These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Induction of a tomato anionic peroxidase gene (tap1) by wounding in transgenic tobacco and activation of tap1/GUS and tap2/GUS chimeric gene fusions in transgenic tobacco by wounding and pathogen attack.  

PubMed

The anionic peroxidase genes of tomato, tap1 and tap2, are induced by wounding in tomato fruits and by elicitor treatment in cell suspension cultures. These homologous genes code for anionic peroxidases that are postulated to cause polymerization of the phenolic residues into wall polymers in wound-healing and pathogen-infected tissues. An expression construct containing the entire TAP1 gene with its 5' and 3' flanking sequences was introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. Also, constructs containing the 5' upstream regions of tap1 and tap2 including sequences coding for their respective putative leader peptides fused translationally to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were made and introduced into tobacco. Northern blot analysis of transcripts from wound-healing leaf tissues of transformants containing tap1 showed that the introduced gene was being transcribed in the heterologous host. The induction of tap1 transcripts in the wound-healing transgenic tobacco tissues was observed by 48 h and increased over time period of 84 h. Wounding also led to expression of GUS in tap1/GUS and tap2/GUS transformants and GUS activity was localized to the wound site. Activation of the tap1 and tap2 promoters in wound-healing transgenic tobacco tissues showed a GUS expression profile that correlated with the postulated role for anionic peroxidases in phenolic polymerization in suberizing tissues. Inoculation of tap1/GUS and tap2/GUS transformant leaves with fungal conidia from Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi caused expression of GUS in locally inoculated regions, and GUS expression increased over a period of four days. PMID:7678769

Mohan, R; Bajar, A M; Kolattukudy, P E

1993-01-01

2

Transient gus expression in zygotic embryos of Taxus Brevifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Germinated zygotic embryos of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) were transiently transformed with the expression vector pBl121, as demonstrated by expression of the ?-glucuronidase (GUS)\\u000a gene. Embryos exhibited sectors of blue color following treatment with DNA and dimethyl sulfoxide (optimal concentration of\\u000a 2.25%). However, transient expression depended on the presence of ions in the buffer, as no GUS activity was observed

Ellen C. Luan; Susan E. Allen; Mark G. Bolyard

1996-01-01

3

Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated expression of gusA in maize tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a system forAgrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize (Zea mays L.), we have investigated histochemically the transient expression of ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in maize seedling tissue segments using binary vectors that allow minimal (pKIWI105 and pCNL1) or undetectable (p35S-GUS-INT and pCNL56) levels of GUS activity inA. tumefaciens. Tissue segments from three- to five-day-old sterile seedlings of maize genotype A188 were

Steven W. Ritchie; Chang-Nong Lui; James C. Sellmer; Halina Kononowicz; Thomas K. Hodges; Stanton B. Gelvin

1993-01-01

4

Mirazid shows insignificant activity against ovine fascioliasis.  

PubMed

In a recent study, the fasciolicidal activity of Mirazid (a myrrh-derived drug) and its effect on the function and histopathology of host liver were investigated in Egyptian sheep, with triclabendazole (TCBZ) used as the positive control. Sheep were infected with metacercariae (150/animal) and treated 3 months later, either with Mirazid (10 mg/kg/day for six consecutive days) or TCBZ (a single dose of 10 mg/kg), or left untreated, as controls. When the animals were killed 4 weeks after the end of treatment, no Fasciola flukes or eggs could be found in the animals given TCBZ but the number of flukes found in the Mirazid-treated animals was only 6% lower than that recorded in the untreated sheep (a statistically insignificant difference). In terms of their Fasciola egg loads, serum concentrations of hepatic enzymes and hepatic histopathological changes, the Mirazid-treated sheep appeared very similar to the untreated, infected animals. The TCBZ-treated animals, in contrast, showed remarkably little evidence of hepatic pathology. It therefore appears that, in the treatment of ovine fascioliasis, at least some batches of Mirazid have little, if any, value. PMID:19825282

Botros, S S; El-Lakkany, N M; Badawy, A A; Mahmoud, S S; Ebeid, F A; Fenwick, A

2009-10-01

5

Promoter trapping in Lotus japonicus reveals novel root and nodule GUS expression domains.  

PubMed

Agrobacterium-based transformation was used to introduce a promoter-less glucuronidase uidA gene (beta-glucuronidase; GUS) into Lotus japonicus. Transgenic plants were screened for GUS activation at different stages after inoculation with its symbiont, Mesorhizobium loti. Functional GUS fusion frequencies ranged from about 2 to 5% of the total number of transgenic lines. These lines provide excellent histological markers for tissue ontogeny analysis. Some of the activations generated GUS expression patterns that correspond to well-known tissue types, such as lateral root and nodule primordia, root tips and developing nodules (line CHEETAH). Others generated GUS activation associated with predictable but previously unknown (i) tissue types, such as the vascular bundle of the nodule (line VASCO); or (ii) expression domains, such as pericycle, nodule primordia, nodule and flower connective/vascular tissue (line FATA MORGANA) or inner root cortex cells in the vicinity of a curled root hair, nodule primordia and nodule cortex (line TIMPA). Putative members of two gene superfamilies, EH (Esp homolog) and AAA ATPase (ATPase associated with various cellular activities), were located next to the CHEETAH and VASCO insertions, respectively, and a nodulin gene, LjENOD40-2, was located next to the FATA MORGANA insertion. We utilized promoter GUS fusions to investigate the genetic regulation of LjENOD40-2 and FATA MORGANA GUS. The LjENOD40-2 promoter defined a novel expression domain and the FATA MORGANA nodule expression was reiterated by the 2 kb sequence upstream of the T-DNA insertion. PMID:15899881

Buzas, Diana Mihaela; Lohar, Dasharath; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Vickers, Claudia Estelle; Stiller, Jiri; Gresshoff, Peter Michael

2005-08-01

6

Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

Katchen, Johanna E.

7

The IRIS-GUS Shuttle Borne Upper Stage System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Italian Research Interim Stage - Gyroscopic Upper Stage (IRIS-GUS) upper stage system that will be used to launch NASA's Triana Observatory from the Space Shuttle. Triana is a pathfinder earth science mission being executed on rapid schedule and small budget, therefore the mission's upper stage solution had to be a system that could be fielded quickly at relatively low cost and risk. The building of the IRIS-GUS system wa necessary because NASA lost the capability to launch moderately sized upper stage missions fro the Space Shuttle when the PAM-D system was retired. The IRIS-GUS system restores this capability. The resulting system is a hybrid which mates the existing, flight proven IRIS (Italian Research Interim Stage) airborne support equipment to a new upper stage, the Gyroscopic Upper Stage (GUS) built by the GSFC for Triana. Although a new system, the GUS exploits flight proven hardware and design approaches in most subsystems, in some cases implementing proven design approaches with state-of-the-art electronics. This paper describes the IRIS-GUS upper stage system elements, performance capabilities, and payload interfaces.

Tooley, Craig; Houghton, Martin; Bussolino, Luigi; Connors, Paul; Broudeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

8

Transferring Gus gene into intact rice cells by low energy ion beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique of transferring genes by low energy ion beam has been reported in this paper. The Gus and CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) genes, as ``foreign'' genetic materials, were introduced into the suspension cells and ripe embryos or rice by implantation of 20-30 keV Ar+ at doses ranging from 1 × 1015 to 4 × 1015 ions\\/cm2. The activities of

Yu Zengliang; Yang Jianbo; Wu Yuejin; Cheng Beijiu; He Jianjun; Huo Yuping

1993-01-01

9

Synthesis and evaluation of [18F]-FEAnGA as a PET Tracer for beta-glucuronidase activity.  

PubMed

To increase the therapeutic index of chemotherapeutic drugs, prodrugs have been investigated as anticancer agents, as they may present fewer cytotoxic side effects than conventional cytotoxic drugs, while therapeutic efficacy is maintained or even increased. Extracellular beta-glucuronidase (beta-GUS) in the tumors has been investigated as a target enzyme for prodrug therapy, as it can convert nontoxic prodrugs into cytostatic drugs. To optimize beta-GUS-based prodrug therapies, PET imaging could be a useful tool by providing information regarding the localization and quantification of beta-GUS. Here, we describe our first PET tracer for extracellular beta-GUS, [(18)F]-FEAnGA, which consists of a 2-[(18)F]fluoroethylamine ([(18)F]-FEA) group bound to a glucuronic acid via a self-immolative nitrophenyl spacer. [(18)F]-FEAnGA was synthesized by alkylation of its imidazole carbamate precursor with [(18)F]-FEA, followed by deprotection of the sugar moiety with NaOH in 10-20% overall radiochemical yield. [(18)F]-FEAnGA is about 10-fold more hydrophilic than the cleavage product [(18)F]-FEA, and it is stable in PBS and rat plasma for at least 3 h. In the presence of either Escherichia coli beta-GUS or bovine liver beta-GUS, in vitro cleavage of [(18)F]-FEAnGA with complete release of [(18)F]-FEA was observed within 30 min. C6 glioma cells incubated with the tracer and Escherichia coli beta-GUS or bovine liver beta-GUS showed a 4- and 1.5-fold higher uptake of radioactivity, respectively, as compared to control C6 cells without beta-GUS. Incubation of CT26 murine colon adenocarcinoma cells or the genetically engineered CT26mbetaGUS cells, which expressed membrane-anchored GUS on the outer cell membrane, with the tracer, resulted in a 3-fold higher uptake into GUS-expressing cells as compared to control cells. In a preliminary microPET study in mice bearing both CT26 and CT26mbetaGUS tumors, [(18)F]-FEAnGA exhibited a 2-fold higher retention of radioactivity in the tumor expressing beta-GUS than in the control tumor. [(18)F]-FEA did not show any difference in tracer uptake between tumors. These results suggest that [(18)F]-FEAnGA may be a suitable PET tracer for evaluation of beta-GUS activity, since it is specifically cleaved by beta-GUS and the released [(18)F]-FEA remains attached to targeted cells. PMID:20415436

Antunes, Inês F; Haisma, Hidde J; Elsinga, Philip H; Dierckx, Rudi A; de Vries, Erik F J

2010-05-19

10

Peptidomimetic inhibitors of protein farnesyltransferase show potent antimalarial activity.  

PubMed

Malaria continues to represent a very serious health problem in the tropics. The current methods of clinical treatment are showing deficiencies due to the increased incidence of resistance in the parasite. In the present paper we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of potential antimalarial agents against a novel target, protein farnesyltransferase. We show that the most potent compounds are active against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro at submicromolar concentrations. PMID:11277514

Ohkanda, J; Lockman, J W; Yokoyama, K; Gelb, M H; Croft, S L; Kendrick, H; Harrell, M I; Feagin, J E; Blaskovich, M A; Sebti, S M; Hamilton, A D

2001-03-26

11

Chitinase A from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia shows transglycosylation and antifungal activities.  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia chitinase (StmChiA and StmChiB) genes were cloned and expressed as soluble proteins of 70.5 and 41.6 kDa in Escherichia coli. Ni-NTA affinity purified StmChiA and StmChiB were optimally active at pH 5.0 and 7.0, respectively and exhibited broad range pH activity. StmChiA and StmChiB had an optimum temperature of 40°C and are stable up to 50 and 40°C, respectively. Hydrolytic activity on chitooligosaccharides indicated that StmChiA was an endo-acting enzyme releasing chitobiose and StmChiB was both exo/endo-acting enzyme with the release of GlcNAc as the final product. StmChiA showed higher preference to ?-chitin and exhibited transglycosylation on even chain length tetra- and hexameric substrates. StmChiA, and not StmChiB, was active on chitinous polymers and showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:23428818

Suma, Katta; Podile, Appa Rao

2013-04-01

12

Human resistin, a proinflammatory cytokine, shows chaperone-like activity  

PubMed Central

Resistin, a cysteine-rich adipocytokine, proposed as a link between obesity and diabetes in mice, was shown as a proinflammatory molecule in humans. We earlier reported that human resistin (hRes), a trimer, was resistant to heat and urea denaturation, existed in an oligomeric polydispersed state, and showed a concentration-dependent conformational change. These properties and an intimate correlation of hRes expression with cellular stress prompted us to investigate hRes as a possible chaperone. Here, we show that recombinant human resistin was able to protect the heat-labile enzymes citrate synthase and Nde1 from thermal aggregation and inactivation and was able to refold and restore their enzymatic activities after heat/guanidinium chloride denaturation. Furthermore, recombinant human resistin could bind misfolded proteins only. Molecular dynamics-based association–dissociation kinetics of hRes subunits pointed to resistin being a molecular chaperone. Bis-ANS, which blocks surface hydrophobicity, abrogated the chaperone activity of hRes, establishing the importance of surface hydrophobicity for chaperone activity. Replacement of Phe49 with Tyr (F49YhRes), a critical residue within the hydrophobic patch of hRes, although it could prevent thermal aggregation of citrate synthase and Nde1, was unable to refold and restore their activities. Treatment of U937 cells with tunicamycin/thapsigargin resulted in reduced hRes secretion and concomitant localization in the endoplasmic reticulum. Escherichia coli transformants expressing hRes could be rescued from thermal stress, pointing to hRes’s chaperone-like function in vivo. HeLa cells transfected with hRes showed protection from thapsigargin-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, hRes, an inflammatory protein, additionally exhibited chaperone-like properties, suggesting a possible link between inflammation and cellular stress. PMID:24282299

Suragani, Madhuri; Aadinarayana, Varma D.; Pinjari, Aleem Basha; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Pandey, Saurabh; Chaudhuri, Tapan K.; Ehtesham, Nasreen Zafar

2013-01-01

13

Lentiviral-Mediated Gene Therapy Results in Sustained Expression of ?-Glucuronidase for up to 12 Months in the Gus(mps/mps) and up to 18 Months in the Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) Mouse Models of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VII.  

PubMed

Abstract A number of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) mouse models with different levels of residual enzyme activity have been created replicating the range of clinical phenotypes observed in human MPS VII patients. In this study, a lentivirus encoding murine ?-glucuronidase was administered intravenously at birth to both the severe (Gus(mps/mps) strain) and attenuated (Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) strain) mouse models of MPS VII. Circulating enzyme levels were normalized in the Gus(mps/mps) mice and were 3.5-fold higher than normal in the Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mouse 12 and 18 months after administration. Tissue ?-glucuronidase activity increased over untreated levels in all tissues evaluated in both strains at 12 months, and the elevated level was maintained in Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) tissues at 18 months. These elevated enzyme levels reduced glycosaminoglycan storage in the liver, spleen, kidney, and heart in both models. Bone mineral volume decreased toward normal in both models after 12 months of therapy and after 18 months in the Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mouse. Open-field exploration was improved in 18-month-old treated Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mice, while spatial learning improved in both 12- and 18-month-old treated Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mice. Overall, neonatal administration of lentiviral gene therapy resulted in sustained enzyme expression for up to 18 months in murine models of MPS VII. Significant improvements in biochemistry and enzymology as well as functional improvement of bone and behavior deficits in the Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) model were observed. Therapy significantly increased the lifespan of Gus(mps/mps) mice, with 12 months being the longest reported lentiviral treatment for this strain. It is important to assess the long-term outcome on enzyme levels and effect on pathology for lentiviral gene therapy to be a potential therapy for MPS patients. PMID:25003807

Derrick-Roberts, Ainslie L K; Pyragius, Carmen E; Kaidonis, Xenia M; Jackson, Matilda R; Anson, Donald S; Byers, Sharon

2014-09-01

14

Thalidomide Shows Activity Against AIDS-Related Kaposi's Sarcoma  

Cancer.gov

The drug thalidomide, used in the 1950s and 1960s as a sedative which led to birth defects in newborns of mothers who took the drug, has now been shown to have clinical activity against Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).

15

NASA's Fermi Shows How Active Galaxies Can Be  

NASA Video Gallery

Active galaxies called blazars make up the largest class of objects detected by Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT). Massive black holes in the hearts of these galaxies fire particle jets in our dir...

16

Classroom activity shows how to determine earthquake intensities  

SciTech Connect

When a strong earthquake occurs nearby, children are interested in what happened and why. This fascination can stimulate a variety of classroom activities and encourage discussion about the relationship between the natural forces that affect our world and us. The following is an easy classroom activity that focuses on your students` natural curiosity after an earthquake. It can be adapted for grades 3 through 12.

Dengler, L.

1995-11-01

17

Peptidomimetic inhibitors of protein farnesyltransferase show potent antimalarial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria continues to represent a very serious health problem in the tropics. The current methods of clinical treatment are showing deficiencies due to the increased incidence of resistance in the parasite. In the present paper we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of potential antimalarial agents against a novel target, protein farnesyltransferase. We show that the most potent compounds are

Junko Ohkanda; Jeffrey W. Lockman; Kohei Yokoyama; Michael H. Gelb; Simon L. Croft; Howard Kendrick; Maria Isabel Harrell; Jean E. Feagin; Michelle A. Blaskovich; Said M. Sebti; Andrew D. Hamilton

2001-01-01

18

?-Glucuronidase activity in seedlings of the parasitic angiosperm Cusctua pentagona : developmental impact of the ?-glucuronidase inhibitor saccharic acid 1,4-lactone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogenous plant ?-glucuronidase (?-GUS) activity was detected in germinating seeds, seedlings, stems, flowers and haustoria of the parasitic angiosperm Cuscuta pentagona Engelm. In vitro characterisation of this activity showed it to have an acidic pH optimum, similar to previously characterised plant activities, and a sensitivity to the ?-GUS inhibitor saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (SAL). Application of SAL to seeds immediately after

Mark A. SchoenbeckA; Gabriel A. SwansonA

2007-01-01

19

Ultraviolet imaging spectroscopy shows an active saturnian system.  

PubMed

Neutral oxygen in the saturnian system shows variability, and the total number of oxygen atoms peaks at 4 x 10(34). Saturn's aurora brightens in response to solar-wind forcing, and the auroral spectrum resembles Jupiter's. Phoebe's surface shows variable water-ice content, and the data indicate it originated in the outer solar system. Saturn's rings also show variable water abundance, with the purest ice in the outermost A ring. This radial variation is consistent with initially pure water ice bombarded by meteors, but smaller radial structures may indicate collisional transport and recent renewal events in the past 10(7) to 10(8) years. PMID:15604361

Esposito, Larry W; Colwell, Joshua E; Larsen, Kristopher; McClintock, William E; Stewart, A Ian F; Hallett, Janet Tew; Shemansky, Donald E; Ajello, Joseph M; Hansen, Candice J; Hendrix, Amanda R; West, Robert A; Keller, H Uwe; Korth, Axel; Pryor, Wayne R; Reulke, Ralf; Yung, Yuk L

2005-02-25

20

Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

1998-01-01

21

Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements showing Rapid Chlorine Activation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approximately 46 mb) and 585 K (approximately 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER. photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: (1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the UKMO temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; (2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; (3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

Danilin, M.Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

1998-01-01

22

The scutellar vascular bundle-specific promoter of the wheat HD-Zip IV transcription factor shows similar spatial and temporal activity in transgenic wheat, barley and rice.  

PubMed

An HD-Zip IV gene from wheat, TaGL9, was isolated using a Y1H screen of a cDNA library prepared from developing wheat grain. TaGL9 has an amino acid sequence distinct from other reported members of the HD-Zip IV family. The 3' untranslated region of TaGL9 was used as a probe to isolate a genomic clone of the TaGL9 homologue from a BAC library prepared from Triticum durum L. cv. Langdon. The full-length gene containing a 3-kb-long promoter region was designated TdGL9H1. Spatial and temporal activity of TdGL9H1 was examined using promoter-GUS fusion constructs in transgenic wheat, barley and rice plants. Whole-mount and histochemical GUS staining patterns revealed grain-specific expression of TdGL9H1. GUS expression was initially observed between 3 and 8?days after pollination (DAP) in embryos at the globular stage and adjacent to the embryo fraction of the endosperm. Expression was strongest in the outer cell layer of the embryo. In developed wheat and barley embryos, strong activity of the promoter was only detected in the main vascular bundle of the scutellum, which is known to be responsible for the uptake of nutrients from the endosperm during germination and the endosperm-dependent phase of seedling development. Furthermore, this pattern of GUS staining was observed in dry seeds several weeks after harvesting but quickly disappeared during imbibition. The promoter of this gene could be a useful tool for engineering of early seedling vigour and protecting the endosperm to embryo axis pathway from pathogens during grain desiccation and storage. PMID:21689369

Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Wu, Wei; Eini, Omid; Bazanova, Natalia; Pallotta, Margaret; Shirley, Neil; Singh, Rohan; Ismagul, Ainur; Eliby, Serik; Johnson, Alexander; Langridge, Peter; Lopato, Sergiy

2012-01-01

23

Functional Analysis of Plant Promoter rpL34 Using the GUS Marker Gene in New Tr,tnsgene Expression Vector pZD428  

SciTech Connect

Optimization of the transgene expression system is one of the critical steps for the high level production of heterologous proteins in plants, where the promoter is a key component regulating transgene expression. In this study, the activity of the rpL34 promoter was analyzed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) NTI calli. A DNA fragment containing the rpL34 promoter and the reporter gene B-D-glucuronidase (GUS) were cloned into binary vector pZD427 to generate the transgene expression vector pZD428. The insertion was verified by enzyme restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis analyses. The DNA fragment containing the rpL34 promoter and GUS reporter gene was then integrated into the tobacco genomes via Agrobacterium funiefaciens-mediated NT suspension cell transformation. The transformed CaNi were induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) plates containing proper amounts of 2,4-D, cefotoxime, and kanamycin. Two hundred and sixty transformed calli were harvested for GUS activity and protein concentration measurements. GUS activity analyses revealed the specific activity up to 278,358 units per milligram total soluble protein. The GUS activity under the control of the rpL34 promoter is much higher than that under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, a commonly used promoter in plant biology. These results suggest that the rpL34 promoter is one of the most active promoters that can be used for heterologous protein production in calli and suspension cells.

Mauzey-Amato, Jacqueline M. (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Dai, Ziyu (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-11-01

24

A Paradox of Syntactic Priming: Why Response Tendencies Show Priming for Passives, and Response Latencies Show Priming for Actives  

PubMed Central

Speakers tend to repeat syntactic structures across sentences, a phenomenon called syntactic priming. Although it has been suggested that repeating syntactic structures should result in speeded responses, previous research has focused on effects in response tendencies. We investigated syntactic priming effects simultaneously in response tendencies and response latencies for active and passive transitive sentences in a picture description task. In Experiment 1, there were priming effects in response tendencies for passives and in response latencies for actives. However, when participants' pre-existing preference for actives was altered in Experiment 2, syntactic priming occurred for both actives and passives in response tendencies as well as in response latencies. This is the first investigation of the effects of structure frequency on both response tendencies and latencies in syntactic priming. We discuss the implications of these data for current theories of syntactic processing. PMID:22022352

Segaert, Katrien; Menenti, Laura; Weber, Kirsten; Hagoort, Peter

2011-01-01

25

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

...2013-04-01 true Qualified convention and trade show activity. 1.513-3 Section...1.513-3 Qualified convention and trade show activity. (a) Introduction ...513-3(b) provide that convention and trade show activities carried on by a...

2014-04-01

26

Light-regulated and cell-specific expression of tomato rbcS-gusA and rice rbcS-gusA fusion genes in transgenic rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

~~ A previously isolated rice (Oryza sativa) rbcS gene was further characterized. This analysis revealed specific sequences in the 5' regulatory region of the rice rbcS gene that are conserved in rbcS genes of other monocotyledonous species. In transgenic rice plants, we examined the expression of the 8-glucuronidase (gusA) re- porter gene directed by the 2.8-kbpromoter region of the rice

Junko Kyozuka; David McElroy; Takahiko Hayakawa; Yong Xie; Ray Wu; Ko Shimamoto

1993-01-01

27

Generating derivative structures from multilattices: Algorithm and application to hcp alloys Gus L. W. Hart1  

E-print Network

Generating derivative structures from multilattices: Algorithm and application to hcp alloys Gus L an algorithm for generating all derivative superstructures of a nonprimitive parent lattice. The algorithm has demonstrate the algorithm in the important case of hcp-derived superstructures. In the list of enumerated

Hart, Gus

28

The goldlined seabream (Rhabdosar-gus sarba) is an important recreational  

E-print Network

648 The goldlined seabream (Rhabdosar- gus sarba) is an important recreational and commercial fish of Hong Kong and South Africa (Yeung and Chan, 1987; Garratt, 1993), it is a rudimentary hermaphrodite in a range of environments in Western Australia (Hesp and Potter, 2003). Rudimentary hermaphrodites are those

29

Simple aromatic compounds containing propenone moiety show considerable dual COX/5-LOX inhibitory activities.  

PubMed

For the development of safer anti-inflammatory agents, simple aromatic compounds containing propenone moiety were prepared and evaluated for their dual COX/5-LOX inhibitory activities. Among the 17 prepared compounds, most of the compounds exhibited considerable COX/5-LOX inhibitory activities. Especially compound C(15) showed the most significant dual COX/5-LOX inhibitory activity. PMID:15109651

Jahng, Yurngdong; Zhao, Long-Xuan; Moon, Yoon-Soo; Basnet, Arjun; Kim, Eun-kyung; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Ju, Hye Kyung; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Eung-Seok

2004-05-17

30

Micafungin at physiological serum concentrations shows antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms.  

PubMed

We assessed the in vitro activity of micafungin against preformed Candida biofilms by measuring the concentration of drug causing the most fungal damage and inhibition of regrowth. We studied 37 biofilm-producing Candida spp. strains from blood cultures. We showed that micafungin was active against planktonic and sessile forms of Candida albicans strains and moderately active against Candida parapsilosis sessile cells. Concentrations of micafungin above 2 ?g/ml were sufficiently high to inactivate regrowth of Candida sessile cells. PMID:24957821

Guembe, M; Guinea, J; Marcos-Zambrano, L J; Fernández-Cruz, A; Peláez, T; Muñoz, P; Bouza, E

2014-09-01

31

A Lipase Isolated from the Silkworm Bombyx mori Shows Antiviral Activity against Nucleopolyhedrovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein showing strong antiviral activity against Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) was purified from the digestive juice of B. mori larvae. A homology search of the deduced amino acid sequence of the protein cDNA revealed 56% homology with Drosophila melanogaster lipase and 21% homology with human lipase. As lipase activity of the protein was confirmed in vitro, this protein was

Kangayam M. Ponnuvel; Hiroshi Nakazawa; Seiichi Furukawa; Ai Asaoka; Jun Ishibashi; Hiromitsu Tanaka; Minoru Yamakawa

2003-01-01

32

Specimen block counter-staining for localization of GUS expression in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple counter-staining procedure has been developed for comparative beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression and anatomical localization in transgenic herbaceous arabidopsis and tobacco. This protocol provides good anatomical visualization for monitoring chimeric gene expression at both the organ and tissue levels. It can be used with different histochemical stains and can be extended to the study of woody species. The specimens are paraffin-embedded, the block is trimmed to reveal internal structure, safranin-O staining solution is briefly applied to the surface of the block, then washed off and, after drying, a drop of immersion oil is placed on the stained surface for subsequent photographic work. This gives tissue counter-staining with good structural preservation without loss of GUS staining product; moreover, sample observation is rapid and efficient compared to existing procedures.

Kim, M. K.; Choi, J-W; Jeon, J-H; Franceschi, V. R.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

2002-01-01

33

A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza  

SciTech Connect

M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

34

The colchicine derivative CT20126 shows a novel microtubule-modulating activity with apoptosis  

PubMed Central

New colchicine analogs have been synthesized with the aim of developing stronger potential anticancer activities. Among the analogs, CT20126 has been previously reported to show immunosuppressive activities. Here, we report that CT20126 also shows potential anticancer effects via an unusual mechanism: the modulation of microtubule integrity and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase before apoptosis. When we treated COS-7 cells with CT20126 (5???), the normal thread-like microtubules were disrupted into tubulin dimers within 10?min and thereafter repolymerized into short, thick filaments. In contrast, cells treated with the same concentration of colchicine exhibited microtubule depolymerization after 20?min and never underwent repolymerization. Furthermore, optical density (OD) analysis (350?nm) with purified tubulin showed that CT20126 had a higher repolymerizing activity than that of Taxol, a potent microtubule-polymerizing agent. These results suggest that the effects of CT20126 on microtubule integrity differ from those of colchicine: the analog first destabilizes microtubules and then stabilizes the disrupted tubulins into short, thick polymers. Furthermore, CT20126 induced a greater level of apoptotic activity in Jurkat T cells than colchicine (assessed by G2/M arrest, caspase-3 activation and cell sorting). At 20?n?, CT20126 induced 47% apoptosis among Jurkat T cells, whereas colchicine induced only 33% apoptosis. Our results suggest that the colchicine analog CT20126 can potently induce apoptosis by disrupting microtubule integrity in a manner that differs from that of colchicine or Taxol. PMID:23598593

Kim, Sung-Kuk; Cho, Sang-Min; Kim, Ho; Seok, Heon; Kim, Soon-Ok; Kyu Kwon, Taeg; Chang, Jong-Soo

2013-01-01

35

Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis  

E-print Network

Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Amin is about 10 times higher on 5 nm silver nanoparticles than on bulk silver even though measurements of two catalysts, a silver metal and ionic liquid 1- ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIM

Kenis, Paul J. A.

36

Optimization of biolistic bombardment parameters for Dendrobium Sonia 17 calluses using GFP and GUS as the reporter system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation system of Dendrobium Sonia 17 was optimized using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ß-glucuronidase (GUS) gene as the reporter systems. The 35S-sgfp-TYG-nos (p35S) and pSMDFR, carrying sgfp and gusA gene, respectively, were co-bombarded into the calluses. Parameters optimized were acceleration pressure, target distance, gold particle size, pre-bombardment cultured time, plasmid DNA precipitation, total plasmid DNA and the ratio

Chong Siang Tee; Mahmood Maziah

2005-01-01

37

PEG-mediated expression of GUS and CAT genes in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca  

Microsoft Academic Search

ß-Glucuronidase (GUS) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) were used as reporter proteins in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce). Plasmid DNA enclosing chimeric GUS and CAT constructs, using the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was introduced into Picea glauca protoplasts using polyethylene glycol (PEG). Transient expression was detected 12 to 40 h after PEG-mediated

Sherry M. Wilson; Trevor A. Thorpe; Maurice M. Moloney

1989-01-01

38

Functional characterization of a Plagiochasma appendiculatum flavone synthase I showing flavanone 2-hydroxylase activity.  

PubMed

FNS I is a 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenase (2-ODD) found mainly in species of the Apiaceae family. Here, an FNS I cDNA sequence was isolated from the liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum (Aytoniaceae) and characterized. The recombinant protein exhibited high FNS I activity catalyzing the conversion of naringenin to apigenin and 2-hydroxynaringenin. The critical residue for flavanone-2-hydroxylation activity was Tyr240, as identified from homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. The recombinant protein also showed some flavonol synthase activity, as it can convert dihydrokaempferol to kaempferol. When the Leu311 residue was mutated to Phe, the enzyme's capacity to convert dihydrokaempferol to kaempferol was substantially increased. PaFNS I represents a 2-ODD in which a hydrophobic ?-stacking interaction between the key residue and the naringenin A-ring determines 2-hydroxyflavanone formation. PMID:24859082

Han, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Yi-Feng; Gao, Shuai; Yu, Hai-Na; Xu, Rui-Xue; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Cheng, Ai-Xia

2014-06-27

39

Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal membranes. Conclusion A berry specific cDNA clone, Vv-AMP1, was isolated and characterized and shown to encode a plant defensin. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 displayed non-morphogenic antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of fungi, probably altering the membrane permeability of the fungal pathogens. The expression of this peptide is highly regulated in Vitis vinifera, hinting at an important defense role during berry-ripening. PMID:18611251

de Beer, Abre; Vivier, Melane A

2008-01-01

40

Nanoscale anatase TiO2 with dominant {1 1 1} facets shows high photocatalytic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we report a novel synthesis of nanoscale anatase TiO2 with dominant highly active {1 1 1} facets by a simple one-step hydrothermal route with the assistance of NH4F and HF. In this progress, the exposed crystal facets of TiO2 can been directly tuned by controlling the mole ratio of NH4+ and F-. When the mole ratio of NH4+ and F-reach 1:2, nanoscale anatase TiO2 with dominant {1 1 1} facets can be obtained. Nanoscale anatase TiO2 with exposed {1 0 1} or {0 0 1} facets will be prepared when there is only ammonia or HF added respectively. Such nano-TiO2 with exposed highly active {1 1 1} facets has large specific surface area and shows excellent photocatalytic activity: as much as 2-3 times than that of TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets and commercial Degussa P25 which confirms the {1 1 1} facets have higher photocatalytic activity than {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets. The higher photocatalytic activity of {1 1 1} facets can be ascribed to the fact that all Ti and O atoms on the surface are unsaturated Ti5c, Ti3c and O2c modes which produces a higher adsorption and degradation ability. The present work demonstrates a explore of hydrothermal synthetic method for controlling preparation of nano-materials.

Zhang, Jun; Qian, Lisha; Yang, Lingxia; Tao, Xi; Su, Kunpeng; Wang, Hongbo; Xi, Junhua; Ji, Zhenguo

2014-08-01

41

High and low sensation seeking adolescents show distinct patterns of brain activity during reward processing.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that personality characteristics, such as sensation seeking (SS), are strong predictors of risk-taking behavior during adolescence. However, the relationship between levels of SS and brain response has not been studied during this time period. Given the prevalence of risky behavior during adolescence, it is important to understand neurobiological differences in reward sensitivity between youth with high and low SS personalities. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine differences in brain activity in an adolescent sample that included 27 high (HSS) and 27 low sensation seekers (LSS), defined by the Impulsive Sensation Seeking scale of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (Zuckerman et al., 1993). In the scanner, participants played a modified Wheel of Fortune decision-making task (Cservenka and Nagel, 2012) that resulted in trials with monetary Wins or No Wins. We compared age- and sex-matched adolescent HSS and LSS (mean age=13.94±1.05) on brain activity by contrasting Win vs. No Win trials. Our findings indicate that HSS show greater bilateral insular and prefrontal cortex (PFC) brain response on Win vs. No Win compared to LSS. Analysis of simple effects showed that while LSS showed comparable brain activity in these areas during Wins and No Wins, HSS showed significant differences in brain response to winning (activation) vs. not winning (deactivation), with between-group comparison suggesting significant differences in brain response, largely to reward absence. Group differences in insular activation between reward receipt and absence may suggest weak autonomic arousal to negative outcomes in HSS compared with LSS. Additionally, since the PFC is important for goal-directed behavior and attention, the current results may reflect that HSS allocate fewer attentional resources to negative outcomes than LSS. This insensitivity to reward absence in HSS may lead to a greater likelihood of maladaptive choices when negative consequences are not considered, and may be an early neural marker of decreased loss sensitivity that has been seen in addiction. This neurobiological information may ultimately be helpful in establishing prevention strategies aimed at reducing youth risk-taking and suggests value in further examination of neural associations with personality characteristics during adolescence. PMID:23142276

Cservenka, Anita; Herting, Megan M; Seghete, Kristen L Mackiewicz; Hudson, Karen A; Nagel, Bonnie J

2013-02-01

42

Triterpenoids of sour jujube show pronounced inhibitory effect on human tumor cells and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Sour jujube is a common fruit and traditional medicine in China. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of sour jujube was used to determine the chemical identity of potent antiproliferative and antioxidant constituents. Four novel ursane-type triterpenoids, together with 8 known were isolated and identified. The new triterpenoids were elucidated to be 2?,3?,13?,23-tetrahydroxy-urs-11-en-28-oic acid (3), 2?,3?-dihydroxy-urs-20(30)-en-28-oic acid (9), 2?,3?,28-trihydroxy-urs-20(30)-ene (10), and 3?,12?,13?-trihydroxy-ursan-28-oic acid (11). Among the triterpenoids isolated, 2?,3?,19?-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (7), 9 and 10 showed high potent inhibitory activity toward the proliferation of HepG2 cells, which the IC50 values were lower than 5?M. Compounds 9 and 10 also exhibited pronounced activity against MCF-7 cells, with IC50 value of 0.8±0.03 and 1.5±0.1?M, respectively. Compound 10 showed high antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 0.8±0.02?M, which was 18.9 times higher than ascorbic acid in antioxidant capacity. PMID:25088972

Qiao, Aimin; Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Zhang, Zhenxue; He, Xiangjiu

2014-10-01

43

Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. Results We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a and LA-b have molecular masses of approximately 50 and 46 kDa, respectively, and are abundant in the soluble fraction of latex. Western blotting analysis suggested that they share sequence similarity with each other. The sequences of LA-a and LA-b, as determined by Edman degradation, showed chitin-binding domains of plant chitinases at the N termini. These proteins showed small but significant chitinase and chitosanase activities. Lectin RCA120 indicated that, unlike common plant chitinases, LA-a and LA-b are glycosylated. LA-a and LA-b showed insecticidal activities when fed to larvae of the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two LA proteins have a crucial role in defense against herbivorous insects, possibly by hydrolyzing their chitin. PMID:20109180

2010-01-01

44

The novel AKT inhibitor afuresertib shows favorable safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

The PI3K/AKT pathway is constitutively active in hematologic malignancies, providing proliferative and antiapoptotic signals and possibly contributing to drug resistance. We conducted an open-label phase 1 study to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of afuresertib-an oral AKT inhibitor-in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. Seventy-three patients were treated at doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg per day. The MTD was established at 125 mg per day because of 2 dose-limiting toxicities in the 150-mg cohort (liver function test abnormalities). The most frequent adverse events were nausea (35.6%), diarrhea (32.9%), and dyspepsia (24.7%). Maximum plasma concentrations and area under the plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to 24 hours were generally dose proportional at >75-mg doses; the median time to peak plasma concentrations was 1.5 to 2.5 hours post dose, with a half-life of approximately 1.7 days. Three multiple myeloma patients attained partial responses; an additional 3 attained minimal responses. Clinical activity was also observed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, and Hodgkin disease. Single-agent afuresertib showed a favorable safety profile and demonstrated clinical activity against hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00881946. PMID:25075128

Spencer, Andrew; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Harrison, Simon J; Morris, Shannon R; Smith, Deborah A; Brigandi, Richard A; Gauvin, Jennifer; Kumar, Rakesh; Opalinska, Joanna B; Chen, Christine

2014-10-01

45

Honey, pollen, and propolis extracts show potent inhibitory activity against the zinc metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase.  

PubMed

Three different honey extracts from the endemic plant in the Black Sea region Rhododendron ponticum, were investigated for their inhibitory effects against the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), more precisely the human (h) isoforms hCA I and hCA II. Hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water solid-phase extractions (SPEs) showed inhibitory activity towards the two CA isozymes which were related to the total phenolic content. The highest inhibitory effects (0.036-0.039?mg/mL) were those of propolis methanolic extract. Among the three different samples investigated here, the aqueous extracts showed lower inhibitory effects compared to the organic solvent SPE extracts (in the range of 1.150- 5.144?mg/mL). The studied honey extracts constitute an interesting source of phenolic derivatives that might serve to identify lead compounds, targeting the physiologically relevant enzymes CA I and CA II. PMID:20687792

Sahin, H; Aliyazicioglu, R; Yildiz, O; Kolayli, S; Innocenti, A; Supuran, C T

2011-06-01

46

Tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles show antiviral activity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.  

