. Infections must be treated frequently. Otolaryngological treatment of fluid in the middle ear is often required and use of hearing aids is invariably required. Early educational intervention for development of social skills is needed and physiotherapy is important to improve bodily function. Orthopedic surgery may be necessary. The long-term prognosis is poor. There is an insidiously slow progression of neuromuscular and skeletal deterioration over several decades, making most patients wheel-chair dependent. No patients manage to be completely socially independent. Many patients are over 50 years of age. PMID:18651971</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malm, Dag; Nilssen, Øivind</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2515294"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-mannosidosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life), skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum), hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss), gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-mannosidase deficiency. <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12). Diagnosis is made by measuring acid <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating manifestations. Infections must be treated frequently. Otolaryngological treatment of fluid in the middle ear is often required and use of hearing aids is invariably required. Early educational intervention for development of social skills is needed and physiotherapy is important to improve bodily function. Orthopedic surgery may be necessary. The long-term prognosis is poor. There is an insidiously slow progression of neuromuscular and skeletal deterioration over several decades, making most patients wheel-chair dependent. No patients manage to be completely socially independent. Many patients are over 50 years of age.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malm, Dag; Nilssen, ?ivind</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6508809"> <span id="translatedtitle">Induction of lymphoma and osteosarcoma in mice by single and protracted low <span class="hlt">alpha</span> doses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Internal doses from the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitter 22Ra were given to 4-wk-old female mice. One group of about 300 animals received a single injection of 18.5 kBq 22Ra kg-1 body weight, corresponding to a mean skeletal <span class="hlt">alpha</span> dose of 0.15 Gy. A second group of about 300 animals received the same total amount of 224Ra in the form of 72 fractions of 257 Bq kg-1 each, applied twice weekly during 36 wk. The fractionated group received the same final mean total skeletal dose of 0.15 Gy as the single injected group, but with a mean skeletal dose rate of 1 mGy d-1. A rather high incidence, 13.5% (40/296), of early malignant lymphomas was observed in the fractionated group during and shortly after the injection period, followed by a 7% incidence (21/296) of osteosarcomas during the second half of the animals' lifetime. The group with a single injection did not develop early lymphomas but did develop osteosarcomas later with an incidence of 5.8% (17/295). The occurrence of osteosarcomas was similar up to day 800 in the two experimental groups. Surprisingly, however, after this period no additional case of osteosarcoma was observed in the single-injected group, whereas one-third of all osteosarcomas occurred after day 800 in the protracted group. The additional later occurrence of osteosarcomas occurred after indicates a longer lasting induction effect on osteosarcomas, or a promoting effect in older age, for this kind of treatment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mueller, W.A.L.; Luz, A.; Murray, A.B.; Linzner, U. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/242585"> <span id="translatedtitle">Background canceling surface <span class="hlt">alpha</span> detector</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A background canceling long range <span class="hlt">alpha</span> detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation alone. 5 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-06-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1462091"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drosophila melanogaster importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span>1 and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>3 can replace importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2 during spermatogenesis but not oogenesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span>'s mediate the nuclear transport of many classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS)-containing proteins. Multicellular animals contain multiple importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span> genes, most of which fall into three conventional phylogenetic clades, here designated <span class="hlt">alpha</span>1, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2, and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>3. Using degenerate PCR we cloned Drosophila melanogaster importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span>1, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2, and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>3 genes, demonstrating that the complete conventional importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span> gene family arose prior to the split between invertebrates and vertebrates. We have begun to analyze the genetic interactions among conventional importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span> genes by studying their capacity to rescue the male and female sterility of importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2 null flies. The sterility of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2 null males was rescued to similar extents by importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span>1, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2, and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>3 transgenes, suggesting that all three conventional importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span>'s are capable of performing the important role of importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2 during spermatogenesis. In contrast, sterility of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2 null females was rescued only by importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2 transgenes, suggesting that it plays a paralog-specific role in oogenesis. Female infertility was also rescued by a mutant importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2 transgene lacking a site that is normally phosphorylated in ovaries. These rescue experiments suggest that male and female gametogenesis have distinct requirements for importin <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mason, D Adam; Fleming, Robert J; Goldfarb, David S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/868650"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long range <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle detector</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle detector capable of detecting <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); McAtee, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Unruh, Wesley P. (Los Alamos, NM); Cucchiara, Alfred L. (Los Alamos, NM); Huchton, Roger L. (Los Alamos, NM)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/6227851"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long range <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle detector</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle detector capable of detecting <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-02-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED136252.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Kappa <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Sorority's Reading Improvement Program for Minorities.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document discusses the founding and establishment of <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Kappa <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Sorority's reading experience pilot project. The efforts of this project were aligned with those of Right to Read and Reading Is Fundamental (RIF). Because of the response from parents and children, plans are being made to increase present operations within the next…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marable, June Morehead</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841926"> <span id="translatedtitle">I. Excluded Volume Effects in Ising Cluster Distributions and Nuclear Multifragmentation II. Multiple-Chance Effects in <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Particle Evaporation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In Part 1, geometric clusters of the Ising model are studied as possible model clusters for nuclear multifragmentation. These clusters may not be considered as non-interacting (ideal gas) due to excluded volume effect which predominantly is the artifact of the cluster's finite size. Interaction significantly complicates the use of clusters in the analysis of thermodynamic systems. Stillinger's theory is used as a basis for the analysis, which within the RFL (Reiss, Frisch, Lebowitz) fluid-of-spheres approximation produces a prediction for cluster concentrations well obeyed by geometric clusters of the Ising model. If thermodynamic condition of phase coexistence is met, these concentrations can be incorporated into a differential equation procedure of moderate complexity to elucidate the liquid-vapor phase diagram of the system with cluster interaction included. The drawback of increased complexity is outweighted by the reward of greater accuracy of the phase diagram, as it is demonstrated by the Ising model. A novel nuclear-cluster analysis procedure is developed by modifying Fisher's model to contain cluster interaction and employing the differential equation procedure to obtain thermodynamic variables. With this procedure applied to geometric clusters, the guidelines are developed to look for excluded volume effect in nuclear multifragmentation. In part 2, an explanation is offered for the recently observed oscillations in the energy spectra of {<span class="hlt">alpha}-particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from hot compound nuclei. Contrary to what was previously expected, the oscillations are assumed to be caused by the multiple-chance nature of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-evaporation. In a semi-empirical fashion this assumption is successfully confirmed by a technique of two-spectra decomposition which treats experimental {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-spectra has having contributions from at least two independent emitters. Building upon the success of the multiple-chance explanation of the oscillations, Moretto's single-chance evaporation theory is augmented to include multiple-chance emission and tested on experimental data to yield positive results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Breus, Dimitry E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4095646"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resting <span class="hlt">alpha</span> activity predicts learning ability in <span class="hlt">alpha</span> neurofeedback</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the brain activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting <span class="hlt">alpha</span> activity can predict the learning ability in <span class="hlt">alpha</span> neurofeedback. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized <span class="hlt">alpha</span> neurofeedback and the learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting <span class="hlt">alpha</span> amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> neurofeedback.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wan, Feng; Nan, Wenya; Vai, Mang I.; Rosa, Agostinho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2120376"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endocytosis of interleukin 2 receptors in human T lymphocytes: distinct intracellular localization and fate of the receptor <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, beta, and gamma chains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Members of the cytokine receptor family are composed of several noncovalently linked chains with sequence and structure homologies in their extracellular domain. Receptor subfamily members share at least one component: thus the receptors for interleukin (IL) 2 and IL15 have common beta and gamma chains, while those for IL2, 4, 7, and 9 have a common gamma chain. The intracellular pathway followed by IL2 receptors after ligand binding and endocytosis was analyzed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy in a human T lymphocytic cell line. Surprisingly, the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, beta, and gamma chains had different intracellular localizations after being endocytosed together. The <span class="hlt">alpha</span> chain was always in transferrin-positive compartments (early/recycling endosomes), both at early and late internalization times, but was never detected in rab7-positive compartments (late endosomes). On the other hand, at late internalization times, the beta and gamma chains were excluded from transferrin-positive organelles and did not colocalize with <span class="hlt">alpha</span>. Furthermore, beta could be found in rab7-positive vesicles. These differences suggest that the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> chain recycles to the plasma membrane, while the beta and gamma chains are sorted towards the degradation pathway. The half-lives of these three chains on the cell surface also reflect their different intracellular fates after endocytosis. The beta and gamma chains are very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> polypeptides since their half-life on the surface is only approximately 1 h, whereas <span class="hlt">alpha</span> is a much more stable surface protein. This shows for the first time that components of a multimeric receptor can be sorted separately along the endocytic pathway.