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Sample records for short-term dissolution response

  1. Impact of iron chelators on short-term dissolution of basaltic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Anne; Rossano, Stéphanie; Trcera, Nicolas; Verney-Carron, Aurélie; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D.; Catillon, Gilles; Razafitianamaharavo, Angelina; Guyot, François

    2015-08-01

    Although microorganisms seem to play an important role in the alteration processes of basaltic glasses in solution, the elementary mechanisms involved remain unclear in particular with regard to the role of organic ligands excreted by the cells. Two glasses, one with Fe and one without Fe were synthesized to model basaltic glass compositions. Fe in the glass was mostly Fe(III) for enhancing interaction with siderophores, yet with small but significant amounts of Fe(II) (between 10% and 30% of iron). The prepared samples were submitted to abiotic alteration experiments in buffered (pH 6.4) diluted solutions of metal-specific ligands, namely oxalic acid (OA, 10 mM), desferrioxamine (DFA, 1 mM) or 2,2‧-bipyridyl (BPI, 1 mM). Element release from the glass into the solution after short term alteration (maximum 1 week) was measured by ICP-OES, and normalized mass losses and relative release ratios (with respect to Si) were evaluated for each element in each experimental condition. The presence of organic ligands had a significant effect on the dissolution of both glasses. Trivalent metals chelators (OA, DFA) impacted on the release of Fe3+ and Al3+, and thus on the global dissolution of both glasses, enhancing all release rates and dissolution stoichiometry (release rates were increased up to 7 times for Al or Fe). As expected, the mostly divalent metal chelator BPI interacted preferentially with Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+. This study thus allows to highlight the central roles of iron and aluminium in interaction with some organic ligands in the alteration processes of basaltic glasses. It thus provides a step toward understanding the biological contribution of this fundamental geological process.

  2. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. PMID:26476140

  3. Airway response to ultra short-term exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Fouke, J.M.; Delemos, R.A.; McFadden, E.R. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    To determine whether acute short-term exposure to oxidant pollutants can cause changes in respiratory mechanics, we gave 0.5 ppm ozone for 5 min to 7 baboons. We measured pulmonary resistance (RL) and obtained dose response curves to methacholine before and after the exposures. This brief insult increased resistance (control RL = 1.53 +/- 0.21 cm H/sub 2/O.L-1 s; post-ozone RL = 3.53 +/- 0.54 cm H/sub 2/O.L-1 s). On a second occasion, 6 of these animals were restudied before and after the administration of cromolyn sodium. Although this drug had no effect on the measurements of mechanics made in the control period, it significantly reduced the ozone-induced changes in mechanics. The increase in RL was 52% of that produced in the first study. The results demonstrated that the ozone injury with its acute and subacute airway sequelae occurs quite rapidly and after very brief exposure. The time course of the change in mechanics and the effects of cromolyn suggest the hypothesis that surface epithelial cells are disrupted, causing subsequent release of bronchoconstricting agents.

  4. Short-Term Variations in Response Distribution to Cortical Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Ronald P.; Lee, Hyang Woon; Webber, W. R. S.; Prince, Barry; Crone, Nathan E.; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of responses in the cerebral cortex can vary, and are influenced by pre-existing cortical function, but it is not known how rapidly these variations can occur in humans. We investigated how rapidly response patterns to electrical stimulation can vary in intact human brain. We also investigated whether the type of functional change…

  5. Socially Responsible Leadership: The Role of Participation in Short-Term Service Immersion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skendall, Kristan Cilente

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between short-term service immersion programs (STSI), such as Alternative Spring Break (ASB), and socially responsible leadership as measured by the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale (SRLS). Participation in STSI programs have been growing exponentially since 2006 (Bohn, 2009; Break…

  6. Impact of short-term storage on frequency response under increasing wind penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Das, Trishna; McCalley, James D.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the effort is to study the impact of short-term storage technology in stabilizing the frequency response under increasing wind penetration. The frequency response is studied using Automatic Generation Control (AGC) module, and is quantified in terms of Control Performance Standards (CPS). The single area IEEE Reliability Test System (RTS) was chosen, and battery storage was integrated within the AGC. The battery proved to reduce the frequency deviations and provide good CPS scores with higher penetrations of wind. The results also discuss the ability of the short term storage to benefit the system by reducing the hourly regulation deployment and the cycling undergone by conventional units, by dint of their fast response; and sheds light on the economic implications of their benefits.

  7. Root metabolic responses to short term anaerobiosis in the temperate sea grass Zostera marina L

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Pregnall, A.M.; Alberte, R.S.

    1986-04-01

    The submerged angiosperm Z. marina grows in highly reducing marine sediments. The roots experience periods of oxygen deprivation at night when photosynthesis-mediated oxygen transport from the shoot ceases. Despite this apparently inhospitable environment, Z. marina is extremely productive. This study sought to determine root metabolic responses to short term anaerobiosis. Roots were incubated for 4 h in the presence of /sup 14/C-sucrose. Amino acids and Krebs cycle intermediates were then extracted and label was quantified. Ethanol and lactate were the most heavily labeled metabolites following short term anaerobiosis. Despite increased synthesis of ethanol during anaerobiosis, endogenous levels do not increase significantly. Instead over 90% of newly synthesized ethanol is released by roots into the incubation medium. The authors conclude that release of ethanol by roots occurs naturally and prevents excessive accumulation of a potentially toxic product.

  8. Are baseline and short-term corticosterone stress responses in free-living amphibians repeatable?

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians respond to environmental stressors by secreting corticosterone, a stress hormone which promotes physiological and behavioral responses. Capture handling can be used to stimulate physiological stress response in amphibians. The use of single blood sampling and presentation of mean data often limits the quantification of within and between individual variation in baseline and short-term corticosterone stress responses in amphibians. It is important for studies of amphibian physiological ecology to determine whether baseline and short-term corticosterone stress responses are consistent or not. We quantified repeatability (r), a statistical measure of consistency, in baseline and short-term corticosterone stress responses to a standard capture and handling stress protocol in free-living adult male cane toads (Rhinella marina). Corticosterone metabolite concentrations were measured entirely non-invasively in male toad urine samples via an enzyme-immunoassay. During the first sampling occasion, urine samples were collected manually from individual male toads (n=20) immediately upon field capture. Toads were handled for 5min then transferred to plastic bags (constituting a mild stressor), and urine samples were collected hourly over 8h in the field. The toads were resampled for baseline (0h) urine corticosterone with hourly urine sampling over 8h (for quantification of the stress induced corticosterone) at 14 day intervals on three consecutive occasions. Within and between sample variations in urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations were also quantified. All toads expressed a corticosterone stress response over 8h to our standard capture and handling stress protocol. Variations both within and between toads was higher for corrected integrated corticosterone concentrations than corticosterone concentrations at baseline, 3 or 6h. Baseline urinary corticosterone metabolite concentration of the male toads was highly repeatable (r=0.877) together with high

  9. Long- and short-term temperature responses of microbially-mediated boreal soil organic matter transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.; Buckeridge, K. M.; Edwards, K. A.; Ziegler, S. E.; Billings, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Microorganisms use exoenzymes to decay soil organic matter into assimilable substrates, some of which are transformed into CO2. Microbial CO2 efflux contributes up to 60% of soil respiration, a feature that can change with temperature due to altered exoenzyme activities (short-term) and microbial communities producing different exoenzymes (longer-term). Often, however, microbial temperature responses are masked by factors that also change with temperature in soil, making accurate projections of microbial CO2 efflux with warming challenging. Using soils along a natural climate gradient similar in most respects except for temperature regime (Newfoundland Labrador Boreal Ecosystem Latitudinal Transect), we investigated short-vs. long-term temperature responses of microbially-mediated organic matter transformations. While incubating soils at 5, 15, and 25°C for 84 days, we measured exoenzyme activities, CO2 efflux rates and biomass, and extracted DNA at multiple times. We hypothesized that short-term, temperature-induced increases in exoenzyme activities and CO2 losses would be smaller in soils from warmer regions, because microbes presumably adapted to warmer regions should use assimilable substrates more efficiently and thus produce exoenzymes at a lower rate. While incubation temperature generally induced greater exoenzyme activities (p<0.001), exoenzymes' temperature responses depended on enzymes and regions (p<0.001). Rate of CO2 efflux was affected by incubation temperature (P<0.001), but not by region. Microbial biomass and DNA sequencing will reveal how microbial community abundance and composition change with short-vs. longer-term temperature change. Though short-term microbial responses to temperature suggest higher CO2 efflux and thus lower efficiency of resource use with warming, longer-term adaptations of microbial communities to warmer climates remain unknown; this work helps fill that knowledge gap.

  10. The short-term temperature response to smoke from oil fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, Douglas L.; Toon, Owen B.

    1991-01-01

    The short-term effect of smoke, similar to that being emitted from the Kuwaiti oil fields, on the ground temperature of the afffected region was investigated using a numerical model of atmospheric dynamics, aerosol microphysics, and radiative transfer similar to that used previosly by Westphal and Toon (1991). Results show that, after one diurnal cycle beneath smoke plumes of moderate visible absorption, ground cooling and ground warming were both possible; the response of the ground temperature and the boundary layer dynamics depended on the surface characteristics, with desert exhibiting the strongest cooling of all the land types used.

  11. Short-term diabetic hyperglycemia suppresses celiac ganglia neurotransmission, thereby impairing sympathetically mediated glucagon responses.

    PubMed

    Mundinger, Thomas O; Cooper, Ellis; Coleman, Michael P; Taborsky, Gerald J

    2015-08-01

    Short-term hyperglycemia suppresses superior cervical ganglia neurotransmission. If this ganglionic dysfunction also occurs in the islet sympathetic pathway, sympathetically mediated glucagon responses could be impaired. Our objectives were 1) to test for a suppressive effect of 7 days of streptozotocin (STZ) diabetes on celiac ganglia (CG) activation and on neurotransmitter and glucagon responses to preganglionic nerve stimulation, 2) to isolate the defect in the islet sympathetic pathway to the CG itself, and 3) to test for a protective effect of the WLD(S) mutation. We injected saline or nicotine in nondiabetic and STZ-diabetic rats and measured fos mRNA levels in whole CG. We electrically stimulated the preganglionic or postganglionic nerve trunk of the CG in nondiabetic and STZ-diabetic rats and measured portal venous norepinephrine and glucagon responses. We repeated the nicotine and preganglionic nerve stimulation studies in nondiabetic and STZ-diabetic WLD(S) rats. In STZ-diabetic rats, the CG fos response to nicotine was suppressed, and the norepinephrine and glucagon responses to preganglionic nerve stimulation were impaired. In contrast, the norepinephrine and glucagon responses to postganglionic nerve stimulation were normal. The CG fos response to nicotine, and the norepinephrine and glucagon responses to preganglionic nerve stimulation, were normal in STZ-diabetic WLD(S) rats. In conclusion, short-term hyperglycemia's suppressive effect on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the CG impairs sympathetically mediated glucagon responses. WLD(S) rats are protected from this dysfunction. The implication is that this CG dysfunction may contribute to the impaired glucagon response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia seen early in type 1 diabetes. PMID:26037249

  12. The short-term growth response to salt of the developing barley leaf.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Wieland; Akhiyarova, Gulya; Wei, Wenxue; Alexandersson, Erik; Miller, Anthony; Kjellbom, Per Ola; Richardson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Schreiber, Lukas; Veselov, Dima; Kudoyarova, Guzel; Volkov, Vadim

    2006-01-01

    Recent results concerning the short-term growth response to salinity of the developing barley leaf are reviewed. Plants were grown hydroponically and the growth response of leaf 3 was studied between 10 min and 5 d following addition of 100 mM NaCl to the root medium. The aim of the experiments was to relate changes in variables that are likely to affect cell elongation to changes in leaf growth. Changes in hormone content (ABA, cytokinins), water and solute relationships (osmolality, turgor, water potential, solute concentrations), gene expression (water channel), cuticle deposition, membrane potential, and transpiration were followed, while leaf elongation velocity was monitored. Leaf elongation decreased close to zero within seconds following addition of NaCl. Between 20 and 30 min after exposure to salt, elongation velocity recovered rather abruptly, to about 46% of the pre-stress level, and remained at the reduced rate for the following 5 d, when it reached about 70% of the level in non-stressed plants. Biophysical and physiological analyses led to three major conclusions. (i) The immediate reduction and sudden recovery in elongation velocity is due to changes in the water potential gradient between leaf xylem and peripheral elongating cells. Changes in transpiration, ABA and cytokinin content, water channel expression, and plasma membrane potential are involved in this response. (ii) Significant solute accumulation, which aids growth recovery, is detectable from 1 h onwards; growing and non-growing leaf regions and mesophyll and epidermis differ in their solute response. (iii) Cuticular wax density is not affected by short-term exposure to salt; transpirational changes are due to stomatal control. PMID:16513814

  13. Short-Term Adaptation of Conditioned Fear Responses Through Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Central Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Kamprath, Kornelia; Romo-Parra, Hector; Häring, Martin; Gaburro, Stefano; Doengi, Michael; Lutz, Beat; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2011-01-01

    The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are both known to have crucial roles in the processing of fear and anxiety, whereby they appear to be especially involved in the control of fear states. However, in contrast to many other brain regions including the cortical subregions of the amygdala, the existence of CB1 in the CeA remains enigmatic. In this study we show that CB1 is expressed in the CeA of mice and that CB1 in the CeA mediates short-term synaptic plasticity, namely depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) and inhibition (DSI). Moreover, the CB1 antagonist AM251 increased both excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic responses in CeA neurons. Local application of AM251 in the CeA in vivo resulted in an acutely increased fear response in an auditory fear conditioning paradigm. Upon application of AM251 in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) in an otherwise identical protocol, no such acute behavioral effects were detected, but CB1 blockade resulted in increased fear responses during tone exposures on the subsequent days. Moreover, we observed that the efficacy of DSE and DSI in the CeA was increased on the day following fear conditioning, indicating that a single tone-shock pairing resulted in changes in endocannabinoid signaling in the CeA. Taken together, our data show the existence of CB1 proteins in the CeA, and their critical role for ensuring short-term adaptation of responses to fearful events, thereby suggesting a potential therapeutic target to accompany habituation-based therapies of post-traumatic symptoms. PMID:20980994

  14. Detection of short-term response of the low ionosphere on gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nina, Aleksandra; Simić, Saša.; Srećković, Vladimir A.; Popović, Luka Č.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we study the possibility of detection of short-term terrestrial lower ionospheric response to gamma ray bursts (GRBs) using a statistical analysis of perturbations of six very low or low-frequency (VLF/LF) radio signals emitted by transmitters located worldwide and recorded by VLF/LF receiver located in Belgrade (Serbia). We consider a sample of 54 short-lasting GRBs (shorter than 1 min) detected by the Swift satellite during the period 2009-2012. We find that a statistically significant perturbation can be present in the low ionosphere, and reactions on GRBs may be observed immediately after the beginning of the GRB event or with a time delay of 60 s-90 s.

  15. Eucalyptus urograndis stem proteome is responsive to short-term cold stress

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Gabriela de Almeida; Carlos, Natália Aparecida; Mazzafera, Paulo; Balbuena, Tiago Santana

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus urograndis is a hybrid eucalyptus of major economic importance to the Brazilian pulp and paper industry. Although widely used in forest nurseries around the country, little is known about the biochemical changes imposed by environmental stress in this species. In this study, we evaluated the changes in the stem proteome after short-term stimulation by exposure to low temperature. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry-based protein identification, 12 proteins were found to be differentially regulated and successfully identified after stringent database searches against a protein database from a closely related species (Eucalyptus grandis). The identification of these proteins indicated that the E. urograndis stem proteome responded quickly to low temperature, mostly by down-regulating specific proteins involved in energy metabolism, protein synthesis and signaling. The results of this study represent the first step in understanding the molecular and biochemical responses of E. urograndis to thermal stress. PMID:26273222

  16. Maternal separation modulates short-term behavioral and physiological indices of the stress response.

    PubMed

    Litvin, Yoav; Tovote, Philip; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Zeyda, Thomas; King, Lanikea B; Vasconcellos, Amy J; Dunlap, Christopher; Spiess, Joachim; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2010-07-01

    Early-life stress produces an anxiogenic profile in adulthood, presumably by activating the otherwise quiescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during the vulnerable 'stress hyporesponsive period'. While the long-term effects of such early-life manipulations have been extensively characterized, little is known of the short-term effects. Here, we compared the short-term effects of two durations of maternal separation stress and one unseparated group (US) on behavioral and physiological indices of the stress response in rat pups. Separations included 3h on each of 12days, from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 13 (MS2-13) and 3days of daily, 6-h separation from PND11-13 (MS11-13). On PND14 (Experiment 1), both MS2-13 and MS11-13 produced marked reductions in freezing toward an adult male conspecific along with reduced levels of glucocorticoid type 2 (GR) and CRF type-1 (CRF(1)) receptor mRNA in the hippocampus. Group MS2-13 but not MS11-13 produced deficits in stressor-induced corticosterone secretion, accompanied by reductions in body weight. Our results suggest that GR and/or CRF(1) levels, not solely the magnitude of corticosterone secretion, may be involved in the modulation of freezing. In a second experiment, we aimed to extend these findings by testing male and female separated and unseparated pups' unconditioned defensive behaviors to cat odor on PND26, and subsequent cue+context conditioning and extinction throughout postnatal days 27-32. Our results show that maternal separation produced reductions in unconditioned freezing on PND26, with MS2-13 showing stronger deficits than MS11-13. However, separation did not affect any other defensive behaviors. Furthermore, separated rats failed to show conditioned freezing, although they did avoid the no-odor block conditioned cue. There were no sex differences other than weight. We suggest that maternal separation may have produced these changes by disrupting normal development of hippocampal regions involved in

  17. Stress responses to short-term intensified and reduced training in competitive weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Storey, A G; Birch, N P; Fan, V; Smith, H K

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify and evaluate the tolerance to, and consequences of, short-term variations in training load in competitive weightlifters. Seven international-level lifters performed 1 week of initial training followed by 2 weeks of intensified (INT: +100%, 36.5 ± 11.3 × 10(3)  kg/week) and 1 week of subsequently reduced (RED: -25%) training within their annual program. After INT, but not RED, 90 min of weightlifting increased mRNA levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) and cellular stress-associated DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by 40-240%. Resting- and weightlifting-induced changes in plasma protein carbonyls, indicative of oxidative stress, but not pro-inflammatory CCL4 concentrations differed between INT and RED. Symptoms of stress (Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes questionnaire) were reported as worse than normal more frequently during INT and RED than initial training. Global (negative) mood state increased during INT and declined during RED. Maximal snatch (-4.3 ± 3.7%) and vertical jump (-7.2 ± 6.5%), but not clean and jerk, were reduced after INT and restored after RED. Chemokine signaling may thus be part of the stress response to intense weightlifting and short-term reductions in training load support recovery from periodic INT training in weightlifters. PMID:25640639

  18. Short-term monocular patching boosts the patched eye’s response in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiawei; Baker, Daniel H.; Simard, Mathieu; Saint-Amour, Dave; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Several recent studies have demonstrated that following short-term monocular deprivation in normal adults, the patched eye, rather than the unpatched eye, becomes stronger in subsequent binocular viewing. However, little is known about the site and nature of the underlying processes. In this study, we examine the underlying mechanisms by measuring steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as an index of the neural contrast response in early visual areas. Methods: The experiment consisted of three consecutive stages: a pre-patching EEG recording (14 minutes), a monocular patching stage (2.5 hours) and a post-patching EEG recording (14 minutes; started immediately after the removal of the patch). During the patching stage, a diffuser (transmits light but not pattern) was placed in front of one randomly selected eye. During the EEG recording stage, contrast response functions for each eye were measured. Results: The neural responses from the patched eye increased after the removal of the patch, whilst the responses from the unpatched eye remained the same. Such phenomena occurred under both monocular and dichoptic viewing conditions. Conclusions: We interpret this eye dominance plasticity in adult human visual cortex as homeostatic intrinsic plasticity regulated by an increase of contrast-gain in the patched eye. PMID:26410580

  19. Short-term cadmium exposure induces stress responses in frog (Pelophylax bergeri) skin organ culture.

    PubMed

    Simoncelli, Francesca; Belia, Silvia; Di Rosa, Ines; Paracucchi, Romina; Rossi, Roberta; La Porta, Gianandrea; Lucentini, Livia; Fagotti, Anna

    2015-12-01

    There have been a few studies on the negative effects of pollutants on amphibian skin, the first structural barrier that interacts with the environment and its potential contaminants. In this study an ex vivo skin organ culture from the amphibian Pelophylax bergeri was used to evaluate cell stress responses induced by short-term exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal known to be an environmental hazard to both humans and wildlife. Histopathological studies were carried out on skin explants using light microscopy and changes in the expression of stress proteins, such as Metallothionein (MT) and Heat shock proteins (HSPs), were investigated by Real-time RT-PCR. Results revealed that amphibian skin reacts to Cd-induced stress by activating biological responses such as morphological alterations and dose- and time-dependent induction of Mt and Hsp70 mRNA expression, suggesting their potential role as biomarkers of exposure to Cd. This work provides a basis for a better understanding of the tissue-specific responses of amphibian skin as a target organ to Cd exposure and its in vitro use for testing potentially harmful substances present in the environment. PMID:26277541

  20. Response to short term ultraviolet stress in the reef-building coral Pocillopora capitata (Anthozoa: Scleractinia).

    PubMed

    Liñán-Cabello, Marco A; Flores-Ramírez, Laura A; Cobo-Díaz, José Francisco; Zenteno-Savin, Tania; Olguín-Monroy, Norma O; Olivos-Ortiz, Aramís; Tintos-Gómez, Adrián

    2010-03-01

    Coral reefs are impacted by a range of environmental variables that affect their growth and survival, the main factors being the high irradiance and temperature fluctuations. Specimens of Pocillopora capitata Verrill 1864 were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) for 32 h under laboratory conditions. We examined lipid peroxidation (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST), chlorophyll a (Chl a), carotenoid pigments (CPs), mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and expulsion of zooxanthellae. Our results revealed that corals exposed to UVR had relatively low levels of carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to those exposed to PAR, as well as lower CPs/Chl a ratios. Although MAAs and CPs are rapidly produced as non-enzymatic antioxidants in response to UVR in corals, these were not sufficient, even in the dark phase of the experiment, to mitigate the damage caused by formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused breakdown of the symbiotic relationship between the zooxanthellae and the host animal to an extent 33 times greater than in the PAR treatment. In this study, it could be possible to distinguish that, parallel to the short-term adjustments, such as the amount of pigment in the algae or the sensitivity of the photosynthetic response reported in other species of coral, P. capitata exhibits at the enzymatic level a series of responses oriented to resist the effects derived from the propagation of ROS and, thus, to adapt to and maintain its reproductive capacity in shallow oceanic environments that commonly exhibit high UVR levels. Nevertheless, as a result of the inappropriate location of the artificial intercommunication structure of the Juluapan Lagoon with respect to the arrecifal area of study and therefore of the tides influence, other variables, such as the changes in short-term in turbidity, sediment inputs, nutrients, temperature and osmolarity, can act in

  1. Short-term responses of unicellular planktonic eukaryotes to increases in temperature and UVB radiation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Small size eukaryotes play a fundamental role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems, however, the way in which these micro-organisms respond to combined effects of water temperature, UVB radiations (UVBR) and nutrient availability is still poorly investigated. Results We coupled molecular tools (18S rRNA gene sequencing and fingerprinting) with microscope-based identification and counting to experimentally investigate the short-term responses of small eukaryotes (<6 μm; from a coastal Mediterranean lagoon) to a warming treatment (+3°C) and UVB radiation increases (+20%) at two different nutrient levels. Interestingly, the increase in temperature resulted in higher pigmented eukaryotes abundances and in community structure changes clearly illustrated by molecular analyses. For most of the phylogenetic groups, some rearrangements occurred at the OTUs level even when their relative proportion (microscope counting) did not change significantly. Temperature explained almost 20% of the total variance of the small eukaryote community structure (while UVB explained only 8.4%). However, complex cumulative effects were detected. Some antagonistic or non additive effects were detected between temperature and nutrients, especially for Dinophyceae and Cryptophyceae. Conclusions This multifactorial experiment highlights the potential impacts, over short time scales, of changing environmental factors on the structure of various functional groups like small primary producers, parasites and saprotrophs which, in response, can modify energy flow in the planktonic food webs. PMID:22966751

  2. Autonomic Function Predicts Fitness Response to Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, A M; Tulppo, M P; Eskelinen, J J; Savolainen, A M; Kapanen, J; Heinonen, I H A; Hautala, A J; Hannukainen, J C; Kalliokoski, K K

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that baseline cardiac autonomic function and its acute response to all-out interval exercise explains individual fitness responses to high-intensity interval training (HIT). Healthy middle-aged sedentary men performed HIT (n=12, 4-6×30 s of all-out cycling efforts with 4-min recovery) or aerobic training (AET, n=9, 40-60 min at 60% of peak workload in exercise test [Loadpeak]), comprising 6 sessions within 2 weeks. Low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power of R-R interval oscillation were analyzed from data recorded at supine and standing position (5+5 min) every morning during the intervention. A significant training effect (p< 0.001), without a training*group interaction, was observed in Loadpeak and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Pre-training supine LF/HF ratio, an estimate of sympathovagal balance, correlated with training outcome in Loadpeak (Spearman's rho [rs]=-0.74, p=0.006) and VO2peak (rs=- 0.59, p=0.042) in the HIT but not the AET group. Also, the mean change in the standing LF/HF ratio in the morning after an acute HIT exercise during the 1(st) week of intervention correlated with training response in Loadpeak (rs=- 0.68, p=0.014) and VO2peak (rs=-0.60, p=0.039) with HIT but not with AET. In conclusion, pre-training cardiac sympathovagal balance and its initial alterations in response to acute HIT exercise were related to fitness responses to short-term HIT. PMID:26140689

  3. Short Term Soil Respiration Response to Fire in a Semi-arid Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozin, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    In the Intermountain West (USA), fire is an important driver of carbon cycling in the environment. Increasing frequency and severity of fires, either through management actions or wildfires, is expected with changing climates in the Western United States. When burning is used as a management tool, it may be beneficial and control the growth of nuisance vegetation, promote the regeneration of grasses and forage species, and reduce hazardous fuel loads to minimize the risk of future wildfires. However, high intensity wildfires often have a negative effect, resulting in a loss of carbon storage and a shift of vegetation communities. This delays recovery of the ecosystem for years or decades and alters the historic fire regime. A 2000 acre prescribed burn in the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory provided the opportunity to quantify pre and post-burn soil carbon stores and soil carbon losses by heterotrophic respiration. Pre and post-burn soil samples were collected for physical and biogeochemical characterization to quantify substrate availability and possible limitations for heterotrophic respiration. CO2 fluxes were continuously monitored in situ before and immediately after the fire to understand the short-term response of soil respiration to varying burn severities.

  4. Detecting short-term responses to weekend recreation activity: desert bighorn sheep avoidance of hiking trails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longshore, Kathleen; Lowrey, Chris; Thompson, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    To study potential effects of recreation activity on habitat use of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), we placed Global Positioning System collars on 10 female bighorn sheep within the Wonderland of Rocks–Queen Mountain region of Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), California, USA, from 2002 to 2004. Recreation use was highest from March to April and during weekends throughout the year. Daily use of recreation trails was highest during midday. By comparing habitat use (slope, ruggedness, distance to water, and distance to recreation trails) of female bighorn sheep on weekdays versus weekends, we were able to detect short-term shifts in behavior in response to recreation. In a logistic regression of bighorn sheep locations versus random locations for March and April, female locations at midday (1200 hours) were significantly more distant from recreation trails on weekends compared with weekdays. Our results indicate that within this region of JOTR, moderate to high levels of human recreation activity may temporarily exclude bighorn females from their preferred habitat. However, the relative proximity of females to recreation trails during the weekdays before and after such habitat shifts indicates that these anthropogenic impacts were short-lived. Our results have implications for management of wildlife on public lands where the co-existence of wildlife and recreational use is a major goal.

  5. Physiological responses during short-term acclimation to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration in Pinus nigra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maseyk, K. S.; Biron, P.; Richard, P.; Canale, L.; Bariac, T.

    2010-12-01

    The response of plants to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is a key element shaping future biogeochemical cycles. While leaf scale manipulations of CO2 concentration provide us with a wealth of information on the biochemical response of leaf photosynthesis, these responses do not necessarily translate to whole plant responses at higher CO2 concentrations. Evidence from free air enrichment studies show different responses of plant gas exchange parameters in their degree of acclimation to long-term increases in atmospheric CO2, relative to those predicted from the instantaneous responses of leaf-level measurements. However, free air enrichment studies are also limited by the fact that they represent a single step change in CO2 and it is therefore of interest to understand how physiological responses derived from leaf-scale increases in CO2 compare to those from exposing the whole plant to increases CO2 across a range of elevated CO2 concentrations. Here we report on a study into the short-term leaf level physiological responses to CO2 concentration of small (1.5m) Pinus nigra trees that were maintained at different CO2 concentrations, therefore allowing potential whole-plant feedback effects to be incorporated into the responses. The trees were maintained at 20°C and 50-60% RH at three ambient CO2 concentrations (Ca of 380 ppm, 500 ppm, 800 ppm) for ~10 days each in a 10m3 growth chamber. The response of gas exchange parameters (assimilation rate, A, stomatal conductance, gs, internal CO2 concentration, Ci, transpiration, E) to leaf level changes in CO2 were measured at each ambient CO2 concentration, allowing the instantaneous response to be compared to the ‘acclimated’ response (i.e. that at the ambient concentration). Typical A-Ci response curves were seen at all CO2 concentrations, with saturation at Ci above 800ppm and Ca above 1500 ppm. However, even over this short period, assimilation rates at a given CO2 concentration deceased with increasing

  6. Responses of pond-breeding amphibians to wildfire: short-term patterns in occupancy and colonization.

    PubMed

    Hossack, Blake R; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2007-07-01

    Wildland fires are expected to become more frequent and severe in many ecosystems, potentially posing a threat to many sensitive species. We evaluated the effects of a large, stand-replacement wildfire on three species of pond-breeding amphibians by estimating changes in occupancy of breeding sites during the three years before and after the fire burned 42 of 83 previously surveyed wetlands. Annual occupancy and colonization for each species was estimated using recently developed models that incorporate detection probabilities to provide unbiased parameter estimates. We did not find negative effects of the fire on the occupancy or colonization rates of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum). Instead, its occupancy was higher across the study area after the fire, possibly in response to a large snowpack that may have facilitated colonization of unoccupied wetlands. Naive data (uncorrected for detection probability) for the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) initially led to the conclusion of increased occupancy and colonization in wetlands that burned. After accounting for temporal and spatial variation in detection probabilities, however, it was evident that these parameters were relatively stable in both areas before and after the fire. We found a similar discrepancy between naive and estimated occupancy of A. macrodactylum that resulted from different detection probabilities in burned and control wetlands. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas) was not found breeding in the area prior to the fire but colonized several wetlands the year after they burned. Occupancy by B. boreas then declined during years 2 and 3 following the fire. Our study suggests that the amphibian populations we studied are resistant to wildfire and that B. boreas may experience short-term benefits from wildfire. Our data also illustrate how naive presence-non-detection data can provide misleading results. PMID:17708217

  7. Responses of pond-breeding amphibians to wildfire: Short-term patterns in occupancy and colonization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Corn, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fires are expected to become more frequent and severe in many ecosystems, potentially posing a threat to many sensitive species. We evaluated the effects of a large, stand-replacement wildfire on three species of pond-breeding amphibians by estimating changes in occupancy of breeding sites during the three years before and after the fire burned 42 of 83 previously surveyed wetlands. Annual occupancy and colonization for each species was estimated using recently developed models that incorporate detection probabilities to provide unbiased parameter estimates. We did not find negative effects of the fire on the occupancy or colonization rates of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum). Instead, its occupancy was higher across the study area after the fire, possibly in response to a large snowpack that may have facilitated colonization of unoccupied wetlands. Naïve data (uncorrected for detection probability) for the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) initially led to the conclusion of increased occupancy and colonization in wetlands that burned. After accounting for temporal and spatial variation in detection probabilities, however, it was evident that these parameters were relatively stable in both areas before and after the fire. We found a similar discrepancy between naïve and estimated occupancy of A. macrodactylum that resulted from different detection probabilities in burned and control wetlands. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas) was not found breeding in the area prior to the fire but colonized several wetlands the year after they burned. Occupancy by B. boreas then declined during years 2 and 3 following the fire. Our study suggests that the amphibian populations we studied are resistant to wildfire and that B. boreas may experience short-term benefits from wildfire. Our data also illustrate how naïve presence–non-detection data can provide misleading results.

  8. Short term modulation of trunk neuromuscular responses following spinal manipulation: a control group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most frequent musculoskeletal conditions in industrialized countries and its economic impact is important. Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is believed to be a valid approach in the treatment of both acute and chronic LBP. It has also been shown that SMT can modulate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the paraspinal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a group of patients with low back pain, the persistence of changes observed in trunk neuromuscular responses after a spinal manipulation (SMT). Methods Sixty adult participants with LBP performed a block of 5 flexion-extension movements. Participants in the experimental group (n=30) received lumbar SMT whereas participants in the control group (n=30) were positioned similarly for the treatment but did not receive SMT. Blocks of flexion-extension movements were repeated immediately after the manipulation as well as 5 and 30 minutes after SMT (or control position). EMG activity of paraspinal muscles was recorded at L2 and L5 level and kinematic data were collected to evaluate the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Pain intensity was noted after each block. Normalized EMG, pain intensity and lumbo-pelvic kinematics were compared across experimental conditions. Results Participants from the control group showed a significant increase in EMG activity during the last block (30 min) of flexion-extension trials in both flexion and full-flexion phases at L2. Increase in VAS scores was also observed in the last 2 blocks (5 min and 30 min) in the control group. No significant group x time interaction was seen at L5. No significant difference was observed in the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Conclusion Changes in trunk neuromuscular control following HVLA spinal manipulation may reduce sensitization or muscle fatigue effects related to repetitive movement. Future studies should investigate short term changes in neuromuscular components, tissue properties and clinical

  9. Hepatic antioxidative responses to PCDPSs and estimated short-term biotoxicity in freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, Mei; Shi, Jiaqi; Yang, Xi; Wang, Zunyao

    2012-09-15

    This study evaluated the short-term toxicity of polychlorinated diphenylsulfides (PCDPSs) in freshwater fish. Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the oxidative stress and antioxidative responses of 12 different types of PCDPSs in the liver of goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were injected with increasing concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, 100 μg/kg body weight for various PCDPSs and 1, 10, 100 mg/kg for diphenylsulfides (DPS)) of test compounds for 12h, with one group assigned as the control. We simultaneously evaluated the time-dependent effects of PCDPSs on the antioxidant defense system, using Tris-, Penta- and Hepta-CDPS. Fish were acutely injected with either 10 μg/kg of such PCDPSs or corn oil alone (control), and then liver samples were collected at 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5d for analysis of antioxidant content. Changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected, suggesting that PCDPSs exhibit potential biotoxicity. In addition, our data indicated that PCDPS toxicity varies with the degree of substitution and the position of substitution attached to two benzene rings, results that were also partly supported by the time-dependent effects elicited by the Tris-, Penta- and Hepta-CDPSs. In particular, our results indicate that Penta- and Hexa-CDPSs may act as highly toxic contaminants that exhibit striking enzymatic inhibitory activity. Furthermore, our results suggest that altered levels of antioxidant enzymes, including SOD and CAT, along with MDA, may serve as potential biomarkers of PCDPS contamination. PMID:22640874

  10. Attentional Demands Predict Short-Term Memory Load Response in Posterior Parietal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen, Hagit; Emmanouil, Tatiana-Aloi; McMains, Stephanie A.; Kastner, Sabine; Treisman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Limits to the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) indicate a maximum storage of only 3 or 4 items. Recently, it has been suggested that activity in a specific part of the brain, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), is correlated with behavioral estimates of VSTM capacity and might reflect a capacity-limited store. In three experiments that…

  11. Ganoderma lucidum ('Lingzhi'); acute and short-term biomarker response to supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wachtel-Galor, Sissi; Szeto, Yim-Tong; Tomlinson, Brian; Benzie, Iris F F

    2004-02-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) is a popular Chinese herb with an impressive array of reputed health benefits, including antioxidant properties. However, these require scientific validation. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro antioxidant capacity of Lingzhi, absorption and systemic distribution of Lingzhi antioxidants, and effects of short-term (10 days) supplementation on biomarkers of antioxidant status, coronary heart disease (CHD) risk and DNA damage. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention study, blood and urine samples were collected from 10 healthy volunteers at 0 (fasting) and 45, 90, 135 and 180 min post-ingestion of a single dose (1.1g) of Lingzhi. Repeat fasting samples were collected after 10 days' supplementation with 0.72 g/d Lingzhi. The acute response (up to 3 hours) was also investigated with a larger dose (3.3 g) of Lingzhi (n=7). Results showed that the total antioxidant capacity (as the FRAP value) of an aqueous suspension of Lingzhi was 360 micromol/g. Ingestion of Lingzhi caused a significant post-ingestion increase (mean+/-SEM 23+/-3 micromol/L; P<0.05) in plasma antioxidant capacity, with peak response at 90 min. Average increase of 29+/-11% (P<0.05) in urine antioxidant capacity was seen within 3 hours of ingestion. After 10 days' supplementation with 0.72 g per day of Lingzhi, fasting plasma lipid standardised alpha-tocopherol concentration and urine antioxidant capacity increased (P<0.05). Fasting plasma ascorbic acid and total alpha-tocopherol concentrations and erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities increased slightly but non-significantly with supplementation. Plasma lipids and uric acid tended to decrease, but changes were not statistically significant. No discernable differences were seen in other variables measured. Results indicate that Lingzhi intake causes an acute increase in plasma antioxidant capacity. No deleterious effects on measured variables were seen. The pattern of biomarker response

  12. Characterization of miRNAs in response to short-term waterlogging in three inbred lines of Zea mays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To characterize the involvement of miRNAs and their targets in response to short-term hypoxia conditions, a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the expression of the 24 candidate mature miRNA signatures (22 known and 2 novel mature miRNAs, representing 66 miRNA loci) and ...