PubMed

The interaction between silver nanoparticles and herpesviruses is attracting great interest due to their antiviral activity and possibility to use as microbicides for oral and anogenital herpes. In this work, we demonstrate that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles sized 13 nm, 33 nm and 46 nm are capable of reducing HSV-2 infectivity both in vitro and in vivo. The antiviral activity of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles was size-related, required direct interaction and blocked virus attachment, penetration and further spread. All tested tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles reduced both infection and inflammatory reaction in the mouse model of HSV-2 infection when used at infection or for a post-infection treatment. Smaller-sized nanoparticles induced production of cytokines and chemokines important for anti-viral response. The corresponding control buffers with tannic acid showed inferior antiviral effects in vitro and were ineffective in blocking in vivo infection. Our results show that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles are good candidates for microbicides used in treatment of herpesvirus infections. PMID:25117537

Orlowski, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Gniadek, Marianna; Baska, Piotr; Nowakowska, Julita; Sokolowska, Justyna; Nowak, Zuzanna; Donten, Mikolaj; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw; Krzyzowska, Malgorzata

2014-01-01

47

Enhancer activation by a single type of transcription factor shows cell type dependence.  

PubMed Central

Promoter and enhancer elements contain multiple binding sites for ubiquitous and cell type-specific transcription factors which stimulate transcription synergistically. Here we show that cell type-dependent enhancer activity can be achieved by mechanisms other than interactions between cell type-specific transcription factors and DNA. The ability of the SV40 enhancer and the E2 transactivator from bovine papillomavirus (BPV-1) to stimulate transcription from a reporter gene with different minimal promoters was tested in four cell lines. In lymphoid BJA-B cells all minimal promoters that synergized with the SV40 enhancer did so also with the E2-dependent enhancer. In sharp contrast to these results, the E2 enhancer stimulated transcription only from a subset of promoters in fibroblasts and in epithelial cells. The results suggest that lymphoid cells, unlike fibroblasts and epithelial cells, contain auxiliary factor(s) which are necessary for the activation of certain promoters by the E2 enhancer and infer that the specificity of enhancers also is regulated at a co-activator level. Images PMID:1714381

Forsberg, M; Westin, G

1991-01-01

48

Substituted aminopyrimidine protein kinase B (PknB) inhibitors show activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

A high-throughput screen against PknB, an essential serine–threonine protein kinase present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), allowed the identification of an aminoquinazoline inhibitor which was used as a starting point for SAR investigations. Although a significant improvement in enzyme affinity was achieved, the aminoquinazolines showed little or no cellular activity against M. tuberculosis. However, switching to an aminopyrimidine core scaffold and the introduction of a basic amine side chain afforded compounds with nanomolar enzyme binding affinity and micromolar minimum inhibitory concentrations against M. tuberculosis. Replacement of the pyrazole head group with pyridine then allowed equipotent compounds with improved selectivity against a human kinase panel to be obtained. PMID:22469702

Chapman, Timothy M.; Bouloc, Nathalie; Buxton, Roger S.; Chugh, Jasveen; Lougheed, Kathryn E.A.; Osborne, Simon A.; Saxty, Barbara; Smerdon, Stephen J.; Taylor, Debra L.; Whalley, David

2012-01-01

49

A modified HSP70 inhibitor shows broad activity as an anticancer agent  

PubMed Central

The stress-induced heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that plays a key role in refolding misfolded proteins and promoting cell survival following stress. HSP70 is marginally expressed in non-transformed cells, but is greatly overexpressed in tumor cells. Silencing HSP70 is uniformly cytotoxic to tumor but not normal cells; therefore, there has been great interest in the development of HSP70 inhibitors for cancer therapy. Here we report that the HSP70 inhibitor 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) binds to the substrate-binding domain of HSP70, and requires the C-terminal helical ‘lid’ of this protein (amino acids 573-616) in order to bind. Using molecular modeling and in silico docking, we have identified a candidate binding site for PES in this region of HSP70, and we identify point mutants that fail to interact with PES. A preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis has revealed a derivative of PES, 2-(3-chlorophenyl) ethynesulfonamide (PES-Cl), which shows increased cytotoxicity and ability to inhibit autophagy, along with significantly improved ability to extend the life of mice with pre-B cell lymphoma, compared to the parent compound (p=0.015). Interestingly, we also show that these HSP70 inhibitors impair the activity of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in cell-free extracts, and induce G2/M arrest and genomic instability in cancer cells. PES-Cl is thus a promising new anti-cancer compound with several notable mechanisms of action. PMID:23303345

Balaburski, Gregor M.; Leu, Julia I-Ju; Beeharry, Neil; Hayik, Seth; Andrake, Mark D.; Zhang, Gao; Herlyn, Meenhard; Villanueva, Jessie; Dunbrack, Roland L.; Yen, Tim; George, Donna L.; Murphy, Maureen E.

2013-01-01

50

Inherited genetic variants in autism-related CNTNAP2 show perturbed trafficking and ATF6 activation  

PubMed Central

Although genetic variations in several genes encoding for synaptic adhesion proteins have been found to be associated with autism spectrum disorders, one of the most consistently replicated genes has been CNTNAP2, encoding for contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), a multidomain transmembrane protein of the neurexin superfamily. Using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and complementary biochemical techniques, we compared wild-type CASPR2 to 12 point mutations identified in individuals with autism. In contrast to the wild-type protein, localized to the cell surface, some of the mutants show altered cellular disposition. In particular, CASPR2-D1129H is largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in HEK-293 cells and in hippocampal neurons. BiP/Grp78, Calnexin and ERp57, key ER chaperones, appear to be responsible for retention of this mutant and activation of one signaling pathway of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The presence of this mutation also lowers expression and activates proteosomal degradation. A frame-shift mutation that causes a form of syndromic epilepsy (CASPR2-1253*), results in a secreted protein with seemingly normal folding and oligomerization. Taken together, these data indicate that CASPR2-D1129H has severe trafficking abnormalities and CASPR2-1253* is a secreted soluble protein, suggesting that the structural or signaling functions of the membrane tethered form are lost. Our data support a complex genetic architecture in which multiple distinct risk factors interact with others to shape autism risk and presentation. PMID:22872700

Falivelli, Giulia; De Jaco, Antonella; Favaloro, Flores Lietta; Kim, Hyuck; Wilson, Jennifer; Dubi, Noga; Ellisman, Mark H.; Abrahams, Brett S.; Taylor, Palmer; Comoletti, Davide

2012-01-01

51

Human active X-specific DNA methylation events showing stability across time and tissues.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of X chromosome inactivation in female mammals is well characterised and remains the archetypal example of dosage compensation via monoallelic expression. The temporal series of events that culminates in inactive X-specific gene silencing by DNA methylation has revealed a 'patchwork' of gene inactivation along the chromosome, with approximately 15% of genes escaping. Such genes are therefore potentially subject to sex-specific imbalance between males and females. Aside from XIST, the non-coding RNA on the X chromosome destined to be inactivated, very little is known about the extent of loci that may be selectively silenced on the active X chromosome (Xa). Using longitudinal array-based DNA methylation profiling of two human tissues, we have identified specific and widespread active X-specific DNA methylation showing stability over time and across tissues of disparate origin. Our panel of X-chromosome loci subject to methylation on Xa reflects a potentially novel mechanism for controlling female-specific X inactivation and sex-specific dimorphisms in humans. Further work is needed to investigate these phenomena. PMID:24713664

Joo, Jihoon Eric; Novakovic, Boris; Cruickshank, Mark; Doyle, Lex W; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard

2014-12-01

52

Water Extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus Shows Antihyperprolactinemia Activity via Dopamine D2 Receptor.  

PubMed

Objective. Fructus Hordei Germinatus is widely used in treating hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) as a kind of Chinese traditional herb in China. In this study, we investigated the anti-hyperPRL activity of water extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus (WEFHG) and mechanism of action. Methods. Effect of WEFHG on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and hypothalamus protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels of hyperPRL rats were investigated. And effect of WEFHG on PRL secretion, D2 receptors, and dopamine transporters (DAT) was studied in MMQ, GH3, and PC12 cells, respectively. Results. WEFHG reduced the secretion of PRL in hyperPRL rats effectively. In MMQ cell, treatment with WEFHG at 1-5?mg/mL significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis. Consistent with a D2-action, WEFHG did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D2 receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D2 receptors and DAT in PC12 cells. In addition, WEFHG reduced the cAMP and PKA levels of hypothalamus in hyperPRL rats significantly. Conclusions. WEFHG showed anti-hyperPRL activity via dopamine D2 receptor, which was related to the second messenger cAMP and PKA. PMID:25254056

Wang, Xiong; Ma, Li; Zhang, En-Jing; Zou, Ji-Li; Guo, Hao; Peng, Si-Wei; Wu, Jin-Hu

2014-01-01

53

Inherited genetic variants in autism-related CNTNAP2 show perturbed trafficking and ATF6 activation.  

PubMed

Although genetic variations in several genes encoding for synaptic adhesion proteins have been found to be associated with autism spectrum disorders, one of the most consistently replicated genes has been CNTNAP2, encoding for contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), a multidomain transmembrane protein of the neurexin superfamily. Using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and complementary biochemical techniques, we compared wild-type CASPR2 to 12 point mutations identified in individuals with autism. In contrast to the wild-type protein, localized to the cell surface, some of the mutants show altered cellular disposition. In particular, CASPR2-D1129H is largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in HEK-293 cells and in hippocampal neurons. BiP/Grp78, Calnexin and ERp57, key ER chaperones, appear to be responsible for retention of this mutant and activation of one signaling pathway of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The presence of this mutation also lowers expression and activates proteosomal degradation. A frame-shift mutation that causes a form of syndromic epilepsy (CASPR2-1253*), results in a secreted protein with seemingly normal folding and oligomerization. Taken together, these data indicate that CASPR2-D1129H has severe trafficking abnormalities and CASPR2-1253* is a secreted soluble protein, suggesting that the structural or signaling functions of the membrane tethered form are lost. Our data support a complex genetic architecture in which multiple distinct risk factors interact with others to shape autism risk and presentation. PMID:22872700

Falivelli, Giulia; De Jaco, Antonella; Favaloro, Flores Lietta; Kim, Hyuck; Wilson, Jennifer; Dubi, Noga; Ellisman, Mark H; Abrahams, Brett S; Taylor, Palmer; Comoletti, Davide

2012-11-01

54

Structural variants of yeast prions show conformer-specific requirements for chaperone activity.  

PubMed

Molecular chaperones monitor protein homeostasis and defend against the misfolding and aggregation of proteins that is associated with protein conformational disorders. In these diseases, a variety of different aggregate structures can form. These are called prion strains, or variants, in prion diseases, and cause variation in disease pathogenesis. Here, we use variants of the yeast prions [RNQ+] and [PSI+] to explore the interactions of chaperones with distinct aggregate structures. We found that prion variants show striking variation in their relationship with Hsp40s. Specifically, the yeast Hsp40 Sis1 and its human orthologue Hdj1 had differential capacities to process prion variants, suggesting that Hsp40 selectivity has likely changed through evolution. We further show that such selectivity involves different domains of Sis1, with some prion conformers having a greater dependence on particular Hsp40 domains. Moreover, [PSI+] variants were more sensitive to certain alterations in Hsp70 activity as compared to [RNQ+] variants. Collectively, our data indicate that distinct chaperone machinery is required, or has differential capacity, to process different aggregate structures. Elucidating the intricacies of chaperone-client interactions, and how these are altered by particular client structures, will be crucial to understanding how this system can go awry in disease and contribute to pathological variation. PMID:25060529

Stein, Kevin C; True, Heather L

2014-09-01

55

Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 ?g/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense system, potentially contributing towards the anti-proliferative effect. There is great potential for the ethyl acetate extract of P. betle leaf as a source of natural antioxidants and to be developed as therapeutics in cancer treatment. PMID:23153283

2012-01-01

56

HATS-2b: A transiting extrasolar planet orbiting a K-type star showing starspot activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of HATS-2b, the second transiting extrasolar planet detected by the HATSouth survey. HATS-2b is moving on a circular orbit around a V = 13.6 mag, K-type dwarf star (GSC 6665-00236), at a separation of 0.0230 ± 0.0003 AU and with a period of 1.3541 days. The planetary parameters have been robustly determined using a simultaneous fit of the HATSouth, MPG/ESO 2.2 m/GROND, Faulkes Telescope South/Spectral transit photometry, and MPG/ESO 2.2 m/FEROS, Euler 1.2 m/CORALIE, AAT 3.9 m/CYCLOPS radial-velocity measurements. HATS-2b has a mass of 1.37 ± 0.16 MJ, a radius of 1.14 ± 0.03 RJ, and an equilibrium temperature of 1567 ± 30 K. The host star has a mass of 0.88 ± 0.04 M? and a radius of 0.89 ± 0.02 R?, and it shows starspot activity. We characterized the stellar activity by analyzing two photometric follow-up transit light curves taken with the GROND instrument, both obtained simultaneously in four optical bands (covering the wavelength range of 3860-9520 Å). The two light curves contain anomalies compatible with starspots on the photosphere of the host star along the same transit chord. Tables of the individual photometric measurements are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/558/A55

Mohler-Fischer, M.; Mancini, L.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Penev, K.; Bayliss, D.; Jordán, A.; Csubry, Z.; Zhou, G.; Rabus, M.; Nikolov, N.; Brahm, R.; Espinoza, N.; Buchhave, L. A.; Béky, B.; Suc, V.; Csák, B.; Henning, T.; Wright, D. J.; Tinney, C. G.; Addison, B. C.; Schmidt, B.; Noyes, R. W.; Papp, I.; Lázár, J.; Sári, P.; Conroy, P.

2013-10-01

57

Using analogy role-play activity in an undergraduate biology classroom to show central dogma revision.  

PubMed

For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego® blocks (Lego System A/S, Denmark). Students were studying in the course of mathematics, physics, or chemistry, so biology was not among their usual studies. In this exercise, students perform the central dogma role-play and respectively act out nuclear matrix proteins, a transcription factor, an RNA polymerase II, an mRNA transport protein, nuclear pore proteins, a large ribosomal subunit, a small ribosomal subunit, and several amino-acyl tRNA synthetases. Questionnaire results obtained after the activity show that this central dogma role-play analogy holds student interest in the practical molecular biological processes of transcription and translation. PMID:24898113

Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

2014-01-01

58

Do the spectral energy distributions of type 1 active galactic nuclei show diversity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We create broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 761 type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN). The Scott et al. sample, created by a cross-correlation of the optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalogue and the 2XMMi catalogue of serendipitous X-ray sources, is further matched with the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm catalogue of radio sources, the mid-infrared (MIR) Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky data release, the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-infrared point source catalogue, the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey Data Release 9 Large Area Survey and the Galaxy Evolution Explorer all-sky and medium ultraviolet (UV) imaging surveys. This allows broad-band SEDs including up to 19 flux measurements covering log ? ˜ 9.2-18.1 to be created. We investigate variations in the SED shape by binning a subsample of 237 AGN with the best quality SEDs according to their X-ray spectral parameters, their quasar subtype and physical parameters such as luminosity, black hole mass and Eddington ratio. The AGN subpopulations show some significant differences in their SEDs; X-ray absorbed AGN show a deficit of emission at X-ray/UV frequencies and an excess in the MIR consistent with absorption and re-emission, radio-loud AGN show increased radio and X-ray emission consistent with the presence of a jet component in addition to the emission seen from radio-quiet AGN and the SEDs of narrow-line Seyfert 1s only differ from other type 1s in the X-ray regime, suggesting any physical differences are limited to their X-ray emitting region. Binning the AGN according to underlying physical parameters reveals more subtle differences in the SEDs. The X-ray spectral slope does not appear to have any influence or dependence on the multiwavelength emission in the rest of the SED. The contribution of X-rays to the bolometric luminosity is lower in higher luminosity sources, and relatively more emission in the optical/UV is seen in AGN with higher X-ray luminosities. Variations in the relative flux and peak frequency of the big blue bump are observed and may suggest higher inner disc temperatures with increasing accretion rates. Overall, we find that the diversity in the SED shapes is relatively small, and we find no apparent single driver for the variations.

Scott, A. E.; Stewart, G. C.

2014-03-01

59

Mice lacking brain-type creatine kinase activity show defective thermoregulation  

PubMed Central

The cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase and mitochondrial ubiquitous creatine kinase (CK-B and UbCKmit) are expressed during the prepubescent and adult period of mammalian life. These creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are present in neural cell types throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in smooth muscle containing tissues, where they have an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report on the coupling of CK activity to body temperature rhythm and adaptive thermoregulation in mice. With both brain-type CK isoforms being absent, the body temperature reproducibly drops ~1.0°C below normal during every morning (inactive) period in the daily cycle. Facultative non-shivering thermogenesis is also impaired, since CK??/?? mice develop severe hypothermia during 24 h cold exposure. A relationship with fat metabolism was suggested because comparison of CK??/?? mice with wildtype controls revealed decreased weight gain associated with less white and brown fat accumulation and smaller brown adipocytes. Also, circulating levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin are reduced. Extensive physiological testing and uncoupling protein1 analysis showed, however, that the thermogenic problems are not due to abnormal responsiveness of brown adipocytes, since noradrenaline infusion produced a normal increase of body temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cyclic drop in morning temperature is also not related to altered rhythmicity with reduced locomotion, diminished food intake or increased torpor sensitivity. Although several integral functions appear altered when CK is absent in the brain, combined findings point into the direction of inefficient neuronal transmission as the dominant factor in the thermoregulatory defect. PMID:19419668

Streijger, Femke; Pluk, Helma; Oerlemans, Frank; Beckers, Gaby; Bianco, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Wieringa, Be; Van der Zee, Catharina E.E.M.

2010-01-01

60

The teleost Oryzias latipes shows telomere shortening with age despite considerable telomerase activity throughout life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of telomeres and telomerase have focused mostly on mammals, and data for other vertebrates are limited. We analyzed both telomere length (terminal restriction fragment length) and telomerase activity in a small freshwater teleost fish, the medaka (Oryzias latipes), and found that the telomeres shorten during ageing despite the fact that a considerable amount of telomerase activity is ubiquitously

Hitoshi Hatakeyama; Ken-Ichi Nakamura; Naotaka Izumiyama-Shimomura; Akio Ishii; Shuichi Tsuchida; Kaiyo Takubo; Naoshi Ishikawa

2008-01-01

61

Sections 44,45,46 : MATH 135 SYLLABUS FALL 2012 INSTRUCTOR: Gus Rainsford EMAIL ADDR: rainsfor@math.rutgers.edu  

E-print Network

Sections 44,45,46 : MATH 135 SYLLABUS FALL 2012 48,49,50 INSTRUCTOR: Gus Rainsford EMAIL ADDR: rainsfor@math.rutgers.edu OFFICE HOURS: Room 208 Hill Center Busch Campus (unless announced other- wise:00. Office hours may be possible on some Wednesdays by appointment. NOTE 1: Math 135 is primarily

62

Human area MT+ shows load-dependent activation during working memory maintenance with continuously morphing stimulation  

PubMed Central

Background Initially, human area MT+ was considered a visual area solely processing motion information but further research has shown that it is also involved in various different cognitive operations, such as working memory tasks requiring motion-related information to be maintained or cognitive tasks with implied or expected motion. In the present fMRI study in humans, we focused on MT+ modulation during working memory maintenance using a dynamic shape-tracking working memory task with no motion-related working memory content. Working memory load was systematically varied using complex and simple stimulus material and parametrically increasing retention periods. Activation patterns for the difference between retention of complex and simple memorized stimuli were examined in order to preclude that the reported effects are caused by differences in retrieval. Results Conjunction analysis over all delay durations for the maintenance of complex versus simple stimuli demonstrated a wide-spread activation pattern. Percent signal change (PSC) in area MT+ revealed a pattern with higher values for the maintenance of complex shapes compared to the retention of a simple circle and with higher values for increasing delay durations. Conclusions The present data extend previous knowledge by demonstrating that visual area MT+ presents a brain activity pattern usually found in brain regions that are actively involved in working memory maintenance. PMID:25015103

2014-01-01

63

Systematic review shows only few reliable studies of physical activity intervention in adolescents.  

PubMed

Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

2014-01-01

64

Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leao, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jeronimo dos Santos

2014-01-01

65

Patients treated with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin show selective activation of regulatory T cells.  

PubMed

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used to treat autoimmune and systemic inflammatory diseases caused by derailment of humoral and cellular immunity. In this study we investigated whether IVIg treatment can modulate regulatory T cells (Tregs ) in humans in vivo. Blood was collected from IVIg-treated patients with immunodeficiency or autoimmune disease who were treated with low-dose (n = 12) or high-dose (n = 15) IVIg before, immediately after and at 7 days after treatment. Percentages and activation status of circulating CD4(+) CD25(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3(+)) Tregs and of conventional CD4(+) FoxP3(-) T-helper cells (Tconv) were measured. The suppressive capacity of Tregs purified from blood collected at the time-points indicated was determined in an ex-vivo assay. High-dose, but not low-dose, IVIg treatment enhanced the activation status of circulating Tregs , as shown by increased FoxP3 and human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR) expression, while numbers of circulating Tregs remained unchanged. The enhanced activation was sustained for at least 7 days after infusion, and the suppressive capacity of purified Tregs was increased from 41 to 70% at day 7 after IVIg treatment. The activation status of Tconv was not affected by IVIg. We conclude that high-dose IVIg treatment activates Tregs selectively and enhances their suppressive function in humans in vivo. This effect may be one of the mechanisms by which IVIg restores imbalanced immune homeostasis in patients with autoimmune and systemic inflammatory disorders. PMID:23607448

Tjon, A S W; Tha-In, T; Metselaar, H J; van Gent, R; van der Laan, L J W; Groothuismink, Z M A; te Boekhorst, P A W; van Hagen, P M; Kwekkeboom, J

2013-08-01

66

Crude ethanolic extract, lignoid fraction and yangambin from Ocotea duckei (Lauraceae) show antileishmanial activity.  

PubMed

Crude ethanolic extract, lignoid fraction and the purified compound yangambin were obtained from Ocotea duckei (Lauraceae) and their antileishmanial activity was tested against promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis cultivated in Schneider medium, supplemented with 20% of fetal bovine serum. All substances presented antileishmanial activity with IC50 values of 135.7 microg/mL for the crude ethanolic extract, 26.5 microg/mL for the lignoid fraction and 49.0 microg/mL for yangambin on L. chagasi. For L. amazonensis the IC50 values were 143.7 microg/mL, 48.2 microg/mL and 64.9 microg/mL for the crude ethanolic extract, the lignoid fraction, and the purified compound yangambin, respectively. The crude ethanolic extract, lignoid fraction, and yangambin caused an inhibition higher than Glucantime, a reference drug used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:17708438

Monte, Rubens L Neto; Barbosa, José M Filho; Sousa, Louisa M A; Athayde, Petrônio F Filho; Dias, Celidarque S; Oliveira, Márcia R

2007-01-01

67

Surface EMG shows distinct populations of muscle activity when measured during sustained sub-maximal exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Muscle activity patterns were measured from the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis\\u000a muscles using electromyography (EMG). Recordings were made from six runners while they ran for 30 min around a track at a\\u000a constant, self-selected pace. They were made from three sites along each muscle belly, and for ten consecutive steps on each\\u000a 450 m lap completed.

James M. Wakeling; Silvia A. Pascual; Benno M. Nigg; Vinzenz Tscharner

2001-01-01

68

Characterization of a thermostable ?-glucosidase (BglB) from Thermotoga maritima showing transglycosylation activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ?-glucosidase gene (bglB) of an extremely thermophilic eubacterium, Thermotoga maritima was expressed in Esherichia coli to yield the active enzyme. The cloned enzyme was purified to homogeneity by heat treatment and ion exchange chromatographies. The purified enzyme gave a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 81kDa. The estimated Km and kcat values for p-nitrophenyl ?-d-glucopyranoside were

K Goyal; P Selvakumar; K Hayashi

2001-01-01

69

Sulfide : quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) from the lugworm Arenicola marina shows cyanide- and thioredoxin-dependent activity.  

PubMed

The lugworm Arenicola marina inhabits marine sediments in which sulfide concentrations can reach up to 2 mM. Although sulfide is a potent toxin for humans and most animals, because it inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase at micromolar concentrations, A. marina can use electrons from sulfide for mitochondrial ATP production. In bacteria, electron transfer from sulfide to quinone is catalyzed by the membrane-bound flavoprotein sulfide : quinone oxidoreductase (SQR). A cDNA from A. marina was isolated and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which lacks endogenous SQR. The heterologous enzyme was active in mitochondrial membranes. After affinity purification, Arenicola SQR isolated from yeast mitochondria reduced decyl-ubiquinone (K(m) = 6.4 microm) after the addition of sulfide (K(m) = 23 microm) only in the presence of cyanide (K(m) = 2.6 mM). The end product of the reaction was thiocyanate. When cyanide was substituted by Escherichia coli thioredoxin and sulfite, SQR exhibited one-tenth of the cyanide-dependent activity. Six amino acids known to be essential for bacterial SQR were exchanged by site-directed mutagenesis. None of the mutant enzymes was active after expression in yeast, implicating these amino acids in the catalytic mechanism of the eukaryotic enzyme. PMID:18248458

Theissen, Ursula; Martin, William

2008-03-01

70

New targeted therapy for advanced prostate cancer shows anti-tumor activity in clinical trials  

Cancer.gov

At the 24th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Dublin, Ireland, researchers from a multi-center study reported that a new drug that specifically targets a protein found on the surface of prostate cancer cells has performed well in a phase I clinical trial, and a phase II trial has started. The drug reduced levels of circulating tumor cells and levels of prostate specific antigen, a marker for tumor activity, in patients who had already failed previous chemotherapy and hormone treatments.

71

A gluten metabolism study in healthy individuals shows the presence of faecal glutenasic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To study the gluten metabolism in healthy individuals and its effect over the intestinal microbial activity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The faeces of eleven healthy subjects were analysed under 4 diet regimens: their normal gluten diet, a strict gluten-free\\u000a diet (GFD), a GFD with a supplemental intake of 9 g gluten\\/day and a GFD with a supplemental intake of 30 g gluten\\/day. Gluten\\u000a content, faecal tryptic

Alberto CamineroEsther; Esther Nistal; Laura Arias; Santiago Vivas; Isabel Comino; Ana Real; Carolina Sousa; José M. Ruiz de Morales; Miguel A. Ferrero; Leandro B. Rodríguez-Aparicio; Javier Casqueiro

72

X-ray microtomography shows pore structure and tortuosity in alkali-activated binders  

SciTech Connect

Durability of alkali-activated binders is of vital importance in their commercial application, and depends strongly on microstructure and pore network characteristics. X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) offers, for the first time, direct insight into microstructural and pore structure characteristics in three dimensions. Here, {mu}CT is performed on a set of sodium metasilicate-activated fly ash/slag blends, using a synchrotron beamline instrument. Segmentation of the samples into pore and solid regions is then conducted, and pore tortuosity is calculated by a random walker method. Segmented porosity and diffusion tortuosity are correlated, and vary as a function of slag content (slag addition reduces porosity and increases tortuosity), and sample age (extended curing gives lower porosity and higher tortuosity). This is particularly notable for samples with {>=} 50% slag content, where a space-filling calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate gel provides porosity reductions which are not observed for the sodium aluminosilicate ('geopolymer') gels which do not chemically bind water of hydration.

Provis, John L., E-mail: jprovis@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Myers, Rupert J.; White, Claire E. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rose, Volker [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave, Argonne IL 60439 (United States); Deventer, Jannie S.J. van [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 210, Somerton, Victoria 3062 (Australia)

2012-06-15

73

N-Chlorotaurine shows high in vitro activity against promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania species.  

PubMed

Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are the causative agents of life-threatening visceral as well as cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. First-line drugs are antimonials, but toxicity and resistance in some endemic areas cause serious problems. In the current study, the antileishmanial activity of the weak oxidant N-chlorotaurine (NCT) was investigated. NCT is a derivative of the amino acid taurine produced by granulocytes and monocytes during oxidative burst, but can also be synthesized chemically and used topically as an antiseptic at a concentration of 1 % (55 mM) in vivo. NCT susceptibility tests were performed in vitro with promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani. As NH(4)Cl is known to increase the activity of NCT by the formation of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl), co-treatment assays were included in the study. Mean EC(50) values after 1 h of treatment were 5.94 mM for L. infantum and 9.8 mM for L. donovani promastigotes. Co-treatment with 5.5 mM NCT plus 19 mM NH(4)Cl led to complete killing of promastigotes of both strains within 15 min. Amastigotes were inactivated by treatment with 2 mM NCT alone. The results of this study indicate a high potential of NCT against Leishmania species. PMID:19541788

Fürnkranz, Ursula; Nagl, Markus; Gottardi, Waldemar; Matt, Ulrich; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia

2009-10-01

74

Updated clinical results show experimental agent ibrutinib as highly active in CLL patients  

Cancer.gov

Updated results from a Phase Ib/II clinical trial led by the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute indicates that a novel therapeutic agent for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is highly active and well tolerated in patients who have relapsed and are resistant to other therapy. The agent, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), is the first drug designed to target Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein essential for CLL-cell survival and proliferation. CLL is the most common form of leukemia, with about 15,000 new cases annually in the U.S. About 4,400 Americans die of the disease each year.

75

Brain oscillatory activity during sleep shows unknown dysfunctions in early encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Electroencephalographic recordings in cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have mainly been performed during wakefulness. Our aim was to quantify their alterations in nocturnal sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). In 20 patients and 20 healthy volunteers, we recorded a nocturnal digital polysomnography. Different sleep parameters were measured. Besides, we performed quantitative analysis of EEG (qEEG) as follows: spectral power in the different sleep stages was calculated in the frequency bands low ?, ?, ?, ?, and ?. Also, the mean dominant frequency and Sleep Indexes were obtained. In comparison with controls, the group of patients showed (1) different alterations in both the microstructure and the macrostructure of sleep; (2) an increase in, both, ? band power and the average mean dominant frequency during rapid eye movement (REM); (3) in all sleep stages, a decrease of sleep electroencephalogram spectral power in low ? band and an increase in ? band: and (4) in stages N3 and REM, significant increases in the minimum of mean dominant frequency and in the respective sleep indexes. Therefore, in cirrhotic patients without overt HE, and likely having minimal hepatic encephalopathy, we found different alterations in both the microstructure and the macrostructure of nocturnal sleep. Also, sleep qEEG showed a brain dysfunction in slow oscillatory mechanisms intrinsic of sleep stages, with an increase in the frequency of its maximal electroencephalogram synchronization, from low ? to ? band. These alterations may reflect the onset of encephalopathy; sleep qEEG may, thus, be an adequate tool for its brain functional evaluation and follow-up. PMID:25074827

Martino, María Elena; Fernández-Lorente, José; Romero-Vives, María; Bárcena, Rafael; Gaztelu, José María

2014-09-01

76

The multicopper oxidase from the archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum shows nitrous oxide reductase activity.  

PubMed

The multicopper oxidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum (McoP) was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The enzyme consists of a single 49.6 kDa subunit, and the combined results of UV-visible, CD, EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopies showed the characteristic features of the multicopper oxidases. Analysis of the McoP sequence allowed its structure to be derived by comparative modeling methods. This model provided a criterion for designing meaningful site-directed mutants of the enzyme. McoP is a hyperthermoactive and thermostable enzyme with an optimum reaction temperature of 85 degrees C, a half-life of inactivation of approximately 6 h at 80 degrees C, and temperature values at the midpoint from 97 to 112 degrees C. McoP is an efficient metallo-oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of cuprous and ferrous ions with turnover rate constants of 356 and 128 min(-1), respectively, at 40 degrees C. It is noteworthy that McoP follows a ping-pong mechanism, with three-fold higher catalytic efficiency when using nitrous oxide as electron acceptor than when using dioxygen, the typical oxidizing substrate of multicopper oxidases. This finding led us to propose that McoP represents a novel archaeal nitrous oxide reductase that is most probably involved in the final step of the denitrification pathway of P. aerophilum. PMID:20597980

Fernandes, André T; Damas, João M; Todorovic, Smilja; Huber, Robert; Baratto, M Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Soares, Cláudio M; Martins, Lígia O

2010-08-01

77

TV as a Multimedia Synchronous Communication for Cooking and Eating Activities: Analysis of TV Cooking Shows in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

TV can be considered to be a synchronous tool for multimedia communication to deliver contents like cooking and eating activities. In this paper, we propose a framework of multimedia for cooking and eating activities. It consists of three facets namely contents, multimedia elements and communication. We demonstrate the framework with an example. Under this framework, we analyzed TV cooking shows

T. W. Lai-Yeung; S. W. W. So

2010-01-01

78

Factor XIII activation peptide is released into plasma upon cleavage by thrombin and shows a different structure compared  

E-print Network

Factor XIII activation peptide is released into plasma upon cleavage by thrombin and shows- volves cleavage of the FXIII activation peptide (FXIII-AP) by thrombin.However,it is not known whether-subunits (A2B2). In plasma, thrombin initiates the physiological conversion of the FXIII zy- mogen

Caflisch, Amedeo

79

Active Learning Facilitated by Using a Game-Show Format or Who Doesn’t Want to be a Millionaire?  

Microsoft Academic Search

University faculty are increasingly called on to be less of a sage on the stage and more a guide on the side. This discussion introduces the underlying philosophy and assumptions of active learning theory. With this shift in pedagogical philosophy, there has been an increasing call for tools that actively engage students in the learning process. A game-show format is

Yolanda Sarason; Catherine Banbury

2004-01-01

80

Tomato leaf curl virus satellite DNA as a gene silencing vector activated by helper virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato leaf curl virus (TLCV) satellite DNA (sat-DNA) constructs containing functional segments of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, replicate in tobacco in the presence of helper TLCV and silence GUS activity in transgenic tobacco plants containing a CaMV 35S-GUS expression cassette. We have analysed these plants for evidence of the hallmarks of silencing. The GUS transcript was not

Dongmei Li; Seyed Ali Akbar Behjatnia; Ian Barry Dry; Amanda Ruth Walker; John Wesley Randles; Mohammad Ali Rezaian

2008-01-01

81

Chronic Back Pain Patients Show Differences in Behavior and Brain Activity During a Loss-Aversion Gambling Task  

E-print Network

, suggesting that impulsive behavior related to chronic pain may be less influenced by inhibitive mechanismsChronic Back Pain Patients Show Differences in Behavior and Brain Activity During a Loss conditions perform differently (most often poorly) in tasks designed to engage reward- valuation, motivation

Apkarian, A. Vania

82

Recombinant PNPLA3 protein shows triglyceride hydrolase activity and its I148M mutation results in loss of function.  

PubMed

The patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3, also called adiponutrin, ADPN) is a membrane-bound protein highly expressed in the liver. The genetic variant I148M (rs738409) was found to be associated with progression of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish a protein purification protocol in a yeast system (Pichia pastoris) and to examine the human PNPLA3 enzymatic activity, substrate specificity and the I148M mutation effect. hPNPLA3 148I wild type and 148M mutant cDNA were cloned into P. pastoris expression vectors. Yeast cells were grown in 3L fermentors. PNPLA3 protein was purified from membrane fractions by Ni-affinity chromatography. Enzymatic activity was assessed using radiolabeled substrates. Both 148I wild type and 148M mutant proteins are localized to the membrane. The wild type protein shows a predominant lipase activity with mild lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase activity (LPAAT) and the I148M mutation results in a loss of function of both these activities. Our data show that PNPLA3 has a predominant lipase activity and I148M mutation results in a loss of function. PMID:24369119

Pingitore, Piero; Pirazzi, Carlo; Mancina, Rosellina M; Motta, Benedetta M; Indiveri, Cesare; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana; Hedfalk, Kristina; Romeo, Stefano

2014-04-01

83

Autistic adolescents show atypical activation of the brain's mentalizing system even without a prior history of mentalizing problems.  

PubMed

Some autistic children pass classic Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks that others fail, but the significance of this finding is at present unclear. We identified two such groups of primary school age (labelled ToM+ and ToM-) and a matched comparison group of typically developing children (TD). Five years later we tested these participants again on a ToM test battery appropriate for adolescents and conducted an fMRI study with a story based ToM task. We also assessed autistic core symptoms at these two time points. At both times the ToM- group showed more severe social communication impairments than the ToM+ group, and while showing an improvement in mentalizing performance, they continued to show a significant impairment compared to the NT group. Two independent ROI analyses of the BOLD signal showed activation of the mentalizing network including medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate and lateral temporal cortices. Strikingly, both ToM+ and ToM- groups showed very similar patterns of heightened activation in comparison with the NT group. No differences in other brain regions were apparent. Thus, autistic adolescents who do not have a history of mentalizing problems according to our ToM battery showed the same atypical neurophysiological response during mentalizing as children who did have such a history. This finding indicates that heterogeneity at the behavioural level may nevertheless map onto a similar phenotype at the neuro-cognitive level. PMID:24361475

White, Sarah J; Frith, Uta; Rellecke, Julian; Al-Noor, Zainab; Gilbert, Sam J

2014-04-01

84

Evaluation of transformation in peach Prunus persica explants using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the optimum conditions for Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer, peach explants including cotyledons, embryonic axes and hypocotyl slices from non-germinated seeds\\u000a and epicotyl internode slices from germinating seeds were exposed to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation treatments. The GUS (uidA) marker gene was tested using two different A. tumefaciens strains, three plasmids and four promoters [CaMV35s, (Aocs)3AmasPmas (“super-promoter”), mas-CaMV35s, and CAB]. GFP was

Isabel M. G. Padilla; Agnieszka Golis; Adele Gentile; Carmine Damiano; Ralph Scorza

2006-01-01

85

Pomalidomide Shows Significant Therapeutic Activity against CNS Lymphoma with a Major Impact on the Tumor Microenvironment in Murine Models  

PubMed Central

Primary CNS lymphoma carries a poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Pomalidomide (POM) is a novel immunomodulatory drug with anti-lymphoma activity. CNS pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in rats to assess the CNS penetration of POM. Preclinical evaluation of POM was performed in two murine models to assess its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. The impact of POM on the CNS lymphoma immune microenvironment was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. In vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to further investigate the impact of POM on the biology of macrophages. POM crosses the blood brain barrier with CNS penetration of ~ 39%. Preclinical evaluations showed that it had significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with significant reduction in tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival, that it had a major impact on the tumor microenvironment with an increase in macrophages and natural killer cells, and that it decreased M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages and increased M1-polarized macrophages when macrophages were evaluated based on polarization status. In vitro studies using various macrophage models showed that POM converted the polarization status of IL4-stimulated macrophages from M2 to M1, that M2 to M1 conversion by POM in the polarization status of lymphoma-associated macrophages is dependent on the presence of NK cells, that POM induced M2 to M1 conversion in the polarization of macrophages by inactivating STAT6 signaling and activating STAT1 signaling, and that POM functionally increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Based on our findings, POM is a promising therapeutic agent for CNS lymphoma with excellent CNS penetration, significant preclinical therapeutic activity, and a major impact on the tumor microenvironment. It can induce significant biological changes in tumor-associated macrophages, which likely play a major role in its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. POM should be further evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:23940785

Li, Zhimin; Qiu, Yushi; Personett, David; Huang, Peng; Edenfield, Brandy; Katz, Jason; Babusis, Darius; Tang, Yang; Shirely, Michael A.; Moghaddam, Mehran F.; Copland, John A.; Tun, Han W.