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24864650"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> glucosidase inhibitors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a unique class of anti-diabetic drugs. Derived from bacteria, these oral drugs are enzyme inhibitors which do not have a pancreato -centred mechanism of action. Working to delay carbohydrate absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, they control postprandial hyperglycaemia and provide unquestioned cardiovascular benefit. Specially suited for a traditional Pakistani carbohydrate-rich diet, AGIs have been termed the 'untapped diamonds' of diabetology. The use of these oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) that target pathophysiology in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, notably to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia will inevitably increase with time. This review describes the history of their development, mechanism of action, basic and clinical pharmacology, and suggests practical, evidence-based guidance for their optimal use. PMID:24864650</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalra, Sanjay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7205105"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> olefin oligomerization catalyst</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This patent describes a catalyst active for oligomerizing one or more oligomerizable <span class="hlt">alpha</span> olefin monomers in a hydrocarbon solvent to produce linear olefin oligomers of from about 4 to about 20 carbon atoms. It comprises an organometallic compound wherein the metal thereof is selected from the group consisting of zinc, magnesium, and aluminum, in combination with the reaction mixture obtained by reacting in a hydrocarbon, a zirconium compound of the formula ZrX{sub n}Y{sub 4{minus}n} wherein X is a halogen, Y is selected from the group consisting of aryloxides, alkoxides, and carboxylates, and n ranges from 1 to 4, inclusive, and a basic salt of a carboxylic acid.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fries, R.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-05-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21596584"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microscopic cluster model of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+n, {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+p, {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+ {sup 3}He, and {<span class="hlt">alpha}+{alpha</span>} elastic scattering from a realistic effective nuclear interaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction adapted to cluster-model calculations of collisions is derived from the realistic Argonne potential AV18 with the unitary correlation operator method. The unitary correlation is determined from the {<span class="hlt">alpha}+{alpha</span>} elastic phase shifts calculated in a cluster approach by the generator coordinate method coupled with the microscopic R-matrix method. With this interaction, the elastic phase shifts for the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+n, {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+p, and {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+{sup 3}He collisions are calculated within the same model. Without further adjustment, a good agreement with experimental data is obtained with a small model space.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dohet-Eraly, J.; Baye, D. [Physique Nucleaire et Physique Quantique, CP229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11447136"> <span id="translatedtitle">N-glycan structure of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> variant of ribophorin I expressed in the MadIA214 glycosylation-defective cell line reveals the role of a mannosidase that is not ER mannosidase I in the process of glycoprotein degradation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A soluble form of ribophorin I (RI(332)) is rapidly degraded in Hela and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by a cytosolic proteasomal pathway, and the N-linked glycan present on the protein may play an important role in this process. Specifically, it has been suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mannosidase I could trigger the targeting of improperly folded glycoproteins to degradation. We used a CHO-derived glycosylation-defective cell line, MadIA214, for investigating the role of mannosidase(s) as a signal for glycoprotein degradation. Glycoproteins in MadIA214 cells carry truncated Glc(1)Man(5)GlcNAc(2) N-glycans. This oligomannoside structure interferes with protein maturation and folding, leading to an alteration of the ER morphology and the detection of high levels of soluble oligomannoside species caused by glycoprotein degradation. An HA-epitope-tagged soluble variant of ribophorin I (RI(332)-3HA) expressed in MadIA214 cells was rapidly degraded, comparable to control cells with the complete Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) N-glycan. ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of RI(332)-3HA was also proteasome-mediated in MadIA214 cells, as demonstrated by inhibition of RI(332)-3HA degradation with agents specifically blocking proteasomal activities. Two inhibitors of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>1,2-mannosidase activity also stabilized RI(332)-3HA in the glycosylation-defective cell line. This is striking, because the major mannosidase activity in the ER is the one of mannosidase I, specific for a mannose <span class="hlt">alpha</span>1,2-linkage that is absent from the truncated Man(5) structure. Interestingly, though the Man(5) derivative was present in large amounts in the total protein pool, the two major species linked to RI(332)-3HA shortly after synthesis consisted of Glc(1)Man(5 )and Man(4), being replaced by Man(4 )and Man(3) when proteasomal degradation was inhibited. In contrast, the untrimmed intermediate of RI(332)-3HA was detected in mutant cells treated with mannosidase inhibitors. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that an <span class="hlt">alpha</span>1,2-mannosidase that is not ER mannosidase I is involved in ERAD of RI(332-)3HA in the glycosylation-defective cell line, MadIA214. PMID:11447136</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ermonval, M; Kitzmüller, C; Mir, A M; Cacan, R; Ivessa, N E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38529562"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical Inference for Coefficient <span class="hlt">Alpha</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rigorous comparison of the reliability coefficients of several tests or measurement procedures requires a sampling theory for the coefficients. This paper sum marizes the important aspects of the sampling theory for Cronbach's (1951) coefficient <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, a widely used internal consistency coefficient. This theory enables researchers to test a specific numerical hypothesis about the population <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and to obtain confidence intervals</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leonard S. Feldt; David J. Woodruff; Fathi A. Salih</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/alpha-thalassemia"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetics Home Reference: <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> thalassemia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... HbH disease, or <span class="hlt">alpha</span> thalassemia trait. The precise risk depends on how many alleles are missing and which combination of the HBA1 and HBA2 genes is affected. Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> thalassemia? These resources address the diagnosis ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA184548"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrophilic Nitration, Halogenation, Acylation, and Alkylation of <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>, <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>, <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Trifluoromethoxybenzene,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electrophilic nitration of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, a,a-trifluoromethoxybenzene gave 88-93% para and 12-7% ortho isomer with no meta isomer detected. The relative reactivity of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, a,a-trifluoromethoxybenzene compared to benzene (determined in competition experiments) w...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. A. Olah T. Yamoto T. Hashimoto J. G. Shih N. Trivedi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE85702991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survey of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-Nucleon Interaction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A survey of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-nucleon interaction is made. The experimental work on angular distributions of differential scattering cross-sections and polarizations in proton-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> and neutron-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> scattering is described. The phenomenological approach which in...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Ali A. A. Z. Ahmad N. Ferdous</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/alpha-mannosidosis"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetics Home Reference: <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-mannosidosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-mannosidosis On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed May 2014 What is <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-mannosidosis? <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-mannosidosis is a rare inherited disorder ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720015182&hterms=radon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dradon"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-particle spectrometer experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE84751175"> <span id="translatedtitle">SMMA <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Spectrum Deconvolution Code.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We performed a computer code ''SMMA'' able to deconvoluate routinely <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry spectrum including up to seven pics groups. The tailing is carried out by using homographic and exponential functions. (ERA citation 09:035869)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Amoudry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxmGkxqcM9U"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/302293"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-range <span class="hlt">alpha</span> detection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The detection and measurement of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> contamination is not an easy task. An <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle`s characteristic high charge and large mass make it highly interactive with surrounding matter. The particle is often absorbed before its presence can be sensed with a detector. Los Alamos National Laboratory has studied this problem and has developed an improved process to detect <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitting contaminants. The process is called long-range <span class="hlt">alpha</span> detection (LRAD). The LRAD process focuses on the collection and measurement of ions created as a result of an <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle`s interaction with air. With only about 35 eV necessary to create an ion pair, a typical 5-MeV <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle, upon emission from its maternal nucleus, creates about 150,000 pairs of charged particles. In air these charged particles take several seconds to locate a mate and become electrically neutral. During this time, ions can be pulled away from the source, collected, and measured. Ions can be motivated to a collection device by using an electric field or by moving the air mass in which the ions are located. The collected charges create a small but discrete current that can give some useful information about the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitting source. In this article, two commercially available applications of the LRADS technology will be discussed. One of these, a device used primarily for pipe monitoring, is from BNFL Instruments, Inc. The other is a monitoring box of sorts from Eberline that will produce an <span class="hlt">alpha</span> measurement on anything that is placed in the box.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kasper, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22140034"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} EMITTER WITH AN EXTREMELY LARGE REST-FRAME EQUIVALENT WIDTH OF {approx}900 A AT z = 6.5: A CANDIDATE POPULATION III-DOMINATED GALAXY?