  13. Determinants of erythropoietin release in response to short-term hypobaric hypoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ge, Ri-Li; Witkowski, S.; Zhang, Y.; Alfrey, C.; Sivieri, M.; Karlsen, T.; Resaland, G. K.; Harber, M.; Stray-Gundersen, J.; Levine, B. D.

    2002-01-01

    We measured blood erythropoietin (EPO) concentration, arterial O(2) saturation (Sa(O(2))), and urine PO(2) in 48 subjects (32 men and 16 women) at sea level and after 6 and 24 h at simulated altitudes of 1,780, 2,085, 2,454, and 2,800 m. Renal blood flow (Doppler) and Hb were determined at sea level and after 6 h at each altitude (n = 24) to calculate renal O(2) delivery. EPO increased significantly after 6 h at all altitudes and continued to increase after 24 h at 2,454 and 2,800 m, although not at 1,780 or 2,085 m. The increase in EPO varied markedly among individuals, ranging from -41 to 400% after 24 h at 2,800 m. Similar to EPO, urine PO(2) decreased after 6 h at all altitudes and returned to baseline by 24 h at the two lowest altitudes but remained decreased at the two highest altitudes. Urine PO(2) was closely related to EPO via a curvilinear relationship (r(2) = 0.99), although also with prominent individual variability. Renal blood flow remained unchanged at all altitudes. Sa(O(2)) decreased slightly after 6 h at the lowest altitudes but decreased more prominently at the highest altitudes. There were only modest, albeit statistically significant, relationships between EPO and Sa(O(2)) (r = 0.41, P < 0.05) and no significant relationship with renal O(2) delivery. These data suggest that 1) the altitude-induced increase in EPO is "dose" dependent: altitudes > or =2,100-2,500 m appear to be a threshold for stimulating sustained EPO release in most subjects; 2) short-term acclimatization may restore renal tissue oxygenation and restrain the rise in EPO at the lowest altitudes; and 3) there is marked individual variability in the erythropoietic response to altitude that is only partially explained by "upstream" physiological factors such as those reflecting O(2) delivery to EPO-producing tissues.

  14. Modelling the lactate response to short-term all out exercise

    PubMed Central

    Beneke, Ralph; Jumah, Masen D; Leithäuser, Renate M

    2007-01-01

    Background The maximum post exercise blood lactate concentration (BLCmax) has been positively correlated with maximal short-term exercise (MSE) performance. However, the moment when BLCmax occurs (TBLCmax) is rather unpredictable and interpretation of BLC response to MSE is therefore difficult. Methods We compared a 3- and a 4-parameter model for the analysis of the dynamics of BLC response to MSEs lasting 10 (MSE10) and 30 s (MSE30) in eleven males (24.6 ± 2.3 yrs; 182.4 ± 6.8 cm; 75.1 ± 9.4 kg). The 3-parameter model uses BLC at MSE-start, extra-vascular increase (A) and rate constants of BLC appearance (k1) and disappearance (k2). The 4-parameter model includes BLC at MSE termination and amplitudes and rate constants of increase (A1, y1) and decrease (A2, y2) of post MSE-BLC. Results Both models consistently explained 93.69 % or more of the variance of individual BLC responses. Reduction of the number of parameters decreased (p < 0.05) the goodness of the fit in every MSE10 and in 3 MSE30. A (9.1 ± 2.1 vs. 15.3 ± 2.1 mmol l-1) and A1 (7.1 ± 1.6 vs. 10.9 ± 2.0 mmol l-1) were lower (p < 0.05) in MSE10 than in MSE30. k1 (0.610 ± 0.119 vs. 0.505 ± 0.107 min-1), k2 (4.21 10-2 ± 1.06 10-2 vs. 2.45 10-2 ± 1.04 10-2 min-1), and A2 (-563.8 ± 370.8 vs. -1412.6 ± 868.8 mmol l-1), and y1 (0.579 ± 0.137 vs. 0.489 ± 0.076 min-1) were higher (p < 0.05) in MSE10 than in MSE30. No corresponding difference in y2 (0.41 10-2 ± 0.82 10-2 vs. 0.15 10-2 ± 0.42 10-2 min-1) was found. Conclusion The 3-parameter model estimates of lactate appearance and disappearance were sensitive to differences in test duration and support an interrelation between BLC level and halftime of lactate elimination previously found. The 4-parameter model results support the 3-parameter model findings about lactate appearance; however, parameter estimates for lactate disappearance were unrealistic in the 4-parameter model. The 3-parameter model provides useful information about the dynamics

  15. Short term response of a peatland to warming and drought - climate manipulation experiment in W Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczak, Radosław; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Urbaniak, Marek; Leśny, Jacek; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Basińska, Anna; Gąbka, Maciej; Stróżecki, Marcin; Samson, Mateusz; Łuców, Dominika; Józefczyk, Damian; Hoffmann, Mathias; Olejnik, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    . Generally, warmer conditions led to increases in NDVI and LAI, whilst the site exposed to only drought exhibited the lowest LAI. Warming shifted the vegetation species composition by promoting vascular plants (mainly Carex rostrata and C. limosa), which result also correlates positively with nutrient (Ptot, Mn, F, Na, Zn) availability in the peat water. Here, we report short-term responses to increased temperature and diminished precipitation, showing that the combination of these to stressors leads to very different scenario than their individual impacts. Our results further emphasize the need for long term records from field manipulation site on peatland response to climate changes. The Research was co-founded by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development within the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme within the WETMAN project (Central European Wetland Ecosystem Feedbacks to Changing Climate - Field Scale Manipulation, Project ID: 203258, contract No. Pol-Nor/203258/31/2013 (www.wetman.pl). References Fenner N., Freeman Ch. (2011). Nature Geoscience, 4, 895-900 Hoffmann M., et al. (2015). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 200, 30-45 Kimball BA. (2005). Global Change Biology, 11, 2041-2056

  16. Vascular Responses to Long- and Short-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ranjini M.; Adar, Sara D.; Szpiro, Adam A.; Jorgensen, Neal W.; Van Hee, Victor C.; Barr, R. Graham; O’Neill, Marie S.; Herrington, David M.; Polak, Joseph F.; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the association of long- and short-term air pollutant exposures with flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and baseline arterial diameter (BAD) of the brachial artery using ultrasound in a large multicity cohort. Background Exposures to ambient air pollution, especially long-term exposure to particulate matter <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), are linked with cardiovascular mortality. Short-term exposure to PM2.5 has been associated with decreased FMD and vasoconstriction, suggesting that adverse effects of PM2.5 may involve endothelial dysfunction. However, long-term effects of PM2.5 on endothelial dysfunction have not been investigated. Methods FMD and BAD were measured by brachial artery ultrasound at the initial examination of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Long-term PM2.5 concentrations were estimated for the year 2000 at each participant’s residence (n = 3,040) using a spatio-temporal model informed by cohort-specific monitoring. Short-term PM2.5 concentrations were based on daily central-site monitoring in each of the 6 cities. Results An interquartile increase in long-term PM2.5 concentration (3 μg/m3) was associated with a 0.3% decrease in FMD (95% confidence interval [CI] of difference: −0.6 to −0.03; p = 0.03), adjusting for demographic characteristics, traditional risk factors, sonographers, and 1/BAD. Women, nonsmokers, younger participants, and those with hypertension seemed to show a greater association of PM2.5 with FMD. FMD was not significantly associated with short-term variation in PM2.5 (−0.1% per 12 μg/m3 daily increase [95% CI: −0.2 to 0.04] on the day before examination). Conclusions Long-term PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with decreased endothelial function according to brachial ultrasound results. These findings may elucidate an important pathway linking air pollution and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:23103035

  17. Short-term leaf elongation kinetics of maize in response to salinity are independent of the root.

    PubMed

    Cramer, G R; Bowman, D C

    1991-03-01

    The essentiality of roots to the short-term responses of leaf elongation to salinity was tested by removing the roots of maize (Zea mays L.) from the shoots and comparing the initial short-term response of leaf elongation to that with intact plants. Eightday-old seedlings growing in solution culture were treated with 80 millimolar NaCl and their leaf elongation rate (LER) was monitored with a linear variable differential transformer connected to a computerized data aquisition system. Initially, LER of intact plants was sharply reduced by salinity, then rose rapidly to reach a new steady-state rate about 1.5 hours after salinization. The new steady-state rate of salinized intact plants was about 80% of the control rate. When the roots of nonsalinized plants were excised under the surface of the nutrient solution, excision did not disturb the steady-state LER. When these shoots were salinized, they responded in a manner nearly identical to that of intact plants, indicating that roots are not essential for the modulation of short-term LER of salt-stressed plants. PMID:16668080

  18. Modeling the action-potential-sensitive nonlinear-optical response of myelinated nerve fibers and short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneider, M. N.; Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2011-11-01

    The Goldman-Albus treatment of the action-potential dynamics is combined with a phenomenological description of molecular hyperpolarizabilities into a closed-form model of the action-potential-sensitive second-harmonic response of myelinated nerve fibers with nodes of Ranvier. This response is shown to be sensitive to nerve demyelination, thus enabling an optical diagnosis of various demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The model is applied to examine the nonlinear-optical response of a three-neuron reverberating circuit—the basic element of short-term memory.

  19. Studying flash floods in a small watershed by analyzing short term stream response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. Z.; Jacobsen, N.

    2013-12-01

    The study was conducted from early May through late July of 2013 in a small suburban watershed, called the Dry Run Creek, in northeast Iowa. Flooding is considered one of the largest hazards in the United States, causing economic damage in billions of dollars. Investigations across the country have documented dramatic changes in river discharge over the past decades due to an increase in rainfall events. Consequently, many areas in the U.S. have been experiencing flash flood occurrences. The objectives of this study were three folds; (1) delineate avenues of high surface runoff in the watershed during the wet season, (2) conduct flash flood analysis of a selected site during a high intensity rain event, and (3) calculate short term flood recurrence probabilities at the above site. Water levels, turbidity, and total suspended sediment data were collected from 10 sites in the watershed once a week for 10 weeks. In addition, water quality parameters and terrain characteristics were analyzed to determine topographic control on sediment and nutrient flux during rain events. Short term prediction of flood frequency was done by calculating Recurrence Interval (RI) by using the equation T = (n+1)/M, where T is recurrence interval, n is the number of records, and M is the ranked position of the flow on the record. On May 29, 2.58 inches of rain fell on the watershed from 4:30 to 8 p.m. causing the water level at the selected site to rise from 1.99 ft at 4:15 p.m. to 9.38 ft at 8:45 p.m. The event produced a severe flash flood condition in the creek by releasing discharge that is 562% higher than the average flow rate at the site for that time of the season. The water level eventually exceeded the bankfull stage. Avenues of high runoff coincided with the areas characterized by low infiltration rates due to paved surfaces. Upland slopes showed greater control on flash floods compared to channel widths. Recurrence probability of flash floods at a given site was found to be

  20. Short-term Hormone Treatment Modulates Emotion Response Circuitry in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Love, Tiffany; Smith, Yolanda R.; Persad, Carol C.; Tkaczyk, Anne; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of combination hormone therapy (HT) on emotional processing in postmenopausal women using functional neuroimaging. Design A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Setting A tertiary care university medical center. Participants Ten healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 56.9 years, S.D. = 1.4) were recruited. Interventions Women were randomized to the order they received combined hormone therapy, 5 ug ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate, and placebo. Volunteers received hormone therapy or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a one month washout period, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. Subjects participated in an fMRI emotional processing task, where they were asked to rate emotional pictures as positive, negative, or neutral. Main Outcome Measure Brain activation patterns were compared between hormone therapy and placebo conditions within subjects. Results During negative emotional presentations, after subtracting the effect of neutral images, areas of significant differences between HT and placebo conditions were identified in the orbital, frontal, cingulate and occipital cortices. During positive emotional image presentation there were significant differences between placebo and HT conditions within the medial frontal cortex. Conclusions Short-term menopausal treatment with combination hormone therapy affects regional brain activity within areas implicated in emotional processing. PMID:19243753

  1. Short-term response of (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) larvae to timber management in southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leuthold, Niels; Adams, Michael J.; Hayes, John P.

    2012-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, previous studies have found a negative effect of timber management on the abundance of stream amphibians, but results have been variable and region specific. These studies have generally used survey methods that did not account for differences in capture probability and focused on stands that were harvested under older management practices. We examined the influences of contemporary forest practices on larval Dicamptodon tenebrosus as part of the Hinkle Creek paired watershed study. We used a mark–recapture analysis to estimate D. tenebrosus density at 100 1-m sites spread throughout the basin and used extended linear models that accounted for correlation resulting from the repeated surveys at sites across years. Density was associated with substrate, but we found no evidence of an effect of harvest. While holding other factors constant, the model-averaged estimates indicated; 1) each 10% increase in small cobble or larger substrate increased median density of D. tenebrosus 1.05 times, 2) each 100-ha increase in the upstream area drained decreased median density of D. tenebrosus 0.96 times, and 3) increasing the fish density in the 40 m around a site by 0.01 increased median salamander density 1.01 times. Although this study took place in a single basin, it suggests that timber management in similar third-order basins of the southwestern Oregon Cascade foothills is unlikely to have short-term effects of D. tenebrosus larvae.

  2. Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor short term thermal response to flow and reactivity transients

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The analyses reported here have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Division of Regulatory Applications of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The short-term thermal response of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is analyzed for a range of flow and reactivity transients. These include loss of forced circulation (LOFC) without scram, moisture ingress, spurious withdrawal of a control rod group, hypothetical large and rapid positive reactivity insertion, and a rapid core cooling event. The coupled heat transfer-neutron kinetics model is also described.

  3. Long-term plasticity determines the postsynaptic response to correlated afferents with multivesicular short-term synaptic depression

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Alex D.; Richardson, Magnus J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrony in a presynaptic population leads to correlations in vesicle occupancy at the active sites for neurotransmitter release. The number of independent release sites per presynaptic neuron, a synaptic parameter recently shown to be modified during long-term plasticity, will modulate these correlations and therefore have a significant effect on the firing rate of the postsynaptic neuron. To understand how correlations from synaptic dynamics and from presynaptic synchrony shape the postsynaptic response, we study a model of multiple release site short-term plasticity and derive exact results for the crosscorrelation function of vesicle occupancy and neurotransmitter release, as well as the postsynaptic voltage variance. Using approximate forms for the postsynaptic firing rate in the limits of low and high correlations, we demonstrate that short-term depression leads to a maximum response for an intermediate number of presynaptic release sites, and that this leads to a tuning-curve response peaked at an optimal presynaptic synchrony set by the number of neurotransmitter release sites per presynaptic neuron. These effects arise because, above a certain level of correlation, activity in the presynaptic population is overly strong resulting in wastage of the pool of releasable neurotransmitter. As the nervous system operates under constraints of efficient metabolism it is likely that this phenomenon provides an activity-dependent constraint on network architecture. PMID:24523691

  4. An evaluation of short-term corticosteroid response in perennial allergic rhinitis using histamine and adenosine monophosphate nasal challenge

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew M; Sims, Erika J; Orr, Linda C; Robb, Fiona; Lipworth, Brian J

    2003-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the role of AMP nasal challenge as a measure of short-term treatment response in patients receiving intranasal corticosteroids. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) challenge has been shown to be a good inflammatory surrogate in the lower airways, but it has not been properly evaluated as a nasal challenge test. Methods Fourteen patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) were randomized to receive 2 weeks treatment with placebo (PL) or 200 µg intranasal mometasone furoate (MF) once daily in a randomized single-blind crossover study. AMP (25–800 mg ml−1) and histamine (0.25–8 mg ml−1) nasal challenge testing were performed after each treatment period with 30% decrease in minimal cross-sectional area (MCA). Domiciliary symptom data were collected. Results There was a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in PC30 MCA and nasal volume with AMP but not with histamine comparing MF vs PL. This amounted to a 2.8 (95% CI 1.5, 4.0) and 0.7 (95% CI −0.5, 1.9) doubling-dose change for AMP and histamine challenges, respectively. There were significant (P < 0.05) improvements in nasal symptoms and quality of life. Conclusions AMP nasal challenge using acoustic rhinometry may be a useful test to assess short-term treatment response in patient with PAR. PMID:12680883

  5. Short term total sleep deprivation in the rat increases antioxidant responses in multiple brain regions without impairing spontaneous alternation behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Lalini; Hu, Shuxin; Frautschy, Sally A.; Siegel, Jerome M.

    2009-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation (TSD) induces a broad spectrum of cognitive, behavioral and cellular changes. We previously reported that long term (5–11 days) TSD in the rat, by the disk-over-water method, decreases the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the brainstem and hippocampus. To gain insight into the mechanisms causing cognitive impairment, here we explore the early associations between metabolic activity, antioxidant responses and working memory (one form of cognitive impairment). Specifically we investigated the impact of short term (6 h) TSD, by gentle handling, on the levels of the endogenous antioxidant, total glutathione (GSHt), and the activities of the antioxidative enzymes, SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Short term TSD had no significant impact on SOD activity, but increased GSHt levels in the rat cortex, brainstem and basal forebrain, and GPx activity in the rat hippocampus and cerebellum. We also observed increased activity of hexokinase, (HK), the rate limiting enzyme of glucose metabolism, in the rat cortex and hypothalamus. We further showed that 6h of TSD leads to increased exploratory behavior to a new environment, without impairing spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) in the Y maze. We conclude that acute (6h) sleep loss may trigger compensatory mechanisms (like increased antioxidant responses) that prevent initial deterioration in working memory. PMID:19850085

  6. Processing Demand and Short-Term Memory: The Response-Prefix Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, John C.; Nowaczyk, Ronald H.

    1977-01-01

    Seven-digit strings were presented for immediate recall. Before recall, subjects either read or retrieved from memory a single item (response prefix). Results were seen in terms of the sharing of the limited capacity of an active memory system by the memory series, the response prefix, and the operations to retrieve and emit the items. (Editor/RK)

  7. Short-Term Aftereffects of Response Inhibition: Repetition Priming or Between-Trial Control Adjustments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D.; Liefooghe, Baptist; Vandierendonck, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Repetition priming and between-trial control adjustments after successful and unsuccessful response inhibition were studied in the stop-signal paradigm. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrated that response latencies increased after successful inhibition compared with trials that followed no-signal trials. However, this effect was found only…

  8. Individual Responses to Completion of Short-Term and Chronic Interval Training: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Astorino, Todd A.; Schubert, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), heart rate (HR), and fat oxidation occur in response to chronic endurance training. However, many studies report frequent incidence of “non-responders” who do not adapt to continuous moderate exercise. Whether this is the case in response to high intensity interval training (HIT), which elicits similar adaptations as endurance training, is unknown. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine individual responses to two paradigms of interval training. In the first study (study 1), twenty active men and women (age and baseline VO2max = 24.0±4.6 yr and 42.8±4.8 mL/kg/min) performed 6 d of sprint interval training (SIT) consisting of 4–6 Wingate tests per day, while in a separate study (study 2), 20 sedentary women (age and baseline VO2max = 23.7±6.2 yr and 30.0±4.9 mL/kg/min) performed 12 wk of high-volume HIT at workloads ranging from 60–90% maximal workload. Individual changes in VO2max, HR, and fat oxidation were examined in each study, and multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of training adaptations to SIT and HIT. Data showed high frequency of increased VO2max (95%) and attenuated exercise HR (85%) in response to HIT, and low frequency of response for VO2max (65%) and exercise HR (55%) via SIT. Frequency of improved fat oxidation was similar (60–65%) across regimens. Only one participant across both interventions showed non-response for all variables. Baseline values of VO2max, exercise HR, respiratory exchange ratio, and body fat were significant predictors of adaptations to interval training. Frequency of positive responses to interval training seems to be greater in response to prolonged, higher volume interval training compared to similar durations of endurance training. PMID:24847797

  9. Short-term responses of the kidney to high altitude in mountain climbers

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb-Rumyantzev, Alexander S.; Alper, Seth L.

    2014-01-01

    In high-altitude climbers, the kidneys play a crucial role in acclimatization and in mountain sickness syndromes [acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude cerebral edema, high-altitude pulmonary edema] through their roles in regulating body fluids, electrolyte and acid–base homeostasis. Here, we discuss renal responses to several high-altitude-related stresses, including changes in systemic volume status, renal plasma flow and clearance, and altered acid–base and electrolyte status. Volume regulation is considered central both to high-altitude adaptation and to maladaptive development of mountain sickness. The rapid and powerful diuretic response to the hypobaric hypoxic stimulus of altitude integrates decreased circulating concentrations of antidiuretic hormone, renin and aldosterone, increased levels of natriuretic hormones, plasma and urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, endothelin and urinary adrenomedullin, with increased insensible fluid losses and reduced fluid intake. The ventilatory and hormonal responses to hypoxia may predict susceptibility to AMS, also likely influenced by multiple genetic factors. The timing of altitude increases and adaptation also modifies the body's physiologic responses to altitude. While hypovolemia develops as part of the diuretic response to altitude, coincident vascular leak and extravascular fluid accumulation lead to syndromes of high-altitude sickness. Pharmacological interventions, such as diuretics, calcium blockers, steroids, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and β-agonists, may potentially be helpful in preventing or attenuating these syndromes. PMID:23525530

  10. The plasma cyclic-AMP response to noise in humans and rats—short-term exposure to various noise levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, M.; Dodo, H.; Ishii, F.; Yoneda, J.; Yamazaki, S.; Goto, H.

    1988-12-01

    Rats were exposed to short-term noise which was found to activate the hypothalamohypophyseal-adrenal system and result in a decrease of adrenal ascorbic acid (AAA) and an increase of serum corticosterone (SCS). The threshold limit value lay between 60 and 70 dB(A). To characterize better the effect of noise on the human hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system, a large group of subjects was exposed to short-term noise at 85 dB(A) and higher, and tested for levels of adrenocortical steroid (cortisol) and anterior pituitary hormones such as ACTH, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL). Results in humans showed hyperfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary system. However, as the responses in rats and humans differed, a further experiment was performed using C-AMP, a second messenger mediating many of the effects of a variety of hormones. Plasma C-AMP in humans and rats increased significantly after exposure to noise greater than 70 dB(A). We suggest that plasma C-AMP could be useful as a sensitive index for noise-related stress in the daily living environment of humans and rats.

  11. Short-term precipitation exclusion alters microbial responses to soil moisture in a wet tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Waring, Bonnie G; Hawkes, Christine V

    2015-05-01

    Many wet tropical forests, which contain a quarter of global terrestrial biomass carbon stocks, will experience changes in precipitation regime over the next century. Soil microbial responses to altered rainfall are likely to be an important feedback on ecosystem carbon cycling, but the ecological mechanisms underpinning these responses are poorly understood. We examined how reduced rainfall affected soil microbial abundance, activity, and community composition using a 6-month precipitation exclusion experiment at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Thereafter, we addressed the persistent effects of field moisture treatments by exposing soils to a controlled soil moisture gradient in the lab for 4 weeks. In the field, compositional and functional responses to reduced rainfall were dependent on initial conditions, consistent with a large degree of spatial heterogeneity in tropical forests. However, the precipitation manipulation significantly altered microbial functional responses to soil moisture. Communities with prior drought exposure exhibited higher respiration rates per unit microbial biomass under all conditions and respired significantly more CO2 than control soils at low soil moisture. These functional patterns suggest that changes in microbial physiology may drive positive feedbacks to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations if wet tropical forests experience longer or more intense dry seasons in the future. PMID:24889286

  12. Effects of metomindate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate on the short term cortisol response in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on cortisol stress response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were examined during 10 minutes of sedation. Channel catfish were assigned to three treatments: 1. Metomidate hydrochloride (12.5 mg/L), 2. MS-222 (100...

  13. EFFECT OF SHORT TERM DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE ON NASAL RESPONSES TO INFLUENZA IN ALLERGIC RHINITICS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Recently published data suggest that diesel exhaust (DE) has special impact on allergic inflammation, suppressing Th1 and augmenting Th2 responses to allergen via oxidant stress effects on airway cells. Exposures to particulate air pollutants including DE are also a...

  14. Effects of Short-Term Physical Activity Interventions on Simple and Choice Response Times

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Kevin; Norton, Lynda; Lewis, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Response time (RT) is important for health and human performance and provides insight into cognitive processes. It deteriorates with age, is associated with chronic physical activity (PA), and improves with PA interventions. We investigated associations between the amount and type of PA undertaken and the rate of change in RT for low-active adults across the age range 18–63 yr. Methods. Insufficiently active adults were assigned to either a walking (n = 263) or higher-intensity (n = 380) exercise program conducted over 40 days. Active controls were also recruited (n = 135). Simple response time (SRT) and choice response time (CRT) were measured before and after the intervention and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Results. SRT and CRT slowed across the age range; however, habitually active participants at baseline had significantly faster CRT (p < 0.05). The interventions increased weekly PA with corresponding increases in physical fitness. These changes were mirrored in faster CRT across the study for both intervention groups (p < 0.05). No changes were found for SRT. Conclusions. Both PA interventions resulted in improvements in CRT among adults starting from a low activity base. These improvements were relatively rapid and occurred in both interventions despite large differences in exercise volume, type, and intensity. There were no effects on SRT in either intervention. PMID:27190993

  15. Proteome Dynamics and Physiological Responses to Short-Term Salt Stress in Brassica napus Leaves

    PubMed Central

    He, Yongjun; Guan, Rongzhan; Chu, Pu; Jiang, Haidong

    2015-01-01

    Salt stress limits plant growth and crop productivity and is an increasing threat to agriculture worldwide. In this study, proteomic and physiological responses of Brassica napus leaves under salt stress were investigated. Seedlings under salt treatment showed growth inhibition and photosynthesis reduction. A comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves exposed to 200 mM NaCl for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was conducted. Forty-four protein spots were differentially accumulated upon NaCl treatment and 42 of them were identified, including several novel salt-responsive proteins. To determine the functional roles of these proteins in salt adaptation, their dynamic changes in abundance were analyzed. The results suggested that the up-accumulated proteins, which were associated with protein metabolism, damage repair and defense response, might contribute to the alleviation of the deleterious effect of salt stress on chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, energy synthesis and respiration in Brassica napus leaves. This study will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of salt stress adaptation in Brassica napus and provides a basis for genetic engineering of plants with improved salt tolerance in the future. PMID:26691228

  16. Behavioural responses of freshwater planarians after short-term exposure to the insecticide chlorantraniliprole.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Andreia C M; Henriques, Jorge F; Domingues, Inês; Golovko, Oksana; Žlábek, Vladimír; Barata, Carlos; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Pestana, João L T

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in video tracking technologies provide the tools for a sensitive and reproducible analysis of invertebrate activity under stressful conditions nurturing the field of behavioural ecotoxicology. This study aimed to evaluate behavioural responses of the freshwater planarian Dugesia subtentaculata exposed to a model compound, chlorantraniliprole (CAP). This compound is an anthranilic diamide insecticide and due to its neurotoxic action can, at low concentrations, impair behaviour of exposed organisms. Behavioural endpoints measured included feeding and locomotor activities. Feeding responses were based on planarian predatory behaviour using Chironomus riparius larvae as prey. Locomotion was measured by the traditional planarian locomotor velocity (pLMV) assay and additionally using an automated video tracking system using a Zebrabox(®) (Viewpoint, France) device. While feeding and pLMV were significantly impaired at 131.7μg/L CAP, the video tracking system showed that total distance covered by planarians was significantly reduced at concentrations as low as 26.2μg/L CAP. Our results show that more advanced automated video recording systems can be used in the development of sensitive bioassays allowing a reliable, time- and cost-effective quantification of behaviour in aquatic invertebrates. Due to their ecological relevance, behavioural responses should not be disregarded in risk assessment strategies and we advocate the suitability of planarians as suitable organisms for behavioural ecotoxicological studies. PMID:26561438

  17. Short-term physiological responses of wild and hatchery-produced red drum during angling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallman, E.A.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1999-01-01

    Serum cortisol concentrations, plasma glucose concentrations, plasma lactate concentrations, and plasma osmolalities increased in red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (26.0-65.5 cm total length) during angling in estuarine waters (17-33 g/L salinity, 21-31??C). Angling time varied from as fast as possible (10 s) to the point when fish ceased resisting (up to 350 s). The increases in the physiological characteristics were similar in wild and hatchery-produced fish. This study indicates that hatchery-produced red drum may be used in catch-and-release studies to simulate the responses of wild fish.

  18. Changes in the Size of the Active Microbial Pool Explain Short-Term Soil Respiratory Responses to Temperature and Moisture

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Villegas, Alejandro; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Dukes, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrophic respiration contributes a substantial fraction of the carbon flux from soil to atmosphere, and responds strongly to environmental conditions. However, the mechanisms through which short-term changes in environmental conditions affect microbial respiration still remain unclear. Microorganisms cope with adverse environmental conditions by transitioning into and out of dormancy, a state in which they minimize rates of metabolism and respiration. These transitions are poorly characterized in soil and are generally omitted from decomposition models. Most current approaches to model microbial control over soil CO2 production relate responses to total microbial biomass (TMB) and do not differentiate between microorganisms in active and dormant physiological states. Indeed, few data for active microbial biomass (AMB) exist with which to compare model output. Here, we tested the hypothesis that differences in soil microbial respiration rates across various environmental conditions are more closely related to differences in AMB (e.g., due to activation of dormant microorganisms) than in TMB. We measured basal respiration (SBR) of soil incubated for a week at two temperatures (24 and 33°C) and two moisture levels (10 and 20% soil dry weight [SDW]), and then determined TMB, AMB, microbial specific growth rate, and the lag time before microbial growth (tlag) using the Substrate-Induced Growth Response (SIGR) method. As expected, SBR was more strongly correlated with AMB than with TMB. This relationship indicated that each g active biomass C contributed ~0.04 g CO2-C h−1 of SBR. TMB responded very little to short-term changes in temperature and soil moisture and did not explain differences in SBR among the treatments. Maximum specific growth rate did not respond to environmental conditions, suggesting that the dominant microbial populations remained similar. However, warmer temperatures and increased soil moisture both reduced tlag, indicating that favorable

  19. Changes in the Size of the Active Microbial Pool Explain Short-Term Soil Respiratory Responses to Temperature and Moisture.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Villegas, Alejandro; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrophic respiration contributes a substantial fraction of the carbon flux from soil to atmosphere, and responds strongly to environmental conditions. However, the mechanisms through which short-term changes in environmental conditions affect microbial respiration still remain unclear. Microorganisms cope with adverse environmental conditions by transitioning into and out of dormancy, a state in which they minimize rates of metabolism and respiration. These transitions are poorly characterized in soil and are generally omitted from decomposition models. Most current approaches to model microbial control over soil CO2 production relate responses to total microbial biomass (TMB) and do not differentiate between microorganisms in active and dormant physiological states. Indeed, few data for active microbial biomass (AMB) exist with which to compare model output. Here, we tested the hypothesis that differences in soil microbial respiration rates across various environmental conditions are more closely related to differences in AMB (e.g., due to activation of dormant microorganisms) than in TMB. We measured basal respiration (SBR) of soil incubated for a week at two temperatures (24 and 33°C) and two moisture levels (10 and 20% soil dry weight [SDW]), and then determined TMB, AMB, microbial specific growth rate, and the lag time before microbial growth (t lag ) using the Substrate-Induced Growth Response (SIGR) method. As expected, SBR was more strongly correlated with AMB than with TMB. This relationship indicated that each g active biomass C contributed ~0.04 g CO2-C h(-1) of SBR. TMB responded very little to short-term changes in temperature and soil moisture and did not explain differences in SBR among the treatments. Maximum specific growth rate did not respond to environmental conditions, suggesting that the dominant microbial populations remained similar. However, warmer temperatures and increased soil moisture both reduced t lag , indicating that favorable

  20. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  1. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  2. Effect of short-term fasting on lipolytic responsiveness in normal and obese human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.R.; Peters, E.J.; Klein, S.; Holland, O.B.; Rosenblatt, J.; Gary, H. Jr.

    1987-02-01

    In this study the rate of lipolysis (fatty acid and glycerol release into blood) has been quantified in both normal weight and obese volunteers after both 15 and 87 h of fasting. In each study, the basal rate and subsequent response to epinephrine infusion were determined. The rate of appearance (R/sub a/) of free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol were quantified by infusion of (1- TC)palmitate and D-5-glycerol, respectively. Substrate flux rates per unit of body fat mass and lean body mass were calculated from total body water measurements using H2 YO dilution. In normal volunteers, the basal R/sub a/ FFA and R/sub a/ glycerol rose markedly with 87 h of fasting, whereas the increases were more modest in the obese subjects. However, the rate of mobilization of fat, in relation to the lean body mass, was higher in the obese subjects than in the normal subjects after 15 h of fasting, and the values were similar in both groups after 87 h of fasting. There was an increased lipolytic response to epinephrine after fasting in both groups. This increased sensitivity may have resulted from the enhancement of fatty acid-triglyceride substrate cycling that occurred after fasting.

  3. Short-term enhancement and suppression of dolphin auditory evoked responses following echolocation click emission.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Echon, Roxanne; Mulsow, Jason; Houser, Dorian S

    2016-07-01

    Biosonar gain control mechanisms in a bottlenose dolphin were investigated by measuring the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to an external tone while the animal echolocated. The dolphin performed an echo change-detection task that utilized electronically synthesized echoes with echo delays corresponding to 25- and 50-m target range. During the task, amplitude modulated tones with carrier frequencies from 25 to 125 kHz were continuously presented and the instantaneous electroencephalogram stored for later analysis. ASSRs were extracted from the electroencephalogram by synchronously averaging time epochs temporally aligned with the onset of the external tone modulation cycle nearest to each of the dolphin's echolocation clicks. Results showed an overall suppression of the ASSR amplitude for tones with frequencies near the click center frequencies. A larger, temporary suppression of the ASSR amplitude was also measured at frequencies above 40-50 kHz, while a temporary enhancement was observed at lower frequencies. Temporal patterns for ASSR enhancement or suppression were frequency-, level-, and range-dependent, with recovery to pre-click values occurring within the two-way travel time. Suppressive effects fit the patterns expected from forward masking by the emitted biosonar pulse, while the specific mechanisms responsible for the frequency-dependent enhancement are unknown. PMID:27475154

  4. Physiological short-term response to sudden salinity change in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Herrera, Marcelino; Aragão, Cláudia; Hachero, Ismael; Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Conceição, Luis E C

    2012-12-01

    The physiological responses of Senegalese sole to a sudden salinity change were investigated. The fish were first acclimated to an initial salinity of 37.5 ppt for 4 h. Then, one group was subjected to increased salinity (55 ppt) while another group was subjected to decreased salinity (5 ppt). The third group (control group) remained at 37.5 ppt. We measured the oxygen consumption rate, osmoregulatory (plasma osmolality, gill and kidney Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities) and stress (plasma cortisol and metabolites) parameters 0.5 and 3 h after transfer. Oxygen consumption at both salinities was higher than for the control at both sampling times. Gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was significantly higher for the 55 ppt salinity at 0.5 h. Plasma osmolality decreased in the fish exposed to 5 ppt at the two sampling times but no changes were detected for high salinities. Plasma cortisol levels significantly increased at both salinities, although these values declined in the low-salinity group 3 h after transfer. Plasma glucose at 5 ppt salinity did not vary significantly at 0.5 h but decreased at 3 h, while lactate increased for both treatments at the first sampling time and returned to the control levels at 3 h. Overall, the physiological response of S. senegalensis was immediate and involved a rise in oxygen consumption and plasma cortisol values as well as greater metabolite mobilization at both salinities. PMID:22678707

  5. Short-term expansion of breast circulating cancer cells predicts response to anti-cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Bee Luan; Lee, Soo Chin; Kumar, Prashant; Tan, Tuan Zea; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Ow, Samuel G W; Nandi, Sayantani; Lim, Chwee Teck; Thiery, Jean Paul

    2015-06-20

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are considered as surrogate markers for prognosticating and evaluating patient treatment responses. Here, 226 blood samples from 92 patients with breast cancer, including patients with newly diagnosed or metastatic refractory cancer, and 16 blood samples from healthy subjects were cultured in laser-ablated microwells. Clusters containing an increasing number of cytokeratin-positive (CK+) cells appeared after 2 weeks, while most blood cells disappeared with time. Cultures were heterogeneous and exhibited two distinct sub-populations of cells: 'Small' (≤ 25 μm; high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio; CD45-) cells, comprising CTCs, and 'Large' (> 25 μm; low nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio; CD68+ or CD56+) cells, corresponding to macrophage and natural killer-like cells. The Small cell fraction also showed copy number increases in six target genes (FGFR1, Myc, CCND1, HER2, TOP2A and ZNF217) associated with breast cancer. These expanded CTCs exhibited different proportions of epithelial-mesenchymal phenotypes and were transferable for further expansion as spheroids in serum-free suspension or 3D cultures. Cluster formation was affected by the presence and duration of systemic therapy, and its persistence may reflect therapeutic resistance. This novel and advanced method estimates CTC clonal heterogeneity and can predict, within a relatively short time frame, patient responses to therapy. PMID:26008969

  6. Factors controlling short-term soil microbial response after laboratory heating. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Jordán, Antonio; Bárcenas-Moreno, Gema

    2015-04-01

    Soil microbial response after fire is controlled by numerous variables which conclude with a mosaic of results depending on organic carbon alterations or pH fire-induced changes. This fact has complicated the studies focused on post-fire microbial response, compiling high variability of opposite result in the bibliography. Soil laboratory heating cannot emulate a real wildfire effect on soil but lead us the possibility to control several variables and it is a valid tool to clarify the relative weight of different factors controlling microbial response after soil heating. In this preliminary study different heated treatments were applied to unaltered forest soil samples, obtaining 4 different heating treatments to simulate a range of fire intensities: unaltered-control (UH), and soil heated at 300, 450 and 500 °C. In order to isolate possible nutrient availability or pH heating-induced changes, different culture media were prepared using soil:water extract from each heating treatments and adding different supplements to obtain the total of 11 different culture media: unheated soil without supplements (UH-N-), unheated soil with nutrient supplement (UH-N+), soil heated at 300 °C without supplements (300-N-), soil heated at 300 °C with nutrient supplement (300-N+), soil heated at 300 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (300-N+pH); soil heated at 450 °C without supplements (450-N-), soil heated at 450 °C with nutrient supplement (450-N+), soil heated at 450 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (450-N+); soil heated at 500 °C without supplements (500-N-), soil heated at 500 °C with nutrient supplement (500-N+), soil heated at 500 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (500-N+). Each media was inoculated with different dilutions of a microbial suspension from the original unaltered soil, and the abundance of viable and cultivable microorganisms were measured by plate count method. In addition, the analysis of heating-induced soil organic

  7. Amphibian responses to wildfire in the western united states: Emerging patterns from short-term studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The increased frequency and severity of large wildfires in the western United States is an important ecological and management issue with direct relevance to amphibian conservation. Although the knowledge of fire effects on amphibians in the region is still limited relative to most other vertebrate species, we reviewed the current literature to determine if there are evident patterns that might be informative for conservation or management strategies. Of the seven studies that compared pre- and post-wildfire data on a variety of metrics, ranging from amphibian occupancy to body condition, two reported positive responses and five detected negative responses by at least one species. Another seven studies used a retrospective approach to compare effects of wildfire on populations: two studies reported positive effects, three reported negative effects from wildfire, and two reported no effects. All four studies that included plethodontid salamanders reported negative effects on populations or individuals; these effects were greater in forests where fire had been suppressed and in areas that burned with high severity. Species that breed in streams are also vulnerable to post-wildfire changes in habitat, especially in the Southwest. Wildfire is also important for maintaining suitable habitat for diverse amphibian communities, although those results may not be evident immediately after an area burns. We expect that wildfire will extirpate few healthy amphibian populations, but it is still unclear how populations will respond to wildfire in the context of land management (including pre- and post-fire timber harvest) and fragmentation. Wildfire may also increase the risk of decline or extirpation for small, isolated, or stressed (e.g., from drought or disease) populations. Improved understanding of how these effects vary according to changes in fire frequency and severity are critical to form more effective conservation strategies for amphibians in the western United States.