2013-01-01

86

Lack of bystander activation shows that localization exterior to chromosome territories is not sufficient to up-regulate gene expression  

PubMed Central

Position within chromosome territories and localization at transcription factories are two facets of nuclear organization that have been associated with active gene expression. However, there is still debate about whether this organization is a cause or consequence of transcription. Here we induced looping out from chromosome territories (CTs), by the activation of Hox loci during differentiation, to investigate consequences on neighboring loci. We show that, even though flanking genes are caught up in the wave of nuclear reorganization, there is no effect on their expression. However, there is a differential organization of active and inactive alleles of these genes. Inactive alleles are preferentially retained within the CT, whereas actively transcribing alleles, and those associated with transcription factories, are found both inside and outside of the territory. We suggest that the alleles relocated further to the exterior of the CT are those that were already active and already associated with transcription factories before the induction of differentiation. Hence active gene regions may loop out from CTs because they are able to, and not because they need to in order to facilitate gene expression. PMID:19389823

Morey, Celine; Kress, Clemence; Bickmore, Wendy A.

2009-01-01

87

Prion Protein-Deficient Cells Show Altered Response to Oxidative Stress Due to Decreased SOD1 Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular function of the prion protein (PrPC), a cell surface glycoprotein expressed in neurones and astrocytes, has not been elucidated. Cell culture experiments reveal that cerebellar cells lacking PrPCare more sensitive to oxidative stress and undergo cell death more readily than wild-type cells. This effect is reversible by treatment with vitamin E.In vivostudies show that the activity of Cu\\/Zn

David R. Brown; Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer; Bernhard Schmidt; Hans A. Kretzschmar

1997-01-01

88

Rosmarinic Acid from Eelgrass Shows Nematicidal and Antibacterial Activities against Pine Wood Nematode and Its Carrying Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC50 (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L9 (34) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina. PMID:23201594

Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

2012-01-01

89

Discovery of LPMO activity on hemicelluloses shows the importance of oxidative processes in plant cell wall degradation  

PubMed Central

The recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are known to carry out oxidative cleavage of glycoside bonds in chitin and cellulose, thus boosting the activity of well-known hydrolytic depolymerizing enzymes. Because biomass-degrading microorganisms tend to produce a plethora of LPMOs, and considering the complexity and copolymeric nature of the plant cell wall, it has been speculated that some LPMOs may act on other substrates, in particular the hemicelluloses that tether to cellulose microfibrils. We demonstrate that an LPMO from Neurospora crassa, NcLPMO9C, indeed degrades various hemicelluloses, in particular xyloglucan. This activity was discovered using a glycan microarray-based screening method for detection of substrate specificities of carbohydrate-active enzymes, and further explored using defined oligomeric hemicelluloses, isolated polymeric hemicelluloses and cell walls. Products generated by NcLPMO9C were analyzed using high performance anion exchange chromatography and multidimensional mass spectrometry. We show that NcLPMO9C generates oxidized products from a variety of substrates and that its product profile differs from those of hydrolytic enzymes acting on the same substrates. The enzyme particularly acts on the glucose backbone of xyloglucan, accepting various substitutions (xylose, galactose) in almost all positions. Because the attachment of xyloglucan to cellulose hampers depolymerization of the latter, it is possible that the beneficial effect of the LPMOs that are present in current commercial cellulase mixtures in part is due to hitherto undetected LPMO activities on recalcitrant hemicellulose structures. PMID:24733907

Agger, Jane W.; Isaksen, Trine; Varnai, Aniko; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Willats, William G. T.; Ludwig, Roland; Horn, Svein J.; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Westereng, Bj?rge

2014-01-01

90

Ureido-substituted sulfamates show potent carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitory and antiproliferative activities against breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

A series of 50 sulfamates were obtained by reacting 4-aminophenol with isocyanates followed by sulfamoylation. Most of the new compounds were nanomolar inhibitors of the tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms IX and XII, whereas they inhibited less cytosolic offtarget isoforms CA I and II. Some of these sulfamates showed significant antiproliferative activity in several breast cancer cell lines, such as SKBR3, MCF10A, ZR75/1, MDA-MB-361 and MCF7, constituting interesting anticancer leads. PMID:22721713

Winum, Jean-Yves; Carta, Fabrizio; Ward, Carol; Mullen, Peter; Harrison, David; Langdon, Simon P; Cecchi, Alessandro; Scozzafava, Andrea; Kunkler, Ian; Supuran, Claudiu T

2012-07-15

91

The Arabidopsis transposon Tag1 is active in rice, undergoing germinal transposition and restricted, late somatic excision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tag1 is an autonomous transposable element of Arabidopsis thaliana that displays tight developmental control of its excision during shoot development. To determine how Tag1 behaves in a monocotyledonous species, Tag1 was inserted in a 35S-GUS marker gene and the construct was introduced into rice. Tag1 showed somatic excision activity in four out of eleven transgenic lines examined. In leaves, excision

D. Liu; S. Zhang; C. Fauquet; N. M. Crawford

1999-01-01

92

Intrinsic atopic dermatitis (AD) shows similar Th2 and higher Th17 immune activation compared to extrinsic AD  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is classified as extrinsic (ADe) and intrinsic (ADi), representing approximately 80% and 20% of patients, respectively. While sharing a similar clinical phenotype, only ADe is characterized by high serum IgE. Since most AD patients exhibit high IgE, an “allergic”/IgE-mediated disease pathogenesis was hypothesized. However, current models associate AD with T-cell activation, particularly Th2/Th22 polarization, and epidermal barrier defects. Objective To define if both variants share a common pathogenesis. Methods We stratified 51 severe AD patients as ADe (42) and ADi (9) (with similar mean disease activity/SCORAD), and analyzed the molecular and cellular skin pathology of lesional and non-lesional ADi and ADe using gene-expression (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Results A significant correlation between IgE levels and SCORAD (r=0.76, p<10?5) was found only in ADe. Marked infiltrates of T-cells and dendritic cells and corresponding epidermal alterations (K16, Mki67, S100A7/A8/A9) defined lesional skin of both variants. However, higher activation of all inflammatory axes (including Th2) was detected in ADi, particularly Th17 and Th22-cytokines. Positive correlations between Th17-related molecules and SCORAD were only found in ADi, while only ADe showed positive correlations between SCORAD and Th2-cytokines (IL-4, IL-5), and negative correlations with differentiation products (loricrin, periplakin). Conclusions Although differences in Th17 and Th22 activation exist between ADi and ADe, we identified common disease-defining features of T-cell activation, production of polarized cytokines, and keratinocyte responses to immune products. Our data indicate that a Th2 bias is not the sole cause of high IgE in ADe, with important implications for similar therapeutic interventions. Clinical Implications Both extrinsic and intrinsic AD variants might be treated with T-cell targeted therapeutics or agents that modify keratinocyte responses. PMID:23777851

Suarez-Farinas, M; Dhingra, N; Gittler, J; Shemer, A; Cardinale, I; de Guzman Strong, C; Krueger, JG; Guttman-Yassky, E

2013-01-01

93

Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oil prevented biofilm formation and showed antibacterial activity against planktonic and sessile bacterial cells.  

PubMed

Essential oils from six different populations of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum were compared for their antibiofilm properties. The six essential oils (A to F) were characterized by a combination of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector analyses. All oils showed weak activity against the planktonic form of a group of Staphylococcus aureus strains and against a Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 reference strain. The ability to inhibit biofilm formation was investigated at sub-MIC levels of 200, 100, and 50 m g/ml by staining sessile cells with safranin. Sample E showed the highest average effectiveness against all tested strains at 50 m g/ml and had inhibition percentages ranging from 30 to 52%. In the screening that used preformed biofilm from the reference strain P. aeruginosa, essential oils A through E were inactive at 200 m g/ml; F was active with a percentage of inhibition equal to 53.2%. Oregano essential oil can inhibit the formation of biofilms of various food pathogens and food spoilage organisms. PMID:24112575

Schillaci, Domenico; Napoli, Edoardo Marco; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Vitale, Maria; Ruberto, Andgiuseppe

2013-10-01

94

C(5) modified uracil derivatives showing antiproliferative and erythroid differentiation inducing activities on human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells  

PubMed Central

The K562 cell line has been proposed as a useful experimental system to identify anti-tumor compounds acting by inducing terminal erythroid differentiation. K562 cells exhibit a low proportion of hemoglobin-synthesizing cells under standard cell growth conditions, but are able to undergo terminal erythroid differentiation when treated with a variety of anti-tumor compounds. In this paper we report a screening study on a set of different modified C(5) uracil derivatives for the evaluation of their antiproliferative effect in connection with erythroid differentiation pathways, and for defining a new class of drug candidates for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Activity of the derivatives tested can be classified in two effect: an antiproliferative effect linked to a high level of erythroid differentiation activity and an antiproliferative effect without activation of gamma globin genes The highest antiproliferative effect and erythroid induction was shown by compound 9, a thymine derivative bearing a n-octyl chain on nitrogen N(1), whereas thymine did not show any effect, suggesting the importance of the linear alkyl chain in position N(1). To our knowledge this compound should be considered among the most efficient inducers of erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. This work is the starting point for the quest of more effective and specific drugs for the induction of terminal erythroid differentiation, for leading new insights in the treatment of neoplastic diseases with molecules acting by inducing differentiation rather than by simply exerting cytotoxic effects. PMID:21958870

Brognara, Eleonora; Lampronti, Ilaria; Breveglieri, Giulia; Accetta, Alessandro; Corradini, Roberto; Manicardi, Alex; Borgatti, Monica; Canella, Alessandro; Multineddu, Chiara; Marchelli, Rosangela; Gambari, Roberto

2011-01-01

95

Fetal fetuin selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines and shows anti-cancer activity in tumor animal models.  

PubMed

An apoptosis-inducing protein with molecular weight of 60 kDa has been purified from fetal bovine serum. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein (e.g. I-P-L-D-P-V-A-G-Y-K) reveals that it is bovine fetuin, a fetal protein functioning to control embryogenesis. The apoptosis-inducing activity of fetuin is totally dependent on zinc. Depletion of zinc ion from fetuin or substitution of zinc ion by barium ion completely abolished the apoptosis-inducing activity of fetuin. Interestingly, while the fetuin isolated from fetal serum selectively induces apoptosis in cancer without affecting normal cells, the fetuin isolated from mature serum is completely inactive. This suggests that the biological activity of fetuin is under developmental regulation. In vivo, tumor animal model studies showed that fetuin enhanced survival by up to 141% in P388 leukemia animal model in mice. Fetuin was also found to inhibit prostate cancer formation in a PC-3 prostate cancer model in mice. PMID:11311490

Yu, C L; Tsai, M H

2001-05-26

96

Transnuclear TRP1-specific CD8 T cells with high or low affinity TCRs show equivalent anti-tumor activity  

PubMed Central

We have generated, via somatic cell nuclear transfer, two independent lines of transnuclear (TN) mice, using as nuclear donors CD8 T cells, sorted by tetramer staining, that recognize the endogenous melanoma antigen TRP1. These two lines of nominally identical specificity differ greatly in their affinity for antigen (TRP1high or TRP1low) as inferred from tetramer dissociation and peptide responsiveness. Ex vivo-activated CD8 T cells from either TRP1high or TRP1low mice show cytolytic activity in 3D tissue culture and in vivo, and slow the progression of subcutaneous B16 melanoma. Although naïve TRP1low CD8 T cells do not affect tumor growth, upon activation these cells function indistinguishably from TRP1high cells in vivo, limiting tumor cell growth and increasing mouse survival. The anti-tumor effect of both TRP1high and TRP1low CD8 T cells is enhanced in RAG-deficient hosts. However, tumor outgrowth eventually occurs, likely due to T cell exhaustion. The TRP1 TN mice are an excellent model for examining the functional attributes of T cells conferred by TCR affinity, and they may serve as a platform for screening immunomodulatory cancer therapies. PMID:24459675

Dougan, Stephanie K.; Dougan, Michael; Kim, Jun; Turner, Jacob A.; Ogata, Souichi; Cho, Hyun-Il; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Celis, Esteban; Ploegh, Hidde L.

2013-01-01

97

"The Show"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

Gehring, John

2004-01-01

98

B chromosomes showing active ribosomal RNA genes contribute insignificant amounts of rRNA in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.  

PubMed

The genetic inertness of supernumerary (B) chromosomes has recently been called into question after finding several cases of gene activity on them. The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans harbors B chromosomes containing large amounts of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, some of which are eventually active, but the amount of rRNA transcripts contributed by B chromosomes, compared to those of the standard (A) chromosomes, is unknown. Here, we address this question by means of quantitative PCR (qPCR) for two different ITS2 amplicons, one coming from rDNA units located in both A and B chromosomes (ITS2A+B) and the other being specific to B chromosomes (ITS2B). We analyzed six body parts in nine males showing rDNA expression in their B chromosomes in the testis. Amplification of the ITS2B amplicon was successful in RNA extracted from all six body parts analyzed, but showed relative quantification (RQ) values four orders of magnitude lower than those obtained for the ITSA+B amplicon. RQ values differed significantly between body parts for the two amplicons, with testis, accessory gland and wing muscle showing threefold higher values than head, gastric cecum and hind leg. We conclude that the level of B-specific rDNA expression is extremely low even in individuals where B chromosome rDNA is not completely silenced. Bearing in mind that B chromosomes carry the largest rDNA cluster in the E. plorans genome, we also infer that the relative contribution of B chromosome rRNA genes to ribosome biogenesis is insignificant, at least in the body parts analyzed. PMID:24997085

Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Badisco, Liesbeth; Broeck, Jozef Vanden; Perfectti, Francisco; López-León, María Dolores; Cabrero, Josefa; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

2014-12-01

99

Sci Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sci Show, an entertaining series of quirky YouTube videos, tackles topics ranging from âÂÂHow Do Polarized Sunglasses Workâ to âÂÂStrong Interaction: The Four Fundamental Forces of Physics.â Most episodes are less than five minutes long, but they pack a wallop of handy science info. Anyone short on time but long on big questions will benefit from the series. Episodes will be helpful to teachers and parents looking to spark enthusiasm in young minds. Viewers may want to start with recent episodes like âÂÂTodayâÂÂs Mass Extinction,â and the âÂÂWorldâÂÂs First See-Through Animalâ and âÂÂHow Do Animals Change Color?â before digging into the archives for gems like âÂÂThe Truth About Gingersâ and âÂÂThe Science of Lying.âÂÂ

100

Fusion of protegrin-1 and plectasin to MAP30 shows significant inhibition activity against dengue virus replication.  

PubMed

Dengue virus (DENV) broadly disseminates in tropical and sub-tropical countries and there are no vaccine or anti-dengue drugs available. DENV outbreaks cause serious economic burden due to infection complications that requires special medical care and hospitalization. This study presents a new strategy for inexpensive production of anti-DENV peptide-fusion protein to prevent and/or treat DENV infection. Antiviral cationic peptides protegrin-1 (PG1) and plectasin (PLSN) were fused with MAP30 protein to produce recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein (PG1-MAP30-PLSN) as inclusion bodies in E. coli. High yield production of PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein was achieved by solubilization of inclusion bodies in alkaline buffer followed by the application of appropriate refolding techniques. Antiviral PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein considerably inhibited DENV protease (NS2B-NS3pro) with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 0.5±0.1 ?M. The real-time proliferation assay (RTCA) and the end-point proliferation assay (MTT assay) showed that the maximal-nontoxic dose of the peptide-fusion protein against Vero cells is approximately 0.67±0.2 ?M. The cell-based assays showed considerable inhibition of the peptide-fusion protein against binding and proliferating stages of DENV2 into the target cells. The peptide-fusion protein protected DENV2-challeged mice with 100% of survival at the dose of 50 mg/kg. In conclusion, producing recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein by combining short antiviral peptide with a central protein owning similar activity could be useful to minimize the overall cost of short peptide production and take advantage of its synergistic antiviral activities. PMID:24722532

Rothan, Hussin A; Bahrani, Hirbod; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Abd Rahman, Noorsaadah; Yusof, Rohana

2014-01-01

101

Evaluation of About Being Active, an online lesson about physical activity shows that perception of being physically active is higher in eating competent low-income women  

PubMed Central

Background Eating competence (EC) has been associated with positive health outcomes such as reduced cardiovascular risk and higher diet quality. This study compared reported physical activity and EC in 512 low-income women participating in an online program that included a physical activity lesson and assessed response to this lesson. Methods Educational intervention and surveys were completed online. EC was assessed with the Satter Eating Competence Inventory for Low-Income (ecSI/LI). Results Participants were mostly white, <31 years, overweight/obese (60%), and food insecure (58%). EC was higher for those who self-reported being physically active (30.1 ± 8.3 vs. 24.9 ± 8.1; P<0.001) and were active for ? 30 minutes/day (29.9 ± 8.3 vs. 26.3 ± 8.6), even with age, weight satisfaction, and BMI controlled. EC of obese physically active persons was higher than normal weight, but physically inactive women. The physical activity module was well received with responses unrelated to time involved or physical activity level. Conclusions Low-income women were interested in learning about physical activity and responded positively to online delivery. Overall EC levels were low, but higher for physically active women, supporting efforts to enhance EC. Additional research is needed to determine if EC is associated with responses to physical activity education. PMID:23496893

2013-01-01

102

The tef1 box, a ubiquitous cis -acting element involved in the activation of plant genes that are highly expressed in cycling cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

InArabidopsis thaliana, thetef1 box is acis-acting promoter element of the EF-1? A1 gene involved in the activation of transcription in meristematic tissues. The initiation of rootcalli in transgenicArabidopsis by 2,4-D shows that thetef1-dependent expression of theGUS reporter gene is not restricted to meristematic regions but involves all of the cycling cells. Hybridization experiments conducted usingArabidopsis cDNA clones organized in a

Farid Regad; Christine Hervé; Olivier Marinx; Bernard Lescure; Catherine Bergounioux; Dominique Tremousaygue

1995-01-01

103

Expression pattern and activity of six glutelin gene promoters in transgenic rice*  

PubMed Central

The shortage of strong endosperm-specific expression promoters for driving the expression of recombinant protein genes in cereal endosperm is a major limitation in obtaining the required level and pattern of expression. Six promoters of seed storage glutelin genes (GluA-1, GluA-2, GluA-3, GluB-3, GluB-5, and GluC) were isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) genomic DNA by PCR. Their spatial and temporal expression patterns and expression potential in stable transgenic rice plants were examined with ?-glucuronidase (GUS) used as a reporter gene. All the promoters showed the expected spatial expression within the endosperm. The GluA-1, GluA-2, and GluA-3 promoters directed GUS expression mainly in the outer portion (peripheral region) of the endosperm. The GluB-5 and GluC promoters directed GUS expression in the whole endosperm, with the latter expressed almost evenly throughout the whole endosperm, a feature different from that of other rice glutelin gene promoters. The GluB-3 promoter directed GUS expression solely in aleurone and subaleurone layers. Promoter activities examined during seed maturation showed that the GluC promoter had much higher activity than the other promoters. These promoters are ideal candidates for achieving gene expression for multiple purposes in monocot endosperm but avoid promoter homology-based gene silencing. The GluC promoter did not contain the endosperm specificity-determining motifs GCN4, AACA, and the prolamin-box, which suggests the existence of additional regulatory mechanism in determining endosperm specificity. PMID:18467323

Qu, Le Qing; Xing, Yan Ping; Liu, Wen Xian; Xu, Xiu Ping; Song, Yan Ru

2008-01-01

104

Meristem, cell division and S phase-dependent activity of wheat histone H4 promoter in transgenic maize plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the activity of a wheat histone H4 promoter in transgenic maize plants produced by direct DNA uptake into embryogenic cell suspension protoplasts. Expression patterns revealed by fluorimetric as well as histochemical GUS reporter enzyme assays and Northern hybridisation indicated the cell division-dependent expression of the GUS gene driven by the histone H4 promoter in proliferating cells and

Metin Bilgin; Damla Dedeo?lu; Serik Omirulleh; Adrian Peres; Gilbert Engler; Dirk Inzé; Dénes Dudits; Attila Fehér

1999-01-01

105

Topically delivered adipose derived stem cells show an activated-fibroblast phenotype and enhance granulation tissue formation in skin wounds.  

PubMed

Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in various tissues and can proliferate extensively in vitro. MSCs have been used in preclinical animal studies and clinical trials in many fields. Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) have several advantages compared to other MSCs for use in cell-based treatments because they are easy to isolate with relative abundance. However, quantitative approaches for wound repair using ASCs have been limited because of lack of animal models which allow for quantification. Here, we addressed the effect of topically delivered ASCs in wound repair by quantitative analysis using the rabbit ear model. We characterized rabbit ASCs, and analyzed their multipotency in comparison to bone marrow derived-MSCs (BM-MSCs) and dermal fibroblasts (DFs) in vitro. Topically delivered ASCs increased granulation tissue formation in wounds when compared to saline controls, whereas BM-MSCs or DFs did not. These studies suggest that ASCs and BM-MSCs are not identical, though they have similar surface markers. We found that topically delivered ASCs are engrafted and proliferate in the wounds. We showed that transplanted ASCs exhibited activated fibroblast phenotype, increased endothelial cell recruitment, and enhanced macrophage recruitment in vivo. PMID:23383253

Hong, Seok Jong; Jia, Sheng-Xian; Xie, Ping; Xu, Wei; Leung, Kai P; Mustoe, Thomas A; Galiano, Robert D

2013-01-01

106

Arabidopsis aux1rcr1 mutation alters AUXIN RESISTANT1 targeting and prevents expression of the auxin reporter DR5:GUS in the root apex.  

PubMed

Multilevel interactions of the plant hormones ethylene and auxin coordinately and synergistically regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. This study isolated the AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) allele aux1(rcr1) (RCR1 for REVERSING CTR1-10 ROOT1) that suppressed the root growth inhibition conferred by the constitutive ethylene-response constitutive triple response1-10 (ctr1-10) allele. The aux1(rcr1) mutation resulted from an L126F substitution at loop 2 of the plasma membrane-associated auxin influx carrier protein AUX1. aux1(rcr1) and the T-DNA insertion mutant aux1-T were both defective in auxin transport and many aspects of the auxin response. Unexpectedly, expression of the auxin-response reporter DR5:GUS in the root apex was substantially prevented by the aux1(rcr1) but not the aux1-T mutation, even in the presence of the wild-type AUX1 allele. Following treatment with the synthetic auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), DR5:GUS expression in aux1(rcr1) and aux1-T occurred mainly in the root apex and mature zone. NAA-induced DR5:GUS expression in the root apex was markedly prevented by ethylene in genotypes with aux1(rcr1) but not in aux1-T genotypes and the wild type. The effect of aux1(rcr1) on DR5:GUS expression seemed to be associated with AUX1-expressing domains. Green fluorescence protein-fused aux1(rcr1) was localized in the cytoplasm and probably not to the plasma membrane, indicating important roles of the Lys(126) residue at loop 2 in AUX1 targeting. The possible effects of aux1(rcr1) on DR5:GUS expression are discussed. PMID:23293348

Yu, Jing; Wen, Chi-Kuang

2013-02-01

107

Sertaconazole nitrate shows fungicidal and fungistatic activities against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum, causative agents of tinea pedis.  

PubMed

The fungistatic and fungicidal activities of sertaconazole against dermatophytes were evaluated by testing 150 clinical isolates of causative agents of tinea pedis, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The overall geometric means for fungistatic and fungicidal activities of sertaconazole against these isolates were 0.26 and 2.26 ?g/ml, respectively, although values were higher for T. mentagrophytes than for the others. This is the first comprehensive demonstration of the fungicidal activity of sertaconazole against dermatophytes. PMID:21746955

Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso J; Tur-Tur, Cristina; Cárdenes, Delia C; Estivill, Dolors; Giusiano, Gustavo

2011-09-01

108

Sertaconazole Nitrate Shows Fungicidal and Fungistatic Activities against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum, Causative Agents of Tinea Pedis?  

PubMed Central

The fungistatic and fungicidal activities of sertaconazole against dermatophytes were evaluated by testing 150 clinical isolates of causative agents of tinea pedis, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The overall geometric means for fungistatic and fungicidal activities of sertaconazole against these isolates were 0.26 and 2.26 ?g/ml, respectively, although values were higher for T. mentagrophytes than for the others. This is the first comprehensive demonstration of the fungicidal activity of sertaconazole against dermatophytes. PMID:21746955

Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso J.; Tur-Tur, Cristina; Cárdenes, Delia C.; Estivill, Dolors; Giusiano, Gustavo

2011-01-01

109

Temperature shows greater impact on bovine Longissimus dorsi muscle glycogen debranching enzyme activity than does salt concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of glycogen progresses by the co-operation of two enzymes: glycogen phosphorylase (phosphorylase) and glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE). We studied the effect of temperature (4–42°C) and salt concentration (0–3% NaCl) on bovine M. longissimus dorsi GDE activity. GDE activity (n=4) decreased significantly with decreasing temperature from about 40–4°C. GDE exhibited 52% activity at 25°C and 11% at 4°C compared

M. Ylä-Ajos; E. Puolanne

2007-01-01

110

Physical Activity in the Life of a Woman with Severe Cerebral Palsy: Showing Competence and Being Socially Connected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used a life-history approach to investigate the meanings and experiences of physical activity in the life of a 25-year-old woman with severe cerebral palsy (Amy). Amy and her mother were interviewed about Amy's life and her involvement in physical activity. The conversation was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interpreted Amy's story…

Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Andersen, Mark B.; Morris, Tony

2009-01-01

111

Immunomodulatory Activity of Dietary Fiber: Arabinoxylan and Mixed-Linked Beta-Glucan Isolated from Barley Show Modest Activities in Vitro  

PubMed Central

High intake of dietary fiber is claimed to protect against development of colorectal cancer. Barley is a rich source of dietary fiber, and possible immunomodulatory effects of barley polysaccharides might explain a potential protective effect. Dietary fiber was isolated by extraction and enzyme treatment. A mixed-linked ?-glucan (WSM-TPX, 96.5% ?-glucan, Mw 886 kDa), an arabinoxylan (WUM-BS-LA, 96.4% arabinoxylan, Mw 156 kDa), a mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fraction containing 10% arabinoxylan (WSM-TP) and an arabinoxylan rich fraction containing 30% mixed-linked ?-glucan (WUM-BS) showed no significant effect on IL-8 secretion and proliferation of two intestinal epithelial cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29, and had no significant effect on the NF-?B activity in the monocytic cell line U937-3?B-LUC. Further enriched arabinoxylan fractions (WUM-BS-LA) from different barley varieties (Tyra, NK96300, SB94897 and CDCGainer) were less active than the mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fractions (WSM-TP and WSM-TPX) in the complement-fixing test. The mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fraction from NK96300 and CDCGainer showed similar activities as the positive control while mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fractions from Tyra and SB94897 were less active. From these results it is concluded that the isolated high molecular weight mixed-linked ?-glucans and arabinoxylans from barley show low immunological responses in selected in vitro test systems and thus possible anti-colon cancer effects of barley dietary fiber cannot be explained by our observations. PMID:21340001

Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Rieder, Anne; Grimmer, Stine; Michaelsen, Terje E.; Knutsen, Svein H.

2011-01-01

112

Gender-linked Differences in the Toys, Television Shows, Computer Games, and Outdoor Activities of 5- to 13-year-old Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to compare how 5- to 13-year-old children's leisure activity preferences differ with age and gender. Responses from 60 boys and 60 girls about their favorite toys, television shows, computer games, and outdoor activities were compared across leisure categories. The results showed that gender was a significant factor. Overall, boys spent more time in these leisure activities

Isabelle D. Cherney; Kamala London

2006-01-01

113

A predicted S-type pyocin shows a bactericidal activity against clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates through membrane damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleic acid sequence at the positions 1067817–1066321 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome was predicted to encode a novel S-type pyocin, designated S5, based on the genome sequence. However, its antimicrobial spectrum, activity and mechanism have not been investigated. Herein, we report that pyocin S5 has an antimicrobial activity against seven clinical P. aeruginosa isolates (DWW3, InA, InB, In3, In4,

Hua Ling; Nazanin Saeidi; Bahareh Haji Rasouliha; Matthew Wook Chang

2010-01-01

114

Healthy children show gender differences in correlations between nonverbal cognitive ability and brain activation during visual perception.  

PubMed

Humans perceive textual and nontextual information in visual perception, and both depend on language. In childhood education, students exhibit diverse perceptual abilities, such that some students process textual information better and some process nontextual information better. These predispositions involve many factors, including cognitive ability and learning preference. However, the relationship between verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during visual perception has not yet been examined in children. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between nonverbal and verbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during nontextual visual perception in large numbers of children. A significant positive correlation was found between nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation in the right temporoparietal junction, which is thought to be related to attention reorienting. This significant positive correlation existed only in boys. These findings suggested that male brain activation differed from female brain activation, and that this depended on individual cognitive processes, even if there was no gender difference in behavioral performance. PMID:24937269

Asano, Kohei; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

2014-08-01

115

UCLA study shows prostate cancer finds a way to circumvent hormone therapy by activating a survival cell signaling pathway:  

Cancer.gov

In a study at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, researchers found that when a common type of prostate cancer was treated with conventional hormone ablation therapy blocking androgen production or androgen receptor function, the cancer was able to adapt and compensate by activating a survival cell signaling pathway, effectively circumventing the roadblock put up by this treatment.

116

Parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone from the medical herb feverfew, shows anticancer activity against human melanoma cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Metastatic melanoma is a highly life-threatening disease. The lack of response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy highlights the critical need for novel treatments. Parthenolide, an active component of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), inhibits proliferation and kills various cancer cells mainly by inducing apoptosis. The aim of the study was to examine anticancer effects of parthenolide in melanoma cells in vitro. The cytotoxicity of parthenolide was tested in melanoma cell lines and melanocytes, as well as melanoma cells directly derived from a surgical excision. Adherent cell proliferation was measured by tetrazolium derivative reduction assay. Loss of the plasma membrane integrity, hypodiploid events, reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, and caspase-3 activity were assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Microscopy was used to observe morphological changes and cell detachment. Parthenolide reduced the number of viable adherent cells in melanoma cultures. Half maximal inhibitory concentration values around 4 mumol/l were determined. Cell death accompanied by mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspase-3 activation was observed as the result of parthenolide application. Interestingly, the melanoma cells from vertical growth phase and melanocytes were less susceptible to parthenolide-induced cell death than metastatic cells when drug concentration was at least 6 mumol/l. Reactive oxygen species level was not significantly increased in melanoma cells. However, preincubation of parthenolide with the thiol nucleophile N-acetyl-cysteine protected melanoma cells from parthenolide-induced cell death suggesting the reaction with intracellular thiols as the mechanism responsible for parthenolide activity. In conclusion, the observed anticancer activity makes parthenolide an attractive drug candidate for further testing in melanoma therapy. PMID:19949351

Lesiak, Karolina; Koprowska, Kamila; Zalesna, Izabela; Nejc, Dariusz; Düchler, Markus; Czyz, Malgorzata

2010-02-01

117

[Establishment of promoter trapping system mediated by activator/dissociation (beta-glucuronidase) construction in rice].  

PubMed

The coding region of Bar gene, the left border of Ds element, the coding region of GUS gene, the transposase of Ac element, the right border of Ds element and the promoter of Ubi gene were inserted into the T-DNA region of vector pCAMBIA1300 in turn to construct plasmid p13B. The orientations of the ubiquitons' promoter, Ac transposase and Bar are identical but opposite to that of the GUS gene (Fig.1). The plasmid p13B was then introduced into the calli of Oryza sativa subsp. japonica cv. Zhonghua 11 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transforming to trap genes in rice. Eighteen independent transgenic lines were obtained and propagated. T(2) generations of 18 independent transgenic lines were screening by herbicide (Basta) (Fig.2) and the herbicide-resistant plants obtained were analyzed by PCR (Fig.3). Ds element transposed in an inheritable manner was found in 37 plants, in which 5 plants showed GUS activity (Fig.4). PMID:16361783

Wang, Ai-Min; Chen, Shi-Yan; Shen, Ge-Zhi; Wang, Xin-Qi; Ju, Dan-Hua; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Wang, Zong-Yang; Cai, Xiu-Ling

2005-12-01

118

Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of AtPAP15, a Purple Acid Phosphatase with Phytase Activity, in Arabidopsis1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters and anhydrides to release phosphate within an acidic pH range. Among the 29 PAP-like proteins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), AtPAP15 (At3g07130) displays a greater degree of amino acid identity with soybean (Glycine max; GmPHY) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) PAP (NtPAP) with phytase activity than the other AtPAPs. In this study, transgenic Arabidopsis that expressed an AtPAP15 promoter??-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion protein showed that AtPAP15 expression was developmentally and temporally regulated, with strong GUS staining at the early stages of seedling growth and pollen germination. The expression was also organ/tissue specific, with strongest GUS staining in the vasculature, pollen grains, and roots. The recombinant AtPAP purified from transgenic tobacco exhibited broad substrate specificity with moderate phytase activity. AtPAP15 T-DNA insertion lines exhibited a lower phytase and phosphatase activity in seedling and germinating pollen and lower pollen germination rate compared with the wild type and their complementation lines. Therefore, AtPAP15 likely mobilizes phosphorus reserves in plants, particularly during seed and pollen germination. Since AtPAP15 is not expressed in the root hair or in the epidermal cells, it is unlikely to play any role in external phosphorus assimilation. PMID:19633233

Kuang, Ruibin; Chan, Kam-Ho; Yeung, Edward; Lim, Boon Leong

2009-01-01

119

A predicted S-type pyocin shows a bactericidal activity against clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates through membrane damage.  

PubMed

The nucleic acid sequence at the positions 1067817-1066321 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome was predicted to encode a novel S-type pyocin, designated S5, based on the genome sequence. However, its antimicrobial spectrum, activity and mechanism have not been investigated. Herein, we report that pyocin S5 has an antimicrobial activity against seven clinical P. aeruginosa isolates (DWW3, InA, InB, In3, In4, In7, and In8). Among them, DWW3 is most sensitive with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.6 microg/ml and a killing percentage of 95.7 at 225 microg/ml. Further, we demonstrated that the antimicrobial mechanism of pyocin S5 is membrane damage, evidenced by the leakage of intracellular materials, the increase of membrane permeability, and cell surface disruption. PMID:20580355

Ling, Hua; Saeidi, Nazanin; Rasouliha, Bahareh Haji; Chang, Matthew Wook

2010-08-01

120

The human anti-CD30 antibody 5F11 shows in vitro and in vivo activity against malignant lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD30 is a promising target for antibody- based immunotherapy of Hodgkin lym- phoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lym- phoma. To overcome the limitations from currently available murine anti-CD30 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a new fully human anti-CD30 antibody was gener- ated. Binding properties were evaluated by recombinant CD30 capture enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescence-activated cell-sorter (FACS) flow cytometry.

Peter Borchmann; John F. Treml; Hinrich Hansen; Claudia Gottstein; Roland Schnell; Oliver Staak; Hui-fen Zhang; Thomas Davis; Tibor Keler; Volker Diehl; Robert F. Graziano; Andreas Engert

2003-01-01

121

Thirsty heroin addicts show different fMRI activations when exposed to water-related and drug-related cues.  

PubMed

Relapse to drug use is frequently preceded or caused by craving, an intense desire for drug. Advances in functional brain imaging techniques make it possible to directly investigate this special mental state in vivo and non-invasively. Extant imaging studies on craving have been mostly on cocaine which is the dominant drug abused in the U.S. Employing functional MRI, we examined substance specificity of the neural circuitry underlying craving for heroin. Heroin is the primary drug abused in south-east Asia and has, particularly, become a serious social problem for China in recent years. Following abstinence from water and drug, 14 active heroin addicts (all male, mean age 33.2 years, average drug use history 7.1 years) underwent scanning inside a 1.5T Philips MR scanner during exposure to water-related, drug-related, and neutral cues. Water-related cues elicited anterior cingulate activation (Brodmann's area BA 32/24). Drug-related cues activated bilateral inferior frontal cortex (BA 44/45), confirming the critical role of prefrontal cortex in drug craving. Results suggest heroin craving may involve different neural substrates than do desire from basic physiological drives, such as thirst. As the first fMRI study of heroin craving, our study adds to the scant but much-needed brain imaging literature on heroin addiction. PMID:16406379

Xiao, Zhuangwei; Lee, Tatia; Zhang, John X; Wu, Qiulin; Wu, Renhua; Weng, Xuchu; Hu, Xiaoping

2006-06-28

122

Microglia from Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease-Infected Brains Are Infectious and Show Specific mRNA Activation Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurons are often assumed to be the principal sites for replication of the infectious agents causing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), scrapie, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy because they express high levels of normal and pathological prion protein (PrP). However, isolated brain cell types have not been evaluated for either infection or gene expression. Microglia purified from CJD-infected mice showed infectivity comparable to

Christopher A. Baker; Daniel Martin; Laura Manuelidis

2002-01-01

123

Sugar acts as a regulatory signal on the wound-inducible expression of SbHRGP3 :: GUS in transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

SbHRGP3 encodes an HRGP whose expression is correlated with the cessation of root elongation in soybean. The wound-inducible expression of SbHRGP3 interestingly requires sucrose although wounding alone induces the expression of many HRGP genes. To examine whether sugar serves as a specific signal on the wound-inducible expression or whether sugar is required to provide ATP, we examined SbHRGP3:: GUS expression

J. H. Ahn; J. S. Lee

2003-01-01

124

Vectors that facilitate the replacement of transcriptional lacZ fusions in Streptococcus mutans and Bacillus subtilis with fusions to gfp or gusA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmid vectors have been constructed for Streptococcus mutans and Bacillus subtilis that make possible rapid replacement of the widely used reporter gene lacZ (encoding ?-galactosidase) with either gfp (encoding green fluorescent protein) or gusA (encoding ?-glucuronidase). The lacZ?gfp replacement vectors greatly facilitate the analysis of the spatial location of gene expression in biofilms of S. mutans and in sporulating B.

Vasant K. Chary; Monica Busuioc; John A. Renye; Patrick J. Piggot

2005-01-01

125

The adult pituitary shows stem/progenitor cell activation in response to injury and is capable of regeneration.  

PubMed

The pituitary gland constitutes, together with the hypothalamus, the regulatory core of the endocrine system. Whether the gland is capable of cell regeneration after injury, in particular when suffered at adult age, is unknown. To investigate the adult pituitary's regenerative capacity and the response of its stem/progenitor cell compartment to damage, we constructed a transgenic mouse model to conditionally destroy pituitary cells. GHCre/iDTR mice express diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor after transcriptional activation by Cre recombinase, which is driven by the GH promoter. Treatment with DT for 3 d leads to gradual GH(+) (somatotrope) cell obliteration with a final ablation grade of 80-90% 1 wk later. The stem/progenitor cell-clustering side population promptly expands after injury, concordant with the immediate increase in Sox2(+) stem/progenitor cells. In addition, folliculo-stellate cells, previously designated as pituitary stem/progenitor cells and significantly overlapping with Sox2(+) cells, also increase in abundance. In situ examination reveals expansion of the Sox2(+) marginal-zone niche and appearance of remarkable Sox2(+) cells that contain GH. When mice are left after the DT-provoked lesion, GH(+) cells considerably regenerate during the following months. Double Sox2(+)/GH(+) cells are observed throughout the regenerative period, suggesting recovery of somatotropes from stem/progenitor cells, as further supported by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) pulse-chase lineage tracing. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the adult pituitary gland holds regenerative competence and that tissue repair follows prompt activation and plausible involvement of the stem/progenitor cells. PMID:22518061

Fu, Qiuli; Gremeaux, Lies; Luque, Raul M; Liekens, Daisy; Chen, Jianghai; Buch, Thorsten; Waisman, Ari; Kineman, Rhonda; Vankelecom, Hugo

2012-07-01

126

Ferrocenyl-L-amino acid copper(II) complexes showing remarkable photo-induced anticancer activity in visible light.  