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have identified a very interesting Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} emitter (LAE), whose Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} emission line has an extremely large observed equivalent width of EW{sub 0} = 436{sup +422}{sub -{sub 149}} A, which corresponds to an extraordinarily large intrinsic rest-frame equivalent width of EW{sup int}{sub 0} = 872{sup +844}{sub -{sub 298}} A after the average intergalactic absorption correction. The object was spectroscopically confirmed to be a real LAE by its apparent asymmetric Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} line profile detected at z = 6.538. The continuum emission of the object was definitely detected in our deep z'-band image; thus, its EW{sub 0} was reliably determined. Follow-up deep near-infrared spectroscopy revealed emission lines of neither He II {lambda}1640 as an apparent signature of Population III (Pop III) nor C IV {lambda}1549 as proof of an active nucleus. No detection of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> He II {lambda}1640 line is not necessarily inconsistent with the interpretation that the underlying stellar population of the object is dominated by Pop III. We found that the observed extremely large EW{sub 0} of the Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} emission and the upper limit on the EW{sub 0} of the He II {lambda}1640 emission can be explained by population synthesis models favoring a very young age less than 2-4 Myr and massive metal-poor (Z < 10{sup -5}) or even metal-free stars. The observed large EW{sub 0} of Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} is insufficiently explained by Population I/II synthesis models with Z {>=} 10{sup -3}. However, we cannot conclusively rule out the possibility that this object is composed of a normal stellar population with a clumpy dust distribution, which could enhance the Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} EW{sub 0}, though its significance is still unclear.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kashikawa, Nobunari; Hayashi, Masao; Iye, Masanori [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nagao, Tohru; Ota, Kazuaki [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Toshikawa, Jun; Ishizaki, Yoshifumi; Shibuya, Takatoshi [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Egami, Eiichi; Jiang, Linhua [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ly, Chun [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Matsuda, Yuichi [Radio Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Shioya, Yasuhiro, E-mail: n.kashikawa@nao.ac.jp [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9008216"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of internal <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle radiation exposure and subsequent fertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the effect of internal exposure to <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in the radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n = 603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span>, fraction of energy absorbed within the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of gamma-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility. PMID:9008216</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schieve, L A; Davis, F; Roeske, J; Handler, A; Freels, S; Stinchcomb, T; Keane, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/433067"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of internal <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle radiation exposure and subsequent fertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the effect of internal exposure to {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n = 603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span>, fraction of energy absorbed within the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of {gamma}-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility. 42 refs., 5 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schieve, L.A.; Davis, F.; Freels, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/937833"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of internal <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation exposure and subsequent infertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the effect of internal exposure to {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in the radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n=603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span>, fraction of energy absorbed with in the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of {gamma}-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schieve, L. A.; Davis, F.; Roeske, J.; Handler, A.; Freels, S.; Stinchcomb, T.; Keane, A.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Univ. of Chicago; DePaul Univ.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2150129"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intratumour injection of immunoglobulins labelled with the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle emitter 211At: analyses of tumour retention, microdistribution and growth delay.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To determine the effects of 211At-labelled antibodies in solid tumour tissue, nude mice carrying OHS human osteosarcoma xenografts received intratumour injections at dosages of 1, 2 or 4 MBq (-1) tumour. The radioisotope was conjugated to either the osteosarcoma-specific monoclonal antibody TP-3 or the non-specific polyclonal antibody hlgGkappa. Tumour retention of injected radioimmunoconjugate (RIC), measured as the percentage of injected activity dosage per gram, was significantly higher for the [211At]TP-3 (203 +/- 93 at 24.1 h post injection) compared with the [211At]hlgGkappa (57 +/- 22 at 23.2 h post injection). The radioactive count rates in body (measured at neck and abdomen) were significantly lower with the TP-3 than with the hlgGkappa. Microautoradiography of the tumour radionuclide distribution was different for the two RICs, i.e. the [211At]TP-3 was to a larger extent concentrated near the injection site, whereas the [211At]hlgGkappa was more evenly distributed all over the tumour. The tumour growth was significantly delayed as a function of the injected activity dosage but without significant difference between the specific and the non-specific RIC. According to this study, it is possible to deliver highly selective radiation doses to solid tumours using intratumour injection of <span class="hlt">alpha-particle-emitting</span> RICs. Improved tumour retention caused by antigen binding indicates that reduced normal tissue exposure can be obtained with antigen-specific antibodies. The heterogeneous tumour dose distribution observed is, however, a major impediment to the use of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle emitters against solid tumours. Images Figure 2 Figure 3</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Larsen, R. H.; Bruland, O. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PMB....41.1915V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Targeted therapy using <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radionuclides such as <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img1.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> and <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img2.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> which decay by the emission of <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img3.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-particles are attractive for certain applications of targeted radiotherapy. The tissue penetration of <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img2.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> and <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img5.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-particles is equivalent to only a few cell diameters, offering the possibility of combining cell-specific targeting with radiation of similar range. Unlike the <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img6.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-<span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by radionuclides such as <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img7.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> and <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img8.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>, <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img3.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-particles are radiation of high linear energy transfer and thus greater biological effectiveness. Several approaches have been explored for targeted radiotherapy with <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img2.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>- and <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img1.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-labelled substances including colloids, monoclonal antibodies, metabolic precursors, receptor-avid ligands and other lower molecular weight molecules. An additional agent which exemplifies the promise of <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img3.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-emitting radiopharmaceuticals is meta-[<IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img1.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>]astatobenzylguanidine. The toxicity of this compound under single-cell conditions, determined both by [<IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img14.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>]thymidine incorporation and by limiting dilution clonogenic assays, for human neuroblastoma cells is of the order of 1000 times higher than that of meta-[<IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img7.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>]iodobenzylguanidine. For meta-[<IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img1.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>]astatobenzylguanidine, the <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img17.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> value was equivalent to only <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img18.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> atoms bound per cell. These results suggest that meta-[<IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img1.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>]astatobenzylguanidine might be valuable for the targeted radiotherapy of micrometastatic neuroblastomas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=366783"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-factor structural gene mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects on <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-factor production and mating.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-factor structural genes MF <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1 and MF <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2 in <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-factor production and mating has been investigated by the construction of mf <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1 and mf <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2 mutations that totally eliminate gene function. An mf <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1 mutant in which the entire coding region is deleted shows a considerable decrease in <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-factor production and a 75% decrease in mating. Mutations in mf <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2 have little or no effect on <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-factor production or mating. The mf <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1 mf <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2 double mutants are completely defective in mating and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-factor production. These results indicate that at least one <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-factor structural gene product is required for mating in MAT <span class="hlt">alpha</span> cells, that MF <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1 is responsible for the majority of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-factor production, and that MF <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1 and MF <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2 are the only active <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-factor genes. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kurjan, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030752"> <span id="translatedtitle">Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\<span class="hlt">alpha_s</span>$</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bethke, Siegfried; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Hoang, Andre H.; /Vienna U.; Kluth, Stefan; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Schieck, Jochen; /Munich U.; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AAS...22051202R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studying Reionization using Lyman <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Galaxies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Resonant scattering of Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> photons by neutral hydrogen hides Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission lines from view prior to the epoch of reionization. This simple principle provides us with several ways to study the history of reionization. These include the Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> luminosity function, observed spatial distributions of Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitters, Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> equivalent width distributions, and the minimum ionized volume test. I will present a brief overview of the underlying physics, the context from other reionization methods, and the observational constraints so far from the various Lyman-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> based tests. I will then discuss our group's ongoing Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> searches at z 8. Finally, I will discuss recent results on characterizing the distribution of velocity offsets between the Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> line and the systemic velocity-- a quantity that plays an important role in interpreting the results of Lyman-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> based reionization tests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rhoads, James E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22126592"> <span id="translatedtitle">A NEW POPULATION OF HIGH-z, DUSTY Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} EMITTERS AND BLOBS DISCOVERED BY WISE: FEEDBACK CAUGHT IN THE ACT?