  8. Laboratory Studies of the Short-term Responses of Freshwater Fish to Electromagnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Cada, Glenn F; Fortner, Allison M; Schweizer, Peter E; Riemer, Kristina P

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic energy technologies are being proposed as an environmentally preferred means of generating electricity from river and tidal currents. Among the potential issues that must be investigated in order to resolve environmental concerns are the effects on aquatic organisms of electromagnetic fields created by underwater generators and transmission cables. The behavioral responses of common freshwater fishes to static and variable electromagnetic fields (EMF) that may be emitted by hydrokinetic projects were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Various fish species were exposed to either static (DC) EMF fields created by a permanent bar magnet or variable (AC) EMF fields created by a switched electromagnet for 48 h, fish locations were recorded with a digital imaging system, and changes in activity level and distribution relative to the magnet position were quantified at 5-min intervals. Experiments with fathead minnows, redear sunfish, striped bass, lake sturgeon, and channel catfish produced mixed results. Except for fathead minnows there was no effect on activity level. Only redear sunfish and channel catfish exhibited a change in distribution relative to the position of the magnet with an apparent attraction to the EMF source. In separate experiments, rapid behavioral responses of paddlefish and lake sturgeon to onset of the AC field were recorded with high-speed video. Paddlefish did not react to a variable, 60-Hz magnetic field like that which would be emitted by an AC generator or cable, but lake sturgeon consistently responded to the variable, AC-generated magnetic field with a variety of altered swimming behaviors. These results will be useful for determining under what circumstances cables or generators need to be positioned to minimize interactions with sensitive species.

  9. Implication of phospholipase D in response of Hordeum vulgare root to short-term potassium deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hafsi, Chokri; Russo, Marco A; Sgherri, Cristina; Izzo, Riccardo; Navari-Izzo, Flavia; Abdelly, Chedly

    2009-03-15

    To verify the possible involvement of lipids and several other compounds including hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) in the response of Hordeum vulgare to early potassium deprivation, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 30d with a modified Hewitt nutrient solution containing 3mM K(+). They were then incubated for increasing periods of time ranging from 2 to 36h in the same medium deprived of K(+). In contrast to leaves, root K(+) concentration showed its greatest decrease after 6h of treatment. The main lipids of the control barley roots were phospholipids (PL), representing more than 50% of the total lipids. PL did not change with treatment, whereas free sterols (FS) decreased following K(+) deprivation, showing a reduction of approximately 17% after 36h. With respect to the individual PL, 30h K(+) deprivation led to a reduction in phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels, whereas phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidic acid (PA) levels increased. The maximum PA accumulation and the highest phospholipase D (PLD) activation, estimated by an accumulation of phosphatidylbutanol (PtBut), were observed after 24h of K(+) starvation. At the root level, H(2)O(2) showed the maximum value after 6h of incubation in -K solution. In parallel, G3PDH activity reached its minimum. On the basis of a concomitant stimulation of PLD activity and, consequently, PA accumulation, enhancement of H(2)O(2) production, and inhibition of G3PDH activity, we suggest a possible involvement of these three compounds in an early response to K(+) deprivation. PMID:18814934

  10. In vivo short-term exposure to residual oil fly ash impairs pulmonary innate immune response against environmental mycobacterium infection.

    PubMed

    Delfosse, Verónica C; Tasat, Deborah R; Gioffré, Andrea K

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that pollution derived from industrial and vehicular transportation induces adverse health effects causing broad ambient respiratory diseases. Therefore, air pollution should be taken into account when microbial diseases are evaluated. Environmental mycobacteria (EM) are opportunist pathogens that can affect a variety of immune compromised patients, which impacts significantly on human morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) pre-exposure on the pulmonary response after challenge with opportunistic mycobacteria by means of an acute short-term in vivo experimental animal model. We exposed BALB/c mice to ROFA and observed a significant reduction on bacterial clearance at 24 h post infection. To study the basis of this impaired response four groups of animals were instilled with (a) saline solution (Control), (b) ROFA (1 mg kg(-1) BW), (c) ROFA and EM-infected (Mycobacterium phlei, 8 × 10(6) CFU), and (d) EM-infected. Animals were sacrificed 24 h postinfection and biomarkers of lung injury and proinflammatory madiators were examined in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Our results indicate that ROFA was able to produce an acute pulmonary injury characterized by an increase in bronchoalveolar polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells influx and a rise in O2 (-) generation. Exposure to ROFA before M. phlei infection reduced total cell number and caused a significant decline in PMN cells recruitment (p < 0.05), O2 (-) generation, TNFα (p < 0.001), and IL-6 (p < 0.001) levels. Hence, our results suggest that, in this animal model, the acute short-term pre-exposure to ROFA reduces early lung response to EM infection. PMID:25915594

  11. The Genetic Response to Short-term Interventions Affecting Cardiovascular Function: Rationale and Design of the HAPI Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Braxton D.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Shen, Haiqing; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Pollin, Toni I.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Jaquish, Cashell; Douglas, Julie A.; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Sack, Paul; Naglieri, Rosalie; Hines, Scott; Horenstein, Richard B.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Post, Wendy; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Brereton, Nga Hong; Pakyz, Ruth E.; Sorkin, John; Damcott, Coleen M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Mangano, Charles; Corretti, Mary; Vogel, Robert; Herzog, William; Weir, Matthew R.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Background The etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is multifactorial. Efforts to identify genes influencing CVD risk have met with limited success to date, likely due to the small effect sizes of common CVD risk alleles and the presence of gene by gene and gene by environment interactions. Methods The Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study was initiated in 2002 to measure the cardiovascular response to four short-term interventions affecting cardiovascular risk factors and to identify the genetic and environmental determinants of these responses. The measurements included blood pressure responses to the cold pressor stress test and to a high salt diet, triglyceride excursion in response to a high fat challenge, and response in platelet aggregation to aspirin therapy. Results The interventions were carried out in 868 relatively healthy Amish adults from large families. The heritabilities of selected response traits for each intervention ranged from 8–38%, suggesting that some of the variation associated with response to each intervention can be attributed to the additive effects of genes. Conclusions Identifying these response genes may identify new mechanisms influencing CVD and may lead to individualized preventive strategies and improved early detection of high-risk individuals. PMID:18440328

  12. Soil Microbial Community Responses to Short-term Multiple Experimental Climate Change Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guanlin; Lee, Jongyeol; Lee, Sohye; Roh, Yujin; Son, Yowhan

    2016-04-01

    It is agreed that soil microbial communities are responsible for the cycling of carbon and nutrients in ecosystems; however, the response of these microbial communities to climate change has not been clearly understood. In this study, we measured the direct and interactive effects of climate change drivers on soil bacterial and fungal communities (abundance and composition) in an open-field multifactor climate change experiment. The experimental treatment system was established with two-year-old Pinus densiflora seedlings at Korea University in April 2013, and consisted of six different treatments with three replicates: two levels of air temperature warming (control and +3° C) were crossed with three levels of precipitation manipulation (control, -30% and +30%). After 2.5 years of treatments, in August, 2015, soil samples were collected from the topsoil (0-15cm) of all plots (n=18). High-throughput sequencing technology was used to assess the abundance and composition of soil bacterial and fungal community. Analysis of variance for a blocked split-plot design was used to detect the effects of climate change drivers and their interaction on the abundance and composition of soil bacterial and fungal community. Our results showed that 1) only the significant effect of warming on fungal community abundance was observed (P <0.05); 2) on average, warming decreased both bacterial and fungal community abundance by 20.90% and 32.30%, 6.69% and 45.89%, 14.71% and 19.56% in control, decreased, and increased precipitation plots, respectively; 3) however, warming increased the relative bacterium/fungus ratio on average by 14.03%, 37.03% and 14.31% in control, decreased, and increased precipitation plots, respectively; 4) the phylogenetic distribution of bacterial and fungal groups and their relative abundance varied among treatments; 5) treatments altered the relative abundance of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, where Ascomycota decreased with a concomitant increase in the

  13. Short-term cropland responses to temperature extreme events during late winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simon, G.; Alberti, G.; Delle Vedove, G.; Peressotti, A.; Zaldei, A.; Miglietta, F.

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, several studies have focused on terrestrial ecosystem response to extreme events. Most of this research has been conducted in natural ecosystems, but few have considered agro-ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the impact of a manipulated warmer or cooler late winter-early spring on the carbon budget and final harvest of a soybean crop (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Soil temperature was altered by manipulating soil albedo by covering the soil surface with a layer of inert silica gravel. We tested three treatments: cooling (Co), warming (W), mix (M) and control (C). An automated system continuously measured soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh), soil temperature profiles, and soil water content across the entire year in each plot. Phenological phases were periodically assessed and final harvest was measured in each plot. Results showed that treatments had only a transient effect on daily Rh rates which did not result in a total annual carbon budget significantly different from control, even though cooling showed a significant reduction in final harvest. We also observed anticipation in seed germination in both W and M treatments and a delay in germination for Co. Moreover, plant density and growth increased in W and M and decreased in Co.

  14. Short-term cropland responses to temperature extreme events during late winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simon, G.; Alberti, G.; Delle Vedove, G.; Peressotti, A.; Zaldei, A.; Miglietta, F.

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, several studies have focused on terrestrial ecosystem response to extreme events. Most of this research has been conducted in natural ecosystems, but few have considered agroecosystems. In this study, we investigated the impact of a manipulated warmer or cooler late winter/early spring on the carbon budget and final harvest of a soybean crop (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Soil temperature was altered by manipulating soil albedo by covering the soil surface with a layer of inert silica gravel. We tested three treatments - cooling (Co), warming (W), mix (M) - and control (C). An automated system continuously measured soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh), soil temperature profiles, and soil water content across the entire year in each plot. Phenological phases were periodically assessed and final harvest was measured in each plot. Results showed that treatments had only a transient effect on daily Rh rates, which did not result in a total annual carbon budget significantly different from control, even though cooling showed a significant reduction in final harvest. We also observed anticipation in emergence in both W and M treatments and a delay in emergence for Co. Moreover, plant density and growth increased in W and M and decreased in Co. In conclusion, from the results of our experiment we can assert that an increase in the frequency of both heat and cold waves is unlikely to have large effects on the overall annual carbon balance of irrigated croplands.

  15. Whole-transcriptome analysis of mouse adipose tissue in response to short-term caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Soyoung; Park, Taesun; Cho, In-Cheol; Lee, Jae-Won; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2016-04-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to extend the lifespan of many species by improving cellular function and organismal health. Additionally, fat reduction by CR may play an important role in lengthening lifespan and preventing severe age-related diseases. Interestingly, CR induced the greatest transcriptome change in the epididymal fat of mice in our study. In this transcriptome analysis, we identified and categorized 446 genes that correlated with CR level. We observed down-regulation of several signaling pathways, including insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (insulin/IGF-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and canonical wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site (Wnt). Many genes related to structural features, including extracellular matrix structure, cell adhesion, and the cytoskeleton, were down-regulated, with a strong correlation to the degree of CR. Furthermore, genes related to the cell cycle and adipogenesis were down-regulated. These biological processes are well-identified targets of insulin/IGF-1, EGF, TGF-β, and Wnt signaling. In contrast, genes involved in specific metabolic processes, including the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain were up-regulated. We performed in silico analysis of the promoter sequences of CR-responsive genes and identified two associated transcription factors, Paired-like homeodomain 2 (Pitx2) and Paired box gene 6 (Pax6). Our results suggest that strict regulation of signaling pathways is critical for creating the optimal energy homeostasis to extend lifespan. PMID:26606930

  16. Short term response of insulin, glucose, growth hormone and corticosterone to acute vibration in rats.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolkas, C. B.; Leon, H. A.; Chackerian, M.

    1971-01-01

    Study carried out to obtain some notion of the initial phasing and interactive effects among some hormones known to be responsive to vibration stress. Sprague-Dawley derived rats were exposed to the acute effects of confinement and confinement with lateral (plus or minus G sub y) vibration. The coincident monitoring of glucose, insulin, growth hormone, and corticosterone plasma levels, during and immediately subsequent to exposure to brief low level vibration, exhibits the effects of inhibition of insulin release by epinephrine. The ability of insulin (IRI) to return rapidly to basal levels, from appreciably depressed levels during vibration, in the face of elevated levels of glucose is also shown. Corticosterone responds with almost equal rapidity, but in opposite phase to the IRI. The immuno-assayable growth hormone (IGH) dropped from a basal level of 32 ng/ml to 7.3 ng/ml immediately subsequent to vibration and remained at essentially that level throughout the experiment (60 min). Whether these levels represent a real fall in the rat or whether they merely follow the immuno-logically deficient form is still in question.

  17. Changes of Ocular Surface and the Inflammatory Response in a Rabbit Model of Short-Term Exposure Keratopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Szu-Yuan; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Chang, Huai-Wen; Hu, Fung-Rong; Chen, Wei-Li

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ocular surface change and the inflammatory response in a rabbit model of short-term exposure keratopathy. Methods Short term exposure keratopathy by continuous eyelid opening was induced in New Zealand white rabbits for up to 4 hours. Ultrasound pachymetry was used to detect central total corneal thickness. In vivo confocal microscopy and impression cytology were performed to evaluate the morphology of ocular surface epithelium and the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Immunohistochemistry for macrophage,neutrophil, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells were performed to classify the inflammatory cells. Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) was performed to detect ocular surface change.The concentrations of IL-8, IL-17, Line and TNF-αwere analyzed by multiplex immunobead assay. TUNEL staining was performed to detect cellular apoptosis. Results Significant decrease ofcentral total cornealthickness were found within the first 5 minutes and remained stable thereafter, while there were no changes of corneal epithelial thickness.No significant change of corneal, limbal and conjunctival epithelial morphology was found by in vivo confocal microscopy except the time dependent increase of superficial cellular defects in the central cornea. Impression cytology also demonstrated time dependent increase of sloughing superficial cells of the central cornea. Aggregations ofinflammatory cells were found at 1 hour in the limbal epithelium, 2 hours in the perilimbal conjunctival epithelium, and 3 hours in the peripheral corneal epithelium.In eyes receiving exposure for 4 hours, the infiltration of the inflammatory cells can still be detected at 8 hours after closing eyes.Immunohistochemical study demonstrated the cells to be macrophages, neutrophils, CD4-T cells and CD-8 T cells.SEM demonstrated time-depending increase of intercellular border and sloughing of superficial epithelial cells in corneal surface. Time dependent increase of IL-8, IL-17 and TNF-α in

  18. The effects of short term dietary restriction on haematological responses and leukocyte gene expression of anovulatory and ovulatory beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Daragh; Waters, Sinéad M; Diskin, Michael G; Kenny, David A; Morris, Dermot G; Earley, Bernadette

    2015-02-01

    The study objective was to characterise the impact of negative energy balance (NEB) on immune-stress responsiveness in beef heifers. A short term (18-day) dietary restriction model was used. Dietary restriction (0.4 maintenance (Mn) energy requirements) induced abrupt onset of anoestrus in nine heifers (Restricted Anovulatory; RA) while nineteen heifers maintained oestrous cyclicity (Restricted Ovulatory; RO). In addition a control (C) group of 12 heifers received a higher level of feeding (1.2 Mn). Haematological related biomarkers of husbandry stress, leukocyte gene expression of seven cytokine genes and five immunological biomarkers were investigated. After 18 days of differential feeding of the heifers alterations in eosinophil and monocyte numbers and altered expression of CXCL8, IL2 and TNFα could be attributed to diet restriction. More specifically, changes in these five variables were found in heifers that became anovulatory (RA) and are therefore considered to be more sensitive biomarkers to an energy deficit. PMID:25496833

  19. Behavioral responses to short-term transport in male and female Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) reared in captivity.

    PubMed

    Della Costa, N S; Lèche, A; Guzmán, D A; Navarro, J L; Marin, R H; Martella, M B

    2013-04-01

    Animal transport is an indispensable practice in species that need to be moved for management or commercial purposes. However, transport may have negative effects on individuals' welfare. The aims of the present work were to determine if the behavioral responses of adult Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) bred in captivity are sensitive to short-term transport and if males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity and recovery. Eight males and 8 females were placed in individual pens and allowed 6 d to habituate (d 1 to 6) before transport procedure. On the transport day (d 7), half of the birds (4 males and 4 females) were randomly assigned to a transport group that was captured and handled to be placed into the crates, exposed to a 30-min transport stressor, and immediately returned to their pens. Four transports with 1 different male and female each time were performed. The other half remained undisturbed and were used as controls. Behavior of all individuals was video-recorded during habituation days, after transport on d 7, and on the 2 following days (d 8 and 9) to evaluate pre- and posttransport behavioral activity for 2 h per day. No significant behavioral changes were observed during the last 2 d of the habituation period (d 5 and 6), suggesting that Greater Rheas were adapted to the housing conditions before transport. After transportation, several behaviors were affected: transported males and females showed null resting, transported females also showed reduced preening and increased vigilance (P < 0.05), whereas transported males showed increased drinking (P < 0.05) compared with their respective control groups. The results suggest that behavioral responses of captive-bred Greater Rheas are sensitive to short-term transport (which includes handling) and that males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity, recovering their overall basal levels on the third day posttransportation. PMID:23472006

  20. Short-term versus long-term responses to drought stress: coupling manipulation experiments with gradient studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicolas; Misson, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Water availability is the main factor shaping plants form and function in Mediterranean ecosystems. Understanding the mechanisms that drive plants productivity in drought conditions is crucial in a climate change context. So far, functional relationships between drought stress and leaf physiology has mostly been studied in short term experiments unable to address the potential acclimation in leaf function and the link between short term responses and long term acclimation. Here we hypothesize that the functional relationships between drought and leaf physiology can change under the temporal scale at witch drought is applied. Hence, we measured leaf physiological parameters (gs, gm, Amax, Vcmax Jmax) implicated in the limitation of carbon assimilation on Holm Oak leaves using a design combining 2 contrasting field experiments: (1) a rainfall exclusion experiment simulating a spring extreme drought in order to study short term processes, (2) a natural rainfall gradient (650 mm to 1150 mm) made of 3 plots in order to study long term acclimation. For each experiment we related leaf physiological parameters and their respective limitation to carbon assimilation with predawn leaf water potential as a surrogate of drought stress. Results showed that functional relationships relating gs, Vcmax and Jmax to leaf water potential changed in the total rainfall exclusion, probably because of a strong effect of spring drought on phenology. In addition, trees in the wet plot of the rainfall gradient showed a stronger stomatal conductance decline relative to leaf water potential than trees in the dry plot. We interpret these changes as a result of structural modification at canopy level in the rainfall gradient related to changes in leaf area index (LAI), hydraulic adjustment or fine root/LAI ratio. As a consequence, stomatal limitation of carbon assimilation was stronger in the wet plot than in the dry plot, while total limitation was lower in the dry plot. Water conservation in

  1. Neuromuscular Responses to Short-Term Resistance Training With Traditional and Daily Undulating Periodization in Adolescent Elite Judoka.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Pelzer, Thiemo; Oliveira, Sergio; Pfeiffer, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Ullrich, B, Pelzer, T, Oliveira, S, and Pfeiffer, M. Neuromuscular responses to short-term resistance training with traditional and daily undulating periodization in adolescent elite judoka. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2083-2099, 2016-The influence of different periodization models on neuromuscular outcomes after short-term strength training periods has not been examined in adolescent athletes. Eleven elite judoka (age: 14.8 ± 0.6 years, height: 163.2 ± 7.5 cm, body mass: 57.3 ± 11.1 kg, 5 boys/6 girls, and strength training experience: 2.7 ± 1.1 years) performed two 4-week strength training mesocycles (each with 12 sessions) with either traditional (TP) or daily undulating (DUP) periodization. Both mesocycles were separated by a 7-week washout period and added to the regular judo training. Strength training was performed as lifting and lowering of weights using squats, knee flexion curl, clean & jerk, snatch, bench press, barbell bench pull, and lat pull-down. The mesocycles were equated for the number of repetitions and different intensity zones (50-90% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), addressing the optimization of strength, power, or velocity. Laboratory and 1RM testing was carried out 2 times during the baseline (T1 and T2), after the TP mesocycle (T3), after the washout period (T4), and after the DUP mesocycle (T5). Isometric knee extensor and knee flexor maximum voluntary contractive capacity (MVC), electromyographic-estimated neural drive of the quadriceps femoris, vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, and 1RMs of all training exercises were measured. ANOVA revealed moderate (5.5-13.5%) but significant (p ≤ 0.05) temporal gains in knee extensor MVC, 1RMs, and VL architecture during both the mesocycles. Wilcoxon tests detected no significant differences for the percentage changes of any outcome between the mesocycles. For adolescent judoka, TP and DUP were equally adept in improving neuromuscular outcomes during short-term training periods. PMID

  2. Fast response and high sensitivity to microsaccades in a cascading-adaptation neural network with short-term synaptic depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wu-Jie; Zhou, Jian-Fang; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-04-01

    Microsaccades are very small eye movements during fixation. Experimentally, they have been found to play an important role in visual information processing. However, neural responses induced by microsaccades are not yet well understood and are rarely studied theoretically. Here we propose a network model with a cascading adaptation including both retinal adaptation and short-term depression (STD) at thalamocortical synapses. In the neural network model, we compare the microsaccade-induced neural responses in the presence of STD and those without STD. It is found that the cascading with STD can give rise to faster and sharper responses to microsaccades. Moreover, STD can enhance response effectiveness and sensitivity to microsaccadic spatiotemporal changes, suggesting improved detection of small eye movements (or moving visual objects). We also explore the mechanism of the response properties in the model. Our studies strongly indicate that STD plays an important role in neural responses to microsaccades. Our model considers simultaneously retinal adaptation and STD at thalamocortical synapses in the study of microsaccade-induced neural activity, and may be useful for further investigation of the functional roles of microsaccades in visual information processing.

  3. Model predictions of features in microsaccade-related neural responses in a feedforward network with short-term synaptic depression

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian-Fang; Yuan, Wu-Jie; Zhou, Zhao; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the significant microsaccade-induced neural responses have been extensively observed in experiments. To explore the underlying mechanisms of the observed neural responses, a feedforward network model with short-term synaptic depression has been proposed [Yuan, W.-J., Dimigen, O., Sommer, W. and Zhou, C. Front. Comput. Neurosci. 7, 47 (2013)]. The depression model not only gave an explanation for microsaccades in counteracting visual fading, but also successfully reproduced several microsaccade-related features in experimental findings. These results strongly suggest that, the depression model is very useful to investigate microsaccade-related neural responses. In this paper, by using the model, we extensively study and predict the dependance of microsaccade-related neural responses on several key parameters, which could be tuned in experiments. Particularly, we provide a significant prediction that microsaccade-related neural response also complies with the property “sharper is better” observed in many contexts in neuroscience. Importantly, the property exhibits a power-law relationship between the width of input signal and the responsive effectiveness, which is robust against many parameters in the model. By using mean field theory, we analytically investigate the robust power-law property. Our predictions would give theoretical guidance for further experimental investigations of the functional role of microsaccades in visual information processing. PMID:26853547

  4. Model predictions of features in microsaccade-related neural responses in a feedforward network with short-term synaptic depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian-Fang; Yuan, Wu-Jie; Zhou, Zhao; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the significant microsaccade-induced neural responses have been extensively observed in experiments. To explore the underlying mechanisms of the observed neural responses, a feedforward network model with short-term synaptic depression has been proposed [Yuan, W.-J., Dimigen, O., Sommer, W. and Zhou, C. Front. Comput. Neurosci. 7, 47 (2013)]. The depression model not only gave an explanation for microsaccades in counteracting visual fading, but also successfully reproduced several microsaccade-related features in experimental findings. These results strongly suggest that, the depression model is very useful to investigate microsaccade-related neural responses. In this paper, by using the model, we extensively study and predict the dependance of microsaccade-related neural responses on several key parameters, which could be tuned in experiments. Particularly, we provide a significant prediction that microsaccade-related neural response also complies with the property “sharper is better” observed in many contexts in neuroscience. Importantly, the property exhibits a power-law relationship between the width of input signal and the responsive effectiveness, which is robust against many parameters in the model. By using mean field theory, we analytically investigate the robust power-law property. Our predictions would give theoretical guidance for further experimental investigations of the functional role of microsaccades in visual information processing.

  5. Short-term response of Holcus lanatus L. (Common Velvetgrass) to chemical and manual control at Yosemite National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Laura J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Hutten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    One of the highest priority invasive species at both Yosemite and Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks is Holcus lanatus L. (common velvetgrass), a perennial bunchgrass that invades mid-elevation montane meadows. Despite velvetgrass being a high priority species, there is little information available on control techniques. The goal of this project was to evaluate the short-term response of a single application of common chemical and manual velvetgrass control techniques. The study was conducted at three montane sites in Yosemite National Park. Glyphosate spot-spray treatments were applied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% concentrations, and compared with hand pulling to evaluate effects on cover of common velvetgrass, cover of other plant species, and community species richness. Posttreatment year 1 cover of common velvetgrass was 12.1% ± 1.6 in control plots, 6.3% ± 1.5 averaged over the four chemical treatments (all chemical treatments performed similarly), and 13.6% ± 1.7 for handpulled plots. This represents an approximately 50% reduction in common velvetgrass cover in chemically- treated plots recoded posttreatment year 1 and no statistically significant reduction in hand pulled plots compared with controls. However, there was no treatment effect in posttreatment year 2, and all herbicide application rates performed similarly. In addition, there were no significant treatment effects on nontarget species or species richness. These results suggest that for this level of infestation and habitat type, (1) one year of hand pulling is not an effective control method and (2) glyphosate provides some level of control in the short-term without impact to nontarget plant species, but the effect is temporary as a single year of glyphosate treatment is ineffective over a two-year period.

  6. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate, superoxide dismutase and glutathione as stress response indicators in three corals under short-term hyposalinity stress.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Stephanie G; Nielsen, Daniel A; Laczka, Olivier; Shimmon, Ronald; Beltran, Victor H; Ralph, Peter J; Petrou, Katherina

    2016-02-10

    Corals are among the most active producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a key molecule in marine sulfur cycling, yet the specific physiological role of DMSP in corals remains elusive. Here, we examine the oxidative stress response of three coral species (Acropora millepora, Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora damicornis) and explore the antioxidant role of DMSP and its breakdown products under short-term hyposalinity stress. Symbiont photosynthetic activity declined with hyposalinity exposure in all three reef-building corals. This corresponded with the upregulation of superoxide dismutase and glutathione in the animal host of all three species. For the symbiont component, there were differences in antioxidant regulation, demonstrating differential responses to oxidative stress between the Symbiodinium subclades. Of the three coral species investigated, only A. millepora provided any evidence of the role of DMSP in the oxidative stress response. Our study reveals variability in antioxidant regulation in corals and highlights the influence life-history traits, and the subcladal differences can have on coral physiology. Our data expand on the emerging understanding of the role of DMSP in coral stress regulation and emphasizes the importance of exploring both the host and symbiont responses for defining the threshold of the coral holobiont to hyposalinity stress. PMID:26865302

  7. Transcriptomic analysis reveals importance of ROS and phytohormones in response to short-term salinity stress in Populus tomentosa

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lingyu; Meng, Yu; Ma, Jing; Zhao, Xiulian; Cheng, Tielong; Ji, Jing; Chang, Ermei; Meng, Chen; Deng, Nan; Chen, Lanzhen; Shi, Shengqing; Jiang, Zeping

    2015-01-01

    Populus tomentosa (Chinese white poplar) is well adapted to various extreme environments, and is considered an important species to study the effects of salinity stress on poplar trees. To decipher the mechanism of poplar's rapid response to short-term salinity stress, we firstly detected the changes in H2O2 and hormone, and then profiled the gene expression pattern of 10-week-old seedling roots treated with 200 mM NaCl for 0, 6, 12, and 24 h (h) by RNA-seq on the Illumina-Solexa platform. Physiological determination showed that the significant increase in H2O2 began at 6 h, while that in hormone ABA was at 24 h, under salt stress. Compared with controls (0 h), 3991, 4603, and 4903 genes were up regulated, and 1408, 2206, and 3461 genes were down regulated (adjusted P ≤ 0.05 and |log2Ratio|≥1) at 6, 12, and 24 h time points, respectively. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were highly enriched in hormone- and reactive oxygen species-related biological processes, including “response to oxidative stress or abiotic stimulus,” “peroxidase activity,” “regulation of transcription,” “hormone synthetic and metabolic process,” “hormone signal transduction,” “antioxidant activity,” and “transcription factor activity.” Moreover, K-means clustering demonstrated that DEGs (total RPKM value>12 from four time points) could be categorized into four kinds of expression trends: quick up/down over 6 or 12 h, and slow up/down over 24 h. Of these, DEGs involved in H2O2- and hormone- producing and signal-related genes were further enriched in this analysis, which indicated that the two kinds of small molecules, hormones and H2O2, play pivotal roles in the short-term salt stress response in poplar. This study provides a basis for future studies of the molecular adaptation of poplar and other tree species to salinity stress. PMID:26442002

  8. Spent fuel waste form characteristics: Grain and fragment size statistical dependence for dissolution response

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R.B.; Leider, H.; Weed, H.; Nguyen, S.; McKenzie, W.; Prussin, S.; Wilson, C.N.; Gray, W.J.

    1991-04-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project of the US Department of Energy is investigating the suitability of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, NV, for a high-level nuclear waste repository. All of the nuclear waste will be enclosed in a container package. Most of the nuclear waste will be in the form of fractured UO{sub 2} spent fuel pellets in Zircaloy-clad rods from electric power reactors. If failure of both the container and its enclosed clad rods occurs, then the fragments of the fractured UO{sub 2} spent fuel will be exposed to their surroundings. Even though the surroundings are an unsaturated zone, a possibility of water transport exists, and consequently, UO{sub 2} spent fuel dissolution may occur. A repository requirement imposes a limit on the nuclide release per year during a 10,000 year period; thus the short term dissolution response from fragmented fuel pellet surfaces in any given year must be understood. This requirement necessitates that both experimental and analytical activities be directed toward predicting the relatively short term dissolution response of UO{sub 2} spent fuel. The short term dissolution response involves gap nuclides, grain boundary nuclides, and grain volume nuclides. Analytical expressions are developed that describe the combined geometrical influences of grain boundary nuclides and grain volume nuclides on the dissolution rate of spent fuel. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Linking Short-term Upstream and Downstream Geomorphic Responses to the Removal of Condit Dam, White Salmon River, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, A. C.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.; Coloaiacomo, E.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamiting a hole at the base of the 38-m-high Condit Dam, on the White Salmon River, Washington, resulted in rapid reservoir drainage and erosion and produced a downstream surge of water and sediment. To document the short-term upstream and downstream responses to the October 2011 Condit breach, we combined photographic methods, topographic surveys, stage and suspended sediment measurements, and stratigraphic observations. Initial reservoir erosion occurred as a result of mass failure of thick, fine-grained reservoir sediment, which was eventually supplemented by knickpoint migration as the erosion propagated upstream from the dam. About 10 percent of total reservoir sediment eroded in the first 90 minutes after the breach, and about one-third of the reservoir sediment had evacuated in the first week. Downstream, an initially sediment-poor discharge peak with an approximately 100-year recurrence interval was followed by a hyperconcentrated sediment pulse (32% by volume) that locally produced meters-thick sand deposits. The post-breach sediment dynamics at Condit were in many respects more analogous to sediment pulses introduced by volcanic eruptions or large mass failure events than by previous dam removals.

  10. Global transcriptional analysis of short-term hepatic stress responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to depleted uranium.

    PubMed

    Song, You; Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Høgåsen, Tore; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2014-12-01

    Potential environmental hazards of radionuclides are often studied at the individual level. Sufficient toxicogenomics data at the molecular/cellular level for understanding the effects and modes of toxic action (MoAs) of radionuclide is still lacking. The current article introduces transcriptomic data generated from a recent ecotoxicological study, with the aims to characterize the MoAs of a metallic radionuclide, deplete uranium (DU) in an ecologically and commercially important fish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Salmon were exposed to three concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) of DU for 48 h. Short-term global transcriptional responses were studied using Agilent custom-designed high density 60,000-feature (60 k) salmonid oligonucleotide microarrays (oligoarray). The microarray datasets deposited at Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO ID: GSE58824) were associated with a recently published study by Song et al. (2014) in BMC Genomics. The authors describe the experimental data herein to build a platform for better understanding the toxic mechanisms and ecological hazard of radionuclides such as DU in fish. PMID:26484125

  11. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome in tPA Treated Patients Is Associated with Worse Short-term Functional Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Boehme, Amelia K.; Kapoor, Niren; Albright, Karen C.; Lyerly, Michael J.; Rawal, Pawan V.; Shahripour, Reza Bavarsad; Alvi, Muhammad; Houston, J. Thomas; Sisson, April; Beasley, T. Mark; Alexandrov, Anne W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Miller, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Systemic Inflammatory Response (SIRS) is a generalized inflammatory state. The primary goal of the study was to determine if differences exist in outcomes in SIRS and non-SIRS IV tPA treated patients. Methods Consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of SIRS during their admission. SIRS was defined as the presence of two or more: body temperature <36° C or >38° C, HR >90, respiratory rate >20 and WBC <4,000/mm or >12,000mm or >10% bands. Patients diagnosed with infection (via positive culture) were excluded. Results Out of 241 patients, 44 had evidence of SIRS (18%). Adjusting for pre-tPA NIHSS, age, and race, SIRS remained a predictor of poor functional outcome at discharge (OR= 2.58, 95% CI, 1.16 – 5.73, p=0.0197). Conclusion In our sample of tPA treated patients, almost 1 out of 5 patients developed SIRS. Further, we found the presence of SIRS to be associated with poor short-term functional outcomes and prolonged length of stay. PMID:23704110

  12. Short-term carbon cycling responses of a mature eucalypt woodland to gradual stepwise enrichment of atmospheric CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Drake, John E; Macdonald, Catriona A; Tjoelker, Mark G; Crous, Kristine Y; Gimeno, Teresa E; Singh, Brajesh K; Reich, Peter B; Anderson, Ian C; Ellsworth, David S

    2016-01-01

    Projections of future climate are highly sensitive to uncertainties regarding carbon (C) uptake and storage by terrestrial ecosystems. The Eucalyptus Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (EucFACE) experiment was established to study the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2 ) on a native mature eucalypt woodland with low fertility soils in southeast Australia. In contrast to other FACE experiments, the concentration of CO2 at EucFACE was increased gradually in steps above ambient (+0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 ppm CO2 above ambient of ~400 ppm), with each step lasting approximately 5 weeks. This provided a unique opportunity to study the short-term (weeks to months) response of C cycle flux components to eCO2 across a range of CO2 concentrations in an intact ecosystem. Soil CO2 efflux (i.e., soil respiration or Rsoil ) increased in response to initial enrichment (e.g., +30 and +60 ppm CO2 ) but did not continue to increase as the CO2 enrichment was stepped up to higher concentrations. Light-saturated photosynthesis of canopy leaves (Asat ) also showed similar stimulation by elevated CO2 at +60 ppm as at +150 ppm CO2 . The lack of significant effects of eCO2 on soil moisture, microbial biomass, or activity suggests that the increase in Rsoil likely reflected increased root and rhizosphere respiration rather than increased microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. This rapid increase in Rsoil suggests that under eCO2, additional photosynthate was produced, transported belowground, and respired. The consequences of this increased belowground activity and whether it is sustained through time in mature ecosystems under eCO2 are a priority for future research. PMID:26426394

  13. Interactions of Grazing History, Cattle Removal and Time since Rain Drive Divergent Short-Term Responses by Desert Biota

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Anke S. K.; Dickman, Chris R.; Wardle, Glenda M.; Greenville, Aaron C.