PubMed

Ferrocene-conjugated copper(ii) complexes [Cu(Fc-aa)(aip)](ClO4) () and [Cu(Fc-aa)(pyip)](ClO4) () of l-amino acid reduced Schiff bases (Fc-aa), 2-(9-anthryl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (aip) and 2-(1-pyrenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (pyip), where Fc-aa is ferrocenylmethyl-l-tyrosine (Fc-Tyr in , ), ferrocenylmethyl-l-tryptophan (Fc-Trp in , ) and ferrocenylmethyl-l-methionine (Fc-Met in , ), were prepared and characterized, and their photocytotoxicity was studied (Fc = ferrocenyl moiety). Phenyl analogues, viz. [Cu(Ph-Met)(aip)](ClO4) () and [Cu(Ph-Met)(pyip)](ClO4) (), were prepared and used as control compounds. The bis-imidazophenanthroline copper(ii) complexes, viz. [Cu(aip)2(NO3)](NO3) () and [Cu(pyip)2(NO3)](NO3) (), were also prepared and used as controls. Complexes having a redox inactive cooper(ii) center showed the Fc(+)-Fc redox couple at ?0.5 V vs. SCE in DMF-0.1 mol [Bu(n)4N](ClO4). The copper(ii)-based d-d band was observed near 600 nm in DMF-Tris-HCl buffer (1?:?1 v/v). The ferrocenyl complexes showed low dark toxicity, but remarkably high photocytotoxicity in human cervical HeLa and human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cancer cells giving an excellent photo-dynamic effect while their phenyl analogues were inactive. The photo-exposure caused significant morphological changes in the cancer cells when compared to the non-irradiated ones. The photophysical processes were rationalized from the theoretical studies. Fluorescence microscopic images showed and localizing predominantly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cancer cells, thus minimizing any undesirable effects involving nuclear DNA. PMID:24971754

Goswami, Tridib K; Gadadhar, Sudarshan; Balaji, Babu; Gole, Bappaditya; Karande, Anjali A; Chakravarty, Akhil R

2014-08-21

127

Separation of Bombyxin from a neuropeptide of Bombyx mori showing Summer-morph-producing Hormone (SMPH) activity in the Asian Comma Butterfly, Polygonia c-aureum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neuropeptide from brain-suboesophageal ganglion (Br–SG) complexes of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, shows summer-morph-producing hormone (SMPH) activity in the Asian comma butterfly, P. c-aureum. The SMPH-active peptide was extracted and demonstrated to be almost the same molecular size as bombyxin (4–5kD), a nueropeptide which shows prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) activity when assayed in vitro with prothoracic glands (PGs) of 4th-instar B.

D Tanaka; T Sakurama; K Mitsumasu; A Yamanaka; K Endo

1997-01-01

128

IgVH-genes analysis from psoriatic arthritis shows involvement of antigen-activated synovial B-lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis (PA), which occurs in 5-7% of patients with psoriasis vulgaris, is enigmatic. There are no molecular data about synovial B-cells of chronic synovitis of PA. In order to understand the B-cell response in PA, we analysed IgVH genes and specified replacement to silent mutation (R/S) ratios of the complementarity determining regions (CDR) and framework regions (FR) as well as VH families. To prove the existence of a common pattern we additionally analysed the IgVH genes at the amino-acid level. From 5 PA patients we took cryo-tissue sections with somatically mutated IgVH genes (sum R/sum S in the CDRs: 2.5-6.8), 62 of which were analysed. In one patient two cases of clonally related IgVH genes were observed. Identical amino-acid replacements in IgVH1 and IgVH4 were found at the same mutational "cold spot". These data indicate that antigen-activated B-cells participate in the formation of chronic synovitis of PA. Since, neither histopathologically nor immunohistochemically, no germinal centres could be detected, the clonally related IgVH genes may be interpreted as residues of a germinal centre reaction that occurred before synovectomy. The existence of identical amino-acid replacement mutations in IgVH1 and IgVH4 genes suggests that a limited number of antigens are common to all PA patients analysed. The recombinant expression of the IgVH could help to define B-cell specificities underlying the pathogenesis of chronic synovitis and dermatitis of PA. PMID:12491138

Gerhard, N; Krenn, V; Magalhães, R; Morawietz, L; Brändlein, S; König, A

2002-12-01

129

The as-1 Promoter Element Is an Oxidative Stress-Responsive Element and Salicylic Acid Activates It via Oxidative Species1  

PubMed Central

The activation sequence-1 (as-1)-like element found in the promoter of some glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, has been previously described as a salicylic acid (SA)- and auxin-responsive element. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the activating effect of SA on the as-1 element is mediated by oxidative species. Supporting this hypothesis, our results show that the antioxidants dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and 3-t-butyl-4-hydroxy-anizole (BHA) inhibit the SA-induced transcription of genes controlled by as-1 elements in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants [i.e. GNT35 gene coding for a GST and (as-1)4/?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter transgene]. DMTU and BHA also inhibit SA-activated as-1-binding activity in nuclear extracts. Further support for the hypothesis that the as-1 element is activated by oxidative species comes from our result showing that light potentiates the SA-induced activation of the as-1 element. Furthermore, methyl viologen, a known oxidative stress inducer in plants, also activates the as-1 element. Increasing H2O2 levels by incubation with H2O2 or with the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,5-triazole does not activate the (as-1)4/GUS gene. On the contrary, 3-amino-1,2,5-triazole inhibits the activating effect of SA on the (as-1)4/GUS gene. These results suggest that oxidative species other than H2O2 mediate the activation of the as-1 element by SA. Our results also suggest that even though the as-1 binding activity is stimulated by oxidative species, this is not sufficient for the transactivation of genes controlled by this element. The complex interplay between SA and reactive oxygen species in the transcriptional activation of defense genes is discussed. PMID:12428016

Garreton, Virginia; Carpinelli, Jorge; Jordana, Xavier; Holuigue, Loreto

2002-01-01

130

Hyperforin down-regulates effector function of activated T lymphocytes and shows efficacy against Th1-triggered CNS inflammatory-demyelinating disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperforin (Hyp) is an active com- pound contained in the extract of Hypericum per- foratum, well known for its antidepressant activity. However, Hyp has been found to possess several other biological properties, including inhibitory ef- fects on tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and inflam- mation. In this paper, we show that treatment with Hyp inhibited IFN- production, with down-regu- lation of T-box

Anna Cabrelle; Isabella Dell' Aica; Luca Melchiori; Samuela Carraro; Enrico Brunetta; Raffaele Niero; Elisa Scquizzato; Giulia D'Intino; Spiridione Garbisa; Carlo Agostini

2007-01-01

131

Political activities at gun shows represent views that start at the conservative and move to the right from there. As with the  

E-print Network

6 Politics Political activities at gun shows represent views that start at the conservative that could usefully be explored by others. Candidates for public office see gun shows as a way to connect with a motivated constituency. As one observer described it, "There are people who vote guns and only guns

Leistikow, Bruce N.

132

Techniques for Active Learning in CS Courses Studies show that active learning promotes improved long-term retention of course material  

E-print Network

· Visual and Verbal · Sequential and Global Active learners prefer an environment that enables them, and relationships. Visual learners prefer learning from material they can see: charts, figures, and demonstrations students tend to be active and visual learners, then one of the most effective learning environments is one

Briggs, Tom

133

Separation of Bombyxin from a neuropeptide of Bombyx mori showing Summer-morph-producing Hormone (SMPH) activity in the Asian Comma Butterfly, Polygonia c-aureum L.  

PubMed

A neuropeptide from brain-suboesophageal ganglion (Br-SG) complexes of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, shows summer-morph-producing hormone (SMPH) activity in the Asian comma butterfly, P. c-aureum. The SMPH-active peptide was extracted and demonstrated to be almost the same molecular size as bombyxin (4-5kD), a nueropeptide which shows prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) activity when assayed in vitro with prothoracic glands (PGs) of 4th-instar B. mori larvae in vitro. A Sephadex G-50 fraction of 3-8kD molecules prepared from Br-SG complexes of B. mori adults was applied to CM-, SP-, DEAE- or QAE- Toyoperal columns at pH 5.6 (or pH 6.9). The SMPH-activity could be separated from the PTTH-activity (or bombyxin) by subjecting a SMPH- and PTTH-active preparation of B. mori to anion-exchange chromatography at pH 6.9. By reversed-phase HPLC following an anion-exchange chromatography, SMPH-activity was recovered in two fractions of 40-45% acetonitril. Results demonstrate that the B. mori peptide showing the SMPH-activity in P. c-aureum is a different molecule than bombyxin. PMID:12769923

Endo, K; Yamanaka, A; Mitsumasu, K; Sakurama, T; Tanaka, D

1997-02-21

134

The Combined Anti-HIV-1 Activities of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir plus the Integrase Inhibitor Elvitegravir or Raltegravir Show High Levels of Synergy In Vitro.  

PubMed

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) involves combination treatment with three or more antiretroviral agents. The antiviral effects of combinations of emtricitabine (FTC) plus tenofovir (TFV) plus antiretroviral agents of all the major drug classes were investigated. Combinations of FTC and TFV with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) (efavirenz or rilpivirine) or with a protease inhibitor (PI) (atazanavir, lopinavir, or darunavir) showed additive to synergistic anti-HIV-1 activity. FTC-TFV with an HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) (elvitegravir or raltegravir) showed the strongest synergy. Anti-HIV-1 synergy suggests enhancement of individual anti-HIV-1 activities within cells that may contribute to potent treatment efficacy and open new areas of research into interactions between reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase inhibitors. PMID:25092710

Kulkarni, Rima; Hluhanich, Rebecca; McColl, Damian M; Miller, Michael D; White, Kirsten L

2014-10-01

135

An alpha2,6-sialyltransferase cloned from Photobacterium leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119 shows both sialyltransferase and neuraminidase activity.  

PubMed

We cloned, expressed, and characterized a novel beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase from Photobacterium leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119. The protein showed 56-96% identity to the marine bacterial alpha2,6-sialyltransferases classified into glycosyltransferase family 80. The sialyltransferase activity of the N-terminal truncated form of the recombinant enzyme was 1477 U/L of Escherichia coli culture. The truncated recombinant enzyme was purified as a single band by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis through 3 column chromatography steps. The enzyme had distinct activity compared with known marine bacterial alpha2,6-sialyltransferases. Although alpha2,6-sialyltransferases cloned from marine bacteria, such as Photobacterium damselae strain JT0160, P. leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-145, and Photobacterium sp. strain JT-ISH-224, show only alpha2,6-sialyltransferase activity, the recombinant enzyme cloned from P. leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119 showed both alpha2,6-sialyltransferase and alpha2,6-linkage-specific neuraminidase activity. Our results provide important information toward a comprehensive understanding of the bacterial sialyltransferases belonging to the group 80 glycosyltransferase family in the CAZy database. PMID:19797322

Mine, Toshiki; Katayama, Sakurako; Kajiwara, Hitomi; Tsunashima, Masako; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Yamamoto, Takeshi

2010-02-01

136

Trabectedin and its C subunit modified analogue PM01183 attenuate nucleotide excision repair and show activity toward platinum-resistant cells.  

PubMed

PM01183 is a novel marine-derived covalent DNA binder in clinical development. PM01183 is structurally similar to trabectedin (yondelis, ecteinascidin-743) except for the C subunit, and this modification is accompanied by different pharmacokinetics in cancer patients. We here characterize the interaction of PM01183 with the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway in comparison with trabectedin. Our results show for the first time that although neither PM01183 nor trabectedin is repaired by NER, both compounds are able to interfere with the NER machinery thereby attenuating the repair of specific NER substrates. We further show that the NER activity is increased in 3 of 4 cellular models with acquired resistance to cisplatin or oxaliplatin, confirming the involvement of NER in the resistance to platinum derivatives. Importantly, both PM01183 and trabectedin show unchanged or even enhanced activity toward all 4 cisplatin- and oxaliplatin-resistant cell lines. We finally show that combinations of PM01183 and cisplatin were mostly synergistic toward both parental and cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells as indicated by Chou and Talalay analysis. These data show that the C subunit of trabectedin can be subjected to at least some structural modifications without loss of activity or NER interaction. While PM01183 and trabectedin appear functionally similar in cellular models, it is likely that the differences in pharmacokinetics may allow different dosing and scheduling of PM01183 in the clinic that could lead to novel and/or increased antitumor activity. Taken together, our results provide a mechanistic basis to support clinical trials of PM01183 alone or in combination with cisplatin. PMID:21622731

Soares, Daniele G; Machado, Miriana S; Rocca, Céline J; Poindessous, Virginie; Ouaret, Djamila; Sarasin, Alain; Galmarini, Carlos M; Henriques, João A P; Escargueil, Alexandre E; Larsen, Annette K

2011-08-01

137

The Ozone Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

Mathieu, Aaron

2000-01-01

138

Showing What They Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

Cech, Scott J.

2008-01-01

139

“ Nafion”-functionalized mesoporous MCM-41 silica shows high activity and selectivity for carboxylic acid esterification and Friedel–Crafts acylation reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid organic–inorganic MCM-41 silicas functionalized with perfluoroalkylsulfonic acid groups analogous to that of Nafion were prepared in a simple single step by a condensation reaction between surface silanol groups of the mesoporous silicas and 1,2,2-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-1-trifluoromethyl-ethane sulfonic acid Beta-sultone. The catalysts showed very high activity for the esterification of long-chain fatty acids with ethanol and high-molecular-weight alcohols with essentially complete selectivity

Mercedes Alvaro; Avelino Corma; Debasish Das; Vicente Fornés; Hermenegildo García

2005-01-01

140

Analysis of oropouche virus L protein amino acid sequence showed the presence of an additional conserved region that could harbour an important role for the polymerase activity.  

PubMed

We described here the complete nucleotide sequence of the L RNA segment of Oropouche virus (genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae). We found the L RNA segment is 6846 nucleotides long and encodes a putative RNA polymerase of 2250 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ORO virus cluster to the Orthobunyavirus genus confirming the serological classification. It also showed that Bunyamwera and California viruses, from the Orthobunyavirus genus, are more closely related to each other than to ORO virus. Sequence comparisons performed between the L proteins of 15 bunyaviruses and the PB1 proteins of 3 influenza viruses revealed that ORO L protein contains the 3 regions characteristic of arenaviruses and bunyaviruses. These comparisons also showed the existence of an additional fourth conserved region in the L protein of bunyaviruses that contains at least two active sites. PMID:12536293

Aquino, V H; Moreli, M L; Moraes Figueiredo, L T

2003-01-01

141

Activating FLT3 Mutants Show Distinct Gain-of-Function Phenotypes In Vitro and a Characteristic Signaling Pathway Profile Associated with Prognosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

About 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbour mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, mostly internal tandem duplications (ITD) and point mutations of the second tyrosine kinase domain (TKD). It was the aim of this study to comprehensively analyze clinical and functional properties of various FLT3 mutants. In 672 normal karyotype AML patients FLT3-ITD, but not FLT3-TKD mutations were associated with a worse relapse free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. In paired diagnosis-relapse samples FLT3-ITD showed higher stability (70%) compared to FLT3-TKD (30%). In vitro, FLT3-ITD induced a strong activating phenotype in Ba/F3 cells. In contrast, FLT3-TKD mutations and other point mutations – including two novel mutations – showed a weaker but clear gain-of-function phenotype with gradual increase in proliferation and protection from apoptosis. The pro-proliferative capacity of the investigated FLT3 mutants was associated with cell surface expression and tyrosine 591 phosphorylation of the FLT3 receptor. Western blot experiments revealed STAT5 activation only in FLT3-ITD positive cell lines, in contrast to FLT3-non-ITD mutants, which displayed an enhanced signal of AKT and MAPK activation. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct difference between FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD for STAT5 target gene expression as well as deregulation of SOCS2, ENPP2, PRUNE2 and ART3. FLT3-ITD and FLT3 point mutations show a gain-of-function phenotype with distinct signalling properties in vitro. Although poor prognosis in AML is only associated with FLT3-ITD, all activating FLT3 mutations can contribute to leukemogenesis and are thus potential targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24608088

Janke, Hanna; Pastore, Friederike; Schumacher, Daniela; Herold, Tobias; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Schneider, Stephanie; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Büchner, Thomas; Woermann, Bernhard J.; Subklewe, Marion; Bohlander, Stefan K.; Hiddemann, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

142

Erucin, a new promising cancer chemopreventive agent from rocket salads, shows anti-proliferative activity on human lung carcinoma A549 cells.  

PubMed

Erucin (ER) is a dietary isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables, such as rocket salads (Erucasativa Mill., Diplotaxis sp.), that has been recently considered a promising cancer chemopreventive phytochemical. Biological activity of ER was investigated on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, analyzing its effects on molecular pathways involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, such as PARP-1 cleavage, p53 and p21 protein expression. Our results show that ER affects the A549 cell proliferation, enhancing significantly p53 and p21 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.001). PARP-1 cleavage occurs only after exposure to high concentrations of ER (50 microM), in accordance to previous studies showing similar bioactivity of other isothiocyanates (ITCs). Our study reports for the first time that the induction of p53, p21 and PARP-1 cleavage may participate in the anti-proliferative activity of ER in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Comparison of data with those obtained with the isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SF), structurally related to ER, underlines the strong relationship between structural analogy of ITCs and their biological activity. The ability of dietary compounds to modulate molecular mechanisms that affect cancer cell proliferation is certainly a key point of the cancer prevention potential by functional foods. PMID:19328833

Melchini, A; Costa, C; Traka, M; Miceli, N; Mithen, R; De Pasquale, R; Trovato, A

2009-07-01

143

Lenvatinib, an angiogenesis inhibitor targeting VEGFR/FGFR, shows broad antitumor activity in human tumor xenograft models associated with microvessel density and pericyte coverage  

PubMed Central

Background Lenvatinib is an oral inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR1-3), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR1-4), platelet growth factor receptor ? (PDGFR ?), RET and KIT. Antiangiogenesis activity of lenvatinib in VEGF- and FGF-driven angiogenesis models in both in vitro and in vivo was determined. Roles of tumor vasculature (microvessel density (MVD) and pericyte coverage) as biomarkers for lenvatinib were also examined in this study. Method We evaluated antiangiogenesis activity of lenvatinib against VEGF- and FGF-driven proliferation and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. Effects of lenvatinib on in vivo angiogenesis, which was enhanced by overexpressed VEGF or FGF in human pancreatic cancer KP-1 cells, were examined in the mouse dorsal air sac assay. We determined antitumor activity of lenvatinib in a broad panel of human tumor xenograft models to test if vascular score, which consisted of high MVD and low pericyte coverage, was associated with sensitivity to lenvatinib treatment. Vascular score was also analyzed using human tumor specimens with 18 different types of human primary tumors. Result Lenvatinib inhibited VEGF- and FGF-driven proliferation and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. In vivo angiogenesis induced by overexpressed VEGF (KP-1/VEGF transfectants) or FGF (KP-1/FGF transfectants) was significantly suppressed with oral treatments of lenvatinib. Lenvatinib showed significant antitumor activity in KP-1/VEGF and five 5 of 7 different types of human tumor xenograft models at between 1 to 100?mg/kg. We divided 19 human tumor xenograft models into lenvatinib-sensitive (tumor-shrinkage) and relatively resistant (slow-growth) subgroups based on sensitivity to lenvatinib treatments at 100?mg/kg. IHC analysis showed that vascular score was significantly higher in sensitive subgroup than relatively resistant subgroup (p?showed a broad spectrum of antitumor activity with a wide therapeutic window. MVD and pericyte-coverage of tumor vasculature might be biomarkers and suggest cases that would respond for lenvatinib therapy. PMID:25197551

2014-01-01

144

Alpha-momorcharin, a RIP produced by bitter melon, enhances defense response in tobacco plants against diverse plant viruses and shows antifungal activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Alpha-momorcharin (?-MMC) is type-1 ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) with molecular weight of 29 kDa and has lots of biological activity. Our recent study indicated that the ?-MMC purified from seeds of Momordica charantia exhibited distinct antiviral and antifungal activity. Tobacco plants pre-treated with 0.5 mg/mL ?-MMC 3 days before inoculation with various viruses showed less-severe symptom and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation compared to that inoculated with viruses only. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the replication levels of viruses were lower in the plants treated with the ?-MMC than control plants at 15 days post inoculation. Moreover, the coat protein expression of viruses was almost completely inhibited in plants which were treated with the ?-MMC compared with control plants. Furthermore, the SA-responsive defense-related genes including non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1), PR1, PR2 were up-regulated and activities of some antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) were increased after the ?-MMC treatment. In addition, the ?-MMC (500 ?g/mL) revealed remarkable antifungal effect against phytopathogenic fungi, in the growth inhibition range 50.35-67.21 %, along with their MIC values ranging from 100 to 500 ?g/mL. The ?-MMC had also a strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens along with concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The ?-MMC showed a remarkable antiviral and antifungal effect and hence could possibly be exploited in crop protection for controlling certain important plant diseases. PMID:22983699

Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Ping; Meng, Yan-Fa; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Cheng, Jian; Lin, Hong-Hui; Xi, De-Hui

2013-01-01

145

Cloning and characterization of a novel Athspr promoter specifically active in vascular tissue.  

PubMed

The vascular system--xylem, phloem and the cambium--is essential for water supply, nutrient transport, and physical support in higher plants. Although it is known that vascular-specific gene expression is regulated by cis-acting regulatory sequences in promoters, it is largely unknown how many regulatory elements exist and what their roles are in promoters. To understand the regulatory elements of vascular-specific promoters and their roles in vascular development, a T-DNA insertion mutant showing delayed growth and diminished resistance to environmental stress was isolated using promoter trap strategy. The novel gene, Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein-related (Athspr), was cloned from Arabidopsis ecotype C24. Strong GUS (?-glucuronidase) staining in the original promoter trap line was found in the vascular tissues of all organs in the mutant. The Athspr promoter was cloned and fused with GUS and eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) reporter genes to verify its vascular-specific expression in Arabidopsis. Further histochemical analysis in transgenic plants demonstrated a similar GUS expression pattern in the vascular tissues. In addition, ATHSPR-eGFP driven by Athspr promoter was observed in vascular bundles of the transgenic seedling roots. Finally, comparative analysis with promoter motifs from 37 genes involved in vascular development revealed that Athspr and all other promoters active in vascular tissues contained regulatory elements responding to phytohormones, light, biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as those regulating tissue-specific expression. These results demonstrated that the Athspr promoter has a vascular tissue-specific activity and Athspr may have multiple functions in vascular development and resistance against various stresses. PMID:24675528

Zhang, Liang; Yang, Tao; Li, Xiaoying; Hao, Hongyan; Xu, Shengtao; Cheng, Wei; Sun, Yingli; Wang, Chongying

2014-05-01

146

A new peptide (Ruviprase) purified from the venom of Daboia russelii russelii shows potent anticoagulant activity via non-enzymatic inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa.  

PubMed

Compounds showing dual inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa (FXa) are the subject of great interest owing to their broader specificity for effective anticoagulation therapy against cardiovascular disorders. This is the first report on the functional characterization and assessment of therapeutic potential of a 4423.6 Da inhibitory peptide (Ruviprase) purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom. The secondary structure of Ruviprase is composed of ?-helices (61.9%) and random coils (38.1%). The partial N-terminal sequence (E(1)-V(2)-X(3)-W(4)-W(5)-W(6)-A(7)-Q(8)-L(9)-S(10)) of Ruviprase demonstrated significant similarity (80.0%) with an internal sequence of apoptosis-stimulating protein reported from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah and Python bivittatus; albeit Ruviprase did not show sequence similarity with existing thrombin/FXa inhibitors, suggesting its uniqueness. Ruviprase demonstrated a potent in vitro anticoagulant property and inhibited both thrombin and FXa following slow binding kinetics. Ruviprase inhibited thrombin by binding to its active site via an uncompetitive mechanism with a Ki value and dissociation constant (KD) of 0.42 ?M and 0.46 ?M, respectively. Conversely, Ruviprase demonstrated mixed inhibition (Ki = 0.16 ?M) of FXa towards its physiological substrate prothrombin. Furthermore, the biological properties of Ruviprase could not be neutralized by commercial polyvalent or monovalent antivenom. Ruviprase at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg was non-toxic and showed potent in vivo anticoagulant activity after 6 h of intraperitoneal treatment in mice. Because of the potent anticoagulant property as well as non-toxic nature of Ruviprase, the possible application of the peptide as an antithrombotic agent for combating thrombosis-associated ailments appears promising. PMID:25038567

Thakur, Rupamoni; Kumar, Ashok; Bose, Biplab; Panda, Dulal; Saikia, Debashree; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Mukherjee, Ashis K

2014-10-01

147

Novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor NVP-BKM120 induces apoptosis in myeloma cells and shows synergistic anti-myeloma activity with dexamethasone  

PubMed Central

NVP-BKM120 is a novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor and is currently being investigated in phase I clinical trials in solid tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of BKM120 in multiple myeloma (MM). BKM120 induces cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in both MM cell lines and freshly isolated primary MM cells. However, BKM120 only shows limited cytotoxicity toward normal lymphocytes. The presence of MM bone marrow stromal cells, insulin-like growth factor, or interleukin-6 does not affect BKM120-induced tumor cell apoptosis. More importantly, BKM120 treatment significantly inhibits tumor growth in vivo and prolongs the survival of myeloma-bearing mice. In addition, BKM120 shows synergistic cytotoxicity with dexamethasone in dexamethasone-sensitive MM cells. Low doses of BKM120 and dexamethasone, each of which alone has limited cytotoxicity, induce significant cell apoptosis in MM.1S and ARP-1. Mechanistic study shows that BKM120 exposure causes cell cycle arrest by upregulating p27 (Kip1) and downregulating cyclin D1 and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis by downregulating antiapoptotic XIAP and upregulating expression of cytotoxic small isoform of Bim, BimS. In summary, our findings demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo anti-MM activity of BKM120 and suggest that BKM120 alone or together with other MM chemotherapeutics, particularly dexamethasone, may be a promising treatment for MM. PMID:22207485

Zheng, Yuhuan; Yang, Jing; Qian, Jianfei; Zhang, Liang; Lu, Yong; Li, Haiyan; Lin, Heather; Lan, Yongsheng; Liu, Zhiqiang; He, Jin; Hong, Sungyoul; Thomas, Sheeba; Shah, Jatin; Baladandayuthapani, Veera; Kwak, Larry W.; Yi, Qing

2014-01-01

148

Background Synaptic Activity in Rat Entorhinal Cortex Shows a Progressively Greater Dominance of Inhibition over Excitation from Deep to Superficial Layers  

PubMed Central

The entorhinal cortex (EC) controls hippocampal input and output, playing major roles in memory and spatial navigation. Different layers of the EC subserve different functions and a number of studies have compared properties of neurones across layers. We have studied synaptic inhibition and excitation in EC neurones, and we have previously compared spontaneous synaptic release of glutamate and GABA using patch clamp recordings of synaptic currents in principal neurones of layers II (L2) and V (L5). Here, we add comparative studies in layer III (L3). Such studies essentially look at neuronal activity from a presynaptic viewpoint. To correlate this with the postsynaptic consequences of spontaneous transmitter release, we have determined global postsynaptic conductances mediated by the two transmitters, using a method to estimate conductances from membrane potential fluctuations. We have previously presented some of this data for L3 and now extend to L2 and L5. Inhibition dominates excitation in all layers but the ratio follows a clear rank order (highest to lowest) of L2>L3>L5. The variance of the background conductances was markedly higher for excitation and inhibition in L2 compared to L3 or L5. We also show that induction of synchronized network epileptiform activity by blockade of GABA inhibition reveals a relative reluctance of L2 to participate in such activity. This was associated with maintenance of a dominant background inhibition in L2, whereas in L3 and L5 the absolute level of inhibition fell below that of excitation, coincident with the appearance of synchronized discharges. Further experiments identified potential roles for competition for bicuculline by ambient GABA at the GABAA receptor, and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in residual inhibition in L2. We discuss our results in terms of control of excitability in neuronal subpopulations of EC neurones and what these may suggest for their functional roles. PMID:24454801

Greenhill, Stuart David; Chamberlain, Sophie Elizabeth Lyn; Lench, Alex; Massey, Peter Vernon; Yuill, Kathryn Heather; Woodhall, Gavin Lawrence; Jones, Roland Spencer Gwynne

2014-01-01

149

Surface modification with multiphilic ligands at detectable well defined active positions of nano-object of giant wheel shaped molybdenum blue showing third-order nonlinear optical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of an aqueous solution of sodium molybdate with L-tyrosine in the presence of reducing agent results in the formation of a new compound of the formula of Na 8Co 3[Mo VI126 Mo V28O 462H 14(H 2O) 46(HOC 6H 4CH 2CH( NH3+)COO -) 12]·ca. 200H 2O. The compound contains nanosized ring-shaped clusters with tyrosine ligands possessing different types of functional groups (one -CO 2, one -NH3+ and one -ArOH) coordinated through the carboxylate groups at the active sites of the inner cavity. Importantly, the result demonstrates that not only active sites/areas of the cluster surface under a specified condition can be directly monitored and detected but also novel type surfaces within the cavity of a nano-structured ring-shaped cluster can be generated simultaneously. The nonlinear optical properties of the new cluster are studied using the well-known Z-scan technique at a wavelength of 532 nm with laser pulse duration of 18 ps. The results show that the new cluster exhibits interesting self-focusing nonlinear optical response with the real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility ?(3) being 1.069 × 10 -13(esu) and 2.529 × 10 -15(esu), respectively, which may find application in material science.

Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Yuhao; Zhou, Yunshan

2010-04-01

150

New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity - crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles. PMID:23572252

Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N.; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George S.; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

2013-01-01

151

Midterm Picnic ELI Talent Show  

E-print Network

Highlights Midterm Picnic ELI Talent Show Notes from the Office Birthdays Manners Grammar The will be on the Activities Board and in next week's Weekly. ELI Talent Show Do you have a talent? Show it to us at the ELI Talent Show! The talent show is open to ELI students, faculty, staff, and LAs. Acts can include

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

152

Identification of a new mutagenic polychlorinated biphenyl derivative in the Waka River, Wakayama, Japan, showing activation of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent transcription.  

PubMed

Water samples from the Waka River, which runs through an area housing many chemical industry facilities in Wakayama, Japan, have been found to show significant mutagenicity, especially without a mammalian metabolic activation system (S9 mix) in the Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 strain. Mutagens in the river water were adsorbed to 3 kg of blue cotton, extracted with methanol/ammonia, and separated by several low- and high-pressure liquid chromatography steps with reversed-phase columns. One mutagen (0.6 mg), accounting for 50% of the total mutagenicity of the adsorbed materials, was isolated. On the basis of the mass, high-resolution mass, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra, the chemical was determined to have a polychlorinated biphenyl skeleton with nitro and amino substitution groups. Well-designed chemical synthesis of the putative mutagen revealed it to be 4-amino-3,3'-dichloro-5,4'-dinitrobiphenyl. This novel compound exerted strong mutagenicity without the S9 mix, inducing 66,000 and 140,000 revertants/nmol in S. typhimurium TA98 and YG1024, respectively. Moreover, this polychlorinated biphenyl derivative was proven to activate the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transcription in a lac Z reporter gene assay with an efficiency almost the same as that of beta-naphthoflavone, well-known to be a synthetic aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist. It is possible that the mutagen is formed unintentionally via postemission modification of drainage water containing parent chemicals, such as 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine or 3,3'-dichloro-4,4'-dinitrobiphenyl, which are known to be raw materials in the manufacture of polymers and dye intermediates in chemical plants. PMID:11896690

Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Watanabe, Tetsushi; Tada, Atsuko; Hirayama, Teruhisa; Nukaya, Haruo; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

2002-03-01

153

A socio-ecological approach promoting physical activity and limiting sedentary behavior in adolescence showed weight benefits maintained 2.5 years after intervention cessation  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity in youth remains a major public health issue. Yet no effective long-term preventive strategy exists. We previously showed that a school-based socio-ecological approach targeting behavior and social/environmental influences on physical activity (PA) prevented 4-year excessive weight gain in 12-year olds. In this study, we investigated if this efficacy persists 30 months after intervention cessation. Methods and Findings: The program targeted students, family, school and the living environment to promote/support PA and prevent sedentary behavior (SB). A total of 732 students from eight randomized middle schools completed the 4-year trial. At the 30-month post-trial follow-up, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), leisure PA (LPA), home/school/workplace active commuting, TV/video time (TVT), and attitudes toward PA were measured in 531 adolescents. The beneficial effects of the intervention on the excess BMI increase (+0.01 vs +0.34?kg?m?2 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) and on the overweight incidence in initially non-overweight students (4.3% vs 8.6% odds ratio=0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.23–1.01)) were maintained at the post-trial follow-up. LPA was not maintained at the level achieved during the trial. However, we still observed a prevention of the age-related decrease of the adolescents' percentage reporting regular LPA (?14.4% vs ?26.5%) and a higher intention to exercise in the intervention group. The intervention promoted lower TVT (?14.0 vs +13.6?min per day) and higher active commuting changes (+11.7% vs ?4.8%). Trends in higher BMI reduction in students with high initial TVT and in the least wealthy group were noted. TVT changes throughout the follow-up predicted excess BMI and FMI changes. Conclusions: Long-term multilevel approach targeting PA and SB prevents excessive weight gain up to 30 months after intervention cessation. The efficacy may be higher in the most sedentary and least wealthy adolescents. Healthy PA-related behavior inducing long-lasting weight effects can be promoted in youth providing that an ecological approach is introduced in the prevention strategy. PMID:24509504

Simon, C; Kellou, N; Dugas, J; Platat, C; Copin, N; Schweitzer, B; Hausser, F; Bergouignan, A; Lefai, E; Blanc, S

2014-01-01

154

Activity of a maize ubiquitin promoter in transgenic rice.  

PubMed

We have used the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter, first exon and first intron (UBI) for rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Taipei 309) transformation experiments and studied its expression in transgenic calli and plants. UBI directed significantly higher levels of transient gene expression than other promoter/intron combinations used for rice transformation. We exploited these high levels of expression to identify stable transformants obtained from callus-derived protoplasts co-transfected with two chimeric genes. The genes consisted of UBI fused to the coding regions of the uidA and bar marker genes (UBI:GUS and UBI:BAR). UBI:GUS expression increased in response to thermal stress in both transfected protoplasts and transgenic rice calli. Histochemical localization of GUS activity revealed that UBI was most active in rapidly dividing cells. This promoter is expressed in many, but not all, rice tissues and undergoes important changes in activity during the development of transgenic rice plants. PMID:8219091

Cornejo, M J; Luth, D; Blankenship, K M; Anderson, O D; Blechl, A E

1993-11-01

155

The prolyl isomerase domain of PpiD from Escherichia coli shows a parvulin fold but is devoid of catalytic activity  

PubMed Central

PpiD is a periplasmic folding helper protein of Escherichia coli. It consists of an N-terminal helix that anchors PpiD in the inner membrane near the SecYEG translocon, followed by three periplasmic domains. The second domain (residues 264–357) shows homology to parvulin-like prolyl isomerases. This domain is a well folded, stable protein and follows a simple two-state folding mechanism. In its solution structure, as determined by NMR spectroscopy, it resembles most closely the first parvulin domain of the SurA protein, which resides in the periplasm of E. coli as well. A previously reported prolyl isomerase activity of PpiD could not be reproduced when using improved protease-free peptide assays or assays with refolding proteins as substrates. The parvulin domain of PpiD interacts, however, with a proline-containing tetrapeptide, and the binding site, as identified by NMR resonance shift analysis, colocalized with the catalytic sites of other parvulins. In its structure, the parvulin domain of PpiD resembles most closely the inactive first parvulin domain of SurA, which is part of the chaperone unit of this protein and presumably involved in substrate recognition. PMID:19866485

Weininger, Ulrich; Jakob, Roman P; Kovermann, Michael; Balbach, Jochen; Schmid, Franz X

2010-01-01

156

The novel toluidine sulphonamide EL102 shows pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo activity against prostate cancer and circumvents MDR1 resistance  

PubMed Central

Background: Taxanes are routinely used for the treatment of prostate cancer, however the majority of patients eventually develop resistance. We investigated the potential efficacy of EL102, a novel toluidine sulphonamide, in pre-clinical models of prostate cancer. Methods: The effect of EL102 and/or docetaxel on PC-3, DU145, 22Rv1 and CWR22 prostate cancer cells was assessed using cell viability, cell cycle analysis and PARP cleavage assays. Tubulin polymerisation and immunofluorescence assays were used to assess tubulin dynamics. CWR22 xenograft murine model was used to assess effects on tumour proliferation. Multidrug-resistant lung cancer DLKPA was used to assess EL102 in a MDR1-mediated drug resistance background. Results: EL102 has in vitro activity against prostate cancer, characterised by accumulation in G2/M, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of Hif1?, and inhibition of tubulin polymerisation and decreased microtubule stability. In vivo, a combination of EL102 and docetaxel exhibits superior tumour inhibition. The DLKP cell line and multidrug-resistant DLKPA variant (which exhibits 205 to 691-fold greater resistance to docetaxel, paclitaxel, vincristine and doxorubicin) are equally sensitive to EL102. Conclusion: EL102 shows potential as both a single agent and within combination regimens for the treatment of prostate cancer, particularly in the chemoresistance setting. PMID:24052043

Toner, A P; McLaughlin, F; Giles, F J; Sullivan, F J; O'Connell, E; Carleton, L A; Breen, L; Dunne, G; Gorman, A M; Lewis, J D; Glynn, S A

2013-01-01

157

CKR-L3, a deletion version CCR6-isoform shows coreceptor-activity for limited human and simian immunodeficiency viruses  

PubMed Central

Background The chemokine receptors (CKRs), mainly CCR5 and CXCR4 function as major coreceptors in infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Approximately 20 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified as minor coreceptors, alike CCR6 that we reported recently. Since CKR-L3 is indentified as a natural isoform of CCR6, we attempted in this study to explore the coreceptor function of CKR-L3. Methods NP-2 cells transduced with CD4-receptor (NP-2/CD4) normally remain resistant to HIV or SIV infection. However, the introduction of functional coreceptors can make these cells susceptible to these viruses. NP-2/CD4/CKR-L3 cells were produced to examine the coreceptor activity of CKR-L3. Likely, CCR6-isoform and the major coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4 were also examined in parallel. Presence of viral antigen in infected NP-2/CD4/coreceptor cells was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The results were validated by detection of syncytia, proviral DNA and by measuring reverse transcriptase (RT) activities. Results HIV-2MIR and SIVsmE660 were found to infect NP-2/CD4/CKR-L3 cells, indicative of the coreceptor function of CKR-L3. Viral antigens appeared faster in NP-2/CD4/CKR-L3 cells than in NP-2/CD4/CCR6, indicating that CKR-L3 is a more efficient coreceptor. Moreover, syncytia formation was more rapid and RT release evidenced earlier and at higher levels with CKR-L3 than with CCR6. Sequence analysis in the C2-V3 envelope region of HIV-2MIR replicated through CKR-L3 and CCR6 coreceptor showed two and three amino acid substitutions respectively, in the C2 region compared to the CCR5-variant. The SIVsmE660-CKRL3 variant showed three amino acid substitutions in the V1 region, one change in the V2 and two changes in the C2 region. The SIVsmE660-CCR6 variant produced two changes in the V1 region, and three in the C2 region. Conclusions Isoform CKR-L3 exhibited coreceptor activity for limited primary HIV and SIV isolates with better efficiency than the parent CCR6-isoform. Amino acid substitutions in the envelope region of these viruses may confer selective pressure towards CKR-L3-use. CKR-L3 with other minor coreceptors may contribute to HIV and SIV pathogenesis including dissemination, trafficking and latency especially when major coreceptors become compromised. However, further works will be required to determine its clinical significance in HIV and SIV infection. PMID:24980635

2014-01-01

158

Increased Expression of CCN2, Epithelial Membrane Antigen, and Fibroblast Activation Protein in Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Fibrous Stroma Showing Aggressive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Tumor behavior is affected by the tumor microenvironment, composed of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Meanwhile, hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) with fibrous stroma reportedly exhibit aggressive behavior suggestive of tumor-stroma interaction. However, evidence of the crosstalk remains unclear. In this study, CCN2, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), fibroblast activation protein (FAP), and keratin 19 (K19) expression was studied in 314 HCCs (cohort 1), 42 scirrhous HCCs (cohort 2), and 36 chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis specimens by immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathological parameters were analyzed according to the expressions of these markers. In tumor epithelial cells from cohort 1, CCN2 and EMA were expressed in 15.3% and 17.2%, respectively, and their expressions were more frequent in HCCs with fibrous stroma (?5% of tumor area) than those without (P<0.05 for all); CCN2 expression was well correlated with K19 and EMA expression. In tumor stromal cells, FAP expression was found in 6.7%. In cohort 2, CCN2, EMA, and FAP expression was noted in 40.5%, 40.5%, and 66.7%, respectively, which was more frequent than that in cohort 1 (P<0.05 for all). Additionally, EMA expression was associated with the expression of K19, CCN2, and FAP (P<0.05 for all); EMA expressing tumor epithelial cells showed a topographic closeness to FAP-expressing CAFs. Analysis of disease-free survival revealed CCN2 expression to be a worse prognostic factor in both cohort 1 (P?=?0.005) and cohort 2 (P?=?0.023), as well as EMA as a worse prognostic factor in cohort 2 (P?=?0.048). In conclusion, expression of CCN2, EMA, and FAP may be involved in the activation of CAFs in HCC, giving rise to aggressive behavior. Significant correlation between EMA-expressing tumor cells and FAP-expressing CAFs and their topographic closeness suggests possible cross-talk between tumor epithelial cells and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment of HCC. PMID:25126747

Yoo, Jeong Eun; Ko, Jung Eun; Lee, Jee San; Kim, Hyunki; Choi, Jin Sub; Park, Young Nyun

2014-01-01

159

Doxorubicin-conjugated PEGylated dendrimers show similar tumoricidal activity but lower systemic toxicity when compared to PEGylated liposome and solution formulations in mouse and rat tumor models.  