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By combining data from the NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission with optical spectroscopy from the W. M. Keck telescope, we discover a mid-IR color criterion that yields a 78% success rate in identifying rare, typically radio-quiet, 1.6 {approx}< z {approx}< 4.6 dusty Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} emitters (LAEs). Of these, at least 37% have emission extended on scales of 30-100 kpc and are considered Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} ''blobs'' (LABs). The objects have a surface density of only {approx}0.1 deg{sup -2}, making them rare enough that they have been largely missed in deep, small area surveys. We measured spectroscopic redshifts for 92 of these galaxies, and find that the LAEs (LABs) have a median redshift of 2.3 (2.5). The WISE photometry coupled with data from Herschel (Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA) reveals that these galaxies are in the Hyper Luminous IR galaxy regime (L{sub IR} {approx}> 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} L{sub Sun }) and have warm colors. They are typically more luminous and warmer than other dusty, z {approx} 2 populations such as submillimeter-selected galaxies and dust-obscured galaxies. These traits are commonly associated with the dust being illuminated by intense active galactic nucleus activity. We hypothesize that the combination of spatially extended Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}, large amounts of warm IR-luminous dust, and rarity (implying a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> phase) can be explained if the galaxies are undergoing brief, intense ''feedback'' transforming them from an extreme dusty starburst/QSO into a mature galaxy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bridge, Carrie R. [California Institute of Technology, MS249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blain, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, LE1 7RH Leicester (United Kingdom); Borys, Colin J. K.; Griffith, Roger L.; Tsai, Chao-Wei [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Petty, Sara; Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Benford, Dominic [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter; Stern, Daniel; Wu Jingwen [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Jarrett, Tom [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Lonsdale, Carol [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Stanford, Spencer A. [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wright, Edward L., E-mail: bridge@astro.caltech.edu [Astronomy Department, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pet+AND+food&pg=2&id=EJ322895"> <span id="translatedtitle">Meet the <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Pets.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">"<span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Pets" are the focal point of an integrated, multidisciplinary curriculum. Each pet is featured for a week in a vocabulary-rich story and introduces related activities beginning with the featured letter, such as the four food groups during Freddie Fish's week or universe during Ulysses Unicorn's week. (MT)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zitlaw, Jo Ann Bruce; Frank, Cheryl Standish</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950009786&hterms=marte&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmarte"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> proton x ray spectrometer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mars Pathfinder will carry an <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/15338524178048v3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Safety of <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Olefin Sulfonates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> olefin sulfonates (AOS) belong to the anionic surfac-tant class. They are efficient, readily biodegradable cleaning\\u000a agents. This paper reviews the safety aspects of AOS, in-cluding acute toxicity, teratogenicity, animal sensitization, human\\u000a sensitization, chronic toxicity and lifetime studies -cancer bioassay.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gary Ter Haar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=biofeedback&pg=4&id=EJ137568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alcoholism, <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Production, and Biofeedback</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less <span class="hlt">alpha</span> than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009sptz.prop60176R"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Spitzer Lyman <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Survey</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Determining the star formation history of high-redshift galaxies is vital for understanding galaxy formation and reionization. These galaxies are typically selected using their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) fluxes, thus their old stellar populations can be missed. Spitzer Imaging at 3.6 microns is essential to measure the rest-frame optical fluxes of high redshift galaxies and therefore estimate the total stellar mass. Lyman-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> galaxies form fully half of the known galaxies at zD3-6. The strength of the Lyman-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> line, at first glance, indicates a young (~10 million years old) and dust-free population. This picture of Lyman-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> galaxies as a class of less massive and young objects is simultaneously being confirmed and challenged thanks to Spitzer data. While most of the Lyman-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> galaxies are young and low-mass, a subset of them are more massive and/or dusty. That there may be two types of Lyman-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitters, is based on the only those few studies that analyze individual galaxies, and not co-addition of a sample of non-detections. In order to robustly investigate the statistical fraction of older and younger Lyman-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> galaxies at any given redshift and to find out the redshift evolution of this fraction, we simultaneously need a large sample at many redshifts, and we need deep imaging so we can study individual objects. We propose a systematic IRAC 3.6 imaging survey of a spectroscopically confirmed sample of about 100 Lyman-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> galaxies between redshifts 3.1<z<6.6. Deep broad-band imaging of all the galaxies in B,V,R,I and Z; and J and H imaging of a subset with NICMOS already exists. By fitting Spectral energy distributions we will measure accurately (1) The total stellar mass in these objects, including old stars which may have formed at redshifts > 8; (2) The dust extinction in the UV, and therefore a correction to their present star-formation rates; (3) The fraction of galaxies with old stellar populations as a function of redshift.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rhoads, James; Finkelstein, Steven; Grogin, Norman; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Pirzkal, Norbert; Wang, Junxian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JNuM..444...76P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Specific outcomes of the research on the radiation stability of the French nuclear glass towards <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decay accumulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents an overview of the main results of the French research on the long-term behavior of SON68 nuclear glass towards <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decay accumulation. The effect of the radiation damage induced by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decay and also helium build-up were investigated by examining glass specimens, doped with a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> actinide 244Cm, irradiated by light and heavy ions. Additionally, atomistic simulations by molecular dynamics have provided further information on the atomic-scale effects of the macroscopic phenomena observed. These studies have shown that some macroscopic properties vary with the accumulation of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decay, but then stabilize after integrated doses of the order of 4 × 1018 ? g-1. For example, the glass density diminishes by about 0.6%, its Young's modulus by about 15%, and its hardness by about 30%, while its fracture toughness increases by around 50%. The SEM and TEM characterization showed that the glass is still homogeneous. No phase separation, crystallization or bubbles formation was noticed up to an <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decay dose corresponding to several thousand years of disposal of nuclear glass canister. Moreover the initial alteration rate of the glass is not significantly affected by the glass damage induced by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decays or heavy ions irradiations. The comparison of the macroscopic evolutions of the Cm doped glass with those obtained for glasses irradiated with light or heavy ions (from either experimental and molecular dynamic studies) suggests that the macroscopic evolutions are induced by the nuclear interactions induced by the recoil nuclei of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decay. The analysis of the behavior of the glass structure subjected to ballistic effects with various spectroscopic studies, together with the results of atomistic modeling by molecular dynamics, have identified some slight changes in the local order around some cations. Moreover a modification of the medium-range order has also been demonstrated through changes in the bond angles between network formers and broadening of the ring size distributions, indicating increasing disorder of the glass structure. This structural evolution induced by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decays would be driven by the reconstruction of the glass disorganized by displacement cascades of the recoil nuclei, freezing a glass structure with a higher fictive temperature. This "ballistic disordering (BD) fast quenching" event induces a new glassy state characterized by a higher enthalpy state. Accumulation of ? decays induce similar phenomena of "BD-fast quenching", increasing the fraction of the sample volume characterized by a "high enthalpy state". At dose around 4 × 1018 ? g-1 the entire sample volume has been affected by "BD-fast quenching" events at least once, which explain the stabilization of the evolutions of glass structure and properties. Helium behavior was also studied by measuring the helium solubility constants and diffusion coefficients. Helium atoms are incorporated into the glass free volume with a solubility constant that varies less than 10% around a value of about 1011 at cm-3 Pa-1 and a density of solubility sites accessible for helium around 2 × 1021 sites cm-3 which is larger than helium production in a glass package. Helium diffusion experiments performed on infused and Cm doped SON68 glasses indicate that helium migration is controlled by a classical thermally activated diffusion process, whose activation energy (e.g. 0.6 ± 0.03 eV) is not affected by an <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decay dose of around 1019 ? g-1. Helium implantation studies suggest that helium trapping could exist in nanometer size bubbles. SEM and TEM analysis performed on a Cm doped glass damaged by an <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decay dose of around 1019 ? g-1, showed a homogeneous glass without crystallization, phase separation or bubbles with a spatial resolution limit of 10 nm. Bubbles of significant size seem very unlikely to form at room temperatures. But, the ability to form helium bubbles of nanometer size, at temperature below the glass vitreous transition temperature cannot be excluded. However, al</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peuget, S.; Delaye, J.-M.; Jégou, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53944283"> <span id="translatedtitle">Étude de la réaction (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 2<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) sur 12C par particules <span class="hlt">alpha</span> de 100 MeV</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The reaction 12C(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 2<span class="hlt">alpha</span>)8Be is observed by using 90 MeV <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles in ionographic matter. The excitation energy spectrum of the residual nucleus 8Be clearly shows the 0+, 2+, 4+ states. The spectrum calculated with the cluster-model wave function for 12C is compared with the observed data. The energy spectrum of the energetic outgoing <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle is calculated and compared with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Jacquot; Y. Sakamoto; M. Jung; C. Baixeras-Aiguabella; L. Girardin; H. Braun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6472876"> <span id="translatedtitle">A synopsis of collective <span class="hlt">alpha</span> effects and implications for ITER</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses the following: <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Interaction with Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes; <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Interaction with Ballooning Modes; <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Interaction with Fishbone Oscillations; and Implications for ITER.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sigmar, D.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21367479"> <span id="translatedtitle">In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Low-Dose-Rate Radioimmunotherapy by the <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Emitting Radioimmunoconjugate Thorium-227-DOTA-Rituximab</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To determine whether the low-dose-rate <span class="hlt">alpha-particle-emitting</span> radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-1,4,7,10-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-rituximab can be used to inactivate lymphoma cells growing as single cells and small colonies. Methods and Materials: CD20-positive lymphoma cell lines were treated with {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab for 1-5 weeks. To simulate the in vivo situation with continuous but decreasing supply of radioimmunoconjugates from the blood pool, the cells were not washed after incubation with {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab, but half of the medium was replaced with fresh medium, and cell concentration and cell-bound activity were determined every other day after start of incubation. A microdosimetric model was established to estimate the average number of hits in the nucleus for different localizations of activity. Results: There was a specific targeted effect on cell growth of the {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab treatment. Although the cells were not washed after incubation with {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab, the average contribution of activity in the medium to the mean dose was only 6%, whereas the average contribution from activity on the cells' own surface was 78%. The mean dose rates after incubation with 800 Bq/mL {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab varied from 0.01 to 0.03 cGy/min. The average delay in growing from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} cells/mL was 15 days when the cells were treated with a mean absorbed radiation dose of 2 Gy <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle radiation from {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab, whereas it was 11 days when the cells were irradiated with 6 Gy of X-radiation. The relative biologic effect of the treatment was estimated to be 2.9-3.4. Conclusions: The low-dose-rate radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab is suitable for inactivation of single lymphoma cells and small colonies of lymphoma cells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dahle, Jostein, E-mail: jostein.dahle@rr-research.n [Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway); Krogh, Cecilie; Melhus, Katrine B. [Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway); Borrebaek, Jorgen [Algeta ASA, Oslo (Norway); Larsen, Roy H. [Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway); Kvinnsland, Yngve [Nordic Neurolabs, Bergen (Norway)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960025002&hterms=xia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dxia"> <span id="translatedtitle">Q (<span class="hlt">Alpha</span>) Function and Squeezing Effect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relation of squeezing and Q(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) function is discussed in this paper. By means of Q function, the squeezing of field with gaussian Q(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) function or negative P(a)function is also discussed in detail.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yunjie, Xia; Xianghe, Kong; Kezhu, Yan; Wanping, Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA194514"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydration of p-Alkyloxy-<span class="hlt">Alpha-Alpha-Alpha</span>-Trifluoracetophenone and Water Activity as a Micellar Surface,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Equilibrium hydration of p-methoxy <span class="hlt">alpha</span> trifluoroacetophenone (MTFA) in water and anionic micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been followed by F NMR and UV spectrometry, and is strongly disfavored by the micelles. The effects can be separated in...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. D. Angeli A. Cipiciani R. Germani G. Savelli C. A. Bunton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://idke.ruc.edu.cn/seminars/phd/2007/12.25/A%20RISC%20Machine%20Sort.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>Sort: A RISC Machine Sort</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new sort algorithm, called <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>Sort, demonstrates that commodity processors and disks can handle commercial batch workloads. Using <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> AXP processors, commodi~ memory, and arrays of SCSI disks, <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>Sort runs the industry-standard sort benchmark in seven seconds. This beats the best published record on a 32-cpu 32-disk Hypercube by 8:1. On another benchmark, <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>Sort sorted more than a gigabyte in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chris Nyberg; Tom Barclay; Zarka Cvetanovic; Jim Gray; David B. Lomet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17144306"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emission factors and real-time optical properties of <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from traditional wood burning cookstoves.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is estimated that the combustion of biofuel generates 20% of all carbonaceous aerosols, yet these particles are studied less than those of other common sources. We designed and built a portable battery-operated emission-sampling cart to measure the real-time optical properties and other emission characteristics of biofuel cookstoves. In a field study in Honduras, we measured emission factors averaging 8.5 g/kg, higher than those found in previous laboratory studies. Strong flaming events emitted very dark particles with the optical properties of black particles. The elemental carbon to total carbon ratios ranged from 0.07 to 0.64, confirming that high elemental carbon fractions can be emitted from biofuel combustion and may not be used to distinguish fossil-fuel from biofuel sources when cooking is the dominant usage. Absorption Angstrom exponents, representing the dependence of absorption on wavelength, ranged from 1 (black) to 5 (yellow). Strongly absorbing particles with absorption inversely dependent on wavelength were emitted separately from particles with weak absorption and strong wavelength dependence; the latter probably contained conjugated aromatic compounds. Because combustion occurs in distinct phases, different types of carbonaceous aerosols from biofuel combustion are externally mixed at emission and may have different atmospheric fates. PMID:17144306</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roden, Christoph A; Bond, Tami C; Conway, Stuart; Pinel, Anibal Benjamin Osorto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=45068"> <span id="translatedtitle">METHODS FOR ANALYZING INORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN <span class="hlt">PARTICLES</span> <span class="hlt">EMITTED</span> FROM STATIONARY SOURCES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The research described was initiated with the objective of developing methods to identify and measure inorganic compounds in particulate emissions which emanate from sources using or processing fossil fuels. An extensive literature review was carried out to ascertain prior knowle...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..73..112J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the airborne submicrometer <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by dredging vessels using a plume capture method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method for investigating ship emissions, known as the plume capture and analysis system (PCAS) is described. The PCAS is applied to the task of measuring airborne pollutant emission factors (EFs) and particle size distributions aboard two dredgers, although the technique is also suitable for remote measurements. EFs were measured relative to the fuel consumption using the fuel combustion derived plume CO2. Each measurement typically took 6 min to complete and during one day, 40-50 measurements were possible. EFs for particle number (PN), NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 were independent within a targeted dilution factor range of 50-1000 suitable for onboard and remote sampling. For the Amity, the EF ranges were PN: 2.2-9.6 × 1015 (kg-fuel)-1; NOx: 35-72 g (NO2) (kg-fuel)-1, SO2 0.6-1.1 g (SO2) (kg-fuel)-1and PM2.5: 0.7-6.1 g (PM2.5) (kg-fuel)-1. For the Brisbane they were PN: 1.0-1.5 × 1016 (kg-fuel)-1, NOx: 3.4-8.0 g (NO2) (kg-fuel)-1, SO2: 1.3-1.7 g (SO2) (kg-fuel)-1 and PM2.5: 1.2-5.6 g (PM2.5) (kg-fuel)-1. Particle number emission factors as a function of size as well as the count median diameter (CMD), and geometric standard deviation of the size distributions are provided. This size distributions were consistently uni-modal in the range below 500 nm for both vessels, and this CMD always lay within the accumulation mode range.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Juwono, Alamsyah M.; Johnson, G. R.; Mazaheri, M.; Morawska, L.; Roux, F.; Kitchen, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6305747"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of individual fly-ash <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from coal- and oil-fired power plants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Individual particles from coal- and oil-fired power plants were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer to investigate the morphology and composition as a function of size. Samples were collected on filters by a dichotomous sampler in the fine (<2.5 micrometer aerodynamic diameter) and the coarse fractions (2.5 to 5-10 micrometers). In both fractions, coal fly-ash particles were predominantly smooth spheres, and no cenospheres (perforated hollow spheres) were detected. Almost 90% of the mass concentration occurred in the coarse fraction; the major elements included Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, and Fe. Sulfur appeared as a surface layer on the mineral core. The abundances of Fe and S in each particle were highly variable. The ratio of Al to Si was fairly constant for most of the spheres but not for the relatively few Fe-rich or non-spherical coal fly ash particles. Over 90% of the mass of oil fly-ash occurred in the fine fraction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mamane, Y.; Miller, J.L.; Dzubay, T.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=212506"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Model to Predict the Breathing Zone Concentrations of <span class="hlt">Particles</span> <span class="hlt">Emitted</span> from Surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perfo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830008001&hterms=SRL&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2522SRL%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">The isotropic condition of energetic <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from a large solar flare. Ph.D. Thesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Isotope abundance ratios for 5 to 50 MeV/nuc nuclei from a large solar flare were measured. The measurements were made by the heavy isotope spectrometer telescope (HIST) on the ISEE-3 satellite orbiting the Sun near an Earth-Sun liberation point approximately one million miles sunward of the Earth. Finite values for the isotope abundance ratios C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, O-18/O-16, Ne-22/Ne-20, Mg-25/Mg-24, and Mg-26/Mg-24, and upper limits for the isotope abundance ratios He-3/He-4, C-14/C-12, O-17/O-16 and Ne-21/Ne-20 were reported. Element abundances and spectra were measured to compare the flare with other reported flares. The flare is a typical large flare with low Fe/O abundance or = to 0.1). For C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, O-18/O-16, Mg-25/Mg-24 and Mg-26/Mg-24 isotope abundance ratios agree with the solar system abundance ratios. Measurement for Ne-22/Ne-20 agree with the isotopic composition of the meteoritic component neon-A.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spalding, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5143696"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toxicity of <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from combustion of waste crankcase oil: in vitro and in vivo studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ever-rising cost of energy provides incentives for the utilization of low-cost waste crankcase oil (WCO) for space heating. Although WCO is known to contain toxic heavy metals, the potential health hazards of emissions and waste products resulting from the combustion of WCO are unknown. Thus, the toxicity of the emission particles and waste products from two different types of burners, a Dravo atomizing oil burner (AOB) and a Kroll vaporizing oil burner (VOB), is evaluated using automotive WCO. Samples are characterized by performing elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Both burners emitted fine (less than or equal to 3 microns), respirable particles. The AOB emission particles contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, especially Pb, which showed concentrations as high as 7.5%. The VOB retained a significant amount of heavy metals in the burner residue and emitted a much smaller quantity into the air. The toxicity of AOB emission particles, VOB emission particles, and VOB waste residue is evaluated in three bioassay systems, including a rabbit alveolar macrophage (RAM) cytotoxicity in vitro assay, an intratracheal injection infectivity assay, and a peritoneal irritancy test in mice. The emission particles from both burners and leachate from VOB residue produce a dose-related reduction in viability and cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in alveolar macrophages following 20-hr exposure. Acidity of the RAM medium due to the presence of VOB emission particles and waste leachate contributes to its toxicity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mumford, J.L.; Hatch, G.E.; Hall, R.E.; Jackson, M.A.; Merrill, R.G. Jr.; Lewtas, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21253981"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization and control of airborne <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> during production of epoxy/carbon nanotube nanocomposites.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work characterized airborne particles generated from the weighing of bulk, multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the manual sanding of epoxy test samples reinforced with CNTs. It also evaluated the effectiveness of three local exhaust ventilation (LEV) conditions (no LEV, custom fume hood, and biosafety cabinet) for control of particles generated during sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites. Particle number and respirable mass concentrations were measured using an optical particle counter (OPC) and a condensation particle counter (CPC), and particle morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The ratios of the geometric mean (GM) concentrations measured during the process to that measured in the background (P/B ratios) were used as indices of the impact of the process and the LEVs on observed concentrations. Processing CNT-epoxy nanocomposites materials released respirable size airborne particles (P/B ratio: weighing = 1.79; sanding = 5.90) but generally no nanoparticles (P/B ratio ?1). The particles generated during sanding were predominantly micron sized with protruding CNTs and very different from bulk CNTs that tended to remain in large (>1 ?m) tangled clusters. Respirable mass concentrations in the operator's breathing zone were lower when sanding was performed in the biological safety cabinet (GM = 0.20 ?g/m(3) compared with those with no LEV (GM = 2.68 ?g/m(3) or those when sanding was performed inside the fume hood (GM = 21.4 ?g/m(3); p-value < 0.0001). The poor performance of the custom fume hood used in this study may have been exacerbated by its lack of a front sash and rear baffles and its low face velocity (0.39 m/sec). PMID:21253981</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cena, Lorenzo G; Peters, Thomas M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57766050"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization and Control of Airborne <span class="hlt">Particles</span> <span class="hlt">Emitted</span> During Production of Epoxy\\/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work characterized airborne particles generated from the weighing of bulk, multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the manual sanding of epoxy test samples reinforced with CNTs. It also evaluated the effectiveness of three local exhaust ventilation (LEV) conditions (no LEV, custom fume hood, and biosafety cabinet) for control of particles generated during sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites. Particle number and respirable</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorenzo G. Cena; Thomas M. Peters</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19993408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detection of charged <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by electrolytically induced cold nuclear fusion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An attempt was made to obtain evidence for electrolytically induced cold nuclear fusion by detecting charged particles associated with the nuclear reaction. Charged particles were detected by a conventional silicon surface barrier detector attached close to the thin foil cathode which formed the bottom of an electrolysis cell. The efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio of this system are higher than those</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryoichi Taniguchi; Takao Yamamoto; Setsuko Irie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACPD...1122483A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of trace gases and <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by a chaparral fire in California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass burning (BB) is a major global source of trace gases and particles. Accurately representing the production and evolution of these emissions is an important goal for atmospheric chemical transport models. We measured a suite of gases and aerosols emitted from an 81 ha prescribed fire in chaparral fuels on the central coast of California, US on 17 November 2009. We also measured post-emission chemical changes in the isolated downwind plume for ~4 h of smoke aging. The measurements were carried out on board a Twin Otter aircraft outfitted with an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR), aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), single particle soot photometer (SP2), nephelometer, LiCor CO2 analyzer, a chemiluminescence ozone instrument, and a wing-mounted meteorological probe. Our measurements included: CO2; CO; NOx; NH3; non-methane organic compounds; organic aerosol (OA); inorganic aerosol (nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, and chloride); aerosol light scattering; refractory black carbon (rBC); and ambient temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and three-dimensional wind velocity. The molar ratio of excess O3 to excess CO in the plume (?O3/?CO) increased from -0.005 to 0.102 in 4.5 h. Excess acetic and formic acid (normalized to excess CO) increased by factors of 1.7 ± 0.4 and 7.3 ± 3.0 (respectively) over the same aging period. Based on the rapid decay of C2H4 we infer an in-plume average OH concentration of 5.3 (±1.0) × 106 molecules cm-3, consistent with previous studies showing elevated OH concentrations in biomass burning plumes. Ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate all increased with plume aging. The observed ammonium increase was a factor of 3.9 ± 2.6 in about 4 h, but accounted for just ~36 % of the gaseous ammonia lost on a molar basis. Some of the gas phase NH3 loss may have been due to condensation on, or formation of, particles below the AMS detection range. NOx was converted to PAN and particle nitrate with PAN production being about two times greater than production of observable nitrate over a 4 h aging period. The excess aerosol light scattering in the plume (normalized to excess CO2) increased by a factor of 2.3 ± 0.7 over 4 h. The increase in light scattering was similar to that observed in an earlier study of a biomass burning plume in Mexico where significant secondary formation of OA closely tracked the increase in scattering. In the California plume, however, ?OA/?CO2 decreased sharply for the first hour and then increased slowly with a net decrease of ~24 % over 4 h. The fraction of thickly coated rBC particles increased almost twofold over the 4 h aging period. Decreasing OA accompanied by increased scattering/coating in the initial aging may be due to a combination of particle coagulation and evaporation processes. Recondensation of species initially evaporated from the particles may have contributed to the subsequent slow rise in OA. We compare our results to observations from other plume aging studies and suggest that differences in environmental factors such as smoke concentration, oxidant concentration, actinic flux, and RH contribute significantly to the variation in plume evolution observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akagi, S. K.; Craven, J. S.; Taylor, J. W.; McMeeking, G. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Wold, C. E.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Coe, H.; Alvarado, M. J.; Weise, D. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20383380"> <span id="translatedtitle">A model to predict the breathing zone concentrations of <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from surfaces.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perform a scripted activity, such as raking a specified area of soil, while wearing appropriate sample collection instrumentation. As an alternative approach, a probabilistic model based on aerosol physics and fluid dynamics was developed to predict the breathing zone concentration of a particulate contaminant emitted from a surface during activities of variable intensity. The model predicted the particle emission rate, tracked particle transport to the breathing zone, and calculated the breathing zone concentration for two scenarios. One scenario used an Eulerian model based on a Gaussian concentration distribution to quantify aerosol exposure in the trailing wake of a moving object. The second scenario modeled exposure in a quiescent environment. A Lagrangian model tracked the cumulative number of individual particles entering the breathing zone volume at a particular time. A Monte Carlo simulation calculated the breathing zone concentration probability distribution for each scenario. Both models predicted probability distributions of asbestos breathing zone concentrations that bracketed experimentally measured personal exposure concentrations. Modeled breathing zone concentrations were statistically correlated (p-value < 0.001) with independently collected ABS concentrations. The linear regression slope of 0.70 and intercept of 0.03 were influenced by the quantity of ABS data collected and model parameter input distributions at a site broader than those at other sites. PMID:20383380</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thornburg, Jonathan; Kominsky, John; Brown, G Gordon; Frechtel, Peter; Barrett, William; Shaul, Glenn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1311919W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hygroscopic properties of organic aerosol <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> in the marine atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE), a plume of organic aerosol was produced and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the research vessel R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) at a relative humidity (RH) of 92% were low, but increased at higher plume ages: from 1.05 to 1.09 for 30 nm and from 1.05 to 1.1 for 150 nm dry size (contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6). Simultaneously, ratios of oxygen to carbon (O:C) increased from < 0.001 to 0.2, water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) concentrations increased from 2.42 to 4.96 ?g m-3, and organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94). New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm-3), which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07-0.88%. High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions. An average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wonaschütz, A.; Coggon, M.; Sorooshian, A.; Modini, R.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Roberts, G. C.; Russell, L. M.; Dey, S.; Brechtel, F. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.8852S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical characteristics of fine <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from different gas cooking methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gas cooking is an important indoor source of fine particles (PM 2.5). The chemical characteristics of PM 2.5 emitted from different cooking methods, namely, steaming, boiling, stir-frying, pan-frying and deep-frying were investigated in a domestic kitchen. Controlled experiments were conducted to measure the mass concentration of PM 2.5 and its chemical constituents (elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals and ions) arising from these five cooking methods. To investigate the difference in particle properties of different cooking emissions, the amount and type of food, and the heat setting on the gas stove were kept constant during the entire course of the experiments. Results showed that deep-frying gave rise to the largest amount of PM 2.5 and most chemical components, followed by pan-frying, stir-frying, boiling, and steaming. Oil-based cooking methods released more organic pollutants (OC, PAHs, and organic ions) and metals, while water-based cooking methods accounted for more water-soluble (WS) ions. Their source profiles are also presented and discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">See, Siao Wei; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=46065"> <span id="translatedtitle">TOXICITY OF <span class="hlt">PARTICLES</span> <span class="hlt">EMITTED</span> FROM COMBUSTION OF WASTE CRANKCASE OIL: IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDIES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ever-rising cost of energy provides incentives for the utilization of waste crankcase oil (WCO) for space heating. The potential health hazards of emissions and waste products resulting from the combustion of WCO are unknown. The toxicity of the emission particles and waste p...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20685717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultrafine <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by flame and electric arc guns for thermal spraying of metals.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ultrafine aerosol emitted by thermal spraying of metals using flame and electric arc processes has been characterized in terms of particle size distribution and emission rates based on both particle number and mass. Thermal spraying of Zn, Zn/Al, and Al was studied. Measurements taken using an electrical low pressure impactor and a condensation nucleus counter reveal an aerosol made up of very fine particles (80-95% of number distribution <100 nm). Ultrafine particle emission rates produced by the electric arc process are very high, the largest values being recorded during spraying of pure aluminium. This process generates high particle emissions and therefore requires careful consideration and possible rethinking of currently implemented protection measures: ventilated cabins, dust collectors, and personal protective equipment. PMID:20685717</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bémer, Denis; Régnier, Roland; Subra, Isabelle; Sutter, Benjamin; Lecler, Marie T; Morele, Yves</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA575283"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying Sulfate, Organics, and Lubrication Oil in <span class="hlt">Particles</span> <span class="hlt">Emitted</span> from Military Aircraft Engines.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1.1 Objectives SERDP Project WP1625 was a multi-component effort to understand volatile contributions to particulate matter (PM) emitted from military aircraft engines. Volatile PM formed when condensable gases emitted in the exhaust form new particles or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Wong J. Peck R. Miake-Lye S. C. Herndon Z. Yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986AtmEn..20.2125M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of individual fly ash <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from coal- and oil-fired power plants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Individual particles from coal- and oil-fired power plants were analyzed by scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer to investigate size, morphology, and composition. Samples were collected on filters by dichotomous sampler in the fine ( <2.5 ?m aerodynamic diameter) and coarse (2.5 to 5-10 ?m) fractions. In both fractions coal fly ash particles were predominantly ( > 95%) smooth, mineral spheres. No cenospheres (perforated hollow spheres) were detected, and almost 90% of the mass concentrations occurred in the coarse fraction. Sulfur as lared as a surface layer on the mineral core; the abundances of Fe and S were highly variable. The Al/Si ratio was fairly constant for most of the spheres but not for the relatively few Fe-rich or non-spherical coal fly ash particles. Over 90% of the mass of oil fly ash occurred in the fine fraction. The size distribution of chemical and morphological properties of individual oil fly ash particles was found to be trimodal. Oil fly ash particles smaller than 0.7 ? (geometric diameter) were non-spherical and relatively pure in sulfate, and 90% of such particles were smaller than 0.5 ?m; V or Ni could be detected in 50% to 60% of such particles larger than 0.3 ?m. Those particles in the 0.7-3 ?m range of geometric diameters were predominantly spherical and of mineral composition, highly variable in Al, Si, P, Ca, Ti and Fe; 50-60% of them contained detectable amounts of V or Ni. Larger oil fly ash particles had a lacy morphology and consisted of carbonaceous material and sulfur.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mamane, Y.; Miller, J. L.; Dzubay, T. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.9819W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hygroscopic properties of smoke-generated organic aerosol <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> in the marine atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE), a plume of organic aerosol was produced by a smoke generator and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, the plume particles had very low hygroscopic growth factors (GFs): between 1.05 and 1.09 for 30 nm and between 1.02 and 1.1 for 150 nm dry size at a relative humidity (RH) of 92%, contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6. New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm-3), which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07 and 0.88%. Ratios of oxygen to carbon (O : C) and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) increased with plume age: from < 0.001 to 0.2, and from 2.42 to 4.96 ?g m-3, respectively, while organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94). High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small, new particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions: an average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, and a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wonaschütz, A.; Coggon, M.; Sorooshian, A.; Modini, R.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Roberts, G. C.; Russell, L. M.; Dey, S.; Brechtel, F. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11142493"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interferon-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> induced Raynaud's syndrome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cytokine interferon-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> (IFN-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) is increasingly prescribed for a number of indications, especially viral hepatitis and several malignancies. Two patients are described who developed Raynaud's syndrome during treatment with IFN-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> as adjuvant therapy for high-risk melanoma. With a review of the available literature the symptomatology, possible pathophysiologic mechanisms and treatment options are discussed. PMID:11142493</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kruit, W H; Eggermont, A M; Stoter, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=KFK2455"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-gamma Angular Correlations in the Reaction exp 24 MG( <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> , <span class="hlt">alpha</span> sub 1 gamma ) at Esub( <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> ) = 104 Mev.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The in-plane <span class="hlt">alpha</span> sub 1 - gamma angular correlation of the reaction exp 24 Mg( <span class="hlt">alpha</span> , <span class="hlt">alpha</span> sub 1 gamma ) has been studied at a bombarding energy of 104 MeV. Double differential cross sections have been measured for 126 pairs of angles by use of a multi...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. Eyrich A. Hofmann U. Scheib S. Schneider F. Vogler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alpha&id=EJ860401"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atypical <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG <span class="hlt">alpha</span> activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., <span class="hlt">alpha</span> asymmetry). Increased rightward <span class="hlt">alpha</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=biofeedback&pg=4&id=EJ223101"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effectiveness of <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Biofeedback Therapy: Negative Results.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assessed the utility of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> biofeedback training in the treatment of patients (N=66). Biofeedback and placebo biofeedback groups were given <span class="hlt">alpha</span> or mock-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> training sessions. Improvement on 54 variables was compared to that of no-treatment controls. Only a chance number of significant changes appeared among the groups. (Author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watson, Charles G.; Herder, Joseph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD720911"> <span id="translatedtitle">Halomethyl-Metal Compounds. Xli. Phenyl(<span class="hlt">Alpha</span>, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-Dichlorobenzyl)Mercury: A Phenylchlorocarbene Precursor.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phenyl(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-dichlorobenzyl)mercury has been prepared via <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-dichlorobenzyllithium. It was found to be unstable to heat and to moisture, its hydrolysis giving benzene, benzoic acid and elemental mercury. Thermolysis of this mercurial in t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Seyferth D. C. Mueller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/y6r121720pwk2317.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dihydro-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-lipoic acid has more potent cytotoxicity than <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-lipoic acid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-lipoic acid has been shown to possess cancer-cell-killing activity via activation of the apoptosis pathway. In this\\u000a study, the cytotoxic activities of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-lipoic and dihydro-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-lipoic acid were compared in HL-60 cells. The cell-killing\\u000a activity of dihydro-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-lipoic acid was higher than that of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-lipoic acid. Both <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-lipoic and dihydro-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-lipoic\\u000a acid induced caspase-3 cleavage and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in treated cells. On</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masao Yamasaki; Akiko Kawabe; Kentaro Nishimoto; Harishkumar Madhyastha; Yoichi Sakakibara; Masahito Suiko; Takeaki Okamoto; Taiji Suda; Kenzo Uehira; Kazuo Nishiyama</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> 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showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386421"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-plutonium's Grüneisen parameter.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reported Grüneisen parameters ? of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-plutonium range from 3.0 to 9.6, which is remarkable because typical Grüneisen parameter uncertainty seldom exceeds ± 0.5. Our six new estimates obtained by different methods range from 3.2 to 9.6. The new estimates arise from Grüneisen's rule, from Einstein model and Debye model fits to low-temperature ?V/V, from the bulk modulus temperature dependence, from the zero-point-energy contribution to the bulk modulus, and from another Grüneisen relationship whereby ? is estimated from only the bulk modulus and volume changes with temperature (or pressure). We disregard several high estimates because of the itinerant-localized 5f-electron changes during temperature changes and pressure changes. Considering all these estimates, for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-plutonium, we recommend ? = 3.7 ± 0.4, slightly high compared with values for all elemental metals. PMID:21386421</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ledbetter, Hassel; Lawson, Andrew; Migliori, Albert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47253990"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-fetoprotein in Abortion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The clinical value of maternal serum <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-fetoprotein (AFP) as a guide to the outcome of threatened abortion was assessed. After the thirteenth week of gestation, abortion occurred more frequently (10\\/12) in women with abnormal serum AFP levels than in those (2\\/12) whose AFP concentrations were within the normal range. Low levels were present in women with blighted ovum and high</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Markku Seppälä; Erkki Ruoslahti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26412662"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65srm2) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A “scaled-down” version has been flown on the Space Shuttle</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Alcaraz; B. Alpat; G. Ambrosi; H. Anderhub; L. Ao; A. Arefiev; P. Azzarello; E. Babucci; L. Baldini; M. Basile; D. Barancourt; F. Barao; G. Barbier; G. Barreira; R. Battiston; R. Becker; U. Becker; L. Bellagamba; P. Bene; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; A. Biland; S. Bizzaglia; S. Blasko; G. Boella; M. Boschini; M. Bourquin; L. Brocco; G. Bruni; M. Buenerd; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; X. D. Cai; C. Camps; P. Cannarsa; M. Capell; D. Casadei; J. Casaus; G. Castellini; C. Cecchi; Y. H. Chang; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; Z. G. Chen; N. A. Chernoplekov; T. H. Chiueh; Y. L. Chuang; F. Cindolo; V. Commichau; A. Contin; P. Crespo; M. Cristinziani; J. P. da Cunha; T. S. Dai; J. D. Deus; N. Dinu; L. Djambazov; I. DAntone; Z. R. Dong; P. Emonet; J. Engelberg; F. J. Eppling; T. Eronen; G. Esposito; P. Extermann; J. Favier; E. Fiandrini; P. H. Fisher; G. Fluegge; N. Fouque; Yu. Galaktionov; M. Gervasi; P. Giusti; D. Grandi; O. Grimm; W. Q. Gu; K. Hangarter; A. Hasan; V. Hermel; H. Hofer; M. A. Huang; W. Hungerford; M. Ionica; R. Ionica; M. Jongmanns; K. Karlamaa; W. Karpinski; G. Kenney; J. Kenny; W. Kim; A. Klimentov; R. Kossakowski; V. Koutsenko; M. Kraeber; G. Laborie; T. Laitinen; G. Lamanna; G. Laurenti; A. Lebedev; S. C. Lee; G. Levi; P. Levtchenko; C. L. Liu; H. T. Liu; I. Lopes; G. Lu; Y. S. Lu; K. Lübelsmeyer; D. Luckey; W. Lustermann; A. Margotti; F. Mayet; R. R. McNeil; B. Meillon; M. Menichelli; A. Mihul; A. Mourao; A. Mujunen; F. Palmonari; A. Papi; I. H. Park; M. Pauluzzi; F. Pauss; E. Perrin; A. Pesci; A. Pevsner; M. Pimenta; V. Plyaskin; V. Pojidaev; V. Postolache; N. Produit; P. G. Rancoita; D. Rapin; F. Raupach; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Ribordy; J. P. Richeux; E. Riihonen; J. Ritakari; U. Roeser; C. Roissin; R. Sagdeev; G. Sartorelli; A. Schultz von Dratzig; G. Schwering; G. Scolieri; E. S. Seo; V. Shoutko; E. Shoumilov; R. Siedling; D. Son; T. Song; M. Steuer; G. S. Sun; H. Suter; X. W. Tang; Samuel C. C. Ting; S. M. Ting; M. Tornikoski; J. Torsti; J. Tr umper; J. Ulbricht; S. Urpo; I. Usoskin; E. Valtonen; J. Vandenhirtz; F. Velcea; E. Velikhov; B. Verlaat; I. Vetlitsky; F. Vezzu; J. P. Vialle; G. Viertel; D. Vite; H. Von Gunten; S. Waldmeier Wicki; W. Wallraff; B. C. Wang; J. Z. Wang; Y. H. Wang; K. Wiik; C. Williams; S. X. Wu; P. C. Xia; J. L. Yan; L. G. Yan; C. G. Yang; M. Yang; S. W. Ye; P. Yeh; Z. Z. Xu; H. Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; G. Y. Zhu; W. Z. Zhu; H. L. Zhuang; A. Zichichi; B. Zimmermann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1350129"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> 21264 microprocessor architecture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 21264 is the third generation <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> microprocessor from Compaq Computer (formerly Digital Equipment) Corporation. This microprocessor achieves the industry-leading performance levels of 30+ Specint95 and 50+ Specfp95. In addition to the aggressive 600 MHz cycle time in a 0.35 ?m CMOS process, there are also many architectural features that enable the outstanding performance level of the 21264. This paper</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. E. Kessler; E. J. McLellan; D. A. Webb</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110004872&hterms=alpha&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dalpha"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> voltaic batteries and methods thereof</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">alpha</span> voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles from the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor); Wilt, David (Inventor); Scheiman, David (Inventor); Chubb, Donald (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie (Inventor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23527855"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 antitrypsin deficiency, a corporate perspective.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Best-in-class systems have evolved among <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-1 antitrypsin (AAT) producers, specialty pharmacies and the <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 Foundation and <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>Net patient groups. The Genetic Alliance, NORD and other independent parties have recognized the benefits regarding public policy, patient advocacy, medical research, medication adherence, patient identification and health outcomes. Driving the next quantum leap in disease state management for <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 patients will require strong leadership from both industry and patient groups. Six initiatives are suggested that will sustain best-in-class approaches to identify, treat and even cure <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 patients. PMID:23527855</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stern, Lawrence D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51633586"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">alpha</span>-clustering and absolute <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-decay widths in spherical nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The absolute <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-decay in 212Po is calculated using a shell-model description of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle formation. It is found that high-lying shell-model configurations greatly enhance both the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-clustering features and the calculated <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-decay width. The interaction among the nucleons that form the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle is included through correlated two-particle states.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic; F. A. Janouch; R. J. Liotta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22130836"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE LYMAN <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission line (Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 < z < 0.18 in continuum-subtracted Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}, H{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}, and the far ultraviolet continuum. We show that Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} is emitted on scales that systematically exceed those of the massive stellar population and recombination nebulae: as measured by the Petrosian 20% radius, R{sub P20}, Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} radii are larger than those of H{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average of 2.4. The average ratio of Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} compared to H{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}, {xi}{sub Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}} = R {sup Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}}{sub P20}/R {sup H{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}}{sub P20}, we find {xi}{sub Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}} to be uncorrelated with total Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} luminosity. However, {xi}{sub Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}} is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} halo.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayes, Matthew [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Oestlin, Goeran; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Sandberg, Andreas [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Schaerer, Daniel [CNRS, IRAP, 14, avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Oti-Floranes, Hector [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofisica, POB 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Herenz, E. Christian [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1170764"> <span id="translatedtitle">Embryonic cardiomyocyte hypoplasia and craniofacial defects in G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> q/G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 11-mutant mice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heterotrimeric G proteins of the Gq class have been implicated in signaling pathways regulating cardiac growth under physiological and pathological conditions. Knockout mice carrying inactivating mutations in both of the widely expressed G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> q class genes, G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> q and G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 11, demonstrate that at least two active alleles of these genes are required for extrauterine life. Mice carrying only one intact allele [G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> q(-/+);G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 11(-/-) or G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> q(-/-);G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 11(-/+)] died shortly after birth. These mutants showed a high incidence of cardiac malformation. In addition, G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> q(-/-);G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 11(-/+) newborns suffered from craniofacial defects. Mice lacking both G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> q and G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 11 [G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> q(-/-);G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 11(-/-)] died at embryonic day 11 due to cardiomyocyte hypoplasia. These data demonstrate overlap in G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> q and G <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 11 gene functions and indicate that the Gq class of G proteins plays a crucial role in cardiac growth and development.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Offermanns, S; Zhao, L P; Gohla, A; Sarosi, I; Simon, M I; Wilkie, T M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3051849"> <span id="translatedtitle">PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> in cutaneous inflammation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> is a fatty acid activated transcription factors that belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. Primarily PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> serves as a lipid sensor. While PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> controls enzymes from the lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver, heart and muscles, PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> is also involved in skin homeostasis. PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> controls keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation, contributes to wound healing and regulates skin inflammation. PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> activation exerts anti-inflammatory effects in various skin conditions such as irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and UV-induced erythema, rendering investigations into the functions of PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> necessary to provide better understandings to treat many inflammatory skin disorders.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmuth, Matthias</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920044572&hterms=b3&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2522b3%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Ly-<span class="hlt">alpha/H-alpha</span> ratio in high-redshift radio galaxies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The first spectroscopic detection of H-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission from radio galaxies at z greater than 2 are presented. Strong H-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission is detected at z = 2.429 in B3 0731 + 438, and H-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> is directed at z = 2.428 in 0406 - 244 at a significant level of greater than 6 sigma. The resulting Ly-<span class="hlt">alpha/H-alpha</span> ratios for 0731 + 438 and 0406 - 244 are 3.9 and 3.2 with 3 sigma uncertainties of 1.5 for each. A range of possible extinctions is derived depending on the reddening-free Ly-<span class="hlt">alpha/H-alpha</span> ratio assumed and the extinction curve employed. The most important result of this study is the demonstration that the Ly-<span class="hlt">alpha/H-alpha</span> ratio in distant galaxies can now be measured with relative ease.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mccarthy, Patrick J.; Elston, Richard; Eisenhardt, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21101961"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> electrons with anomalously high collision rates in laser-ionized gases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ultrashort broadband terahertz pulses are applied to probe the electron dynamics of gaseous Ar and O{sub 2} following ionization by an intense femtosecond laser pulse. The conductivity in the plasma center is extracted by a modified Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approach. It exhibits a nearly perfect Drude-like spectral shape and yields the temporal evolution of the free-electron density and collision rate. While the electron density in the Ar plasma remains nearly constant during the first 200 ps after generation, it decays much faster in O{sub 2} due to dissociative recombination which is only possible in molecular plasmas. Adding a small amount of the electron scavenger SF{sub 6} to Ar reduces the electron lifetime in the plasma dramatically and allows us to determine the electron temperature to about 20 000 K. Furthermore, anomalously high, metal-like electron collision rates of up to 25 THz are found. Kinetic plasma theory substantially underestimates these rates pointing towards additional and more complex processes randomizing the total electronic momentum. Our results are relevant to both lightning control and generation of terahertz radiation by intense laser pulses in gases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kampfrath, Tobias; Perfetti, Luca; Tegeder, Petra; Wolf, Martin; Frischkorn, Christian [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Gericke, Dirk O. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/931490"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fusion of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <sup>132</sup>Sn with <sup>64</sup>Ni</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evaporation residue and fission cross sections of radioactive $^{132}$Sn on $^{64}$Ni were measured near the Coulomb barrier. A large sub-barrier fusion enhancement was observed. Coupled-channel calculations including inelastic excitation of the projectile and target, and neutron transfer are in good agreement with the measured fusion excitation function. When the change in nuclear size and shift in barrier height are accounted for, no extra fusion enhancement is observed in $^{132}$Sn+$^{64}$Ni with respect to stable Sn+$^{64}$Ni. A systematic comparison of evaporation residue cross sections for the fusion of even $^{112-124}$Sn and $^{132}$Sn with $^{64}$Ni is presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liang, Junjien [ORNL; Shapira, Dan [ORNL; Beene, James R [ORNL; Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Gomez Del Campo, Jorge [ORNL; Hausladen, Paul [ORNL; Mueller, Paul Edward [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Amro, H [University of Notre Dame; Kolata, Jim J [University of Notre Dame; Bierman, Jeff D [Gonzaga University; Caraley, Anne L [State University of New York, Oswego; Grzywacz-Jones, Kate L [ORNL; Larochelle, Y [University of Tennessee; Loveland, Walter [Oregon State University; Peterson, Don [Oregon State University</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="