    2013-01-01

    Arid grasslands are used worldwide for grazing by domestic livestock, generating debate about how this pastoral enterprise may influence native desert biota. One approach to resolving this question is to experimentally reduce livestock numbers and measure the effects. However, a key challenge in doing this is that historical grazing impacts are likely to be cumulative and may therefore confound comparisons of the short-term responses of desert biota to changes in stocking levels. Arid areas are also subject to infrequent flooding rainfalls that drive productivity and dramatically alter abundances of flora and fauna. We took advantage of an opportunity to study the recent effects of a property-scale cattle removal on two properties with similarly varied grazing histories in central Australia. Following the removal of cattle in 2006 and before and after a significant rainfall event at the beginning of 2007, we sampled vegetation and small vertebrates on eight occasions until October 2008. Our results revealed significant interactions of time of survey with both grazing history and grazing removal for vascular plants, small mammals and reptiles. The mammals exhibited a three-way interaction of time, grazing history and grazing removal, thus highlighting the importance of careful sampling designs and timing for future monitoring. The strongest response to the cessation of grazing after two years was depressed reproductive output of plants in areas where cattle continued to graze. Our results confirm that neither vegetation nor small vertebrates necessarily respond immediately to the removal of livestock, but that rainfall events and cumulative grazing history are key determinants of floral and faunal performance in grassland landscapes with low and variable rainfall. We suggest that improved assessments could be made of the health of arid grazing environments if long-term monitoring were implemented to track the complex interactions that influence how native biota

  14. Microbial dynamics in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor granules in response to short-term changes in substrate feed

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacik, William P.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Hickey, Robert; Zhang, Weiwen; Brockman, Fred J.

    2010-08-01

    The complexity and diversity of the microbial communities in biogranules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor were determined in response to short-term changes in substrate feeds. The reactor was fed simulated brewery wastewater (SBWW) (70% ethanol, 15% acetate, 15% propionate) for 1.5 months (phase 1), acetate / sulfate for 2 months (phase 2), acetate-alone for 3 months (phase 3), and then a return to SBWW for 2 months (phase 4). Performance of the reactor remained relatively stable throughout the experiment as shown by COD removal and gas production. 16S rDNA, methanogen-associated mcrA and sulfate reducer-associated dsrAB genes were PCR amplified, then cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 16S clone libraries showed a relatively simple community composed mainly of the methanogenic Archaea (Methanobacterium and Methanosaeta), members of the Green Non-Sulfur (Chloroflexi) group of Bacteria, followed by fewer numbers of Syntrophobacter, Spirochaeta, Acidobacteria and Cytophaga-related Bacterial sequences. Methanogen-related mcrA clone libraries were dominated throughout by Methanobacter and Methanospirillum related sequences. Although not numerous enough to be detected in our 16S rDNA libraries, sulfate reducers were detected in dsrAB clone libraries, with sequences related to Desulfovibrio and Desulfomonile. Community diversity levels (Shannon-Weiner index) generally decreased for all libraries in response to a change from SBWW to acetate-alone feed. But there was a large transitory increase noted in 16S diversity at the two-month sampling on acetate-alone, entirely related to an increase in Bacterial diversity. Upon return to SBWW conditions in phase 4, all diversity measures returned to near phase 1 levels.

  15. Responses of soil microeukaryotic communities to short-term fumigation-incubation revealed by MiSeq amplicon sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Xu, Jianming; Feng, Youzhi; Wang, Juntao; Yu, Yongjie; Brookes, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    In soil microbiology, there is a “paradox” of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization, which is that even though chloroform fumigation destroys majority of the soil microbial biomass, SOC mineralization continues at the same rate as in the non-fumigated soil during the incubation period. Soil microeukaryotes as important SOC decomposers, however, their community-level responses to chloroform fumigation are not well understood. Using the 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we analyzed the composition, diversity, and C-metabolic functions of a grassland soil and an arable soil microeukaryotic community in response to fumigation followed by a 30-day incubation. The grassland and arable soil microeukaryotic communities were dominated by the fungal Ascomycota (80.5–93.1% of the fungal sequences), followed by the protistan Cercozoa and Apicomplexa. In the arable soil fungal community, the predominance of the class Sordariomycetes was replaced by the class Eurotiomycetes after fumigation at days 7 and 30 of the incubation. Fumigation changed the microeukaryotic α-diversity in the grassland soil at days 0 and 7, and β-diversity in the arable soil at days 7 and 30. Network analysis indicated that after fumigation fungi were important groups closely related to other taxa. Most phylotypes (especially Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Coccidia, and uncultured Chytridiomycota) were inhibited, and only a few were positively stimulated by fumigation. Despite the inhibited Sordariomycetes, the fumigated communities mainly consisted of Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes (21.9 and 36.5% relative frequency, respectively), which are able to produce hydrolytic enzymes associated with SOC mineralization. Our study suggests that fumigation not only decreases biomass size, but modulates the composition and diversity of the soil microeukaryotic communities, which are capable of driving SOC mineralization by release of hydrolytic enzymes during short-term fumigation-incubation. PMID

  16. Short-term changes in anaerobic oxidation of methane in response to varying methane and sulfate fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, G.; Boetius, A.

    2008-08-01

    A major role in global methane fluxes has been attributed to the process of anaerobic oxidation of methane, which is performed by consortia of methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria. An important question remains how these very slow growing microorganisms with generation times of 3 7 months respond to natural variations in methane fluxes at cold seeps. Here, we used an experimental flow-through column system filled with cold seep sediments naturally enriched in methanotrophic communities, to test their response to short-term variations in methane and sulfate fluxes. At stable methane and sulfate concentrations of ~2 mM and 28 mM, respectively, we measured constant rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and sulfide production (SR) for up to 160 days of incubation. When percolated with methane-free medium, the anaerobic methanotrophs ceased to oxidize methane and to produce sulfide. After a starvation phase of 40 days, the addition of methane restored former AOM and SR rates immediately. At methane concentrations between 0 2.3 mM we measured a linear correlation between methane availability, AOM and SR. At constant fluid flow rates of 30 m yr-1, ca. 50% of the methane was consumed by the ANME population at all concentrations tested. Reducing the sulfate concentration from 28 to 1 mM, a decrease in AOM and SR by 35% was observed. Hence, the marine anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) are capable to consume substantial amounts of methane rising from the subsurface seabed to the hydrosphere over a wide range of fluxes of methane and sulfate.

  17. [Metabolic profiling of the short-term responses of Nicotiana tabacum leaves cultivated under different LED lights].

    PubMed

    Meng, Lin; Liang, Meng; Wang, Cheng-dong; Liu, Xiao-bing; Song, Wen-jing; Shi, Jiao; Xu, Yi-min

    2015-12-01

    The physiologically mature tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves was exposed to different light-emitting diode (LED) lights, i.e. ultraviolet A (UV-A), blue, green, yellow, red, white, to investigate their short-term response. Results showed that: 1) 68 GC/MS-stable metabolites were detected by non-targeted method. In the PLS-DA score plot, tobacco leaf samples showed clear grouping in each light cultivating condition. 61 metabolites were identified in mass spectra library. Besides, 45 metabolites, mainly including organic acids, carbohydrates, TCA cycle intermediate metabolites and amino acids, showed significant differences among the six light treatments. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and heat map showed that differential metabolites could be divided into five groups, and there were significant differences among the six treatments, especially under red and blue lights. Except for the metabolites of group B, almost all other metabolites contents in tobacco leaves treated with red light were higher than those under blue light. 2) Contents of solanesol, 3 alkaloids and 5 polyphenols were measured with targeted method. 4 alkaloids, including nicotine detected by non-targeted method, showed similar variation among all treatments, of which red and yellow light increased alkaloid accumulation significantly. The kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and rutin showed similar variation among the six treatments, with the lowest content under blue light and the highest content under yellow light, nevertheless, 3 other polyphenols were differently affected by light qualities. The aolanesol accumulation was significantly repressed by yellow light, but showed highest content under blue light. In conclusion, light quality affected many metabolic pathways significantly in tobacco, such as fatty acid metabolism, glycometabolism, alkaloid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle and shikimate pathway. PMID:27112018

  18. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in sagebrush-steppe: the SageSTEP project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIver, James; Brunson, Mark; Bunting, Steve; Chambers, Jeanne; Doescher, Paul; Grace, James; Hulet, April; Johnson, Dale; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard; Pellant, Mike; Pierson, Fred; Pyke, David; Rau, Benjamin; Rollins, Kim; Roundy, Bruce; Schupp, Eugene; Tausch, Robin; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation reduction by prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, or herbicides initiated a cascade of effects, beginning with increased availability of nitrogen and soil water, followed by increased growth of herbaceous vegetation. Response of butterflies and magnitudes of runoff and erosion closely followed herbaceous vegetation recovery. Effects on shrubs, biological soil crust, tree cover, surface woody fuel loads, and sagebrush-obligate bird communities will take longer to be fully expressed. In the short term, cool wet sites were more resilient than warm dry sites, and resistance was mostly dependent on pretreatment herbaceous cover. At least 10 yr of posttreatment time will likely be necessary to determine outcomes for most sites. Mechanical treatments did not serve as surrogates for prescribed fire in how each influenced the fuel bed, the soil, erosion, and sage-obligate bird communities. Woody vegetation reduction by any means resulted in increased availability of soil water, higher herbaceous cover, and greater butterfly numbers. We identified several trade-offs (desirable outcomes for some variables, undesirable for others), involving most components of the study system. Trade-offs are inevitable when managing complex natural systems, and they underline the importance of asking questions about the whole system when developing management objectives. Substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity in sagebrush steppe ecosystems emphasizes the point that there will rarely be a “recipe” for choosing management actions on any specific area. Use of a consistent evaluation process linked to monitoring may be the

  19. Mothers Also Withdraw from Parent-Child Interaction as a Short-Term Response to Increased Load at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetti, Rena L.

    This study examined the short-term association between daily parental job stress and subsequent patterns of interaction between parent and child. Subjects were 30 mothers each with a preschool child between the ages of 3 and 5 years. Mothers were employed in a variety of white-collar occupations. For 5 consecutive days, mothers completed a…

  20. Short-term vegetation response following mechanical control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) on the Virgin River, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Dudley, Tom; Lee, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    and species diversity were very low, suggesting that targets of restoring vegetation to pre-invasion conditions were not met. Longer evaluation periods are needed to adequately evaluate how short-term post-treatment patterns translate to long-term patterns of plant community dynamics.

  1. Eelgrass indicator deployment system (EIDS): A low tech tool for short-term evaluation of eelgrass response to water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eelgrass is often considered a sentinel species that can be used as an indicator of water clarity and quality. I used the Eelgrass Indicator Deployment System (EIDS) in a series of short term experiments to evaluate eelgrass growth and survival at a decline and a control site in...

  2. Effect of short-term stainless steel welding fume inhalation exposure on lung inflammation, injury, and defense responses in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Antonini, James M. Stone, Sam; Roberts, Jenny R.; Chen, Bean; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Afshari, Aliakbar A.; Frazer, David G.

    2007-09-15

    Many welders have experienced bronchitis, metal fume fever, lung function changes, and an increase in the incidence of lung infection. Questions remain regarding the possible mechanisms associated with the potential pulmonary effects of welding fume exposure. The objective was to assess the early effects of stainless steel (SS) welding fume inhalation on lung injury, inflammation, and defense responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to gas metal arc-SS welding fume at a concentration of 15 or 40 mg/m{sup 3} x 3 h/day for 1, 3, or 10 days. The control group was exposed to filtered air. To assess lung defense responses, some animals were intratracheally inoculated with 5 x 10{sup 4}Listeria monocytogenes 1 day after the last exposure. Welding particles were collected during exposure, and elemental composition and particle size were determined. At 1, 4, 6, 11, 14, and 30 days after the final exposure, parameters of lung injury (lactate dehydrogenase and albumin) and inflammation (PMN influx) were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, particle-induced effects on pulmonary clearance of bacteria and macrophage function were assessed. SS particles were composed of Fe, Cr, Mn, and Ni. Particle size distribution analysis indicated the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the generated fume to be 0.255 {mu}m. Parameters of lung injury were significantly elevated at all time points post-exposure compared to controls except for 30 days. Interestingly, no significant difference in lung PMNs was observed between the SS and control groups at 1, 4, and 6 days post-exposure. After 6 days post-exposure, a dramatic increase in lung PMNs was observed in the SS group compared to air controls. Lung bacteria clearance and macrophage function were reduced and immune and inflammatory cytokines were altered in the SS group. In summary, short-term exposure of rats to SS welding fume caused significant lung damage and suppressed lung defense responses to bacterial

  3. Responses of Emergent Behaviour in Headwater Catchments to Long-term and Short-term Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Malcolm, I. A.; Brewer, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    Emergent behaviour of hydrological processes at the catchment scale often results in relatively simple and predictable functional characteristics which are underpinned by heterogeneous, complex processes at the small scale. It is unclear how such small-scale processes are affected by long- and short-term perturbations in forcing factors affected by various environmental changes. This leads to uncertainty in how emergent behaviour will change and how hydrology and hydrochemistry will respond at the catchment scale. A powerful resource in improving predictions of such responses is applying advanced statistical analysis to long-term data sets of conservative tracers, particularly in gauged catchments that are subject to marked environmental change. Changes in tracer behaviour can provide an integrated insight into the emergent response of system functioning and its non-linear characteristics. In this paper, we present the analysis of long-term tracer data collected since 1982 in 2 small (ca. 1km2) experimental catchments in the Scottish highlands. These have been affected by marked change and variability in driving variables of climate, land cover and rainfall chemistry: Annual rainfall ranged between 1490 and 2500mm and an average 1°C increase in air temperatures was observed over the monitoring period. In addition, forestry operations resulted in 70% of each catchment being clear felled. Finally, air pollution legislation targeting acid emissions has improved the quality of precipitation, resulting in a marked reduction in acid deposition. Long-term (20 year, weekly) time-series analyses of two tracers are used to assess changes in emergent catchment behaviour. Chloride input-output time series are analysed using a range of residence time models which highlighted non-stationarity in the catchment mean residence times (which ranged between 2-11 months for individual years) and corresponding residence time distributions. At the catchments scale these were driven

  4. Short-term Holocene climate variability in coastal mid-Norway - the terrestrial response to the North Atlantic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, M.; Seidenkrantz, M.-S.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Rubensdotter, L.; Faust, J.; Knies, J.

    2012-04-01

    Coastal areas are known to be susceptible to maritime climate variations, especially where prevailing wind directions provide humidity and latent heat to the land masses. Temperature reconstructions from the eastern North Atlantic, and from northern and western Norway show simultaneous changes on millennial to centennial scales during the Holocene. However also latitudinal climatic differences occur during the Holocene. These indicate a more complex system along the Norwegian coast with regional temperature variations depending on more than only North Atlantic's climate. Climate sensitive archives such as lake sediments in coastal mid-Norway provide the opportunity to study the influence of and the terrestrial response to climate variations mediated by the North Atlantic and allow the extension of our knowledge about regional peculiarities along the Norwegian coast. Lake Blomstertjønna, a small lake outside Trondheim at 427 m a.s.l., enables a detailed study of climatic and environmental variations during the Holocene. The entire succession is 590 cm long and is composed of minerogenic sediments at the bottom and dominating biogenic sediments in the upper 495 cm. Radiocarbon dating of macrofossils aided by tephra identification reveal a lake history that started after deglaciation at about 12 kyr BP and shifted to a biogenic productive lake with overall uniform sedimentation rates at about 11 kyr BP. Biogeochemical proxies like total organic carbon and total sulphur and geophysical parameters show a weak, i.e. more even response to climatic variations in the gyttja-rich section and indicate that temperature was not a limiting factor for the lake productivity. In contrast, geochemical elemental ratios from XRF scanning reveal a pronounced long- and short-term variability of elemental composition. The long-term trend of selected elemental ratios reflects the general Holocene temperature evolution with higher values during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and a

  5. Short-term exercise training improves the cardiovascular response to exercise in the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Shigeki; Fu, Qi; Bivens, Tiffany B; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Wang, Wade; Levine, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the presence of cardiac atrophy as a key component of the pathogenesis of the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), similar to physical deconditioning. It has also been shown that exercise intolerance is associated with a reduced stroke volume (SV) in POTS, and that the high heart rate (HR) observed at rest and during exercise in these patients is due to this low SV. We tested the hypotheses that (a) circulatory control during exercise is normal in POTS; and (b) that physical ‘reconditioning’ with exercise training improves exercise performance in patients with POTS. Nineteen (18 women) POTS patients completed a 3 month training programme. Cardiovascular responses during maximal exercise testing were assessed in the upright position before and after training. Resting left ventricular diastolic function was evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. Results were compared with those of 10 well-matched healthy sedentary controls. A lower SV resulted in a higher HR in POTS at any given oxygen uptake () during exercise while the cardiac output ()– relationship was normal. was lower in POTS than controls (26.1 ± 1.0 (SEM) vs. 36.3 ± 0.9 ml kg−1 min−1; P < 0.001) due to a lower peak SV (65 ± 3 vs. 80 ± 5 ml; P = 0.009). After training in POTS, HR became lower at any given due to increased SV without changes in the – relationship. increased by 11% (P < 0.001) due to increased peak SV (P = 0.021) and was proportional to total blood volume. Peak HR was similar, but HR recovery from exercise was faster after training than before training (P = 0.036 for training and 0.009 for interaction). Resting diastolic function was mostly normal in POTS before training, though diastolic suction was impaired (P = 0.023). There were no changes in any Doppler index after training. These results suggest that short-term exercise training improves physical fitness and cardiovascular responses during exercise in patients with POTS. PMID

  6. Short-term sensory and cutaneous vascular responses to therapeutic ultrasound in the forearms of healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Therapeutic ultrasound (US) is used for a variety of clinical pathologies and is thought to accelerate tissue repair and help with pain reduction via its thermal and nonthermal effects. The evidence on physiological effects of US on both sensory and vascular functions in humans is incomplete. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the short-term impact of two doses of US (3 MHz, 1:4, 0.25 W/cm2, 5 min; 1 MHz, continuous, 0.8 W/cm2, 3 min), on sensory and vascular responses in the healthy forearms. Methods Twenty healthy subjects were recruited (mean age, 29.6 ± 8.8 years) for the study. Superficial blood flow (SBF) in the distal forearms was determined using the tissue viability imaging system. Sensory perception thresholds (SPT) were determined from ring finger (C7, C8) to assess A-beta (at 2,000 Hz) and C fiber function (at 5 Hz), using a Neurometer CPT/C device. Subject’s two hands were randomly allocated to group order (AB/BA). Scores were obtained before and immediately after the application of US and control. Differences in these were analyzed using repeated measures. Results Both 3 MHz pulsed US and 1 MHz continuous US showed small to moderate (effect size = 0.12 to 0.68), statistically significant reductions in SBF (3 MHz, mean change = 2.8 AU and 1 MHz, mean change = 3.9 AU, p < 0.05 respectively), skin temperature (2.5°C and 1.1°C, p < 0.05), and SPT at 5 Hz (1.3 and 1 mA, p < 0.05) across time. SPT at 2,000 Hz remained unaltered by all three conditions (p > 0.05). Age and gender also had no effect on all outcome measures (p > 0.05). Conclusion This study demonstrated minor reductions in skin blood flow, skin temperatures, and C fiber perception thresholds immediately after 3 MHz, and 1 MHz US. The responses observed may have been due to a thermo-cooling effect of the gel or due to the direct effect of US on C fibers of median and ulnar nerves. US had a negligible effect on A-beta fibres. This would suggest that future

  7. Preliminary study of the short term response of soil properties to forest fire in the South of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Donaire, V.; Hueso-González, P.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fires are a widespread phenomenon in Mediterranean environments, where they are favored by drought and high temperatures conditions that are common in summer. Wildfires affect dramatically to soil physical, chemical and biological properties, which changes the hydrological and erosive soil response. The removing of vegetation leads to erosive and degradation processes, very important immediately after the fire. The objectives of this study are: i) to compare the properties of soils affected by a recent wildfire to the properties of soils that were not; ii) to assess the effect of the vegetal cover in the short-term response of soil to wildfire. The experimental area is located in the South of Spain, 32 km western of the city of Málaga. In general, the area is characterized by a sub-humid Mediterranean climate (mean annual precipitation: 699 mm year-1; mean annual temperature: 17°C), with a substratum of alkaline metamorphic rocks. Vegetation cover consists on a mixed open wood of Quercus spp. and Pinus spp. with typical degraded Mediterranean scrub, where the dominant genus are Ulex spp. and Cistus spp. This area was partially affected by a wildfire on September 11th 2011 Three soil microenvironments were selected in burned and unburned soils: soil covered by shrubs, trees and bare soils. Unburned area was adjacent to the burned one and both of them had the same general conditions. On each microenvironment samples of the first 5 cm of soil were collected on September 19th 2011. The analyzed properties in the laboratory were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), texture, organic matter (OM), aggregate stability (AS), cationic exchange capacity and water repellency (WR). Likewise, unsaturated infiltration rate was calculated in field conditions on the sampling date. When we analyzed the samples without taking into account the vegetation cover, our results suggested that the fire affected mainly to pH (p<0.001), EC (p<0.001) and OM (p<0.01) Surprisingly, AS and

  8. Short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  9. Effects of temperature on urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to short-term capture and handling stress in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2012-09-01

    Extreme temperature can cause metabolic, immune and behavioural changes in amphibians. Short-term stress hormonal response via increased secretion of corticosterone enables amphibians to make necessary physiological and behavioural adjustments for coping with stressors. The effect of temperature on short-term corticosterone responses has not been studied in amphibians. In this study, this relationship was evaluated in adult male cane toads (Rhinella marina). We acclimated male toads (n=24 toads per group) at low, medium and high temperature (15, 25 or 35°C) under controlled laboratory conditions for a 14 day period. After thermal acclimation, short-term corticosterone responses were evaluated in the toads subjected to a standard capture and handling stress protocol over a 24h period. Corticosterone metabolites in toad urine were measured via enzyme-immunoassay. During acclimation, mean baseline urinary corticosterone level increased after transfer of the toads from wild into captivity and returned to baseline on day 14 of acclimation for each of the three temperatures. At the end of the 14 days of thermal acclimation period, baseline corticosterone level were highest for toad group at 35°C and lowest at 15°C. All toads generated urinary corticosterone responses to the standard capture and handling stressor for each temperature. Both individual and mean short-term corticosterone responses of the toads were highest at 35°C and lowest at 15°C. Furthermore, Q(10) values (the factor by which the reaction rate increases when the temperature is raised by 10°) were calculated for mean corrected integrated corticosterone responses as follows; (15-35°C) Q(10)=1.51, (15-25°C) Q(10)=1.60; (25-35°C) Q(10)=1.43. Both total and corrected integrated corticosterone responses were highest for toads at 35°C followed by 25°C and lowest for the 15°C toad group. Overall, the results have demonstrated the thermodynamic response of corticosterone secretion to short-term

  10. Transcriptomic and Physiological Responses of the Green Microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during Short-Term Exposure to Subnanomolar Methylmercury Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Beauvais-Flück, Rebecca; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    The effects of short-term exposure to subnanomolar methyl-mercury (MeHg) concentrations, representative of contaminated environments, on the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were assessed using both physiological end points and gene expression analysis. MeHg bioaccumulated and induced significant increase of the photosynthesis efficiency, while the algal growth, oxidative stress, and chlorophyll fluorescence were unaffected. At the molecular level, MeHg significantly dysregulated the expression of genes involved in motility, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, metal transport, and antioxidant enzymes. Data suggest that the cells were able to cope with subnanomolar MeHg exposure, but this tolerance resulted in a significant cost to the cell energy and reserve metabolism as well as ample changes in the nutrition and motility of C. reinhardtii. The present results allowed gaining new insights on the effects and uptake mechanisms of MeHg at subnanomolar concentrations in aquatic primary producers. PMID:27254783

  11. Deferred feeding and body weight responses to short-term interruption of fuel acquisition: impact of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, B A; Briski, K P

    2015-07-01

    Short-term abstinence from food intake, planned or unplanned, is unavoidable in modern life, but negatively correlated with appetite control and obesity. This study investigated the role of estradiol in feeding and body weight (BW) reactions to short-span cessation of feeding. During acute 1-6-h re-feeding, 12-h food-deprived (FD), estradiol benzoate (EB)-implanted ovariectomized rats ate less food and gained less weight than FD animals implanted with oil (O). Full fed (FF)- and FD-EB consumed equal amounts of food over 24 h, but weight gain was greater in the latter; 24-h food intake and BW gain in FD-O exceeded FD-EB. Caudal fourth ventricular administration of the AMPK activator AICAR increased dorsal vagal complex AMPK activity in FD-EB and FD-O, but elicited dissimilar adjustments in hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide transmitter expression, while respectively enhancing or reducing acute re-feeding in these animals and reversing FD-O weight gain. Drug-treated FD-EB and FD-O exhibited respective feeding and weight gain increases between 6-24 h. AICAR enhanced 24-h consumption in FD-EB vs. FF-EB, but cumulative intake and BW gain were greater in AICAR-treated FD-O vs. FD-EB. Results show that estradiol limits acute re-feeding after short-term feeding suspension, but augments acute re-feeding when energy depletion coincides with suspended feeding. This compound metabolic stress exerts steroid-dependent effects during later resumption of circadian-induced feeding, for example, increased consumption vs. weight gain in the presence vs. absence of estradiol. These studies provide novel evidence that estrogen mitigates acute and post-acute adverse effects of disrupted fuel acquisition on energy balance. PMID:25230326

  12. The effects of short-term and long-term learning on the responses of lateral intraparietal neurons to visually presented objects

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdardottir, Heida M.; Sheinberg, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of the dorsal visual stream is thought to play an important role in visually directed orienting, or the guidance of where to look and pay attention. LIP can also respond selectively to differently shaped objects. We sought to understand how and to what extent short-term and long-term experience with visual orienting can determine the nature of responses of LIP neurons to objects of different shapes. We taught monkeys to arbitrarily associate centrally presented objects of various shapes with orienting either toward or away from a preferred peripheral spatial location of a neuron. For some objects the training lasted for less than a single day, while for other objects the training lasted for several months. We found that neural responses to visual objects are affected both by such short-term and long-term experience, but that the length of the learning period determines exactly how this neural plasticity manifests itself. Short-term learning over the course of a single training session affects neural responses to objects, but these effects are only seen relatively late after visual onset; at this time, the neural responses to newly learned objects start to resemble those of familiar over-learned objects that share their meaning or arbitrary association. Long-term learning, on the other hand, affects the earliest and apparently bottom-up responses to visual objects. These responses tend to be greater for objects that have repeatedly been associated with looking toward, rather than away from, LIP neurons’ preferred spatial locations. Responses to objects can nonetheless be distinct even though the objects have both been similarly acted on in the past and will lead to the same orienting behavior in the future. Our results therefore also indicate that a complete experience-driven override of LIP object responses is difficult or impossible. PMID:25633647

  13. Short-term variations of phytoplankton communities in response to anthropogenic stressors in a highly altered temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Yongsik; Jeong, Byungkwan

    2015-04-01

    Data for phytoplankton size classes, taxonomy, and water properties were collected through an episodic freshwater discharge event (4 days) in the temperate Youngsan River estuary, which is highly disturbed by manually regulated inputs of freshwater from a sea dike, to investigate the effects of an acute change in anthropogenic stressors on the short-term dynamics of phytoplankton and their surrounding environments. The salinity of the well-mixed saline water (33.2-33.5) decreased to as low as 4.0 and water temperature increased to 24.0 °C during the freshwater discharge, resulting in a stratified water column in the upper region of the estuary. During the discharge, chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations increased to as much as 15.66 μg L-1 with micro-sized phytoplankton being dominant due to the presence of micro-sized freshwater phytoplankton, mostly Aulacoseira ambigua (98% in cell abundance), transported from the reservoir. Primary production decreased to as little as 87.9 mg C m-2 d-1, although nutrients such as NO2- + NO3- were supplied by the freshwater inputs of the discharge. Following the discharge, dinoflagellate blooms, dominated by Heterocapsa sp. (>88%), a nano-sized red tide species, developed in the upper regions of the estuary with peaks in chl a concentrations reaching as high as 30.33 μg L-1. Another red tide species, Prorocentrum micans, was also dominant in the estuary, suggesting that harmful algal blooms (HABs) are associated with anthropogenic stressors related to the freshwater inputs. The Shannon diversity index decreased to 0.18 while the Simpson dominance index increased to 0.94 during the discharge, but the diversity increased again following the discharge. The phytoplankton communities and diversity changed along the salinity gradient, corresponding to an "ecocline" pattern. The results of multivariate statistical analysis suggested that phytoplankton species and size structure were controlled mainly by salinity, water temperature

  14. Genotypic variation in growth and metabolic responses of perennial ryegrass exposed to short-term waterlogging and submergence stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxi; Jiang, Yiwei

    2015-10-01

    Physiological mechanisms of waterlogging (WL) and submergence (SM) tolerance are not well understood in perennial grasses used for turf and forage. The objective of this study was to characterize growth, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) exposed to short-term WL and SM. 'Silver Dollar' (turf-type cultivar), 'PI418714' (wild accession), 'Kangaroo Valley' (forage-type cultivar) and 'PI231569' (unknown status) varying in growth habits and leaf texture were subjected to 7 d of WL and SM in a growth chamber. Plant height was unaffected by WL but was significantly reduced by SM for all grasses except PI418714. The SM treatment caused greater reductions in leaf chlorophyll and total carotenoid concentrations. Substantial declines in water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations were found in the shoots and roots under SM, particularly in Kangaroo Valley and PI231569, two relatively fast-growing genotypes. Significant increases in malondialdehyde concentrations were noted in the shoots and roots of all genotypes exposed to WL and SM, but to a greater extent in Kangaroo Valley and PI231569 under SM. Shoot activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) increased under SM, more pronounced in Silver Dollar and PI418714, two relatively slow-growing genotypes. Waterlogging or SM stresses decreased root activities of superoxide dismutase, CAT, POD and ascorbate peroxidase, especially for Kangaroo Valley and PI231569. The results indicated that maintenance of antioxidant activity and carbohydrate and minimization of lipid peroxidation could contribute to better waterlogging or submergence tolerance of perennial ryegrasses. PMID:26188499

  15. Short-term metabolic and growth responses of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennige, S. J.; Wicks, L. C.; Kamenos, N. A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Findlay, H. S.; Dumousseaud, C.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water corals are associated with high local biodiversity, but despite their importance as ecosystem engineers, little is known about how these organisms will respond to projected ocean acidification. Since preindustrial times, average ocean pH has decreased from 8.2 to ~8.1, and predicted CO2 emissions will decrease by up to another 0.3 pH units by the end of the century. This decrease in pH may have a wide range of impacts upon marine life, and in particular upon calcifiers such as cold-water corals. Lophelia pertusa is the most widespread cold-water coral (CWC) species, frequently found in the North Atlantic. Here, we present the first short-term (21 days) data on the effects of increased CO2 (750 ppm) upon the metabolism of freshly collected L. pertusa from Mingulay Reef Complex, Scotland, for comparison with net calcification. Over 21 days, corals exposed to increased CO2 conditions had significantly lower respiration rates (11.4±1.39 SE, μmol O2 g-1 tissue dry weight h-1) than corals in control conditions (28.6±7.30 SE μmol O2 g-1 tissue dry weight h-1). There was no corresponding change in calcification rates between treatments, measured using the alkalinity anomaly technique and 14C uptake. The decrease in respiration rate and maintenance of calcification rate indicates an energetic imbalance, likely facilitated by utilisation of lipid reserves. These data from freshly collected L. pertusa from the Mingulay Reef Complex will help define the impact of ocean acidification upon the growth, physiology and structural integrity of this key reef framework forming species.

  16. BWRSAR (Boiling Water Reactor Severe Accident Response) calculations of reactor vessel debris pours for Peach Bottom short-term station blackout

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.; Ott, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes recent analyses performed by the BWR Severe Accident Technology (BWRSAT) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to estimate the release of debris from the reactor vessel for the unmitigated short-term station blackout accident sequence. Calculations were performed with the BWR Severe Accident Response (BWRSAR) code and are based upon consideration of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The modeling strategies employed within BWRSAR for debris relocation within the reactor vessel are briefly discussed and the calculated events of the accident sequence, including details of the calculated debris pours, are presented. 4 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Applications of NASA and NOAA Satellite Observations by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Response to Natural Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center supports the transition of unique NASA and NOAA research activities to the operational weather forecasting community. SPoRT emphasizes real-time analysis and prediction out to 48 hours. SPoRT partners with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and National Centers to improve current products, demonstrate future satellite capabilities and explore new data assimilation techniques. Recently, the SPoRT Center has been involved in several activities related to disaster response, in collaboration with NOAA s National Weather Service, NASA s Applied Sciences Disasters Program, and other partners.

  18. Late Paleocene early Eocene Tethyan carbonate platform evolution — A response to long- and short-term paleoclimatic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibner, C.; Speijer, R. P.

    2008-11-01

    /Eocene Thermal Maximum. The causes for the change from coral-dominated platforms to larger foraminifera-dominated platforms are multilayered. The decline of coralgal reefs in low latitudes during platform stage II is related to overall warming, leading to sea-surface temperatures in the tropics beyond the maximum temperature range of corals. The overall low occurrence of coral reefs in the Paleogene might be related to the presence of a calcite sea. At the same time larger foraminifera started to flourish after their near extinction at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. The demise of coralgal reefs at all studied paleolatitudes in platform stage III can be founded on the effects of the PETM, resulting in short-term warming, eutrophic conditions on the shelves and acidification of the oceans, hampering the growth of aragonitic corals, while calcitic larger foraminifera flourished. In the absence of other successful carbonate-producing organisms, larger foraminifera were able to take over the role as the dominant carbonate platform inhabitant, leading to a stepwise Tethyan platform stage evolution around the Paleocene/Eocene boundary. This szenario might be also effective for threatened coral reef sites.

  19. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: Interim results

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, David M.; Rogers, Rick; Sepulveda, Rosalina; Kunzendorf, Peter; Bellmann, Bernd; Ernst, Heinrich; Phillips, James I.

    2014-04-01

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (> 20 μm) cleared quickly with T{sub 1/2} estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T{sub 1/2} > 1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • We evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite produced pathological response - Wagner 4 interstitial fibrosis by 32d.

  20. The response of the MLS mesospheric daytime hydroxyl radical and water vapor to the short-term solar irradiance variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. V.; Rozanov, E.; Shapiro, A.; Wang, S.; Egorova, T. A.; Schmutz, W. K.; Peter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Solar radiation, which is the main energy source in the terrestrial atmosphere, is highly variable on different time-scales. The variations of the SSI may have substantial impact on chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere. The mesospheric hydroxyl radical (OH), which is the main ozone destructor, is produced due to the photolysis of the water vapor (H2O) by highly variable short wave solar radiation. Chemistry-climate models suggest strong response of the mesospheric OH and H2O caused by the solar irradiance variability. However the response was not yet defined with observed data. We analyzed the response of the tropical mean OH and H2O data observed by Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) to the solar irradiance variations during rotational cycle. We performed the analysis for the two time periods. The data from December 2004 to December 2005 were used to estimate the OH and H2O responses to the solar irradiance variability in high solar activity conditions (when the 27-day rotational cycle is well pronounced). The response for the solar minimum conditions (when the 27-day rotational cycle is vague) was considered using the data from November 2008 to November 2009. We found, for the first time, that during the period of the high solar activity the daily time series of the mesospheric OH correlate well with the solar irradiance at zero time-lag and the correlation coefficient reaches 0.79 at 76-82 km. The H2O for the same period anticorrelates with the solar irradiance at about 6-7 days time-lag with the correlation coefficient up to -0.7. At the same time the OH and H2O responses are negligible for the solar minimum period. This confirms that the 27-day solar cycles in OH, H2O and solar irradiance are physically connected.

  1. Efficacy of metomidate and tricaine methanesulfonate to modulate the short-term cortisol stress response in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the anesthetics metomidate and tricaine methanesulfonate to mitigate the cortisol stress response of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated during a 10 min confinement stress. Channel catfish (11.9 ± 0.5 g; mean ± SE) were transferred from holding tanks to confinement buck...

  2. Short-term soil responses to late-seeded cover crops in a semi-arid environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops can expand ecosystem services, though sound management recommendations for their use within semi-arid cropping systems is currently constrained by a lack of information. This study was conducted to determine agroecosystem responses to late-summer seeded cover crops under no-till managem...

  3. Laser Doppler monitoring of alterations of blood-flow parameters in fish embryos in response to light irradiation: study of long-term and short-term reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, Natalia B.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Revutsky, Pavel V.; Levenko, Borislav A.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper new experimental results on monitoring of alterations of blood flow parameters in growing fish embryos under laser and non-laser light irradiation are discussed. The measurements were performed by means of laser Doppler technique with high temporal and spatial resolution. Two parameters of blood flows were mostly measured: average velocity and frequency of velocity pulsations. These parameters were shown to be an adequate characteristics of nonstationary blood flows in fishes. The problem of noninvasivity of such experiments is discussed. For this purpose absorption spectra of fish embryos were measured. The quantitative response of blood flows to irradiation at different light wavelengths was recorded. Different species of fishes were used to compare the responses. Different effects were recorded which depend upon the doze and the wavelength of irradiation, and upon the stage of the embryo development at which the irradiation had taken place. Among those effects long-term and short-term reactions can be distinguished.

  4. EEG hemispheric asymmetry as a predictor and correlate of short-term response to clozapine treatment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Knott, V; Labelle, A; Jones, B; Mahoney, C

    2000-07-01

    In search of early neuroleptic response predictors in schizophrenia, functional interhemispheric and intrahemispheric asymmetry indices, derived from spectrally analyzed resting electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, were examined in 17 schizophrenic patients prior to open label treatment with the atypical neuroleptic clozapine. Compared to EEG asymmetry indices derived from a normative data bank, patients exhibited significant interhemispheric (left greater than right) and intrahemispheric (anterior greater than posterior) deviations in delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Intrahemispheric indices were positively correlated with clinical ratings of positive symptoms and global psychopathology. Clozapine-induced improvements in positive and negative symptoms and global psychopathology symptom ratings were related to pretreatment intrahemispheric asymmetry only, with relationships varying with symptom, recording region and frequency band. The results are discussed in relation to the neurobiology of schizophrenia and the utility of EEG as an informative predictor of treatment response. PMID:10923202

  5. Optimal Shift Duration and Sequence: Recommended Approach for Short-Term Emergency Response Activations for Public Health and Emergency Management

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Paula A.

    2007-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, and the consequent restructuring of the US preparedness and response activities, public health workers are increasingly called on to activate a temporary round-the-clock staffing schedule. These workers may have to make key decisions that could significantly impact the health and safety of the public. The unique physiological demands of rotational shift work and night shift work have the potential to negatively impact decisionmaking ability. A responsible, evidence-based approach to scheduling applies the principles of circadian physiology, as well as unique individual physiologies and preferences. Optimal scheduling would use a clockwise (morning-afternoon-night) rotational schedule: limiting night shifts to blocks of 3, limiting shift duration to 8 hours, and allowing 3 days of recuperation after night shifts. PMID:17413074

  6. Optimal shift duration and sequence: recommended approach for short-term emergency response activations for public health and emergency management.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Paula A

    2007-04-01

    Since September 11, 2001, and the consequent restructuring of the US preparedness and response activities, public health workers are increasingly called on to activate a temporary round-the-clock staffing schedule. These workers may have to make key decisions that could significantly impact the health and safety of the public. The unique physiological demands of rotational shift work and night shift work have the potential to negatively impact decisionmaking ability. A responsible, evidence-based approach to scheduling applies the principles of circadian physiology, as well as unique individual physiologies and preferences. Optimal scheduling would use a clockwise (morning-afternoon-night) rotational schedule: limiting night shifts to blocks of 3, limiting shift duration to 8 hours, and allowing 3 days of recuperation after night shifts. PMID:17413074

  7. Effects of biochar addition on greenhouse gas emissions and microbial responses in a short-term laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Gayoung; Kang, Hojeong

    2012-01-01

    Biochar application to soil has drawn much attention as a strategy to sequester atmospheric carbon in soil ecosystems. The applicability of this strategy as a climate change mitigation option is limited by our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed changes in greenhouse gas emissions from soils, microbial responses, and soil fertility changes. We conducted an 8-wk laboratory incubation using soils from PASTURE (silt loam) and RICE PADDY (silt loam) sites with and without two types of biochar (biochar from swine manure [CHAR-M] and from barley stover [CHAR-B]). Responses to addition of the different biochars varied with the soil source. Addition of CHAR-B did not change CO and CH evolution from the PASTURE or the RICE PADDY soils, but there was a decrease in NO emissions from the PASTURE soil. The effects of CHAR-M addition on greenhouse gas emissions were different for the soils. The most substantial change was an increase in NO emissions from the RICE PADDY soil. This result was attributed to a combination of abundant denitrifiers in this soil and increased net nitrogen mineralization. Soil phosphatase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in the CHAR-B-treated soils was enhanced compared with the controls for both soils. Fungal biomass was higher in the CHAR-B-treated RICE PADDY soil. From our results, we suggest CHAR-B to be an appropriate amendment for the PASTURE and RICE PADDY soils because it provides increased nitrogen availability and microbial activity with no net increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Application of CHAR-M to RICE PADDY soils could result in excess nitrogen availability, which may increase NO emissions and possible NO leaching problems. Thus, this study confirms that the ability of environmentally sound biochar additions to sequester carbon in soils depends on the characteristics of the receiving soil as well as the nature of the biochar. PMID:22751062

  8. Serum Acylated Ghrelin Concentrations in Response to Short-Term Overfeeding in Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, Danny; Cahill, Farrell; Amini, Peyvand; Randell, Edward; Vasdev, Sudesh; Yi, Yanqing; Zhang, Weizhen; Sun, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Background Ghrelin, an orexigenic gut hormone secreted primarily from the stomach, is involved in energy homeostasis. However, little data is available regarding its response to energy surplus and the development of human obesity. Objective The present study investigated the response of circulating acylated ghrelin to a 7-day positive energy challenge. Design A total of 68 healthy young men were overfed 70% more calories than required, for 1-week. Subjects were classified based on percent body fat (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) as normal weight, overweight, and obese. Serum acylated ghrelin concentration was measured before and after the positive energy challenge. Additionally, the relationship between acylated ghrelin and obesity-related phenotypes including weight, body mass index, percent body fat, cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and β-cell function at baseline and change due to overfeeding, were assessed. Results Contrary to our expectations, serum acylated ghrelin was significantly increased in response to overfeeding and the increase was independent of obesity status. There was no significant difference in fasting acylated ghrelin between normal weight, overweight, and obese men at baseline. Acylated ghrelin was negatively correlated with weight and BMI for normal weight and with BMI in overweight men. Also ghrelin was correlated with change in weight and BMI in overweight (negative relationship) and obese (positive relationship) groups. Conclusion Our results showed that circulating acylated ghrelin was increased after a 7-day positive energy challenge regardless of adiposity status. However, acylated ghrelin was correlated with change in weight and BMI in opposing directions, in overweight and obese subjects respectively, thus dependent on obesity status. PMID:23029221

  9. Value of intravoxel incoherent motion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing; Yu, Xiaoping; Hu, Yin; Li, Feiping; Xiang, Wang; Wang, Lanlan; Wang, Hui; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhongping; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the value of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (IVIM-DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).Forty-three NPC patients underwent IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI at baseline (pretreatment) and after the first cycle of induction chemotherapy (posttreatment). Based on whether locoregional lesions were identified, patients were divided into the residual and nonresidual groups at the end of CRT and into the good-responder and poor-responder groups 6 months after the end of CRT. The pretreatment and posttreatment IVIM-DWI parameters (ADC, D, D*, and f) and DCE-MRI parameters (K, Kep, and Ve) values and their percentage changes (Δ%) were compared between the residual and nonresidual groups and between the good-responder and poor-responder groups.None of perfusion-related parametric values derived from either DCE-MRI or IVIM-DWI showed significant differences either between the residual and nonresidual groups or between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. The nonresidual group exhibited lower pre-ADC, lower pre-D, and higher Δ%D values than did the residual group (all P <0.05). The good-responder group had lower pre-D and pre-ADC values than did the poor-responder group (both P <0.05). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, pre-D had the highest area under the curve in predicting both the early and short-term responses to CRT for NPC patients (0.817 and 0.854, respectively).IVIM-DWI is more valuable than DCE-MRI in predicting the early and short-term response to CRT for NPC, and furthermore diffusion-related IVIM-DWI parameters (pre-ADC, pre-D, and Δ%D) are more powerful than perfusion-related parameters derived from both IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI. PMID:27583847

  10. Value of intravoxel incoherent motion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing; Yu, Xiaoping; Hu, Yin; Li, Feiping; Xiang, Wang; Wang, Lanlan; Wang, Hui; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhongping; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the value of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (IVIM-DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Forty-three NPC patients underwent IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI at baseline (pretreatment) and after the first cycle of induction chemotherapy (posttreatment). Based on whether locoregional lesions were identified, patients were divided into the residual and nonresidual groups at the end of CRT and into the good-responder and poor-responder groups 6 months after the end of CRT. The pretreatment and posttreatment IVIM-DWI parameters (ADC, D, D∗, and f) and DCE-MRI parameters (Ktrans, Kep, and Ve) values and their percentage changes (Δ%) were compared between the residual and nonresidual groups and between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. None of perfusion-related parametric values derived from either DCE-MRI or IVIM-DWI showed significant differences either between the residual and nonresidual groups or between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. The nonresidual group exhibited lower pre-ADC, lower pre-D, and higher Δ%D values than did the residual group (all P <0.05). The good-responder group had lower pre-D and pre-ADC values than did the poor-responder group (both P <0.05). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, pre-D had the highest area under the curve in predicting both the early and short-term responses to CRT for NPC patients (0.817 and 0.854, respectively). IVIM-DWI is more valuable than DCE-MRI in predicting the early and short-term response to CRT for NPC, and furthermore diffusion-related IVIM-DWI parameters (pre-ADC, pre-D, and Δ%D) are more powerful than perfusion-related parameters derived from both IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI. PMID:27583847

  11. Photosynthetic Response to Long- and Short-Term Changes in Carbon Dioxide in Sweetpotatoes Grown Hydroponically with Enhanced Mineral Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Casey; Terse, Anita; Hileman, Douglas R.; Mortley, Desmond G.; Hill, Jill

    1998-01-01

    Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas L.(Lam.)] has been selected by NASA as a potential food for long-term space missions. In previous experiments, sweetpotato plants grown hydroponically under elevated levels of CO2 depleted the nitrogen in the nutrient solution between the hi-weekly solution replacements. In this experiment, the effect of enhanced nutrient replenishment on photosynthetic rates of sweetpotato was determined. CO2 response curves were determined for "TU-82-155" and "Georgia-Jet" sweetpotatoes grown hydroponically in growth chambers at three different CO2 concentrations (400, 750, and 1000 micro-mol/mol CO2). Gas exchange measurements were made using infrared gas analysis, an open-flow gas exchange system, and a controlled-climate cuvette. Photosynthetic measurements were made at CO2 concentrations from 50-1000 micro-mol/mol CO2. Net photosynthetic rates showed an increase with increasing measurement CO2 in all nutrient regimes, but the response of photosynthetic rates to the growth CO2 conditions varied among the experiments and between the two varieties. Enhanced mineral nutrition led to increased net photosynthetic rates in "Georgia Jet" plants, but not in "TU-82-155" plants. The results of this study will help to determine the CO2 requirements for growth of sweetpotato on proposed space missions.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Salt-Responsive Proteins in the Leaves of Mangrove Kandelia candel during Short-Term Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Meng; Tan, Fanglin; Liang, Wenyu; Chen, Yiyong; Lin, Yongxiang; Huang, Li; Xing, Jianhong; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Salt stress is a major abiotic stress that limits crop productivity in many regions of the world. A comparative proteomic approach to identify salt stress-responsive proteins and to understand the molecular mechanisms was carried out in the woody halophyte Kandelia candel. Four-leaf-old K. candel seedlings were exposed to 150 (control), 300, 450, and 600 mM NaCl for 3 days. Proteins extracted from the leaves of K. candel seedlings were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). More than 900 protein spots were detected on each gel, and 53 differentially expressed protein spots were located with at least two-fold differences in abundance on 2-DE maps, of which 48 were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS). The results showed that K. candel could withstand up to 450 mM NaCl stress by up-regulating proteins that are mainly involved in photosynthesis, respiration and energy metabolism, Na+ compartmentalization, protein folding and assembly, and signal transduction. Physiological data, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) activities, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion radicals (O2−) contents, as well as Na+ content and K+/Na+ ratios all correlated well with our proteomic results. This study provides new global insights into woody halophyte salt stress responses. Identification of differentially expressed proteins promotes better understanding of the molecular basis for salt stress reduction in K. candel. PMID:24416157

  13. Impact of short-term heat stress on physiological responses and expression profile of HSPs in Barbari goats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Nagar, Vimla; Yadav, Vijay Pratap; Dangi, Saroj K.; Shankar, Om; Chouhan, Vikrant Singh; Kumar, Puneet; Singh, Gyanendra; Sarkar, Mihir

    2014-12-01

    Six, nonpregnant, Barbari goats aged 4-5 years were selected for the study. For the first 6 days, the animals were kept in psychrometric chamber at thermoneutral temperature for 6 h each day to make them acclimated to climatic chamber. On the 7th day, the animals were exposed to 41 °C temperature for 3 h and then to 45 °C for the next 3 h. Cardinal physiological responses were measured, and blood samples (3 ml) were collected at 1-h interval during the heat exposure period and then once after 6 h of the heat exposure. The rectal temperature (RT) and respiratory rate (RR) increased significantly ( P < 0.05) during the heat exposure compared to pre- and postexposure. The relative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of heat shock protein (HSP)60, HSP70, and HSP90 increased significantly ( P < 0.05) within 1 h after exposure to heat stress at 41 and 45 °C and decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) in next 2 h but remain significantly ( P < 0.05) elevated from preexposure. HSP105/110 relative mRNA expression level remained unchanged during the first 4 h, and thereafter, it increased significantly ( P < 0.05) and reached the peak at 6 h. Relative protein expression pattern of HSPs during exposure to heat stress showed similar trend as observed for the relative mRNA expression. Given the response sensitivity and intensity of HSP genes to environmental stresses, HSP70 was found to be the most sensitive to temperature fluctuation, and it could be used as an important molecular biomarker to heat stress in animals.

  14. A short term response of the ecogeomorphological system under hydric stress situations along a mediterranean pluviometric gradient.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Ferre Bueno, E.; Martinez Murillo, J. F.; Gabarron Galeote, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    Many studies have shown the variable response of the ecomorphological system along a pluviometric gradient, which from a functional point of view, may be summed up as an impoverishment of the relationship soil-water-plant. In the present study, taking such a spatial variability change as our starting point, have been analysed the adaptation of the different integral parameters of the ecogeomorphological system to a hydric stress situation. The area under study is southern Spain, where have been established a pluviometric gradient on 3 experimental hillslopes, Colmenar (668 mm/y-1), Almogía (514 mm/y-1) y Berja (308 mm/y-1). On each of the hillslopes were established an experimental plot open from top to bottom 5 metres wide, which was monitored for four years (September 2002 to September 2006): the rainfall with a totalizator rain gauge, the water content of the soil in fixed sampling points situated every 10 m. from top to bottom by means of TDR probes, (Tektronix 1502C) both on the surface and at a depth of 15cm., the physico-chemical soil properties by analysing disturbed and undisturbed samples at the same measuring points for soil moisture, vegetation cover and the number of plants by photographing them at a height of 5 m. using a high resolution digital camera. By carrying out our observation during a period of drought 2004-2006 were able to analyse its effect on the parameters which make up the ecogeomorphological system of each of the hillslopes. The objectives of the present study were: i) to determine the inter-annual variability of the soil water content and the available water for vegetation, and ii) to analyse the response, the adaptation and the degree of vulnerability of the remaining elements in the ecogeomorphological system, vegetation and soil, to a situation of hydric stress, as happened between 2004-2006 in southern Spain. The results obtained showed that: i) as is characteristic of Mediterranean environments the soil moisture is very variable

  15. Evaluation of carcinogenic responses in the Eker rat following short-term exposure to selected nephrotoxins and carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Morton, Laura Dill; Youssef, Ashraf F; Lloyd, Eric; Kiorpes, Anthony L; Goldsworthy, Thomas L; Fort, Farrel L

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the response of the Eker rat to nephrotoxic compounds and to genotoxic nonrenal carcinogens. Groups of male Eker rats received either no treatment; a vehicle treatment; treatment with a noncarcinogenic nephrotoxin (aluminum nitrilotriacetate, 2 mg/kg/day of aluminum, intraperitoneally, 3 days per week or cyclosporine A, 30 mg/kg/day, orally by gavage, 7 days/week); or treatment with a genotoxic nonrenal carcinogen (furan, 8 mg/kg/day, orally by gavage, 5 days/week or 2,4-diaminotoluene, 6.5 mg/kg/day, orally by gavage, 7 days/week or 2-nitropropane, 89 mg/kg/day, orally by gavage, 3 days/week). Duration of treatment was 4 and/or 6 months. Tissues from the Eker rats were evaluated microscopically and numbers of proliferative renal lesions were counted. Administration of nephrotoxic compounds (Al-NTA and cyclosporine) significantly increased the number of preneoplastic and neoplastic renal lesions in the Eker rat compared to concurrent vehicle controls. The genotoxic nonrenal carcinogens had no consistent effect on numbers of preneoplastic or neoplastic renal lesions and did not produce neoplasms in the expected target organ (liver). PMID:12371664

  16. Short-term soil loss by eolian erosion in response to different rain-fed agricultural practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Smadar; Katra, Itzhak; Zaady, Eli

    2016-04-01

    Eolian (wind) erosion is a widespread process and a major form of soil degradation in arid and semi-arid regions. The present study examined changes in soil properties and eolian soil loss at a field scale in response to different soil treatments in two rain-fed agricultural practices. Field experiments with a boundary-layer wind tunnel and soil analysis were used to obtain the data. Two practices with different soil treatments (after harvest), mechanical tillage and stubble grazing intensities, were applied in the fallow phase of the rotation (dry season). The mechanical tillage and the stubble grazing had an immediate and direct effects on soil aggregation but not on the soil texture, and the contents of soil water, organic matter, and CaCO3. Higher erosion rates, that was measured as fluxes of total eolian sediment and particulate matter <10 μm (PM10), were recorded under mechanical tillage and grazing intensities compared with the undisturbed topsoil of the control plots. The erosion rates were higher in grazing plots than in tillage plots. The calculated soil fluxes in this study indicate potentially rapid soil degradation due to loss of fine particles by wind. The finding may have implications for long-term management of agricultural soils in semi-arid areas.

  17. Effects of short-term hypoxia and seawater acidification on hemocyte responses of the mussel Mytilus coruscus.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yanming; Kong, Hui; Shang, Yueyong; Huang, Xizhi; Wu, FangLi; Hu, Menghong; Lin, Daohui; Lu, Weiqun; Wang, Youji

    2016-07-15

    Hypoxia often intensifies with rising dissolved CO2, but the concurrent effects of hypoxia and acidification on bivalves are largely unknown. In this study, immune responses of hemocytes in the mussel Mytilus coruscus were examined under six combinations of pH (7.3, 7.7 and 8.1) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (2mgL(-1), 6mgL(-1)) for 72h. Generally, total hemocyte account, phagocytosis, esterase and lysosomal content were reduced under low DO and pH conditions, whereas hemocyte mortality and reactive oxygen species production increased under low DO and pH. Both hypoxia and low pH have negative effects on mussels, but the effects of pH are not as strong as DO. Moreover, significant interactions between DO and pH occurred. However, acidification generally doesn't aggravate the effects induced by hypoxia. Acidification and hypoxia may increase disease risk and impact the aquaculture of this species. PMID:27207025

  18. A snap shot of the short-term response of crustaceans to macrophyte detritus in the deep Oslofjord

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Rinde, Eli; Gundersen, Hege; Christie, Hartvig; Fagerli, Camilla With; Fredriksen, Stein; Gitmark, Janne Kim; Norling, Karl; Walday, Mats Gunnar; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus

    2016-01-01

    A test deployment of a time-lapse camera lander in the deep Oslofjord (431 m) was used to obtain initial information on the response of benthic fauna to macroalgal debris. Three macroalgal species were used on the lander baited plate: Fucus serratus, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria hyperborea and observed during 41.5 hours. The deep-water shrimp Pandalus borealis were attracted to the macroalgae rapidly (3 min after the lander reached the seafloor), followed by amphipods. Shrimp abundances were significantly higher in areas covered by macroalgae compared to the adjacent seafloor and the number of shrimp visiting the macroalgae increased with time. Amphipods arrived 13 hours later and were observed mainly on decaying L. hyperborea. The abundance of amphipods on L. hyperborea increased rapidly, reaching a peak at 31 h after deployment. These initial observations suggest that debris from kelp forests and other macroalgal beds may play an important role in fuelling deep benthic communities in the outer Oslofjord and, potentially, enhance secondary production of commercial species such as P. borealis. PMID:27025314

  19. A snap shot of the short-term response of crustaceans to macrophyte detritus in the deep Oslofjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Rinde, Eli; Gundersen, Hege; Christie, Hartvig; Fagerli, Camilla With; Fredriksen, Stein; Gitmark, Janne Kim; Norling, Karl; Walday, Mats Gunnar; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus

    2016-03-01

    A test deployment of a time-lapse camera lander in the deep Oslofjord (431 m) was used to obtain initial information on the response of benthic fauna to macroalgal debris. Three macroalgal species were used on the lander baited plate: Fucus serratus, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria hyperborea and observed during 41.5 hours. The deep-water shrimp Pandalus borealis were attracted to the macroalgae rapidly (3 min after the lander reached the seafloor), followed by amphipods. Shrimp abundances were significantly higher in areas covered by macroalgae compared to the adjacent seafloor and the number of shrimp visiting the macroalgae increased with time. Amphipods arrived 13 hours later and were observed mainly on decaying L. hyperborea. The abundance of amphipods on L. hyperborea increased rapidly, reaching a peak at 31 h after deployment. These initial observations suggest that debris from kelp forests and other macroalgal beds may play an important role in fuelling deep benthic communities in the outer Oslofjord and, potentially, enhance secondary production of commercial species such as P. borealis.

  20. Short-term energy restriction during late gestation of beef cows decreases postweaning calf humoral immune response to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the pre- and postweaning growth and measurements of innate and humoral immune response of beef calves born to cows fed 70 or 100% of NEm requirements during the last 40 d of gestation. On d 0 (approximately 40 d before calving), 30 multiparous Angus cows pregnant to embryo transfer (BW = 631 ± 15 kg; age = 5.2 ± 0.98 yr; BCS = 6.3 ± 0.12) were randomly allocated into 1 of 10 drylot pens (3 cows/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (5 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows limit-fed (d 0 to calving) isonitrogenous, total-mixed diets formulated to provide 100 (CTRL) or 70% (REST) of daily NEm requirements of a 630-kg beef cow at 8 mo of gestation. Immediately after calving, all cow-calf pairs were combined into a single management group and rotationally grazed on tall fescue pastures (6 pastures; 22 ha/pasture) until weaning (d 266). All calves were assigned to a 40-d preconditioning period in a drylot from d 266 to 306 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), , and spp. on d 273 and 287. Blood samples from jugular vein were collected from cows on d 0, 17, and 35 and from calves within 12 h of birth and on d 266, 273, 274, 276, 279, and 287. By design, REST cows consumed less ( ≤ 0.002) total DMI, TDN, and NEm but had similar CP intake ( = 0.67), which tended ( = 0.06) to increase BW loss from d 0 to calving, than CTRL cows (-1.09 vs. -0.70 ± 0.14 kg/d, respectively). However, gestational NEm intake did not affect ( ≥ 0.30) plasma concentrations of cortisol, insulin, and glucose during gestation and BCS at calving as well as postcalving pregnancy rate, BW, and BCS change of cows. Calf serum IgG concentrations and plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth as well as calf pre- and postweaning BW and ADG did not differ ( ≥ 0.15) between calves born to REST and CTRL cows. However, calf postweaning overall plasma concentrations of cortisol; plasma

  1. Long-term power generation expansion planning with short-term demand response: Model, algorithms, implementation, and electricity policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Timo

    Electric sector models are powerful tools that guide policy makers and stakeholders. Long-term power generation expansion planning models are a prominent example and determine a capacity expansion for an existing power system over a long planning horizon. With the changes in the power industry away from monopolies and regulation, the focus of these models has shifted to competing electric companies maximizing their profit in a deregulated electricity market. In recent years, consumers have started to participate in demand response programs, actively influencing electricity load and price in the power system. We introduce a model that features investment and retirement decisions over a long planning horizon of more than 20 years, as well as an hourly representation of day-ahead electricity markets in which sellers of electricity face buyers. This combination makes our model both unique and challenging to solve. Decomposition algorithms, and especially Benders decomposition, can exploit the model structure. We present a novel method that can be seen as an alternative to generalized Benders decomposition and relies on dynamic linear overestimation. We prove its finite convergence and present computational results, demonstrating its superiority over traditional approaches. In certain special cases of our model, all necessary solution values in the decomposition algorithms can be directly calculated and solving mathematical programming problems becomes entirely obsolete. This leads to highly efficient algorithms that drastically outperform their programming problem-based counterparts. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of all tailored algorithms and the challenges from a modeling software developer's standpoint, providing an insider's look into the modeling language GAMS. Finally, we apply our model to the Texas power system and design two electricity policies motivated by the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's recently proposed CO2 emissions targets for the

  2. Better short-term clinical response to etanercept in Chinese than Caucasian patients with active ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chung-Tei; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Liang, Tung-Hua; Chang, Te-Ming; Lai, Chen-Hung; Wei, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Kun-Hung; Lin, Shih-Chang; Yu, Chia-Li; Liou, Lieh-Bang; Luo, Shue-Fen; Lee, Chyou-Shen; Hsue, Yin-Tzu; Huang, Chung-Ming; Chen, Jiunn-Hong; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Cheng, He-Hsiung; Cheng, Tien-Tsai; Lai, Han-Ming; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Yen, Jeng-Hsien; Lu, Ling-Ying; Chang, Chung-Pei

    2010-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors including etanercept have been demonstrated to be very effective in severe ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Caucasian patients. However, clinical efficacy of etanercept to treat active AS in Chinese patients has not been reported. In this study, a prospective, open-label trial of etanercept (25 mg BIW), involving 46 AS patients from 16 medical centers of Taiwan, was conducted. Questionnaire was utilized to record demographic data and clinical parameters, including Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), Bath AS Global Index (BASGI), Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS) 20, 50, and 70, and others, before and at different time intervals after etanercept treatment. Laboratory tests including blood chemistry, hematology, urine analysis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were done at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. In this 12-week study, etanercept demonstrated rapid and significant improvement in the ASAS20 response criteria (91.3%), at as early as 2 weeks of therapy (71.3%). Partial remission of AS was achieved in 49.3% of patients after 12 weeks of treatment. Disease activity (BASDAI) and function (BASFI) were also significantly improved after 12 weeks etanercept treatment (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). In addition, significant increase of chest expansion (2.77 ± 1.69 cm versus 3.56 ± 1.82 cm, p = 0.0004) and lumbar flexion (2.11 ± 2.76 cm versus 2.58 ± 3.42 cm, p = 0.0075) and significant reduction of occiput-to-wall distance (6.59 ± 7.14 cm versus 5.32 ± 6.65 cm, p = 0.0006) were also demonstrated. Both ESR and CRP declined significantly after patients were treated with etanercept. There were no severe adverse effects during the treatment period. Etanercept is generally safe, well tolerated, and effective in Chinese patients with severe AS. Clinical efficacy, including partial remission and BASDAI, is even better in Chinese

  3. Peer Experiences in Short-Term Residential Treatment: Individual and Group-Moderated Prediction of Behavioral Responses to Peers and Adults.

    PubMed

    Cardoos, Stephanie L; Zakriski, Audrey L; Wright, Jack C; Parad, Harry W

    2015-08-01

    This research examined the independent and interactional contributions of peer experiences and group aggression to youth behavioral adjustment in short-term residential treatment. Participants were 219 youth (M age = 12.70, SD = 2.76; 71 % male) nested in 28 same-age, same-sex treatment groups. Sociometric interviews assessed social preference and victimization. Daily behavioral observations by staff assessed overall levels of treatment group aggression, as well as aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial responses to specific social events. End-of-summer behavioral responses (to all events; to peers; to adults) were predicted, controlling for initial levels of these responses. Social preference predicted higher end-of-summer prosocial responses, and victimization predicted lower prosocial and higher withdrawn responses. Each interacted with group aggression in some analyses, with more positive peer experiences only predicting more favorable responses in groups that were low or average in aggression. Interactant-specific analyses revealed that some of these associations were broad, whereas others applied only to adults. For example, group aggression moderated the association between social preference and aggressive responses to adults but not peers. Gender differences were also interactant-specific. Results highlight the importance of peer experiences in group treatment and underscore the value of both aggregation and disaggregation over interactants in analyses of behavioral adjustment. PMID:25539594

  4. Analysis of the time-varying energy of brain responses to an oddball paradigm using short-term smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution.

    PubMed

    Tağluk, M E; Cakmak, E D; Karakaş, S

    2005-04-30

    Cognitive brain responses to external stimuli, as measured by event related potentials (ERPs), have been analyzed from a variety of perspectives to investigate brain dynamics. Here, the brain responses of healthy subjects to auditory oddball paradigms, standard and deviant stimuli, recorded on an Fz electrode site were studied using a short-term version of the smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution (STSW) method. A smoothing kernel was designed to preserve the auto energy of the signal with maximum time and frequency resolutions. Analysis was conducted mainly on the time-frequency distributions (TFDs) of sweeps recorded during successive trials including the TFD of averaged single sweeps as the evoked time-frequency (ETF) brain response and the average of TFDs of single sweeps as the time-frequency (TF) brain response. Also the power entropy and the phase angles of the signal at frequency f and time t locked to the stimulus onset were studied across single trials as the TF power-locked and the TF phase-locked brain responses, respectively. TFDs represented in this way demonstrated the ERP spectro-temporal characteristics from multiple perspectives. The time-varying energy of the individual components manifested interesting TF structures in the form of amplitude modulated (AM) and frequency modulated (FM) energy bursts. The TF power-locked and phase-locked brain responses provoked ERP energies in a manner modulated by cognitive functions, an observation requiring further investigation. These results may lead to a better understanding of integrative brain dynamics. PMID:15814152

  5. Short-Term Intensified Cycle Training Alters Acute and Chronic Responses of PGC1α and Cytochrome C Oxidase IV to Exercise in Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Stepto, Nigel K.; Benziane, Boubacar; Wadley, Glenn D.; Chibalin, Alexander V.; Canny, Benedict J.; Eynon, Nir; McConell, Glenn K.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced activation of exercise responsive signalling pathways have been reported in response to acute exercise after training; however little is known about the adaptive responses of the mitochondria. Accordingly, we investigated changes in mitochondrial gene expression and protein abundance in response to the same acute exercise before and after 10-d of intensive cycle training. Nine untrained, healthy participants (mean±SD; VO2peak 44.1±17.6 ml/kg/min) performed a 60 min bout of cycling exercise at 164±18 W (72% of pre-training VO2peak). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle at rest, immediately and 3 h after exercise. The participants then underwent 10-d of cycle training which included four high-intensity interval training sessions (6×5 min; 90–100% VO2peak) and six prolonged moderate-intensity sessions (45–90 min; 75% VO2peak). Participants repeated the pre-training exercise trial at the same absolute work load (64% of pre-training VO2peak). Muscle PGC1-α mRNA expression was attenuated as it increased by 11- and 4- fold (P<0.001) after exercise pre- and post-training, respectively. PGC1-α protein expression increased 1.5 fold (P<0.05) in response to exercise pre-training with no further increases after the post-training exercise bout. RIP140 protein abundance was responsive to acute exercise only (P<0.01). COXIV mRNA (1.6 fold; P<0.01) and COXIV protein expression (1.5 fold; P<0.05) were increased by training but COXIV protein expression was decreased (20%; P<0.01) by acute exercise pre- and post-training. These findings demonstrate that short-term intensified training promotes increased mitochondrial gene expression and protein abundance. Furthermore, acute indicators of exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptation appear to be blunted in response to exercise at the same absolute intensity following short-term training. PMID:23285255

  6. Root spatial metabolite profiling of two genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reveals differences in response to short-term salt stress.

    PubMed

    Shelden, Megan C; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama S; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most salt-tolerant cereal crop and has excellent genetic and genomic resources. It is therefore a good model to study salt-tolerance mechanisms in cereals. We aimed to determine metabolic differences between a cultivated barley, Clipper (tolerant), and a North African landrace, Sahara (susceptible), previously shown to have contrasting root growth phenotypes in response to the early phase of salinity stress. GC-MS was used to determine spatial changes in primary metabolites in barley roots in response to salt stress, by profiling three different regions of the root: root cap/cell division zone (R1), elongation zone (R2), and maturation zone (R3). We identified 76 known metabolites, including 29 amino acids and amines, 20 organic acids and fatty acids, and 19 sugars and sugar phosphates. The maintenance of cell division and root elongation in Clipper in response to short-term salt stress was associated with the synthesis and accumulation of amino acids (i.e. proline), sugars (maltose, sucrose, xylose), and organic acids (gluconate, shikimate), indicating a potential role for these metabolic pathways in salt tolerance and the maintenance of root elongation. The processes involved in root growth adaptation and the underlying coordination of metabolic pathways appear to be controlled in a region-specific manner. This study highlights the importance of utilizing spatial profiling and will provide us with a better understanding of abiotic stress response(s) in plants at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:26946124

  7. Root spatial metabolite profiling of two genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reveals differences in response to short-term salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Shelden, Megan C.; Dias, Daniel A.; Jayasinghe, Nirupama S.; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most salt-tolerant cereal crop and has excellent genetic and genomic resources. It is therefore a good model to study salt-tolerance mechanisms in cereals. We aimed to determine metabolic differences between a cultivated barley, Clipper (tolerant), and a North African landrace, Sahara (susceptible), previously shown to have contrasting root growth phenotypes in response to the early phase of salinity stress. GC-MS was used to determine spatial changes in primary metabolites in barley roots in response to salt stress, by profiling three different regions of the root: root cap/cell division zone (R1), elongation zone (R2), and maturation zone (R3). We identified 76 known metabolites, including 29 amino acids and amines, 20 organic acids and fatty acids, and 19 sugars and sugar phosphates. The maintenance of cell division and root elongation in Clipper in response to short-term salt stress was associated with the synthesis and accumulation of amino acids (i.e. proline), sugars (maltose, sucrose, xylose), and organic acids (gluconate, shikimate), indicating a potential role for these metabolic pathways in salt tolerance and the maintenance of root elongation. The processes involved in root growth adaptation and the underlying coordination of metabolic pathways appear to be controlled in a region-specific manner. This study highlights the importance of utilizing spatial profiling and will provide us with a better understanding of abiotic stress response(s) in plants at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:26946124

  8. Short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment via an integrated modeling system for nuclear power plants in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Weng, Yu-Chi

    2013-03-01

    Short-term predictions of potential impacts from accidental release of various radionuclides at nuclear power plants are acutely needed, especially after the Fukushima accident in Japan. An integrated modeling system that provides expert services to assess the consequences of accidental or intentional releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere has received wide attention. These scenarios can be initiated either by accident due to human, software, or mechanical failures, or from intentional acts such as sabotage and radiological dispersal devices. Stringent action might be required just minutes after the occurrence of accidental or intentional release. To fulfill the basic functions of emergency preparedness and response systems, previous studies seldom consider the suitability of air pollutant dispersion models or the connectivity between source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models in a holistic context for decision support. Therefore, the Gaussian plume and puff models, which are only suitable for illustrating neutral air pollutants in flat terrain conditional to limited meteorological situations, are frequently used to predict the impact from accidental release of industrial sources. In situations with complex terrain or special meteorological conditions, the proposing emergency response actions might be questionable and even intractable to decisionmakers responsible for maintaining public health and environmental quality. This study is a preliminary effort to integrate the source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models into a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to tackle the complex issues for short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment at nuclear power plants. Through a series model screening procedures, we found that the diagnostic (objective) wind field model with the aid of sufficient on-site meteorological monitoring data was the most applicable model to promptly address the trend of local wind field patterns

  9. Impacts of the phenylpyrazole insecticide fipronil on larval fish: time-series gene transcription responses in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) following short-term exposure.

    PubMed

    Beggel, Sebastian; Werner, Inge; Connon, Richard E; Geist, Juergen P

    2012-06-01

    The utilization of molecular endpoints in ecotoxicology can provide rapid and valuable information on immediate organismal responses to chemical stressors and is increasingly used for mechanistic interpretation of effects at higher levels of biological organization. This study contributes knowledge on the sublethal effects of a commonly used insecticide, the phenylpyrazole fipronil, on larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), utilizing a quantitative transcriptomic approach. Immediately after 24h of exposure to fipronil concentrations of ≥31 μg.L(-1), highly significant changes in gene transcription were observed for aspartoacylase, metallothionein, glucocorticoid receptor, cytochrome P450 3A126 and vitellogenin. Different mechanisms of toxicity were apparent over the course of the experiment, with short-term responses indicating neurotoxic effects. After 6 days of recovery, endocrine effects were observed with vitellogenin being up-regulated 90-fold at 61 μg.L(-1) fipronil. Principal component analysis demonstrated a significant increase in gene transcription changes over time and during the recovery period. In conclusion, multiple mechanisms of action were observed in response to fipronil exposure, and unknown delayed effects would have been missed if transcriptomic responses had only been measured at a single time-point. These challenges can be overcome by the inclusion of multiple endpoints and delayed effects in experimental designs. PMID:22542256

  10. Does short-term fasting lead to stressed-out parents? A study of incubation commitment and the hormonal stress responses and recoveries in snow petrels.