PubMed

PEGylated polylysine dendrimers show promise as novel drug delivery systems with the potential to direct site specific deposition patterns and to reduce toxicity at nontarget sites. Here the activity and toxicity profiles of a generation 5 polylysine dendrimer with 50% surface conjugation of PEG1100 and 50% surface conjugation of doxorubicin (via an acid labile 4-hydrazinosulfonyl benzoic acid linker) have been compared in a Walker 256 rat tumor model and a human MDA-MB231 xenograft in mice. A direct comparison was also made to a PEGylated liposomal formulation of doxorubicin and a doxorubicin solution. In both rat and mouse breast cancer models, the dendrimer formulation gave equivalent antitumor efficacy when compared to the liposomal or solution doxorubicin formulations and administration of all three doxorubicin formulations resulted in a significant reduction (>75%) in tumor growth in both models at doses ranging from 2 to 10 mg/kg doxorubicin equivalents. The dendrimer formulation, however, was better tolerated by both rats and mice, and approximately 2-fold higher doses were required to induce similar levels of toxicity (as assessed by organ weight, peripheral white cell counts, body weight and survival curves) when compared to administration of the doxorubicin solution or PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. In rats the appearance of palmar plantar erythematosis (PPE), or hand foot syndrome, was also less evident after administration of dendrimer doxorubicin when compared to the liposome. Finally, even after administration to mice at 2-fold higher doses, dendrimer-doxorubicin resulted in a reduced incidence of cardiotoxicity when compared with a simple solution formulation of doxorubicin. The data suggest that dendrimer-based doxorubicin formulations may provide advantage over solution and liposomal formulations of doxorubicin via a reduction in systemic toxicity. PMID:22233281

Kaminskas, Lisa M; McLeod, Victoria M; Kelly, Brian D; Cullinane, Carleen; Sberna, Gian; Williamson, Mark; Boyd, Ben J; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher J H

2012-03-01

160

Localization of DIR1 at the tissue, cellular and subcellular levels during Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis using DIR1:GUS and DIR1:EGFP reporters  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) is an induced resistance response to pathogens, characterized by the translocation of a long-distance signal from induced leaves to distant tissues to prime them for increased resistance to future infection. DEFECTIVE in INDUCED RESISTANCE 1 (DIR1) has been hypothesized to chaperone a small signaling molecule to distant tissues during SAR in Arabidopsis. Results DIR1 promoter:DIR1-GUS/dir1-1 lines were constructed to examine DIR1 expression. DIR1 is expressed in seedlings, flowers and ubiquitously in untreated or mock-inoculated mature leaf cells, including phloem sieve elements and companion cells. Inoculation of leaves with SAR-inducing avirulent or virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) resulted in Type III Secretion System-dependent suppression of DIR1 expression in leaf cells. Transient expression of fluorescent fusion proteins in tobacco and intercellular washing fluid experiments indicated that DIR1's ER signal sequence targets it for secretion to the cell wall. However, DIR1 expressed without a signal sequence rescued the dir1-1 SAR defect, suggesting that a cytosolic pool of DIR1 is important for the SAR response. Conclusions Although expression of DIR1 decreases during SAR induction, the protein localizes to all living cell types of the vasculature, including companion cells and sieve elements, and therefore DIR1 is well situated to participate in long-distance signaling during SAR. PMID:21896186

2011-01-01

161

Role of an ABI3 homologue in dormancy maintenance of yellow-cedar seeds and in the activation of storage protein and Em gene promoters.  

PubMed

ABI3/VP1 proteins are members of a large group of transcription factors that act as intermediaries in regulating abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes during seed development, including those involved in reserve deposition, acquisition of desiccation tolerance and dormancy induction. CnABI3, an ABI3/VP1 gene homologue was recently cloned from yellow cedar, a conifer species that produces seeds that are deeply dormant at maturity. Here, we investigated whether the conifer ABI3/VP1 gene homologue shares characteristics with its angiosperm counterparts. CnABI3 was synthesized exclusively in seeds, with no detectable protein in leaves and roots. Stable expression of the CnABI3 gene in two transgenic tobacco lines previously transformed with chimeric constructs (vicilin and napin 5' regions linked to a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene-coding region) showed that the ectopic expression of the CnABI3 protein strongly activated both the vicilin and napin storage protein gene promoters in leaves and other vegetative tissues. GUS activities were up to more than 1000-fold of those in control plants. ABA had a synergistic effect, further enhancing GUS activity levels. When expressed transiently in yellow-cedar embryos, CnABI3 activated the expression of a chimeric Em-GUS gene in the presence of ABA. The role of CnABI3 in dormancy maintenance of yellow-cedar seeds was examined by monitoring the expression of the CnABI3 gene at the mRNA and protein levels before, during and after dormancy termination. CnABI3 protein was present in the megagametophyte and embryo of dormant mature and warm stratified seed, but declined during subsequent moist chilling, a treatment effective in breaking dormancy. In contrast, the protein was preserved (albeit in lower amounts) in seeds subjected to a control treatment (12 weeks in warm, moist conditions) that is ineffective in breaking dormancy. A decline in CnABI3 gene transcripts was also positively correlated with dormancy breakage, but did not occur during moist chilling itself, but rather during subsequent germination, indicating potential control at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:12602889

Zeng, Ying; Raimondi, Nancy; Kermode, Allison R

2003-01-01

162

Show Me Your Menu.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the importance of eating properly. Presents two middle school level activities: the first activity has students record what they eat for nine days; the second activity includes listing the foods according to the food pyramid and discussing their decisions. Recommends three Web sites. (YDS)

Allen, Barbara

2000-01-01

163

Genomic organization, induced expression and promoter activity of a resistance gene analog (PmTNL1) in western white pine (Pinus monticola).  

PubMed

Cronartium ribicola causes white pine blister rust (WPBR) in subgenus Strobus. Various genetic and molecular approaches were used to detect white pine genes contributing to host resistance. The molecular role of the NBS-LRR family is highly related to plant immuno-activity against various pathogens and pests. In the present study, genomic organization of a resistance gene analog (RGA), designated as PmTNL1, and its allelic variants were characterized in Pinus monticola. PmTNL1 showed high identity with TIR-NBS-LRR proteins from other plants. qRT-PCR revealed that the PmTNL1 transcript was expressed at low basal levels in different tissues and exhibited similar patterns during compatible and incompatible interactions of P. monticola with C. ribicola at early stages post inoculation. In comparison, PmTNL1 was up-regulated significantly in diseased P. monticola tissues with WPBR symptoms. Expression of the PmTNL1 promoter::GUS fusion gene in transgenic Arabidopsis demonstrated that GUS signal appeared only inside phloem tissues of young seedlings and at hydathodes and branching and organ-connecting points in mature Arabidopsis plants. Similar to the endogenous expression pattern for this gene in pine, GUS activity was up-regulated significantly around vascular tissues locally at pathogen infection sites, but little or no induction was observed in response to abiotic stresses. A DNA marker was developed based on variation of the LRR-coding region, and PmTNL1 was mapped to one genetic linkage group using a pedigree with major dominant gene (Cr2) conferring HR resistance to C. ribicola. These results suggest that PmTNL1 may play an important role in white pine partial resistance against C. ribicola. PMID:21279649

Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

2011-05-01

164

Turkish freshwater and marine macrophyte extracts show in vitro antiprotozoal activity and inhibit FabI, a key enzyme of Plasmodium falciparum fatty acid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extracts of a number of Turkish freshwater macrophytes (Potamogeton perfoliatus, Ranunculus tricophyllus and Cladophora glomerata) and marine macroalgae (Dictyota dichotoma, Halopteris scoparia, Posidonia oceanica, Scinaia furcellata, Sargassum natans and Ulva lactuca) were assayed for their in vitro antiprotozoal activity. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum were used as test organisms. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also assessed against primary rat skeletal myoblasts (L6 cells). Whereas none of the extracts were active against T. cruzi, all crude extracts displayed appreciable trypanocidal activity against T. brucei rhodesiense, with S. natans being the most active one (IC(50) 7.4microg/ml). Except for the marine alga H. scoparia, all extracts also possessed leishmanicidal potential. The best antileishmanial activity was exerted by U. lactuca and P. oceanica (IC(50)'s 5.9 and 8.0microg/ml, respectively). Five extracts that demonstrated inhibitory activity towards P. falciparum (IC(50)'s 18.1-48.8microg/ml) were simultaneously assayed against FabI, a crucial enzyme of the fatty acid system of P. falciparum, to find out whether FabI was their target. The extracts of C. glomerata and U. lactuca efficiently inhibited the FabI enzyme with IC(50) values of 1.0 and 4.0microg/ml, respectively. None of the extracts were cytotoxic towards mammalian L6 cells. This work reports for the first time antiprotozoal activity of some Turkish marine and freshwater algae, as well as a target-based antiplasmodial screening for the identification of P. falciparum FabI inhibitors from aquatic and marine macrophytes. PMID:16697632

Orhan, I; Sener, B; Atici, T; Brun, R; Perozzo, R; Tasdemir, D

2006-06-01

165

Supplementation with sodium selenite and selenium-enriched microalgae biomass show varying effects on blood enzymes activities, antioxidant response, and accumulation in common barbel (Barbus barbus).  

PubMed

Yearling common barbel (Barbus barbus L.) were fed four purified casein-based diets for 6 weeks in outdoor cages. Besides control diet, these were supplemented with 0.3 mg kg(-1) dw selenium (Se) from sodium selenite, or 0.3 and 1.0 mg kg(-1) from Se-enriched microalgae biomass (Chlorella), a previously untested Se source for fish. Fish mortality, growth, Se accumulation in muscle and liver, and activity of selected enzymes in blood plasma, muscle, liver, and intestine were evaluated. There was no mortality, and no differences in fish growth, among groups. Se concentrations in muscle and liver, activity of alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase in blood plasma, glutathione reductase (GR) in muscle, and GR and catalase in muscle and liver suggested that selenium from Se-enriched Chlorella is more readily accumulated and biologically active while being less toxic than sodium selenite. PMID:24772422

Kouba, Antonín; Velíšek, Josef; Stará, Alžb?ta; Masojídek, Ji?í; Kozák, Pavel

2014-01-01

166

Quantitative genome-wide enhancer activity maps for five Drosophila species show functional enhancer conservation and turnover during cis-regulatory evolution  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic differences between closely related species are thought to arise primarily from changes in gene expression due to mutations in cis-regulatory sequences (enhancers). However, it has remained unclear how frequently mutations alter enhancer activity or create functional enhancers de novo. Here we use STARR-seq, a recently developed quantitative enhancer assay, to determine genome-wide enhancer activity profiles for five Drosophila species in the constant trans-regulatory environment of Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. We find that the functions of a large fraction of D. melanogaster enhancers are conserved for their orthologous sequences owing to selection and stabilizing turnover of transcription factor motifs. Moreover, hundreds of enhancers have been gained since the D. melanogaster–Drosophila yakuba split about 11 million years ago without apparent adaptive selection and can contribute to changes in gene expression in vivo. Our finding that enhancer activity is often deeply conserved and frequently gained provides functional insights into regulatory evolution. PMID:24908250

Arnold, Cosmas D; Gerlach, Daniel; Spies, Daniel; Matts, Jessica A; Sytnikova, Yuliya A; Pagani, Michaela; Lau, Nelson C; Stark, Alexander

2014-01-01

167

Quantitative genome-wide enhancer activity maps for five Drosophila species show functional enhancer conservation and turnover during cis-regulatory evolution.  

PubMed

Phenotypic differences between closely related species are thought to arise primarily from changes in gene expression due to mutations in cis-regulatory sequences (enhancers). However, it has remained unclear how frequently mutations alter enhancer activity or create functional enhancers de novo. Here we use STARR-seq, a recently developed quantitative enhancer assay, to determine genome-wide enhancer activity profiles for five Drosophila species in the constant trans-regulatory environment of Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. We find that the functions of a large fraction of D. melanogaster enhancers are conserved for their orthologous sequences owing to selection and stabilizing turnover of transcription factor motifs. Moreover, hundreds of enhancers have been gained since the D. melanogaster-Drosophila yakuba split about 11 million years ago without apparent adaptive selection and can contribute to changes in gene expression in vivo. Our finding that enhancer activity is often deeply conserved and frequently gained provides functional insights into regulatory evolution. PMID:24908250

Arnold, Cosmas D; Gerlach, Daniel; Spies, Daniel; Matts, Jessica A; Sytnikova, Yuliya A; Pagani, Michaela; Lau, Nelson C; Stark, Alexander

2014-07-01

168

A GPBAR1 (TGR5) Small Molecule Agonist Shows Specific Inhibitory Effects on Myeloid Cell Activation In Vitro and Reduces Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis (EAE) In Vivo  

PubMed Central

GPBAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by certain bile acids and plays an important role in the regulation of bile acid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that GPBAR1 may also have important effects in reducing the inflammatory response through its expression on monocytes and macrophages. To further understand the role of GPBAR1 in inflammation, we generated a novel, selective, proprietary GPBAR1 agonist and tested its effectiveness at reducing monocyte and macrophage activation in vitro and in vivo. We have used this agonist, together with previously described agonists to study agonism of GPBAR1, and shown that they can all induce cAMP and reduce TLR activation-induced cytokine production in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. Additionally, through the usage of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we identified a select set of genes that are regulated by GPBAR1 agonism during LPS activation. To further define the in vivo role of GPBAR1 in inflammation, we assessed GPBAR1 expression and found high levels on circulating mouse monocytes. Agonism of GPBAR1 reduced LPS-induced cytokine production in mouse monocytes ex vivo and serum cytokine levels in vivo. Agonism of GPBAR1 also had profound effects in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis, where monocytes play an important role. Mice treated with the GPBAR1 agonist exhibited a significant reduction in the EAE clinical score which correlated with reduced monocyte and microglial activation and reduced trafficking of monocytes and T cells into the CNS. These data confirm the importance of GPBAR1 in controlling monocyte and macrophage activation in vivo and support the rationale for selective agonists of GPBAR1 in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24967665

Lewis, Nuruddeen D.; Patnaude, Lori A.; Pelletier, Josephine; Souza, Donald J.; Lukas, Susan M.; King, F. James; Hill, Jonathan D.; Stefanopoulos, Dimitria E.; Ryan, Kelli; Desai, Sudha; Skow, Donna; Kauschke, Stefan G.; Broermann, Andre; Kuzmich, Daniel; Harcken, Christian; Hickey, Eugene R.; Modis, Louise K.

2014-01-01

169

The Great Cometary Show  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER

2007-01-01

170

GYY4137, a hydrogen sulfide (H?S) donor, shows potent anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activity through blocking the STAT3 pathway.  

PubMed

GYY4137, a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, exhibits anticancer activity by a combination of cell cycle arrest and promoting apoptosis, and inhibits tumor growth, however, the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we discovered that GYY4137-mediated suppression of cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and tumor growth in a subcutaneous HepG2 xenograft model may be due to directly targeting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. We found that GYY4137 suppressed STAT3 activation by reducing p-STAT3 (Y705) levels effectively in HepG2 and Bel7402 cells. Altered expression levels of STAT3-regulated downstream proteins including Bcl-2, cyclin D1, Mcl-1, survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) may contribute to the inhibition of G1/S cell cycle transition and angiogenesis. Increased cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage may induce cell apoptosis in HepG2 and Bel7402 cells. In vivo, GYY4137 significantly inhibited tumor growth in the subcutaneous HepG2 xenograft model by inhibiting STAT3 activation and its target gene expression. These results suggest that GYY4137-mediated suppression of HCC growth may be due to the inhibition of the STAT3 pathway. PMID:24535538

Lu, Sen; Gao, Yun; Huang, Xinli; Wang, Xuehao

2014-04-01

171

Show Your Colors!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this family or group activity, learners conduct a chromatography experiment to reveal the colors that leaves "hide" under their green pigments. Use this experiment to predict what colors the leaves will "turn" in the fall.

Park, Smithsonian N.

2011-08-20

172

KSC Wildlife Show  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video highlights footage of the many forms of animal and plant life that inhabit the environs surrounding KSC. Shown are birds, alligators, butterflies, and plants as they react to shuttle launches and other activities eminating from KSC.

1994-01-01

173

The triple combination of tenofovir, emtricitabine and efavirenz shows synergistic anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro: a mechanism of action study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC), and efavirenz (EFV) are the three components of the once-daily, single tablet regimen (Atripla) for treatment of HIV-1 infection. Previous cell culture studies have demonstrated that the double combination of tenofovir (TFV), the parent drug of TDF, and FTC were additive to synergistic in their anti-HIV activity, which correlated with increased levels of

Joy Y Feng; John K Ly; Florence Myrick; Derrick Goodman; Kirsten L White; Evguenia S Svarovskaia; Katyna Borroto-Esoda; Michael D Miller

2009-01-01

174

Bone marrow stromal cell lines having high potential for osteoclast-supporting activity express PPAR?1 and show high potential for differentiation into adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow stromal cells support osteoclast differentiation by expressing receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL). Although\\u000a several bone marrow stromal cell lines have been established and characterized, the differentiation stage of the supporting\\u000a cells for osteoclast differentiation remains unclear. We have established several bone marrow stromal cell lines from transgenic\\u000a mice harboring the temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen. Some of

Katsuhisa Takagi; Akira Kudo

2008-01-01

175

Plasma renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in early stage Alzheimer's disease and show gender differences but are not related to apolipoprotein E genotype.  

PubMed

Alterations in blood pressure and components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contribute to the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), resulting in changes that can lead or contribute to cognitive decline. Aspartyl aminopeptidase (ASAP), aminopeptidase A (APA), aminopeptidase N (APN) and aminopeptidase B (APB) catabolise circulating angiotensins, whereas insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) has been described as the AT4 receptor. We have found in AD patients a significant decrease of APA activity in men but not in women, and of APN, APB and IRAP in both genders, when compared with control subjects. No changes were found in ASAP activity. Also, APN, APB and IRAP but not APA correlated with the Mini-Mental test, but no relationship with APOE genotype was found. We conclude that several components of the RAS are modified in AD patients, with gender differences. Furthermore, ROC analysis indicates that APN, APB and IRAP activities could be useful non-invasive biomarkers of AD from the earliest stages. PMID:23500679

Puertas, María Del Carmen; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel; Cobo, Manuela; Lorite, Pedro; Sandalio, Rosa María; Palomeque, Teresa; Torres, María Isabel; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús

2013-06-01

176

The Art Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show…

Scolarici, Alicia

2004-01-01

177

FTY720 Shows Promising In vitro and In vivo Preclinical Activity by Downmodulating Cyclin D1 and Phospho-Akt in Mantle Cell Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Despite the progress that has been made in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), all patients invariably relapse with the currently available therapies. Because of the absence of curative therapy for MCL, we explored FTY720 as a novel agent against MCL. Experimental Design The cytotoxic effect of FTY720 in primary MCL tumor cells and cell lines were evaluated in vitro. The effects of FTY720 on caspase activation, generation of reactive oxygen species, and modulation of Cyclin D1 and Akt, which are implied in the pathogenesis of MCL, were investigated. The in vivo efficacy of FTY720 was evaluated in a Jeko-severe combined immunodeficient xenograft model of human MCL. Results FTY720 mediated time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in primary MCL tumor cells and MCL cell lines in vitro. FTY720-induced cytotoxicity occured independent of caspase activation but dependent on the generation of ROS in MCL. In addition, FTY720 treatment resulted in the time-dependent downmodulation of Cyclin D1 and accumulation of cells in G0-G1 and G2-M phases of the cell cycle with concomitant decrease in S-phase entry. Furthermore, concentrations of FTY720 that induced cytotoxicity led to decreased phospho-Akt in primary MCL cells and cell lines. Most importantly, the in vivo therapeutic activity of FTY720 was shown in severe combined immunodeficient mice engrafted with the Jeko MCL cell line. Conclusions These results provide the first evidence for a potential use of FTY720 in targeting key pathways that are operable in the pathogenesis of MCL and warrant further investigation of FTY720 in clinical trials to treat patients with MCL. PMID:20460491

Liu, Qing; Alinari, Lapo; Chen, Ching-Shih; Yan, Fengting; Dalton, James T.; Lapalombella, Rosa; Zhang, Xiaoli; Mani, Rajeswaran; Lin, Teresa; Byrd, John C.; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Muthusamy, Natarajan

2014-01-01

178

The Diane Rehm Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.

179

Pseudoephedrine/ephedrine shows potent anti-inflammatory activity against TNF-?-mediated acute liver failure induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effects of pseudoephedrine/ephedrine were investigated using the experimental model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitised male rats in order to elucidate effects other than sympathomimetic effects. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with D-GalN (400 mg/kg) and LPS (40 ?g/kg) to induce acute liver failure. The treatment groups were then intraperitoneally administered pseudoephedrine/ephedrine at 0 h and 4 h after induction and the activation induced by treatment with pseudoephedrine and/or LPS on the primary Kupffer cells (KCs) was monitored. Compared with controls induced by GalN/LPS alone, pseudoephedrine dramatically reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and bile ductular hyperplasia and hepatic necrosis observed in liver sections. It inhibited both hepatocellular apoptosis and the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1. It lowered the production of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in the beginning of acute liver failure induced by D-GalN/LPS. Correspondingly, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and malondialdehyde were attenuated. Ephedrine demonstrated all these identical protective effects as well. In addition, pseudoephedrine significantly suppressed the production of p-I?B-?, reducing the degradation of sequestered nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in the cytoplasm, and inhibited the translocation of NF-?B/p65 to the nucleus, the transcription of TNF-? mRNA and the production of TNF-? in primary KCs. These results suggest that pseudoephedrine and ephedrine have a potent anti-inflammatory activity against D-GalN/LPS-induced acute liver failure in rats, and this comprehensive anti-inflammatory effect may result from the inhibition of TNF-? production. PMID:24365491

Wu, Zhongping; Kong, Xiangliang; Zhang, Tong; Ye, Jin; Fang, Zhaoqin; Yang, Xuejun

2014-02-01

180

The B cell coactivator Bob1 shows DNA sequence-dependent complex formation with Oct-1/Oct-2 factors, leading to differential promoter activation.  

PubMed Central

We have shown previously that both octamer binding transcription factors, namely the ubiquitous Oct-1 and the B cell-specific Oct-2A protein, can be enhanced in transcriptional activity by their association with the B cell-specific coactivator protein Bob1, also called OBF-1 or OCA-B. Here we study the structural requirements for ternary complex formation of DNA-Oct-Bob1 and coactivation function of Bob1. In analogy to DNA-bound transcription factors, Bob1 has a modular structure that includes an interaction domain (amino acids 1-65) and a C-terminal domain (amino acids 65-256), both important for transcriptional activation. A mutational analysis has resolved a region of seven amino acids (amino acids 26-32) in the N-terminus of Bob1 that are important for contacting the DNA binding POU domain of Oct-1 or Oct-2. In contrast to the viral coactivator VP16 (vmw65), which interacts with Oct-1 via the POU homeosubdomain, Bob1 association with Oct factors requires residues located in the POU-specific subdomain. Because the same residues are also involved in DNA recognition, we surmised that this association would affect the DNA binding specificity of the Oct-Bob1 complex compared with free Oct factors. While Oct-1 or Oct-2 bind to a large variety of octamer sequences, Bob1 ternary complex formation is indeed highly selective and occurs only in a subset of these sequences, leading to the differential coactivation of octamer-containing promoters. The results uncover a new level in selectivity that furthers our understanding in the regulation of cell type-specific gene expression. Images PMID:8654375

Gstaiger, M; Georgiev, O; van Leeuwen, H; van der Vliet, P; Schaffner, W

1996-01-01

181

Laninamivir Prodrug CS-8958, a Long-Acting Neuraminidase Inhibitor, Shows Superior Anti-Influenza Virus Activity after a Single Administration?  

PubMed Central

Two neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu), have been licensed for use for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. We have reported on laninamivir (code name, R-125489), a novel neuraminidase inhibitor, and have discovered that the laninamivir prodrug CS-8958 worked as a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor in a mouse influenza virus infection model when it is intranasally administered. In this study, CS-8958 was administered just once 7 days before infection and showed significant efficacy in vivo. The efficacy of a single administration of CS-8958 after viral infection was then compared with that of repeated administrations of oseltamivir phosphate or zanamivir in mice and ferrets. CS-8958 showed efficacy superior or similar to the efficacies of the two licensed NA inhibitors. CS-8958 also significantly reduced the titers of an oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 virus with a neuraminidase H274Y substitution in a mouse infection model. These results suggest that since CS-8958 is characteristically long lasting in the lungs, it may be ideal for the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza. PMID:20047917

Kubo, Shuku; Tomozawa, Takanori; Kakuta, Masayo; Tokumitsu, Akane; Yamashita, Makoto

2010-01-01

182

Translation elongation factor 1A mutants with altered actin bundling activity show reduced aminoacyl-tRNA binding and alter initiation via eIF2? phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Apart from its canonical function in translation elongation, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) has been shown to interact with the actin cytoskeleton. Amino acid substitutions in eEF1A that reduce its ability to bind and bundle actin in vitro cause improper actin organization in vivo and reduce total translation. Initial in vivo analysis indicated the reduced translation was through initiation. The mutant strains exhibit increased levels of phosphorylated initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) dependent on the presence of the general control non-derepressible 2 (Gcn2p) protein kinase. Gcn2p causes downregulation of total protein synthesis at initiation in response to increases in deacylated tRNA levels in the cell. Increased levels of eIF2? phosphorylation are not due to a general reduction in translation elongation as eEF2 and eEF3 mutants do not exhibit this effect. Deletion of GCN2 from the eEF1A actin bundling mutant strains revealed a second defect in translation. The eEF1A actin-bundling proteins exhibit changes in their elongation activity at the level of aminoacyl-tRNA binding in vitro. These findings implicate eEF1A in a feedback mechanism for regulating translation at initiation. PMID:24936063

Perez, Winder B; Kinzy, Terri Goss

2014-07-25

183

Chemistry Game Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technological improvement to the use of game shows to help students review for tests. Our approach uses HTML files interpreted with a browser on a computer attached to an LCD projector. The HTML files can be easily modified for use of the game in a variety of courses.

Susan Campbell; Jennifer Muzyka

2002-01-01

184

Obesity in show cats.  

PubMed

Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

Corbee, R J

2014-12-01

185

Show-Me Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Show-Me Center is a partnership of four NSF-sponsored middle grades mathematics curriculum development Satellite Centers (University of Wisconsin, Michigan State University, University of Montana, and the Educational Development Center). The group's website provides "information and resources needed to support selection and implementation of standards-based middle grades mathematics curricula." The Video Showcase includes segments on Number, Algebra, Geometry, Measure, and Data Analysis, with information on ways to obtain the complete video set. The Curricula Showcase provides general information, unit goals, sample lessons and teacher pages spanning four projects: the Connected Mathematics Project (CMP), Mathematics in Context (MiC), MathScape: Seeing and Thinking Mathematically, and Middle Grades Math Thematics. The website also posts Show-Me Center newsletters, information on upcoming conferences and workshops, and links to resources including published articles and unpublished commentary on mathematics school reform.

186

Show-Me Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Come along as the folks at the University of Missouri show you the history of their college days through the Show Me magazine. It's a wonderful collection of college humor published from 1946 to 1963. First-time visitors would do well to read about the magazine's colorful past, courtesy of Jerry Smith. A good place to start is the November 1920 issue (easily found when you browse by date), which contains a number of parody advertisements along with some doggerels poking good natured fun at the football team and an assortment of deans. Also, it's worth noting that visitors can scroll through issues and save them to an online "bookbag" for later use.

2008-01-01

187

The Truman Show  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Truman Show is hardly a film you would automatically speak about as a game. At first glance, it is tempting to interpret the story of\\u000a Truman Burbank — his perpetual subjection to the artificial (televisual) world of Seahaven and its gargantuan reality TV project,\\u000a his eventual escape from the “OmniCam Ecosphere” building and the paternalistic surveillance of director Christof

Rolf F. Nohr

188

The Graphing Game Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan assesses student interpretation of graphs utilizing cooperative learning to further students understanding. Types of graphs used are horizontal and vertical bar graphs, picture graphs, and pictographs. In the lesson students play a game called the Graphing Game Show, in which they must work as a team to answer questions about specific graphs. The lesson includes four student resource worksheets and suggestions for extension and differentiation.

2011-01-01

189

than the PCR detection method. After co-culture, leaf discs were assayed for GUS activity (using 0.5 mg ml21  

E-print Network

.0. Analysis of transformed plants Genomic DNA was extracted from the regenerated plants using DNAzol.5 mg ml21 X-glcA) or transferred to regeneration media containing antibiotics. Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv (Invitrogen), digested with EcoRI and used for Southern blotting with a 32 P-labelled GUSPlus probe. Plant DNA

Jordan, King

190

Obesity in show dogs.  

PubMed

Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

Corbee, R J

2012-08-11

191

NPR: The Picture Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Public Radio's "The Picture Show" photo blog is a great way to avoid culling through the thousands of less interesting and engaging photographs on the web. With a dedicated team of professionals, this blog brings together different posts that profile various sets of photographs that cover 19th century war in Afghanistan, visual memories of WWII, unpublished photographs of JFK's presidential campaign, and abandoned buildings on the islands in Boston Harbor. Visitors can search through previous posts, use social media features to share the photo features with friends, and also sign up to receive new materials via their RSS feed. There's quite a nice mix of material here, and visitors can also comment on the photos and recommend the collection to friends and others.

192

Solar Light Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last few days, the Earth has been buffeted by a geomagnetic storm caused by a major solar flare. In addition to disruptions in radio, telecommunications, and electric service, the flare may also produce a dramatic light show as it peaks tonight. Weather permitting, the aurora borealis, or northern lights, may be visible as far south as Washington, D.C. The best viewing time will be local midnight. The sun is currently at the peak of its eleven-year solar cycle, spawning flares and "coronal mass ejections" (CME), violent outbursts of gas from the sun's corona that can carry up to 10 billion tons of electrified gas traveling at speeds as high as 2000 km/s. Geomagnetic storms result when solar winds compress the magnetosphere, sometimes interfering with electric power transmission and satellites, but also creating beautiful aurorae, as many stargazers hope will occur tonight.

De Nie, Michael W.

193

Not a "reality" show.  

PubMed

The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

2013-01-01

194

Show Me the Genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By this point in the unit, students have learned all the necessary information and conceptualized a design for how an optical biosensor could be used to detect a target strand of DNA associated with a cancer-causing gene as their solution to the unit's challenge question. Now student groups act as engineers again, using a poster format to communicate and prove the validity of the design. Successful posters include a description of refraction, explanations of refraction in a thin film, and the factors that can alter the interference pattern of a thin film. The posters culminate with an explanation of what is expected to be seen in a biosensing device of this type if it were coupled to a target molecule, proven with a specific example and illustrated with drawings and diagrams throughout. All the poster elements combine to prove the accuracy and viability of this method of gene detection. Together with its associated lesson, this activity functions as part of the summative assessment for this unit.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

195

Comparison of two anthracycline-based prodrugs for activation by a monoclonal antibody-beta-glucuronidase conjugate in the specific treatment of cancer.  

PubMed

Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) may improve the therapeutic index of cytostatic agents. We compared two prodrugs, epirubicin-glucuronide (Epi-glu) and doxorubicin-spacer-glucuronide (Dox-sp-glu), for their cytotoxicity on activation by a monoclonal antibody-enzyme conjugate bound to tumor cells. The results showed that the prodrugs were 10 (Dox-sp-glu) and 100 (Epi-glu) times less toxic than the parent drugs against OVCAR-3 cells. This difference was a result of the hydrophilic property of the prodrugs resulting in a reduced cellular uptake. The enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of Dox-sp-glu by E. coli-derived beta-glucuronidase (GUS) (Km 500 microM, Vmax 21,000 mumol/min/g) was much more efficient than that of Epi-glu (Km 10 microM, Vmax 40 mumol/min/g). Incubation of OVCAR-3 cells with an enzyme-immunoconjugate prepared from monoclonal antibody 323/A3 and E. coli-derived GUS before treatment with prodrugs completely restored the cytotoxicity of the prodrugs to the level of the parent drugs. PMID:7736523

Haisma, H J; van Muijen, M; Pinedo, H M; Boven, E

1994-01-01

196

Air Quality and Outdoor Activity Guidance for Schools Regular physical activity --at least 60 minutes each day --promotes health and fitness. The table below shows when and how to  

E-print Network

Air Quality and Outdoor Activity Guidance for Schools Regular physical activity -- at least 60 physical activity based on the Air Quality Index. This guidance can help protect the health of all children, including teenagers, who are more sensitive than adults to air pollution. Check the air quality daily at www

197

The MOSS Physcomitrella patens reproductive organ development is highly organized, affected by the two SHI/STY genes and by the level of active auxin in the SHI/STY expression domain.  

PubMed

In order to establish a reference for analysis of the function of auxin and the auxin biosynthesis regulators SHORT INTERNODE/STYLISH (SHI/STY) during Physcomitrella patens reproductive development, we have described male (antheridial) and female(archegonial) development in detail, including temporal and positional information of organ initiation. This has allowed us to define discrete stages of organ morphogenesis and to show that reproductive organ development in P. patens is highly organized and that organ phyllotaxis differs between vegetative and reproductive development. Using the PpSHI1 and PpSHI2 reporter and knockout lines, the auxin reporters GmGH3(pro):GUS and PpPINA(pro):GFP-GUS, and the auxin-conjugating transgene PpSHI2(pro):IAAL, we could show that the PpSHI genes, and by inference also auxin, play important roles for reproductive organ development in moss. The PpSHI genes are required for the apical opening of the reproductive organs, the final differentiation of the egg cell, and the progression of canal cells into a cell death program. The apical cells of the archegonium, the canal cells, and the egg cell are also sites of auxin responsiveness and are affected by reduced levels of active auxin, suggesting that auxin mediates PpSHI function in the reproductive organs. PMID:23669745

Landberg, Katarina; Pederson, Eric R A; Viaene, Tom; Bozorg, Behruz; Friml, Jirí; Jönsson, Henrik; Thelander, Mattias; Sundberg, Eva

2013-07-01

198

Analysis of Rice Act1 5[prime] Region Activity in Transgenic Rice Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 5' region of the rice actin 1 gene (Actl) has been developed as an efficient regulator of foreign gene expression in transgenic rice plants. To determine the pattern and level of rice Actl 5' region activity, transgenic rice plants containing the Actl 5' region fused to a bacterial 8-glucuronidase (Gus) coding sequence were generated. Two independent clonal lines of

Wanggen Zhang; David McElroy; Ray WU

1991-01-01

199

Family-wide expression characterization of Arabidopsis beta-carbonic anhydrase genes using qRT-PCR and Promoter::GUS fusions.  

PubMed

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes found throughout the phylogenetic tree. The ?-class carbonic anhydrases (?-CAs) are the predominating class of CAs in plants. Growing evidence underscores the importance of ?-CAs in plant immunity and environmental adaptation in addition to their roles in photosynthesis. However, many fundamental problems in Arabidopsis ?CAs expression remain unsolved. Here we examined the transcript abundance of At?CAs in different tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the accumulation of mRNA in response to CO2 and darkness. Histochemical analysis was performed to study the promoter activity of At?CAs during post-germination seedling growth and in mature plants. All six members of the At?CA subfamily showed a response to changed CO2 level and darkness, but each member showed a specific dynamic pattern. Although expression of each At?CA was unique, in general most At?CAs were synchronously expressed in green leaves since 5 days after germination until flowering. At?CA1 and At?CA2 were most highly expressed in leaves but At?CA2 displayed weaker expression in roots. The level of At?CA3 transcripts was highest in flowers, while At?CA5 was most widely expressed and might be involved in more processes than other members. At?CA6 was unique for increased expression in darkness and no expression in either the anther or pistil. The present study provides useful information for further functional investigation. PMID:24211190

Wang, Meng; Zhang, Qiong; Liu, Fang-Chun; Xie, Wei-Fa; Wang, Guang-Dong; Wang, Jun; Gao, Qing-Hua; Duan, Ke

2014-02-01

200

Differential Expression of Vacuolar H+-ATPase Subunit c Genes in Tissues Active in Membrane Trafficking and Their Roles in Plant Growth as Revealed by RNAi1  

PubMed Central

Acidification of intracellular compartments by the vacuolar-type H+-ATPases (VHA) is known to energize ion and metabolite transport, though cellular processes influenced by this activity are poorly understood. At least 26 VHA genes encode 12 subunits of the V1Vo-ATPase complex in Arabidopsis, and how the expression, assembly, and activity of the pump are integrated into signaling networks that govern growth and adaptation are largely unknown. The role of multiple VHA-c genes encoding the 16-kD subunit of the membrane Vo sector was investigated. Expression of VHA-c1, monitored by promoter-driven ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity was responsive to light or dark in an organ-specific manner. VHA-c1 expression in expanding cotyledons, hypocotyls of etiolated seedlings, and elongation zone of roots supported a role for V-ATPase in cell enlargement. Mutants reduced in VHA-c1 transcript using dsRNA-mediated interference showed reduction in root growth relative to wild-type seedlings. In contrast, VHA-c3 promoter::GUS expression was undetectable in most organs of seedlings, but strong in the root cap. Interestingly, dsRNA-mediated mutants of vha-c3 also showed reduced root length and decreased tolerance to moderate salt stress. The results suggest that V-ATPase functions in the root cap influenced root growth. Expression of VHA-c1 and VHA-c3 in tissues with active membrane flow, including root cap, vascular strands, and floral style would support a model for participation of the Vo sector and V1Vo-ATPase in membrane trafficking and fusion. Two VHA-c genes are thus differentially expressed to support growth in expanding cells and to supply increased demand for V-ATPase in cells with active exocytosis. PMID:15051861

Padmanaban, Senthilkumar; Lin, Xiaoying; Perera, Imara; Kawamura, Yukio; Sze, Heven

2004-01-01

201

Lymphokine activated killer cells from umbilical cord blood show higher antitumor effect against anaplastic astrocytoma cell line (U87) and medulloblastoma cell line (TE671) than lymphokine activated killer cells from peripheral blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectsThe aims of this study were to assess the cytotoxic capability of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells from umbilical cord blood (UCB), to compare them with those of peripheral blood (PB)-derived cells against anaplastic astrocytoma cell line (U87) and medulloblastoma cell line (TE671), and to identify which mechanism and genes were involved in cytotoxicity.MethodsThe effector cells were generated by interleukin-2 from

Seok-Gu Kang; ChungHun Ryu; SinSoo Jeun; Hyung-Jin Shin; JongHyun Kim; MoonChan Kim; JoonKi Kang

2004-01-01

202

13,14-bis(cis-3,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-?-elemene, a novel ?-elemene derivative, shows potent antitumor activities via inhibition of mTOR in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Elemene has been approved for the treatment of advanced cancer in China, however, it inhibits cell growth only at high concentrations and is an essential oil with poor water solubility and stability. The discovery of new ?-elemene derivatives is of increasing interest. We recently reported that the compound 13,14-bis(cis-3,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-?-elemene (IIi), a novel ?-elemene derivative with a cis-2,6-dimethylpiperazine substitution, is a potent agent for inhibiting the proliferation of SGC-7901 and HeLa cells. In the present study, we further verified that IIi is cytotoxic to a wide spectrum of human cancer cells in culture, including those of breast, ovarian, lung, gastric, hepatocellular and colon cancer, as well as leukemia cell lines, with an average IC50 of 3.44 ?mol/l. Notably, IIi showed significant cytotoxicity in two multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines, with an average resistance factor (RF) of 1.66. Moreover, in mice with S-180 sarcoma xenografts, the intraperitoneal administration of IIi inhibited tumor growth. The immunoblotting study showed that treatment with IIi decreases phosphorylated p70S6K1 and 4EBP1 levels in the human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells. In the MCF-7 cells, IIi also significantly increased the expression of cleaved LC3. This indicated that IIi inhibits mTOR activity and induces autophagy. The mTOR inhibitory function and the potent antitumor activity, taken together with the appreciable anti-multidrug resistance action, shows IIi to be a novel potential antitumor agent, which merits further research and development. PMID:23761818

DING, XIAO-FEI; SHEN, MAO; XU, LI-YING; DONG, JIN-HUA; CHEN, GUANG

2013-01-01

203

Soccer Tournament ELI Talent Show  

E-print Network

Highlights Soccer Tournament ELI Talent Show Notes from your Teachers Notes from the Office very quickly! ELI Talent Show As you probably already know, the ELI is going to have its second annual Talent Show. The talent show is open to ELI students, faculty, staff, and LAs. Acts can include

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

204

Infection-specific activation of the Medicago truncatula Enod11 early nodulin gene promoter during actinorhizal root nodulation.  

PubMed

The MtEnod11 gene from Medicago truncatula is widely used as an early infection-related molecular marker for endosymbiotic associations involving both rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this article, heterologous expression of the MtEnod11 promoter has been studied in two actinorhizal trees, Casuarina glauca and Allocasuarina verticillata. Transgenic C. glauca and A. verticillata expressing a ProMtEnod11::beta-glucuronidase (gus) fusion were generated and the activation of the transgene investigated in the context of the symbiotic associations with the N-fixing actinomycete Frankia and both endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices and Pisolithus albus, respectively). ProMtEnod11::gus expression was observed in root hairs, prenodules, and nodules and could be correlated with the infection of plant cells by Frankia spp. However, no activation of the gus reporter gene was detected prior to infection or in response to either rhizobial Nod factors or the wasp venom peptide MAS-7. Equally, ProMtEnod11::gus expression was not elicited during the symbiotic associations with either ecto- or endomycorrhizal fungi. These observations suggest that, although there is a conservation of gene regulatory pathways between legumes and actinorhizal plants in cells accommodating endosymbiotic N-fixing bacteria, the events preceding bacterial infection or related to mycorrhization appear to be less conserved. PMID:20459313

Svistoonoff, Sergio; Sy, Mame-Ourèye; Diagne, Nathalie; Barker, David G; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine

2010-06-01

205

What Do Blood Tests Show?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Do Blood Tests Show? Blood tests show whether the levels ... changes may work best. Result Ranges for Common Blood Tests This section presents the result ranges for ...

206

Managing Beef Cattle for Show  

E-print Network

This publication gives advice on raising beef cattle to exhibit at shows. Topics include animal selection, feeding, general health management, disease prevention, calf handling, and preparing for the show....

Herd, Dennis B.; Boleman, Chris; Boleman, Larry L.

2001-11-16

207

ELI Talent Show Final Exams  

E-print Network

Highlights ELI Talent Show Final Exams Scholarship Nominees Graduate Admissions Workshop Reminders from the Office Manners, Cultures, & Grammar TheELIWeekly ELI Talent Show It's going to be a blast! Come one, come all! The 2nd Annual ELI Talent Show will be on Tuesday, April 15th

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

208

28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

209

Mutation in Cyclophilin B That Causes Hyperelastosis Cutis in American Quarter Horse Does Not Affect Peptidylprolyl cis-trans Isomerase Activity but Shows Altered Cyclophilin B-Protein Interactions and Affects Collagen Folding*  

PubMed Central

The rate-limiting step of folding of the collagen triple helix is catalyzed by cyclophilin B (CypB). The G6R mutation in cyclophilin B found in the American Quarter Horse leads to autosomal recessive hyperelastosis cutis, also known as hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia. The mutant protein shows small structural changes in the region of the mutation at the side opposite the catalytic domain of CypB. The peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of the mutant CypB is normal when analyzed in vitro. However, the biosynthesis of type I collagen in affected horse fibroblasts shows a delay in folding and secretion and a decrease in hydroxylysine and glucosyl-galactosyl hydroxylysine. This leads to changes in the structure of collagen fibrils in tendon, similar to those observed in P3H1 null mice. In contrast to cyclophilin B null mice, where little 3-hydroxylation was found in type I collagen, 3-hydroxylation of type I collagen in affected horses is normal. The mutation disrupts the interaction of cyclophilin B with the P-domain of calreticulin, with lysyl hydroxylase 1, and probably other proteins, such as the formation of the P3H1·CypB·cartilage-associated protein complex, resulting in less effective catalysis of the rate-limiting step in collagen folding in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:22556420

Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Vranka, Janice A.; Boudko, Sergei P.; Pokidysheva, Elena; Mizuno, Kazunori; Zientek, Keith; Keene, Douglas R.; Rashmir-Raven, Ann M.; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Winand, Nena J.; Bachinger, Hans Peter

2012-01-01

210

Antigen-Specific CD4 T Cells Are Induced after Intravesical BCG-Instillation Therapy in Patients with Bladder Cancer and Show Similar Cytokine Profiles as in Active Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Specific T cell immunity in patients with active tuberculosis is associated with a decrease in multifunctionality. However, it is unknown whether cytokine profiles differ in patients with primary infection and those with prior contact. We therefore used intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated live Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) in patients with urothelial carcinoma as a model to characterise the induction of systemic immunity towards purified protein derivate (PPD) and to study whether cytokine profiles differ depending on pre-existing immunity. Eighteen patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer were recruited during the BCG-induction course. Fifty-four healthy individuals served as controls. Interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-2 producing PPD-specific CD4 T cells were analysed longitudinally before each instillation using a rapid flow-cytometric whole blood immunoassay. Baseline levels of IFN-? producing PPD-specific T cells were comparable to controls. T cells showed a 5-fold increase to 0.23% by week 2/3, and further increased 8-fold by week 4/5 (to 0.42%, p=0.0007). Systemic immunity was induced in all patients, although the increase was less pronounced in patients with pre-existing immunity. As in active TB, cytokine profiling during therapy revealed a lower percentage of multifunctional IFN-?/IL-2 double-positive T cells compared to controls (60.2% vs. 71.9%, p=0.0003). Of note, when comparing patients with and without pre-existing immunity, cytokine profiles in patients with primary immunity were shifted towards IL-2 single producing T cells (p=0.02), whereas those in patients with pre-existing immunity were shifted towards IFN-? single-positivity (p=0.01). In conclusion, systemic T cell responses were induced after BCG-therapy, and their kinetics and cytokine profile depended on pre-existing immunity. Decreased functionality is a typical feature of specific immunity in both patients with active tuberculosis and BCG-therapy. Among patients with active infection, a shift towards IL-2 or IFN-? single-positive cells may allow distinction between patients with primary infection and cases with boosted immunity after prior contact, respectively. PMID:24039703

Becker, Frank; Suttmann, Henrik; Schmitt, Kai; Sester, Urban; Stöckle, Michael; Sester, Martina

2013-01-01

211

Planning a Successful Tech Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

Nikirk, Martin

2011-01-01

212

RISK AVERSION IN GAME SHOWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game

Steffen Andersen; Glenn W. Harrison; Morten I. Lau; E. Elisabet Rutstrom

213

Human NR5A1/SF-1 Mutations Show Decreased Activity on BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor), an Important Regulator of Energy Balance: Testing Impact of Novel SF-1 Mutations Beyond Steroidogenesis  

PubMed Central

Context Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Objective To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. Patients 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. Methods SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Results Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Conclusions Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations. PMID:25122490

Malikova, Jana; Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Heath, Karen; González, Isabel; Caimarí, María; del Campo, Miguel; Albisu, Marian; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Audí, Laura; Flück, Christa E.

2014-01-01

214

Transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants over-expressing a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene from Xenopus laevis (xPPAR?) show increased susceptibility to infection by virulent Pseudomonas syringae pathogens.  

PubMed

Transgenic tobacco plants capable of over-expressing Xenopus PPAR? (xPPAR?), a transcription factor known to be required for peroxisome proliferation in animals, were recently generated. These plants (herewith referred to as PPAR-OE) were found to have increased peroxisome abundance, higher peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and catalase activity and modified fatty acid metabolism. Further characterization of PPAR-OE plants revealed a higher susceptibility to virulent and a partial loss of resistance to avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pathogens, whereas the basal resistance response remained unaffected. Biochemical- and defense-related gene expression analyses showed that increased susceptibility to bacterial invasion coincided with the generalized reduction in H(2)O(2) and salicylic acid (SA) levels observed within the first 24 h of bacterial contact. Decreased H(2)O(2) levels were correlated with modified activity levels of catalase and other antioxidant enzymes. A correspondence between a rapid (within 1-24 hpi; ACCO and AOC) and sustained increase (up to 6 days pi; ACCO) in the expression levels of ethylene (ACCO) and jasmonic acid (AOC) biosynthetic genes and a higher susceptibility to virulent bacterial invasion was also observed in PPAR-OE plants. Conversely, no apparent differences in the short- and/or long-term expression levels of markers for the hypersensitive-response, oxidative burst and systemic-acquired resistance were observed between wild type and PPAR-OE plants. The results suggest that peroxisome proliferation could lead to increased susceptibility to bacterial pathogens in tobacco by altering the redox balance of the plant and the expression pattern of key defense signaling pathway genes. PMID:21104271

Valenzuela-Soto, José Humberto; Iruegas-Bocardo, Fernanda; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma Angélica; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel; Délano-Frier, John Paul

2011-03-01

215

International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1995 International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show in Ontario, Canada has a site of the Web. The IPM is a non-profit organization of volunteers which annually organizes Canada's largest farm machinery show. The event is commercial and educational. Thousands of school children and educators attend and participate in organized educational activities.

1995-01-01

216

2013 Goat Shows Show Date Show Name Entries Due Eligibility Weigh In Show Time Contact Phone Extra Info  

E-print Network

:00 p.m. Mark 931-319-2205 $2 at gate Fair Must Ledford 931-823-4295 Limit 5 Control animals/ Goat Fee Must 5:30 p.m. Tracey 615-464-5229 Show Control Lawrence Goat 8/2/2013 Smith Co. 7/25/2013 Youth 3 of Show TN Exhibit. 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. John 931-684-5971 Limit 5 Region Entry Fee 4-12 grade 1:00 p

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

217

The OOPSLA trivia show (TOOTS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OOPSLA has a longstanding tradition of being a forum for discussing the cutting edge of technology in a fun and participatory environment. The type of events sponsored by OOPSLA sometimes border on the unconventional. This event represents an atypical panel that conforms to the concept of a game show that is focused on questions and answers related to OOPSLA themes.

Jeff Gray; Douglas C. Schmidt

2009-01-01

218

Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

2004-01-01

219

Industrial electrification trend shows strength  

SciTech Connect

One outcome of the oil embargo and cartel has been that, on the average, the price ratio of electricity to oil and gas has been cut in half. Some observers of the electric-utility industry may consider this change unimportant as electricity is still four times as expensive as oil or gas based on dollars per delivered Btu. For numerous uses, however, a given amount of electricity can replace several times as much fossil-fuel energy when relative efficiencies are considered. Thus with decreasing cost ratio, electricity can be justified by certain processes where it was previously uneconomical. A study of industrial activity suggests that several large industries are poised for a substantial shift to electric processing. Among them are the steel, aluminum, copper, glass, cement, petroleum, and paper industries. The potential and incentive for further electrification, from a thermodynamic standpoint, are strongest in manufacturing sectors that require high processing temperatures. 2 figures.

Burwell, C.C.

1983-05-01

220

Rocks and Minerals Slide Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive slide show of common rocks and minerals allows students to choose from two sets of minerals and click on a thumbnail to see a larger photograph with a full description of the mineral including color, streak, hardness, cleavage/fracture, and chemical composition. Also included are its use and where it is found. The rocks are divided into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic and can be accessed in the same manner. They are described on the basis of crystal size and mineral composition as well as use.

221

Characterization of sequence elements from Malvastrum yellow vein betasatellite regulating promoter activity and DNA replication  

PubMed Central

Background Many monopartite begomoviruses are associated with betasatellites, but only several promoters from which were isolated and studied. In this study, the ?C1 promoter from Malvastrum yellow vein betasatellite (MYVB) was characterized and important sequence elements were identified to modulate promoter activity and replication of MYVB. Results A 991 nucleotide (nt) fragment upstream of the translation start site of the ?C1 open reading frame of MYVB and a series of deletions within this fragment were constructed and fused to the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes, respectively. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assays showed that the 991 nt fragment was functional and that a 28 nt region (between ?390 nt and ?418 nt), which includes a 5?UTR Py-rich stretch motif, was important for promoter activity. Replication assays using Nicotiana benthamiana leaf discs and whole plants showed that deletion of the 5?UTR Py-rich stretch impaired viral satellite replication in the presence of the helper virus. Transgenic assays demonstrated that the 991 nt fragment conferred a constitutive expression pattern in transgenic tobacco plants and that a 214 nt fragment at the 3'-end of this sequence was sufficient to drive this expression pattern. Conclusion Our results showed that the ?C1 promoter of MYVB displayed a constitutive expression pattern and a 5?UTR Py-rich stretch motif regulated both ?C1 promoter activity and MYVB replication. PMID:23057573

2012-01-01

222

"Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.  

PubMed

This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47. PMID:10301683

1987-01-01

223

"Show me" bioethics and politics.  

PubMed

Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy. PMID:17926217

Christopher, Myra J

2007-10-01

224

Gus Bedwell, Veteran Resources Coordinator Kerr Administration  

E-print Network

Administration Amy.luhn@oregonstate.edu (541) 737-4906 Counseling and Psychology Services CAPS Lounge This is safe space for Veterans and their families, located on the Memorial Union main oor an appointment at our Counseling and Psychology services (CAPS). Our counselors are trained in PTSD and MST

Escher, Christine

225

A Talk Show from the Past.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony,…

Gallagher, Arlene F.

1991-01-01

226

The Arsenic Project. The activity is an authentic research experience for students at early stages in their academic programs, and is designed to give you an insight into the way science is done and will show  

E-print Network

. There are other issues: arsenic-containing drugs are fed to chickens, arsenic was a component of some embalmingThe Arsenic Project. The activity is an authentic research experience for students at early stages are related to studies of aspects of the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic compounds i.e. the environmental

Schweik, Charles M.

227

Dna2 mutants reveal interactions with Dna polymerase alpha and Ctf4, a Pol alpha accessory factor, and show that full Dna2 helicase activity is not essential for growth.  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the gene for the conserved, essential nuclease-helicase Dna2 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to interact genetically with POL1 and CTF4, which encode a DNA Polymerase alpha subunit and an associated protein, suggesting that Dna2 acts in a process that involves Pol alpha. DNA2 alleles were isolated that cause either temperature sensitivity, sensitivity to alkylation damage, or both. The alkylation-sensitive alleles clustered in the helicase domain, including changes in residues required for helicase activity in related proteins. Additional mutations known or expected to destroy the ATPase and helicase activities of Dna2 were constructed and found to support growth on some media but to cause alkylation sensitivity. Only damage-sensitive alleles were lethal in combination with a ctf4 deletion. Full activity of the Dna2 helicase function is therefore not needed for viability, but is required for repairing damage and for tolerating loss of Ctf4. Arrest of dna2 mutants was RAD9 dependent, but deleting this checkpoint resulted in either no effect or suppression of defects, including the synthetic lethality with ctf4. Dna2 therefore appears to act in repair or lagging strand synthesis together with Pol alpha and Ctf4, in a role that is optimal with, but does not require, full helicase activity. PMID:10101169

Formosa, T; Nittis, T

1999-01-01

228

Substitution of active-site His-223 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase and expression of the mutated lasB alleles in Escherichia coli show evidence for autoproteolytic processing of proelastase.  

PubMed Central

The neutral metalloprotease elastase is one of the major proteins secreted into the culture medium by many Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Encoded by the lasB gene, the 33-kDa elastase is initially synthesized as a 53-kDa preproenzyme which is processed to the mature form via a 51-kDa proelastase intermediate. To facilitate studies on proteolytic processing of elastase precursors and on secretion, we developed systems for overexpression of lasB in Escherichia coli under the control of the inducible T7 and tac promoters. Although the 51-kDa proelastase form was detectable in E. coli under inducible conditions, most of the elastase produced under these conditions was found in an enzymatically active 33-kDa form. The amino-terminal sequence of the first 15 amino acid residues of this 33-kDa elastase species was identical to that of the mature P. aeruginosa enzyme, suggesting that processing was autocatalytic. To test this possibility, the codon in lasB encoding His-223, a presumed active-site residue, was changed to encode Asp-223 (lasB1) and Tyr-223 (lasB2). The effects of these mutations on enzyme activity and processing were examined. No proteolytic or elastolytic activities were detected in extracts of E. coli cells containing the lasB mutant alleles. Overexpression of the mutated lasB genes in E. coli resulted in the accumulation of the corresponding 51-kDa proelastase species. These were processed in vitro to the respective 33-kDa forms by incubation with exogenous purified elastase, without an increase in proteolytic activity. Molecular modeling studies suggest that the mutations have little or no effect on the conformation of the mutant elastases. In addition, wild-type elastase and the mutant proelastases were localized to the periplasm of E. coli. The present results confirm that His-223 is essential for elastase activity and provide evidence for autoproteolytic processing of proelastase. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 4A FIG. 4B FIG. 4C FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1744034

McIver, K; Kessler, E; Ohman, D E

1991-01-01

229

N-terminal domain-mediated homodimerization is required for photoreceptor activity of Arabidopsis CRYPTOCHROME 1.  

PubMed

Cryptochromes (CRY) are blue light receptors that share sequence similarity with photolyases, flavoproteins that catalyze the repair of UV light-damaged DNA. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings expressing the C-terminal domains of the Arabidopsis CRY fused to beta-glucuronidase (GUS) display a constitutive photomorphogenic (COP) phenotype, indicating that the signaling mechanism of Arabidopsis CRY is mediated through the C-terminal domain. The role of the Arabidopsis CRY N-terminal photolyase-like domain in CRY action remains poorly understood. Here, we report the essential role of the Arabidopsis CRY1 N-terminal domain (CNT1) in the light activation of CRY1 photoreceptor activity. Yeast two-hybrid assay, in vitro binding, in vivo chemical cross-linking, gel filtration, and coimmunoprecipitation studies indicate that CRY1 homodimerizes in a light-independent manner. Mutagenesis and transgenic studies demonstrate that CNT1-mediated dimerization is required for light activation of the C-terminal domain of CRY1 (CCT1). Transgenic data and native gel electrophoresis studies suggest that multimerization of GUS is both responsible and required for mediating a COP phenotype on fusion to CCT1. These results indicate that the properties of the GUS multimer are analogous to those of the light-modified CNT1 dimer. Irradiation with blue light modifies the properties of the CNT1 dimer, resulting in a change in CCT1, activating CCT1, and eventually triggering the CRY1 signaling pathway. PMID:15805487

Sang, Yi; Li, Qing-Hua; Rubio, Vicente; Zhang, Yan-Chun; Mao, Jian; Deng, Xing-Wang; Yang, Hong-Quan

2005-05-01

230

Generation of a Stable Antioxidant Response Element-Driven Reporter Gene Cell Line and Its Use to Show Redox-Dependent Activation of Nrf2 by Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates cytoprotective genes that contain an antioxidant response element (ARE) in their promoters. To investigate whether anticancer drugs can induce ARE-driven gene expression, we have developed a stable human mammary MCF7-derived reporter cell line called AREc32, which contains a luciferase gene construct controlled by eight copies of the cis-element. In these cells, luciferase activity

Xiu Jun Wang; John D. Hayes

2006-01-01

231

Deep-ultraviolet transparent phosphates RbBa2(PO3)5 and Rb2Ba3(P2O7)2 show nonlinear optical activity from condensation of [PO4](3-) units.  

PubMed

It is challenging to explore deep-ultraviolet (deep-UV) nonlinear optical (NLO) materials that can achieve a subtle balance between deep-UV transparency and high NLO activity. Known deep-UV NLO materials are almost exclusively limited to borates, except few newly discovered phosphates despite their small NLO activities. Here we report two asymmetric phosphates, RbBa2(PO3)5 (I) and Rb2Ba3(P2O7)2 (II), which feature [PO3]? chains and [P2O7](4-) dimers formed by condensation of [PO4](3-) units, respectively. Remarkably, I achieves the desired balance, with the shortest deep-UV absorption edge at 163 nm and the largest NLO activity of 1.4 × KDP (KH2PO4) in deep-UV NLO phosphates. According to first-principles calculations, the enhanced macroscopic SHG response of I can be attributed to the [PO3]? chains which exhibit significantly larger microscopic SHG coefficients as compared with the [P2O7](4-) dimers. PMID:24906077

Zhao, Sangen; Gong, Pifu; Luo, Siyang; Bai, Lei; Lin, Zheshuai; Ji, Chengmin; Chen, Tianliang; Hong, Maochun; Luo, Junhua

2014-06-18

232

A single-base-pair deletion in the beta-glucuronidase gene accounts for the phenotype of murine mucopolysaccharidosis type VII.  

PubMed Central

Murine mucopolysaccharidosis type VII is a heritable disease caused by a spontaneous mutation, gus(mps), closely linked to the beta-glucuronidase structural gene on chromosome 5. Mice homozygous for the mutation have a > 200-fold decrease in beta-glucuronidase mRNA levels and virtually no enzyme activity detectable by a sensitive fluorometric assay. Approximately 20 kb of genomic DNA containing the beta-glucuronidase gene Gus and > 2 kb of 5' and 3' flanking sequences were cloned from both a gus(mps)/gus(mps) mouse and a +/+ mouse of the progenitor strain. Restriction enzyme digests containing DNA fragments 20-400 bp in length were generated from each of the two Gus alleles and then compared by using nondenaturing polyacrylamide DNA-sequencing gels. This method rapidly identified a large number of restriction sites and was sensitive enough to detect a restriction fragment length variation resulting from a 1-bp deletion in the gus(mps) allele. DNA-sequence analysis of the mutant genomic fragment showed that the 1-bp deletion created a frameshift mutation within exon 10. Insertion of the deleted nucleotide by oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis restored function to the corrected mutant gene when transfected into gus(mps)/gus(mps) fibroblasts. We concluded that the frameshift mutation, which introduces a premature stop codon at codon 497 in exon 10, accounts for the molecular, biochemical, and pathological abnormalities associated with the gus(mps) phenotype. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8101990

Sands, M S; Birkenmeier, E H

1993-01-01

233

Two negative cis-regulatory regions involved in fruit-specific promoter activity from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris S.)  

PubMed Central

A 1.8?kb 5?-flanking region of the large subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, isolated from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris S.), has fruit-specific promoter activity in transgenic tomato plants. Two negative regulatory regions, from –986 to –959 and from –472 to –424, were identified in this promoter region by fine deletion analyses. Removal of both regions led to constitutive expression in epidermal cells. Gain-of-function experiments showed that these two regions were sufficient to inhibit RFP (red fluorescent protein) expression in transformed epidermal cells when fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S minimal promoter. Gel mobility shift experiments demonstrated the presence of leaf nuclear factors that interact with these two elements. A TCCAAAA motif was identified in these two regions, as well as one in the reverse orientation, which was confirmed to be a novel specific cis-element. A quantitative ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity assay of stable transgenic tomato plants showed that the activities of chimeric promoters harbouring only one of the two cis-elements, or both, were ?10-fold higher in fruits than in leaves. These data confirm that the TCCAAAA motif functions as a fruit-specific element by inhibiting gene expression in leaves. PMID:19073962

Yin, Tao; Wu, Hanying; Zhang, Shanglong; Liu, Jingmei; Lu, Hongyu; Zhang, Lingxiao; Xu, Yong; Chen, Daming

2009-01-01

234

In Plant Activation: An Inducible, Hyperexpression Platform for Recombinant Protein Production in Plants[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

In this study, we describe a novel protein production platform that provides both activation and amplification of transgene expression in planta. The In Plant Activation (INPACT) system is based on the replication machinery of tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus (TYDV) and is essentially transient gene expression from a stably transformed plant, thus combining the advantages of both means of expression. The INPACT cassette is uniquely arranged such that the gene of interest is split and only reconstituted in the presence of the TYDV-encoded Rep/RepA proteins. Rep/RepA expression is placed under the control of the AlcA:AlcR gene switch, which is responsive to trace levels of ethanol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) plants containing an INPACT cassette encoding the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter had negligible background expression but accumulated very high GUS levels (up to 10% total soluble protein) throughout the plant, within 3 d of a 1% ethanol application. The GUS reporter was replaced with a gene encoding a lethal ribonuclease, barnase, demonstrating that the INPACT system provides exquisite control of transgene expression and can be adapted to potentially toxic or inhibitory compounds. The INPACT gene expression platform is scalable, not host-limited, and has been used to express both a therapeutic and an industrial protein. PMID:23839786

Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L.; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A.; Harding, Robert M.; Dale, James L.

2013-01-01

235

Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair  

PubMed Central

Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability. PMID:17728401

Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B.; Christensen, Torben R.; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Nielsen, Rasmus; Munch, Kasper; Brand, Tina; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zuber, Maria T.; Bunce, Michael; R?nn, Regin; Gilichinsky, David; Froese, Duane; Willerslev, Eske

2007-01-01

236

Flesinoxan shows antidepressant activity in a DRL 72-s screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schedules which selectively reinforce low rates of responding (DRL, differential reinforcement of low rate) distinguish between antidepressants and other types of drugs. In a DRL schedule a subject is required to pause for a specified minimum period of time between two consecutive responses in order to obtain a reinforcer. The dependent variables are rate of responding and rate of reinforcement.

A. van Hest; M. van Drimmelen; B. Olivier

1992-01-01

237

Concussion Recovery Can Reverse After Return to Activity, Study Shows  

MedlinePLUS

... Sports Injuries THURSDAY, Aug. 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Athletes who seem to have recovered from a concussion ... come from a study of 19 high school athletes who suffered a concussion and then got medical ...

238

Promoter elements of rice susceptibility genes are bound and activated by specific TAL effectors from the bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

*Plant pathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas inject transcription activator-like effector (TALe) proteins that bind to and activate host promoters, thereby promoting disease or inducing plant defense. TALes bind to corresponding UPT (up-regulated by TALe) promoter boxes via tandemly arranged 34/35-amino acid repeats. Recent studies uncovered the TALe code in which two amino acid residues of each repeat define specific pairing to UPT boxes. *Here we employed the TALe code to predict potential UPT boxes in TALe-induced host promoters and analyzed these via beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). *We demonstrate that the Xa13, OsTFX1 and Os11N3 promoters from rice are induced directly by the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae TALes PthXo1, PthXo6 and AvrXa7, respectively. We identified and functionally validated a UPT box in the corresponding rice target promoter for each TALe and show that box mutations suppress TALe-mediated promoter activation. Finally, EMSA demonstrate that code-predicted UPT boxes interact specifically with corresponding TALes. *Our findings show that variations in the UPT boxes of different rice accessions correlate with susceptibility or resistance of these accessions to the bacterial blight pathogen. PMID:20345643

Römer, Patrick; Recht, Sabine; Strauss, Tina; Elsaesser, Janett; Schornack, Sebastian; Boch, Jens; Wang, Shiping; Lahaye, Thomas

2010-09-01

239

Permanent prostate implant using high activity seeds and inverse planning with fast simulated annealing algorithm: A 12-year Canadian experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report outcomes and toxicity of the first Canadian permanent prostate implant program. Methods and Materials: 396 consecutive patients (Gleason {<=}6, initial prostate specific antigen (PSA) {<=}10 and stage T1-T2a disease) were implanted between June 1994 and December 2001. The median follow-up is of 60 months (maximum, 136 months). All patients were planned with fast-simulated annealing inverse planning algorithm with high activity seeds ([gt] 0.76 U). Acute and late toxicity is reported for the first 213 patients using a modified RTOG toxicity scale. The Kaplan-Meier biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) is reported according to the ASTRO and Houston definitions. Results: The bFFS at 60 months was of 88.5% (90.5%) according to the ASTRO (Houston) definition and, of 91.4% (94.6%) in the low risk group (initial PSA {<=}10 and Gleason {<=}6 and Stage {<=}T2a). Risk factors statistically associated with bFFS were: initial PSA >10, a Gleason score of 7-8, and stage T2b-T3. The mean D90 was of 151 {+-} 36.1 Gy. The mean V100 was of 85.4 {+-} 8.5% with a mean V150 of 60.1 {+-} 12.3%. Overall, the implants were well tolerated. In the first 6 months, 31.5% of the patients were free of genitourinary symptoms (GUs), 12.7% had Grade 3 GUs; 91.6% were free of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIs). After 6 months, 54.0% were GUs free, 1.4% had Grade 3 GUs; 95.8% were GIs free. Conclusion: The inverse planning with fast simulated annealing and high activity seeds gives a 5-year bFFS, which is comparable with the best published series with a low toxicity profile.

Martin, Andre-Guy [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Roy, Jean [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Centre de Recherche de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Pouliot, Jean [Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Harel, Francois [Centre de Recherche de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Vigneault, Eric [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: Eric.Vigneault@chuq.qc.ca

2007-02-01

240

Comparison of the activities of CaMV 35S and FMV 34S promoter derivatives in Catharanthus roseus cells transiently and stably transformed by particle bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities of several CaMV 35S and FMV 34S promoter derivatives fused to the gusA reporter gene were compared in suspension-cultured Catharanthus roseus cells that were transiently and stably transformed using particle bombardment. Our data demonstrate that the 35S and a deletion derivative of the 34S promoter combined with particle bombardment form useful tools for genetic engineering of C. roseus cells.

Leslie van der Fits; Johan Memelink

1997-01-01

241

The 'cleavage' activities of foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A site-directed mutants and naturally occurring '2Alike' sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2A\\/2B cleavage of aphtho- and cardiovirus 2A polyproteins is mediated by their 2A proteins 'cleaving' at their own C termini. We have analysed this activity using artificial reporter polyprotein systems comprising green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked via foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A to b-glucuronidase (GUS) - forming a single, long, open reading frame. Analysis of the distribution of radiolabel

Michelle L. L. Donnelly; Lorraine E. Hughes; Garry Luke; Heidi Mendoza; David Gani; Martin D. Ryan

2001-01-01

242

Talent Show Notes from the Office  

E-print Network

Highlights Paintball Talent Show Notes from the Office Spring B Places of Origin Birthdays's Weekly. Talent Show ­ Tryouts We're so excited about the Talent Show! We have a long list of students, March 24. This is also the last day to sign up to be in the Talent Show. We also need a Master

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

243

Empowering Women? The Oprah Winfrey Show  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oprah Winfrey Show, the most-watched US daytime talk show, aims to empower women. This article examines the show's representations of gender and how images of `race', sexuality and class cross-cut them. It considers the show's status as television psychology. It explores the show's translation of aspects of black feminism to television, and discusses the social implications of its `super-real'

Corinne Squire

1994-01-01

244

Gibberellin regulates mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in rice.  

PubMed

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is a negative regulator of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (mtPDC) that plays a key role in intermediary metabolism. OsPDK1 was identified as a gibberellin-up-regulated gene using a cDNA microarray. The full-length cDNA for OsPDK1 was 1498 bp and encoded a predicted polypeptide of 363 amino acids. Genomic DNA analysis showed the presence of another isoform of PDK, OsPDK2, in rice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed differential expression of the two isoforms. OsPDK1 was expressed in leaf blade and leaf sheath but not in callus and root, while OsPDK2 was expressed constitutively in all tissues examined. Maximum expression of OsPDK1 in leaf sheath was detected by Northern blot analysis when seedlings were treated with 5 microM GA3 for 24 h. OsPDK1 expression was up-regulated by GA3, and there was little effect of other plant hormones. Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was reduced compared with control plants in 2-week-old seedlings treated with GA3. The beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, driven by a 2,067 bp OsPDK1 promoter region fragment, was mainly expressed in the aleurone layer of germinating seed and leaf sheath. Transgenic rice expressing PDK1 RNAi had altered vegetative growth with reduced accumulation of vegetative tissues. These results suggest that gibberellin modulates the activity of mtPDC by regulating OsPDK1 expression and subsequently controlling plant growth and development. PMID:16352697

Jan, Asad; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Handa, Hirokazu; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Setsuko

2006-02-01

245

47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing...showing that: (1) The applicant has an organized plan of development leading to a specific objective; (2) The actual...

2010-10-01

246

47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing...showing that: (1) The applicant has an organized plan of development leading to a specific objective; (2) The actual...

2011-10-01

247

New Hampshire Guide 4-H Dog Shows  

E-print Network

New Hampshire Guide to 4-H Dog Shows UNH Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development Moiles House cooperating. #12;NH Guide to 4-H Dog Shows i Table of Contents INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................2 Purpose of the 4-H Dog Project

New Hampshire, University of

248

End-of-Semester Barbecue Talent Show  

E-print Network

Highlights End-of-Semester Barbecue Talent Show Scholarship Winners St. Francis Food Drive Ceremony. Details will be in next week's Weekly. Talent Show Dress Rehearsal Dress Rehearsal: All acts MUST come to the dress rehearsal before the Talent Show but don't miss class! Bring money for pizza. When

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

249

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Preface Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching #12;#12;Inside Gun-Violence Effort. She put gun shows on my radar and is an ace straw-purchase spotter. Thanks also to Barbara Claire a great public institution. He was right. #12;Contents Preface Executive Summary Gun Shows in Context How

Leistikow, Bruce N.

250

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Epilogue #12;Inside Gun Shows;Epilogue In February 2010, I attended a Crossroads of the West gun show at the Arizona State Fairgrounds here an update on each of the Phoenix obser- vations made in the photo-essay portion of Inside Gun

Leistikow, Bruce N.

251

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Executive Summary #12;Inside Gun Shows What Goes on When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Garen Wintemute, MD, MPH Violence;Executive Summary Gun shows are surrounded by controversy. On the one hand, they are important economic

Nguyen, Danh

252

Planetarium Shows for K-12 School Groups  

E-print Network

Current Night Sky: Constellations versus Asterisms Phases of the Moon Planets and Current Space Missions-on activities. Interactive Demonstrations: Earth/Moon Scale Solar System Scale Diffraction and Spectral Lines

Berdichevsky, Victor

253

Solar System Odyssey - Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show. Learners go on a futuristic journey through our Solar System. They explore the inner and outer planets, then the moons: Titan, Europa, and Callisto as possible places to establish a human colony. A full-length preview of the show is available on the website, you need to scroll down about 3/4 of the page - under section on children's shows, direct link not available.

254

Best in Show: Teaching Old Dogs to Use New Rubrics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses an instructional approach designed to help preservice teachers understand how assessments can be influenced by personal biases. In order to achieve this objective, we developed an analogy-based activity called "The Dog Show Analogy." After participating in the activity, we have observed that the participating preservice…

Hitt, Austin M.; Helms, Emory C.

2009-01-01

255

The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

256

Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. It was expected that international students who were heavy viewers of daytime TV talk shows and who scored low on a measure of acculturation about the United States

Hyung-Jin Woo; Joseph R. Dominick

2003-01-01

257

2015 4-H State Food Show Guidelines  

E-print Network

1 2015 4-H State Food Show Guidelines Bringing Texas to the Table Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, religion.D. Shawnte Clawson, MS Subject: 2015 4-H State Food Show Guidelines Being transmitted to you this year via e

258

Exploring visitor experiences at trade shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate business visitor behaviour at trade shows and to propose a complementary view based on the experiential perspective in marketing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reports an ethnographic study conducted in the context of ten international trade shows in the textile-apparel industry in Europe. Findings – The study sheds light on the

Diego Rinallo; Stefania Borghini; Francesca Golfetto

2010-01-01

259

The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

Stinner, Art

2014-01-01

260

Virtual game show host — Dr. Chestr  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of an interactive virtual human Dr. Chestr: Computerized Host Encouraging Students to Review. Game show hosts exert a unique personality that becomes the trademark of their respective game shows. Our aim is to create virtual humans that can interact naturally and spontaneously using speech, emotions and gesture. Dr. Chestr is our virtual

Raghavi Sakpal; Dale-Marie Wilson

2011-01-01

261

Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

Najman, M.

2009-09-01

262

Alcoholism Damages Brain's White Matter, Scans Show  

MedlinePLUS

... Brain's White Matter, Scans Show Areas tied to decision-making, such as how much to drink, seem most ... part of the brain mediates inhibitory control and decision-making, so tragically, it appears that some of the ...