    PubMed

    Angelier, Frédéric; Wingfield, John C; Parenteau, Charline; Pellé, Marie; Chastel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The hormonal stress response is flexible and can be modulated by individuals according to its costs and benefits. Therefore, it is predicted that parents in poor body condition should modify their hormonal stress response, and thus, redirect energy allocation processes from parental care to self-maintenance when stressors occur. To test this prediction, most studies on free-living vertebrates have only focused on the stress response while the stress recovery - how quickly hormonal levels return to baseline values - has been neglected. Moreover, most studies have only focused on corticosterone - the primary mediator of allostasis - without paying attention to prolactin despite its major role in mediating parental behaviors. Here, we examined the effect of a short-term fasting event on the corticosterone and prolactin stress responses and recoveries, and we subsequently explored their relationships with parental decision in the snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea). By comparing the hormonal profiles of fasting and non-fasting snow petrels, we showed that parents modulate their corticosterone (but not prolactin) stress response according to their energetic status. We also described for the first time the hormonal stress recoveries in wild birds and found that they did not differ between fasting and non-fasting birds. Importantly, egg neglect was negatively correlated with circulating prolactin but not corticosterone levels in this species, demonstrating therefore a complex link between body condition, parental behavior and circulating corticosterone and prolactin levels. We suggest that both corticosterone and prolactin play a major role in the way parents adjust to stressors. This multiple signaling may allow parents to fine-tune their response to stressors, and especially, to activate specific allostasis-related mechanisms in a timely manner. PMID:25456104

  11. Short-term heat shock affects the course of immune response in Galleria mellonella naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Vertyporokh, Lidiia; Taszłow, Paulina; Samorek-Pieróg, Małgorzata; Wojda, Iwona

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate how exposition of infected insects to short-term heat shock affects the biochemical and molecular aspects of their immune response. Galleria mellonella larvae were exposed to 43°C for 15min, at the seventy second hour after natural infection with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. As a result, both qualitative and quantitative changes in hemolymph protein profiles, and among them infection-induced changes in the amount of apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), were observed. Heat shock differently affects the expression of the tested immune-related genes. It transiently inhibits expression of antifungal peptides gallerimycin and galiomicin in both the fat body and hemocytes of infected larvae. The same, although to a lesser extent, concerned apoLp-III gene expression and was observed directly after heat shock. Nevertheless, in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, apoLp-III expression was higher in comparison to unshocked larvae in the fat body but not in hemocytes, which was consistent with the higher amount of this protein detected in the hemolymph of the infected, shocked larvae. Furthermore, lysozyme-type activity was higher directly after heat shock, while antifungal activity was significantly higher also in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, in comparison to the respective values in their non-shocked, infected counterparts. These results show how changes in the external temperature modulate the immune response of G. mellonella suffering from infection with its natural pathogen B. bassiana. PMID:26149823

  12. Use of the Integrated Biomarker Response to Measure the Effect of Short-term Exposure to Dibenz[a,h]anthracene in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Kim, Ja-Hyun; Kim, Woo-Keun

    2016-04-01

    Dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DbA) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is released into the environment through incomplete combustion of gasoline, cigarettes, and coal tar. The effects of short-term (10 days) exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to DbA (0-50 µg L(-1)) were evaluated using the following four biomarkers: DNA damage, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and vitellogenin (VTG) levels. An integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated for exposure to DbA, and the results were compared with those in our previous study of two other PAHs, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). DbA exposure resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in DNA damage, EROD activity, and VTG levels relative to the control. By contrast, DbA did not affect AChE activity. The IBR increased as the concentration of DbA increased. Based on the IBR values, the order of toxicity for the PAHs was BkF > BaP > DbA. Our results suggest that the IBR can be used as a quantitative tool for evaluating the responses of multiple biomarkers to PAH exposure. PMID:26744022

  13. Changes in hydraulic conductance cause the difference in growth response to short-term salt stress between salt-tolerant and -sensitive black gram (Vigna mungo) varieties.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Hirasawa, Tadashii

    2016-04-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is an important crop in Asia, However, most black gram varieties are salt-sensitive. The causes of varietal differences in salt-induced growth reduction between two black gram varieties, 'U-Taung-2' (salt-tolerant; BT) and 'Mut Pe Khaing To' (salt-sensitive; BS), were examined the potential for the first step toward the genetic improvement of salt tolerance. Seedlings grown in vermiculite irrigated with full-strength Hoagland solution were treated with 0mM NaCl (control) or 225mM NaCl for up to 10 days. In the 225mM NaCl treatment, plant growth rate, net assimilation rate, mean leaf area, leaf water potential, and leaf photosynthesis were reduced more in BS than in BT plants. Leaf water potential was closely related to leaf photosynthesis, net assimilation rate, and increase in leaf area. In response to salinity stress, hydraulic conductance of the root, stem, and petiole decreased more strongly in BS than in BT plants. The reduction in stem and petiole hydraulic conductance was caused by cavitation, whereas the reduction in root hydraulic conductance in BS plants was caused by a reduction in root surface area and hydraulic conductivity. We conclude that the different reduction in hydraulic conductance is a cause of the differences in the growth response between the two black gram varieties under short-term salt stress. PMID:26962708

  14. Short-Term Response of Sasa Dwarf Bamboo to a Change of Soil Nitrogen Fertility in a Forest Ecosystem in Northern Hokkaido, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tsunehiro; Fukuzawa, Karibu; Shibata, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    In forest ecosystems, a change of soil nitrogen (N) cycling after disturbance is regulated by various factors. Sasa dwarf bamboo (hereafter referred to as Sasa) is an understory plant that grows thickly on the forest floor in northern Hokkaido, Japan. However, the ecosystem function of Sasa after disturbances in the soil N cycling is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term response of Sasa to a change of soil N fertility. Biomass, litterfall, litter decomposition, soil N pool, and N leaching from soil were measured in control, and low- (5 g N m−2 year−1) and high-N (15 g N m−2 year−1) addition plots. Sasa immobilized much N as the soil N fertility increased. However, the leaf N concentration in aboveground biomass did not increase, suggesting that the N in leaves was maintained because of the increase of leaf biomass. As a result, the decomposition and mineralization rates of the produced litter before and after N addition were comparable among plots, even though the soil inorganic N fertility increased greatly. These results suggest that immediate response of Sasa to an increase of soil inorganic N mitigates the excess N leaching from soil. PMID:27135238

  15. Short-Term Response of Sasa Dwarf Bamboo to a Change of Soil Nitrogen Fertility in a Forest Ecosystem in Northern Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tsunehiro; Fukuzawa, Karibu; Shibata, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    In forest ecosystems, a change of soil nitrogen (N) cycling after disturbance is regulated by various factors. Sasa dwarf bamboo (hereafter referred to as Sasa) is an understory plant that grows thickly on the forest floor in northern Hokkaido, Japan. However, the ecosystem function of Sasa after disturbances in the soil N cycling is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term response of Sasa to a change of soil N fertility. Biomass, litterfall, litter decomposition, soil N pool, and N leaching from soil were measured in control, and low- (5 g N m(-2) year(-1)) and high-N (15 g N m(-2) year(-1)) addition plots. Sasa immobilized much N as the soil N fertility increased. However, the leaf N concentration in aboveground biomass did not increase, suggesting that the N in leaves was maintained because of the increase of leaf biomass. As a result, the decomposition and mineralization rates of the produced litter before and after N addition were comparable among plots, even though the soil inorganic N fertility increased greatly. These results suggest that immediate response of Sasa to an increase of soil inorganic N mitigates the excess N leaching from soil. PMID:27135238

  16. Tree ring isotopes of beech and spruce in response to short-term climate variability across Central European sites: Common and contrasting physiological mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigt, Rosemarie; Klesse, Stefan; Treydte, Kerstin; Frank, David; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.

    2016-04-01

    The combined study of tree-ring width and stable C and O isotopes provides insight in the coherences between carbon allocation during stem growth and the preceding conditions of gas exchange and formation of photosynthates as all influenced by environmental variation. In this large-scale study comprising 10 sites across a range of climate gradients (temperature, precipitation) throughout Central Europe, we investigated tree-rings in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees. The sampling design included larger and smaller trees. The short-term, i.e. year-to-year, variability in the isotope time series over 100 yrs was analyzed in relation to tree-ring growth and climate variation. The generally strong correlation between the year-to-year differences in δ13C (corrected for the atmospheric shift due to 13C-depleted CO2 from fossil combustion) and δ18O across most sites emphasized the role of stomatal conductance in controlling leaf gas exchange. However, the correlation between both isotopes decreased during some periods. At several sites this reduction in correlation was particularly pronounced during recent decades. This suggests a decoupling between stomatal and photosynthetic responses to environmental conditions on the one hand, and carbon allocation to stem tissue on the other hand. Variability in the isotopic ratio largely responded to summer climate, but was weakly correlated to annual stem growth. In contrast, climate sensitivity of radial growth in both species was rather site-dependent, and was strongest at the driest (in terms of soil water capacity) site. We will also present results of isotope responses with respect to extreme climate events. Understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms controlling the short-term variation in tree-ring signals will help to assess and more precisely constrain the possible range of growth performance of these ecologically and economically important tree species under future climate

  17. Theoretical models of synaptic short term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Matthias H.

    2013-01-01

    Short term plasticity is a highly abundant form of rapid, activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. A shared set of mechanisms can cause both depression and enhancement of the postsynaptic response at different synapses, with important consequences for information processing. Mathematical models have been extensively used to study the mechanisms and roles of short term plasticity. This review provides an overview of existing models and their biological basis, and of their main properties. Special attention will be given to slow processes such as calcium channel inactivation and the effect of activation of presynaptic autoreceptors. PMID:23626536

  18. Short-Term Unilateral Resistance Training Results in Cross Education of Strength Without Changes in Muscle Size, Activation, or Endocrine Response.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kyle S; Fukuda, David H; Boone, Carleigh H; Wells, Adam J; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    Beyer, KS, Fukuda, DH, Boone, CH, Wells, AJ, Townsend, JR, Jajtner, AR, Gonzalez, AM, Fragala, MS, Hoffman, JR, and Stout, JR. Short-term unilateral resistance training results in cross education of strength without changes in muscle size, activation, or endocrine response. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1213-1223, 2016-The purpose of this study was to assess the cross education of strength and changes in the underlying mechanisms (muscle size, activation, and hormonal response) after a 4-week unilateral resistance training (URT) program. A group of 9 untrained men completed a 4-week URT program on the dominant leg (DOM), whereas cross education was measured in the nondominant leg (NON); and were compared with a control group (n = 8, CON). Unilateral isometric force (PKF), leg press (LP) and leg extension (LE) strength, muscle size (by ultrasonography) and activation (by electromyography) of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis, and the hormonal response (testosterone, growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1) were tested pretraining and posttraining. Group × time interactions were present for PKF, LP, LE, and muscle size in DOM and for LP in NON. In all interactions, the URT group improved significantly better than CON. There was a significant acute hormonal response to URT, but no chronic adaptation after the 4-week training program. Four weeks of URT resulted in an increase in strength and size of the trained musculature, and cross education of strength in the untrained musculature, which may occur without detectable changes in muscle size, activation, or the acute hormonal response. PMID:26466136

  19. Measuring the short-term substrate utilization response to high-carbohydrate and high-fat meals in the whole-body indirect calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Gribok, Andrei; Leger, Jayme L; Stevens, Michelle; Hoyt, Reed; Buller, Mark; Rumpler, William

    2016-06-01

    The paper demonstrates that minute-to-minute metabolic response to meals with different macronutrient content can be measured and discerned in the whole-body indirect calorimeter. The ability to discriminate between high-carbohydrate and high-fat meals is achieved by applying a modified regularization technique with additional constraints imposed on oxygen consumption rate. These additional constraints reduce the differences in accuracy between the oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers. The modified technique was applied to 63 calorimeter sessions that were each 24 h long. The data were collected from 16 healthy volunteers (eight males, eight females, aged 22-35 years). Each volunteer performed four 24-h long calorimeter sessions. At each session, they received one of four treatment combinations involving exercise (high or low intensity) and diet (a high-fat or high-carbohydrate shake for lunch). One volunteer did not complete all four assignments, which brought the total number of sessions to 63 instead of 64. During the 24-h stay in the calorimeter, subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring system, which was used as a benchmark for subject's postprandial glycemic response. The minute-by-minute respiratory exchange ratio (RER) data showed excellent agreement with concurrent subcutaneous glucose concentrations in postprandial state. The averaged minute-to-minute RER response to the high-carbohydrate shake was significantly different from the response to high-fat shake. Also, postprandial RER slopes were significantly different for two dietary treatments. The results show that whole-body respiration calorimeters can be utilized as tools to study short-term kinetics of substrate oxidation in humans. PMID:27354539

  20. Evaluation of short-term changes of hydrological response in mountainous basins of the Vitim Plateau (Russia) after forest fires based on data analysis and hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, O. M.; Lebedeva, L. S.; Nesterova, N. V.; Vinogradova, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Twelve mountainous basins of the Vitim Plateau (Eastern Siberia, Russia) with areas ranging from 967 to 18 200 km2 affected by extensive fires in 2003 (from 13 to 78% of burnt area) were delineated based on MODIS Burned Area Product. The studied area is characterized by scarcity of hydrometeorological observations and complex hydrological processes. Combined analysis of monthly series of flow and precipitation was conducted to detect short-term fire impact on hydrological response of the basins. The idea of basin-analogues which have significant correlation of flow with "burnt" watersheds in stationary (pre-fire) period with the assumption that fire impact produced an outlier of established dependence was applied. Available data allowed for qualitative detection of fire-induced changes at two basins from twelve studied. Summer flow at the Amalat and Vitimkan Rivers (22 and 78% proportion of burnt area in 2003, respectively) increased by 40-50% following the fire.The impact of fire on flow from the other basins was not detectable.The hydrological model Hydrograph was applied to simulate runoff formation processes for stationary pre-fire and non-stationary post-fire conditions. It was assumed that landscape properties changed after the fire suggest a flow increase. These changes were used to assess the model parameters which allowed for better model performance in the post-fire period.

  1. Short-term exposure of the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax to copper-based antifouling treated nets: copper bioavailability and biomarkers responses.

    PubMed

    Cotou, Efthimia; Henry, Morgane; Zeri, Christina; Rigos, Georgios; Torreblanca, Amparo; Catsiki, Vassiliki-Angelique

    2012-11-01

    We studied if the levels of copper released from antifouling treated nets used in finfish mariculture could affect the immune defense mechanism and/or induce oxidative stress in Dicentrarchus labrax, after short term exposure in laboratory experiments. Dissolved copper concentration released from the treated nets, copper bioavailability and a set of biomarkers responses were measured. Biomarkers included hemoglobin concentration, activities of lysozyme, total complement, respiratory burst, glutathione S-transferase and acetycholinesterase and concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results indicated elevated copper concentration in seawater (184 μg L(-1)) but low concentration in muscle (1.5 μg g(-1)) and liver (117 μg g(-1)). Copper bioavailability was independent of copper complexes with dissolved organic carbon. However, formation of copper complexes with other matrices could neither be excluded nor justified. The released copper from the treated nets did not induce oxidative stress but affected the immediate immune defense mechanism of the exposed fish making them more easily vulnerable to diseases. Consequently, copper-based antifouling treated nets could be a risk factor for D. labrax health. PMID:22698372

  2. Rapid response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities to short-term fertilization in an alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Xingjia; Gibbons, Sean M.; He, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Chao; He, Dan; Li, Qian; Ni, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is home to the vast grassland in China. The QTP grassland ecosystem has been seriously degraded by human land use practices and climate change. Fertilization is used in this region to increase vegetation yields for grazers. The impact of long-term fertilization on plant and microbial communities has been studied extensively. However, the influence of short-term fertilization on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities in the QTP is largely unknown, despite their important functional role in grassland ecosystems. Methods: We investigated AMF community responses to three years of N and/or P addition at an experimental field site on the QTP, using the Illumina MiSeq platform (PE 300). Results: Fertilization resulted in a dramatic shift in AMF community composition and NP addition significantly increased AMF species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Aboveground biomass, available phosphorus, and NO3− were significantly correlated with changes in AMF community structure. Changes in these factors were driven by fertilization treatments. Thus, fertilization had a large impact on AMF communities, mediated by changes in aboveground productivity and soil chemistry. Discussion: Prior work has shown how plants often lower their reliance on AMF symbioses following fertilization, leading to decrease AMF abundance and diversity. However, our study reports a rise in AMF diversity with fertilization treatment. Because AMF can provide stress tolerance to their hosts, we suggest that extreme weather on the QTP may help drive a positive relationship between fertilizer amendment and AMF diversity. PMID:27478711

  3. Induction of a Specific Strong Polyantigenic Cellular Immune Response after Short-Term Chemotherapy Controls Bacillary Reactivation in Murine and Guinea Pig Experimental Models of Tuberculosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Guirado, Evelyn; Gil, Olga; Cáceres, Neus; Singh, Mahavir; Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2008-01-01

    RUTI is a therapeutic vaccine that is generated from detoxified and liposomed Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell fragments that has demonstrated its efficacy in the control of bacillus reactivation after short-term chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to characterize the cellular immune response generated after the therapeutic administration of RUTI and to corroborate the lack of toxicity of the vaccine. Mouse and guinea pig experimental models were infected with a low-dose M. tuberculosis aerosol. RUTI-treated animals showed the lowest bacillary load in both experimental models. RUTI also decreased the percentage of pulmonary granulomatous infiltration in the mouse and guinea pig models. This was not the case after Mycobacterium bovis BCG treatment. Cellular immunity was studied through the characterization of the intracellular gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells after the splenocytes' stimulation with M. tuberculosis-specific structural and growth-related antigens. Our data show that the difference between the therapeutic administration of BCG and RUTI resides mainly in the stronger activation of IFN-γ+ CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells against tuberculin purified protein derivative, ESAT-6, and Ag85B that RUTI generates. Both vaccines also triggered a specific immune response against the M. tuberculosis structural antigens Ag16kDa and Ag38kDa and a marked mRNA expression of IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and RANTES in the lung. The results show that RUTI's therapeutic effect is linked not only to the induction of a Th1 response but also to the stimulation of a quicker and stronger specific immunity against structural and growth-related antigens that reduces both the bacillary load and the pulmonary pathology. PMID:18524883

  4. The influence of training and maturity status on girls' responses to short-term, high-intensity upper- and lower-body exercise.

    PubMed

    McNarry, Melitta A; Welsman, Joanne R; Jones, Andrew M

    2011-06-01

    A maturational threshold has been suggested to be present in young peoples' responses to exercise, with significant influences of training status evidenced only above this threshold. The presence of such a threshold has not been investigated for short-term, high-intensity exercise. To address this, we investigated the relationship between swim-training status and maturity on the power output, pulmonary gas exchange, and metabolic responses to an upper- and lower-body Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). Girls at 3 stages of maturity participated:, prepubertal (Pre: 8 trained (T), 10 untrained (UT)), pubertal (Pub: 9 T, 15 UT), and postpubertal (Post: 8 T, 10 UT). At all maturity stages, T exhibited higher peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) during upper-body exercise (PP: Pre, T, 163 ± 20 vs. UT, 124 ± 29; Pub, T, 230 ± 42 vs. UT, 173 ± 41; Post, T, 245 ± 41 vs. UT, 190 ± 40 W; MP: Pre, T, 130 ± 23 vs. UT, 85 ± 26; Pub, T, 184 ± 37 vs. UT, 123 ± 38; Post, T, 200 ± 30 vs. UT, 150 ± 15 W; all p < 0.05) but not lower-body exercise, whilst the fatigue index was significantly lower in T for both exercise modalities. Irrespective of maturity, the oxidative contribution, calculated by the area under the oxygen uptake response profile, was not influenced by training status. No interaction was evident between training status and maturity, with similar magnitudes of difference between T and UT at all 3 maturity stages. These results suggest that there is no maturational threshold which must be surpassed for significant influences of training status to be manifest in the "anaerobic" exercise performance of young girls. PMID:21574781

  5. [Short-term occupational disability].

    PubMed

    Bebensee, H; Conrad, P; Hein, R

    1994-01-01

    The present political discussion about absenteeism in industry and introduction of days of absence in case of sickness emphasises the amount of short-term sickness cases. More or less openly the misuse of continued salary payment via "unauthorized" working inability is discussed: this is often connected with the increased absenteeism on Mondays and Fridays. From the point of view of the Legal Health Insurances this thesis of misuse is investigated in an analysis of cases of short-term work disability. PMID:8148587

  6. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Soybean Leaves and Roots by iTRAQ Provides Insights into Response Mechanisms to Short-Term Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Cong, Ru; Li, Sheng; Li, Rui; Qin, Zhiwei; Li, Yanjun; Zhou, Xiaolin; Chen, Sixue; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Salinity severely threatens land use capability and crop yields worldwide. Understanding the mechanisms that protect soybeans from salt stress will help in the development of salt-stress tolerant leguminous plants. Here we initially analyzed the changes in malondialdehyde levels, the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidases, chlorophyll content, and Na(+)/K(+) ratios in leaves and roots from soybean seedlings treated with 200 mM NaCl at different time points. We found that the 200 mM NaCl treated for 12 h was optimal for undertaking a proteomic analysis on soybean seedlings. An iTRAQ-based proteomic approach was used to investigate the proteomes of soybean leaves and roots under salt treatment. These data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD002851. In total, 278 and 440 proteins with significantly altered abundances were identified in leaves and roots of soybean, respectively. From these data, a total of 50 proteins were identified in the both tissues. These differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were from 13 biological processes. Moreover, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that proteins involved in metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein synthesis and redox homeostasis could be assigned to four high salt stress response networks. Furthermore, semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that some of the proteins, such as a 14-3-3, MMK2, PP1, TRX-h, were also regulated by salt stress at the level of transcription. These results indicated that effective regulatory protein expression related to signaling, membrane and transport, stress defense and metabolism all played important roles in the short-term salt response of soybean seedlings. PMID:27200046

  7. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Soybean Leaves and Roots by iTRAQ Provides Insights into Response Mechanisms to Short-Term Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wei; Cong, Ru; Li, Sheng; Li, Rui; Qin, Zhiwei; Li, Yanjun; Zhou, Xiaolin; Chen, Sixue; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Salinity severely threatens land use capability and crop yields worldwide. Understanding the mechanisms that protect soybeans from salt stress will help in the development of salt-stress tolerant leguminous plants. Here we initially analyzed the changes in malondialdehyde levels, the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidases, chlorophyll content, and Na+/K+ ratios in leaves and roots from soybean seedlings treated with 200 mM NaCl at different time points. We found that the 200 mM NaCl treated for 12 h was optimal for undertaking a proteomic analysis on soybean seedlings. An iTRAQ-based proteomic approach was used to investigate the proteomes of soybean leaves and roots under salt treatment. These data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD002851. In total, 278 and 440 proteins with significantly altered abundances were identified in leaves and roots of soybean, respectively. From these data, a total of 50 proteins were identified in the both tissues. These differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were from 13 biological processes. Moreover, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that proteins involved in metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein synthesis and redox homeostasis could be assigned to four high salt stress response networks. Furthermore, semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that some of the proteins, such as a 14-3-3, MMK2, PP1, TRX-h, were also regulated by salt stress at the level of transcription. These results indicated that effective regulatory protein expression related to signaling, membrane and transport, stress defense and metabolism all played important roles in the short-term salt response of soybean seedlings. PMID:27200046

  8. Effects of short-term training and detraining on VO2 kinetics: Faster VO2 kinetics response after one training session.

    PubMed

    Murias, J M; Edwards, J A; Paterson, D H

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the time course of short-term training and detraining-induced changes in oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ) kinetics. Twelve men (24 ± 3 years) were assigned to either a 50% or a 70% of V ˙ O 2 m a x training intensity (n = 6 per group). V ˙ O 2 was measured breath-by-breath. Changes in deoxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HHb]) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Moderate-intensity exercise on-transient V ˙ O 2 and Δ[HHb] were modeled with a mono-exponential and normalized (0-100% of response) and the [ H H b ] / V ˙ O 2 ratio was calculated. Similar changes in time constant of V ˙ O 2 ( t V ˙ O 2 ) were observed in both groups. The combined group mean for t V ˙ O 2 decreased ∼14% (32.3 to 27.9 s, P < 0.05) after one training session with a further ∼11% decrease (27.9 to 24.8 s, P < 0.05) following two training sessions. The t V ˙ O 2 p remained unchanged throughout the remaining of training and detraining. A significant "overshoot" in the [ H H b ] / V ˙ O 2 ratio was decreased (albeit not significant) after one training session, and abolished (P < 0.05) after the second one, with no overshoot observed thereafter. Speeding of V ˙ O 2 kinetics was remarkably quick with no further changes being observed with continuous training or during detraining. Improve matching of local O2 delivery to O2 utilization is a mechanism proposed to influence this response. PMID:25946038

  9. The effect of yellow pea protein and fibre on short-term food intake, subjective appetite and glycaemic response in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher E; Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2012-08-01

    Pulses are low-glycaemic foods rich in protein (20-25 %), resistant starch and fibre that suppress appetite and glycaemia. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the component(s) of yellow peas responsible for these benefits and assess their efficacy as value-added food ingredients. We investigated the effects of 10 or 20 g of isolated yellow pea protein (P10 and P20) or fibre (F10 and F20) on food intake (FI) at an ad libitum pizza meal served at 30 min (Expt 1, n 19) or 120 min (Expt 2, n 20) and blood glucose (BG) and appetite in young, healthy males (20-30 years). In Expt 1, P20 led to lower FI than control (4937 (sem 502) v. 5632 (sem 464) kJ (1180 (sem 120) v. 1346 (sem 111) kcal)) and all other treatments (P < 0·01) and lower cumulative FI (pizza meal kcal+treatment kcal; CFI) compared to F10 (5460 (sem 498) v. 6084 (sem 452) kJ (1305 (sem 119) v. 1454 (sem 108) kcal); P = 0·033). Both protein treatments suppressed mean pre-meal (0-30 min) BG compared to control (P < 0·05), whereas only P20 suppressed mean post-meal (50-120 min) BG (P < 0·01). There was no effect of treatment on pre-meal or post-meal appetite. In Expt 2, there was no effect of treatment on FI, CFI, or pre- or post-meal BG or appetite. In conclusion, protein is the component responsible for the short-term effects of yellow peas in the regulation of glycaemia and FI, but its second-meal effects disappear by 2 h post-consumption. PMID:22916818

  10. VSL#3 induces and maintains short-term clinical response in patients with active microscopic colitis: a two-phase randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Rohatgi, Sarika; Ahuja, Vineet; Makharia, Govind K; Rai, Tarun; Das, Prasenjit; Dattagupta, Siddharth; Mishra, Veena; Garg, Sushil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background The probiotic mixture VSL#3 has proven efficacious in inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome; however, its efficacy in microscopic colitis (MC) is being investigated. Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a multistrain probiotic, VSL#3, in inducing clinical remission and achieving clinical response, as compared with mesalamine, in patients with active MC. Methods A randomised, open labelled study comparing the efficacy of 900 billion colony-forming units/day of VSL#3 (group (Gp) A) or 1.6 g of mesalamine/day (Gp B) for 8 weeks in 30 patients with MC was conducted. After a washout period of 2 weeks, Gp B received 8 weeks of VSL#3 and Gp A was off medication for the next 8 weeks. The primary end points were clinical remission and clinical response at 8 weeks. Results Of 30 patients, 15 were randomised in each arm. 11 patients in Gp A and 13 patients in Gp B completed 8 weeks of treatment. 5 (46%) of 11 patients in Gp A and 1 (8%) of 13 patients in Gp B attained clinical remission (p=0.022). Clinical response was seen in Gp A, as evidenced by a lower stool weight (377.6±104.5 g) as compared with Gp B (507±168.2 g; p=0.03). VSL#3 was effective in maintaining clinical response up to 10 weeks, even after discontinuation of therapy. Secondary end points like stool parameters, histology and well-being improved in both treatment groups. Conclusions The probiotic VSL#3 was found to offer the benefit of inducing as well as maintaining short-term clinical response in patients with active MC. Trial registration number The clinical trial is registered with CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY INDIA; http://ctri.nic.in, CTRI No. “CTRI/2008/091/000086” (registered on: 23/06/2008). PMID:26462271

  11. Short-term population-based and spatiotemporal nonlinear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and children's respiratory clinic visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2014-05-01

    Advert health impacts associated with the PM2.5 exposure have been confirmed in mortality and cardiovascular diseases; however, findings of the influence of PM2.5 on respiratory diseases investigated among previous studies are still inconsistent. We investigated the short-term population-based associations between the respiratory clinic visits of children population and the PM2.5 exposure levels with considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of the ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between daily children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. The analysis was performed separately on the four selected respiratory disease categories of the population-based dataset, obtained from Taiwan National Health Insurance database, covering the 41 districts in Taipei area during the period of 2005 to 2007. This study reveals a strong nonlinear C-R pattern that the PM2.5 increment can significantly affect respiratory health at PM2.5 concentration ≤ 18.17µg/m3 for both preschool children and schoolchildren. The elevated risks are especially present in the category of acute respiratory infections. PM2.5 increase is mostly non-significant to the more severe respiratory diseases, e.g., COPD and pneumonia, over the ranges of 8.85-92.45µg/m3. The significantly higher relative rate of respiratory clinic visit most likely concentrated at populated areas. We highlight the nonlinearity of the respiratory health impacts of PM2.5 on children's populations from the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate this population-based association. The strong nonlinearity can possibly cause the inconsistency of PM2.5 health impact assessments with linear assumptions.

  12. Reproductive response of fat-tailed Barbarine ewes subjected to short-term nutritional treatments including spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis) cladodes.

    PubMed

    Sakly, C; Rekik, M; Ben Salem, I; Lassoued, N; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Ben Salem, H

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive outputs in fat-tailed Barbarine sheep in central Tunisia are often low because of feed shortage and the low nutritive value of diets. Supplementation with conventional concentrates is economically unsuitable in central Tunisia, so more cost-effective and sustainable alternative feeding strategies need to be developed. We tested effects of short-term nutritional treatments including cactus cladodes during the induction of 'male effect' on fertility and prolificacy parameters (follicular growth, ovulatory response and early embryo losses). One hundred and twenty ewes were distributed in 4 equal groups balanced for live weight grazed natural pastures and were supplemented for 21 days, starting day 10 after introduction of rams, with cactus cladodes (CA), cactus cladodes and soybean meal (CAS), concentrate (CC) or only soybean meal (S). Nutritional treatment did not affect live weight in this experiment. Ewes receiving cactus had higher number of large pre-ovulatory follicles (≥6 mm; 1.08 ± 0.05), between days 14 and 19 after introduction of rams, than females in the CC and S ewes (0.64 ± 0.06; p < 0.05). However, there were no differences in the onset of oestrous behaviour in response to 'male effect' or in the number of corpora lutea. Average ovulation rates were 1.42 ± 0.16 for CC, 1.47 ± 0.13 for CAS, 1.31 ± 0.15 for CA and 1.31 ± 0.13 for S groups respectively. Finally, reproductive wastages at day 35 after mating were not different between groups being 0.33 ± 0.19 for CC, 0.60 ± 0.17 for CAS, 0.43 ± 0.16 for CA and 0.31 ± 0.15 for S groups respectively. It is concluded that Barbarine ewes fed nutritional treatments including cactus performed similarly to those receiving diets including conventional concentrate feeds. PMID:23301658

  13. Impact of the auxin signaling inhibitor p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid on short-term Cd-induced hydrogen peroxide production and growth response in barley root tip.

    PubMed

    Tamás, Ladislav; Bočová, Beáta; Huttová, Jana; Liptáková, Ľubica; Mistrík, Igor; Valentovičová, Katarína; Zelinová, Veronika

    2012-09-15

    Short-term treatment (30 min) of barley roots with a low 10 μM Cd concentration induced significant H(2)O(2) production in the elongation and differentiation zone of the root tip 3h after treatment. This elevated H(2)O(2) production was accompanied by root growth inhibition and probably invoked root swelling in the elongation zone of the root tip. By contrast, a high 60 μM Cd concentration induced robust H(2)O(2) production in the elongation zone of the root tip already 1h after short-term treatment. This robust H(2)O(2) generation caused extensive cell death 6 h after short-term treatment. Similarly to low Cd concentration, exogenously applied H(2)O(2) caused marked root growth inhibition, which at lower H(2)O(2) concentration was accompanied by root swelling. The auxin signaling inhibitor p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid effectively inhibited 10 μM Cd-induced root growth inhibition, H(2)O(2) production and root swelling, but was ineffective in the alleviation of 60 μM Cd-induced root growth inhibition and H(2)O(2) production. Our results demonstrated that Cd-induced mild oxidative stress caused root growth inhibition, likely trough the rapid reorientation of cell growth in which a crucial role was played by IAA signaling in the root tip. Strong oxidative stress induced by high Cd concentration caused extensive cell death in the elongation zone of the root tip, resulting in the cessation of root growth or even in root death. PMID:22795748

  14. Differential responses of short-term soil respiration dynamics to the experimental addition of nitrogen and water in the temperate semi-arid steppe of Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yuchun; Liu, Xinchao; Dong, Yunshe; Peng, Qin; He, Yating; Sun, Liangjie; Jia, Junqiang; Cao, Congcong

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of simulated rainfall and increasing N supply of different levels on CO2 pulse emission from typical Inner Mongolian steppe soil using the static opaque chamber technique, respectively in a dry June and a rainy August. The treatments included NH4NO3 additions at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 20 g N/(m(2)·year) with or without water. Immediately after the experimental simulated rainfall events, the CO2 effluxes in the watering plots without N addition (WCK) increased greatly and reached the maximum value at 2 hr. However, the efflux level reverted to the background level within 48 hr. The cumulative CO2 effluxes in the soil rang ed from 5.60 to 6.49 g C/m(2) over 48 hr after a single water application, thus showing an increase of approximately 148.64% and 48.36% in the effluxes during both observation periods. By contrast, the addition of different N levels without water addition did not result in a significant change in soil respiration in the short term. Two-way ANOVA showed that the effects of the interaction between water and N addition were insignificant in short-term soil CO2 effluxes in the soil. The cumulative soil CO2 fluxes of different treatments over 48 hr accounted for approximately 5.34% to 6.91% and 2.36% to 2.93% of annual C emission in both experimental periods. These results stress the need for improving the sampling frequency after rainfall in future studies to ensure more accurate evaluation of the grassland C emission contribution. PMID:25079414

  15. Effect of short-term exercise-heat acclimation on ventilatory and cerebral blood flow responses to passive heating at rest in humans.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Hyperthermia induces hyperventilation and cerebral hypoperfusion in resting humans. We tested the hypothesis that short-term exercise-heat acclimation would alleviate those effects. Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into two groups that performed exercise training in the heat (TR-HEAT, n = 10) or cold (TR-COLD, n = 10). Before and after the training, the subjects in both groups participated in passive-heat tests at rest. Training was performed at 37°C (TR-HEAT) or 10°C (TR-COLD) and entailed four 20-min bouts of cycling at 50% peak oxygen uptake separated by 10-min recoveries daily for 6 consecutive days. After TR-HEAT, esophageal temperature was lowered when measured before and during passive heating, as was the esophageal temperature threshold for cutaneous active vasodilation, whereas plasma volume was increased (all P < 0.05). These traditional indices of successful heat acclimation were not all induced by TR-COLD (all P > 0.05). TR-HEAT had no significant effect on passive heating-induced increases in minute ventilation, even when evaluated as the esophageal temperature threshold for increases in minute ventilation and the slope relating minute ventilation to esophageal temperature (all P > 0.05). By contrast, TR-HEAT attenuated the passive heating-induced reduction in the cerebral vascular conductance index (middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity/mean arterial pressure) (all P < 0.05). TR-COLD did not attenuate the increase in minute ventilation or the decrease in the cerebral vascular conductance index observed during passive heating (all P > 0.05). These data suggest that in resting heated humans, short-term heat acclimation achieved through moderate-intensity exercise training (i.e., 50% peak oxygen uptake) in the heat does not influence hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation, but it does potentially attenuate cerebral hypoperfusion. PMID:26159763

  16. The Cold Signaling Attenuator HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 Activates FLOWERING LOCUS C Transcription via Chromatin Remodeling under Short-Term Cold Stress in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae-Hoon; Park, Ju-Hyung; Lee, Sangmin; To, Taiko Kim; Kim, Jong-Myong; Seki, Motoaki; Park, Chung-Mo

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to short-term cold stress delays flowering by activating the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The cold signaling attenuator HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 (HOS1) negatively regulates cold responses. Notably, HOS1-deficient mutants exhibit early flowering, and FLC expression is suppressed in the mutants. However, it remains unknown how HOS1 regulates FLC expression. Here, we show that HOS1 induces FLC expression by antagonizing the actions of FVE and its interacting partner histone deacetylase 6 (HDA6) under short-term cold stress. HOS1 binds to FLC chromatin in an FVE-dependent manner, and FVE is essential for the HOS1-mediated activation of FLC transcription. HOS1 also interacts with HDA6 and inhibits the binding of HDA6 to FLC chromatin. Intermittent cold treatments induce FLC expression by activating HOS1, which attenuates the activity of HDA6 in silencing FLC chromatin, and the effects of intermittent cold are diminished in hos1 and fve mutants. These observations indicate that HOS1 acts as a chromatin remodeling factor for FLC regulation under short-term cold stress. PMID:24220632

  17. Short-Term Memory in Habituation and Dishabituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlow, Jesse William, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present research evaluated the refractorylike response decrement, as found in habituation of auditory evoked peripheral vasoconstriction in rabbits, to determine whether or not it represents a short-term habituation process distinct from effector fatigue or sensory adaptation. (Editor)

  18. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  19. Late Holocene dune mobilizations in the northwestern Negev dunefield, Israel: A response to combined anthropogenic activity and short-term intensified windiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskin, Joel; Katra, Itzhak; Blumberg, Dan G.

    2013-04-01

    The study of the effects of past climates on ancient cultures is usually based on geologic records pertaining to rainfall and temperature fluctuations and shifts. This study proposes a paradigm of anthropogenic activity and windiness fluctuations to explain aeolian sedimentation and dune mobilization in the northwestern (NW) Negev Desert dunefield (Israel). The proposed paradigm contributes a different approach to estimating the effect of climate changes on the unprecedented agricultural and urban settlement expansion during the late Roman to Early Islamic period in the northern and central Negev Desert. This study builds upon the late Holocene cluster of luminescence ages of Roskin et al. (Age, origin and climatic controls on vegetated linear dunes in the northwestern Negev Desert (Israel), Quaternary Science Reviews 30 (2011), 1649-1674) coupled with analysis of archaeological finds and historical texts. We suggest that whereas the NW Negev dunefield was generally stable during the Holocene, intermittent dune mobilization during the late Holocene, at ~1.8 ka and mostly 1.4-1.1 ka (~600-900 CE), are linked to periods of human occupation. The idea that the last glacial dune encroachments alone that formed the NW Negev dunefield is connected to cold-event windy climates that may have intensified East Mediterranean cyclonic winter storms, cannot explain the late Holocene dune mobilizations. We conceptually model a connection between late Holocene dune mobilization, widespread anthropogenic occupation and activity, and windiness. We maintain that historic grazing and uprooting shrubs for fuel in the past by nomads and sedentary populations led to decimation of dune stabilizers, biogenic soil crusts and vegetation, causing dune erodibility and low-grade activity. Short-term events of amplified wind power in conjunction with periods of augmented anthropogenic activity that triggered major events of dune mobilization (elongation) and accretion have been preserved in the

  20. Short-term responses of barley to changes in ambient levels of UV-B radiation and their role in UV protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Joseph H.; Gitz, Dennis C.; Stapleton, Ann E.; Gao, Wei; Slusser, James R.

    2003-06-01

    While many studies have evaluated the chronic effects of exposure to enhanced levels of UV-B radiation on plants very few studies have evaluated the implications of plant development within a background of fluctuating levels of UV-B radiation. Much interest and concern surround the issue of stratospheric ozone depletion and concurrent increases in UV-B radiation and this remains a concern. However, variation in UV-B levels on a daily basis is largely due to cloud cover and tropospheric air quality as well as possible effects of fluctuations in the total ozone column. Therefore the importance of the effects of short-term changes in UV-B radiation is not predicated on the assumption of continued ozone destruction. In this study we evaluated to change in foliar phenolic composition in barley and the consequences of changes in these putative protection compounds on subsequent sensitivity to UV-V radiation. The UV-B exposure levels ranges from less than 1 to nearly 8 kJ m-2 of biologically weighted UV-B radiation. Barley plants that developed under height ambient levels of UV-B radiation had higher levels of phenolics than control plants grown under the same conditions except with UV-B excluded. Those plants with higher phenolic content show some degree of increased protection from subsequent levels of UV-B as evidenced by less damage to DNA. However, it was also found that other environmental factors contributed to the induction of foliar screening compounds.

  1. [Response of reactive oxygen metabolism in melon chloroplasts to short-term salinity-alkalinity stress regulated by exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li-xia; Hu, Li-pan; Hu, Xiao-hui; Pan, Xiong-bo; Ren, Wen-qi

    2015-12-01

    The regulatory effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in melon chloroplasts under short-term salinity-alkalinity stress were investigated in melon variety 'Jinhui No. 1', which was cultured with deep flow hydroponics. The result showed that under salinity-alkalinity stress, the photosynthetic pigment content, MDA content, superoxide anion (O₂·) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) content in chloroplast increased significantly, the contents of antioxidants ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) increased, and the activities of H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase were inhibited obviously. With exogenous GABA application, the accumulations of O₂·, MDA and H₂O₂ induced by salinity-alkalinity stress were inhibited. Exogenous GABA alleviated the increase of photosynthetic pigment content, improved the activity of SOD, enzymes of AsA-GSH cycle, total AsA and total GSH while decreased the AsA/DHA ratio and GSH/GSSH ratio. Foliar GABA could enhance the H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase activities. Our results suggested that the exogenous GABA could accelerate the ROS metabolism in chloroplast, promote the recycle of AsA-GSH, and maintain the permeability of cell membrane to improve the ability of melon chloroplast against salinity-alkalinity stress. PMID:27112014

  2. Physiological and productive responses of multiparous lactating Holstein cows exposed to short-term cooling during severe summer conditions in an arid region of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Rivera, J. A.; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F. D.; Macías-Cruz, U.; Díaz-Molina, R.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Robinson, P. H.; Fadel, J. G.

    2012-11-01

    Heat stress generates a significant economic impact for the dairy industry in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, so that heat abatement is an important issue for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two short-term cooling periods on physiological and productive status of lactating Holstein cows during hot ambient temperatures. Thirty-nine multiparous cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to one of three treatments including: control group (C), cows cooled before milking time (0500 and 1700 h daily, 1 h cooling); AM group, cows cooled at 1000 h and before milking (2 h cooling); and AM + PM group, cows cooled at 1100, 1500 and 2200 h, as well as before milking (4 h cooling). The cooling system was placed in the holding pen which the cows were moved through for cooling. Respiratory rate, and temperatures of thurl and right flank, were lower ( P < 0.05) in cows from the AM + PM group than AM and C cows during the morning and afternoon. However, udder temperature was higher in the AM + PM group compared to AM and C groups during the afternoon, although lower than the AM group during the morning. Rectal temperature was similar in all groups. Thyroxin concentrations tended ( P < 0.10) to be lower in AM + PM relative to the AM and C groups. The AM + PM group had higher ( P < 0.05) milk production than C (18.70 vs. 17.43 kg, respectively), and AM + PM cows had a trend ( P < 0.10) to increased milk energy output vs. the C and AM groups (13.75 vs. 13.18 and 13.15 Mcal, respectively). Protein and fat in milk, body condition score, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and triiodothyronine were similar among the groups. Four hours of cooling with spray and fans during severe summer temperatures only modestly improved milk yield of lactating Holstein cows.

  3. Hydrological responses in water loss due to thinning of forested watersheds in Japan using the short-term water balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Gomi, T.; Hiraoka, M.; Sato, T.; Onda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We examined the changes in seasonal patterns of catchment-scale evapotranspiration (i.e., water loss) using Short-Term Water Balance Model (STWBM) developed. STWBM is applied to estimate the value of water loss based on precipitation minus discharge volume during short-periods(8 to 80 days). This method can be applicable for examining seasonal characteristics of water loss that relets to ET. We applied STWBM for investigating the effects of 50% thinning in nested headwater catchments draining Japanese cypress (Cryptomeria japonica) and cedar (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forests. Study areas is located to 70 km north of Tokyo with 1250 mm annual precipitation and 14℃ mean annual temperature. 50% of the stems (46% of timber volume) were removed by strip thinning in 17 ha treatment catchment, 9 ha catchment remained untreated as a control. We installed 4 nested gauging stations in treated and control catchments with 3 to 10 ha of drainage areas. Runoff in each nested gauging station was measured in the pre- (from April, 2010 to June 2011) and the post-thinning periods (from January 2012 to December 2012). Total runoff coefficient in treated and control catchment was 54% and 26%, respectively. , . Estimated annual water loss by STWBM was 585 mm in treated and 969 mm in control catchments. Because annual evapotranspiration of Japanese cypress and cedar was about ranging from 400 to 800 mm in this catchment, our estimated water loss mostly associated with ET and partially by water loss by deep bedrock percolation. Estimated water loss after thinning in growth season (May to October) decreased 45 to 60 (in 2012) % and 51 to 60 (in 2013) % for all nested gauging station, while estimated water loss in control catchment was consistent. This result suggested that 50% of thinning decreased water loss by ET but changes can be varied among nested gauging station.

  4. One-Time Addition of Nano-TiO2 Triggers Short-Term Responses in Benthic Bacterial Communities in Artificial Streams.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Alexandra; Adams, Erin; Binh, Chu Thi Thanh; Tong, Tiezheng; Gaillard, Jean-François; Gray, Kimberly A; Kelly, John J

    2016-02-01

    Nano-TiO2 is an engineered nanomaterial whose production and use are increasing rapidly. Hence, aquatic habitats are at risk for nano-TiO2 contamination due to potential inputs from urban and suburban runoff and domestic wastewater. Nano-TiO2 has been shown to be toxic to a wide range of aquatic organisms, but little is known about the effects of nano-TiO2 on benthic microbial communities. This study used artificial stream mesocosms to assess the effects of a single addition of nano-TiO2 (P25 at a final concentration of 1 mg l(-1)) on the abundance, activity, and community composition of sediment-associated bacterial communities. The addition of nano-TiO2 resulted in a rapid (within 1 day) decrease in bacterial abundance in artificial stream sediments, but bacterial abundance returned to control levels within 3 weeks. Pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes did not indicate any significant changes in the relative abundance of any bacterial taxa with nano-TiO2 treatment, indicating that nano-TiO2 was toxic to a broad range of bacterial taxa and that recovery of the bacterial communities was not driven by changes in community composition. Addition of nano-TiO2 also resulted in short-term increases in respiration rates and denitrification enzyme activity, with both returning to control levels within 3 weeks. The results of this study demonstrate that single-pulse additions of nano-TiO2 to aquatic habitats have the potential to significantly affect the abundance and activity of benthic microbial communities and suggest that interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles with environmental matrices may limit the duration of their toxicity. PMID:26156053

  5. Surface coal mine land reclamation using a dry flue gas desulfurization product: Short-term and long-term water responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liming; Stehouwer, Richard; Tong, Xiaogang; Kost, Dave; Bigham, Jerry M; Dick, Warren A

    2015-09-01

    Abandoned coal-mined lands are a worldwide concern due to their potential negative environmental impacts, including erosion and development of acid mine drainage. A field study investigated the use of a dry flue gas desulfurization product for reclamation of abandoned coal mined land in USA. Treatments included flue gas desulfurization product at a rate of 280 Mg ha(-1) (FGD), FGD at the same rate plus 112 Mg ha(-1) yard waste compost (FGD/C), and conventional reclamation that included 20 cm of re-soil material plus 157 Mg ha(-1) of agricultural limestone (SOIL). A grass-legume sward was planted after treatment applications. Chemical properties of surface runoff and tile water (collected from a depth of 1.2m below the ground surface) were measured over both short-term (1-4 yr) and long-term (14-20 yr) periods following reclamation. The pH of surface runoff water was increased from approximately 3, and then sustained at 7 or higher by all treatments for up to 20 yr, and the pH of tile flow water was also increased and sustained above 5 for 20 yr. Compared with SOIL, concentrations of Ca, S and B in surface runoff and tile flow water were generally increased by the treatments with FGD product in both short- and long-term measurements and concentrations of the trace elements were generally not statistically increased in surface runoff and tile flow water over the 20-yr period. However, concentrations of As, Ba, Cr and Hg were occasionally elevated. These results suggest the use of FGD product for remediating acidic surface coal mined sites can provide effective, long-term reclamation. PMID:26001939

  6. Use of the short-term inflammatory response in the mouse peritoneal cavity to assess the biological activity of leached vitreous fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, K; Addison, J; Miller, B G; Cullen, R T; Davis, J M

    1994-01-01

    We used a special-purpose glass microfiber sample, Johns-Manville Code 100/475, to study the effects of various acid and alkali treatments on biological activity as assessed by inflammation in the mouse peritoneal cavity, the leaching of Si, and the phase contrast optical microscopy (PCOM) fiber number. We used mild and medium treatments with oxalic acid and Tris buffer and harsh treatment with concentrated HCl and NaOH. Mild oxalic acid and Tris treatment for 2 weeks had no effect on any of the end-points, but prolonging the mild oxalic acid treatment time to 2 months reduced the biological activity and the fiber number. Medium oxalic acid treatment reduced the biological activity and the fiber number and caused a loss of Si. Medium Tris alkali treatment reduced the PCOM-countable fibers and the biological activity but did not cause a substantial loss of Si. Harsh treatment with strong HCl did not affect the fiber number or cause leaching but the biological activity was reduced; strong NaOH reduced the fiber number and biological activity, and caused marked leaching of Si. The medium oxalic acid conditions (pH 1.4) were more acid than those found in lung cells but produced the same effects (reduction in fiber number and biological activity) as the more physiological mild treatment (pH 4.0), when prolonged. This study suggests that medium oxalic acid treatment can be used as a short-term assay to compare loss of Si, reduction in fiber number, and change in biological activity of vitreous fibers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7882922

  7. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases. PMID:14964524

  8. Enhanced lipoxygenase activity is involved in the stress response but not in the harmful lipid peroxidation and cell death of short-term cadmium-treated barley root tip.

    PubMed

    Liptáková, Ľubica; Huttová, Jana; Mistrík, Igor; Tamás, Ladislav

    2013-05-01

    Root growth inhibition and radial root swelling were the characteristic symptoms of barley root tips after the short-term exposure of roots to 15 and 30μM Cd. Higher Cd concentrations caused extensive cell death and root growth arrest. Enhanced lipid peroxidation was observed as early as 1h after the short-term treatment in a Cd concentration-dependent manner. In contrast to lipid peroxidation, the induction of lipoxygenase activity was detected only 3h after the exposure of roots to 15 or 30μM Cd. In addition, it was not observed in 60μM Cd-treated root tips. The highest lipoxygenase activity was detected 6h after 15μM Cd treatment in the meristematic and elongation zone of root tip and was probably associated with the radial expansion of cells. Our results indicate that the upregulation of lipoxygenase is an important component of stress response in barley roots to toxic Cd. It is probably involved in the morphological stress response of root tips or/and in the alleviation of Cd-induced toxic alterations in plant cell membranes, but it is not responsible for the Cd-induced harmful lipid peroxidation and cell death. PMID:23395539

  9. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, D.M.; Rogers, R.A.; Sepulveda, R.; Kunzendorf, P.; Bellmann, B.; Ernst, H.; Creutzenberg, O.; Phillips, J.I.

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  10. Coupled stratospheric ozone and temperature responses to short-term changes in solar ultraviolet flux - An analysis of Nimbus 7 SBUV and SAMS data. [stratosphere and mesosphere sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier studies of solar-induced variations in stratospheric parameters have been mainly concerned with observed ozone responses. In the present investigation, attention is given to temperature responses as well as ozone responses at low latitudes, taking into account 22 months of Nimbus 7 solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone and stratospheric and mesospheric sounder temperature data. A data description is provided, and cross-correlation and regression analyses are conducted. An extension is considered of an analytic model, which was derived by Frederick (1981) for the coupled behavior of ozone and temperature perturbations in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. The extended model is applied to the results of the analyses. The obtained data provide statistical evidence for ozone and temperature responses to changes in solar ultraviolet flux on the time scale of the solar rotation period.

  11. Short-Term Responses in Maximum Quantum Yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) to ex situ Temperature Treatment of Populations of Bryophytes Originating from Different Sites in Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    PubMed Central

    Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Kudo, Gaku

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge available on the thermal acclimation processes for bryophytes, especially when considering variation between populations or sites. This study investigated whether short-term ex situ thermal acclimation of different populations showed patterns of site dependency and whether the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) could be used as an indicator of adaptation or temperature stress in two bryophyte species: Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. We sought to test the hypothesis that differences in the ability to acclimate to short-term temperature treatment would be revealed as differences in photosystem II maximum yield (Fv/Fm). Thermal treatments were applied to samples from 12 and 11 populations during 12 or 13 days in growth chambers and comprised: (1) 10/5 °C; (2) 20/10 °C; (3) 25/15 °C; (4) 30/20 °C (12 hours day/night temperature). In Pleurozium schreberi, there were no significant site-dependent differences before or after the experiment, while site dependencies were clearly shown in Racomitrium lanuginosum throughout the study. Fv/Fm in Pleurozium schreberi decreased at the highest and lowest temperature treatments, which can be interpreted as a stress response, but no similar trends were shown by Racomitrium lanuginosum. PMID:27135242

  12. Short-Term Responses in Maximum Quantum Yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) to ex situ Temperature Treatment of Populations of Bryophytes Originating from Different Sites in Hokkaido, Northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Kudo, Gaku

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge available on the thermal acclimation processes for bryophytes, especially when considering variation between populations or sites. This study investigated whether short-term ex situ thermal acclimation of different populations showed patterns of site dependency and whether the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) could be used as an indicator of adaptation or temperature stress in two bryophyte species: Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. We sought to test the hypothesis that differences in the ability to acclimate to short-term temperature treatment would be revealed as differences in photosystem II maximum yield (Fv/Fm). Thermal treatments were applied to samples from 12 and 11 populations during 12 or 13 days in growth chambers and comprised: (1) 10/5 °C; (2) 20/10 °C; (3) 25/15 °C; (4) 30/20 °C (12 hours day/night temperature). In Pleurozium schreberi, there were no significant site-dependent differences before or after the experiment, while site dependencies were clearly shown in Racomitrium lanuginosum throughout the study. Fv/Fm in Pleurozium schreberi decreased at the highest and lowest temperature treatments, which can be interpreted as a stress response, but no similar trends were shown by Racomitrium lanuginosum. PMID:27135242

  13. Whole-body protein turnover response to short-term high-protein diets during weight loss: a randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Determine whole-body protein turnover responses to high protein diets during weight loss. Design: Thirty-nine adults (age, 21 ± 1 yr; VO2peak, 48 ± 1 ml'kg-1'min-1; body mass index, 25 ± 1 kg•m2) were randomized to diets providing protein at the recommend dietary allowance (RDA), 2X-RD...

  14. Associations between CD36 gene polymorphisms and metabolic response to a short-term endurance-training program in a young-adult population.

    PubMed

    Jayewardene, Avindra F; Mavros, Yorgi; Gwinn, Tom; Hancock, Dale P; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that CD36 gene variants are associated with an increased prevalence of chronic disease. Although a genetic component to trainability has been proven, no data are available specifically on the influence of CD36 on training response. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1527479 and rs1984112) were assessed for associations with whole-body substrate oxidation, response to a 75-g dextrose oral glucose tolerance test, fasting plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a young healthy cohort, both using cross-sectional analysis and following a 4-week endurance-exercise training program. Genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectional data were collected in 34 individuals (age, 22.7 ± 3.5 years), with 17 completing the training program. At baseline, TT SNP carriers at rs1527479 and wild-type GG carriers at rs1984112 were associated with significantly greater whole-body rate of fat oxidation (Fatox) during submaximal exercise (P < 0.05), whilst AA carriers at the same position were associated with elevated triglyceride (TG) levels. A significant genotype × time interaction in Fatox at SNP rs1984112 was identified at rest. Significant genotype × time interactions were present at rs1527479, with TT carriers exhibiting a favourable response to training when compared with C-allele carriers for fasting TG, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In conclusion, cross-sectional assessment identified associations with Fatox and TG. Training response at both SNPs identified "at-risk" genotypes responding favourably to the training stimulus in Fatox, TG, DBP, and MAP. Although these data show potential pleiotropic influence of CD36 SNPs, assessment in a larger cohort is warranted. PMID:26830498

  15. Short-term response of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to hyperosmotic stress caused by inoculation in grape must: RT-qPCR study and metabolite analysis.

    PubMed

    Noti, Olta; Vaudano, Enrico; Pessione, Enrica; Garcia-Moruno, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    During the winemaking process, glycerol synthesis represents the first adaption response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to osmotic stress after inoculation in grape must. We have implemented an RT-qPCR (Reverse Transcription-quantitative PCR) methodology with a preventive evaluation of candidate reference genes, to study six target genes related to glycerol synthesis (GPD1, GPD2, GPP2 and GPP1) and flux (STL1 and FPS1), and three ALD genes coding for aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in redox equilibrium via acetate production. The mRNA level in three strains, characterized by different metabolite production, was monitored in the first 120 min from inoculation into natural grape must. Expression analysis shows a transient response of genes GPD1, GPD2, GPP2, GPP1 and STL1 with differences among strains in term of mRNA abundance, while FPS1 was expressed constitutively. The transient response and different expression intensity among strains, in relation to the intracellular glycerol accumulation pattern, prove the negative feedback control via the HOG (High Osmolarity Glycerol) signalling pathway in S. cerevisiae wine strains under winery conditions. Among the ALD genes, only ALD6 was moderately induced in the hyperosmotic environment but not in all strains tested, while ALD3 and ALD4 were drastically glucose repressed. The intensity of transcription of ALD6 and ALD3 seems to be related to different acetate production found among the strains. PMID:26338116

  16. Time-Series Integrated “Omic” Analyses to Elucidate Short-Term Stress-Induced Responses in Plant Liquid Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Quackenbush, John; Klapa, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    The research that aims at furthering our understanding of plant primary metabolism has intensified during the last decade. The presented study validated a systems biology methodological framework for the analysis of stress-induced molecular interaction networks in the context of plant primary metabolism, as these are expressed during the first hours of the stress treatment. The framework involves the application of time-series integrated full-genome transcriptomic and polar metabolomic analyses on plant liquid cultures. The latter were selected as the model system for this type of analysis, because they provide a well-controlled growth environment, ensuring that the observed plant response is due only to the applied perturbation. An enhanced gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC– MS) metabolomic data correction strategy and a new algorithm for the significance analysis of time-series “omic” data are used to extract information about the plant's transcriptional and metabolic response to the applied stress from the acquired datasets; in this article, it is the first time that these are applied for the analysis of a large biological dataset from a complex eukaryotic system. The case-study involved Arabidopsis thaliana liquid cultures subjected for 30 h to elevated (1%) CO2 stress. The advantages and validity of the methodological framework are discussed in the context of the known A. thaliana or plant, in general, physiology under the particular stress. Of note, the ability of the methodology to capture dynamic aspects of the observed molecular response allowed for 9 and 24 h of treatment to be indicated as corresponding to shifts in both the transcriptional and metabolic activity; analysis of the pathways through which these activity changes are manifested provides insight to regulatory processes. PMID:18958862

  17. Short-term effect of bisphenol-a on oxidative stress responses in Atlantic salmon kidney cell line: a transcriptional study.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Mazyar; Andresen, Adriana Magalhaes Santos; Gjøen, Tor

    2016-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is regularly detected in aquatic ecosystems due to increased use of products based on polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It migrates from these products directly into rivers and marine waters or indirectly through effluents from wastewater treatment plants and landfilled sites. BPA can affect aquatic organisms both chronically and acutely at sensitive live stages. Despite reports indicating harmful effects of BPA, little is known about its role in oxidative stress responses in fish. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional effect of BPA (0, 1, 10, 100 μM) on an Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK) cell line for 6 h and 24 h by monitoring expression of 11 genes: elongation factor 1-alpha (ef1a), 18S ribosomal RNA (18s), gluthation (gsh), superoxide dismutase (sod), thioredoxin (txd), Salmo salar oxidative stress-responsive serine-rich 1 (oxr), glucose-regulated protein 78 (grp78), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), sequestosome1 (p62), interleukin-1 beta (il-1beta) and toll-like receptor 8 (tlr8). In general, only the 100 μM concentration treatment altered the mRNA expression. BPA down-regulated the expression of gsh and sod genes for both exposure-times while txd gene was the only down-regulated after 6-h exposure. The up-regulation of genes in the ASK cell line exposed for 6 h was only observed in il-1beta, while the 24-h exposure resulted in the up-regulation of oxr, tlr8, hsp70, p62 and il-1beta genes. The last three genes increased several fold compared to the others. The results showed that BPA exposure at 100 μM imposed oxidative stress on the ASK cell line and longer exposure time involved transcriptional responses of immune-related genes. This may indicate the possible role of BPA-associated oxidative stress in induction of inflammatory response in this macrophage-like cell type. PMID:27117342

  18. Short-Term Responses of Ground-Dwelling Beetles to Ice Storm-Induced Treefall Gaps in a Subtropical Broad-Leaved Forest in Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Chong-Ling; Lü, Liang; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Periodic natural disturbances shape the mosaic character of many landscapes and influence the distribution and abundance of organisms. In this study, we tested the effect of ice storm-induced treefall gaps on ground-dwelling beetle assemblages in different-aged successional stands of subtropical broad-leaved forest in southeastern China. We evaluated the relative importance of gap-phase microhabitat type (within gap, gap edge, and interior shaded) within different stand ages (regenerating stands and mature stands) as determinants of changes in beetle diversity and community structure. At 18 replicate sites sampled during 2009-2010, no significant differences were found in species richness and the abundances of the most common beetle species captured in pitfall traps among the three gap-phase microhabitat types, but the abundances of total beetles, as well as fungivorous and phytophagous species groups, were significantly lower in gap microhabitats than in interior shaded microhabitats in mature stands. Beetle assemblage composition showed no significant differences among the three microhabitat types, and only the fauna of gap plots slightly diverged from those of edge and shaded plots in mature stands. Cover of shrubs and stand age significantly affected beetle assemblage structure. Our results suggest that beetle responses to gap-phase dynamics in early successional forests are generally weak, and that effects are more discernible in the mature stands, perhaps due to the abundance responses of forest-specialist species. PMID:26377249

  19. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VI. Impact of short-term graded calorie restriction on transcriptomic responses of the hypothalamic hunger and circadian signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Green, Cara L.; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing‐Dong J.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.; Douglas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Food intake and circadian rhythms are regulated by hypothalamic neuropeptides and circulating hormones, which could mediate the anti‐ageing effect of calorie restriction (CR). We tested whether these two signaling pathways mediate CR by quantifying hypothalamic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (10 % to 40 %) for 3 months. We found that the graded CR manipulation resulted in upregulation of core circadian rhythm genes, which correlated negatively with circulating levels of leptin, insulin‐like growth factor 1 (IGF‐1), insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF‐α). In addition, key components in the hunger signaling pathway were expressed in a manner reflecting elevated hunger at greater levels of restriction, and which also correlated negatively with circulating levels of insulin, TNF‐α, leptin and IGF‐1. Lastly, phenotypes, such as food anticipatory activity and body temperature, were associated with expression levels of both hunger genes and core clock genes. Our results suggest modulation of the hunger and circadian signaling pathways in response to altered levels of circulating hormones, that are themselves downstream of morphological changes resulting from CR treatment, may be important elements in the response to CR, driving some of the key phenotypic outcomes. PMID:26945906

  20. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VI. Impact of short-term graded calorie restriction on transcriptomic responses of the hypothalamic hunger and circadian signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Food intake and circadian rhythms are regulated by hypothalamic neuropeptides and circulating hormones, which could mediate the anti-ageing effect of calorie restriction (CR). We tested whether these two signaling pathways mediate CR by quantifying hypothalamic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (10 % to 40 %) for 3 months. We found that the graded CR manipulation resulted in upregulation of core circadian rhythm genes, which correlated negatively with circulating levels of leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, key components in the hunger signaling pathway were expressed in a manner reflecting elevated hunger at greater levels of restriction, and which also correlated negatively with circulating levels of insulin, TNF-α, leptin and IGF-1. Lastly, phenotypes, such as food anticipatory activity and body temperature, were associated with expression levels of both hunger genes and core clock genes. Our results suggest modulation of the hunger and circadian signaling pathways in response to altered levels of circulating hormones, that are themselves downstream of morphological changes resulting from CR treatment, may be important elements in the response to CR, driving some of the key phenotypic outcomes. PMID:26945906

  1. Physical and Biological Characterization of Ferromagnetic Fiber Networks: Effect of Fibrin Deposition on Short-Term In Vitro Responses of Human Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Rose L.; Srigengan, Brajith; Neelakantan, Suresh; Bosbach, Wolfram; Brooks, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Ferromagnetic fiber networks have the potential to deform in vivo imparting therapeutic levels of strain on in-growing periprosthetic bone tissue. 444 Ferritic stainless steel provides a suitable material for this application due to its ability to support cultures of human osteoblasts (HObs) without eliciting undue inflammatory responses from monocytes in vitro. In the present article, a 444 fiber network, containing 17 vol% fibers, has been investigated. The network architecture was obtained by applying a skeletonization algorithm to three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of the fiber networks. Elastic properties were measured using low-frequency vibration testing, providing globally averaged properties as opposed to mechanical methods that yield only local properties. The optimal region for transduction of strain to cells lies between the ferromagnetic fibers. However, cell attachment, at early time points, occurs primarily on fiber surfaces. Deposition of fibrin, a fibrous protein involved in acute inflammatory responses, can facilitate cell attachment within this optimal region at early time points. The current work compared physiological (3 and 5 g·L−1) and supraphysiological fibrinogen concentrations (10 g·L−1), using static in vitro seeding of HObs, to determine the effect of fibrin deposition on cell responses during the first week of cell culture. Early cell attachment within the interfiber spaces was observed in all fibrin-containing samples, supported by fibrin nanofibers. Fibrin deposition influenced the seeding, metabolic activity, and early stage differentiation of HObs cultured in the fibrin-containing fiber networks in a concentration-dependant manner. While initial cell attachment for networks with fibrin deposited from low physiological concentrations was similar to control samples without fibrin deposition, significantly higher HObs attached onto high physiological and supraphysiological concentrations. Despite higher cell

  2. Toxicological responses following short-term exposure through gavage feeding or water-borne exposure to Dechlorane Plus in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Kang, Habyeong; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho

    2016-03-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) is a chlorinated flame retardant widely used worldwide, and has been reported in environment and humans. However, only limited information is currently available on its toxicity on aquatic organisms. In this study, we employed zebrafish to evaluate possible toxicological responses including oxidative stress and endocrine disruption following exposure to DP. DP was dissolved in corn oil and was delivered to adult male zebrafish via gavage feeding. Delivery of DP was carried out twice on days 0 and 2, at up to 3 μg/g fish wet weight. Body residue level of DP in the fish at day 6 was within a range that has been reported in hot spot areas of China. On day 6, blood, liver, testis, and brain were collected and were evaluated for oxidative damage and endocrine disruption. Following DP exposure, hepatic catalase activity significantly increased, implying its oxidative damage potential. In addition, plasma thyroxine (T4) concentrations increased along with up-regulation of corticotropin releasing hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone β genes in brain. Following DP exposure, transcriptional responses of sex hormone related genes in brain were observed, suggesting possible sex hormone disrupting potentials of DP. However, water-borne exposure to DP up to 267 μg/L among the embryo and larval fish did not show any adverse effects on hatching time and transcription of thyroid hormone related genes. Our observations indicate for the first time that DP disrupts thyroid hormone balance of zebrafish by altering regulatory pathways in the brain. Handling editor: David Volz. PMID:26735721

  3. Rapid anthropogenic response to short-term aeolian-fluvial palaeoenvironmental changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northern Negev Desert, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskin, Joel; Katra, Itzhak; Agha, Nuha; Goring-Morris, A. Nigel; Porat, Naomi; Barzilai, Omry

    2014-09-01

    Archaeological investigations along Nahal Sekher on the eastern edge of Israel's northwestern Negev Desert dunefield revealed concentrations of Epipalaeolithic campsites associated respectively with ancient water bodies. This study, aimed at better understanding the connections between these camps and the water bodies, is concerned with a cluster of Natufian sites. A comprehensive geomorphological study integrating field mapping, stratigraphic sections, sedimentological analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages was conducted in the vicinity of a recently excavated Natufian campsite of Nahal Sekher VI whose artifacts directly overlay aeolian sand dated by OSL to 12.4 ± 0.7 and 11.7 ± 0.5 ka. Residual sequences of diagnostic silty sediments, defined here as low-energy fluvial fine-grained deposits (LFFDs), were identified within the drainage system of central Nahal Sekher around the Nahal Sekher VI site. LFFD sections were found to represent both shoreline and mid-water deposits. The thicker mid-water LFFD deposits (15.7 ± 0.7-10.7 ± 0.5 ka) date within the range of the Epipalaeolithic campsites, while the upper and shoreline LFFD units that thin out into the sands adjacent to the Nahal Sekher VI site display slightly younger ages (10.8 ± 0.4 ka-7.6 ± 0.4 ka). LFFD sedimentation by low-energy concentrated flow and standing-water developed as a result of proximal downstream dune-damming. These water bodies developed as a result of encroaching sand that initially crossed central Nahal Sekher by 15.7 ± 0.7 ka and probably intermittently blocked the course of the wadi. LFFD deposition was therefore a response to a unique combination of regional sand supply due to frequent powerful winds and does not represent climate change in the form of increased precipitation or temperature change. The chronostratigraphies affiliate the Natufian sites to the adjacent ancient water bodies. These relations reflect a rapid, but temporary anthropogenic response to a

  4. Responses of ecosystem CO 2 fluxes to short-term experimental warming and nitrogen enrichment in an Alpine meadow, northern Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zong, Ning; Shi, Peili; Jiang, Jing; Song, Minghua; Xiong, Dingpeng; Ma, Weiling; Fu, Gang; Zhang, Xianzhou; Shen, Zhenxi

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Tibetan Plateau has experienced pronounced warming, yet the extent to which warming will affect alpine ecosystems depends on how warming interacts with other influential global change factors, such as nitrogen (N) deposition. A long-term warming and N manipulation experiment was established to investigate the interactive effects of warming and N deposition on alpine meadow. Open-top chambers were used to simulate warming. N addition, warming, N addition × warming, and a control were set up. In OTCs, daytime air and soil temperature were warmed by 2.0°C and 1.6°C above ambient conditions, but soil moisture was decreased by 4.95 m(3) m(-3). N addition enhanced ecosystem respiration (Reco); nevertheless, warming significantly decreased Reco. The decline of Reco resulting from warming was cancelled out by N addition in late growing season. Our results suggested that N addition enhanced Reco by increasing soil N availability and plant production, whereas warming decreased Reco through lowering soil moisture, soil N supply potential, and suppression of plant activity. Furthermore, season-specific responses of Reco indicated that warming and N deposition caused by future global change may have complicated influence on carbon cycles in alpine ecosystems. PMID:24459432

  5. Short-term emissions of CO2 and N2O in response to periodic flood irrigation with waste water in the Mezquital Valley of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Méndez, B.; Webster, R.; Fiedler, S.; Loza-Reyes, E.; Hernández, J. M.; Ruíz-Suárez, L. G.; Siebe, C.

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation with waste water adds labile carbon and nitrogen compounds to the soil, and when applied by flooding it rapidly changes the soil's atmosphere and redox potential. In the Mezquital Valley more than 90 000 ha is irrigated with waste water from Mexico City, and enhanced emissions of CO2 and N2O follow each flooding. We measured the emissions of these two gases from a field irrigated periodically with waste water and under three crops, namely alfalfa, rye-grass and maize, using static chambers for 21 months. We also measured emissions from a field growing rain-fed maize before and shortly after two rain events. The data from repeated measurements from the same chambers are correlated in time, and so we modelled the ante-dependence and fitted the models by residual maximum likelihood (REML). The emissions of both CO2 and N2O increased rapidly in response to flood irrigation with peaks up to 448 mg C m-2 hour-1 for CO2 and 2.98 mg N m-2 hour-1 for N2O under maize. Emissions peaked in particular irrigation events either as the infiltrating water replaced the gas from air-filled pores or several days after irrigation as excess nitrogen and fresh sources of carbon were mineralized. Processes operating during the few days during and immediately after irrigation seem to determine the dynamics of gaseous production in this agricultural ecosystem.

  6. Response of Lemna minor L. to short-term cobalt exposure: The effect on photosynthetic electron transport chain and induction of oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Begović, Lidija; Mlinarić, Selma; Antunović Dunić, Jasenka; Katanić, Zorana; Lončarić, Zdenko; Lepeduš, Hrvoje; Cesar, Vera

    2016-06-01

    The effect of two concentrations of cobalt (Co(2+)) on photosynthetic activity and antioxidative response in Lemna minor L. were assessed 24, 48 and 72h after the start of the exposure. Higher concentration of cobalt (1mM) induced growth inhibition while lower concentration (0.01mM) increased photosynthetic pigments content. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients revealed high sensitivity of photosystem II primary photochemistry to excess of Co(2+) especially at the higher concentration where decreased electron transport beyond primary quinone acceptor QA(-) and impaired function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) was observed. Due to impairment of OEC, oxygen production was decreased at higher Co(2+) concentration. Activity of superoxide dismutase was mainly inhibited while lipid peroxidation increased, at both concentrations, indicating that cobalt-induced oxidative damage after short exposure and moreover, susceptibility of the membranes in the cell to cobalt toxicity. Results obtained in this study suggest possible application of used parameters as tools in assessment of early damage caused by metals. PMID:27015565

  7. Responses of Ecosystem CO2 Fluxes to Short-Term Experimental Warming and Nitrogen Enrichment in an Alpine Meadow, Northern Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Peili; Jiang, Jing; Song, Minghua; Xiong, Dingpeng; Ma, Weiling; Fu, Gang; Zhang, Xianzhou; Shen, Zhenxi

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Tibetan Plateau has experienced pronounced warming, yet the extent to which warming will affect alpine ecosystems depends on how warming interacts with other influential global change factors, such as nitrogen (N) deposition. A long-term warming and N manipulation experiment was established to investigate the interactive effects of warming and N deposition on alpine meadow. Open-top chambers were used to simulate warming. N addition, warming, N addition × warming, and a control were set up. In OTCs, daytime air and soil temperature were warmed by 2.0°C and 1.6°C above ambient conditions, but soil moisture was decreased by 4.95 m3 m−3. N addition enhanced ecosystem respiration (Reco); nevertheless, warming significantly decreased Reco. The decline of Reco resulting from warming was cancelled out by N addition in late growing season. Our results suggested that N addition enhanced Reco by increasing soil N availability and plant production, whereas warming decreased Reco through lowering soil moisture, soil N supply potential, and suppression of plant activity. Furthermore, season-specific responses of Reco indicated that warming and N deposition caused by future global change may have complicated influence on carbon cycles in alpine ecosystems. PMID:24459432

  8. Functional optical coherence tomography (fOCT) biospeckle imaging to investigate response of plant leaves to ultra-short term exposure of Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srimal, L. K. T.; Rajagopalan, U. M.; Kadono, H.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, response of leaves of Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum) to ozone stress was investigated using functional optical coherence tomography (fOCT) based on biospeckle. The biospeckles arising out of dynamic motion of organelles can reflect the biological activities of plant. The fOCT biospeckle image was obtained by calculating the standard deviation (SD) of the fOCT temporal signal (biospeckle signal) at each and every point from the successively acquired OCT images. Plant leaves were subjected to treatment under different concentrations of O3, and imaging data were acquired from back and front surfaces of the leaves. The internal cell structure within the Chinese chives leaves could be clearly visualized in the functional OCT biospeckle image, which was not clearly visible in conventional OCT cross-sectional image. The SDs were found to be increasing significantly, especially in the surface layers of both front and back sides of the leaf with ozone exposure. Thus, the fOCT based on biospeckle is found to be suitable for fast, non-destructive monitoring environmental stresses on plants, which can potentially lead to significant time saving, for which conventional techniques require a few days to a few weeks time.

  9. Short-Term Responses of Soil Respiration and C-Cycle Enzyme Activities to Additions of Biochar and Urea in a Calcareous Soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Dali; Xi, Xiangyin; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Guoqing; Sun, Jingwen; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Xiubin

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) addition to soil is a proposed strategy to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there is limited knowledge regarding responses of soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities to BC and nitrogen (N) additions in a calcareous soil. A 56-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effects of BC addition rates (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0% by mass) and urea (U) application on soil nutrients, soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities in a calcareous soil in the North China Plain. Our results showed soil pH values in both U-only and U plus BC treatments significantly decreased within the first 14 days and then stabilized, and CO2emission rate in all U plus BC soils decreased exponentially, while there was no significant difference in the contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and C/N ratio in each treatment over time. At each incubation time, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), TOC, TN, C/N ratio, DOC and cumulative CO2 emission significantly increased with increasing BC addition rate, while soil potential activities of the four hydrolytic enzymes increased first and then decreased with increasing BC addition rate, with the largest values in the U + 1.0%BC treatment. However, phenol oxidase activity in all U plus BC soils showed a decreasing trend with the increase of BC addition rate. Our results suggest that U plus BC application at a rate of 1% promotes increases in hydrolytic enzymes, does not highly increase C/N and C mineralization, and can improve in soil fertility. PMID:27589265

  10. Immediate List Recall as a Measure of Short-Term Episodic Memory: Insights from the Serial Position Effect and Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Gavett, Brandon E.; Horwitz, Julie E.

    2012-01-01

    The serial position effect shows that two interrelated cognitive processes underlie immediate recall of a supraspan word list. The current study used item response theory (IRT) methods to determine whether the serial position effect poses a threat to the construct validity of immediate list recall as a measure of verbal episodic memory. Archival data were obtained from a national sample of 4,212 volunteers aged 28–84 in the Midlife Development in the United States study. Telephone assessment yielded item-level data for a single immediate recall trial of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Two parameter logistic IRT procedures were used to estimate item parameters and the Q1 statistic was used to evaluate item fit. A two-dimensional model better fit the data than a unidimensional model, supporting the notion that list recall is influenced by two underlying cognitive processes. IRT analyses revealed that 4 of the 15 RAVLT items (1, 12, 14, and 15) were misfit (p < .05). Item characteristic curves for items 14 and 15 decreased monotonically, implying an inverse relationship between the ability level and the probability of recall. Elimination of the four misfit items provided better fit to the data and met necessary IRT assumptions. Performance on a supraspan list learning test is influenced by multiple cognitive abilities; failure to account for the serial position of words decreases the construct validity of the test as a measure of episodic memory and may provide misleading results. IRT methods can ameliorate these problems and improve construct validity. PMID:22138320

  11. Responses of Fine Roots and Soil N Availability to Short-Term Nitrogen Fertilization in a Broad-Leaved Korean Pine Mixed Forest in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cunguo; Han, Shijie; Zhou, Yumei; Yan, Caifeng; Cheng, Xubing; Zheng, Xingbo; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the responses of soil nitrogen (N) availability, fine root mass, production and turnover rates to atmospheric N deposition is crucial for understanding fine root dynamics and functioning in forest ecosystems. Fine root biomass and necromass, production and turnover rates, and soil nitrate-N and ammonium-N in relation to N fertilization (50 kg N ha−1 year−1) were investigated in a temperate forest over the growing season of 2010, using sequential soil cores and ingrowth cores methods. N fertilization increased soil nitrate-N by 16% (P<0.001) and ammonium-N by 6% (P<0.01) compared to control plots. Fine root biomass and necromass in 0–20 cm soil were 13% (4.61 vs. 5.23 Mg ha−1, P<0.001) and 34% (1.39 vs. 1.86 Mg ha−1, P<0.001) less in N fertilization plots than those in control plots. The fine root mass was significantly negatively correlated with soil N availability and nitrate-N contents, especially in 0–10 cm soil layer. Both fine root production and turnover rates increased with N fertilization, indicating a rapid underground carbon cycling in environment with high nitrogen levels. Although high N supply has been widely recognized to promote aboveground growth rates, the present study suggests that high levels of nitrogen supply may reduce the pool size of the underground carbon. Hence, we conclude that high levels of atmospheric N deposition will stimulate the belowground carbon cycling, leading to changes in the carbon balance between aboveground and underground storage. The implications of the present study suggest that carbon model and prediction need to take the effects of nitrogen deposition on underground system into account. PMID:22412833

  12. Multiple biomarker responses in Prochilodus lineatus subjected to short-term in situ exposure to streams from agricultural areas in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Carlos Eduardo Delfino; Costa, Patrícia Gomes; Lunardelli, Bruna; de Oliveira, Luciana Fernandes; Cabrera, Liziara da Costa; Risso, Wagner Ezequiel; Primel, Ednei Gilberto; Meletti, Paulo César; Fillmann, Gilberto; Martinez, Claudia Bueno dos Reis

    2016-01-15

    In order to assess the quality of streams susceptible to contamination by pesticides we apply biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers in the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus submitted to in situ tests. Fish were caged, for 96 h, in two streams located in areas with intensive use of pesticides, the Apertados (AP) and the Jacutinga (JC), and in a small stream (Godoy stream — GD) found inside a forest fragment adjacent to a State Park. Biochemical parameters, such as biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), non-protein thiols (NPSH), lipoperoxidation (LPO), protein carbonylation (PCO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were evaluated in various fish organs, as well as genotoxic biomarkers (damage to DNA and occurrence of micronuclei and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities). Samples of water and sediment were collected for analysis of metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cd and Zn), organochloride pesticides, and triazine and glyphosate herbicides. We observed an increase in liver GST activity in fish at AP and gill GST activity in fish at JC. An increase in liver LPO was also observed in fish exposed to AP and JC. The same animals also exhibited increased DNA damage and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) compared to the fish kept in GD. A number of compounds showed concentrations higher than the permitted levels, in particular, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachloride, diclofluanid and aldrins. These pesticides were detected at higher concentrations in water and sediment samples from AP, followed by JC and GD. The Integrated Biomarker Response Index (IBR) indicated that AP and JC (AP: 21.7 > JC: 18.5 > GD: 12.6) have the worst environmental quality. Integrated biomarker analysis revealed that the alterations observed related well with the levels of environmental contaminants

  13. Short-Term Behavioural Responses of the Great Scallop Pecten maximus Exposed to the Toxic Alga Alexandrium minutum Measured by Accelerometry and Passive Acoustics

    PubMed Central

    Coquereau, Laura; Jolivet, Aurélie; Hégaret, Hélène; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms produced by toxic dinoflagellates have increased worldwide, impacting human health, the environment, and fisheries. Due to their potential sensitivity (e.g., environmental changes), bivalves through their valve movements can be monitored to detect harmful algal blooms. Methods that measure valve activity require bivalve-attached sensors and usually connected cables to data transfers, leading to stress animals and limit the use to sessile species. As a non-intrusive and continuously deployable tool, passive acoustics could be an effective approach to detecting harmful algal blooms in real time based on animal sound production. This study aimed to detect reaction changes in the valve movements of adult Pecten maximus exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum using both accelerometry and passive acoustic methods. Scallops were experimentally exposed to three ecologically relevant concentrations of A. minutum for 2 hours. The number of each type of valve movement and their sound intensity, opening duration, and valve-opening amplitude were measured. Four behaviours were identified: closures, expulsion, displacement, and swimming. The response of P. maximus to A. minutum occurred rapidly at a high concentration. The valve activity of P. maximus was different when exposed to high concentrations (500 000 cells L-1) of A. minutum compared to the non-toxic dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra; the number of valve movements increased, especially closure and expulsion, which were detected acoustically. Thus, this study demonstrates the potential for acoustics and sound production changes in the detection of harmful algal blooms. However, field trials and longer duration experiments are required to provide further evidence for the use of acoustics as a monitoring tool in the natural environment where several factors may interfere with valve behaviours. PMID:27508498

  14. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26505915

  15. Short-Term Resilience Processes in the Family

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Sunhye; Repetti, Rena L.

    2015-01-01

    The authors review naturalistic studies of short-term processes that appear to promote resilience in children in the context of everyday family life and argue that warm and supportive family interactions foster resilience through their cumulative impact on children’s emotional and physiological stress response systems. In the short-term, these family interactions promote the experience and expression of positive emotion and healthy patterns of diurnal cortisol. Over time, these internal resources – a propensity to experience positive emotion and a well-functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis system –enhance a child’s capacity to avoid, or limit, the deleterious effects of adversity. This article highlights naturalistic research methods that are well suited to the study of these short-term resilience processes and points to clinical applications of our conceptual and methodological approach. PMID:26246651

  16. Skeletal response to short-term weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Male Sprague Dawley rats were placed in orbit for 7 days aboard the space shuttle. Bone histomorphometry was performed in the long bones and lumbar vertebrae of flight rats and compared to data derived from ground based control rats. Trabecular bone mass was not altered during the first week of weightlessness. Strong trends were observed in flight rats for decreased periosteal bone formation in the tibial diaphysis, reduced osteoblast size in the proximal tibia, and decreased osteoblast surface and number in the lumbar vertebra. Histologic indices of bone resorption was relatively normal in flight rats. The results indicate that 7 day of weightlessness are not of sufficient duration to induce histologicaly detectable loss of trabecular bone in rats. However, cortical and trabecular bone formation appear to be diminished during the first week of space flight.

  17. The expression of CYP1A, vitellogenin and zona radiata proteins in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after oral dosing with two commercial PBDE flame retardant mixtures: absence of short-term responses.

    PubMed

    Boon, J P; van Zanden, J J; Lewis, W E; Zegers, B N; Goksøyr, A; Arukwe, A

    2002-01-01

    The short-term effects of the commercial PBDE flame retardant mixtures Penta-BDE and cta-BDE on the expression of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) were investigated in juvenile salmon (Salmo salar). For this purpose, groups of fish were dosed twice (oral intake at days I and 4) with 10 and 50 mg/kg body weight of both commercial mixtures. The fishes were sacrificed at day 7 (n = 5 for each group) and 14 (n = 6 for each group), and blood, liver, fillet, and brain were collected. Blanks and positive controls were also part of the experiment. The expressions of Vtg, Zrp, and CYPIA were measured with several techniques (EROD, ELISA, Western, Northern and Slot Blot). The values in the groups of fish treated with Penta-BDE or Octa-BDE did not significantly differ from the reference group for any of the parameters tested. In contrast, the positive control groups treated with estradiol-17beta for Vtg and Zrp expression, and beta-naphthoflavone for CYP1A expression did show a significant response, indicating the potential sensitivity of the fishes for the parameters measured. Since the results of the chemical analyses showed concentrations of a number of PBDE congeners in liver, fillet, and brain that were about three orders of magnitude above those of fish from the North Sea, it is concluded that the short-term toxicity of both commercial PBDE mixtures for these endpoints was low. PMID:12408642

  18. Mutations of Cytochrome b559 and PsbJ on and near the QC Site in Photosystem II Influence the Regulation of Short-Term Light Response and Photosynthetic Growth of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jine-Yung; Chiu, Yi-Fang; Ortega, José M; Wang, Hsing-Ting; Tseng, Tien-Sheng; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Roncel, Mercedes; Chu, Hsiu-An

    2016-04-19

    The characteristic features of two types of short-term light adaptations of the photosynthetic apparatus of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, state transition and blue-green light-induced fluorescence quenching, were compared in wild-type and cytochrome b559 and PsbJ mutant cells with mutations on and near the QC site in photosystem II (PSII). All mutant cells grew photoautotrophically and assembled stable PSII. Thermoluminescence emission experiments showed a decrease in the stability of the S3QB(-)/S2QB(-) charge pairs in the A16FJ, S28Aβ, and V32Fβ mutant cells. When dark-adapted wild-type and mutant cells were illuminated by medium-intensity blue light, the increase in the PSII fluorescence yield (indicating a transition to state 1) was more prominent in mutant than wild-type cells. Strong blue-light conditions induced a quenching of fluorescence corresponding to nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ). The extension of NPQ decreased significantly in the mutants, and the kinetics appeared to be affected. When similar measures were repeated on an orange carotenoid protein (OCP)-deficient background, little or no quenching was observed, which confirms that the decrease in fluorescence under strong blue light corresponded to the OCP-dependent NPQ. Immunoblot results showed that the attenuated effect of blue light-induced NPQ in mutant cells was not due to a lack of OCP. Photosynthetic growth and biomass production were greater for A16FJ, S28Aβ, and V32Fβ mutant cells than for wild-type cells under normal growth conditions. Our results suggest that mutations of cytochrome b559 and PsbJ on and near the QC site of PSII may modulate the short-term light response in cyanobacteria. PMID:27026225

  19. Short-term energy outlook: Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, C.; Paxson, D.; Reznek, A. P.; Chu, C.; Sitzer, S.; Gamson, N.; Childress, J. P.; Paul, S.; Weigel, H.; Sutton, S.

    1981-05-01

    Detailed discussions of forecasting methodology and analytical topics concerning short-term energy markets are presented. Major assumptions necessary to make the energy forecasts are also discussed. Supplementary analyses of topics related to short-term energy forecasting are also given. The discussions relate to the forecasts prepared using the short term integrated forecasting system. This set of computer models uses data from various sources to develop energy supply and demand balances. Econmetric models used to predict the demand for petroleum products, natural gas, coal, and electricity are discussed. Price prediction models are also discussed. The role of oil inventories in world oil markets is reviewed. Various relationship between weather patterns and energy consumption are discussed.

  20. Seletracetam enhances short term depression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Meehan, Anna L; Rothman, Steven M; Dubinsky, Janet M

    2015-11-01

    Seletracetam (SEL), an analog of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV), decreases seizure activity in a number of epilepsy models and binds to the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A with a higher affinity than LEV. Experiments were performed to determine if SEL, like LEV, reduces the later EPSPs in long trains of stimuli in a manner dependent upon access to the interior of synaptic vesicles and SV2A binding. When hippocampal slices were incubated in 3-30μM SEL for 3h, but not 30 min, the relative amplitude of the CA1 field excitatory synaptic potentials decreased over the course of a train of high frequency stimuli more than for control slices. This short term depression was frequency and dose dependent and largely disappeared when the spontaneous activity during the loading period was removed by cutting the Schaffer collaterals. The SEL effect was also observed in slices loaded during prolonged stimulation at 1Hz, but not 10Hz. Hippocampal slices loaded with both SEL and FM1-43 to visualize synaptic boutons released the FM1-43 in response to prolonged stimulation much more slowly than control slices during prolonged stimulation. Like LEV, SEL produced a frequency-dependent decrement of synaptic transmission that was dependent upon the drug entering recycling synaptic vesicles and compatible with SV2A binding. Previous observations of SV2A binding affinity correlated with the current effect of SEL and the previously reported effect of LEV on synaptic transmission validate SV2A as an extremely attractive target for future antiepileptic drug development. PMID:26320080

  1. Collateral gains and short-term maintenance in reading and on-task responses by inner-city adolescents as a function of their use of social reinforcement while tutoring.

    PubMed Central

    Greer, R D; Polirstok, S R

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments are reported concerning the effects of the differential use of verbal approval by problematic adolescents serving as tutors in a remedial reading program for an inner-city school. The experiments, each with 3 tutors and 15 tutees, used a combined multiple baseline and ABCBC design. Data showed that tutors' approvals as well as tutors' and tutees' on-task and reading responses were low and stable during baseline. Tutors were trained to use verbal approval for tutees' on-task behavior. Tokens were presented and withdrawn to control the tutors' use of approval. During phases in which tutors' approvals were raised via token dispensation, tutor reading and on-task scores increased in a nonexperimental setting. Tutee reading scores also increased as a function of tutor approvals. The second experiment replicated these findings and, in addition, (a) tested the validity of changes in reading responses via standardized tests, (b) isolated and compared the covariance between variables in all phases, and (c) provided data on tutee attention to tutors as a possible natural reinforcer for short-term maintenance found in both studies. Data are discussed as evidence that tutors had acquired the ability to recruit reinforcement from the classroom for appropriate behavior. PMID:7096224

  2. Improving Reproductive Performance: Long and Short Term

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in reproductive performance for beef herds can be classified as short term (current year) or long term (lifetime production) and can be applied to and measured in individual animals or the entire herd. In other species, results show that rearing young animals under caloric restriction ...

  3. Spanish: Familiarization and Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaez, Vicente; And Others

    The State Department's Foreign Service Institute short-term, intensive course in Spanish language and culture for government employees going to work in Spanish-speaking countries contains an introductory section and 38 lessons and 10 related audio cassettes intended as the basis for a ten-week program with an instructor. The lessons cover these…

  4. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  5. Short-Term Play Therapy for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaduson, Heidi Gerard, Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    Play therapy offers a powerful means of helping children resolve a wide range of psychological difficulties, and many play approaches are ideally suited to short-term work. This book brings together leading play therapists to share their expertise on facilitating children's healing in a shorter time frame. The book provides knowledge and skills…

  6. Short-Term Study Abroad, 2001: IIE's Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Marie, Ed.

    This guide, formerly called "Vacation Study Abroad," lists short-term educational programs of varying lengths from 1 week to several months. Offerings are for the winter and spring breaks, the summer, and other short-term intervals. Some 60% of these programs are sponsored by U.S. accredited colleges and universities. The guide also offers…

  7. Response of Chloroplast NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow to a Shortage or Lack in Ferredoxin-Quinone Oxidoreductase-Dependent Pathway in Rice Following Short-Term Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Essemine, Jemaa; Qu, Mingnan; Mi, Hualing; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I (PSI) can protect photosynthetic electron carriers under conditions of stromal over-reduction. The goal of the research reported in this paper was to investigate the responses of both PSI and photosystem II (PSII) to a short-term heat stress in two rice lines with different capacities of cyclic electron transfer, i.e., Q4149 with a high capacity (hcef) and C4023 with a low capacity (lcef). The absorbance change at 820 nm (ΔA820) was used here to assess the charge separation in the PSI reaction center (P700). The results obtained show that short-term heat stress abolishes the ferredoxin-quinone oxidoreductase (FQR)-dependent CEF in rice and accelerates the initial rate of P700 (+) re-reduction. The P700 (+) amplitude was slightly increased at a moderate heat-stress (35°C) because of a partial restriction of FQR but it was decreased following high heat-stress (42°C). Assessment of PSI and PSII activities shows that PSI is more susceptible to heat stress than PSII. Under high temperature, FQR-dependent CEF was completely removed and NDH-dependent CEF was up-regulated and strengthened to a higher extent in C4023 than in Q4149. Specifically, under normal growth temperature, hcef (Q4149) was characterized by higher FQR- and chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH)-dependent CEF rates than lcef (C4023). Following thermal stress, the activation of NDH-pathway was 130 and 10% for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. Thus, the NDH-dependent CEF may constitute the second layer of plant protection and defense against heat stress after the main route, i.e., FQR-dependent CEF, reaches its capacity. We discuss the possibility that under high heat stress, the NDH pathway serves as a safety valve to dissipate excess energy by cyclic photophosphorylation and overcome the stroma over-reduction following inhibition of CO2 assimilation and any shortage or lack in the FQR pathway. The potential role of the NDH-dependent pathway during the

  8. Response of Chloroplast NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow to a Shortage or Lack in Ferredoxin-Quinone Oxidoreductase-Dependent Pathway in Rice Following Short-Term Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Essemine, Jemaa; Qu, Mingnan; Mi, Hualing; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I (PSI) can protect photosynthetic electron carriers under conditions of stromal over-reduction. The goal of the research reported in this paper was to investigate the responses of both PSI and photosystem II (PSII) to a short-term heat stress in two rice lines with different capacities of cyclic electron transfer, i.e., Q4149 with a high capacity (hcef) and C4023 with a low capacity (lcef). The absorbance change at 820 nm (ΔA820) was used here to assess the charge separation in the PSI reaction center (P700). The results obtained show that short-term heat stress abolishes the ferredoxin-quinone oxidoreductase (FQR)-dependent CEF in rice and accelerates the initial rate of P700+ re-reduction. The P700+ amplitude was slightly increased at a moderate heat-stress (35°C) because of a partial restriction of FQR but it was decreased following high heat-stress (42°C). Assessment of PSI and PSII activities shows that PSI is more susceptible to heat stress than PSII. Under high temperature, FQR-dependent CEF was completely removed and NDH-dependent CEF was up-regulated and strengthened to a higher extent in C4023 than in Q4149. Specifically, under normal growth temperature, hcef (Q4149) was characterized by higher FQR- and chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH)-dependent CEF rates than lcef (C4023). Following thermal stress, the activation of NDH-pathway was 130 and 10% for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. Thus, the NDH-dependent CEF may constitute the second layer of plant protection and defense against heat stress after the main route, i.e., FQR-dependent CEF, reaches its capacity. We discuss the possibility that under high heat stress, the NDH pathway serves as a safety valve to dissipate excess energy by cyclic photophosphorylation and overcome the stroma over-reduction following inhibition of CO2 assimilation and any shortage or lack in the FQR pathway. The potential role of the NDH-dependent pathway during the evolution

  9. Rapid Anthropogenic Response to Short-Term Local Aeolian and Fluvial Palaeoenvironmental Changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene Transition (at the Edge of the Northwestern Negev Dunefield, Israel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskin, Joel; Barzilai, Omry; Goring-Morris, Nigel; Katra, Itzhak; Porat, Naomi; Agha, Nuha; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    Several prehistoric camp sites, mainly attributed to the Natufian culture, were excavated over the past decades along Nahal Sekher on the eastern edge of Israel's northwestern Negev Desert dunefield. In this research we reconstruct the aeolian and fluvial environs of these sites by integrating field mapping, stratigraphic sections, particle-size analysis, sand spectroscopy, optically stimulated luminescence ages, and radiocarbon dates. Intermittent surface stabilization and aeolian deflation are hypothesized to explain the appearance of the Natufians who probably inhabited the region during the last main Negev dune encroachment in a windy palaeoenvironment. It is argued that the residual sequences of diagnostic low-energy fluvial fine-grained deposits (LFFDs) documented around the Natufian sites resemble the ephemeral event-layers of hyper-concentrated flow into the ever-emptying dryland-type reservoirs formed by dunes that dammed wadis. The location of the Natufian sites along the shorelines of these water bodies point to rapid but temporary anthropogenic responses to short-term and improved local palaeoenvironmental conditions during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

  10. Radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma: utility of conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in guiding and assessing early therapeutic response and short-term follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing; Li, Hong-Li; Zhai, Bo; Chang, Samuel; Li, Feng-Hua

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of conventional ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in guiding and assessing early therapeutic response to radiofrequency (RF) ablation for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs; up to 3 lesions, each ≤3 cm in diameter) and to report the short-term follow-up results. Between September 2011 and January 2013, 63 patients with 78 HCCs (≤3 cm) underwent conventional US- and CEUS-guided percutaneous RF ablation. CEUS was repeated after 20-30 min to assess therapeutic response, and local efficacy was further confirmed by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 1 mo after tumor ablation. Patients were followed periodically to look for local tumor or disease progression. Survival probability was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Complete ablation was achieved for 76 (97.4%) of 78 HCCs in one (n = 73) or two (n = 3) sessions. No major complications were observed in any patient. The overall concordance in assessment of therapeutic efficacy of RF ablation between CEUS and MRI was 97.4% (76/78 tumors). The concordance test gave a value of κ = 0.74 (p < 0.001), indicating that CEUS had a high diagnostic agreement with MRI. During a mean follow-up of 20 mo, the local tumor progression rate was 5.3% (4/76 tumors). The 1-, 1.5- and 2-y cumulative survival rates were 98.4%, 96.1% and 92.6%, respectively. Although CEUS has some intrinsic limitations, the combined use of conventional US and CEUS provides a safe and efficient tool to guide RF ablation for HCCs 3 cm or smaller, with encouraging results in terms of survival rate and minimal complications. Moreover, the immediate post-procedural CEUS can be a reliable alternative to contrast-enhanced MRI for assessing the early therapeutic response to RF ablation. PMID:26055968

  11. Binding in short-term visual memory.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Mary E; Treisman, Anne M

    2002-03-01

    The integration of complex information in working memory, and its effect on capacity, shape the limits of conscious cognition. The literature conflicts on whether short-term visual memory represents information as integrated objects. A change-detection paradigm using objects defined by color with location or shape was used to investigate binding in short-term visual memory. Results showed that features from the same dimension compete for capacity, whereas features from different dimensions can be stored in parallel. Binding between these features can occur, but focused attention is required to create and maintain the binding over time, and this integrated format is vulnerable to interference. In the proposed model, working memory capacity is limited both by the independent capacity of simple feature stores and by demands on attention networks that integrate this distributed information into complex but unified thought objects. PMID:11900102

  12. Interference with visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Logie, R H; Zucco, G M; Baddeley, A D

    1990-10-01

    Working memory (Baddeley and Hitch 1974) incorporates the notion of a visuo-spatial sketch pad; a mechanism thought to be specialized for short-term storage of visuo-spatial material. However, the nature and characteristics of this hypothesized mechanism are as yet unclear. Two experiments are reported which examined selective interference in short-term visual memory. Experiment 1 contrasted recognition memory span for visual matrix patterns with that for visually presented letter sequences. These two span tasks were combined with concurrent arithmetic or a concurrent task which involved manipulation of visuo-spatial material. Results suggested that although there was a small, significant disruption by concurrent arithmetic of span for the matrix patterns, there was a substantially larger disruption of the letter span task. The converse was true for the secondary visuo-spatial task. Experiment 2 combined the span tasks with two established tasks developed by Brooks (1967). Span for matrix patterns was disrupted by a visuo-spatial task but not by a secondary verbal task. The converse was true for letter span. These results suggest that the impairment in short-term visual memory resulting from secondary arithmetic reflects a small general processing load, but that the selective interference due to mode of processing is by far the stronger effect. Results are interpreted as being entirely consistent with the notion of a specialized visuo-spatial mechanism in working memory. PMID:2260493

  13. Basal testosterone concentrations after the application of a slow-release GnRH agonist implant are associated with a loss of response to buserelin, a short-term GnRH agonist, in the tom cat.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Georgiev, Plamen; Fasulkov, Ivan; Vodenicharov, Angel; Wehrend, Axel

    2013-07-01

    Slow-release GnRH agonist implants are considered an effective, reversible alternative to surgical castration in male tom cats. Individual differences exist regarding the onset of efficacy and might be delayed in some animals. Single measurements of testosterone (T) might result in basal concentrations also in intact male cats. Consequently, GnRH stimulation tests are performed to measure T increase in intact animals and to differentiate castrated from intact male cats. In this study, five tom cats were treated with a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant and GnRH stimulation tests using buserelin were performed before treatment and at 4-week intervals afterward until Week 20. After the last test in Week 20 all animals were castrated. Four of five animals had basal T after 4 weeks and-in contrast to pretreatment-application of buserelin did not result in any further T increase. In one animal, T was low after implant insertion, but not basal; however, a GnRH stimulation test induced a slight increase of T in Week 8 and 16 only and no response in Weeks 4, 12, and 20. Testicular volume was significantly decreased and penile spines disappeared in all cats. Testicular histology showed mixed atrophy, but also fully elongated spermatids in three of five male cats making infertility questionable. Because of the loss of the stimulatory effect of short-term GnRH application (buserelin), it can be assumed that long-term GnRH agonists also act by some mechanisms of downregulation of pituitary GnRH receptors in the tom cat. PMID:23622940

  14. Short-Term Volunteer Teachers in Rural China: Challenges and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Huiquan; Shang, Xinyuan

    2011-01-01

    The brain-drain caused by imbalanced economic development has produced a lack of qualified teachers in rural China. Short-term volunteer teaching has emerged as a response. Despite the popularity of such programs, little systematic data have been gathered regarding their strengths and weaknesses. A short-term volunteer teaching program was…

  15. Short Term Exogenic Climate Change Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahenbuhl, Daniel

    Several short term exogenic forcings affecting Earth's climate are but recently identified. Lunar nutation periodicity has implications for numerical meteorological prediction. Abrupt shifts in solar wind bulk velocity, particle density, and polarity exhibit correlation with terrestrial hemispheric vorticity changes, cyclonic strengthening and the intensification of baroclinic disturbances. Galactic Cosmic ray induced tropospheric ionization modifies cloud microphysics, and modulates the global electric circuit. This dissertation is constructed around three research questions: (1): What are the biweekly declination effects of lunar gravitation upon the troposphere? (2): How do United States severe weather reports correlate with heliospheric current sheet crossings? and (3): How does cloud cover spatially and temporally vary with galactic cosmic rays? Study 1 findings show spatial consistency concerning lunar declination extremes upon Rossby longwaves. Due to the influence of Rossby longwaves on synoptic scale circulation, our results could theoretically extend numerical meteorological forecasting. Study 2 results indicate a preference for violent tornadoes to occur prior to a HCS crossing. Violent tornadoes (EF3+) are 10% more probable to occur near, and 4% less probable immediately after a HCS crossing. The distribution of hail and damaging wind reports do not mirror this pattern. Polarity is critical for the effect. Study 3 results confirm anticorrelation between solar flux and low-level marine-layer cloud cover, but indicate substantial regional variability between cloud cover altitude and GCRs. Ultimately, this dissertation serves to extend short term meteorological forecasting, enhance climatological modeling and through analysis of severe violent weather and heliospheric events, protect property and save lives.

  16. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Does tonality boost short-term memory in congenital amusia?

    PubMed

    Albouy, Philippe; Schulze, Katrin; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. Recent findings have demonstrated that this deficit is linked to an impaired short-term memory for tone sequences. As it has been shown before that non-musicians' implicit knowledge of musical regularities can improve short-term memory for tone information, the present study investigated if this type of implicit knowledge could also influence amusics' short-term memory performance. Congenital amusics and their matched controls, who were non-musicians, had to indicate whether sequences of five tones, presented in pairs, were the same or different; half of the pairs respected musical regularities (tonal sequences) and the other half did not (atonal sequences). As previously reported for non-musician participants, the control participants showed better performance (as measured with d') for tonal sequences than for atonal ones. While this improvement was not observed in amusics, both control and amusic participants showed faster response times for tonal sequences than for atonal sequences. These findings suggest that some implicit processing of tonal structures is potentially preserved in congenital amusia. This observation is encouraging as it strengthens the perspective to exploit implicit knowledge to help reducing pitch perception and memory deficits in amusia. PMID:24041778

  19. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  20. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

  1. Group Processes in Short-Term Group Therapy of Psychotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opalic, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Presents fundamental principles of short-term psychotherapy in reference to psychotic patients. Emphasizes empirical hermeneutical research into group process within the phenomenological approach. Presents case study of short-term psychotherapy with psychotic patients. Outlines four-stage approach to short-term therapy. (Author/ABL)

  2. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  3. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, J.G.; Dwyer, J.; Roy, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record. ?? 2010.

  4. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Short-term GNSS satellite clock stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, E.; Kursinski, E. R.; Akos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) clock stability is characterized via the modified Allan deviation using active hydrogen masers as the receiver frequency reference. The high stability of the maser reference allows the GNSS clock contribution to the GNSS carrier phase variance to be determined quite accurately. Satellite clock stability for four different GNSS constellations are presented, highlighting the similarities and differences between the constellations as well as satellite blocks and clock types. Impact on high-rate applications, such as GNSS radio occultation (RO), is assessed through the calculation of the maximum carrier phase error due to clock instability. White phase noise appears to dominate at subsecond time scales. However, while we derived the theoretical contribution of white phase modulation to the modified Allan deviation, our analysis of the GNSS satellite clocks was limited to 1-200 s time scales because of inconsistencies between the subsecond results from the commercial and software-defined receivers. The rubidium frequency standards on board the Global Positioning System (GPS) Block IIF, BeiDou, and Galileo satellites show improved stability results in comparison to previous GPS blocks for time scales relevant to RO. The Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) satellites are the least stable of the GNSS constellations in the short term and will need high-rate corrections to produce RO results comparable to those from the other GNSS constellations.

  6. Short-term Drought Prediction in India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Medium range soil moisture drought forecast helps in decision making in the field of agriculture and water resources management. Part of skills in medium range drought forecast comes from precipitation. Proper evaluation and correction of precipitation forecast may improve drought predictions. Here, we evaluate skills of ensemble mean precipitation forecast from Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) for medium range drought predictions over India. Climatological mean (CLIM) of historic data (OBS) are used as reference forecast to evaluate GEFS precipitation forecast. Analysis was conducted based on forecast initiated on 1st and 15th dates of each month for lead up to 7-days. Correlation and RMSE were used to estimate skill scores of accumulated GEFS precipitation forecast from lead 1 to 7-days. Volumetric indices based on the 2X2 contingency table were used to check missed and falsely predicted historic volume of daily precipitation from GEFS in different regions and at different thresholds. GEFS showed improvement in correlation of 0.44 over CLIM during the monsoon season and 0.55 during the winter season. Lower RMSE was showed by GEFS than CLIM. Ratio of RMSE in GEFS and CLIM comes out as 0.82 and 0.4 (perfect skill is at zero) during the monsoon and winter season, respectively. We finally used corrected GEFS forecast to derive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which was used to develop short-term forecast of hydrologic and agricultural (soil moisture) droughts in India.

  7. Short-term memory binding deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Parra, Mario A; Abrahams, Sharon; Fabi, Katia; Logie, Robert; Luzzi, Simona; Della Sala, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    mechanisms responsible for holding integrated objects in verbal short-term memory. PMID:19293236

  8. Short-term energy outlook, Annual supplement 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-25

    This supplement is published once a year as a complement to the Short- Term Energy Outlook, Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts. Chap. 2 analyzes the response of the US petroleum industry to the recent four Federal environmental rules on motor gasoline. Chap. 3 compares the EIA base or mid case energy projections for 1995 and 1996 (as published in the first quarter 1995 Outlook) with recent projections made by four other major forecasting groups. Chap. 4 evaluates the overall accuracy. Chap. 5 presents the methology used in the Short- Term Integrated Forecasting Model for oxygenate supply/demand balances. Chap. 6 reports theoretical and empirical results from a study of non-transportation energy demand by sector. The empirical analysis involves the short-run energy demand in the residential, commercial, industrial, and electrical utility sectors in US.

  9. Calcium Channels and Short-term Synaptic Plasticity*

    PubMed Central

    Catterall, William A.; Leal, Karina; Nanou, Evanthia

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in presynaptic nerve terminals initiate neurotransmitter release in response to depolarization by action potentials from the nerve axon. The strength of synaptic transmission is dependent on the third to fourth power of Ca2+ entry, placing the Ca2+ channels in a unique position for regulation of synaptic strength. Short-term synaptic plasticity regulates the strength of neurotransmission through facilitation and depression on the millisecond time scale and plays a key role in encoding information in the nervous system. CaV2.1 channels are the major source of Ca2+ entry for neurotransmission in the central nervous system. They are tightly regulated by Ca2+, calmodulin, and related Ca2+ sensor proteins, which cause facilitation and inactivation of channel activity. Emerging evidence reviewed here points to this mode of regulation of CaV2.1 channels as a major contributor to short-term synaptic plasticity of neurotransmission and its diversity among synapses. PMID:23400776

  10. The oral [(13)C]bicarbonate technique for measurement of short-term energy expenditure of sled dogs and their physiological response to diets with different fat:carbohydrate ratios.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Caroline; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Junghans, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus B; Blache, Dominique; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2015-01-01

    The oral [(13)C]bicarbonate technique (o(13)CBT) was assessed for the determination of short-term energy expenditure (EE) under field conditions. A total of eight Alaskan huskies were fed two experimental diets in a cross-over experiment including two periods of 3 weeks. Effects of diets on EE, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and on plasma hormones, blood lactate and glucose were furthermore investigated. The percentages of metabolisable energy derived from protein (P), fat (F) and carbohydrates (C) were 26:58:16 in the PFC diet and 24:75:1 in the PF diet. Measurements of EE were performed in the post-absorptive state during rest. Blood samples were collected during rest and exercise and ATTD was determined after days with rest and with exercise. EE was higher (P < 0·01) in period 2 than in period 1 (68 v. 48 kJ/kg body weight(0·75) per h). The ATTD of organic matter, crude protein and crude fat was higher (P < 0·01) in the PF diet compared with the PFC diet, and lower (P < 0·01) for total carbohydrates. Exercise did not affect ATTD. Higher (P < 0·01) insulin-like growth factor 1 and leptin concentrations were measured when fed the PF diet compared with the PFC diet. Concentrations of insulin decreased (P < 0·01), whereas cortisol and ghrelin increased (P < 0·05), after exercise. There was no effect of diet on blood lactate and glucose, but higher (P < 0·001) lactate concentrations were measured in period 1 than in period 2. The results suggest that the o(13)CBT can be used in the field to estimate short-term EE in dogs during resting conditions. Higher ATTD and energy density of the PF diet may be beneficial when energy requirements are high. PMID:26495123