263

GOES Satellite Data Shows Tornado Development  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite data shows the development and movement of the weather system that spawned tornadoes affecting the southern and eastern U.S. states on April 27-29, 2014...

264

TRMM Satellite Shows Heavy Rainfall in Cristina  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's TRMM satellite rainfall data was overlaid on an enhanced visible/infrared image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showing cloud and rainfall extent. Green areas indicate rainfall at over 20 mm...

265

Learning to Show You're Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good listeners generally produce back-channel feedback, that is, short utterances such as "uh-huh" which signal active listening. As the rules governing back-channeling vary from language to language, second-language learners may need help acquiring this skill. This paper is an initial exploration of how to provide this. It presents a training…

Ward, Nigel G.; Escalante, Rafael; Al Bayyari, Yaffa; Solorio, Thamar

2007-01-01

266

Purification and Characterization of a CkTLP Protein from Cynanchum komarovii Seeds that Confers Antifungal Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Cynanchum komarovii Al Iljinski is a desert plant that has been used as analgesic, anthelminthic and antidiarrheal, but also as a herbal medicine to treat cholecystitis in people. We have found that the protein extractions from C. komarovii seeds have strong antifungal activity. There is strong interest to develop protein medication and antifungal pesticides from C. komarovii for pharmacological or other uses. Methodology/Principal Findings An antifungal protein with sequence homology to thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) was isolated from C. komarovii seeds and named CkTLP. The three-dimensional structure prediction of CkTLP indicated the protein has an acid cleft and a hydrophobic patch. The protein showed antifungal activity against fungal growth of Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Valsa mali. The full-length cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE-PCR according to the partial protein sequences obtained by nanoESI-MS/MS. The real-time PCR showed the transcription level of CkTLP had a significant increase under the stress of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), NaCl and drought, which indicates that CkTLP may play an important role in response to abiotic stresses. Histochemical staining showed GUS activity in almost the whole plant, especially in cotyledons, trichomes and vascular tissues of primary root and inflorescences. The CkTLP protein was located in the extracellular space/cell wall by CkTLP::GFP fusion protein in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, over-expression of CkTLP significantly enhanced the resistance of Arabidopsis against V. dahliae. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that the CkTLP is a good candidate protein or gene for contributing to the development of disease-resistant crops. PMID:21364945

Wang, Qinghua; Li, Fuguang; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Yongan; Hou, Yuxia; Zhang, Shengrui; Wu, Zhixia

2011-01-01

267

Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with community thought. The difficulty with a show this elaborate and intricate is communicating on a level understandable for teenagers, whilst not treating them like children. Professional space scientists know how easy it is to lose oneself in technical specifics. This would, of course, only confuse young people. The author would like to discuss the ideas for this show with a knowledgeable audience and hopefully get some (constructive) feedback.

Cox, N. L. J.

2002-01-01

268

Experiments showing dynamics of materials interfaces  

SciTech Connect

The discipline of materials science and engineering often involves understanding and controlling properties of interfaces. The authors address the challenge of educating students about properties of interfaces, particularly dynamic properties and effects of unstable interfaces. A series of simple, inexpensive, hands-on activities about fluid interfaces provides students with a testbed to develop intuition about interface dynamics. The experiments highlight the essential role of initial interfacial perturbations in determining the dynamic response of the interface. The experiments produce dramatic, unexpected effects when initial perturbations are controlled and inhibited. These activities help students to develop insight about unstable interfaces that can be applied to analogous problems in materials science and engineering. The lessons examine ``Rayleigh-Taylor instability,`` an interfacial instability that occurs when a higher-density fluid is above a lower-density fluid.

Benjamin, R.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Dynamic Experimentation Div.

1997-02-01

269

Examples show system-performance upgrade  

SciTech Connect

Described are ways of improving the productivity of the turboexpander refrigeration system's expander and compressor through systematic review of component performance. Improvements in cycle efficiency can best be implemented through a combined effort of those responsible for the operation of the gas processing plant and design engineers familiar with performance of specialized components. Manufacturers of turbomachinery should be able to recommend specific changes to improve performance and to quantify the net benefits these changes have on overall plant efficiency. Presented are graphs showing effect of heat exchanger fouling, performance loss and cost of lost performance. Shows how, by modifying the compressor wheel, expander nozzle, and repositioning compressor diffusers, the expander (with modified nozzles) was able to pass the higher flow, and compressor efficiency showed an increase of 10% at the increased flow rate. Redesigning new aerodynamic components was not necessary since existing hardware was modified to new conditions at a cost saving.

McIntire, R.

1982-07-12

270

Showing Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of the articles and textbooks that show drawings of enantiomorphous crystals use an inadequate view to appreciate the fact that they are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. If a graphical presentation of crystal chirality is not evident, the main attribute of crystal enantiomorphism can not be recognized by students. The classic…

Andrade-Gamboa, Julio

2007-01-01

271

Incident Response Planning for Selected Livestock Shows  

E-print Network

..................................................................... 58 Findings for Objective 1: Are Local Officials Aware of Selected Livestock Shows? ...................................................... 58 Findings for Objective 2: Awareness of Incident Response Plans for Selected... ......................................................................................................................... 85 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 The Preparedness Cycle (Also Known as the POETE Model) ................. 16 2 Five...

Tomascik, Chelsea Roxanne

2012-02-14

272

No Show Student Survey, Schoolcraft College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In winter semester 1995, Schoolcraft College, in Michigan, experienced a 7% drop in enrollment and an 8% drop in credit hours, including 461 students who applied but did not enroll. To determine the reasons that the no shows had for not enrolling and how many planned to enroll in the future, demographic data were collected from application…

Schoolcraft Coll., Livonia, MI.

273

Report of Research on Five Test Shows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first five experimental hour-long versions of "Sesame Street," a children's educational television program, were field tested during the summer of 1969. To provide formative information on the effectiveness of the show and to test the effectiveness of the evaluation instrument, small samples of disadvantaged and middle class four-year olds…

Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

274

Children's Art Show: An Educational Family Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a time of seemingly rampant budget cuts in the arts in school systems throughout the country, a children's art show reaps many rewards. It can strengthen family-school relationships and community ties and stimulate questions and comments about the benefits of art and its significance in the development of young children. In this photo essay of…

Bakerlis, Julienne

2007-01-01

275

The object-oriented trivia show (TOOTS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OOPSLA has a longstanding tradition of being a forum for discussing the cutting edge of technology in a fun and participatory environment. The type of events sponsored by OOPSLA sometimes border on the unconventional. This event represents an atypical panel that conforms to the concept of a game show that is focused on questions and answers related to SPLASH, OOPSLA,

Jeff Gray; Jules White

2010-01-01

276

Optimal Strategy in the Game Show, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we will be using a simplified method (a geometric distribution statistical approach) and move through a more detailed approach (using dynamic programming) to analyze when contestants should quit versus when they should stay in the TV game show “1 vs. 100.” We will observe optimal contestants’ strategies for when they should statistically quit answering questions or stay

Seth A Hoxworth

2008-01-01

277

"The Stars Tonight" LIVE Planetarium Show  

E-print Network

"The Stars Tonight" LIVE Planetarium Show Theme: The Stars Tonight Program is built around how The Stars Tonight and its associated classroom extensions meet specific national standards of learning (SoL's). The Stars Tonight takes its audience on a tour of the night sky, free from cloudy skies

Mathis, Wayne N.

278

Tray whitening: what the evidence shows.  

PubMed

In recent years, many dental professionals have changed their philosophy regarding the use of trays with at-home bleaching regimens. However, facts do not change--and successful vital tooth bleaching still occurs only when tooth surfaces are in direct contact with the appropriate concentration of active whitening agent for a specific amount of time. Because the science of tooth whitening is still in its infancy--this article reviews a series of remaining questions regarding vital tooth bleaching based on current scientific information and research findings on products using trays. PMID:12793212

Matis, Bruce A

2003-04-01

279

The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this one, but when I searched the Internet for information and looked at YouTube presentations, I could only find simplistic references to Newton's laws and the conservation of mechanical energy principle. Nowhere could I find detailed calculations. On the other hand, there were several biomechanical articles with empirical reports of the results of kinetic and dynamic investigations of show jumping using high-speed digital cameras and force plates. They summarize their results in tables that give information about the motion of a horse jumping over high fences (1.40 m) and the magnitudes of the forces encountered when landing. However, they do not describe the physics of these results.

Stinner, Art

2014-04-01

280

The maize Dof protein PBF activates transcription of ?-zein during maize seed development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize PBF (prolamin-box binding factor) belongs to the Dof class of plant specific transcription factors containing one highly\\u000a conserved zinc finger DNA-binding domain, called Dof (DNA binding with one finger) domain. Maize PBF trans-activates the ?-zein\\u000a gene (?Z) promoter in developing maize seeds as shown by transient expression in maize endosperms. Co-transfection of a ?Z:GUS\\u000a construct with 35S:PBF resulted in

Pau Marzábal; Elisabet Gas; Pilar Fontanet; Jesús Vicente-Carbajosa; Margarita Torrent; M. Dolores Ludevid

2008-01-01

281

Gyroscopic Motion: Show Me the Forces!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gyroscopes are frequently used in physics lecture demonstrations and in laboratory activities to teach students about rotational dynamics, namely, angular momentum and torque. Use of these powerful concepts makes it difficult for students to fully comprehend the mechanism that keeps the gyroscope from falling under the force of gravity. The analysis of gyroscopic motion presented here is in terms of linear forces and linear momentum, allowing students to understand gyroscopic motion using familiar concepts. Our simulation using VPython models the gyroscope as a number of point masses evenly spaced in a radial pattern. Students can alter the parameters of the gyroscope including starting position, mass, rotational velocity of the masses, and the force of gravity. All of this allows for a simulation intended to help students understand how such a complex system works.

Kaplan, Harvey; Hirsch, Andrew

2014-01-01

282

Boron aluminum crippling strength shows improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from an experimental program directed toward improving boron aluminum crippling strength. Laminate changes evaluated were larger filament diameter, improved processing, shape changes, adding steel-aluminum cross plies, reduced filament volume in corners, adding boron aluminum angle plies, and using titanium interleaves. Filament diameter and steel-aluminum cross plies have little effect on crippling. It is shown that better processing combined with appropriate shape changes improved crippling over 50 percent at both room temperature and 600 F. Tests also show that crippling improvements ranging from 20 to 40 percent are achieved using angle plies and titanium interleaves.

Otto, O. R.; Bohlmann, R. E.

1974-01-01

283

Show Me the Invisible: Visualizing Hidden Content  

PubMed Central

Content on computer screens is often inaccessible to users because it is hidden, e.g., occluded by other windows, outside the viewport, or overlooked. In search tasks, the efficient retrieval of sought content is important. Current software, however, only provides limited support to visualize hidden occurrences and rarely supports search synchronization crossing application boundaries. To remedy this situation, we introduce two novel visualization methods to guide users to hidden content. Our first method generates awareness for occluded or out-of-viewport content using see-through visualization. For content that is either outside the screen’s viewport or for data sources not opened at all, our second method shows off-screen indicators and an on-demand smart preview. To reduce the chances of overlooking content, we use visual links, i.e., visible edges, to connect the visible content or the visible representations of the hidden content. We show the validity of our methods in a user study, which demonstrates that our technique enables a faster localization of hidden content compared to traditional search functionality and thereby assists users in information retrieval tasks.

Geymayer, Thomas; Steinberger, Markus; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Schmalstieg, Dieter

2014-01-01

284

Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

1984-01-01

285

ArtBots: The Robot Talent Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the Columbia University Computer Music Center and the Digital Media Center of Columbia University's School of the Arts, ArtBots is "an international art exhibition for robotic art and art-making robots." The annual event invites artists from around the world to enter their robots based on the broad guidelines: "if you think it's a robot and you think it's art, we encourage you to submit." The Participants section includes a photo, description (including some interpretive analysis) and website link for each of the ArtBot 2004 participants. Some sample entries include a robot that draws, one that picks up balls and a "robotic sculpture built around a section of tree trunk." The website even offers a sample of the Theme Song from the show.

286

Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.  

PubMed

Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings. PMID:22806150

Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

2012-07-01

287

Examples show system-performance upgrade  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews several techniques to quantify the performance of a turboexpander refrigeration system's expander and compressor. It proposes that improvements in cycle efficiency can best be implemented through a combined effort of those responsible for the operation of the gas processing plant and the design engineers familiar with the performance of the specialized components within the system. It points out that the manufacturers of the turbomachinery should be able to recommend specific changes to improve performance and quantify the net benefits these changes have on plant efficiency. It presents graphs showing the effect of heat exchanger fouling, performance loss, and cost of lost performance. It attempts to operate a compressor at a higher efficiency on its efficiency vs. Q/N (flow rate/shaft speed) performance curve and explains that operating curves can be prepared based on field-measured values.

McIntire, R.

1982-07-12

288

Temperature Data Shows Warming in 2001  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. Warming around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest warming is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict warming. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has warmed by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).

2002-01-01

289

ACC (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate) Deaminase Activity, a Widespread Trait in Burkholderia Species, and Its Growth-Promoting Effect on Tomato Plants?  

PubMed Central

The genus Burkholderia includes pathogens of plants and animals and some human opportunistic pathogens, such as the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), but most species are nonpathogenic, plant associated, and rhizospheric or endophytic. Since rhizobacteria expressing ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase may enhance plant growth by lowering plant ethylene levels, in this work we investigated the presence of ACC deaminase activity and the acdS gene in 45 strains, most of which are plant associated, representing 20 well-known Burkholderia species. The results demonstrated that ACC deaminase activity is a widespread feature in the genus Burkholderia, since 18 species exhibited ACC deaminase activities in the range from 2 to 15 ?mol of ?-ketobutyrate/h/mg protein, which suggests that these species may be able to modulate ethylene levels and enhance plant growth. In these 18 Burkholderia species the acdS gene sequences were highly conserved (76 to 99% identity). Phylogenetic analysis of acdS gene sequences in Burkholderia showed tight clustering of the Bcc species, which were clearly distinct from diazotrophic plant-associated Burkholderia species. In addition, an acdS knockout mutant of the N2-fixing bacterium Burkholderia unamae MTl-641T and a transcriptional acdSp-gusA fusion constructed in this strain showed that ACC deaminase could play an important role in promotion of the growth of tomato plants. The widespread ACC deaminase activity in Burkholderia species and the common association of these species with plants suggest that this genus could be a major contributor to plant growth under natural conditions. PMID:19700546

Onofre-Lemus, Janette; Hernandez-Lucas, Ismael; Girard, Lourdes; Caballero-Mellado, Jesus

2009-01-01

290

Webcams, TV Shows and Mobile phones: Empowering Exhibitionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of visual representations have been multiplied. In contrast of being targets of the ever-increasing surveillance, people seek to play an active role in the production of images, thus, reclaiming the copyright of their own lives. In this article, three examples of this development are examined. 'Reality shows' in TV aim to create an impression of the viewer participating

Hille Koskela

2004-01-01

291

Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated ?-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorinated dibenzeno-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium

Hideyuki Inui; Keiko Gion; Yasushi Utani; Taketo Wakai; Susumu Kodama; Heesoo Eun; Yun-Seok Kim; Hideo Ohkawa

2012-01-01

292

CHRK1, a chitinase-related receptor-like kinase, plays a role in plant development and cytokinin homeostasis in tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

CHRK1 encodes a receptor-like kinase that contains a chitinase-related sequence in the extracellular domain in Nicotiana tabacum. In this study, we showed that CHRK1 is mainly expressed in the shoot apex region including leaf primordia and young leaves, and germinating seedlings and vascular tissues, based on GUS activity of transgenic tobacco plants carrying the CHRK1promoter-GUS fusion gene. Transgenic tobacco plants

Jeong Hee Lee; Kentaro Takei; Hitoshi Sakakibara; Hye Sun Cho; Do Myung Kim; Youn Sung Kim; Sung Ran Min; Woo Taek Kim; Dae Young Sohn; Yong Pyo Lim; Hyun-Sook Pai

2003-01-01

293

Activation of Silent gal Genes in the lac-gal Regulon of Streptococcus thermophilus  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus thermophilus strain CNRZ 302 is unable to ferment galactose, neither that generated intracellularly by lactose hydrolysis nor the free sugar. Nevertheless, sequence analysis and complementation studies with Escherichia coli demonstrated that strain CNRZ 302 contained structurally intact genes for the Leloir pathway enzymes. These were organized into an operon in the order galKTE, which was preceded by a divergently transcribed regulator gene, galR, and followed by a galM gene and the lactose operon lacSZ. Results of Northern blot analysis showed that the structural gal genes were transcribed weakly, and only in medium containing lactose, by strain CNRZ 302. However, in a spontaneous galactose-fermenting mutant, designated NZ302G, the galKTE genes were well expressed in cells grown on lactose or galactose. In both CNRZ 302 and the Gal+ mutant NZ302G, the transcription of the galR gene was induced by growth on lactose. Disruption of galR indicated that it functioned as a transcriptional activator of both the gal and lac operons while negatively regulating its own expression. Sequence analysis of the gal promoter regions of NZ302G and nine other independently isolated Gal+ mutants of CNRZ 302 revealed mutations at three positions in the galK promoter region, which included substitutions at positions ?9 and ?15 as well as a single-base-pair insertion at position ?37 with respect to the main transcription initiation point. Galactokinase activity measurements and analysis of gusA reporter gene fusions in strains containing the mutated promoters suggested that they were gal promoter-up mutations. We propose that poor expression of the gal genes in the galactose-negative S. thermophilus CNRZ 302 is caused by naturally occurring mutations in the galK promoter. PMID:11157930

Vaughan, Elaine E.; van den Bogaard, Patrick T. C.; Catzeddu, Pasquale; Kuipers, Oscar P.; de Vos, Willem M.

2001-01-01

294

Neonatal electroencephalography shows low sensitivity to anesthesia.  

PubMed

This study examined EEG under clinical anesthesia in neonates and infants, to clarify how growth affects EEG during anesthesia. Subjects comprised 62 neonates and infants. Patients were divided into four groups according to age: Group 1 (neonates), <1 month; Group 2, 1-2 months; Group 3, 3-5 months; and Group 4, 6 months to 2 years. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and fentanyl and/or caudal block. At four points of sevoflurane concentration (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2%), 90% spectral edge frequency (SEF90), burst suppression ratio (BSR), relative beta ratio (RBR) and approximate entropy (ApEn) were analyzed. In Group 4, SEF90, BSR, RBR and ApEn changes were dependent on the concentration of anesthesia, along with changes in sevoflurane concentration from 0.5% to 2% (from 14.3 (2.7) [mean (SD)] Hz to 8.2 (3.8) Hz, from 0.0 to 0.32 (0.36), from -1.58 (0.14) to -1.10 (0.15), and from 0.56 (0.25) to 0.24 (0.25) respectively; p<0.05 each). Conversely, these processed EEG parameters in Group 1 showed little anesthesia-dependent change under sevoflurane concentrations between 0.5% and 2% (SEF90: 7.3 (1.2) Hz vs. 7.7 (2.1) Hz; BSR: 0.51 (0.20) vs. 0.62 (0.29); RBR: -1.00 (0.17) vs. -1.03 (0.27); ApEn: 0.32 (0.18) vs. 0.25 (0.14), respectively). The unique EEG features of neonates during anesthesia rapidly change to the usual anesthesia-dependent patterns seen in older children, with a boundary of 3-5 months old. In infants younger than 6 months old, neural network regulation reflected in EEG by anesthesia is weak. PMID:22542892

Hayashi, Kazuko; Shigemi, Kenji; Sawa, Teiji

2012-05-31

295

Mercury's Core Molten, Radar Study Shows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists using a high-precision planetary radar technique for the first time have discovered that the innermost planet Mercury probably has a molten core, resolving a mystery of more than three decades. The discovery, which used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia and Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, and NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory antennas in California, is an important step toward a better understanding of how planets form and evolve. Planetary Radar High-precision planetary radar technique sent signal to Mercury, received reflection. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file (447 KB) "For a long time it was thought we'd have to land spacecraft on Mercury to learn if its core is solid or molten. Now we've answered that question using ground-based telescopes," said Jean-Luc Margot, of Cornell University, leader of the research team, which published its results in the May 4 issue of the journal Science. Mercury is one of the least-understood of the planets in our Solar System. Its distance from the Sun is just over one-third that of the Earth, and it contains a mass just 5½ percent that of Earth. Only about half of Mercury's surface has been photographed by a spacecraft, Mariner 10, back in 1974. Mariner 10 also discovered that Mercury has a weak magnetic field, about one percent as strong as Earth's. That discovery spurred a scientific debate about the planet's core. Scientists normally expect a rocky planet's magnetic field to be caused by an electromagnetic dynamo in a molten core. However, Mercury is so small that most scientists expected its core to have cooled and solidified long ago. Those scientists speculated that the magnetic field seen today may have been "frozen" into the planet when the core cooled. "Whether the core is molten or solid today depends greatly on the chemical composition of the core. That chemical composition can provide important clues about the processes involved in planet formation," Margot said. To answer the question, the scientists implemented an ingenious, high-precision technique in which they sent a powerful beam of radio waves to bounce off Mercury, then received and analyzed the reflected signal using pairs of ground-based radio telescopes. While similar radar systems have been used in the past to map planetary surfaces, this technique instead measured the rate at which Mercury spins on its axis, and did so with an unprecedented precision of one part in 100,000. By making 21 separate observations, the research team was able to measure minute variations in the planet's spin rate. This was the key to learning whether Mercury's core is solid or molten. Using an understanding of the Sun's gravitational effect on the planet, they realized that the tiny variations in its spin rate would be twice as large if the core is liquid than they would be if Mercury has a solid core. "The variations in Mercury's spin rate that we measured are best explained by a core that is at least partially molten. We have a 95 percent confidence level in this conclusion," Margot said. For most of their observations, carried out from 2002-2006, the scientists transmitted a powerful radar beam from the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna at Goldstone, California, and received the reflected signal with the Green Bank Telescope and the Goldstone antenna. For some observations, they transmitted from the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico and received at Arecibo and two Goldstone antennas. They used radar signals at frequencies of 8.5 and 2.4 GHz. To make the precision measurements of Mercury's spin rate, the geometry between the planet and the receiving antennas had to match a specific alignment. Such an alignment only occurs for about 20 seconds a day. In addition to measuring Mercury's spin rate, their technique also made the best measurement ever of the alignment of the planet's axis of rotation. "We improved the accuracy of this measurement by 100 times, and showed that Mercury's spin axis

2007-05-01

296

Do men and women show love differently in marriage?  

PubMed

In Western societies, women are considered more adept than men at expressing love in romantic relationships. Although scholars have argued that this view of love gives short shrift to men's ways of showing love (e.g., Cancian, 1986; Noller, 1996), the widely embraced premise that men and women "love differently" has rarely been examined empirically. Using data collected at four time points over 13 years of marriage, the authors examined whether love is associated with different behaviors for husbands and wives. Multilevel analyses revealed that, counter to theoretical expectations, both genders were equally likely to show love through affection. But whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives. Overall, the findings indicate that men and women show their love in more nuanced ways than cultural stereotypes suggest. PMID:22711739

Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Bredow, Carrie A; Huston, Ted L

2012-11-01

297

The Physics Circus -- Engaging students through a demo show  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Physics Circus is a fun and exciting demo show presented by the UT Austin Physics Department at elementary, middle, and high schools in central Texas with the aim of engaging students. I will discuss the goals of this program, its facilitation, and the impact it has on the students who see the presentation as well as the university students who actively do the demonstrations. I will also demonstrate some highlights from the show, including the electric pickle, the flaming dollar, and the exploding trash can.

Hinko, Kathleen

2010-03-01

298

Army tests show stack flow restrictors save little energy  

SciTech Connect

Government performance tests of flue-stack flow restrictors made by Thermiser Ltd. and Thrifty Vents show only minor improvement in the efficiency of gas-fired furnaces. The Army tested the devices as a guideline for army bases after approaches by several vendors, and will soon release its full report on 288 separate tests. Both products are designed to reduce the amount of air to be heated. Furnace derating had the greatest effect on efficiency during the tests. Similar tests by the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity showed no significant savings. Both the Army and Navy tests are challenged by the manufacturers. (DCK)

Galvin, C.

1982-10-04

299

The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

2011-06-01

300

The geology of the Gus area, Burleson county, Texas  

E-print Network

proeorvod pelecypod eeata (Plato XXZ) ~ Vpper boundaryt The %oohoeMparta contact ia not expoaod anywhere in the Gue areai fn all canes the contact haa been covoie4 by alluviun, uaually ?and from tho overlying Sparta foraa tiono 4 very oloeo... the Stone City cuesta te be higher than the Sparta outcrop This $o readily discernible to an observer traveling along Hid way QL whish runs al?ng the oreot of the Stone City cuesta (Plato XVIII). Although most of the Stone City outcrop haa been cleared...

Napp, Donald Edward

2012-06-07

301

miR396 affects mycorrhization and root meristem activity in the legume Medicago truncatula.  

PubMed

The root system is crucial for acquisition of resources from the soil. In legumes, the efficiency of mineral and water uptake by the roots may be reinforced due to establishment of symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi and interactions with soil rhizobia. Here, we investigated the role of miR396 in regulating the architecture of the root system and in symbiotic interactions in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Analyses with promoter-GUS fusions suggested that the mtr-miR396a and miR396b genes are highly expressed in root tips, preferentially in the transition zone, and display distinct expression profiles during lateral root and nodule development. Transgenic roots of composite plants that over-express the miR396b precursor showed lower expression of six growth-regulating factor genes (MtGRF) and two bHLH79-like target genes, as well as reduced growth and mycorrhizal associations. miR396 inactivation by mimicry caused contrasting tendencies, with increased target expression, higher root biomass and more efficient colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In contrast to MtbHLH79, repression of three GRF targets by RNA interference severely impaired root growth. Early activation of mtr-miR396b, concomitant with post-transcriptional repression of MtGRF5 expression, was also observed in response to exogenous brassinosteroids. Growth limitation in miR396 over-expressing roots correlated with a reduction in cell-cycle gene expression and the number of dividing cells in the root apical meristem. These results link the miR396 network to the regulation of root growth and mycorrhizal associations in plants. PMID:23566016

Bazin, Jérémie; Khan, Ghazanfar Abbas; Combier, Jean-Philippe; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Debernardi, Juan Manuel; Rodriguez, Ramiro; Sorin, Céline; Palatnik, Javier; Hartmann, Caroline; Crespi, Martin; Lelandais-Brière, Christine

2013-06-01

302

2014 Greenwood County Livestock Show Beef Show Saturday, August 30, 10:00 am  

E-print Network

@meta-net.net 8. Exhibitors must show their OWN animal in the SHOWMANSHIP class. 9. Any exhibitor using abusive not registered will be entered in the crossbred classes. 2. Exhibitors must have owned his/her animals at least for their animals' exhibits and keep their animals and area clean and presentable at all times. 4. Animals

Stuart, Steven J.

303

Showing and Telling Farming: Agricultural Shows and Re-Imaging British Agriculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some actors in the ''mainstream'' agricultural sector are beginning to engage in strategies of influencing public perceptions of farming, responding to public anxieties over industrialised agriculture and to a supposed separation of non-farming publics from food production. This paper focuses on agricultural shows as sites and events central to…

Holloway, Lewis

2004-01-01

304

Electricity show and related educational programming. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The on-site version of Balance of Power reached a total audience of 21,331 between November 10, 1994 and January 31, 1996; in addition, the Physics on Wheels van offered exhibits and programs to an additional 30,000 students in the 1995-1996 school year. The program provided a groundbreaking new approach to informal science education, combining a dynamic demonstration with an intensely interactive game show. Between the on-site programming and the Physics on Wheels van programs, 51,331 students were impacted by the activities, exhibits and energy-conservation message of Balance of Power.

NONE

1997-03-19

305

DIME Students Show Off their Lego(TM) Challenge Creation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two students show the Lego (TM) Challenge device they designed and built to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

2002-01-01

306

Children with Autism Show Reduced Somatosensory Response: An MEG Study  

PubMed Central

Lay Abstract Autism spectrum disorders are reported to affect nearly one out of every one hundred children, with over 90% of these children showing behavioral disturbances related to the processing of basic sensory information. Behavioral sensitivity to light touch, such as profound discomfort with clothing tags and physical contact, is a ubiquitous finding in children on the autism spectrum. In this study, we investigate the strength and timing of brain activity in response to simple, light taps to the fingertip. Our results suggest that children with autism show a diminished early response in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). This finding is most evident in the left hemisphere. In exploratory analysis, we also show that tactile sensory behavior, as measured by the Sensory Profile, may be a better predictor of the intensity and timing of brain activity related to touch than a clinical autism diagnosis. We report that children with atypical tactile behavior have significantly lower amplitude somatosensory cortical responses in both hemispheres. Thus sensory behavioral phenotype appears to be a more powerful strategy for investigating neural activity in this cohort. This study provides evidence for atypical brain activity during sensory processing in autistic children and suggests that our sensory behavior based methodology may be an important approach to investigating brain activity in people with autism and neurodevelopmental disorders. Scientific Abstract The neural underpinnings of sensory processing differences in autism remain poorly understood. This prospective magnetoencephalography (MEG) study investigates whether children with autism show atypical cortical activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in comparison to matched controls. Tactile stimuli were clearly detectable, painless taps applied to the distal phalanx of the second (D2) and third (D3) fingers of the right and left hands. Three tactile paradigms were administered: an oddball paradigm (standard taps to D3 at an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 0.33 and deviant taps to D2 with ISI ranging from 1.32–1.64s); a slow-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the deviant taps in the oddball paradigm; and a fast-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the standard taps in the oddball. Study subjects were boys (age 7–11 years) with and without autism disorder. Sensory behavior was quantified using the Sensory Profile questionnaire. Boys with autism exhibited smaller amplitude left hemisphere S1 response to slow and deviant stimuli during the right hand paradigms. In post-hoc analysis, tactile behavior directly correlated with the amplitude of cortical response. Consequently, the children were re-categorized by degree of parent-report tactile sensitivity. This regrouping created a more robust distinction between the groups with amplitude diminution in the left and right hemispheres and latency prolongation in the right hemisphere in the deviant and slow-rate paradigms for the affected children. This study suggests that children with autism have early differences in somatosensory processing, which likely influence later stages of cortical activity from integration to motor response. PMID:22933354

Marco, Elysa J.; Khatibi, Kasra; Hill, Susanna S.; Siegel, Bryna; Arroyo, Monica S.; Dowling, Anne F.; Neuhaus, John M.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Hinkley, Leighton N. B.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

2012-01-01

307

This framework shows skills you are likely to be developing throughout your time at University, in your studies and through other activities. Use the diagram to help you identify important skills that you are gaining, many of which will be transferable to  

E-print Network

to other work environments, setting realistic and achievable career goals, and identifying and developing management, setting research goals, intermediate milestones and prioritising activities · Demonstrate's skills, personal attributes and experiences through effective CVs, applications and interviews

Mumby, Peter J.

308

Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage  

PubMed Central

A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. PMID:24626632

Barfield, Whitney L.; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C.; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P.

2014-01-01

309

Development and Application of Novel Constructs to Score C:G-to-T:A Transitions and Homologous Recombination in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

We report on the development of five missense mutants and one recombination substrate of the ?-glucuronidase (GUS)-encoding gene of Escherichia coli and their use for detecting mutation and recombination events in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants by reactivation of GUS activity in clonal sectors. The missense mutants were designed to find C:G-to-T:A transitions in a symmetrical sequence context and are in that respect complementary to previously published GUS point mutants. Small peptide tags (hemagglutinin tag and Strep tag II) and green fluorescent protein were translationally fused to GUS, which offers possibilities to check for mutant GUS production levels. We show that spontaneous mutation and recombination events took place. Mutagenic treatment of the plants with ethyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-C increased the number of mutations, validating the use of these constructs to measure mutation and recombination frequencies in plants exposed to biotic or abiotic stress conditions, or in response to different genetic backgrounds. Plants were also subjected to heavy metals, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and heat stress, for which no effect could be seen. Together with an ethyl methanesulfonate mutation induction level much higher than previously described, the need is illustrated for many available scoring systems in parallel. Because all GUS missense mutants were cloned in a bacterial expression vector, they can also be used to score mutation events in E. coli. PMID:17921342

Van der Auwera, Gert; Baute, Joke; Bauwens, Melanie; Peck, Ingrid; Piette, Denis; Pycke, Michael; Asselman, Pieter; Depicker, Anna

2008-01-01

310

Student Demographics, Extracurricular Participation and Safety Education of Students Participating in the 2003 Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo Agricultural Mechanics Project Show  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo Agricultural Mechanics Project Show is the largest show of it kind in Texas, and perhaps the largest in the nation. This extracurricular activity provides students and agricultural education programs an opportunity to display skills developed in agricultural mechanics laboratories by exhibiting projects constructed entirely by students. Projects such as gooseneck trailers, bulk feeders, cattle

Doug Ulrich; Dwayne Pavelock; Joe Muller; Billy Harrell

311

Proteolytic enzyme activity in lactococci grown in different pretreated milk media.  

PubMed

Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis MG1363, harbouring plasmid pNZ521, which encodes the extracellular serine proteinase (PrtP) from strain SK110, was used to study the effect of two different treatments of the growth medium milk on the activity levels of PrtP and the intracellular localized aminopeptidase PepN and X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase PepXP. All three proteolytic enzymes showed lower activity levels in cells grown in high heat-treated milk as compared to cells grown in non-heat-treated milk. Highest activity levels of the three studied enzymes were found in cells grown in milk heat treated for 30 min at 63 degrees C. Using cells of strain L. lactis ssp. lactis MG1363, harbouring plasmid pNZ544, which encodes reporter gene gusA under control of the prtP promoter, it was demonstrated that the regulation of PrtP takes place at the transcription initiation level. After separation of the pH 4.6 soluble fraction of high heat-treated milk with reverse phase HPLC, it was found that the hydrophilic small peptide fraction of the milk was responsible for this regulation. Amino acid analysis of this fraction confirmed that this fraction consisted of peptides only. Ultrafiltration of milk, which increases the dry matter of the milk specifically through increase of its protein content, only significantly affected the levels of PrtP and PepN in cells of strain MG1363. Highest activity was found during growth in unconcentrated milk, and the lowest level was found during growth in four times concentrated retentate. Using cells of strain MG1363(pNZ544), it was demonstrated that also in this case regulation of PrtP takes place at the level of transcription initiation. Approximately 40% of the decrease in activity of PrtP and PepN could be explained by the presence of higher amounts of purified whey proteins and higher amounts of dry mass. This suggests the presence of another factor, concentrated by ultrafiltration, which controls the production different proteolytic enzymes in concentrated retentate. PMID:9281817

Meijer, W C; Hugenholtz, J

1997-08-01

312

Diabetologia . Author manuscript LDL from obese patients with the metabolic syndrome show increased  

E-print Network

; Blood Platelets ; enzymology ; metabolism ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 ; blood ; complications ; metabolism ; Oxidative Stress ; Phospholipases A2, Secretory ; blood ; metabolism ; Platelet Activation show increased lipid peroxidation and activate platelets Romain Colas 1 , Agn s Sassolasè 1 , Michel

Boyer, Edmond

313

CX3CR1(+) B cells show immune suppressor properties.  

PubMed

The immune regulatory functions of B cells are not fully understood yet. The present study aims to characterize a subtype of B cells that expresses CX3CR1. In this study, peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with food allergies and healthy subjects. Peripheral B cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. T cell proliferation was assessed by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dilution assay. The results showed that the CX3CR1(+) B cells were detected in the peripheral blood samples of healthy subjects and were significantly less in patients with food allergies. CX3CR1(+) B cells expressed high levels of TGF-? and integrin ?v?6. CX3CR1(+) B cells could efficiently suppress other effector CD4(+) T cell activation. We conclude that human peripheral CX3CR1(+) B cells have immune suppressor properties. PMID:24970890

Wu, Zhiqiang

2014-08-15

314

Mixtures of thermostable enzymes show high performance in biomass saccharification.  

PubMed

Optimal enzyme mixtures of six Trichoderma reesei enzymes and five thermostable enzyme components were developed for the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw, alkaline oxidised sugar cane bagasse and steam-exploded bagasse by statistically designed experiments. Preliminary studies to narrow down the optimization parameters showed that a cellobiohydrolase/endoglucanase (CBH/EG) ratio of 4:1 or higher of thermostable enzymes gave the maximal CBH-EG synergy in the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. The composition of optimal enzyme mixtures depended clearly on the substrate and on the enzyme system studied. The optimal enzyme mixture of thermostable enzymes was dominated by Cel7A and required a relatively high amount of xylanase, whereas with T. reesei enzymes, the high proportion of Cel7B appeared to provide the required xylanase activity. The main effect of the pretreatment method was that the required proportion of xylanase was higher and the proportion of Cel7A lower in the optimized mixture for hydrolysis of alkaline oxidised bagasse than steam-exploded bagasse. In prolonged hydrolyses, less Cel7A was generally required in the optimal mixture. Five-component mixtures of thermostable enzymes showed comparable hydrolysis yields to those of commercial enzyme mixtures. PMID:24752938

Kallioinen, Anne; Puranen, Terhi; Siika-aho, Matti

2014-07-01

315

[How children show positive and negative relationships on their drawings].  

PubMed

This study analyses, whether pictures of children showing a positive relationship are significantly different from those showing a negative one with respect to several criteria. The study involved a random selection of 45 children aged 4;6 to 11;6 years. The children painted a picture with themselves and a person they liked and a picture of themselves with someone they disliked. For the most part, the children drew pictures of themselves with peers both with respect to positive as well as negative images. In an interview afterwards, the children specified the criteria in their drawings by which the quality of the particular relationship can be identified. Positive and negative relationship paintings differ in the character of activity described. The sun as an element in children's paintings is painted not more frequent on positive compared to negative pictures. The colour black is used more often in the drawings signifying negative relationships. While girls used more colour in negative relationship drawings, boys used more colour in the positive ones. There was no significant difference in the use of favourite colours and decorative elements between the two groups. Only in negative relationship drawings people were looking away from each other. Smiling individuals were more common in the positive relationship pictures and in pictures painted by the 6 to 8 year olds. A greater distance between the individuals emerged on negative relationship drawings of the girls. PMID:15730148

Gramel, Sabine

2005-01-01

316

Structured learning of human interactions in TV shows.  

PubMed

The objective of this work is recognition and spatiotemporal localization of two-person interactions in video. Our approach is person-centric. As a first stage we track all upper bodies and heads in a video using a tracking-by-detection approach that combines detections with KLT tracking and clique partitioning, together with occlusion detection, to yield robust person tracks. We develop local descriptors of activity based on the head orientation (estimated using a set of pose-specific classifiers) and the local spatiotemporal region around them, together with global descriptors that encode the relative positions of people as a function of interaction type. Learning and inference on the model uses a structured output SVM which combines the local and global descriptors in a principled manner. Inference using the model yields information about which pairs of people are interacting, their interaction class, and their head orientation (which is also treated as a variable, enabling mistakes in the classifier to be corrected using global context). We show that inference can be carried out with polynomial complexity in the number of people, and describe an efficient algorithm for this. The method is evaluated on a new dataset comprising 300 video clips acquired from 23 different TV shows and on the benchmark UT--Interaction dataset. PMID:23079467

Patron-Perez, Alonso; Marszalek, Marcin; Reid, Ian; Zisserman, Andrew

2012-12-01

317

Trade-Show ManagementBudgeting and Planning for a Successful Event  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relative amount of money firms spend on hospitality trade shows as compared to other marketing activities (such as direct mail and display advertising) and evaluates whether hospitality-industry exhibitors are maximizing the value of their trade-show participation. Six activities were identified as contributing to trade-show success (and, presumably, cost effectiveness): (1) integrating trade shows into an overall

Ali A. Poorani

1996-01-01

318

Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

2010-01-01

319

Effects of a Non-Conservative Sequence on the Properties of ?-glucuronidase from Aspergillus terreus Li-20  

PubMed Central

We cloned the ?-glucuronidase gene (AtGUS) from Aspergillus terreus Li-20 encoding 657 amino acids (aa), which can transform glycyrrhizin into glycyrrhetinic acid monoglucuronide (GAMG) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). Based on sequence alignment, the C-terminal non-conservative sequence showed low identity with those of other species; thus, the partial sequence AtGUS(-3t) (1–592 aa) was amplified to determine the effects of the non-conservative sequence on the enzymatic properties. AtGUS and AtGUS(-3t) were expressed in E. coli BL21, producing AtGUS-E and AtGUS(-3t)-E, respectively. At the similar optimum temperature (55°C) and pH (AtGUS-E, 6.6; AtGUS(-3t)-E, 7.0) conditions, the thermal stability of AtGUS(-3t)-E was enhanced at 65°C, and the metal ions Co2+, Ca2+ and Ni2+ showed opposite effects on AtGUS-E and AtGUS(-3t)-E, respectively. Furthermore, Km of AtGUS(-3t)-E (1.95 mM) was just nearly one-seventh that of AtGUS-E (12.9 mM), whereas the catalytic efficiency of AtGUS(-3t)-E was 3.2 fold higher than that of AtGUS-E (7.16 vs. 2.24 mM s?1), revealing that the truncation of non-conservative sequence can significantly improve the catalytic efficiency of AtGUS. Conformational analysis illustrated significant difference in the secondary structure between AtGUS-E and AtGUS(-3t)-E by circular dichroism (CD). The results showed that the truncation of the non-conservative sequence could preferably alter and influence the stability and catalytic efficiency of enzyme. PMID:22347419

Liu, Yanli; Huangfu, Jie; Qi, Feng; Kaleem, Imdad; E, Wenwen; Li, Chun

2012-01-01

320

What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal  

E-print Network

2 How Gun Shows Work What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal. But other states have enacted more specific definitions as they acted to regulate gun shows themselves or gun sales at gun shows but not elsewhere (Table 2-1). In the parking lot of a gun show in Pharr, Texas

Leistikow, Bruce N.

321

Chemokine analogues show suitable stability for development as microbicides.  

PubMed

New prevention strategies are urgently needed to slow the spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and in the absence of an effective vaccine, there is hope that "microbicides"-HIV inhibitors applied to mucosal surfaces before sexual intercourse-may be able to make an impact. Because developing countries are at the center of the epidemic, affordability and stability during storage are key criteria for candidate microbicides. Furthermore, because formulation strategies that provide long-duration protection after a single dose may enhance acceptability and compliance, stability in the vaginal environment and in the presence of semen should also be considered. PSC-RANTES, a human chemokine analog, has shown promise as a candidate microbicide, but because it contains nonnatural structures that necessitate chemical synthesis steps, it is not suitable for production at a feasible cost and scale for general distribution in developing countries. We have recently developed 2 new fully recombinant chemokine analogs, 5P12-RANTES and 6P4-RANTES, which show equivalent anti-HIV activity to PSC-RANTES. In this study, we tested the stability of these molecules under conditions related to use as microbicides. Our results suggest that stability issues will not present a major obstacle to the further development of these promising molecules as microbicides. PMID:18989226

Cerini, Fabrice; Landay, Alan; Gichinga, Carolyne; Lederman, Michael M; Flyckt, Rebecca; Starks, David; Offord, Robin E; Le Gal, François; Hartley, Oliver

2008-12-15

322

Chinese dyslexics show neural differences in morphological processing.  

PubMed

Previous behavioral studies have suggested that morphological awareness is impaired in Chinese children with reading disability (RD), but how this is reflected in brain alterations is not known. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study compared morphological processing in a RD group (11-13 years old) to an age-matched typically developing (TD) group. Participants made semantic relatedness judgments to incongruent word pairs that were either semantically related but did not share a morpheme or semantically unrelated but did share a morpheme. This was compared to conditions where semantic relatedness and morphemic information was congruent. A smaller incongruency effect was found in left dorsal posterior (BA9) and ventral anterior (BA47) inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the RD compared to the TD, suggesting that the RD is less sensitive to morphological information. This was a specific deficit as a phonological control task that manipulated congruency between orthography and phonology did not show group differences in the IFG. Moreover, brain activation in the IFG for the incongruency effect in the semantic task was negatively correlated with reading skill for the RD group only, suggesting that higher skill children with RD may rely on a compensatory whole-word strategy by ignoring the morphemic information. PMID:23872198

Liu, Li; Tao, Ran; Wang, Wenjing; You, Wenping; Peng, Danling; Booth, James R

2013-10-01

323

Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated ?-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system  

PubMed Central

The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of life and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g?1 of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples. PMID:22428884

Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

2012-01-01

324

"The George Lopez Show": The Same Old Hispano?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The George Lopez Show" is the first successful television show with a Latino in a leading role that features Hispanic material since Freddie Prinze's thirty-year-old sitcom, "Chico and the Man." This study seeks to assess how Latinos are presented on "The George Lopez Show." A content analysis reveals that the show perpetuates some of the…

Markert, John

2007-01-01

325

The Object-Oriented Trivia Show (TOOTS) University of Alabama  

E-print Network

The Object-Oriented Trivia Show (TOOTS) Jeff Gray University of Alabama Department of Computer that conforms to the concept of a game show that is focused on questions and answers related to SPLASH, OOPSLA, Languages. Keywords Objects, Game Show. 1. Overview of the OOPSLA Trivia Show OOPSLA (and now SPLASH) has

Gray, Jeffrey G.

326

22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; VIEW SHOWS SECTION OF FISH LADDER NEAR WHERE IT ENTERS THE COLUMBIA RIVER. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

327

Newest *Reality Show": TheImportanceof LegitimizingExperientialLearning  

E-print Network

Newest *Reality Show": TheImportanceof LegitimizingExperientialLearning with touristsdesperatelyracingthroughawell- funded version of a global scavengerhunt, "reality shows" have proliferatedon AmericanairwavesCommunity-BasedResearch MATTHEWD.JOHNSON ven a cursoryawarenessof TV cultureis enoughtoshowthat

Johnson, Matthew

328

Research Shows Cataract Surgery Can Reduce Hip Fracture Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... sponsored Research Shows Cataract Surgery Can Reduce Hip Fracture Risk 08/01/2012 09:00:00 AM ... Medicare beneficiaries shows that the risk of hip fractures was significantly reduced in patients who had had ...

329

9 CFR 354.247 - Table showing types of materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Table showing types of materials. 354.247 Section 354.247 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY...and Precautions Against Contamination of Products § 354.247 Table showing types of materials....

2010-01-01

330

North Pacific and North America: Showing the Changing Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWiFS false color data showing seasonal change in the oceans and on land for North America and the North Pacific. The data is seasonally averaged, and shows fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring, and summer.

Allen, Jesse; Newcombe, Marte; Feldman, Gene

1998-09-09

331

Journey to the Stars Educator's Guide: Teaching with the Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an educators guide to accompany the Journey to the Stars planetarium show. The materials include a section, titled Teaching With the Show, containing guiding questions to encourage class discussions about the life cycle of stars.

332

78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO SHOWING POOL ARRANGEMENT FOR TEMPORARILY UTILIZING WATER WITHOUT FILLING THE RESERVOIR, Print No. 232, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

333

Magic, Monsters, and Movies: Americas Midnight Ghost Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines midnight ghost shows (alternately known as “spook shows,” or “spookers”) and seeks to reinsert them into theatre history and to posit them as a cultural barometer of the time in which they were popular. Ghost shows were magic shows presented on the stages of America’s movie theatres throughout the first half of the twentieth century. A ghost

Beth A. Kattelman

2010-01-01

334

Viewers' Experiences of a TV Quiz Show with Integrated Interactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the findings of the audience research conducted on the cross media Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) and Mobile Java-based interactive play-along TV game show Enigma. The show was developed as the first Finnish TV game show with fully integrated, synchronized interactivity, allowing the audience to participate in the show either by a Java-based mobile phone or by an

Susanne Sperring; Tommy Strandvall

2008-01-01

335

Demographic Characteristics and Motives of Individuals Viewing Reality Dating Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, the number of television dating shows has increased exponentially from 2 to over 28 during the period of 2000 to 2002. The purpose of this study was to examine demographic variables, personality characteristics, and attachment styles of individuals who view television dating shows. Furthermore, motives for viewing television dating shows and viewers' responses to the

Jonathan W. Roberti

2007-01-01

336

When Oprah Intervenes: Political Correlates of Daytime Talk Show Viewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the influence of daytime talk shows on opinion formation. Using agenda-setting and cultivation perspectives, it was hypothesized that both exposure to daytime talk shows and the apparent reality of these shows would be positively related to support for government involvement in social issues. In addition to exposure and apparent reality being positively related to levels of support,

Carroll J. Glynn; Michael Huge; Jason B. Reineke; Bruce W. Hardy; James Shanahan

2007-01-01

337

47 CFR 1.701 - Show cause orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... General § 1.701 Show cause orders. (a) The Commission...the carrier an order to show cause. The order shall contain...Commission is inquiring and the reasons for such action, and will...matters contained in the show cause order. (c) All papers...

2010-10-01

338

A minicomputer system for audio-animatronics show data generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio-Animatronics® shows have been produced by Disney since the introduction of several attractions at the 1964 New York World's Fair. Since then a variety of shows have been permanently installed at both Disneyland and Walt Disney World. They typically consist of a stage, or some enclosed show area, and a variety of special lighting effects, mechanized characters and other movable

Philip C. Stover; R. David Snyder

1980-01-01

339

Puppet Show: Intuitive Puppet Interfaces for Expressive Character Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that evolving game art like virtual performances and Machinima depend on better character control. That is why Puppet Show does not focus on new or optimized gameplay but aims to extend the expressive range of characters in an existing game world. Puppet Show is an interface plug-in for Epic's Unreal Tournament 2004. Puppet Show uses an external Java

Devin Hunt; Jamie Moore; Alex West; Michael Nitsche

340

Generic refinement on the fringe: The game show  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since making the transition from radio to television, the game show has weathered the quiz show scandals, survived numerous changes in network programming strategies, and prospered in the wake of the FCC's “Prime?Time Access Rule.” Treating the game show formula as a value?laden system of cultural expression, this paper develops an analytic scheme for identifying and discussing major forms of

Punch Shaw

1987-01-01

341

"The Cosby Show": The View from the Black Middle Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the black middle-class response to "The Cosby Show." The study asked about the portrayal of blacks in the media, but did not specifically ask about "The Cosby Show." Results from 100 respondents revealed two significant aspects: that the show renders black problems as irrelevant and that it fosters hope and optimism that the black…

Inniss, Leslie B.; Feagin, Joe R.

1995-01-01

342

addition, some functional brain imaging studies show differences in brain activation in frontal regions in dys-  

E-print Network

­18 years, mean age 13.3 years) and 74 nonimpaired (NI) readers (31 girls, 43 boys, aged 7­17 years, mean Subjects We studied 144 right-handed children, 70 dyslexic (DYS) readers (21 girls, 49 boys, aged 7 NI (n 74) DYS (n 70) Mean SD Mean SD Age (years) 10.9 2.4 13.3b 2.7 Sexa Male 43 49 Female 31 21

343

Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century  

E-print Network

of global warming on tropical cyclones. climate change | natural hazards Some 90 tropical cyclones develop of these additional factors to global climate change generally results in a reduction of the global frequency of tropical cyclones as the climate warms, seen in many explicit and downscaled simulations using global

Rothman, Daniel

344

Acetyl l-carnitine shows neuroprotective and neurotrophic activity in primary culture of rat embryo motoneurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the role of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) in protecting primary motoneuron cultures exposed to excitotoxic agents or serum-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) deprived. To exclude that ALCAR works as a metabolic source, we compared its effects with those of l-carnitine (L-CAR), that seems to have no neurotrophic effect. A concentration of 10 mM ALCAR, but not L-CAR, significantly reduced the

P Bigini; S Larini; C Pasquali; V Muzio; T Mennini

2002-01-01

345

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...formed to promote the construction industry. Its membership is...manufacturers of heavy construction machinery many of...In addition, new construction machinery developed for use in the industry is on display...

2012-04-01

346

The major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, shows ribonuclease activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major birch (Betula alba L.) pollen allergen, Bet v 1, has been shown to be homologous to pathogenesis-related proteins in a number of plants. Recently, it was demonstrated that a ginseng protein with high homology to an intracellular pathogenesis-related protein of parsley and to Bet v 1 is a ribonuclease (RNase). Birch pollen extract was separated in an RNase

Albrecht Bufe; Michael D. Spangfort; Helga Kahlert; Max Schlaak; Wolf-Meinhard Becker

1996-01-01

347

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...formed to promote the construction industry. Its membership is...manufacturers of heavy construction machinery many of...In addition, new construction machinery developed for use in the industry is on display...

2010-04-01

348

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...formed to promote the construction industry. Its membership is...manufacturers of heavy construction machinery many of...In addition, new construction machinery developed for use in the industry is on display...

2013-04-01

349

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...formed to promote the construction industry. Its membership is...manufacturers of heavy construction machinery many of...In addition, new construction machinery developed for use in the industry is on display...

2011-04-01

350

Using Analogy Role-Play Activity in an Undergraduate Biology Classroom to Show Central Dogma Revision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego®…

Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

2014-01-01

351

Using lake core data to show human environmental impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed during the workshop, Teaching Climate Change: Insight from Large Lakes, held in June 2012.by Ester Sztein, Board on International Scientific Organizations, National Academy of ...

352

77 FR 27123 - Safety Zone; Baltimore Air Show, Patapsco River, Baltimore, MD  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Safety Zone; Baltimore Air Show, Patapsco...The public event will consist of military and civilian aircraft performing low-flying...Commemoration activities. To provide for the safety of participants, spectators,...

2012-05-09

353

“Fair and Balanced?” Justice Issues on Political Talk Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like their news program predecessors, many political talk shows focus a considerable amount of their coverage on justice issues.\\u000a Although numerous past studies have examined justice issue presentation in news programs, infotainment, and crime drama, to\\u000a date only one forthcoming study has examined crime and justice coverage on political talk shows. Political talk shows often\\u000a present issues in a debate

Sarah Britto; Dean A. Dabney

2010-01-01

354

8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION TANKS. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

355

4. View southwest along Sherman Avenue showing portion of Kenyon ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View southwest along Sherman Avenue showing portion of Kenyon Industries mill complex. - Kenyon Village, Kenyon School Road, Sherman Avenue, & Lewiston Avenue, Richmond (historical), Providence County, RI

356

4. SOUTH ELEVATION SHOWING PROJECTING STRUCTURAL GIRDERS FROM ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. SOUTH ELEVATION SHOWING PROJECTING STRUCTURAL GIRDERS FROM ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW EAST TO WEST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

357

Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished aluminum and brass balustrade - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

358

INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HANDHAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HAND-HAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS AND MARBLE. NOTE ALUMINUM LIGHT FIXTURE - Alcoa Research Laboratory, Freeport Road, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

359

6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL RELIEF OF TRANSPORTATION BY AUTOMOBILE - Calvert Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

360

7. Photocopy of photograph (from Broome County Historical Society) showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopy of photograph (from Broome County Historical Society) showing SWIMMERS, PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FACING NORTHEAST - Charles F. Johnson Pool, Charles F. Johnson Park, Johnson City, Broome County, NY

361

3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of the mansion, looking northwest. Original photograph at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Strawberry Mansion, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

362

24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-4407. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

363

New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

364

INTRODUCTION Morphology and physiology of the gastrointestinal tract show several  

E-print Network

3981 INTRODUCTION Morphology and physiology of the gastrointestinal tract show several adaptations digestive capacity could allow some energy and nutrients to escape the gastrointestinal tract unutilized

Mladenoff, David

365

1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Oil House, 650 feet Southeast of Cliff & Mechanic Streets, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

366

54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY BRIDGE, January 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

367

INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

368

47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required. (a)...

2010-10-01

369

Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and gas generators. - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

370

6. WEST FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING AUTO ENTRANCE, WINDOWS AND MASONRY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. WEST FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING AUTO ENTRANCE, WINDOWS AND MASONRY. VIEW TO NORTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Oat Meal Mill Powerhouse, Seventh & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

371

Trade Show\\/Fair Piracy and Industrial Espionage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article raises the concern that piracy and industrial espionage at trade shows and international fairs can adversely affect a firm's competitive advantage. Trade shows are one of the premier opportunities for market intelligence gathering. Corporate intellectual property owners paint a dark picture of lost sales, lowered profits, and damaged brand reputations. Initial discussion examines the unique impact of trade

Frederick A. Palumbo

2008-01-01

372

Evaluation of the BBC\\/HEA Health Show  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Health Show was a joint BBC\\/HEA television programme which aimed to provide information and motivate viewers to adopt healthier lifestyles by making simple behavioural changes. Research, con ducted among a sample drawn from the half million people who requested a copy of an information book let promoted during the programme, showed that the venture had been a success in

Simon Wallace

1993-01-01

373

Landsat 7 Images Show Scale of Tsunami Damage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA page shows before and after pictures taken by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument of a part of the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The images show that the scale of the tsunami's impact can be seen from space.

Nasa

374

Proper Use of Sulfonamides in Market Show Animals  

E-print Network

When administering a drug to a show animal, the owner is responsible for ensuring that there will be no drug residues in the animal's urine when it is tested at a show. Sulfonamides are of special concern because, even when they are administered...

Faries Jr., Floron C.; Fajt, Virginia

2008-02-14

375

Anatomy of a Shows the 9 components of  

E-print Network

Anatomy of a Hillslope Shows the 9 components of hillslopes and the dominant transport processes and pathways Handout #12;Anatomy of a Hillslope Dominated by vertical soil formation processes Shows the 9 components of hillslopes and the dominant transport processes and pathways #12;Anatomy of a Hillslope

Venditti, Jeremy G.

376

The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

Watermeyer, Richard

2013-01-01

377

15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, c. 1934. SHOWS PRECIPITATION TANK No. 1 (NOTE LOCKS), ZINC FEEDER WITH MIXING CONE, VACUUM RECEIVER AND PIPING. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

378

Page 1 of 3 2014 Texas 4-H Fashion Show  

E-print Network

and won at the district Fashion Show competition can compete at the Fashion Show during Texas 4-H Roundup but not their 19th birthday on August 31, 2013, to be eligible for 2014 Texas 4-H Roundup. 2. Participants must

379

Fat Stigmatization in Television Shows and Movies: A Content Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the phenomenon of fat stigmatization messages presented in television shows and movies, a content analysis was used to quantify and categorize fat-specific commentary and humor.Research Methods and Procedures: Fat stigmatization vignettes were identified using a targeted sampling procedure, and 135 scenes were excised from movies and television shows. The material was coded by trained raters. Reliability indices

Susan M. Himes; J. Kevin Thompson

2007-01-01

380

The OOPSLA Trivia Show (TOOTS) University of Alabama at Birmingham  

E-print Network

The OOPSLA Trivia Show (TOOTS) Jeff Gray University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Computer on questions and answers related to OOPSLA themes. The goal of the panel is to provide an educational participation. 1. Overview of the OOPSLA Trivia Show OOPSLA has one of the most diverse collections of attendees

Gray, Jeffrey G.

381

UF Bee College Honey Show Entry Registration Form  

E-print Network

UF Bee College Honey Show Entry Registration Form Please select the class and mark number of entries you will be submitting. Please send the entry form to: Glinda Burnett C/O Bee College Honey Show: six 1lb jars of honey of any type (extracted, chunk, creamed) displayed with your own labels H2. Three

Jawitz, James W.

382

Game Show Mathematics: Specializing, Conjecturing, Generalizing, and Convincing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the authors' use of three game shows--"Survivor," "The Biggest Loser," and "Deal or No Deal?"--to determine to what degree students engaged in mathematical thinking: specializing, conjecturing, generalizing, and convincing (Burton, 1984). Student responses to the task of creating winning strategies to these shows were…

Lane, Catherine Pullin; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

2012-01-01

383

Unnatural experiments: the case of television game shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economists often use television game shows as ‘natural experiments’ to test theories on risk aversion. This article demonstrates that some of these natural experiments may not be so natural after all. Using data from Jeopardy!, we show that contestants are chosen to maintain a gender balance, with the result that men outperform women across several dimensions. This selection bias suggests

Charles Reback; Kristin Stowe

2011-01-01

384

North and South America: Showing the Changing Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWiFS false color data showing seasonal change in the oceans and on land for the Western Hemisphere. The data is seasonally averaged, and shows the sequence: fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring, summer (for the Northern Hemisphere).

Allen, Jesse; Newcombe, Marte; Feldman, Gene

1998-09-09

385

ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling  

SciTech Connect

ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

Tauxe, J.D.

1990-12-01

386

Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SG? promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.  

PubMed

Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SG?, 8SG?' and 8SG?. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SG?' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SG? was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SG? promoter was then fused to the gene encoding ?-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SG??GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SG? promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors. PMID:24503210

Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

2014-03-20

387

2. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF MANSARD RODF SHOWING CAST SUNBURST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF MANSARD RODF SHOWING CAST SUNBURST MOTIF IN PEDIMENTS, BRACKETED AND DENTILLED CORNICE AND DECORATIVE WINDOW TREATMENT - West Lexington Street, Number 310 (Commercial Building), 310 West Lexington Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

388

6. DETAIL VIEW OF PORTION OF WEST ELEVATION SHOWING CIRCULAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF PORTION OF WEST ELEVATION SHOWING CIRCULAR BRICKED-IN OPENING, ARCHED WINDOW AND CORNICE - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

389

8. WEST REAR, DETAIL SHOWING SECOND FLOOR ENTRANCE AND WINDOW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. WEST REAR, DETAIL SHOWING SECOND FLOOR ENTRANCE AND WINDOW TREATMENT. See CA-174-B-22 FOR INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR LAB AT CENTER. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Engineering-Administration Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

390

5. DETAIL VIEW OF PORTION OF EAST ELEVATION SHOWING ARCHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL VIEW OF PORTION OF EAST ELEVATION SHOWING ARCHED WINDOW AND DOOR OPENINGS - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

391

11. Detail showing cornice treatments on bay window, main cornice ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Detail showing cornice treatments on bay window, main cornice and front porch. - Edgewood Farm, Main House, West side of State Route 600, .8 mile north of State Route 778, Clover, Halifax County, VA

392

4. Building 11 north elevation oblique, showing detail of concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Building 11 north elevation oblique, showing detail of concrete landings, window treatments. Very obscured by unremovable vegetation. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 11, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

393

6. Building 11 south elevation detail showing doorway and window ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Building 11 south elevation detail showing doorway and window treatment. View looking NNE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 11, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

394

19. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST IN BEDROOM #5, SHOWING REPRESENTATIVE SECOND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST IN BEDROOM #5, SHOWING REPRESENTATIVE SECOND FLOOR FIREPLACE, WINDOW TREATMENT, COVE MOLDING AND BUILT-IN RADIATOR COVER - Hayt Farmstead, Mansion, Route 311, Patterson, Putnam County, NY

395

14. Detail view of west elevation, showing details of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Detail view of west elevation, showing details of the drop siding, corner boards and exposed rafter trails as well as door and window treatment. - Bolton Store, 21420 Willamette Drive, West Linn, Clackamas County, OR

396

Show design and control system for live theater  

E-print Network

Tod Machover's upcoming opera Death and the Powers calls for an unprecedented integration of technology and theater. These uses of technology are at the heart of the show and include a Greek chorus of nine "Operabots"; a ...

Miller, Michael R., M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

397

2. General view to northeast along Barton Avenue showing central ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. General view to northeast along Barton Avenue showing central courtyard and rotunda of hospital - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

398

East side, showing ruin of brownstone column capital that originally ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East side, showing ruin of brownstone column capital that originally supported the east side portico, a feature that was destroyed in the 1886 earthquake - William Ravenel House, 13 East Battery Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

399

7. BASEMENT, REAR WALL OF FRONT HOUSE, DETAIL SHOWING MARBLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. BASEMENT, REAR WALL OF FRONT HOUSE, DETAIL SHOWING MARBLE SILL AND HEADED JAMB OF FORMER BASEMENT WINDOW. Photo by Theodore F. Dillon, August 1960 - Captain James Abercrombie House, 268-270 South Second Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

400

7. GENERAL VIEW, SHOWING FRONT (EAST) ELEVATION AND SIDE (SOUTH) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. GENERAL VIEW, SHOWING FRONT (EAST) ELEVATION AND SIDE (SOUTH) ELEVATION. CAPT. JAMES ABERCROMBIE HOUSE (PERELMAN ANTIQUE TOY MUSEUM) IS AT RIGHT - Samuel Neave House & Store, 272-274 South Second Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

401

109. SECTION OF ENGINE HOUSE SHOWING BOULTON & WATTS ENGINE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

109. SECTION OF ENGINE HOUSE SHOWING BOULTON & WATTS ENGINE, CA. 1815 Collection of the Franklin Institute - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

402

11. Photocopy of circa 1948 photograph showing detail view of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopy of circa 1948 photograph showing detail view of Waiting Room ceiling, courtesy of Reading Company Archives - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Terminal Station, 1115-1141 Market Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

403

10. Photocopy of circa 1948 photograph showing a view of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopy of circa 1948 photograph showing a view of the Waiting Room Access of Train Shed, courtesy of Reading Company Archives - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Terminal Station, 1115-1141 Market Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

404

SOUTHWEST REAR, SHOWING CLOSED ENTRY HATCH, BUILDING 1934. Looking north ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHWEST REAR, SHOWING CLOSED ENTRY HATCH, BUILDING 1934. Looking north - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Observation Bunker Types, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

405

3. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING CENTER GABLE SECTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING CENTER GABLE SECTION OF THE FISH HATCHERY BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

406

9. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING FORMER FISH HATCHERY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING FORMER FISH HATCHERY OFFICE BUILDING (PRESENTLY USED AS GARDENER'S OFFICE). - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

407

2. PLANK WALKWAY ATOP PIPE, ALSO SHOWING OVERFLOW CONTROL BOX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. PLANK WALKWAY ATOP PIPE, ALSO SHOWING OVERFLOW CONTROL BOX AT JUNCTION OF PIPE WITH CONCRETE CHANNEL TO FISH SCREEN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Pipeline to Fish Screen, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

408

1. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING FACE OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING FACE OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM AND FISH LADDER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST (UPSTREAM) FROM SNORE OPPOSITE FISH LADDER - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

409

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING FACADE OF FISH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING FACADE OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

410

24. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; WATER FLOWING THROUGH FISH LADDER IS VISIBLE AT BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

411

14. CAR DUMP BUILDING, SOUTHWEST CORNER, VIEW SHOWING CABLE CAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. CAR DUMP BUILDING, SOUTHWEST CORNER, VIEW SHOWING CABLE CAR #20 BENEATH COAL CHUTES - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

412

VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING TIPPLE FOR LOADING COKED COAL INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING TIPPLE FOR LOADING COKED COAL INTO RAILROAD CARS (FRONT), COAL STORAGE BIN AND TIPPLE FOR COAL TO BE CHARGED IN FURNACES (BACK) - Alverton Coke Works, State Route 981, Alverton, Westmoreland County, PA

413

15. CAR DUMP BUILDING, DETAIL SHOWING GRATES OVER COAL BINS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. CAR DUMP BUILDING, DETAIL SHOWING GRATES OVER COAL BINS AND CABLES UNDER CAR DUMP CONTROL HOUSE - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

414

22. GRIP RACK: View to east showing Eppelsheimer bottom grips ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. GRIP RACK: View to east showing Eppelsheimer bottom grips standing in grip rack on the first floor of the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

415

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE DOOR INTO SITTING ROOM AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE DOOR INTO SITTING ROOM AND DOOR TO PASSAGEWAY AND FERRY BUILDING IN DISTANCE - Ellis Island, New Immigration Building, New York Harbor, New York, New York County, NY

416

7. View northeast showing 61 Sherman Avenue located at the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View northeast showing 61 Sherman Avenue located at the eastern end of the village. - Kenyon Village, Kenyon School Road, Sherman Avenue, & Lewiston Avenue, Richmond (historical), Providence County, RI

417

2. View southeast along tracks showing Kenyon Industries mill complex ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View southeast along tracks showing Kenyon Industries mill complex with company waste reservoir to the south (right). - Kenyon Village, Kenyon School Road, Sherman Avenue, & Lewiston Avenue, Richmond (historical), Providence County, RI

418

11. View southwest along Kenyon School Road showing house on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. View southwest along Kenyon School Road showing house on east (left) side of road and barn on west (right) side of road. - Kenyon Village, Kenyon School Road, Sherman Avenue, & Lewiston Avenue, Richmond (historical), Providence County, RI

419

3. View northeast showing Kenyon Arch Bridge (Rhode Island Bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View northeast showing Kenyon Arch Bridge (Rhode Island Bridge No. 148) over Pawcatuck River (foreground) and portion of Kenyon Industries mill complex (background). - Kenyon Village, Kenyon School Road, Sherman Avenue, & Lewiston Avenue, Richmond (historical), Providence County, RI

420

1. View southeast showing Kenyon Village from bridge over tracks ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. View southeast showing Kenyon Village from bridge over tracks on Main Street in village of Shamrock, Richmond-Charlestown, Rhode Island. - Kenyon Village, Kenyon School Road, Sherman Avenue, & Lewiston Avenue, Richmond (historical), Providence County, RI

421

12. View south showing the Kenyon family cemetery (foreground) and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. View south showing the Kenyon family cemetery (foreground) and the water tower of the Kenyon Industries mill complex (background). - Kenyon Village, Kenyon School Road, Sherman Avenue, & Lewiston Avenue, Richmond (historical), Providence County, RI

422

7. DETAIL, SOUTH ELEVATION, SHOWING DOOR AND WINDOW OF DURAMOLD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL, SOUTH ELEVATION, SHOWING DOOR AND WINDOW OF DURAMOLD ROOM, UPPER PART OF BOILER ROOM, AND PRIMARY ASSEMBLY BUILDING. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Cargo Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

423

Closeup view of Flume Bridge #4 showing structural components. Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of Flume Bridge #4 showing structural components. Looking northeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 4, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

424

5. Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, detail of north abutment showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, detail of north abutment showing evidence of trough framing, looking N - North River Canal System, Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, West side of Buena Vista, Buena Vista, Roanoke City, VA

425

6. Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, detail of north abutment showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, detail of north abutment showing evidence of trough framing, looking NE - North River Canal System, Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, West side of Buena Vista, Buena Vista, Roanoke City, VA

426

10. Starboard view of rudder, sternpost, and deadwood, showing chains ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Starboard view of rudder, sternpost, and deadwood, showing chains that prevent dredge cable from snagging between rudder and sternpost. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

427

5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE REEF DAM. SOUTH INTAKE OF THE DAM IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: Walter J. Lubken. March 1908 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

428

EXTERIOR VIEW SHOWING THE OILOSTATIC TERMINALS IN THE GENERATING PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW SHOWING THE OILOSTATIC TERMINALS IN THE GENERATING PLANT SWITCH YARD. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Oilostatic Transmission System, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

429

12. June 1988 INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER; SHOWING FIREFINDER (FOREGROUND), LIGHTNING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. June 1988 INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER; SHOWING FIREFINDER (FOREGROUND), LIGHTNING STOOL AND BED (BOTH TO RIGHT OF FIREFINDER) - Suntop Lookout, Forest Road 510, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Greenwater, Pierce County, WA

430

View of Irving intake system showing shed and a portion ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Irving intake system showing shed and a portion of the concrete cover (foreground). Looking south-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Intake System, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

431

View of Irving Intake System showing shed and steel flume. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Irving Intake System showing shed and steel flume. Looking west-northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Intake System, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

432

4. DETAIL ALONG WEST SIDE, SHOWING EXTERIOR STAIRWAY, BUILDING NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL ALONG WEST SIDE, SHOWING EXTERIOR STAIRWAY, BUILDING NO. 1 IN THE CENTER DISTANCE, AND ONE OF THE BENDING SHOPS AT RIGHT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

433

2. PHOTOCOPY FROM CA. 1896 POSTCARD SHOWING WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. PHOTOCOPY FROM CA. 1896 POSTCARD SHOWING WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN AT GOSPORT, FROM COLLECTION OF HARRY GREENE, INDIANAPOLIS, IND. - New Albany & Salem Railroad, North Street, Gosport, Owen County, IN

434

36. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail showing elevator, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, detail showing elevator, air ventilators and personnel entrance VIEW SOUTHEAST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

435

BLDG 2 INTERIOR SHOWING ARCHES IN HALL BY MAIN ENTRY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BLDG 2 INTERIOR SHOWING ARCHES IN HALL BY MAIN ENTRY - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Police Station, Kolekole Road & Constitution Street intersection, north side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

436

Satellite Movie Shows Bertha Becoming Second Atlantic Hurricane  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from August 2 through 4 shows the movement of Tropical Storm Bertha over Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and the Bahamas. It became a hurricane on Augus...

437

Photocopy of aerial photograph taken in 1959, showing Newark Airport. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of aerial photograph taken in 1959, showing Newark Airport. Photographer unknown. Original photograph property of Continental Airlines, Houston, Texas - Newark International Airport, Between New Jersey Turnpike, U.S. Routes 1 & 9, & Interstate 78, Newark, Essex County, NJ

438

Interior view of coffee processing structure No. 1, showing concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of coffee processing structure No. 1, showing concrete reservoirs on floor, view towards the west - Finca Silem, Coffee Processing Structure No. 1, Highway 139, Kilometer 9.3, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

439

4. GERALDINE LUCAS CABIN, PORCH DETAIL SHOWING FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. GERALDINE LUCAS CABIN, PORCH DETAIL SHOWING FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION. - Geraldine Lucas Homestead, Geraldine Lucas Cabin, West bank Cottonwood Creek, 2.5 miles downstream from Jenny Lake, Moose, Teton County, WY

440

Show and Tell A work in Mark Lucas, Ohio University  

E-print Network

1 Show and Tell ­ A work in Progress Mark Lucas, Ohio University Ray Batchelor, Simon Frazier quality code · Looking for volunteers to maintain discipline-specific areas Feedback Questions Mark Lucas

441

27. View of underside of ninth bridge, showing concrete mixture, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. View of underside of ninth bridge, showing concrete mixture, view to the NW. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

442

28. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING STORAGE CLOSET AT PHOTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING STORAGE CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER LEFT AND HOT WATER HEATER CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT. VIEW TO EAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

443

Satellite Movie Shows Birth of Atlantic's Tropical Storm Lorenzo  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from Oct. 20 to 22 shows the development and strengthening of Tropical Depression 13L into Tropical Storm Lorenzo in the Atlantic (far right), a...

444

FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING AND THE BRASS FOUNDRY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

445

View from underneath bridge on west side shows cantilevered steel ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from underneath bridge on west side shows cantilevered steel supports for sidewalk above. - Raging River Bridge No. 234A, Preston-Fall City Road & Southeast Forty-fourth Place, Fall City, King County, WA

446

3. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTO CA. 1906 SHOWING WOODEN AUTO BODIES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTO CA. 1906 SHOWING WOODEN AUTO BODIES ON ASSEMBLY LINE, FROM COLLECTION OF HENRY BLOMMEL, CONNERSVILLE, INDIANA - Central Manufacturing Company, Eighteenth Street, Connersville, Fayette County, IN

447

14. DETAIL VIEW OF SERVICE BRIDGE, SHOWING TRAVELLING CRANE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DETAIL VIEW OF SERVICE BRIDGE, SHOWING TRAVELLING CRANE AND TAINTER GATE PIER WITH RECESSES FOR EMERGENCY BULKHEADS AND BULKHEAD DOGGING DEVICES, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

448

38. INTERIOR VIEW OF FOUNDRY SHOWING HEAVY TIMBER ROOF TRUSSES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. INTERIOR VIEW OF FOUNDRY SHOWING HEAVY TIMBER ROOF TRUSSES AND TRAVELING CRANE. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

449

Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof truss, newer pratt truss, and longitudinal, truss for overhead traveling crane - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

450

10. VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST IN DRYDOCK SHOWING STERN OF JFK; NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST IN DRYDOCK SHOWING STERN OF JFK; NOTE PROP SHAFTS AND RUDDER. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

451

2. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACE OF BATTERY OFFICES FOREGROUND, DIRECTOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACE OF BATTERY OFFICES FOREGROUND, DIRECTOR PIT LEFT MIDDLE-GROUND. AND HEIGHT FINDER RIGHT FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Battery Offices, Wolf Ridge, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

452

OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING THE SMALL ENCLOSURE WITH NO DOOR IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING THE SMALL ENCLOSURE WITH NO DOOR IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

453

Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

454

Battery Carpenter Observation Station, collapsed ruin showing south wall; view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Battery Carpenter Observation Station, collapsed ruin showing south wall; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Carpenter Observation Station, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 275 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

455

11. Battery Richmond, emplacement no. 1, showing (LR): sealed location ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Battery Richmond, emplacement no. 1, showing (L-R): sealed location of delivery table for projectile hoist, recess for powder hoist - Forth Wadsworth Battery Richmond, Fort Wadsworth, Staten Island, New York, New York County, NY

456

3. ROAD TO SUMMIT SHOWING VISITOR OVERLOOK AND SCIENCE CITY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. ROAD TO SUMMIT SHOWING VISITOR OVERLOOK AND SCIENCE CITY, FROM ATOP WHITE HILL. NOTE THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE A CIRCULAR SHELTER AT LOWER RIGHT. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

457

29. ROAD TO SUMMIT SHOWING VISITOR OVERLOOK AND SCIENCE CITY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. ROAD TO SUMMIT SHOWING VISITOR OVERLOOK AND SCIENCE CITY, FROM ATOP WHITE HILL. NOTE THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE A CIRCULAR SHELTER AT LOWER RIGHT. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

458

Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to the right, and the library in the center distance. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

459

South front, west part, showing wrought iron gates and tiling ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South front, west part, showing wrought iron gates and tiling at the former main entrance. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

460

South side of administration building, also showing the library in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South side of administration building, also showing the library in the left distance, and the life sciences building in the right distance. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

461

Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing north hall at far left. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

462

Enviroment, from southwest, showing Castle Garden Bridge and alignment of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Enviroment, from southwest, showing Castle Garden Bridge and alignment of Township Road 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

463

Enviroment, from north, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Enviroment, from north, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

464

20. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BOSTON, SHOWING RAILING, PEDESTRIAN STAIR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BOSTON, SHOWING RAILING, PEDESTRIAN STAIR, AND '10 SMOOT' MARKER (see data pages) - Harvard Bridge, Spanning Charles River at Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

465

View south, wharf B, timber framing, showing paired piers and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View south, wharf B, timber framing, showing paired piers and bracing sloping to water - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

466

4. Interior view looking NW showing heavy timber framing system ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Interior view looking NW showing heavy timber framing system and skylight. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, New Storehouse, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

467

3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavytimber framing, railed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavy-timber framing, railed trackway and corn car at upper level. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Corn Crib, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA