Sample records for showed gus activity

  1. Detection of transformed cells in crown gall tumors using the GUS reporter gene and correlation of GUS stained cells with T-DNA gene activity

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.C. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Media (USA)); Labriola, J.; Binns, A.N. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Crown gall tumors are a mixture of transformed hormone producing cells and normal cells. Until now it has not been possible to directly visualize these cell types in situ. We have constructed strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens that carry the 35S-{beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in either wild type or mutant Ti plasmids. Using histochemical staining for GUS activity, blue (GUS positive) sectors are observed in tumor sections. In order to demonstrate that the blue sectors actually represent cells expressing other T-DNA genes, we have looked for T-DNA gene encoded enzyme activity in the stained and unstained sectors. The blue sectors accumulate octopine (a product of the octopine synthase gene on the T-DNA) while the white (GUS negative) sectors do not. We conclude that the use of the GUS reporter gene provides a sensitive and reliable method for visualizing transformation events in plant tissues. A comparison of the proportion of transformed and nontransformed cells in wild type tumors vs. tumors deficient in auxin or cytokinin encoding genes will be discussed.

  2. Increasing the transient expression of GUS gene in Porphyra yezoensis by 18S rDNA targeted homologous recombination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongquan Liu; Wengong Yu; Jixun Dai; Qianhong Gong; Kunfeng Yang; Yaping Zhang

    2003-01-01

    In order to test whether 18S rDNA can influence positively GUS gene transient expression in the red alga Porphyra yezoensis, a targeting vector pQD-GUS was constructed containing a portion of the 18S rDNA of P. yezoensis and transformed it into the same strain protoplasts. The results showed that GUS protein activity was increased markedly with pQD-GUS compared to the parent

  3. (Figs. 1A and 3C). (iii) Application of a H2O2 regenerating system elevated GUS activity in

    E-print Network

    Salzberg, Steven

    (Figs. 1A and 3C). (iii) Application of a H2O2 regenerating system elevated GUS activity in ropgap4). Thus, a Rop rheostat regulates the produc- tion of H2O2 that is required to trigger the expression of beneficial genes (for example, ADH) and the avoidance of H2O2-induced cell death. Rop signaling is controlled

  4. A VIN1 GUS::GFP fusion reveals activated sucrose metabolism programming occurring in interspersed cells during tomato fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Estornell, Leandro Hueso; Pons, Clara; Martínez, Alicia; O'Connor, José Enrique; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2013-08-15

    The tomato is a model for fleshy fruit development and ripening. Here we report on the identification of a novel unique cell autonomous/cellular pattern of expression that was detected in fruits of transgenic tomato lines carrying a GFP GUS driven by the fruit specific vacuolar invertase promoter VIN1. The VIN1 promoter sequence faithfully reproduced the global endogenous VIN expression by conferring a biphasic pattern of expression with a second phase clearly associated to fruit ripening. A closer view revealed a salt and pepper pattern of expression characterized by individual cells exhibiting a range of expression levels (from high to low) surrounded by cells with no expression. This type of pattern was detected across different fruit tissues and cell types with some preferences for vascular, sub-epidermal layer and the inner part of the fruit. Cell ability to show promoter activity was neither directly associated with overall ripening - as we find VIN+ and - VIN- cells at all stages of ripening, nor with cell size. Nevertheless the number of cells with active VIN-driven expression increased with ripening and the activity of the VIN promoter seems to be inversely correlated with cell size in VIN+ cells. Gene expression analysis of FACS-sorted VIN+ cells revealed a transcriptionally distinct subpopulation of cells defined by increased expression of genes related to sucrose metabolism, and decreased activity in protein synthesis and chromatin remodeling. This finding suggests that local micro heterogeneity may underlie some aspects (i.e. the futile cycles involving sucrose metabolism) of an otherwise more uniform looking ripening program. PMID:23598179

  5. Gus Fraenkel Medical Library Guide

    E-print Network

    Gus Fraenkel Medical Library Guide 2014 #12;Gus Fraenkel Medical Library. Last update 17th December.................................................................10 Other Flinders University Libraries.................................12 The Gus Fraenkel Medical Medical Centre. It provides a library service to the University as a whole and to the School of Medicine

  6. Factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of gusA in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-Qing Li; Chang-Nong Liu; Steven W. Ritchie; Jian-ying Peng; Stanton B. Gelvin; Thomas K. Hodges

    1992-01-01

    Transient expression of GUS in rice (Oryza sativa L.) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens was characterized using binary vectors containing gusA genes that express minimal (pKIWI105 and pCNL1) or no (p35S-GUS-INT and pCNL56) GUS activity in bacteria. Four-day old seedlings obtained from seeds or immature embryos of rice were cut into shoot, root, and seed remnants and inoculated with various strains

  7. Tagging of a cryptic promoter that confers root-specific gus expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mollier; B. Hoffmann; M. Orsel; G. Pelletier

    2000-01-01

    A 2.1-kb sequence was isolated by promoter trapping from an Arabidopsis thaliana transformant (T80) obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA insertion. This sequence directed strong ?-glucuronidase (GUS) expression specifically in roots. The promoter-gus fusion was used to transform other A. thaliana plants. Most of the transformants obtained exhibited stronger GUS activity in roots than the T80 line and a weak activity\\u000a in

  8. Gus Bedwell, Veteran Resources Coordinator Kerr Administration

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    Gus Bedwell, Veteran Resources Coordinator Kerr Administration Gus.Bedwell@oregonstate.edu (541) 737-7662 Cathy Walker, OSU Veterans Certifying O cial Kerr Administration veterans@oregonstate.edu (541) 737-4331 Angela Williamson, OSU Veterans Certifying O cial Kerr Administration veterans

  9. Identifying Growth Conditions for Nicotiana benthimiana Resulting in Predictable Gene Expression of Promoter-Gus Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, V.; Barton, K.; Longhurst, A.

    2012-12-01

    Revoluta (Rev) is a transcription factor that establishes leaf polarity inArabidopsis thaliana. Through previous work in Dr. Barton's Lab, it is known that Revoluta binds to the ZPR3 promoter, thus activating the ZPR3 gene product inArabidopsis thaliana. Using this knowledge, two separate DNA constructs were made, one carrying revgene and in the other, the ZPR3 promoter fussed with the GUS gene. When inoculated in Nicotiana benthimiana (tobacco), the pMDC32 plasmid produces the Rev protein. Rev binds to the ZPR3 promoter thereby activating the transcription of the GUS gene, which can only be expressed in the presence of Rev. When GUS protein comes in contact with X-Gluc it produce the blue stain seen (See Figure 1). In the past, variability has been seen of GUS expression on tobacco therefore we hypothesized that changing the growing conditions and leaf age might improve how well it's expressed.

  10. The CaMV 35S promoter is highly active on floral organs and pollen of transgenic strawberry plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cordero de Mesa; N. Santiago-Doménech; F. Pliego-Alfaro; M. A. Quesada; J. A. Mercado

    2004-01-01

    We have evaluated the expression of the reporter ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S ( CaMV 35S) promoter in flowers and pollen from 14 independent transgenic strawberry lines. Of the 14 lines evaluated, 13 (92.8%) showed GUS activity—as estimated by the histochemical GUS assay—in some floral organs, with expression being most common in the flower stem, sepals, petals,

  11. Subsea completion data show steady activity levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, H.O. (H.O. Mohr Research and Engineering, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Review of subsea completion statistics indicates 45 installations during 1992 - one more than during 1991. The 45 installations are still considerably less than the all-time high of 66 installations in 1985. Petrobras continues to install three times as many subsea completions as Shell, the next most active user. However, as in the past three years, the overall-lower number of installations last year was due to reduced applications by Petrobras. During 1991, that company installed 10 subsea completions, whereas during 1988, for example, it completed 37 installations. It should be noted that reduced activity by petrobras reflects problems with financing and general activity, rather than a lack of confidence in subsea completions. The number of future subsea completions identified for installation during the next 10 years is 1,144 - some 10% more than the 1,014 identified at the end of 1991. The present planned installation figure is an all-time high; the next highest number of installations identified was 1,083 at the end of 1989. These and other statistics are presented in 10 tables. A brief analysis of each is included.

  12. Surveys show support for green 'activities'.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Two independently conducted surveys on sustainability - one into the 'views and values' of NHS 'leaders', and the other questioning the public about the importance of the 'green agenda' in the NHS, and their opinions on how the service might most effectively reduce its carbon footprint, form the basis of Sustainability in the NHS: Health Check 2012, a new NHS Sustainable Development Unit (NHS SDU) publication. As HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports, the new document also presents updated data on the 'size' of the carbon footprint of the NHS in England, showing that, although good work by a number of Trusts in the past two years has seen healthcare-generated carbon emissions start to 'level off', the biggest contributors have been the current health service spending review, and the increased national availability of renewable energy. PMID:22515017

  13. The sweet potato RbcS gene (IbRbcS1) promoter confers high-level and green tissue-specific expression of the GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Noriaki; Tamoi, Masahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2015-08-10

    Sweet potato is an important crop because of its high yield and biomass production. We herein investigated the potential of the promoter activity of a small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RbcS) from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) in order to develop the high expression system of exogenous DNA in Arabidopsis. We isolated two different cDNAs (IbRbcS1 and IbRbcS2) encoding RbcS from sweet potato. Their predicted amino acid sequences were well conserved with the mature RbcS protein of other plants. The tissue-specific expression patterns of these two genes revealed that expression of IbRbcS1 was specific to green tissue, whereas that of IbRbcS2 was non-photosynthetic tissues such as roots and tubers. These results suggested that IbRbcS1 was predominantly expressed in the green tissue-specific of sweet potato over IbRbcS2. Therefore, the IbRbcS1 promoter was transformed into Arabidopsis along with ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter gene. GUS staining and semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the IbRbcS1 promoter conferred the expression of the GUS reporter gene in green tissue-specific and light-inducible manners. Furthermore, qPCR showed that the expression levels of GUS reporter gene in IbRbcS1 pro:GUS were same as those in CaMV 35S pro:GUS plants. These results suggest that the IbRbcS1 promoter is a potentially strong foreign gene expression system for genetic transformation in plants. PMID:25958348

  14. Transgene expression variability (position effect) of CAT and GUS reporter genes driven by linked divergent T-DNA promoters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy Peach; Jeff Velten

    1991-01-01

    Forty-five individually transformed clonal tobacco callus lines were simultaneously assayed for both chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and ß-glucuronidase (GUS) activity resulting from expression of introduced reporter genes driven by the adjacent and divergent mannopine (mas) promoters. Excluding lines in which one or both of the enzyme activities was essentially zero, the activities of the reporter genes varied by as much as

  15. The IRIS-GUS Shuttle Borne Upper Stage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, Craig; Houghton, Martin; Bussolino, Luigi; Connors, Paul; Broudeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the Italian Research Interim Stage - Gyroscopic Upper Stage (IRIS-GUS) upper stage system that will be used to launch NASA's Triana Observatory from the Space Shuttle. Triana is a pathfinder earth science mission being executed on rapid schedule and small budget, therefore the mission's upper stage solution had to be a system that could be fielded quickly at relatively low cost and risk. The building of the IRIS-GUS system wa necessary because NASA lost the capability to launch moderately sized upper stage missions fro the Space Shuttle when the PAM-D system was retired. The IRIS-GUS system restores this capability. The resulting system is a hybrid which mates the existing, flight proven IRIS (Italian Research Interim Stage) airborne support equipment to a new upper stage, the Gyroscopic Upper Stage (GUS) built by the GSFC for Triana. Although a new system, the GUS exploits flight proven hardware and design approaches in most subsystems, in some cases implementing proven design approaches with state-of-the-art electronics. This paper describes the IRIS-GUS upper stage system elements, performance capabilities, and payload interfaces.

  16. Human resistin, a proinflammatory cytokine, shows chaperone-like activity.

    PubMed

    Suragani, Madhuri; Aadinarayana, Varma D; Pinjari, Aleem Basha; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Pandey, Saurabh; Chaudhuri, Tapan K; Ehtesham, Nasreen Zafar

    2013-12-17

    Resistin, a cysteine-rich adipocytokine, proposed as a link between obesity and diabetes in mice, was shown as a proinflammatory molecule in humans. We earlier reported that human resistin (hRes), a trimer, was resistant to heat and urea denaturation, existed in an oligomeric polydispersed state, and showed a concentration-dependent conformational change. These properties and an intimate correlation of hRes expression with cellular stress prompted us to investigate hRes as a possible chaperone. Here, we show that recombinant human resistin was able to protect the heat-labile enzymes citrate synthase and Nde1 from thermal aggregation and inactivation and was able to refold and restore their enzymatic activities after heat/guanidinium chloride denaturation. Furthermore, recombinant human resistin could bind misfolded proteins only. Molecular dynamics-based association-dissociation kinetics of hRes subunits pointed to resistin being a molecular chaperone. Bis-ANS, which blocks surface hydrophobicity, abrogated the chaperone activity of hRes, establishing the importance of surface hydrophobicity for chaperone activity. Replacement of Phe49 with Tyr (F49YhRes), a critical residue within the hydrophobic patch of hRes, although it could prevent thermal aggregation of citrate synthase and Nde1, was unable to refold and restore their activities. Treatment of U937 cells with tunicamycin/thapsigargin resulted in reduced hRes secretion and concomitant localization in the endoplasmic reticulum. Escherichia coli transformants expressing hRes could be rescued from thermal stress, pointing to hRes's chaperone-like function in vivo. HeLa cells transfected with hRes showed protection from thapsigargin-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, hRes, an inflammatory protein, additionally exhibited chaperone-like properties, suggesting a possible link between inflammation and cellular stress. PMID:24282299

  17. Human resistin, a proinflammatory cytokine, shows chaperone-like activity

    PubMed Central

    Suragani, Madhuri; Aadinarayana, Varma D.; Pinjari, Aleem Basha; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Pandey, Saurabh; Chaudhuri, Tapan K.; Ehtesham, Nasreen Zafar

    2013-01-01

    Resistin, a cysteine-rich adipocytokine, proposed as a link between obesity and diabetes in mice, was shown as a proinflammatory molecule in humans. We earlier reported that human resistin (hRes), a trimer, was resistant to heat and urea denaturation, existed in an oligomeric polydispersed state, and showed a concentration-dependent conformational change. These properties and an intimate correlation of hRes expression with cellular stress prompted us to investigate hRes as a possible chaperone. Here, we show that recombinant human resistin was able to protect the heat-labile enzymes citrate synthase and Nde1 from thermal aggregation and inactivation and was able to refold and restore their enzymatic activities after heat/guanidinium chloride denaturation. Furthermore, recombinant human resistin could bind misfolded proteins only. Molecular dynamics-based association–dissociation kinetics of hRes subunits pointed to resistin being a molecular chaperone. Bis-ANS, which blocks surface hydrophobicity, abrogated the chaperone activity of hRes, establishing the importance of surface hydrophobicity for chaperone activity. Replacement of Phe49 with Tyr (F49YhRes), a critical residue within the hydrophobic patch of hRes, although it could prevent thermal aggregation of citrate synthase and Nde1, was unable to refold and restore their activities. Treatment of U937 cells with tunicamycin/thapsigargin resulted in reduced hRes secretion and concomitant localization in the endoplasmic reticulum. Escherichia coli transformants expressing hRes could be rescued from thermal stress, pointing to hRes’s chaperone-like function in vivo. HeLa cells transfected with hRes showed protection from thapsigargin-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, hRes, an inflammatory protein, additionally exhibited chaperone-like properties, suggesting a possible link between inflammation and cellular stress. PMID:24282299

  18. A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko, E-mail: tukamoto@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan)] [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kubota, Yasuo [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Tokuda, Masaaki [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Ashino, Hiromi [The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 1-6 Kamikitazawa2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan)] [The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 1-6 Kamikitazawa2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro [Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Sanbonmatsu, Higashikagawa, Kagawa 769-2695 (Japan)] [Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Sanbonmatsu, Higashikagawa, Kagawa 769-2695 (Japan); Konishi, Ryoji [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

  19. Silver nanoparticles synthesised using plant extracts show strong antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Avnesh; Guliani, Anika; Singla, Rubbel; Yadav, Ramdhan; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    In this study, three plants Populus alba, Hibiscus arboreus and Lantana camara were explored for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs). The effect of reaction temperature and leaf extract (LE) concentration of P. alba, H. arboreus and L. camara was evaluated on the synthesis and size of SNPs. The SNPs were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The synthesis rate of SNPs was highest with LE of L. camara followed by H. arboreus and P. alba under similar conditions. L. camara LE showed maximum potential of smaller size SNPs synthesis, whereas bigger particles were formed by H. arboreous LE. The size and shape of L. camara LE synthesised SNPs were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM analysis revealed the formation of SNPs of average size 17 ± 9.5 nm with 5% LE of L. camara. The SNPs synthesised by LE of L. camara showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The results document that desired size SNPs can be synthesised using these plant LEs at a particular temperature for applications in the biomedical field. PMID:26023158

  20. Classroom activity shows how to determine earthquake intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Dengler, L.

    1995-11-01

    When a strong earthquake occurs nearby, children are interested in what happened and why. This fascination can stimulate a variety of classroom activities and encourage discussion about the relationship between the natural forces that affect our world and us. The following is an easy classroom activity that focuses on your students` natural curiosity after an earthquake. It can be adapted for grades 3 through 12.

  1. Algorithm for generating derivative structures Gus L. W. Hart1

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    Algorithm for generating derivative structures Gus L. W. Hart1 and Rodney W. Forcade2 1Department an algorithm for generating all derivative superstructures--for arbitrary parent structures and for any number of atom types. This algorithm enumerates superlattices and atomic configurations in a geometry

  2. The scutellar vascular bundle-specific promoter of the wheat HD-Zip IV transcription factor shows similar spatial and temporal activity in transgenic wheat, barley and rice.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Wu, Wei; Eini, Omid; Bazanova, Natalia; Pallotta, Margaret; Shirley, Neil; Singh, Rohan; Ismagul, Ainur; Eliby, Serik; Johnson, Alexander; Langridge, Peter; Lopato, Sergiy

    2012-01-01

    An HD-Zip IV gene from wheat, TaGL9, was isolated using a Y1H screen of a cDNA library prepared from developing wheat grain. TaGL9 has an amino acid sequence distinct from other reported members of the HD-Zip IV family. The 3' untranslated region of TaGL9 was used as a probe to isolate a genomic clone of the TaGL9 homologue from a BAC library prepared from Triticum durum L. cv. Langdon. The full-length gene containing a 3-kb-long promoter region was designated TdGL9H1. Spatial and temporal activity of TdGL9H1 was examined using promoter-GUS fusion constructs in transgenic wheat, barley and rice plants. Whole-mount and histochemical GUS staining patterns revealed grain-specific expression of TdGL9H1. GUS expression was initially observed between 3 and 8?days after pollination (DAP) in embryos at the globular stage and adjacent to the embryo fraction of the endosperm. Expression was strongest in the outer cell layer of the embryo. In developed wheat and barley embryos, strong activity of the promoter was only detected in the main vascular bundle of the scutellum, which is known to be responsible for the uptake of nutrients from the endosperm during germination and the endosperm-dependent phase of seedling development. Furthermore, this pattern of GUS staining was observed in dry seeds several weeks after harvesting but quickly disappeared during imbibition. The promoter of this gene could be a useful tool for engineering of early seedling vigour and protecting the endosperm to embryo axis pathway from pathogens during grain desiccation and storage. PMID:21689369

  3. Lentiviral-mediated gene therapy results in sustained expression of ?-glucuronidase for up to 12 months in the gus(mps/mps) and up to 18 months in the gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mouse models of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII.

    PubMed

    Derrick-Roberts, Ainslie L K; Pyragius, Carmen E; Kaidonis, Xenia M; Jackson, Matilda R; Anson, Donald S; Byers, Sharon

    2014-09-01

    A number of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) mouse models with different levels of residual enzyme activity have been created replicating the range of clinical phenotypes observed in human MPS VII patients. In this study, a lentivirus encoding murine ?-glucuronidase was administered intravenously at birth to both the severe (Gus(mps/mps) strain) and attenuated (Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) strain) mouse models of MPS VII. Circulating enzyme levels were normalized in the Gus(mps/mps) mice and were 3.5-fold higher than normal in the Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mouse 12 and 18 months after administration. Tissue ?-glucuronidase activity increased over untreated levels in all tissues evaluated in both strains at 12 months, and the elevated level was maintained in Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) tissues at 18 months. These elevated enzyme levels reduced glycosaminoglycan storage in the liver, spleen, kidney, and heart in both models. Bone mineral volume decreased toward normal in both models after 12 months of therapy and after 18 months in the Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mouse. Open-field exploration was improved in 18-month-old treated Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mice, while spatial learning improved in both 12- and 18-month-old treated Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mice. Overall, neonatal administration of lentiviral gene therapy resulted in sustained enzyme expression for up to 18 months in murine models of MPS VII. Significant improvements in biochemistry and enzymology as well as functional improvement of bone and behavior deficits in the Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) model were observed. Therapy significantly increased the lifespan of Gus(mps/mps) mice, with 12 months being the longest reported lentiviral treatment for this strain. It is important to assess the long-term outcome on enzyme levels and effect on pathology for lentiviral gene therapy to be a potential therapy for MPS patients. PMID:25003807

  4. GH3::GUS reflects cell-specific developmental patterns and stress-induced changes in wood anatomy in the poplar stem.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Thomas; Bolu-Arianto, Waode Hamsinah; Olbrich, Andrea; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie; Göbel, Cornelia; Grzeganek, Peter; Feussner, Ivo; Hänsch, Robert; Polle, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    GH3 genes related to the auxin-inducible Glycine max (L.) Merr. GmGH3 gene encode enzymes that conjugate amino acids to auxin. To investigate the role of GH3 enzymes in stress responses and normal wood development, Populus x canescens (Ait.) was transformed with the promoter-reporter construct GH3::GUS containing a GH3 promoter and the 5' UTR from soybean. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) activity was present in the vascular tissues of leaves and in developing lateral roots and was inducible in silent tissues by external auxin application. A decrease in GUS activity from the stem apex to the bottom corresponded to decreases in auxin concentrations in these tissues. High auxin concentration and high GH3::GUS activity were present in the pith tissue, which may provide storage for auxin compounds. GH3 reporter was active in ray cells, paratracheal parenchyma cells, maturing vessels and in cells surrounding maturing phloem fibers but not in the cambium and immature phloem, despite high auxin concentrations in the latter tissues. However, the GH3 promoter in these tissues became active when the plants were exposed to abiotic stresses, like bending or salinity, causing changes in wood anatomy. We suggest that adjustment of the internal auxin balance in wood in response to environmental cues involves GH3 auxin conjugate synthases. PMID:18595842

  5. Hybrid [FeFe]-hydrogenases with modified active sites show remarkable residual enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Siebel, Judith F; Adamska-Venkatesh, Agnieszka; Weber, Katharina; Rumpel, Sigrun; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-02-24

    [FeFe]-hydrogenases are to date the only enzymes for which it has been demonstrated that the native inorganic binuclear cofactor of the active site Fe2(adt)(CO)3(CN)2 (adt = azadithiolate = [S-CH2-NH-CH2-S](2-)) can be synthesized on the laboratory bench and subsequently inserted into the unmaturated enzyme to yield fully functional holo-enzyme (Berggren, G. et al. (2013) Nature 499, 66-70; Esselborn, J. et al. (2013) Nat. Chem. Biol. 9, 607-610). In the current study, we exploit this procedure to introduce non-native cofactors into the enzyme. Mimics of the binuclear subcluster with a modified bridging dithiolate ligand (thiodithiolate, N-methylazadithiolate, dimethyl-azadithiolate) and three variants containing only one CN(-) ligand were inserted into the active site of the enzyme. We investigated the activity of these variants for hydrogen oxidation as well as proton reduction and their structural accommodation within the active site was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Interestingly, the monocyanide variant with the azadithiolate bridge showed ?50% of the native enzyme activity. This would suggest that the CN(-) ligands are not essential for catalytic activity, but rather serve to anchor the binuclear subsite inside the protein pocket through hydrogen bonding. The inserted artificial cofactors with a propanedithiolate and an N-methylazadithiolate bridge as well as their monocyanide variants also showed residual activity. However, these activities were less than 1% of the native enzyme. Our findings indicate that even small changes in the dithiolate bridge of the binuclear subsite lead to a rather strong decrease of the catalytic activity. We conclude that both the Brřnsted base function and the conformational flexibility of the native azadithiolate amine moiety are essential for the high catalytic activity of the native enzyme. PMID:25633077

  6. Visualization of auxin-mediated transcriptional activation using a common auxin-responsive reporter system in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Nonomura, Maiko; Kato, Hirotaka; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2012-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a pivotal role in various developmental aspects in land plants. However, little is known of the auxin response and distribution in non-vascular plants. In this study, we made transgenic plants of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha which express the uidA (GUS) reporter gene under control of the soybean auxin-inducible promoter, ProGH3, and used it to indirectly monitor auxin-mediated transcriptional activation in planta. Transgenic plants carrying ProGH3:GUS showed GUS activity in an auxin-dependent manner. Histochemical GUS staining was observed at the bottom of gemma cups in the process of vegetative propagation. Significant GUS activity was also detected around the gametophyte-sporophyte junction as well as the developing sporophyte after fertilization. These results suggest that the activity of auxin is crucial in both gametophyte and sporophyte development in M. polymorpha, and that the mechanism for auxin-mediated transcriptional activation had already been established when plants emerged on the terrestrial environment. PMID:22311005

  7. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2009-04-01 true Qualified convention and trade show activity. 1.513-3...Organizations § 1.513-3 Qualified convention and trade show activity. (a) Introduction...and § 1.513-3(b) provide that convention and trade show activities...

  8. A 796 bp PsPR10 gene promoter fragment increased root-specific expression of the GUS reporter gene under the abiotic stresses and signal molecules in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangbin; Guo, Sai; Chen, Kai; Song, Hongmiao; Liu, Junjun; Guo, Longbiao; Qian, Qian; Wang, Huizhong

    2010-10-01

    A 1681 bp PsPR10 promoter was isolated from Pinus strobus and a series of 5'-deletions were fused to the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and introduced into tobacco. GUS activity in P796 (-796 to +69) construct transgenic plant roots was similar with that of P1681 and higher than those of the P513 (-513 to +69) and P323 (-323 to +69) transgenic plants. Moreover, the abiotic stresses of NaCl, PEG 6000 and mannitol, and salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) induced higher GUS activity in the roots of P796 transgenic tobacco. This study provides a potential inducible root-specific promoter for transgenic plants. PMID:20495947

  9. Histology of, and physical factors affecting, transient GUS expression in pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) embryos following microprojectile bombardment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark G. Taylor; Indra K. Vasil

    1991-01-01

    Transient GUS (ß-glucuronidase) expression was visualized in whole and sectioned embryos of Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. (pearl millet) after microprojectile bombardment with pMON 8678 DNA. Strongest GUS expression occurred in cells located in the center of GUS positive spots with decreasing intensity in surrounding cells. GUS positive cells could be seen up to 12 cell layers beneath the epidermis.

  10. Alkaloids from the seeds of Peganum harmala showing antiplasmodial and vasorelaxant activities.

    PubMed

    Astulla, Adil; Zaima, Kazumasa; Matsuno, Yosuke; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Ekasari, Wiwied; Widyawaruyanti, Aty; Zaini, Noor Cholies; Morita, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    Bioassay-guided purification from the seeds of Peganum harmala led to the isolation of harmine (1), harmaline (2), vasicinone (3), and deoxyvasicinone (4). Harmine (1) and harmaline (2) showed a moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Quinazoline alkaloid, vasicinone (3), showed a vasorelaxant activity against phenylephrine-induced contraction of isolated rat aorta. PMID:18523842

  11. Localized transient expression of GUS in leaf discs following cocultivation with Agrobacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart-Jan Janssen; Richard C. Gardner

    1990-01-01

    A chimaeric gene has been constructed that expresses ß-D-glucuronidase (GUS) in transformed plant tissues, but not in bacterial cells. This gene has proved extremely useful for monitoring transformation during the period immediately following gene transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. GUS expression was detectable 2 days after inoculation, peaked at 3–4 days and then declined; if selection was imposed expression increased again

  12. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.513-3 Qualified convention and trade show activity....

  13. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.513-3 Qualified convention and trade show activity....

  14. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.513-3 Qualified convention and trade show activity....

  15. Cry j 2, a major allergen of Japanese cedar pollen, shows polymethylgalacturonase activity.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, T; Taniguchi, Y; Kohno, K; Fukuda, S; Usui, M; Kurimoto, M

    1995-06-01

    We examined Cry j 2, a major allergen of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen, for polygalacturonase enzyme activity, since a nucleotide sequence of cDNA of Cry j 2 showed a significant homology with that of tomato polygalacturonase. Polygalacturonase is well known to depolymerize preferentially polygalacturonic acid (PGA) by hydrolysis. However, Cry j 2 did not act on PGA, but was found to depolymerize pectin and methylesterified PGA in a dose-dependent manner. The substrate specificity of Cry j 2 was different from that of polygalacturonase derived from Aspergillus niger. The depolymerizing activity of Cry j 2 reached a maximum at 50%-60% of methylesterification of PGA. In contrast, polygalacturonase showed its maximum activity of PGA, and the activity decreased as the degree of methylesterification increased. Interestingly, the pectin-depolymerizing activity of Cry j 2 was due to a hydrolysis, but not a lyase, activity which splits the glycosidic bonds by beta-elimination, since no unsaturated uronides were found by measurement of absorbance at 235 nm in the reaction mixture. The enzyme activity was markedly inhibited by anti-Cry j 2 antibodies. These results indicate that Cry j 2 probably has polymethylgalacturonase enzyme activity, as postulated by von Neukom in 1963, although existence of this activity has not yet been proven. PMID:7573841

  16. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  17. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abré de Beer; Melané A Vivier

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a

  18. A UA study shows how an active marihuana ingredient preserves vision in rats with retinosis pigmentosa

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    A UA study shows how an active marihuana ingredient preserves vision in rats with retinosis strong vision-preserving effects in rats with a form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, administered in rats suffering from this disease, had 40 percent more rows of photoreceptors and 70 percent

  19. LDL from obese patients with metabolic syndrome show increased lipid peroxidation and activate platelets

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 LDL from obese patients with metabolic syndrome show increased lipid peroxidation and activate: Oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome *Corresponding author: Dr. Catherine Calzada UMR INSERM 1060 in LDL from obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) compared with LDL from type 2 diabetic patients

  20. Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis

    E-print Network

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Amin is about 10 times higher on 5 nm silver nanoparticles than on bulk silver even though measurements of two catalysts, a silver metal and ionic liquid 1- ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIM

  1. Task Control Signals in Pediatric Tourette Syndrome Show Evidence of Immature and Anomalous Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Church, Jessica A.; Wenger, Kristin K.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2009-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008). A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e., correlations outside the typical developmental range) limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009). The present study used functional MRI (fMRI) to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals), and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set). Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue) activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”). Second, group differences found in task-maintenance (i.e., sustained) activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task-maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents with TS. PMID:19949483

  2. Nanoscale anatase TiO2 with dominant {1 1 1} facets shows high photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Qian, Lisha; Yang, Lingxia; Tao, Xi; Su, Kunpeng; Wang, Hongbo; Xi, Junhua; Ji, Zhenguo

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we report a novel synthesis of nanoscale anatase TiO2 with dominant highly active {1 1 1} facets by a simple one-step hydrothermal route with the assistance of NH4F and HF. In this progress, the exposed crystal facets of TiO2 can been directly tuned by controlling the mole ratio of NH4+ and F-. When the mole ratio of NH4+ and F-reach 1:2, nanoscale anatase TiO2 with dominant {1 1 1} facets can be obtained. Nanoscale anatase TiO2 with exposed {1 0 1} or {0 0 1} facets will be prepared when there is only ammonia or HF added respectively. Such nano-TiO2 with exposed highly active {1 1 1} facets has large specific surface area and shows excellent photocatalytic activity: as much as 2-3 times than that of TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets and commercial Degussa P25 which confirms the {1 1 1} facets have higher photocatalytic activity than {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets. The higher photocatalytic activity of {1 1 1} facets can be ascribed to the fact that all Ti and O atoms on the surface are unsaturated Ti5c, Ti3c and O2c modes which produces a higher adsorption and degradation ability. The present work demonstrates a explore of hydrothermal synthetic method for controlling preparation of nano-materials.

  3. Negatively charged liposomes show potent adjuvant activity when simply admixed with protein antigens.

    PubMed

    Yanasarn, Nijaporn; Sloat, Brian R; Cui, Zhengrong

    2011-08-01

    Liposomes have been investigated extensively as a vaccine delivery system. Herein the adjuvant activities of liposomes with different net surface charges (neutral, positive, or negative) were evaluated when admixed with protein antigens, ovalbumin (OVA, pI = 4.7), Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein (PA, pI = 5.6), or cationized OVA (cOVA). Mice immunized subcutaneously with OVA admixed with different liposomes generated different antibody responses. Interestingly, OVA admixed with net negatively charged liposomes prepared with DOPA was as immunogenic as OVA admixed with positively charged liposomes prepared with DOTAP. Immunization of mice with the anthrax PA protein admixed with the net negatively charged DOPA liposomes also induced a strong and functional anti-PA antibody response. When the cationized OVA was used as a model antigen, liposomes with net neutral, negative, or positive charges showed comparable adjuvant activities. Immunization of mice with the OVA admixed with DOPA liposomes also induced OVA-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and significantly delayed the growth of OVA-expressing B16-OVA tumors in mice. However, not all net negatively charged liposomes showed a strong adjuvant activity. The adjuvant activity of the negatively charged liposomes may be related to the liposome's ability (i) to upregulate the expression of molecules related to the activation and maturation of antigen-presenting cells and (ii) to slightly facilitate the uptake of the antigens by antigen-presenting cells. Simply admixing certain negatively charged liposomes with certain protein antigens of interest may represent a novel platform for vaccine development. PMID:21615153

  4. Negatively charged liposomes show potent adjuvant activity when simply admixed with protein antigens

    PubMed Central

    Yanasarn, Nijaporn; Sloat, Brian R.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2011-01-01

    Liposomes have been investigated extensively as a vaccine delivery system. Herein the adjuvant activities of liposomes with different net surface charges (neutral, positive, or negative) were evaluated when admixed with protein antigens, ovalbumin (OVA, pI = 4.7), Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein (PA, pI = 5.6), or cationized OVA (cOVA). Mice immunized subcutaneously with OVA admixed with different liposomes generated different antibody responses. Interestingly, OVA admixed with net negatively charged liposomes prepared with DOPA was as immunogenic as OVA admixed with positively charged liposomes prepared with DOTAP. Immunization of mice with the anthrax PA protein admixed with the net negatively charged DOPA liposomes also induced a strong and functional anti-PA antibody response. When the cationized OVA was used as a model antigen, liposomes with net neutral, negative, or positive charges showed comparable adjuvant activities. Immunization of mice with the OVA admixed with DOPA liposomes also induced OVA-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and significantly delayed the growth of OVA-expressing B16-OVA tumors in mice. However, not all net negatively charged liposomes showed a strong adjuvant activity. The adjuvant activity of the negatively charged liposomes may be related to the liposome’s ability (i) to up-regulate the expression of molecules related to the activation and maturation of antigen-presenting cells and (ii) to slightly facilitate the uptake of the antigens by antigen-presenting cells. Simply admixing certain negatively charged liposomes with certain protein antigens of interest may represent a novel platform for vaccine development. PMID:21615153

  5. High and low sensation seeking adolescents show distinct patterns of brain activity during reward processing

    PubMed Central

    Cservenka, Anita; Herting, Megan M.; Seghete, Kristen L. Mackiewicz; Hudson, Karen A.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that personality characteristics, such as sensation seeking (SS), are strong predictors of risk-taking behavior during adolescence. However, the relationship between levels of SS and brain response has not been studied during this time period. Given the prevalence of risky behavior during adolescence, it is important to understand neurobiological differences in reward sensitivity between youth with high and low SS personalities. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine differences in brain activity in an adolescent sample that included 27 high (HSS) and 27 low sensation seekers (LSS), defined by the Impulsive Sensation Seeking scale of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (Zuckerman et al., 1993). In the scanner, participants played a modified Wheel of Fortune decision-making task (Cservenka and Nagel, 2012) that resulted in trials with monetary Wins or No Wins. We compared age- and sex-matched adolescent HSS and LSS (mean age = 13.94 ± 1.05) on brain activity by contrasting Win versus No Win trials. Our findings indicate that HSS show greater bilateral insular and prefrontal cortex (PFC) brain response on Win vs. No Win compared to LSS. Analysis of simple effects showed that while LSS showed comparable brain activity in these areas during Wins and No Wins, HSS showed significant differences in brain response to winning (activation) versus not winning (deactivation), with between-group comparison suggesting significant differences in brain response, largely to reward absence. Group differences in insular activation between reward receipt and absence may suggest weak autonomic arousal to negative outcomes in HSS compared with LSS. Additionally, since the PFC is important for goal-directed behavior and attention, the current results may reflect that HSS allocate fewer attentional resources to negative outcomes than LSS. This insensitivity to reward absence in HSS may lead to a greater likelihood of maladaptive choices when negative consequences are not considered, and may be an early neural marker of decreased loss sensitivity that has been seen in addiction. This neurobiological information may ultimately be helpful in establishing prevention strategies aimed at reducing youth risk-taking and suggests value in further examination of neural associations with personality characteristics during adolescence. PMID:23142276

  6. The novel AKT inhibitor afuresertib shows favorable safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Andrew; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Harrison, Simon J.; Morris, Shannon R.; Smith, Deborah A.; Brigandi, Richard A.; Gauvin, Jennifer; Kumar, Rakesh; Opalinska, Joanna B.

    2014-01-01

    The PI3K/AKT pathway is constitutively active in hematologic malignancies, providing proliferative and antiapoptotic signals and possibly contributing to drug resistance. We conducted an open-label phase 1 study to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of afuresertib—an oral AKT inhibitor—in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. Seventy-three patients were treated at doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg per day. The MTD was established at 125 mg per day because of 2 dose-limiting toxicities in the 150-mg cohort (liver function test abnormalities). The most frequent adverse events were nausea (35.6%), diarrhea (32.9%), and dyspepsia (24.7%). Maximum plasma concentrations and area under the plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to 24 hours were generally dose proportional at >75-mg doses; the median time to peak plasma concentrations was 1.5 to 2.5 hours post dose, with a half-life of approximately 1.7 days. Three multiple myeloma patients attained partial responses; an additional 3 attained minimal responses. Clinical activity was also observed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, and Hodgkin disease. Single-agent afuresertib showed a favorable safety profile and demonstrated clinical activity against hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00881946. PMID:25075128

  7. Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. Results We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a and LA-b have molecular masses of approximately 50 and 46 kDa, respectively, and are abundant in the soluble fraction of latex. Western blotting analysis suggested that they share sequence similarity with each other. The sequences of LA-a and LA-b, as determined by Edman degradation, showed chitin-binding domains of plant chitinases at the N termini. These proteins showed small but significant chitinase and chitosanase activities. Lectin RCA120 indicated that, unlike common plant chitinases, LA-a and LA-b are glycosylated. LA-a and LA-b showed insecticidal activities when fed to larvae of the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two LA proteins have a crucial role in defense against herbivorous insects, possibly by hydrolyzing their chitin. PMID:20109180

  8. A Seed-GUS-Expression Enhancer-trap Library for Germination Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancer-trap lines are used to identify tissue- and stage-specific gene expression. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) enhancer-trap population from the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC), Ohio, USA, has been screened for '-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in germinating see...

  9. GUS Gene Expression Driven by A Citrus Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco and 'Valencia' Sweet Orange

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene promoter (CsPP). Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange explants with Agrobacteriu...

  10. A modified HSP70 inhibitor shows broad activity as an anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Balaburski, Gregor M; Leu, Julia I-Ju; Beeharry, Neil; Hayik, Seth; Andrake, Mark D; Zhang, Gao; Herlyn, Meenhard; Villanueva, Jessie; Dunbrack, Roland L; Yen, Tim; George, Donna L; Murphy, Maureen E

    2013-03-01

    The stress-induced HSP70 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that plays a key role in refolding misfolded proteins and promoting cell survival following stress. HSP70 is marginally expressed in nontransformed cells, but is greatly overexpressed in tumor cells. Silencing HSP70 is uniformly cytotoxic to tumor but not normal cells; therefore, there has been great interest in the development of HSP70 inhibitors for cancer therapy. Here, we report that the HSP70 inhibitor 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) binds to the substrate-binding domain of HSP70 and requires the C-terminal helical "lid" of this protein (amino acids 573-616) to bind. Using molecular modeling and in silico docking, we have identified a candidate binding site for PES in this region of HSP70, and we identify point mutants that fail to interact with PES. A preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis has revealed a derivative of PES, 2-(3-chlorophenyl) ethynesulfonamide (PES-Cl), which shows increased cytotoxicity and ability to inhibit autophagy, along with significantly improved ability to extend the life of mice with pre-B-cell lymphoma, compared with the parent compound (P = 0.015). Interestingly, we also show that these HSP70 inhibitors impair the activity of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in cell-free extracts, and induce G2-M arrest and genomic instability in cancer cells. PES-Cl is thus a promising new anticancer compound with several notable mechanisms of action. PMID:23303345

  11. Men and women show distinct brain activations during imagery of sexual and emotional infidelity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidehiko; Matsuura, Masato; Yahata, Noriaki; Koeda, Michihiko; Suhara, Tetsuya; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2006-09-01

    Jealousy-related behaviors such as intimate partner violence and morbid jealousy are more common in males. Principal questionnaire studies suggest that men and women have different modules to process cues of sexual and emotional infidelity. We aimed to elucidate the neural response to sentences depicting sexual and emotional infidelity in men and women using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although there was no sex difference in the self-rating score of jealousy for sexual and emotional infidelity, men and women showed different brain activation patterns in response to the two types of infidelity. During jealous conditions, men demonstrated greater activation than women in the brain regions involved in sexual/aggressive behaviors such as the amygdala and hypothalamus. In contrast, women demonstrated greater activation in the posterior superior temporal sulcus. Our fMRI results are in favor of the notion that men and women have different neuropsychological modules to process sexual and emotional infidelity. Our findings might contribute to a better understanding of the neural basis of the jealousy-related behaviors predominantly observed in males. PMID:16829139

  12. Adolescent earthquake survivors' show increased prefrontal cortex activation to masked earthquake images as adults.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Ganzel, Barbara L; Kim, Pilyoung; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    The great Sichuan earthquake in China on May 12, 2008 was a traumatic event to many who live near the earthquake area. However, at present, there are few studies that explore the long-term impact of the adolescent trauma exposure on adults' brain function. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain activation evoked by masked trauma-related stimuli (earthquake versus neutral images) in 14 adults who lived near the epicenter of the great Sichuan earthquake when they were adolescents (trauma-exposed group) and 14 adults who lived farther from the epicenter of the earthquake when they were adolescents (control group). Compared with the control group, the trauma-exposed group showed significant elevation of activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to masked earthquake-related images. In the trauma-exposed group, the right ACC activation was negatively correlated with the frequency of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These findings differ markedly from the long-term effects of trauma exposure in adults. This suggests that trauma exposure during adolescence may have a unique long-term impact on ACC/MPFC function, top-down modulation of trauma-related information, and subsequent symptoms of PTSD. PMID:25486615

  13. Native and recombinant Pg-AMP1 show different antibacterial activity spectrum but similar folding behavior.

    PubMed

    Porto, William F; Nolasco, Diego O; Franco, Octavio L

    2014-05-01

    Glycine-rich proteins (GRPs) derived from plants compose a family of proteins and peptides that share a glycine repeat domain and they can perform diverse functions. Two structural conformations have been proposed for GRPs: glycine loops arranged as a Velcro and an anti-parallel ?-sheet with several ?-strands. The antimicrobial peptide Pg-AMP1 is the only plant GRP with antibacterial activity reported so far and its structure remains unclear. Recently, its recombinant expression was reported, where the recombinant peptide had an additional methionine residue at the N-terminal and a histidine tag at the C-terminal (His6-tag). These changes seem to change the peptide's activity, generating a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity. In this report, through ab initio molecular modelling and molecular dynamics, it was observed that both native and recombinant peptide structures were composed of an N-terminal ?-helix and a dynamic loop that represents two-thirds of the protein. In contrast to previous reports, it was observed that there is a tendency to adopt a globular fold instead of an extended one, which could be in both, glycine loops or anti-parallel ?-sheet conformation. The recombinant peptide showed a slightly higher solvated potential energy compared to the native form, which could be related to the His6-tag exposition. In fact, the His6-tag could be mainly responsible for the broader spectrum of activity, but it does not seem to cause great structural changes. However, novel studies are needed for a better characterization of its pharmacological properties so that in the future novel drugs may be produced based on this peptide. PMID:24582624

  14. Combined MEG and EEG show reliable patterns of electromagnetic brain activity during natural viewing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Tang; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Belliveau, John W; Huang, Samantha; Hung, An-Yi; Rossi, Stephanie; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2015-07-01

    Naturalistic stimuli such as movies are increasingly used to engage cognitive and emotional processes during fMRI of brain hemodynamic activity. However, movies have been little utilized during magnetoencephalography (MEG) and EEG that directly measure population-level neuronal activity at a millisecond resolution. Here, subjects watched a 17-min segment from the movie Crash (Lionsgate Films, 2004) twice during simultaneous MEG/EEG recordings. Physiological noise components, including ocular and cardiac artifacts, were removed using the DRIFTER algorithm. Dynamic estimates of cortical activity were calculated using MRI-informed minimum-norm estimation. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), principal component analyses (PCA) were employed to extract the prevailing temporal characteristics within each anatomical parcel of the Freesurfer Desikan-Killiany cortical atlas. A variety of alternative inter-subject correlation (ISC) approaches were then utilized to investigate the reliability of inter-subject synchronization during natural viewing. In the first analysis, the ISCs of the time series of each anatomical region over the full time period across all subject pairs were calculated and averaged. In the second analysis, dynamic ISC (dISC) analysis, the correlation was calculated over a sliding window of 200 ms with 3.3 ms steps. Finally, in a between-run ISC analysis, the between-run correlation was calculated over the dynamic ISCs of the two different runs after the Fisher z-transformation. Overall, the most reliable activations occurred in occipital/inferior temporal visual and superior temporal auditory cortices as well as in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, pre- and post-central gyri, and right inferior and middle frontal gyri. Significant between-run ISCs were observed in superior temporal auditory cortices and inferior temporal visual cortices. Taken together, our results show that movies can be utilized as naturalistic stimuli in MEG/EEG similarly as in fMRI studies. PMID:25842290

  15. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 ?g/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense system, potentially contributing towards the anti-proliferative effect. There is great potential for the ethyl acetate extract of P. betle leaf as a source of natural antioxidants and to be developed as therapeutics in cancer treatment. PMID:23153283

  16. Experimental evidence showing that no mitotically active female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Zheng, Wenjing; Shen, Yan; Adhikari, Deepak; Ueno, Hiroo; Liu, Kui

    2012-01-01

    It has been generally accepted for more than half a century that, in most mammalian species, oocytes cannot renew themselves in postnatal or adult life, and that the number of oocytes is already fixed in fetal or neonatal ovaries. This assumption, however, has been challenged over the past decade. In this study, we have taken an endogenous genetic approach to this question and generated a multiple fluorescent Rosa26rbw/+;Ddx4-Cre germline reporter mouse model for in vivo and in vitro tracing of the development of female germline cell lineage. Through live cell imaging and de novo folliculogenesis experiments, we show that the Ddx4-expressing cells from postnatal mouse ovaries did not enter mitosis, nor did they contribute to oocytes during de novo folliculogenesis. Our results provide evidence that supports the traditional view that no postnatal follicular renewal occurs in mammals, and no mitotically active Ddx4-expressing female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries. PMID:22778414

  17. AT1-receptor heterodimers show enhanced G-protein activation and altered receptor sequestration.

    PubMed

    AbdAlla, S; Lother, H; Quitterer, U

    2000-09-01

    The vasopressor angiotensin II regulates vascular contractility and blood pressure through binding to type 1 angiotensin II receptors (AT1; refs 1, 2). Bradykinin, a vasodepressor, is a functional antagonist of angiotensin II (ref. 3). The two hormone systems are interconnected by the angiotensin-converting enzyme, which releases angiotensin II from its precursor and inactivates the vasodepressor bradykinin. Here we show that the AT1 receptor and the bradykinin (B2) receptor also communicate directly with each other. They form stable heterodimers, causing increased activation of G alpha(q) and G alpha(i) proteins, the two major signalling proteins triggered by AT1. Furthermore, the endocytotic pathway of both receptors changed with heterodimerization. This is the first example of signal enhancement triggered by heterodimerization of two different vasoactive hormone receptors. PMID:10993080

  18. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M.; Aljarbou, Ahmad N.; Alorainy, Mohammed S.; Alsharidah, Mansour S.; Khan, Masood A.

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs. PMID:25821817

  19. A modified HSP70 inhibitor shows broad activity as an anticancer agent

    PubMed Central

    Balaburski, Gregor M.; Leu, Julia I-Ju; Beeharry, Neil; Hayik, Seth; Andrake, Mark D.; Zhang, Gao; Herlyn, Meenhard; Villanueva, Jessie; Dunbrack, Roland L.; Yen, Tim; George, Donna L.; Murphy, Maureen E.

    2013-01-01

    The stress-induced heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that plays a key role in refolding misfolded proteins and promoting cell survival following stress. HSP70 is marginally expressed in non-transformed cells, but is greatly overexpressed in tumor cells. Silencing HSP70 is uniformly cytotoxic to tumor but not normal cells; therefore, there has been great interest in the development of HSP70 inhibitors for cancer therapy. Here we report that the HSP70 inhibitor 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) binds to the substrate-binding domain of HSP70, and requires the C-terminal helical ‘lid’ of this protein (amino acids 573-616) in order to bind. Using molecular modeling and in silico docking, we have identified a candidate binding site for PES in this region of HSP70, and we identify point mutants that fail to interact with PES. A preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis has revealed a derivative of PES, 2-(3-chlorophenyl) ethynesulfonamide (PES-Cl), which shows increased cytotoxicity and ability to inhibit autophagy, along with significantly improved ability to extend the life of mice with pre-B cell lymphoma, compared to the parent compound (p=0.015). Interestingly, we also show that these HSP70 inhibitors impair the activity of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in cell-free extracts, and induce G2/M arrest and genomic instability in cancer cells. PES-Cl is thus a promising new anti-cancer compound with several notable mechanisms of action. PMID:23303345

  20. Boehmenan, a lignan from Hibiscus ficulneus, showed Wnt signal inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Shono, Takumi; Ishikawa, Naoki; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Ahmed, Firoj; Sadhu, Samir K; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-07-15

    The Wnt signal pathway modulates numerous biological processes, and its aberrant activation is related to various diseases. Therefore, inhibition of the Wnt signal may provide an effective (or efficient) strategy for these diseases. Cell-based luciferase assay targeting the Wnt signal (TOP assay) revealed that Hibiscus ficulneus extract inhibited the Wnt signal. The activity-guided isolation of the MeOH extract of H. ficulneus stems yielded four known (1-4) lignans along with myriceric acid (5). Compounds 1-4 potently inhibited the Wnt signal with TOPflash IC50 values of 1.0, 4.5, 6.3, and 1.9?M, respectively. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against both Wnt-dependent (HCT116) and Wnt-independent (RKO) cells. Western blot analysis showed that 1 decreased the expression of full, cytosolic and nuclear ?-catenin along with c-myc in STF/293 cells. Our results suggested that 1 may have inhibited the Wnt signal by decreasing ?-catenin levels. PMID:26026364

  1. The Left Occipitotemporal Cortex Does Not Show Preferential Activity for Words

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2012-01-01

    Regions in left occipitotemporal (OT) cortex, including the putative visual word form area, are among the most commonly activated in imaging studies of single-word reading. It remains unclear whether this part of the brain is more precisely characterized as specialized for words and/or letters or contains more general-use visual regions having properties useful for processing word stimuli, among others. In Analysis 1, we found no evidence of greater activity in left OT regions for words or letter strings relative to other high–spatial frequency high-contrast stimuli, including line drawings and Amharic strings (which constitute the Ethiopian writing system). In Analysis 2, we further investigated processing characteristics of OT cortex potentially useful in reading. Analysis 2 showed that a specific part of OT cortex 1) is responsive to visual feature complexity, measured by the number of strokes forming groups of letters or Amharic strings and 2) processes learned combinations of characters, such as those in words and pseudowords, as groups but does not do so in consonant and Amharic strings. Together, these results indicate that while regions of left OT cortex are not specialized for words, at least part of OT cortex has properties particularly useful for processing words and letters. PMID:22235035

  2. Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show a stronger vaccine adjuvant activity than traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinran; Aldayel, Abdulaziz M.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide is used as a vaccine adjuvant in various human vaccines. Unfortunately, despite its favorable safety profile, aluminum hydroxide can only weakly or moderately potentiate antigen-specific antibody responses. When dispersed in an aqueous solution, aluminum hydroxide forms particulates of 1–20 µm. There is increasing evidence that nanoparticles around or less than 200 nm as vaccine or antigen carriers have a more potent adjuvant activity than large microparticles. In the present study, we synthesized aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles of 112 nm. Using ovalbumin and Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein as model antigens, we showed that protein antigens adsorbed on the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles induced a stronger antigen-specific antibody response than the same protein antigens adsorbed on the traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles of around 9.3 µm. The potent adjuvant activity of the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles was likely related to their ability to more effectively facilitate the uptake of the antigens adsorbed on them by antigen-presenting cells. Finally, the local inflammation induced by aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles in the injection sites was milder than that induced by microparticles. Simply reducing the particle size of the traditional aluminum hydroxide adjuvant into nanometers represents a novel and effective approach to improve its adjuvanticity. PMID:24188959

  3. Transgenic Drosophila expressing human amyloid precursor protein show ?-secretase activity and a blistered-wing phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fossgreen, Anke; Brückner, Bodo; Czech, Christian; Masters, Colin L.; Beyreuther, Konrad; Paro, Renato

    1998-01-01

    The importance of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) became apparent through the identification of distinct mutations in the APP gene, causing early onset familial AD with the accumulation of a 4-kDa peptide fragment (?A4) in amyloid plaques and vascular deposits. However, the physiological role of APP is still unclear. In this work, Drosophila melanogaster is used as a model system to analyze the function of APP by expressing wild-type and various mutant forms of human APP in fly tissue culture cells as well as in transgenic fly lines. After expression of full-length APP forms, secretion of APP but not of ?A4 was observed in both systems. By using SPA4CT, a short APP form in which the signal peptide was fused directly to the ?A4 region, transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic tail, we observed ?A4 release in flies and fly-tissue culture cells. Consequently, we showed a ?-secretase activity in flies. Interestingly, transgenic flies expressing full-length forms of APP have a blistered-wing phenotype. As the wing is composed of interacting dorsal and ventral epithelial cell layers, this phenotype suggests that human APP expression interferes with cell adhesion/signaling pathways in Drosophila, independently of ?A4 generation. PMID:9811864

  4. Hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids from the Pacific krill show high ligand activities for PPARs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hidetoshi; Oshiro, Eriko; Kikuchi, Sayaka; Hakozaki, Mayuka; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kimura, Ken-Ichi

    2014-05-01

    PPARs regulate the expression of genes for energy metabolism in a ligand-dependent manner. PPARs can influence fatty acid oxidation, the level of circulating triglycerides, glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate that 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), 8-HEPE, 9-HEPE, 12-HEPE and 18-HEPE (hydroxylation products of EPA) obtained from methanol extracts of Pacific krill (Euphausia pacifica) can act as PPAR ligands. Two of these products, 8-HEPE and 9-HEPE, enhanced the transcription levels of GAL4-PPARs to a significantly greater extent than 5-HEPE, 12-HEPE, 18-HEPE, EPA, and EPA ethyl-ester. 8-HEPE also activated significantly higher transcription of GAL4-PPAR?, GAL4-PPAR?, and GAL4-PPAR? than EPA at concentrations greater than 4, 64, and 64 ?M, respectively. We also demonstrated that 8-HEPE increased the expression levels of genes regulated by PPARs in FaO, 3T3-F442A, and C2C12 cells. Furthermore, 8-HEPE enhanced adipogenesis and glucose uptake. By contrast, at the same concentrations, EPA showed weak or little effect, indicating that 8-HEPE was the more potent inducer of physiological effects. PMID:24668940

  5. Hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids from the Pacific krill show high ligand activities for PPARs[S

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hidetoshi; Oshiro, Eriko; Kikuchi, Sayaka; Hakozaki, Mayuka; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    PPARs regulate the expression of genes for energy metabolism in a ligand-dependent manner. PPARs can influence fatty acid oxidation, the level of circulating triglycerides, glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate that 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), 8-HEPE, 9-HEPE, 12-HEPE and 18-HEPE (hydroxylation products of EPA) obtained from methanol extracts of Pacific krill (Euphausia pacifica) can act as PPAR ligands. Two of these products, 8-HEPE and 9-HEPE, enhanced the transcription levels of GAL4-PPARs to a significantly greater extent than 5-HEPE, 12-HEPE, 18-HEPE, EPA, and EPA ethyl-ester. 8-HEPE also activated significantly higher transcription of GAL4-PPAR?, GAL4-PPAR?, and GAL4-PPAR? than EPA at concentrations greater than 4, 64, and 64 ?M, respectively. We also demonstrated that 8-HEPE increased the expression levels of genes regulated by PPARs in FaO, 3T3-F442A, and C2C12 cells. Furthermore, 8-HEPE enhanced adipogenesis and glucose uptake. By contrast, at the same concentrations, EPA showed weak or little effect, indicating that 8-HEPE was the more potent inducer of physiological effects. PMID:24668940

  6. EGFR-targeted stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticles show enhanced anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Michael A.; Sloat, Brian R.; Lansakara-P, Dharmika S.P.; Kumar, Amit; Rodriguez, B. Leticia; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John; Cui, Zhengrong

    2011-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that a novel 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticle formulation was more effective than gemcitabine hydrochloride in controlling the growth of model mouse or human tumors pre-established in mice. In the present study, the feasibility of targeting the stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticles (GemC18-NPs) into tumor cells that over-express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to more effectively control tumor growth was evaluated. EGFR is over-expressed in a variety of tumor cells, and EGF is a known natural ligand of EGFR. Recombinant murine EGF was conjugated onto the GemC18-NPs. The ability of the EGF to target the GemC18-NPs to human breast adenocarcinoma cells that expressed different levels of EGFR was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In culture, the extent to which the EGF-conjugated GemC18-NPs were taken up by tumor cells was correlated to the EGFR density on the tumor cells, whereas the uptake of untargeted GemC18-NPs exhibited no difference among those same cell lines. The relative cytotoxicity of the EGF-conjugated GemC18-NPs to tumor cells in culture was correlated to EGFR expression as well. In vivo, EGFR-over-expressing MDA-MB-468 tumors in mice treated with the EGF-conjugated GemC18-NPs grew significantly slower than in mice treated with untargeted GemC18-NPs, likely due to that the EGF-GemC18-NPs were more anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and pro-apoptotic. Fluorescence intensity data from ex vivo imaging showed that the EGF on the nanoparticles helped increase the accumulation of the GemC18-NPs into MDA-MB-468 tumors pre-established in mice by more than 2-fold as compared to the un-targeted GemC18-NPs. In conclusion, active targeting of the GemC18-NPs into EGFR-over-expressed tumors can further enhance their anti-tumor activity. PMID:21871505

  7. EGFR-targeted stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticles show enhanced anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Michael A; Sloat, Brian R; Lansakara-P, Dharmika S P; Kumar, Amit; Rodriguez, B Leticia; Kiguchi, Kaoru; Digiovanni, John; Cui, Zhengrong

    2012-01-30

    Previously, it was shown that a novel 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticle formulation was more effective than gemcitabine hydrochloride in controlling the growth of model mouse or human tumors pre-established in mice. In the present study, the feasibility of targeting the stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticles (GemC18-NPs) into tumor cells that over-express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to more effectively control tumor growth was evaluated. EGFR is over-expressed in a variety of tumor cells, and EGF is a known natural ligand of EGFR. Recombinant murine EGF was conjugated onto the GemC18-NPs. The ability of the EGF to target the GemC18-NPs to human breast adenocarcinoma cells that expressed different levels of EGFR was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In culture, the extent to which the EGF-conjugated GemC18-NPs were taken up by tumor cells was correlated to the EGFR density on the tumor cells, whereas the uptake of untargeted GemC18-NPs exhibited no difference among those same cell lines. The relative cytotoxicity of the EGF-conjugated GemC18-NPs to tumor cells in culture was correlated to EGFR expression as well. In vivo, EGFR-over-expressing MDA-MB-468 tumors in mice treated with the EGF-conjugated GemC18-NPs grew significantly slower than in mice treated with untargeted GemC18-NPs, likely due to that the EGF-GemC18-NPs were more anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and pro-apoptotic. Fluorescence intensity data from ex vivo imaging showed that the EGF on the nanoparticles helped increase the accumulation of the GemC18-NPs into MDA-MB-468 tumors pre-established in mice by more than 2-fold as compared to the un-targeted GemC18-NPs. In conclusion, active targeting of the GemC18-NPs into EGFR-over-expressed tumors can further enhance their anti-tumor activity. PMID:21871505

  8. PEG-mediated expression of GUS and CAT genes in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherry M. Wilson; Trevor A. Thorpe; Maurice M. Moloney

    1989-01-01

    ß-Glucuronidase (GUS) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) were used as reporter proteins in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce). Plasmid DNA enclosing chimeric GUS and CAT constructs, using the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was introduced into Picea glauca protoplasts using polyethylene glycol (PEG). Transient expression was detected 12 to 40 h after PEG-mediated

  9. A maize spermine synthase 1 PEST sequence fused to the GUS reporter protein facilitates proteolytic degradation.

    PubMed

    Maruri-López, Israel; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída Araceli; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Olivares-Grajales, Juan Elías; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2014-05-01

    Polyamines are low molecular weight aliphatic compounds involved in various biochemical, cellular and physiological processes in all organisms. In plants, genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis and catabolism are regulated at transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational level. In this research, we focused on the characterization of a PEST sequence (rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine) of the maize spermine synthase 1 (ZmSPMS1). To this aim, 123 bp encoding 40 amino acids of the C-terminal region of the ZmSPMS1 enzyme containing the PEST sequence were fused to the GUS reporter gene. This fusion was evaluated in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines and onion monolayers transient expression system. The ZmSPMS1 PEST sequence leads to specific degradation of the GUS reporter protein. It is suggested that the 26S proteasome may be involved in GUS::PEST fusion degradation in both onion and Arabidopsis. The PEST sequences appear to be present in plant spermine synthases, mainly in monocots. PMID:24642522

  10. NASA's Fermi Shows How Active Galaxies Can Be - Duration: 2 minutes, 2 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Active galaxies called blazars make up the largest class of objects detected by Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT). Massive black holes in the hearts of these galaxies fire particle jets in our dir...

  11. Bitriazolyl acyclonucleosides synthesized via Huisgen reaction using internal alkynes show antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menghua; Zhu, Ruizhi; Fan, Zhijin; Fu, Yifeng; Feng, Liang; Yao, Jianhua; Maggiani, Alain; Xia, Yi; Qu, Fanqi; Peng, Ling

    2011-01-01

    A family of novel bitriazolyl acyclonucleosides were synthesized using a simple and convenient one-step synthetic procedure via the Huisgen reaction by addition of NaN(3) onto triazole nucleosides bearing internal alkynyl groups introduced at the 5-position of the triazole ring. Some of the compounds exhibited interesting antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus, demonstrating the importance of the bitriazolyl motif for the observed antiviral activity. PMID:21095122

  12. Regional Brain Activation During Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study†

    PubMed Central

    Baron Short, E.; Kose, Samet; Mu, Qiwen; Borckardt, Jeffery; Newberg, Andrew; George, Mark S.; Kozel, F. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13), and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8) and long-term (n = 5) practitioners (>10 years) revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners. PMID:18955268

  13. Flavonoids from Hypericum perforatum show antidepressant activity in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Butterweck, V; Jürgenliemk, G; Nahrstedt, A; Winterhoff, H

    2000-02-01

    It has been shown recently that a flavonoid fraction (fraction II) obtained from a crude extract of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) was remarkably active in the forced swimming test (FST). Fraction II was further separated using MLCCC to give fractions IIa and IIb. Both fractions proved to be active in the FST at different dosages. Further separation of fraction IIa by preparative HPLC yielded fraction IIa1 which mainly was composed of hyperoside, isoquercitrin, miquelianin and quercitrin, and fraction IIa2 which contained small amounts of hyperoside and astilbin, while most compounds were not known. Both fractions were active after acute treatment in the FST. Isolates obtained from these fractions including hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, miquelianin, the aglycone quercetin and astilbin, were tested for activity in the FST. Except for quercetin, quercitrin and astilbin all compounds were active. To exclude false positive results in the FST the validity was checked in open field experiments and in the FST after 12 days of daily treatment. PMID:10705724

  14. Isolation of novel Bacillus species showing high mosquitocidal activity against several mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sabrina R; Hudon, Michael; Park, Hyun-Woo

    2011-05-01

    Two novel mosquitocidal bacteria, VB17 and VB24, identified as new Bacillus species were isolated from dead mosquito larvae obtained in Florida aquatic habitats. Gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (GC-FAME) and 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that VB24 is closely related to Bacillus sphaericus whereas VB17 does not have a close relationship with either Bacillus thuringiensis or B. sphaericus. Both isolates were significantly more active than B. sphaericus 2362 against Aedes taeniorhynchus, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, and as active as B. sphaericus 2362 against Anopheles gambiae. Interestingly, however, both were not active against Aedes aegypti larvae, indicating some level of insecticidal specificity. PMID:21276795

  15. Water Works: A Great Show on Earth. Classroom Activities for Third and Fourth Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Judy; Clark, Neil

    This curriculum guide is divided into five lessons, each containing several activities that reflect the natural path of inquiry that third or fourth grade students might take in considering the water that arrives in their bathroom sinks each morning. Starting from the familiar faucet, the students are encouraged to reflect on their own habits and…

  16. Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leăo, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

  17. Antimicrobial peptide shows enhanced activity and reduced toxicity upon grafting to chitosan polymers.

    PubMed

    Sahariah, Priyanka; Sřrensen, Kasper K; Hjálmarsdóttir, Martha Á; Sigurjónsson, Ólafur E; Jensen, Knud J; Másson, Már; Thygesen, Mikkel B

    2015-07-25

    Here we report that grafting of a short antimicrobial peptide, anoplin, to chitosan polymers is a strategy for abolishing the hemolytic propensity, and at the same time increasing the activity of the parent peptide. Anoplin-chitosan conjugates were synthesized by CuAAC reaction of multiple peptides through 2-azidoacetyl groups on chitosan. PMID:26096124

  18. Investigation of oral ?-streptococcus showing inhibitory activity against pathogens in children with tonsillitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isao Fujimori; Rei Goto; Kazuhito Kikushima; Ken-ichi Hisamatsu; Yoshihiko Murakami; Toshihiko Yamada

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of oral ?-streptococcus with inhibitory activity against group A streptococcus, as a defense mechanism against bacterial infection in the oral cavity, was investigated in pediatric individuals with tonsillitis. Infection by group A streptococcus appeared to be common in children, because the detection rate of inhibitory ?-streptococcus in healthy children as well as pediatric patients with tonsillitis was lower

  19. Human area MT+ shows load-dependent activation during working memory maintenance with continuously morphing stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Initially, human area MT+ was considered a visual area solely processing motion information but further research has shown that it is also involved in various different cognitive operations, such as working memory tasks requiring motion-related information to be maintained or cognitive tasks with implied or expected motion. In the present fMRI study in humans, we focused on MT+ modulation during working memory maintenance using a dynamic shape-tracking working memory task with no motion-related working memory content. Working memory load was systematically varied using complex and simple stimulus material and parametrically increasing retention periods. Activation patterns for the difference between retention of complex and simple memorized stimuli were examined in order to preclude that the reported effects are caused by differences in retrieval. Results Conjunction analysis over all delay durations for the maintenance of complex versus simple stimuli demonstrated a wide-spread activation pattern. Percent signal change (PSC) in area MT+ revealed a pattern with higher values for the maintenance of complex shapes compared to the retention of a simple circle and with higher values for increasing delay durations. Conclusions The present data extend previous knowledge by demonstrating that visual area MT+ presents a brain activity pattern usually found in brain regions that are actively involved in working memory maintenance. PMID:25015103

  20. Cerato-platanin shows expansin-like activity on cellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Baccelli, Ivan; Luti, Simone; Bernardi, Rodolfo; Scala, Aniello; Pazzagli, Luigia

    2014-01-01

    Cerato-platanin (CP) is a non-catalytic protein with a double ??-barrel fold located in the cell wall of the phytopathogenic fungus Ceratocystis platani. CP is released during growth and induces defence-related responses in plants. CP is also the first member of the "cerato-platanin family" (CPF) (Pfam PF07249). In the CPF, the molecular mechanism of action on plants and above all the biological role in fungal life are little-known aspects. However, an expansin-like function has recently been suggested concerning CP. Expansin-like proteins have the ability to act non-hydrolytically on cellulose. In the present work, the expansin-like activity of CP and Pop1, a CP family member, was investigated. Like expansins, CP and Pop1 were able to weaken filter paper in a concentration-dependent manner and without the production of reducing sugars. A metal-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenase-like activity was excluded. The optimum of activity was pH5.0, 38 °C. CP was also able to cause fragmentation of the crystalline cellulose Avicel and the breakage and defibration of cotton fibres. However, the interaction did not involve a stable bond with the substrates and CP did not significantly enhance the hydrolytic activity of cellulase. On the other hand, CP and Pop1 bound quickly to chitin. We consider CP as a novel one-domain expansin-like protein. We propose a structural role for CP in the fungal cell wall due to the ability to bind chitin, and hypothesize a functional role in the interaction of the fungus with the plant for the weakening activity shown on cellulose. PMID:23512479

  1. KefF, the regulatory subunit of the potassium efflux system KefC, shows quinone oxidoreductase activity.

    PubMed

    Lyngberg, Lisbeth; Healy, Jessica; Bartlett, Wendy; Miller, Samantha; Conway, Stuart J; Booth, Ian R; Rasmussen, Tim

    2011-09-01

    Escherichia coli and many other Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria protect themselves from the toxic effects of electrophilic compounds by using a potassium efflux system (Kef). Potassium efflux is coupled to the influx of protons, which lowers the internal pH and results in immediate protection. The activity of the Kef system is subject to complex regulation by glutathione and its S conjugates. Full activation of KefC requires a soluble ancillary protein, KefF. This protein has structural similarities to oxidoreductases, including human quinone reductases 1 and 2. Here, we show that KefF has enzymatic activity as an oxidoreductase, in addition to its role as the KefC activator. It accepts NADH and NADPH as electron donors and quinones and ferricyanide (in addition to other compounds) as acceptors. However, typical electrophilic activators of the Kef system, e.g., N-ethyl maleimide, are not substrates. If the enzymatic activity is disrupted by site-directed mutagenesis while retaining structural integrity, KefF is still able to activate the Kef system, showing that the role as an activator is independent of the enzyme activity. Potassium efflux assays show that electrophilic quinones are able to activate the Kef system by forming S conjugates with glutathione. Therefore, it appears that the enzymatic activity of KefF diminishes the redox toxicity of quinones, in parallel with the protection afforded by activation of the Kef system. PMID:21742892

  2. Bitriazolyl acyclonucleosides synthesized via Huisgen reaction using internal alkynes show antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Menghua Wang; Ruizhi Zhu; Zhijin Fan; Yifeng Fu; Liang Feng; Jianhua Yao; Alain Maggiani; Yi Xia; Fanqi Qu; Ling Peng

    2011-01-01

    A family of novel bitriazolyl acyclonucleosides were synthesized using a simple and convenient one-step synthetic procedure via the Huisgen reaction by addition of NaN3 onto triazole nucleosides bearing internal alkynyl groups introduced at the 5-position of the triazole ring. Some of the compounds exhibited interesting antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus, demonstrating the importance of the bitriazolyl motif for the

  3. Development and evaluation of a Gal4-mediated LUC/GFP/GUS enhancer trap system in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, Cawas B; Fitzsimmons, Karen C; Schmuke, Jon J; Dotson, Stan B; Kranz, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Background Gal4 enhancer trap systems driving expression of LacZ and GFP reporters have been characterized and widely used in Drosophila. However, a Gal4 enhancer trap system in Arabidopsis has not been described in the primary literature. In Drosophila, the reporters possess a Gal4 upstream activation sequence (UAS) as five repeats (5XUAS) and lines that express Gal4 from tissue specific enhancers have also been used for the ectopic expression of any transgene (driven by a 5XUAS). While Gal4 transactivation has been demonstrated in Arabidopsis, wide use of a trap has not emerged in part because of the lack of detailed analysis, which is the purpose of the present study. Results A key feature of this study is the use of luciferase (LUC) as the primary reporter and rsGFP-GUS as secondary reporters. Reporters driven by a 5XUAS are better suited in Arabidopsis than those containing a 1X or 2X UAS. A 5XUAS-LUC reporter is expressed at high levels in Arabidopsis lines transformed with Gal4 driven by the full, enhanced 35S promoter. In contrast, a minimum 35S (containing the TATA region) upstream of Gal4 acts as an enhancer trap system. Luciferase expression in trap lines of the T1, T2, and T3 generations are generally stable but by the T4 generation approximately 25% of the lines are significantly silenced. This silencing is reversed by growing plants on media containing 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Quantitative multiplex RT-PCR on the Gal4 and LUC mRNA indicate that this silencing can occur at the level of Gal4 or LUC transcription. Production of a 10,000 event library and observations on screening, along with the potential for a Gal4 driver system in other plant species are discussed. Conclusion The Gal4 trap system described here uses the 5XUAS-LUC and 5XUAS rsGFP-GUS as reporters and allows for in planta quantitative screening, including the rapid monitoring for silencing. We conclude that in about 75% of the cases silencing is at the level of transcription of the Gal4 transgene and is at an acceptable frequency to make the Gal4 trap system in Arabidopsis of value. This system will be useful for the isolation and comprehensive characterization of specific reporter and driver lines. PMID:15941484

  4. Carbonic anhydrase activators: gold nanoparticles coated with derivatized histamine, histidine, and carnosine show enhanced activatory effects on several mammalian isoforms.

    PubMed

    Saada, Mohamed-Chiheb; Montero, Jean-Louis; Vullo, Daniela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2011-03-10

    Lipoic acid moieties were attached to amine or amino acids showing activating properties against the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). The obtained lipoic acid conjugates of histamine, L-histidine methyl ester, and L-carnosine methyl ester were attached to gold nanoparticles (NPs) by reaction with Au(III) salts in reducing conditions. The CA activators (CAAs)-coated NPs showed low nanomolar activation (K(A)s of 1-9 nM) of relevant cytosolic, membrane-bound, mitochondrial, and transmembrane CA isoforms, such as CA I, II, IV, VA, VII, and XIV. These NPs also effectively activated CAs ex vivo, in whole blood experiments, with an increase of 200-280% of the CA activity. This is the first example of enzyme activation with nanoparticles and may lead to biomedical applications for conditions in which the CA activity is diminished, such as aging, Alzheimer's disease, or CA deficiency syndrome. PMID:21291238

  5. Glyco-and Peptidomimetics from Three-Component Joullie-Ugi Coupling Show Selective Antiviral Activity

    E-print Network

    Davis, Ben G.

    Glyco- and Peptidomimetics from Three-Component Joullie´-Ugi Coupling Show Selective Antiviral construction. The mechanism proceeds via intermediates that are common to the Ugi reaction,4 a widely used that such a "Joullie´- Ugi" process has not been applied to hydroxylated cyclic scaffolds as this would yield a ready

  6. BiSON Data Show Change in Solar Structure with Magnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verner, G. A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.

    2006-03-01

    We find evidence for an activity-dependent change in solar structure at the second helium ionization zone (~0.98 Rsolar). We use low-degree p-mode frequencies obtained from 13 years of observations by the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) to track changes in the amplitude of the rapid-variation signature imposed by the bump in the adiabatic exponent, ?1, at the He II ionization zone. This is the first indication of structural change detected using only low-degree data and confirms the recent results of high-degree and local helioseismic studies.

  7. X-ray microtomography shows pore structure and tortuosity in alkali-activated binders

    SciTech Connect

    Provis, John L., E-mail: jprovis@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Myers, Rupert J.; White, Claire E. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rose, Volker [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave, Argonne IL 60439 (United States); Deventer, Jannie S.J. van [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 210, Somerton, Victoria 3062 (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Durability of alkali-activated binders is of vital importance in their commercial application, and depends strongly on microstructure and pore network characteristics. X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) offers, for the first time, direct insight into microstructural and pore structure characteristics in three dimensions. Here, {mu}CT is performed on a set of sodium metasilicate-activated fly ash/slag blends, using a synchrotron beamline instrument. Segmentation of the samples into pore and solid regions is then conducted, and pore tortuosity is calculated by a random walker method. Segmented porosity and diffusion tortuosity are correlated, and vary as a function of slag content (slag addition reduces porosity and increases tortuosity), and sample age (extended curing gives lower porosity and higher tortuosity). This is particularly notable for samples with {>=} 50% slag content, where a space-filling calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate gel provides porosity reductions which are not observed for the sodium aluminosilicate ('geopolymer') gels which do not chemically bind water of hydration.

  8. Heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons show estrogenic activity upon metabolization in a recombinant transactivation assay.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Markus; Maletz, Sibylle; Krauss, Martin; Bluhm, Kerstin; Schiwy, Sabrina; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Tiehm, Andreas; Brack, Werner; Hollert, Henner

    2014-05-20

    Heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hetero-PAHs) are increasingly studied at contaminated sites; especially at former industrial facilities where coal tar-oil was handled, e.g., wood treatment plants, high concentrations of hetero-PAHs are frequently detected in groundwater plumes. In previous studies, fractions of groundwater with high estrogenic activity contained hetero-PAHs and their hydroxylated metabolites. To evaluate this preliminary evidence, selected hetero-PAHs were screened for their estrogenic activity in lyticase yeast estrogen screen (LYES) and ER CALUX. All tested substances were inactive in the LYES. Hetero-PAHs such as acridine, xanthene, indole, 2-methylbenzofuran, 2,3-dimethylbenzofuran, dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene, quinoline, and 6-methylquinoline were positive in the ER CALUX, with estradiol equivalence factors (EEFs) from 2.85 × 10(-7) to 3.18 × 10(-5). The EEF values of these substances were comparable to those of other xenoestrogens (e.g., alkylphenols or bisphenol A) that are sometimes found in surface water. Chemical analyses revealed that T47Dluc cells could metabolize most of the substances. Among the metabolites (tentatively) identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were hydroxides and their keto tautomers, sulfates, sulfoxides, and N-oxides. Because of their high concentrations measured in groundwater, we conclude that hetero-PAHs and metabolites may be a potential risk and should be the subject of further research. PMID:24724806

  9. Cytokinin-like activity of N?-substituted N-phenylureas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ricci; A. Carra; A. Torelli; C. A. Maggiali; P. Vicini; F. Zani; C. Branca

    2001-01-01

    We have synthesized 14 N-phenylurea derivatives, differing in theheterocyclic portion linked in N'-position, and tested theircytokinin-like activity. Three different bioassays were used: the chlorophylllevel determination test, the bioassay for the expression of hormone-inducedchimeric Pg5-GUS gene and the tomato regeneration test, in which1,2-benzisoxazole-3-acetic acid (BOAA) was utilized as auxin. Thecytokinin-likeactivity showed by three of these compounds in the regeneration assay seems

  10. Arsenic Trioxide and Resveratrol Show Synergistic Anti-Leukemia Activity and Neutralized Cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jia; Yu, Lei; Tu, Yingfeng; Wan, Lin; Fang, Kun; Zhu, Wenliang

    2014-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is an aggravating side effect of many clinical antineoplastic agents such as arsenic trioxide (As2O3), which is the first-line treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Clinically, drug combination strategies are widely applied for complex disease management. Here, an optimized, cardiac-friendly therapeutic strategy for APL was investigated using a combination of As2O3 and genistein or resveratrol. Potential combinations were explored with respect to their effects on mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, autophagy, and apoptosis in both NB4 cells and neonatal rat left ventricular myocytes. All experiments consistently suggested that 5 µM resveratrol remarkably alleviates As2O3-induced cardiotoxicity. To achieve an equivalent effect, a 10-fold dosage of genistein was required, thus highlighting the dose advantage of resveratrol, as poor bioavailability is a common concern for its clinical application. Co-administration of resveratrol substantially amplified the anticancer effect of As2O3 in NB4 cells. Furthermore, resveratrol exacerbated oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis, thereby reflecting its full range of synergism with As2O3. Addition of 5 µM resveratrol to the single drug formula of As2O3 also further increased the expression of LC3, a marker of cellular autophagy activity, indicating an involvement of autophagy-mediated tumor cell death in the synergistic action. Our results suggest a possible application of an As2O3 and resveratrol combination to treat APL in order to achieve superior therapeutics effects and prevent cardiotoxicity. PMID:25144547

  11. Regenerated soleus muscle shows reduced creatine kinase efflux after contractile activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    2015-02-01

    Regenerated skeletal muscles show less muscle damage after strenuous muscle exercise. The aim of the studies was to investigate if the regeneration is associated with reduced muscle creatine kinase (CK) efflux immediately after the exercise. Cryolesion was applied to the soleus muscle of 3-month-old C57BL/6J male mice. Then total CK efflux was assessed in vitro in the regenerated muscles without exercise or after 100 eccentric contractions. The same measurements were performed in the control muscles, which were not exposed to cryolesion. Regenerated muscles generated weaker (P < 0.05) twitches, but stronger (P < 0.05) 150-Hz and 300-Hz tetani with prolonged (P < 0.01) contraction times compared with the control muscles. There was no difference between regenerated and control muscles in the total CK efflux without exercise, but only control muscles showed an increase (P < 0.001) in the CK efflux after the exercise. Our results suggest that muscle regeneration is associated with modulation of contractile properties and improvement in muscle resistance to damage after eccentric exercise. PMID:25565131

  12. Locomotor-activating effects of the D 2 agonist bromocriptine show environment-specific sensitization following repeated injections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane C. Hoffman; Roy A. Wise

    1992-01-01

    Biphasic effects of bromocriptine (2.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg\\/kg IP) on locomotion were quantified in photocell activity boxes in rats. Following early suppression of activity, bromocriptine produced a clear, dose-dependent increase in locomotion that lasted several hours. When a low dose of bromocriptine (5.0 mg\\/kg) was administered daily over a 3-week period, the locomotor-activating effects of the drug showed

  13. Evidence from northwest European bogs shows ‘Little Ice Age’ climatic changes driven by variations in solar activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitri Mauquoy; Bas van Geel; Maarten Blaauw; Johannes van der Plicht

    2002-01-01

    Fluctuations in Holocene atmospheric radiocarbon concentrations have been shown to be due to variations in solar activity. Analyses of both 10Be and 14C nuclides con” rm that production-rate changes during the Holocene were largely modulated by solar activity. Analyses of peat samples from two intact European ombrotrophic bogs show that climatic deteriorations during the ‘Little Ice Age’ are associated with

  14. Simultaneous detection of different Rhizobium strains marked with either the Escherichia coli gusA gene or the Pyrococcus furiosus celB gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sessitsch, A; Wilson, K J; Akkermans, A D; de Vos, W M

    1996-01-01

    A new marker system for gram-negative bacteria was developed on the basis of the celB gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which encodes a thermostable beta-glucosidase with a high level of beta-galactosidase activity. The celB gene is highly suitable as a marker for studying plant-bacterium interaction because endogenous background beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase enzyme activity can readily be inactivated by heat and because inexpensive substrates for detection are commercially available. Two celB-expressing transposons were constructed for use in ecological studies of a variety of gram-negative bacteria. The combined use of the gusA marker gene and celB allowed the simultaneous detection of several Rhizobium strains on a plant, and multiple-strain occupancy of individual modules also could be easily detected. PMID:8900009

  15. Modelling clinical data shows active tissue concentration of daclatasvir is 10-fold lower than its plasma concentration

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Ruian; Loverdo, Claude; Qi, Hangfei; Olson, C. Anders; Wu, Nicholas C.; Sun, Ren; Lloyd-Smith, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Daclatasvir is a highly potent inhibitor of hepatitis C virus. We estimated the active tissue concentration of daclatasvir in vivo. Methods We developed a mathematical model incorporating pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and viral dynamics. By fitting the model to clinical data reported previously, we estimated the ratio between plasma drug concentration and active tissue concentration in vivo. Results The modelling results show that the active tissue concentration of daclatasvir is ?9% of the concentration measured in plasma (95% CI 1%–29%). Conclusions Using plasma concentrations as surrogates for clinical recommendations may lead to substantial underestimation of the risk of resistance. PMID:24169581

  16. New type of febrifugine analogues, bearing a quinolizidine moiety, show potent antimalarial activity against Plasmodium malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Y; Tasaka, H; Chiba, T; Uwai, K; Tanitsu, M; Kim, H S; Wataya, Y; Miura, M; Takeshita, M; Oshima, Y

    1999-08-12

    Febrifugine (1) and isofebrifugine (2), isolated from the roots of Dichroa febrifuga Lour. (Chinese name: Cháng Shan), are active principles against malaria. Adducts of 1 and 2 with acetone, Df-1 (3) and Df-2 (4), respectively, were obtained using silica gel and acetone. They showed high activity against P. falciparum malaria in vitro. Compound 3 was found to be equally effective against P. berghei in vivo as the clinically used drug chloroquine, whereas 4 showed only 1/24 of the activity of 3. Metabolism studies of these compounds revealed that compound 4 is readily metabolized in mouse liver. Accordingly, the dose of 4 must be higher than that of 3 to attain blood levels sufficient for a favorable therapeutic effect. PMID:10447961

  17. Isolation and functional characterization of chicken intestinal intra-epithelial lymphocytes showing natural killer cell activity against tumour target cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chai, J Y; Lillehoj, H S

    1988-01-01

    Intestinal intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IEL) of SC or FP chickens were isolated and examined for their natural killer (NK)-cell activity against chicken tumour cell lines, LSCC-RP9 (RP9), LSCC-RP12 (RP12), MDCC-MSB-1 (MSB-1) and MDCC-CU36 (CU36). In general, IEL of satisfactory yield and of good viability were obtained with EDTA treatment of the gut tissues, followed by rapid passages of the resultant cells through nylon-wool columns and centrifugation on two-step Percoll density gradients (45% and 80%). In 4-hr and 16-hr 51Cr-release assays, the NK-cell activity of chicken IEL depended not only upon the type of target cells but also upon the incubation time and the host genetic background. RP9, MSB-1 and CU36 were susceptible to NK lysis by IEL and by spleen cells, while RP12 was resistant to lysis even after a prolonged incubation. In kinetic studies the cytotoxicity was detactable from 2 hr after incubation and progressively increased up to 16 or 18 hr. The IEL of SC chickens revealed significantly higher levels of NK-cell activity against RP9 than FP-strain chickens, whereas their splenic NK-cell activity was not significantly different. Against MSB-1 targets, however, IEL of SC and FP chickens showed similar levels of NK-cell activity while their spleens did not (being higher in FP). When tested in FP chickens, IEL NK-cell activity was inhibited by the addition of unlabelled homologous target cells. In general, NK-cell activity was higher in the jejunum and ileum than in the duodenum and caecum. Efforts to enrich IEL NK-effector cells by discontinuous Percoll gradients were not successful. The results of the present study show that IEL of chicken intestine contain effector cells that can mediate NK-cell activity against chicken tumour cells. PMID:3338816

  18. COMICS, CARTOONS, AND FUNNY PAPERS The Rube Goldberg, Phil Frank, and Gus Arriola Archives in The Bancroft Library

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    COMICS, CARTOONS, AND FUNNY PAPERS The Rube Goldberg, Phil Frank, and Gus Arriola Archives's caricaturas (the precursor to the caricature that is a crucial weapon in the cartoonist's arsenal, cartoons are hu- manity's oldest pictorial expression. It does not seem too far-fetched to draw a line from

  19. Pomalidomide Shows Significant Therapeutic Activity against CNS Lymphoma with a Major Impact on the Tumor Microenvironment in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhimin; Qiu, Yushi; Personett, David; Huang, Peng; Edenfield, Brandy; Katz, Jason; Babusis, Darius; Tang, Yang; Shirely, Michael A.; Moghaddam, Mehran F.; Copland, John A.; Tun, Han W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma carries a poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Pomalidomide (POM) is a novel immunomodulatory drug with anti-lymphoma activity. CNS pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in rats to assess the CNS penetration of POM. Preclinical evaluation of POM was performed in two murine models to assess its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. The impact of POM on the CNS lymphoma immune microenvironment was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. In vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to further investigate the impact of POM on the biology of macrophages. POM crosses the blood brain barrier with CNS penetration of ~ 39%. Preclinical evaluations showed that it had significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with significant reduction in tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival, that it had a major impact on the tumor microenvironment with an increase in macrophages and natural killer cells, and that it decreased M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages and increased M1-polarized macrophages when macrophages were evaluated based on polarization status. In vitro studies using various macrophage models showed that POM converted the polarization status of IL4-stimulated macrophages from M2 to M1, that M2 to M1 conversion by POM in the polarization status of lymphoma-associated macrophages is dependent on the presence of NK cells, that POM induced M2 to M1 conversion in the polarization of macrophages by inactivating STAT6 signaling and activating STAT1 signaling, and that POM functionally increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Based on our findings, POM is a promising therapeutic agent for CNS lymphoma with excellent CNS penetration, significant preclinical therapeutic activity, and a major impact on the tumor microenvironment. It can induce significant biological changes in tumor-associated macrophages, which likely play a major role in its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. POM should be further evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:23940785

  20. Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).

    PubMed

    Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

    2008-07-01

    Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides. PMID:18557620

  1. Prion Protein-Deficient Cells Show Altered Response to Oxidative Stress Due to Decreased SOD1 Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Brown; Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer; Bernhard Schmidt; Hans A. Kretzschmar

    1997-01-01

    The cellular function of the prion protein (PrPC), a cell surface glycoprotein expressed in neurones and astrocytes, has not been elucidated. Cell culture experiments reveal that cerebellar cells lacking PrPCare more sensitive to oxidative stress and undergo cell death more readily than wild-type cells. This effect is reversible by treatment with vitamin E.In vivostudies show that the activity of Cu\\/Zn

  2. Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-27

    The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils. PMID:25110971

  3. Rosmarinic acid from eelgrass shows nematicidal and antibacterial activities against pine wood nematode and its carrying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

    2012-12-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC?? (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L? (3?) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina. PMID:23201594

  4. Rosmarinic Acid from Eelgrass Shows Nematicidal and Antibacterial Activities against Pine Wood Nematode and Its Carrying Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC50 (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L9 (34) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina. PMID:23201594

  5. Molecular and biochemical characterization of AtPAP15, a purple acid phosphatase with phytase activity, in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ruibin; Chan, Kam-Ho; Yeung, Edward; Lim, Boon Leong

    2009-09-01

    Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters and anhydrides to release phosphate within an acidic pH range. Among the 29 PAP-like proteins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), AtPAP15 (At3g07130) displays a greater degree of amino acid identity with soybean (Glycine max; GmPHY) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) PAP (NtPAP) with phytase activity than the other AtPAPs. In this study, transgenic Arabidopsis that expressed an AtPAP15 promoterbeta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion protein showed that AtPAP15 expression was developmentally and temporally regulated, with strong GUS staining at the early stages of seedling growth and pollen germination. The expression was also organ/tissue specific, with strongest GUS staining in the vasculature, pollen grains, and roots. The recombinant AtPAP purified from transgenic tobacco exhibited broad substrate specificity with moderate phytase activity. AtPAP15 T-DNA insertion lines exhibited a lower phytase and phosphatase activity in seedling and germinating pollen and lower pollen germination rate compared with the wild type and their complementation lines. Therefore, AtPAP15 likely mobilizes phosphorus reserves in plants, particularly during seed and pollen germination. Since AtPAP15 is not expressed in the root hair or in the epidermal cells, it is unlikely to play any role in external phosphorus assimilation. PMID:19633233

  6. Discovery of LPMO activity on hemicelluloses shows the importance of oxidative processes in plant cell wall degradation

    PubMed Central

    Agger, Jane W.; Isaksen, Trine; Várnai, Anikó; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Willats, William G. T.; Ludwig, Roland; Horn, Svein J.; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Westereng, Bjřrge

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are known to carry out oxidative cleavage of glycoside bonds in chitin and cellulose, thus boosting the activity of well-known hydrolytic depolymerizing enzymes. Because biomass-degrading microorganisms tend to produce a plethora of LPMOs, and considering the complexity and copolymeric nature of the plant cell wall, it has been speculated that some LPMOs may act on other substrates, in particular the hemicelluloses that tether to cellulose microfibrils. We demonstrate that an LPMO from Neurospora crassa, NcLPMO9C, indeed degrades various hemicelluloses, in particular xyloglucan. This activity was discovered using a glycan microarray-based screening method for detection of substrate specificities of carbohydrate-active enzymes, and further explored using defined oligomeric hemicelluloses, isolated polymeric hemicelluloses and cell walls. Products generated by NcLPMO9C were analyzed using high performance anion exchange chromatography and multidimensional mass spectrometry. We show that NcLPMO9C generates oxidized products from a variety of substrates and that its product profile differs from those of hydrolytic enzymes acting on the same substrates. The enzyme particularly acts on the glucose backbone of xyloglucan, accepting various substitutions (xylose, galactose) in almost all positions. Because the attachment of xyloglucan to cellulose hampers depolymerization of the latter, it is possible that the beneficial effect of the LPMOs that are present in current commercial cellulase mixtures in part is due to hitherto undetected LPMO activities on recalcitrant hemicellulose structures. PMID:24733907

  7. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2-knockout mice show reduced enzyme activity, airway hyporeactivity, and lung pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hüttemann, Maik; Lee, Icksoo; Gao, Xiufeng; Pecina, Petr; Pecinova, Alena; Liu, Jenney; Aras, Siddhesh; Sommer, Natascha; Sanderson, Thomas H.; Tost, Monica; Neff, Frauke; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Naton, Beatrix; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Favor, Jack; Hans, Wolfgang; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Schrewe, Anja; Sun, Minxuan; Höfler, Heinz; Adamski, Jerzy; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Graw, Jochen; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H.; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin; Weissmann, Norbert; Doan, Jeffrey W.; Bassett, David J. P.; Grossman, Lawrence I.

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The purpose of this study was to analyze the function of lung-specific cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2 (COX4i2) in vitro and in COX4i2-knockout mice in vivo. COX was isolated from cow lung and liver as control and functionally analyzed. COX4i2-knockout mice were generated and the effect of the gene knockout was determined, including COX activity, tissue energy levels, noninvasive and invasive lung function, and lung pathology. These studies were complemented by a comprehensive functional screen performed at the German Mouse Clinic (Neuherberg, Germany). We show that isolated cow lung COX containing COX4i2 is about twice as active (88 and 102% increased activity in the presence of allosteric activator ADP and inhibitor ATP, respectively) as liver COX, which lacks COX4i2. In COX4i2-knockout mice, lung COX activity and cellular ATP levels were significantly reduced (?50 and ?29%, respectively). Knockout mice showed decreased airway responsiveness (60% reduced Penh and 58% reduced airway resistance upon challenge with 25 and 100 mg methacholine, respectively), and they developed a lung pathology deteriorating with age that included the appearance of Charcot-Leyden crystals. In addition, there was an interesting sex-specific phenotype, in which the knockout females showed reduced lean mass (?12%), reduced total oxygen consumption rate (?8%), improved glucose tolerance, and reduced grip force (?14%) compared to wild-type females. Our data suggest that high activity lung COX is a central determinant of airway function and is required for maximal airway responsiveness and healthy lung function. Since airway constriction requires energy, we propose a model in which reduced tissue ATP levels explain protection from airway hyperresponsiveness, i.e., absence of COX4i2 leads to reduced lung COX activity and ATP levels, which results in impaired airway constriction and thus reduced airway responsiveness; long-term lung pathology develops in the knockout mice due to impairment of energy-costly lung maintenance processes; and therefore, we propose mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation as a novel target for the treatment of respiratory diseases, such as asthma.—Hüttemann, M., Lee, I., Gao, X., Pecina, P., Pecinova, A., Liu, J., Aras, S., Sommer, N., Sanderson, T. H., Tost, M., Neff, F., Aguilar-Pimentel, J. A., Becker, L., Naton, B., Rathkolb, B., Rozman, J., Favor, J., Hans, W., Prehn, C., Puk, O., Schrewe, A., Sun, M., Höfler, H., Adamski, J., Bekeredjian, R., Graw, J., Adler, T., Busch, D. H., Klingenspor, M., Klopstock, T., Ollert, M., Wolf, E., Fuchs, H., Gailus-Durner, V., Hrab? de Angelis, M., Weissmann, N., Doan, J. W., Bassett, D. J. P., Grossman, L. I. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2-knockout mice show reduced enzyme activity, airway hyporeactivity, and lung pathology. PMID:22730437

  8. Silk gland-specific proteinase inhibitor serpin16 from the Bombyx mori shows cysteine proteinase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng-Chao; Dong, Zhaoming; Xiao, Li; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yan; He, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2015-01-30

    Serpins (serine proteinase inhibitors) are widely distributed in different species and are well known for their inhibitory activities towards serine proteinases. Here, we report the functional characterization of Bombyx mori serpin16. Expression analysis showed that serpin16 was specifically expressed at high levels in the silk gland at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, homology modeling and multi-sequence alignment suggested that serpin16 had a canonical serpin fold, but it contained a unique reactive center loop, which was obviously shorter than that of typical serpins. Inhibitory activity analyses revealed that the target proteinase of serpin18 is a cysteine proteinase, rather than a serine proteinase. Furthermore, a Michaelis complex model of serpin16 with its target proteinase was constructed to explain the structural basis of how serpin16 recognizes the cysteine proteinase and its target specificity. PMID:25529451

  9. Coadministration of doxorubicin and etoposide loaded in camel milk phospholipids liposomes showed increased antitumor activity in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Aljarbou, Ahmed N; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Rahmani, Arshad H; Khan, Masood A

    2015-01-01

    Small unilamellar vesicles from camel milk phospholipids (CML) mixture or from 1,2 dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were prepared, and anticancer drugs doxorubicin (Dox) or etoposide (ETP) were loaded. Liposomal formulations were used against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Results showed a very high percentage of Dox encapsulation (~98%) in liposomes (Lip) prepared from CML-Lip or DPPC-Lip, whereas the percentage of encapsulations of ETP was on the lower side, 22% of CML-Lip and 18% for DPPC-Lip. Differential scanning calorimetry curves show that Dox enhances the lamellar formation in CML-Lip, whereas ETP enhances the nonlamellar formation. Differential scanning calorimetry curves also showed that the presence of Dox and ETP together into DPPC-Lip produced the interdigitation effect. The in vivo anticancer activity of liposomal formulations of Dox or ETP or a combination of both was assessed against benzopyrene (BAP)-induced fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of Dox and ETP loaded into CML-Lip showed increased survival and reduced tumor growth compared to other groups, including the combination of Dox and ETP in DPPC-Lip. Fibrosarcoma-bearing mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP) showed much higher tumor growth compared to those groups treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP) or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP). Immunohistochemical study was also performed to show the expression of tumor-suppressor PTEN, and it was found that the tumor tissues from the group of mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP) showed greater loss of cytoplasmic PTEN than tumor tissues obtained from the groups of mice treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP) or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP). PMID:25926730

  10. Active pancreatic digestive enzymes show striking differences in their potential to damage isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Niederau, C; Fronhoffs, K; Klonowski, H; Schulz, H U

    1995-02-01

    Active digestive enzymes are involved in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. Previous studies have mainly focused on the role of trypsin in the autodigestive process. The present study compares the noxious potential of different pancreatic enzymes to damage acinar cells. Acinar cells were isolated from rat pancreas by collagenase digestion. Cell viability was studied by (1) exclusion of trypan blue, (2) release of lactate dehydrogenase, and (3) release of newly synthesized proteins identified with methionine labeled with sulfur 35. Cells were then incubated in oxygenated N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-'-2-ethanesulfonic acid-Ringer solution containing different concentrations of various active digestive enzymes. Uptake of trypan blue was the most sensitive and reliable test of cell damage when compared with release of lactate dehydrogenase or radiolabeled newly synthesized proteins. All active digestive enzymes studied caused dose-dependent cell damage. The noxious potential, however, was strikingly different for the various enzymes. Pancreatic elastase in nanomolar concentrations caused marked cell damage after 45 to 90 minutes of incubation. Lipase and chymotrypsin caused a similar damage only at micromolar concentrations, whereas even millimolar concentrations of trypsin failed to cause significant damage. The present results confirmed recent work showing that lipase and phospholipase A2 probably cause cell damage through release of free fatty acids and lysolecithin. Although activation of trypsin might be the trigger to start the activation cascade in acute pancreatitis, trypsin itself is markedly less noxious to acinar cells when compared with other digestive enzymes. Elastase by far had the greatest noxious potential of all enzymes evaluated. Studies analyzing therapeutic effects of protease inhibitors should evaluate not only the inhibitory potential against trypsin but also that against other digestive enzymes, particularly elastase. PMID:7844475

  11. Polymeric nanogels containing the triphosphate form of cytotoxic nucleoside analogues show antitumor activity against breast and colorectal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Galmarini, Carlos M.; Warren, Galya; Kohli, Ekta; Zeman, Arin; Mitin, Anton; Vinogradov, Serguei V.

    2008-01-01

    Background The therapeutic efficiency of anticancer NA strongly depends on their intracellular accumulation and conversion into 5’-triphosphates. Since active NATP cannot be directly administrated due to instability, we present here a strategy of nanoencapsulation of these active drugs for efficient delivery to tumors. Methods Stable lyophilized formulations of 5’-triphosphates of cytarabine (araCTP), gemcitabine (dFdCTP) and floxuridine (FdUTP) encapsulated in biodegradable PEG- or F127-cl-PEI nanogel networks (NGC and NGM, respectively) were prepared by a self-assembly procedure. Cellular penetration, in vitro cytotoxicity and drug-induced cell cycle perturbations of these nanoformulations were analyzed in breast and colorectal cancer cell lines. Cellular accumulation and NATP release from nanogel was studied by confocal microscopy and direct HPLC analysis of cellular lysates. Antiproliferative effect of dFdCTP-nanoformulations was evaluated in human breast carcinoma MCF7 xenograft animal model. Results Nanoencapsulated araCTP, dFdCTP and FdUTP demonstrated similar to NA cytotoxicity and cell cycle perturbations. Nanogels without drugs showed very low cytotoxicity, although NGM was more toxic than NGC. Treatment by NATP nanoformulations induced fast increase of free intracellular drug concentration. In human breast carcinoma MCF7 xenograft animal model, intravenous dFdCTP-nanogel was equally effective in inhibiting tumor growth at four times lower administered drug dose compared to free gemcitabine. Conclusions Active triphosphates of NA encapsulated in nanogels exhibit similar cytotoxicity and cell cycle perturbations in vitro, faster cell accumulation and equal tumor growth inhibitory activity in vivo at much lower dose compared to parental drugs, illustrating their therapeutic potential for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:18852140

  12. B chromosomes showing active ribosomal RNA genes contribute insignificant amounts of rRNA in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Badisco, Liesbeth; Broeck, Jozef Vanden; Perfectti, Francisco; López-León, María Dolores; Cabrero, Josefa; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    2014-12-01

    The genetic inertness of supernumerary (B) chromosomes has recently been called into question after finding several cases of gene activity on them. The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans harbors B chromosomes containing large amounts of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, some of which are eventually active, but the amount of rRNA transcripts contributed by B chromosomes, compared to those of the standard (A) chromosomes, is unknown. Here, we address this question by means of quantitative PCR (qPCR) for two different ITS2 amplicons, one coming from rDNA units located in both A and B chromosomes (ITS2(A+B)) and the other being specific to B chromosomes (ITS2(B)). We analyzed six body parts in nine males showing rDNA expression in their B chromosomes in the testis. Amplification of the ITS2(B) amplicon was successful in RNA extracted from all six body parts analyzed, but showed relative quantification (RQ) values four orders of magnitude lower than those obtained for the ITS(A+B) amplicon. RQ values differed significantly between body parts for the two amplicons, with testis, accessory gland and wing muscle showing threefold higher values than head, gastric cecum and hind leg. We conclude that the level of B-specific rDNA expression is extremely low even in individuals where B chromosome rDNA is not completely silenced. Bearing in mind that B chromosomes carry the largest rDNA cluster in the E. plorans genome, we also infer that the relative contribution of B chromosome rRNA genes to ribosome biogenesis is insignificant, at least in the body parts analyzed. PMID:24997085

  13. Rescuing Alu: Recovery of New Inserts Shows LINE-1 Preserves Alu Activity through A-Tail Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Bradley J.; Hedges, Dale J.; Derbes, Rebecca S.; Campos Sanchez, Rebeca; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Makova, Kateryna D.; Roy-Engel, Astrid M.

    2012-01-01

    Alu elements are trans-mobilized by the autonomous non-LTR retroelement, LINE-1 (L1). Alu-induced insertion mutagenesis contributes to about 0.1% human genetic disease and is responsible for the majority of the documented instances of human retroelement insertion-induced disease. Here we introduce a SINE recovery method that provides a complementary approach for comprehensive analysis of the impact and biological mechanisms of Alu retrotransposition. Using this approach, we recovered 226 de novo tagged Alu inserts in HeLa cells. Our analysis reveals that in human cells marked Alu inserts driven by either exogenously supplied full length L1 or ORF2 protein are indistinguishable. Four percent of de novo Alu inserts were associated with genomic deletions and rearrangements and lacked the hallmarks of retrotransposition. In contrast to L1 inserts, 5? truncations of Alu inserts are rare, as most of the recovered inserts (96.5%) are full length. De novo Alus show a random pattern of insertion across chromosomes, but further characterization revealed an Alu insertion bias exists favoring insertion near other SINEs, highly conserved elements, with almost 60% landing within genes. De novo Alu inserts show no evidence of RNA editing. Priming for reverse transcription rarely occurred within the first 20 bp (most 5?) of the A-tail. The A-tails of recovered inserts show significant expansion, with many at least doubling in length. Sequence manipulation of the construct led to the demonstration that the A-tail expansion likely occurs during insertion due to slippage by the L1 ORF2 protein. We postulate that the A-tail expansion directly impacts Alu evolution by reintroducing new active source elements to counteract the natural loss of active Alus and minimizing Alu extinction. PMID:22912586

  14. Evaluation of About Being Active, an online lesson about physical activity shows that perception of being physically active is higher in eating competent low-income women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eating competence (EC) has been associated with positive health outcomes such as reduced cardiovascular risk and higher diet quality. This study compared reported physical activity and EC in 512 low-income women participating in an online program that included a physical activity lesson and assessed response to this lesson. Methods Educational intervention and surveys were completed online. EC was assessed with the Satter Eating Competence Inventory for Low-Income (ecSI/LI). Results Participants were mostly white, <31 years, overweight/obese (60%), and food insecure (58%). EC was higher for those who self-reported being physically active (30.1 ± 8.3 vs. 24.9 ± 8.1; P<0.001) and were active for ? 30 minutes/day (29.9 ± 8.3 vs. 26.3 ± 8.6), even with age, weight satisfaction, and BMI controlled. EC of obese physically active persons was higher than normal weight, but physically inactive women. The physical activity module was well received with responses unrelated to time involved or physical activity level. Conclusions Low-income women were interested in learning about physical activity and responded positively to online delivery. Overall EC levels were low, but higher for physically active women, supporting efforts to enhance EC. Additional research is needed to determine if EC is associated with responses to physical activity education. PMID:23496893

  15. Transient expression of a GUS reporter gene from cauliflower mosaic virus replacement vectors in the presence and absence of helper virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Viaplana; David S. Turner; Simon N. Covey

    Vectors based upon the genome of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) have only a limited capacity for replicating foreign DNA in plants. A helper virus system has been developed to complement CaMV constructs capable of carrying a large foreign gene (glucuronidase; GUS). GUS replaced part or all of the non-essential CaMV gene II and the essential genes III, IV and V.

  16. Recovery of phenotypically normal transgenic plants of Brassica oleracea upon Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated co-transformation and selection of transformed hairy roots by GUS assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. J. Puddephat; H. T. Robinson; T. M. Fenning; D. J. Barbara; A. Morton; D. A. C. Pink

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe the production of transgenic broccoli and cauliflower with normal phenotype using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system with efficient selection for transgenic hairy-roots. Hypocotyls were inoculated with Agrobacterium strain A4T harbouring the bacterial plasmid pRiA4 and a binary vector pMaspro::GUS whose T-DNA region carried the gus reporter gene. pRiA4 transfers TL sequences carrying the rol genes

  17. Demonstration of vaginal colonization with GusA-expressing Lactobacillus jensenii following oral delivery in rhesus macaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurel A. Lagenaur; Peter P. Lee; Dean H. Hamer; Brigitte E. Sanders-Beer

    The vaginal microbiome, which harbors beneficial Lactobacillus strains, is believed to be a major host defense mechanism for preventing infections of the urogenital tract. It has been suggested that the gastrointestinal tract serves as a reservoir for lactobacilli that colonize the vagina. Using rhesus macaques, we examined whether oral delivery of human vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii 1153–1646, a GusA-producing strain, would

  18. The as-1 promoter element is an oxidative stress-responsive element and salicylic acid activates it via oxidative species.

    PubMed

    Garretón, Virginia; Carpinelli, Jorge; Jordana, Xavier; Holuigue, Loreto

    2002-11-01

    The activation sequence-1 (as-1)-like element found in the promoter of some glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, has been previously described as a salicylic acid (SA)- and auxin-responsive element. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the activating effect of SA on the as-1 element is mediated by oxidative species. Supporting this hypothesis, our results show that the antioxidants dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and 3-t-butyl-4-hydroxy-anizole (BHA) inhibit the SA-induced transcription of genes controlled by as-1 elements in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants [i.e. GNT35 gene coding for a GST and (as-1)(4)/beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter transgene]. DMTU and BHA also inhibit SA-activated as-1-binding activity in nuclear extracts. Further support for the hypothesis that the as-1 element is activated by oxidative species comes from our result showing that light potentiates the SA-induced activation of the as-1 element. Furthermore, methyl viologen, a known oxidative stress inducer in plants, also activates the as-1 element. Increasing H(2)O(2) levels by incubation with H(2)O(2) or with the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,5-triazole does not activate the (as-1)(4)/GUS gene. On the contrary, 3-amino-1,2,5-triazole inhibits the activating effect of SA on the (as-1)(4)/GUS gene. These results suggest that oxidative species other than H(2)O(2) mediate the activation of the as-1 element by SA. Our results also suggest that even though the as-1 binding activity is stimulated by oxidative species, this is not sufficient for the transactivation of genes controlled by this element. The complex interplay between SA and reactive oxygen species in the transcriptional activation of defense genes is discussed. PMID:12428016

  19. Dammarane-type saponins from heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum show fortified activity against A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Piao, Xiang-Lan; Wu, Qian; Yang, Jing; Park, Seo Young; Chen, Dao-Jin; Liu, Hui-Min

    2013-07-01

    An ethanol extract from heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum showed more potent cytotoxic activity against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells than that of raw G. pentaphyllum. Four constituents were isolated from heat-processed G. pentaphyllum using resin HP-20, silica gel and reversed ODS column chromatography. They were identified by mass and NMR spectra as damulin A and damulin B, gypenoside L and gypenoside LI, respectively. To evaluate the efficacy of these four constituents, the MTT cytotoxicity assay was performed using A549 cells. Based on the structure of these four constituents, the results indicate that the hydroxyl group in C-2 and double bond in C20(21) and C20(22) positions are of importance in inhibition of A549 cell proliferation. PMID:23508742

  20. Fusion of protegrin-1 and plectasin to MAP30 shows significant inhibition activity against dengue virus replication.

    PubMed

    Rothan, Hussin A; Bahrani, Hirbod; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Abd Rahman, Noorsaadah; Yusof, Rohana

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) broadly disseminates in tropical and sub-tropical countries and there are no vaccine or anti-dengue drugs available. DENV outbreaks cause serious economic burden due to infection complications that requires special medical care and hospitalization. This study presents a new strategy for inexpensive production of anti-DENV peptide-fusion protein to prevent and/or treat DENV infection. Antiviral cationic peptides protegrin-1 (PG1) and plectasin (PLSN) were fused with MAP30 protein to produce recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein (PG1-MAP30-PLSN) as inclusion bodies in E. coli. High yield production of PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein was achieved by solubilization of inclusion bodies in alkaline buffer followed by the application of appropriate refolding techniques. Antiviral PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein considerably inhibited DENV protease (NS2B-NS3pro) with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 0.5±0.1 ?M. The real-time proliferation assay (RTCA) and the end-point proliferation assay (MTT assay) showed that the maximal-nontoxic dose of the peptide-fusion protein against Vero cells is approximately 0.67±0.2 ?M. The cell-based assays showed considerable inhibition of the peptide-fusion protein against binding and proliferating stages of DENV2 into the target cells. The peptide-fusion protein protected DENV2-challeged mice with 100% of survival at the dose of 50 mg/kg. In conclusion, producing recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein by combining short antiviral peptide with a central protein owning similar activity could be useful to minimize the overall cost of short peptide production and take advantage of its synergistic antiviral activities. PMID:24722532

  1. CS-8958, a prodrug of the new neuraminidase inhibitor R-125489, shows long-acting anti-influenza virus activity.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Makoto; Tomozawa, Takanori; Kakuta, Masayo; Tokumitsu, Akane; Nasu, Hatsumi; Kubo, Shuku

    2009-01-01

    Two neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu), have been licensed for the treatment of and prophylaxis against influenza. In this paper, the new potent NA inhibitor R-125489 is reported for the first time. R-125489 inhibited the NA activities of various type A and B influenza viruses, including subtypes N1 to N9 and oseltamivir-resistant viruses. The survival effect of R-125489 was shown to be similar to that of zanamivir when administered intranasally in a mouse influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 infection model. Moreover, we found that the esterified form of R-125489 showed improved efficacy compared to R-125489 and zanamivir, depending on the acyl chain length, and that 3-(O)-octanoyl R-125489 (CS-8958) was the best compound in terms of its life-prolonging effect (P < 0.0001, compared to zanamivir) in the same infection model. A prolonged survival effect was observed after a single administration of CS-8958, even if it was given 7 days before infection. It is suggested that intranasally administered CS-8958 works as a long-acting NA inhibitor and shows in vivo efficacy as a result of a single intranasal administration. PMID:18955520

  2. The human interferon-regulated ISG95 protein interacts with RNA polymerase II and shows methyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haline-Vaz, Thais; Lima Silva, Tereza Cristina [Center for Structural Molecular Biology, Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, LNLS P.O. Box 6192, CEP 13080-970, Campinas SP (Brazil); Zanchin, Nilson I.T. [Center for Structural Molecular Biology, Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, LNLS P.O. Box 6192, CEP 13080-970, Campinas SP (Brazil)], E-mail: zanchin@lnls.br

    2008-08-08

    A major mechanism of cellular resistance to viral invasion involves genes from the interferon signaling pathway, called ISGs (interferon stimulated genes). Global transcriptional profiling studies have linked increased expression of ISG95 (KIAA0082) to response to interferon treatment and viral infection, suggesting that it may be part of the cellular defense against viral replication. In this work, we show that the ISG95 promoter can drive interferon-induced transcription of a reporter gene in Vero cells. Recombinant ISG95 shows RNA- and S-adenosyl-methionine binding and protein methyltransferase activity in vitro. ISG95 interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, which is consistent with its nuclear localization and with the predicted function of the WW domain found in the C-terminal region of ISG95. The results presented in this work indicate that ISG95 is part of the interferon response pathway and functions in the pre-mRNA processing events mediated by the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II.

  3. Shadow Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This interactive game challenges learners to create shadow shapes utilizing the two-dimensional shapes provided. Players use their knowledge of shapes and spatial sense to determine what individual pieces fit together to match the image. The activity is part of the PBS Kids series "Sid, the Science Kid."

  4. Gender-linked Differences in the Toys, Television Shows, Computer Games, and Outdoor Activities of 5- to 13-year-old Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle D. Cherney; Kamala London

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to compare how 5- to 13-year-old children's leisure activity preferences differ with age and gender. Responses from 60 boys and 60 girls about their favorite toys, television shows, computer games, and outdoor activities were compared across leisure categories. The results showed that gender was a significant factor. Overall, boys spent more time in these leisure activities

  5. Archaeal flagellar ATPase motor shows ATP-dependent hexameric assembly and activity stimulation by specific lipid binding

    PubMed Central

    GHOSH, Abhrajyoti; HARTUNG, Sophia; van der DOES, Chris; TAINER, John A.; ALBERS, Sonja-Verena

    2011-01-01

    Microbial motility frequently depends on flagella or type IV pili. Using recently developed archaeal genetic tools, archaeal flagella and its assembly machinery have been identified. Archaeal flagella are functionally similar to bacterial flagella and their assembly systems are homologous with type IV pili assembly systems of Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore elucidating their biochemistry may result in insights in both archaea and bacteria. FlaI, a critical cytoplasmic component of the archaeal flagella assembly system in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, is a member of the type II/IV secretion system ATPase superfamily, and is proposed to be bi-functional in driving flagella assembly and movement. In the present study we show that purified FlaI is a Mn2+ -dependent ATPase that binds MANT-ATP [2?-/3?-O-(N’-methylanthraniloyl)adenosine-5?-O-triphosphate] with a high affinity and hydrolyses ATP in a co-operative manner. FlaI has an optimum pH and temperature of 6.5 and 75 °C for ATP hydrolysis. Remarkably, archaeal, but not bacterial, lipids stimulated the ATPase activity of FlaI 3–4-fold. Analytical gel filtration indicated that FlaI undergoes nucleotide-dependent oligomerization. Furthermore, SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) analysis revealed an ATP-dependent hexamerization of FlaI in solution. The results of the present study report the first detailed biochemical analyses of the motor protein of an archaeal flagellum. PMID:21506936

  6. Immunomodulatory Activity of Dietary Fiber: Arabinoxylan and Mixed-Linked Beta-Glucan Isolated from Barley Show Modest Activities in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Rieder, Anne; Grimmer, Stine; Michaelsen, Terje E.; Knutsen, Svein H.

    2011-01-01

    High intake of dietary fiber is claimed to protect against development of colorectal cancer. Barley is a rich source of dietary fiber, and possible immunomodulatory effects of barley polysaccharides might explain a potential protective effect. Dietary fiber was isolated by extraction and enzyme treatment. A mixed-linked ?-glucan (WSM-TPX, 96.5% ?-glucan, Mw 886 kDa), an arabinoxylan (WUM-BS-LA, 96.4% arabinoxylan, Mw 156 kDa), a mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fraction containing 10% arabinoxylan (WSM-TP) and an arabinoxylan rich fraction containing 30% mixed-linked ?-glucan (WUM-BS) showed no significant effect on IL-8 secretion and proliferation of two intestinal epithelial cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29, and had no significant effect on the NF-?B activity in the monocytic cell line U937-3?B-LUC. Further enriched arabinoxylan fractions (WUM-BS-LA) from different barley varieties (Tyra, NK96300, SB94897 and CDCGainer) were less active than the mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fractions (WSM-TP and WSM-TPX) in the complement-fixing test. The mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fraction from NK96300 and CDCGainer showed similar activities as the positive control while mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fractions from Tyra and SB94897 were less active. From these results it is concluded that the isolated high molecular weight mixed-linked ?-glucans and arabinoxylans from barley show low immunological responses in selected in vitro test systems and thus possible anti-colon cancer effects of barley dietary fiber cannot be explained by our observations. PMID:21340001

  7. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  8. Sci Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Sci Show, an entertaining series of quirky YouTube videos, tackles topics ranging from â??How Do Polarized Sunglasses Workâ?ť to â??Strong Interaction: The Four Fundamental Forces of Physics.â?ť Most episodes are less than five minutes long, but they pack a wallop of handy science info. Anyone short on time but long on big questions will benefit from the series. Episodes will be helpful to teachers and parents looking to spark enthusiasm in young minds. Viewers may want to start with recent episodes like â??Todayâ??s Mass Extinction,â?ť and the â??Worldâ??s First See-Through Animalâ?ť and â??How Do Animals Change Color?â?ť before digging into the archives for gems like â??The Truth About Gingersâ?ť and â??The Science of Lying.â?ť

  9. Physical Activity in the Life of a Woman with Severe Cerebral Palsy: Showing Competence and Being Socially Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Andersen, Mark B.; Morris, Tony

    2009-01-01

    We used a life-history approach to investigate the meanings and experiences of physical activity in the life of a 25-year-old woman with severe cerebral palsy (Amy). Amy and her mother were interviewed about Amy's life and her involvement in physical activity. The conversation was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interpreted Amy's story…

  10. Lung Adenocarcinomas and Lung Cancer Cell Lines Show Association of MMP-1 Expression With STAT3 Activation1

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Alexander; Röser, Katrin; Klitzsch, Jana; Lieder, Franziska; Aberger, Fritz; Gruber, Wolfgang; Mueller, Kristina M.; Pupyshev, Alexander; Moriggl, Richard; Friedrich, Karlheinz

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in the majority of lung cancer. This study aims at defining connections between STAT3 function and the malignant properties of non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. To address possible mechanisms by which STAT3 influences invasiveness, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) was analyzed and correlated with the STAT3 activity status. Studies on both surgical biopsies and on lung cancer cell lines revealed a coincidence of STAT3 activation and strong expression of MMP-1. MMP-1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated activated STAT3 were found co-localized in cancer tissues, most pronounced in tumor fronts, and in particular in adenocarcinomas. STAT3 activity was constitutive, although to different degrees, in the lung cancer cell lines investigated. Three cell lines (BEN, KNS62, and A549) were identified in which STAT3 activitation was inducible by Interleukin-6 (IL-6). In A549 cells, STAT3 activity enhanced the level of MMP-1 mRNA and stimulated transcription from the MMP-1 promoter in IL-6–stimulated A549 cells. STAT3 specificity of this effect was confirmed by STAT3 knockdown through RNA interference. Our results link aberrant activity of STAT3 in lung cancer cells to malignant tumor progression through up-regulation of expression of invasiveness-associated MMPs. PMID:25926075

  11. Development of a transgenic hairy root system in jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) with gusA reporter gene through Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated co-transformation.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Tirthartha; Roy, Sheuli; Mitra, Adinpunya; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic hairy root system is important in several recalcitrant plants, where Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation and generation of transgenic plants are problematic. Jute (Corchorus spp.), the major fibre crop in Indian subcontinent, is one of those recalcitrant plants where in vitro tissue culture has provided a little success, and hence, Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation remains to be a challenging proposition in this crop. In the present work, a system of transgenic hairy roots in Corchorus capsularis L. has been developed through genetic transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes harbouring two plasmids, i.e. the natural Ri plasmid and a recombinant binary vector derived from the disarmed Ti plasmid of A. tumefaciens. Our findings indicate that the system is relatively easy to establish and reproducible. Molecular analysis of the independent lines of transgenic hairy roots revealed the transfer of relevant transgenes from both the T-DNA parts into the plant genome, indicating the co-transformation nature of the event. High level expression and activity of the gusA reporter gene advocate that the transgenic hairy root system, thus developed, could be applicable as gene expression system in general and for root functional genomics in particular. Furthermore, these transgenic hairy roots can be used in future as explants for plantlet regeneration to obtain stable transgenic jute plants. PMID:21153028

  12. Evaluation of transformation in peach Prunus persica explants using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel M. G. Padilla; Agnieszka Golis; Adele Gentile; Carmine Damiano; Ralph Scorza

    2006-01-01

    To determine the optimum conditions for Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer, peach explants including cotyledons, embryonic axes and hypocotyl slices from non-germinated seeds\\u000a and epicotyl internode slices from germinating seeds were exposed to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation treatments. The GUS (uidA) marker gene was tested using two different A. tumefaciens strains, three plasmids and four promoters [CaMV35s, (Aocs)3AmasPmas (“super-promoter”), mas-CaMV35s, and CAB]. GFP was

  13. Physical Activity in the Life of a Woman with Severe Cerebral Palsy: Showing competence and being socially connected

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cadeyrn J. Gaskin; Mark B. Andersen; Tony Morris

    2009-01-01

    We used a life?history approach to investigate the meanings and experiences of physical activity in the life of a 25?year?old woman with severe cerebral palsy (Amy). Amy and her mother were interviewed about Amy’s life and her involvement in physical activity. The conversation was audio?recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interpreted Amy’s story using psychodynamic theory. Although Amy enjoyed learning to

  14. In vitro analysis of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers shows that (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide is the active enantiomer against Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Cass, Quezia B

    2013-02-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (-)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

  15. Rice salT promoter is activated in Papaver somniferum and Nicotiana tabacum transgenic cells in the absence of exogenous ABA.

    PubMed

    Elleuch; Belbahri; Boetti; David; Thomassetb; David

    2001-01-01

    With the aim of modifying secondary metabolism in Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells, gene transfer was performed using the sam1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the salT promoter. This promoter is induced by ABA in rice and in tobacco and we have shown that it is also induced in poppy cells (gus gene). Putatively transformed poppy and tobacco cell lines with the sam1 gene were obtained. In the absence of exogenous inducer we noticed the expression of the transgene resulting in a significant increase of SAM-S activity in all tested transformants of poppy and in half the transgenic tobacco cell lines tested. Addition of ABA to the culture medium failed to enhance the expression of the transgene in both species and resulted in a decrease of the sam1 gene expression in some cell lines. Since the salT promoter is induced by exogenous ABA in both species (gus reporter gene), we suggest a partial sam1 transgene inactivation in certain cell lines. These results show that the efficiency of a regulatory sequence may be different when fused with a reporter gene (gus) compared to fusion with a gene belonging to the housekeeping family (sam1). PMID:11118604

  16. Nogo-A-deficient Transgenic Rats Show Deficits in Higher Cognitive Functions, Decreased Anxiety, and Altered Circadian Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Petrasek, Tomas; Prokopova, Iva; Sladek, Martin; Weissova, Kamila; Vojtechova, Iveta; Bahnik, Stepan; Zemanova, Anna; Schönig, Kai; Berger, Stefan; Tews, Björn; Bartsch, Dusan; Schwab, Martin E.; Sumova, Alena; Stuchlik, Ales

    2014-01-01

    Decreased levels of Nogo-A-dependent signaling have been shown to affect behavior and cognitive functions. In Nogo-A knockout and knockdown laboratory rodents, behavioral alterations were observed, possibly corresponding with human neuropsychiatric diseases of neurodevelopmental origin, particularly schizophrenia. This study offers further insight into behavioral manifestations of Nogo-A knockdown in laboratory rats, focusing on spatial and non-spatial cognition, anxiety levels, circadian rhythmicity, and activity patterns. Demonstrated is an impairment of cognitive functions and behavioral flexibility in a spatial active avoidance task, while non-spatial memory in a step-through avoidance task was spared. No signs of anhedonia, typical for schizophrenic patients, were observed in the animals. Some measures indicated lower anxiety levels in the Nogo-A-deficient group. Circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity was preserved in the Nogo-A knockout rats and their circadian period (tau) did not differ from controls. However, daily activity patterns were slightly altered in the knockdown animals. We conclude that a reduction of Nogo-A levels induces changes in CNS development, manifested as subtle alterations in cognitive functions, emotionality, and activity patterns. PMID:24672453

  17. Schizophrenia subjects show intact success-related neural activation but impaired uncertainty processing during decision-making.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Martin P; Frank, Lawrence; Brown, Gregory G; Braff, David L

    2003-04-01

    Decision-making is a complex process that is important for everyday life. This study examined the effect of the degree of success, and outcome uncertainty, on decision-making and associated neural substrate activation in schizophrenia subjects (SZS) and normal comparison subjects (NCS). A total of 15 subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 15 age- and education-matched NCS participated in this study. These subjects completed the two-choice prediction task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Decision-making characteristics and activation of neural substrates were obtained at 20, 50, or 80% error rate. Success and uncertainty influenced the behavioral characteristics on the two-choice prediction task, and the task-related activation in SZS and NCS. Neither success nor uncertainty differentially affected the behavioral characteristics of SZS relative to NCS during the two-choice prediction task. Nonetheless, there was a significant interaction between group and error rate in bilateral parietal cortex. The activation in NCS was the highest when the outcome was most uncertain. In contrast, task-related activation in SZS was not modulated by the degree of uncertainty. Thus, SZS failed to utilize the parietal cortex to process decision-making situations with highly uncertain outcomes. PMID:12655327

  18. Healthy children show gender differences in correlations between nonverbal cognitive ability and brain activation during visual perception.

    PubMed

    Asano, Kohei; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-01

    Humans perceive textual and nontextual information in visual perception, and both depend on language. In childhood education, students exhibit diverse perceptual abilities, such that some students process textual information better and some process nontextual information better. These predispositions involve many factors, including cognitive ability and learning preference. However, the relationship between verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during visual perception has not yet been examined in children. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between nonverbal and verbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during nontextual visual perception in large numbers of children. A significant positive correlation was found between nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation in the right temporoparietal junction, which is thought to be related to attention reorienting. This significant positive correlation existed only in boys. These findings suggested that male brain activation differed from female brain activation, and that this depended on individual cognitive processes, even if there was no gender difference in behavioral performance. PMID:24937269

  19. Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K. R.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

  20. Saraca indica bark extract shows in vitro antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and does not exhibit toxicological effects.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K R; Singh, R K

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

  1. GNAQ and BRAF mutations show differential activation of the mTOR pathway in human transformed cells

    PubMed Central

    Pópulo, Helena; Tavares, Sandra; Faustino, Alexandra; Nunes, Joana B.; Lopes, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mutations in GNAQ gene were described as being the main oncogenic activation in uveal melanomas, whereas mutations in BRAF gene have been described as a key genetic alteration that contributes to skin melanoma development. We have previously reported differential activation of the MAPK and AKT/mTOR signalling pathways in uveal and skin melanomas harbouring, respectively, GNAQ and BRAF mutations. The aim of this work was to compare the functional effect of GNAQ and BRAF mutations in mTOR and MAPK pathway activation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. In this work, we performed transient transfection of HEK293 cells with BRAFWT, BRAFV 600E, GNAQWT, GNAQQ209P and GNAQQ209L vectors. We treated melanoma cell lines displaying different BRAF and GNAQ mutational status with the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 and with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and evaluated the effects in the growth of the cell lines and in mTOR and MAPK pathway effectors expression. At variance with the significant increase in the level of pmTOR Ser2448 and pS6 Ser235/236 proteins observed in cells transfected with BRAF vectors, no significant alteration in mTOR pathway effectors was observed in cells transfected with the three GNAQ expressing vectors. Also, GNAQ overexpression enhances Stat3 activation, which might mediate GNAQ oncogenic effects. None of the vectors led to significant differences in proliferation or apoptosis in the transfected cell lines. Cell lines harbouring a BRAF mutation were more sensitive to RAD001 treatment. U0126 leads to the reduction of MAPK and mTOR pathways activation in all cell lines tested. Our results indicate that GNAQ and BRAF activation drive distinct intracellular signalling pathways that may be useful for therapeutic decisions in human melanomas. PMID:23904987

  2. Schizophrenic subjects show aberrant fMRI activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia during working memory performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dara S. Manoach; Randy L. Gollub; Etienne S. Benson; Meghan M. Searl; Donald C. Goff; Elkan Halpern; Clifford B. Saper; Scott L. Rauch

    2000-01-01

    Background: Working memory (WM) deficits in schizophrenia have been associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) dysfunction in neuroimaging studies. We previously found increased DLPFC activation in schizophrenic versus normal subjects during WM performance (Manoach et al 1999b). We now have investigated whether schizophrenic subjects recruit different brain regions, particularly the basal ganglia and thalamus, components of frontostriatal circuitry thought to

  3. Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition shows antileukemic activity in MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sandhöfer, N; Metzeler, K H; Rothenberg, M; Herold, T; Tiedt, S; Groiß, V; Carlet, M; Walter, G; Hinrichsen, T; Wachter, O; Grunert, M; Schneider, S; Subklewe, M; Dufour, A; Fröhling, S; Klein, H-G; Hiddemann, W; Jeremias, I; Spiekermann, K

    2015-04-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), several signaling pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT and the mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway are deregulated and constitutively activated as a consequence of genetic and cytogenetic abnormalities. We tested the effectiveness of PI3K/AKT/mTOR-targeting therapies and tried to identify alterations that associate with treatment sensitivity. By analyzing primary samples and cell lines, we observed a wide range of cytotoxic activity for inhibition of AKT (MK-2206), mTORC1 (rapamycin) and PI3K/mTORC1/2 (BEZ-235) with a high sensitivity of cells carrying an MLL rearrangement. In vivo PI3K/mTOR inhibition delayed tumor progression, reduced tumor load and prolonged survival in an MLL-AF9(+)/FLT3-ITD(+) xenograft mouse model. By performing targeted amplicon sequencing in 38 MLL-AF9(+) and 125 cytogenetically normal AML patient samples, we found a high additional mutation rate for genes involved in growth factor signaling in 79% of all MLL-AF9(+) samples, which could lead to a possible benefit of this cohort. PI3K/mTOR inhibition for 24?h led to the cross-activation of the ERK pathway. Further in vitro studies combining PI3K/mTOR and ERK pathway inhibition revealed highly synergistic effects in apoptosis assays. Our data implicate a possible therapeutic benefit of PI3K/mTOR inhibition in the MLL-mutated subgroup. Inhibiting rescue pathways could improve the therapeutic efficacy of PI3K-targeted therapies in AML. PMID:25322685

  4. Mono- and dinuclear manganese(III) complexes showing efficient catechol oxidase activity: syntheses, characterization and spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Banu, Kazi Sabnam; Chattopadhyay, Tanmay; Banerjee, Arpita; Mukherjee, Madhuparna; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Patra, Goutam Kumar; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis

    2009-10-28

    Four side-off compartmental ligands L1-L4 [L1 = N,N'-ethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methyl-salicylaldimine), L2 = N,N'-1-methylethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine), L3 = N,N'-1,1-dimethylethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine) and L4= N,N'-cyclohexenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine)] having two binding sites, N2O2 and O4, have been chosen to synthesize mononuclear and dinuclear manganese(III) complexes with the aim to study their catecholase activity using 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) as substrate in the presence of molecular oxygen. In all cases only mononuclear manganese complexes (1-4) were obtained, with manganese coordination taking place at the N2O2 binding site only, irrespective of the amount of manganese salt used. All these complexes have been characterized by routine physico-chemical techniques. Complex MnL2Cl.4H2O (2) has further been structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal structure analysis. Four dinuclear manganese complexes, 5-8, were obtained after condensing the two pending formyl groups on each ligand (L1-L4) with aniline followed by reaction with MnCl2 to put the second Mn atom onto another N2O2 site. The catalytic activity of all complexes 1-8 has been investigated following the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) to 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) with molecular oxygen in two different solvents, methanol and acetonitrile. The study reveals that the catalytic activity is influenced by the solvent and to a significant extent by the backbone of the diamine and the behavior seems to be related mainly to steric rather than electronic factors. Experimental data suggest that a correlation, the lower the E(1/2) value the higher the catalytic activity, can be drawn between E(1/2) and Vmax of the complexes in a particular solvent. The EPR measurements suggest that the catalytic property of the complexes is related to the metal center(s) participation rather than to a radical mechanism. PMID:19809751

  5. Antimicrobial Peptides Expressed in Medicinal Maggots of the Blow Fly Lucilia sericata Show Combinatorial Activity against Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pöppel, Anne-Kathrin; Vogel, Heiko; Wiesner, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The larvae of the common green bottle fly (Lucilia sericata) produce antibacterial secretions that have a therapeutic effect on chronic and nonhealing wounds. Recent developments in insect biotechnology have made it possible to use these larvae as a source of novel anti-infectives. Here, we report the application of next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to characterize the transcriptomes of the larval glands, crop, and gut, which contribute to the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteins secreted into wounds. Our data confirm that L. sericata larvae have adapted in order to colonize microbially contaminated habitats, such as carrion and necrotic wounds, and are protected against infection by a diverse spectrum of AMPs. L. sericata AMPs include not only lucifensin and lucimycin but also novel attacins, cecropins, diptericins, proline-rich peptides, and sarcotoxins. We identified 47 genes encoding putative AMPs and produced 23 as synthetic analogs, among which some displayed activities against a broad spectrum of microbial pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, and Enterococcus faecalis. Against Escherichia coli (Gram negative) and Micrococcus luteus (Gram positive), we found mostly additive effects but also synergistic activity when selected AMPs were tested in combination. The AMPs that are easy to synthesize are currently being produced in bulk to allow their evaluation as novel anti-infectives that can be formulated in hydrogels to produce therapeutic wound dressings and adhesive bandages. PMID:25666157

  6. New Classes of Alanine Racemase Inhibitors Identified by High-Throughput Screening Show Antimicrobial Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Karen G.; Strych, Ulrich; Yeung, Kacheong R.; Shoen, Carolyn S.; Perez, Oriana; Krause, Kurt L.; Cynamon, Michael H.; Aristoff, Paul A.; Koski, Raymond A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In an effort to discover new drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB) we chose alanine racemase as the target of our drug discovery efforts. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, alanine racemase plays an essential role in cell wall synthesis as it racemizes L-alanine into D-alanine, a key building block in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. Good antimicrobial effects have been achieved by inhibition of this enzyme with suicide substrates, but the clinical utility of this class of inhibitors is limited due to their lack of target specificity and toxicity. Therefore, inhibitors that are not substrate analogs and that act through different mechanisms of enzyme inhibition are necessary for therapeutic development for this drug target. Methodology/Principal Findings To obtain non-substrate alanine racemase inhibitors, we developed a high-throughput screening platform and screened 53,000 small molecule compounds for enzyme-specific inhibitors. We examined the ‘hits’ for structural novelty, antimicrobial activity against M. tuberculosis, general cellular cytotoxicity, and mechanism of enzyme inhibition. We identified seventeen novel non-substrate alanine racemase inhibitors that are structurally different than any currently known enzyme inhibitors. Seven of these are active against M. tuberculosis and minimally cytotoxic against mammalian cells. Conclusions/Significance This study highlights the feasibility of obtaining novel alanine racemase inhibitor lead compounds by high-throughput screening for development of new anti-TB agents. PMID:21637807

  7. The polysaccharide isolated from Pleurotus nebrodensis (PN-S) shows immune-stimulating activity in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hai-Yan; Wang, Chang-Lu; Wang, Yu-Rong; Li, Zhen-Jing; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2015-05-01

    A novel Pleurotus nebrodensis polysaccharide (PN-S) was purified andcharacterized, and its immune-stimulating activity was evaluated in RAW264.7 macrophages. PN-S induced the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by the MTT assay. After exposure to PN-S, the phagocytosis of the macrophages was significantly improved, with remarkable changes in morphology being observed. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that PN-S promoted RAW264.7 cells to progress through S and G2/M phases. PN-S treatment enhanced the productions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), interferon gamma (INF-?), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in the macrophages, with up-regulation of mRNA expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interferon gamma(INF-?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) being observed in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, these results suggest that the purified PN-S can improve immunity by activating macrophages. PMID:25986284

  8. Microglia from Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease-Infected Brains Are Infectious and Show Specific mRNA Activation Profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A. Baker; Daniel Martin; Laura Manuelidis

    2002-01-01

    Neurons are often assumed to be the principal sites for replication of the infectious agents causing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), scrapie, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy because they express high levels of normal and pathological prion protein (PrP). However, isolated brain cell types have not been evaluated for either infection or gene expression. Microglia purified from CJD-infected mice showed infectivity comparable to

  9. Artemisia dracunculus L. polyphenols complexed to soy protein show enhanced bioavailability and hypoglycemic activity in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Ribnicky, D.M.; Roopchand, D.E.; Poulev, A; Kuhn, P.; Oren, A.; Cefalu, W.T.; Raskin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Scientifically-validated food-based interventions are a practical means of addressing the epidemic of metabolic syndrome. An ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (PMI-5011) containing bioactive polyphenols, such as 2?, 4?–dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone (DMC-2), improved insulin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Plant polyphenols are concentrated and stabilized when complexed to protein-rich matrices, such as soy protein isolate (SPI), which act as effective food-based delivery vehicles. In this study we compared bioaccessibility, bioavailability and efficacy of polyphenols extracted from A. dracunculus and delivered as PMI-5011 (ethanolic extract alone), formulated with the non-food excipient Gelucire®, (5011- Gelucire), or sorbed to SPI (5011-Nutrasorb®). Materials and Methods PMI-5011, 5011-Gelucire or 5011-Nutrasorb each containing 162 ?g of DMC-2 was delivered to the TNO Intestinal Model-1 (TIM-1) of the human upper gastrointestinal tract to compare the effect of delivery vehicle on DMC-2 bioaccessibility. C57BL6/J mice were orally administered 5011-Nutrasorb or PMI-5011 to compare effects of polyphenol-protein complexation on acute hypoglycemic activity and bioavailability of DMC-2 in serum. Results At 500 mg/kg, 5011-Nutrasorb and PMI-5011 had similar hypoglycemic activity in high fat diet-induced diabetes mouse model despite the fact that 5011-Nutrasorb delivered 15-times less DMC-2 (40 ?g/kg vs. 600 ?g/kg). This can be partially explained by 8 times greater DMC-2 absorption into serum from 5011-Nutrasorb than from PMI-5011. TIM-1 experiments confirmed higher total bioaccessibility of DMC-2 in vitro when delivered in 5011-Nutrasorb (50.2 %) or Gelucire-5011 (44.4 %) compared to PMI-5011 (27.1 %) (p = 0.08). Conclusion Complexation with soy protein makes anti-diabetic A. dracunculus polyphenols more bioavailable and bioaccessible. PMID:24985105

  10. Solution NMR structure of the myosin phosphatase inhibitor protein CPI-17 shows phosphorylation-induced conformational changes responsible for activation.

    PubMed

    Ohki, S; Eto, M; Kariya, E; Hayano, T; Hayashi, Y; Yazawa, M; Brautigan, D; Kainosho, M

    2001-12-01

    Contractility of vascular smooth muscle depends on phosphorylation of myosin light chains, and is modulated by hormonal control of myosin phosphatase activity. Signaling pathways activate kinases such as PKC or Rho-dependent kinases that phosphorylate the myosin phosphatase inhibitor protein called CPI-17. Phosphorylation of CPI-17 at Thr38 enhances its inhibitory potency 1000-fold, creating a molecular on/off switch for regulating contraction. We report the solution NMR structure of the CPI-17 inhibitory domain (residues 35-120), which retains the signature biological properties of the full-length protein. The final ensemble of 20 sets of NMR coordinates overlaid onto their mean structure with r.m.s.d. values of 0.84(+/-0.22) A for the backbone atoms. The protein forms a novel four-helix, V-shaped bundle comprised of a central anti-parallel helix pair (B/C helices) flanked by two large spiral loops formed by the N and C termini that are held together by another anti-parallel helix pair (A/D helices) stabilized by intercalated aromatic and aliphatic side-chains. Chemical shift perturbations indicated that phosphorylation of Thr38 induces a conformational change involving displacement of helix A, without significant movement of the other three helices. This conformational change seems to flex one arm of the molecule, thereby exposing new surfaces of the helix A and the nearby phosphorylation loop to form specific interactions with the catalytic site of the phosphatase. This phosphorylation-dependent conformational change offers new structural insights toward understanding the specificity of CPI-17 for myosin phosphatase and its function as a molecular switch. PMID:11734001

  11. Synthesis and in vitro Evaluation of 3H-Pyrrolo[3,2-f]-quinolin-9-one Derivatives That Show Potent and Selective Anti-leukemic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bortolozzi, Roberta; Brun, Paola; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Hamel, Ernest; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2010-01-01

    A series of new substituted 7-phenyl-3H-pyrrolo[3,2-f]quinolin-9-ones were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity. The most active derivatives showed high selectivity against human leukemia cell lines and potently inhibited their growth, with GI50 values in the nanomolar range. The active compounds strongly blocked tubulin assembly and colchicine binding to tubulin. Their activities were equal to or greater than that of the reference compound combretastatin A-4. Flow cytometry studies showed that the two most active compounds arrested Jurkat cells in the G2/M cell-cycle phase in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was associated with apoptosis, mitochondrial depolarization, generation of reactive oxygen species, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. PMID:20629070

  12. PF2401-SF, standardized fraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza shows anti-inflammatory activity in macrophages and acute arthritis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-Yi; Jeon, Byeong-Ho; Kim, Youn-Chul; Lee, Sung Hee; Sohn, Dong Hwan; Seo, Geom Seog

    2013-06-01

    Standardization of processing methods for herbs is as important as authentication to maintain their quality and ensure their safe use. We had previously prepared a standardized and purified Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge extract, PF2401-SF, and showed that it protects against liver injury in vivo, at a greater potency than an ethanol extract. PF2401-SF was enriched with tanshinone I (11.5%), tanshinone IIA (41.0%), and cryptotanshinone (19.1%). In this study, we investigated potential anti-inflammatory effects of PF2401-SF in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that PF2401-SF shows anti-inflammatory potency on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells. A mechanistic study indicated that PF2401-SF induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression through extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Moreover, we also evaluated that PF2401-SF significantly reduced inflammation on carrageenan- or dextran-induced acute arthritis in rats. Our results suggest that PF2401-SF may be a potential candidate for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:23583334

  13. A G-quadruplex-binding compound showing anti-tumour activity in an in vivo model for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohnmacht, Stephan A; Marchetti, Chiara; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Besser, Rachael J; Haider, Shozeb M; Di Vita, Gloria; Lowe, Helen L; Mellinas-Gomez, Maria; Diocou, Seckou; Robson, Mathew; Šponer, Jiri; Islam, Barira; Barbara Pedley, R; Hartley, John A; Neidle, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We report here that a tetra-substituted naphthalene-diimide derivative (MM41) has significant in vivo anti-tumour activity against the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer xenograft model. IV administration with a twice-weekly 15?mg/kg dose produces ca 80% tumour growth decrease in a group of tumour-bearing animals. Two animals survived tumour-free after 279 days. High levels of MM41 are rapidly transported into cell nuclei and were found to accumulate in the tumour. MM41 is a quadruplex-interactive compound which binds strongly to the quadruplexes encoded in the promoter sequences of the BCL-2 and k-RAS genes, both of which are dis-regulated in many human pancreatic cancers. Levels of BCL-2 were reduced by ca 40% in tumours from MM41-treated animals relative to controls, consistent with BCL-2 being a target for MM41. Molecular modelling suggests that MM41 binds to a BCL-2 quadruplex in a manner resembling that previously observed in co-crystal structures with human telomeric quadruplexes. This supports the concept that MM41 (and by implication other quadruplex-targeting small molecules) can bind to quadruplex-forming promoter regions in a number of genes and down-regulate their transcription. We suggest that quadruplexes within those master genes that are up-regulated drivers for particular cancers, may be selective targets for compounds such as MM41. PMID:26077929

  14. A G-quadruplex-binding compound showing anti-tumour activity in an in vivo model for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ohnmacht, Stephan A; Marchetti, Chiara; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Besser, Rachael J; Haider, Shozeb M; Di Vita, Gloria; Lowe, Helen L; Mellinas-Gomez, Maria; Diocou, Seckou; Robson, Mathew; Šponer, Jiri; Islam, Barira; Barbara Pedley, R; Hartley, John A; Neidle, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We report here that a tetra-substituted naphthalene-diimide derivative (MM41) has significant in vivo anti-tumour activity against the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer xenograft model. IV administration with a twice-weekly 15?mg/kg dose produces ca 80% tumour growth decrease in a group of tumour-bearing animals. Two animals survived tumour-free after 279 days. High levels of MM41 are rapidly transported into cell nuclei and were found to accumulate in the tumour. MM41 is a quadruplex-interactive compound which binds strongly to the quadruplexes encoded in the promoter sequences of the BCL-2 and k-RAS genes, both of which are dis-regulated in many human pancreatic cancers. Levels of BCL-2 were reduced by ca 40% in tumours from MM41-treated animals relative to controls, consistent with BCL-2 being a target for MM41. Molecular modelling suggests that MM41 binds to a BCL-2 quadruplex in a manner resembling that previously observed in co-crystal structures with human telomeric quadruplexes. This supports the concept that MM41 (and by implication other quadruplex-targeting small molecules) can bind to quadruplex-forming promoter regions in a number of genes and down-regulate their transcription. We suggest that quadruplexes within those master genes that are up-regulated drivers for particular cancers, may be selective targets for compounds such as MM41. PMID:26077929

  15. Phosphatase activity of the voltage-sensing phosphatase, VSP, shows graded dependence on the extent of activation of the voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Souhei; Okamura, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    The voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a voltage sensor and a cytoplasmic phosphatase region, and the movement of the voltage sensor is coupled to the phosphatase activity. However, its coupling mechanisms still remain unclear. One possible scenario is that the phosphatase is activated only when the voltage sensor is in a fully activated state. Alternatively, the enzymatic activity of single VSP proteins could be graded in distinct activated states of the voltage sensor, and partial activation of the voltage sensor could lead to partial activation of the phosphatase. To distinguish between these two possibilities, we studied a voltage sensor mutant of zebrafish VSP, where the voltage sensor moves in two steps as evidenced by analyses of charge movements of the voltage sensor and voltage clamp fluorometry. Measurements of the phosphatase activity toward phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate revealed that both steps of voltage sensor activation are coupled to the tuning of phosphatase activities, consistent with the idea that the phosphatase activity is graded by the magnitude of the movement of the voltage sensor. PMID:24277865

  16. Political activities at gun shows represent views that start at the conservative and move to the right from there. As with the

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    6 Politics Political activities at gun shows represent views that start at the conservative that could usefully be explored by others. Candidates for public office see gun shows as a way to connect with a motivated constituency. As one observer described it, "There are people who vote guns and only guns

  17. A Gelatinases-targeting scFv-based Fusion Protein Shows Enhanced Antitumour Activity with Endostar against Hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruijuan; Li, Liang; Shang, Boyang; Zhao, Chunyan; Sheng, Weijin; Li, Diandong

    2015-08-01

    Gelatinases play important roles in tumour invasion and metastasis and are thus considered promising targets for cancer therapy. In this study, a new single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-based fusion protein Fv-LDP, composed of the anti-gelatinases scFv and lidamycin apoprotein (LDP), was prepared, and its combination with angiogenesis inhibitor Endostar was then investigated. The fusion protein Fv-LDP specifically bound to various tumour cells, and its binding capability to human pulmonary giant cell carcinoma (PG) cells was higher than that of LDP. Fv-LDP inhibited the expression and secretion of gelatinases and could be internalized into tumour cells via endocytosis. Fv-LDP also suppressed the growth of human hepatoma cells and murine hepatoma 22 transplanted in Kunming mice in various degrees. In addition, Endostar could enhance the synergistic or additive inhibition of Fv-LDP on the growth, migration or invasion of human hepatoma cells shown by a colony formation assay and a transwell-based migration or invasion assay, respectively. In vivo, Fv-LDP/Endostar combination showed a significantly synergistic effect on the growth of a human hepatoma xenograft, with an inhibition rate of 80.8% compared with the Fv-LDP (44.1%) or Endostar (8.9%)-treated group. The above-mentioned results indicate that the fusion protein Fv-LDP is effective against transplantable hepatoma in mice and human hepatoma xenografts in athymic mice. Moreover, Endostar can potentiate the inhibition effect of Fv-LDP on the growth of human hepatoma cells and xenografts. These data will provide a new combined strategy for improving the therapeutic efficacy of treatments for hepatoma or other gelatinase-overexpressing tumours. PMID:25615234

  18. The cardiac sodium channel shows a regular substate pattern indicating synchronized activity of several ion pathways instead of one.

    PubMed

    Schreibmayer, W; Tritthart, H A; Schindler, H

    1989-11-17

    Cardiac sodium channel substates were induced by using different gating modifiers, namely S-DPI 201-106 (s), toxin II from Anemonia sulcata (a), veratridine (v) and mixtures of these agents (s + v, a + v). Current ratios (normalized substate currents), slope conductances, reversal potentials and saturation characteristics were evaluated for the individual channel substates. The results can be summarized as follows: (i) Current ratios fell into a pattern of six equidistant values (I to VI) irrespective of the modification applied (0.20, 0.34, 0.51, 0.69, 0.85, 1.00). Slope conductances, determinable for substates II, V and VI (4.8, 11.7 and 14.0, respectively), are also consistent with six conductance substates which are integer multiples of a smallest conductance (state I). (ii) The permeability ratio PNa+/PK+ (i.e., reversal potential of substate currents) of the sodium channel was conserved both for different modifications, i.e., by s, a, s + v and a + v, and for the different substates (at least for II, IV and VI) observed for each modification. (iii) Sodium binding to the channel is substate independent. Analysis of slope conductances of states II and VI for three sodium chloride concentrations (71.5, 140 and 303 mM) revealed different maximal conductances (geVImax = 2.9.geIImax) but similar apparent affinities for sodium (KNa + VI = 286 mM; KNa + II = 303 mM). These findings are shown to seriously challenge the commonly unquestioned conception that 'single-current events' reflect ion passage through only one single pathway. The alternative view, that not one pore, but either six or three pores with synchronized gating ('oligochannel') underlie 'single-channel events', is shown to readily account for the observed substate properties and appears not to contradict known properties of 'the sodium channel'. This fundamentally new view of the sodium channel aims to invoke further efforts to distinguish between conceptually distinct models of structure-function relationships for a variety of channels which show multiple substates and conserved ion selectivity. PMID:2573393

  19. Transient expression of an active human interferon-beta in lettuce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Li; Min Chen; Xian-Wei Liu; Hou-Cheng Zhang; Fa Fu Shen; George Peng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression method, plant bivalent expression vector pBI121 containing GUS as a report gene was transformed into lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Through designed orthogonal analysis, intact lettuce leaves infiltrated with 200?M acetosyringone and 0.8 OD600 bacterial suspensions under vacuum for 30min, then co-cultured at 24°C for 6ds produced a maximum GUS protein of 2.5% TSP with 21.39nmolmg?1min?1MU activity,

  20. Figure 1. Inner Asia and Mongolia showing active survey datasets. (1) Darkhat-Muron, (2) the Khanui and Terhiyn Valleys, and (3) Baga Gazaryn Chuluu.

    E-print Network

    George Mason University

    Figure 1. Inner Asia and Mongolia showing active survey datasets. (1) Darkhat- Muron, (2 of Sciences, Ulanbataar, Mongolia 1. MOTIVATION AND PURPOSE Inner Asia is the heartland of the Old World is essential. We define Inner Asia as composed of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Manchuria, Eastern Turkestan

  1. A Model for Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Activated Gene Expression Shows Potency and Efficacy Changes and Predicts Squelching Due to Competition for Transcription Co-Activators

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ted W.; Budinsky, Robert A.; Rowlands, J. Craig

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription was developed based on activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) and subsequent binding the activated AHR to xenobiotic response elements (XREs) on DNA. The model was based on effects observed in cells lines commonly used as in vitro experimental systems. Following ligand binding, the AHR moves into the cell nucleus and forms a heterodimer with the aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT). In the model, a requirement for binding to DNA is that a generic coregulatory protein is subsequently bound to the AHR-ARNT dimer. Varying the amount of coregulator available within the nucleus altered both the potency and efficacy of TCDD for inducing for transcription of CYP1A1 mRNA, a commonly used marker for activation of the AHR. Lowering the amount of available cofactor slightly increased the EC50 for the transcriptional response without changing the efficacy or maximal response. Further reduction in the amount of cofactor reduced the efficacy and produced non-monotonic dose-response curves (NMDRCs) at higher ligand concentrations. The shapes of these NMDRCs were reminiscent of the phenomenon of squelching. Resource limitations for transcriptional machinery are becoming apparent in eukaryotic cells. Within single cells, nuclear receptor-mediated gene expression appears to be a stochastic process; however, intercellular communication and other aspects of tissue coordination may represent a compensatory process to maintain an organism’s ability to respond on a phenotypic level to various stimuli within an inconstant environment. PMID:26039703

  2. An alpha2,6-sialyltransferase cloned from Photobacterium leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119 shows both sialyltransferase and neuraminidase activity.

    PubMed

    Mine, Toshiki; Katayama, Sakurako; Kajiwara, Hitomi; Tsunashima, Masako; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2010-02-01

    We cloned, expressed, and characterized a novel beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase from Photobacterium leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119. The protein showed 56-96% identity to the marine bacterial alpha2,6-sialyltransferases classified into glycosyltransferase family 80. The sialyltransferase activity of the N-terminal truncated form of the recombinant enzyme was 1477 U/L of Escherichia coli culture. The truncated recombinant enzyme was purified as a single band by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis through 3 column chromatography steps. The enzyme had distinct activity compared with known marine bacterial alpha2,6-sialyltransferases. Although alpha2,6-sialyltransferases cloned from marine bacteria, such as Photobacterium damselae strain JT0160, P. leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-145, and Photobacterium sp. strain JT-ISH-224, show only alpha2,6-sialyltransferase activity, the recombinant enzyme cloned from P. leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119 showed both alpha2,6-sialyltransferase and alpha2,6-linkage-specific neuraminidase activity. Our results provide important information toward a comprehensive understanding of the bacterial sialyltransferases belonging to the group 80 glycosyltransferase family in the CAZy database. PMID:19797322

  3. Bid chimeras indicate that most BH3-only proteins can directly activate Bak and Bax, and show no preference for Bak versus Bax.

    PubMed

    Hockings, C; Anwari, K; Ninnis, R L; Brouwer, J; O'Hely, M; Evangelista, M; Hinds, M G; Czabotar, P E; Lee, E F; Fairlie, W D; Dewson, G; Kluck, R M

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is initiated by Bcl-2 homology region 3 (BH3)-only members of the Bcl-2 protein family. On upregulation or activation, certain BH3-only proteins can directly bind and activate Bak and Bax to induce conformation change, oligomerization and pore formation in mitochondria. BH3-only proteins, with the exception of Bid, are intrinsically disordered and therefore, functional studies often utilize peptides based on just their BH3 domains. However, these reagents do not possess the hydrophobic membrane targeting domains found on the native BH3-only molecule. To generate each BH3-only protein as a recombinant protein that could efficiently target mitochondria, we developed recombinant Bid chimeras in which the BH3 domain was replaced with that of other BH3-only proteins (Bim, Puma, Noxa, Bad, Bmf, Bik and Hrk). The chimeras were stable following purification, and each immunoprecipitated with full-length Bcl-xL according to the specificity reported for the related BH3 peptide. When tested for activation of Bak and Bax in mitochondrial permeabilization assays, Bid chimeras were ~1000-fold more effective than the related BH3 peptides. BH3 sequences from Bid and Bim were the strongest activators, followed by Puma, Hrk, Bmf and Bik, while Bad and Noxa were not activators. Notably, chimeras and peptides showed no apparent preference for activating Bak or Bax. In addition, within the BH3 domain, the h0 position recently found to be important for Bax activation, was important also for Bak activation. Together, our data with full-length proteins indicate that most BH3-only proteins can directly activate both Bak and Bax. PMID:25906158

  4. Gold(I) Analogues of a Platinum–Acridine Antitumor Agent are only Moderately Cytotoxic but Show Potent Activity Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Eiter, Lauren C.; Hall, Nathan W.; Day, Cynthia S.; Saluta, Gilda; Kucera, Gregory L.; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    A series of cationic gold(I) complexes containing 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea (1), [AuL(1)]n+ (where L is Cl?, Br-, SCN?, PEt3, PPh3, or 1), derived from a class of analogous platinum(II) antitumor agents, has been synthesized. Unlike platinum, gold does not form permanent adducts with DNA, and its complexes are two orders of magnitude less cytotoxic in non-small-cell lung cancer cells than the most active platinum-based agent. Instead, several gold analogues show submicromolar and selective antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:19803526

  5. Thalassemia major patients using iron chelators showed a reduced plasma thioredoxin level and reduced thioredoxin reductase activity, despite elevated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Z; Genc, G E; Kupesiz, A; Kurtoglu, E; Gumuslu, S

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate plasma levels of peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) and thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), and the activity of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), in thalassemia major (TM) patients living in the Antalya region, Turkey. The patients were divided into three groups, according to chelators - the deferoxamine group (DFO, n = 20), the deferasirox group (DFX, n = 20), and the deferiprone group (DFP, n = 20), to compare any possible effect of chelators on antioxidative and oxidative stress parameters. A control group (n = 20) was selected from healthy volunteers. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and TrxR, as well as the concentrations of Prx2, Trx1, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the plasma samples of TM patients and the controls. The activity of CAT and the levels of H2O2 and MDA in the TM patients were significantly higher than those in the controls, while the levels of GPx, Trx1, TrxR, and GSH were lower. The concentrations of ferritin, GSH, H2O2, and MDA, as well as the activities of GR, CAT and TrxR, showed significant differences among the chelator groups. Although TrxR activity showed an increase in TM patients due to an elevated iron overload, both TrxR activity and Trx1 level were lower in the patient groups compared with the cases in the control group. As a result, because Trx1 level and TrxR activity were measured at a low level in the patients, increasing the levels of Trx1 and TrxR in TM patients will be a target of future treatment. PMID:25564095

  6. The major indole alkaloid N,?-D-glucopyranosyl vincosamide from leaves of Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl. is not an antifeedant but shows broad antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Hélio Nitta; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2013-03-01

    N,?-D-glucopyranosyl vincosamide (GPV), a major alkaloid of Psychotria leiocarpa, constitutes up to 2.5% of the dry weight in leaves. Alkaloid content was not elicited by mechanical wounding or jasmonate. At concentrations found in natural conditions or 2.5 fold higher, GPV did not inhibit herbivory in two unrelated generalist models (Helix aspersa and Spodoptera frugiperda) or in a specific interaction model (Heliconius erato fed with Passiflora suberosa). In situ staining assay showed quenching activity of hydrogen peroxide by GPV. Exposure of P. leiocarpa to acute UV-B stress did not change GPV or chlorophyll content, indicating high tolerance to this stress by the species. In vitro antioxidant tests against singlet oxygen, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals showed efficient quenching activity of the alkaloid. GPV was not effective as antifeedant, but it may act indirectly in P. leiocarpa protection against oxidative stress generated upon wounding, UV exposure and perhaps other environmental stresses. PMID:22891663

  7. Mx1, Mx2 and Mx3 proteins from the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) show in vitro antiviral activity against RNA and DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Trujillo, M A; García-Rosado, E; Alonso, M C; Castro, D; Álvarez, M C; Béjar, J

    2013-12-01

    Mx proteins are important components of the antiviral innate immune response mediated by type I interferon. Classically, these proteins have been considered to be triggered by viral RNA, thus showing activity against RNA viruses. Actually, three Mx proteins (SauMx1, SauMx2 and SauMx3) from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) have previously shown antiviral activity against a dsRNA virus: the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in vitro. For further characterizing their antiviral spectrum, the activity of SauMx proteins were tested against three different viral pathogens of fish: the lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV, a dsDNA virus), a pathogen of gilthead seabream; the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV, a ssRNA virus), to which gilthead seabream is considered a reservoir species; and the European sheatfish virus (ESV, a dsDNA virus), that has not been detected in gilthead seabream to date. Three clonal populations of CHSE-214 cells developed in a previous study, stably expressing SauMx1, SauMx2 and SauMx3, respectively, were challenged with the three viruses. Results combining cytopathic effects and virus yield reduction assays showed that SauMx1 protected the cells against VHSV and LCDV, SauMx2 protected against ESV and LCDV, and SauMx3 showed activity only against VHSV. This study, besides confirming the antiviral activity of the three gilthead seabream Mx proteins, is the first report of the protective effect of a fish Mx against DNA viruses. Additionally, it discloses a clear specificity between Mx proteins and virus targets, supporting the idea that the relationship between virus and Mx proteins is finely tuned. PMID:23911421

  8. Plasma membrane of Beta vulgaris storage root shows high water channel activity regulated by cytoplasmic pH and a dual range of calcium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Alleva, Karina; Niemietz, Christa M; Sutka, Moira; Maurel, Christophe; Parisi, Mario; Tyerman, Stephen D; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles isolated by two-phase partitioning from the storage root of Beta vulgaris show atypically high water permeability that is equivalent only to those reported for active aquaporins in tonoplast or animal red cells (Pf=542 microm s(-1)). The values were determined from the shrinking kinetics measured by stopped-flow light scattering. This high Pf was only partially inhibited by mercury (HgCl2) but showed low activation energy (Ea) consistent with water permeation through water channels. To study short-term regulation of water transport that could be the result of channel gating, the effects of pH, divalent cations, and protection against dephosphorylation were tested. The high Pf observed at pH 8.3 was dramatically reduced by medium acidification. Moreover, intra-vesicular acidification (corresponding to the cytoplasmic face of the membrane) shut down the aquaporins. De-phosphorylation was discounted as a regulatory mechanism in this preparation. On the other hand, among divalent cations, only calcium showed a clear effect on aquaporin activity, with two distinct ranges of sensitivity to free Ca2+ concentration (pCa 8 and pCa 4). Since the normal cytoplasmic free Ca2+ sits between these ranges it allows for the possibility of changes in Ca2+ to finely up- or down-regulate water channel activity. The calcium effect is predominantly on the cytoplasmic face, and inhibition corresponds to an increase in the activation energy for water transport. In conclusion, these findings establish both cytoplasmic pH and Ca2+ as important regulatory factors involved in aquaporin gating. PMID:16397000

  9. Tissue specificity and expression level of gusA under rolD, mannopine synthase and translation elongation factor 1 subunit a promoters in transgenic Gladiolus plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kamo; A. Blowers

    1999-01-01

    Transgenic plants of Gladiolus cv. Jenny Lee were developed that contain the bargusA fusion gene under either the mannopine synthase 2 (mas2), translation elongation factor 1 subunit ? (EF-1?), rolD, or the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoters. The relative level of gusA expression in leaves of five to ten independently transformed, in-vitro-grown plants representing each promoter was similar

  10. Activating FLT3 Mutants Show Distinct Gain-of-Function Phenotypes In Vitro and a Characteristic Signaling Pathway Profile Associated with Prognosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Janke, Hanna; Pastore, Friederike; Schumacher, Daniela; Herold, Tobias; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Schneider, Stephanie; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Büchner, Thomas; Woermann, Bernhard J.; Subklewe, Marion; Bohlander, Stefan K.; Hiddemann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    About 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbour mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, mostly internal tandem duplications (ITD) and point mutations of the second tyrosine kinase domain (TKD). It was the aim of this study to comprehensively analyze clinical and functional properties of various FLT3 mutants. In 672 normal karyotype AML patients FLT3-ITD, but not FLT3-TKD mutations were associated with a worse relapse free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. In paired diagnosis-relapse samples FLT3-ITD showed higher stability (70%) compared to FLT3-TKD (30%). In vitro, FLT3-ITD induced a strong activating phenotype in Ba/F3 cells. In contrast, FLT3-TKD mutations and other point mutations – including two novel mutations – showed a weaker but clear gain-of-function phenotype with gradual increase in proliferation and protection from apoptosis. The pro-proliferative capacity of the investigated FLT3 mutants was associated with cell surface expression and tyrosine 591 phosphorylation of the FLT3 receptor. Western blot experiments revealed STAT5 activation only in FLT3-ITD positive cell lines, in contrast to FLT3-non-ITD mutants, which displayed an enhanced signal of AKT and MAPK activation. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct difference between FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD for STAT5 target gene expression as well as deregulation of SOCS2, ENPP2, PRUNE2 and ART3. FLT3-ITD and FLT3 point mutations show a gain-of-function phenotype with distinct signalling properties in vitro. Although poor prognosis in AML is only associated with FLT3-ITD, all activating FLT3 mutations can contribute to leukemogenesis and are thus potential targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24608088

  11. B-Ring-Aryl Substituted Luotonin A Analogues with a New Binding Mode to the Topoisomerase 1-DNA Complex Show Enhanced Cytotoxic Activity

    PubMed Central

    González-Ruiz, Víctor; Pascua, Irene; Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Ribelles, Pascual; Bianchini, Giulia; Sridharan, Vellaisamy; Iniesta, Pilar; Ramos, M. Teresa; Olives, Ana I.; Martín, M. Antonia; Menéndez, J. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Topoisomerase 1 inhibition is an important strategy in targeted cancer chemotherapy. The drugs currently in use acting on this enzyme belong to the family of the camptothecins, and suffer severe limitations because of their low stability, which is associated with the hydrolysis of the ?-lactone moiety in their E ring. Luotonin A is a natural camptothecin analogue that lacks this functional group and therefore shows a much-improved stability, but at the cost of a lower activity. Therefore, the development of luotonin A analogues with an increased potency is important for progress in this area. In the present paper, a small library of luotonin A analogues modified at their A and B rings was generated by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-catalyzed Friedländer reactions. All analogues showed an activity similar or higher than the natural luotonin A in terms of topoisomerase 1 inhibition and some compounds had an activity comparable to that of camptothecin. Furthermore, most compounds showed a better activity than luotonin A in cell cytotoxicity assays. In order to rationalize these results, the first docking studies of luotonin-topoisomerase 1-DNA ternary complexes were undertaken. Most compounds bound in a manner similar to luotonin A and to standard topoisomerase poisons such as topotecan but, interestingly, the two most promising analogues, bearing a 3,5-dimethylphenyl substituent at ring B, docked in a different orientation. This binding mode allows the hydrophobic moiety to be shielded from the aqueous environment by being buried between the deoxyribose belonging to the G(+1) guanine and Arg364 in the scissile strand and the surface of the protein and a hydrogen bond between the D-ring carbonyl and the basic amino acid. The discovery of this new binding mode and its associated higher inhibitory potency is a significant advance in the design of new topoisomerase 1 inhibitors. PMID:24830682

  12. Novel Antiviral Characteristics of Nanosized Copper(I) Iodide Particles Showing Inactivation Activity against 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tetsuya; Hayata, Taishi; Nagao, Tomokazu; Nakayama, Mikio; Nakayama, Tsuruo; Sugamata, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the antiviral activity of nanosized copper(I) iodide (CuI) particles having an average size of 160 nm. CuI particles showed aqueous stability and generated hydroxyl radicals, which were probably derived from monovalent copper (Cu+). We confirmed that CuI particles showed antiviral activity against an influenza A virus of swine origin (pandemic [H1N1] 2009) by plaque titration assay. The virus titer decreased in a dose-dependent manner upon incubation with CuI particles, with the 50% effective concentration being approximately 17 ?g/ml after exposure for 60 min. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the inactivation of the virus due to the degradation of viral proteins such as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase by CuI. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy revealed that CuI generates hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solution, and radical production was found to be blocked by the radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Taken together, these findings indicate that CuI particles exert antiviral activity by generating hydroxyl radicals. Thus, CuI may be a useful material for protecting against viral attacks and may be suitable for applications such as filters, face masks, protective clothing, and kitchen cloths. PMID:22156433

  13. Merlin-deficient human tumors show loss of contact inhibition and activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling linked to the PDGFR/Src and Rac/PAK pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lu; Ercolano, Emanuela; Ammoun, Sylwia; Schmid, M Caroline; Barczyk, Magdalena A; Hanemann, Clemens Oliver

    2011-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an inherited predisposition cancer syndrome characterized by the development of multiple benign tumors in the nervous system including schwannomas, meningiomas, and ependymomas. Using a disease model comprising primary human schwannoma cells, we previously demonstrated that adherens junctions (AJs) are impaired in schwannoma cells because of a ubiquitous, upregulated Rac activity. However, the mechanism by which loss of contact inhibition leads to proliferation remains obscure in merlin-deficient tumors. In this study, we show that proliferative Wnt/?-catenin signaling is elevated as active ?-catenin (dephosphorylated at serine 37 and threoine 41) localizes to the nucleus and the Wnt targets genes c-myc and cyclin D1 are upregulated in confluent human schwannoma cells. We demonstrate that Rac effector p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) is essential for the activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling because depletion of PAK2 suppressed active ?-catenin, c-myc, and cyclin D1. Most importantly, the link between the loss of the AJ complex and the increased proliferation in human schwannoma cells is connected by Src and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-induced tyrosine 654 phosphorylation on ?-catenin and associated with degradation of N-cadherin. We also demonstrate that active merlin maintains ?-catenin and N-cadherin complex at the plasma membrane through direct regulation. Finally, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of tyrosine 654 is critical for the increased proliferation in human schwannoma cells because overexpression of a Y654F mutant ?-catenin reduces hyperproliferation of schwannoma cells. We suggest a model that these pathways are coordinated and relevant for proliferation in merlin-deficient tumors. PMID:22247700

  14. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  15. [A case of atopic dermatitis which showed correlation of psychological state and lesions--changes of value of psychological test, skin lesion and NK cell activity].

    PubMed

    Aihara, M; Hariya, T; Ichikawa, H; Ikezawa, Z

    2000-06-01

    The relationship between psychological state and skin lesions of atopic dermatitis were investigated with a 31-year-old male patient. He had severe atopic dermatitis which became worse with psychological stress. A psychological test, profile of mood states (POMS), was performed on him every 2 weeks. Peripheral lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cell activity were investigated at some points. When the psychological state showed more depressive, anxiety, anger, fatigue and confusion, the skin lesions became worse and recovered after the psychological states turned well. Correlation was shown between itch and stress or fatigue by a visual analogue scale (VAS) (p < 0.001). NK cell activity decreased during the worse psychological state and recovered during the near normal psychological state, although, the lymphocyte count and CD4/8 ratio in peripheral blood did not change during the study. These results suggest that some patients with atopic dermatitis should be treated psychologically in addition to standard dermatological treatment. PMID:10916887

  16. The environmental chemical tributyltin chloride (TBT) shows both estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice which might depend on the exposure dose

    SciTech Connect

    Penza, M.; Jeremic, M.; Marrazzo, E. [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Maggi, A.; Ciana, P. [Centre of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Milan (Italy); Rando, G. [Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne (Switzerland); Grigolato, P.G. [Human Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Di Lorenzo, D., E-mail: dilorenzodiego@yahoo.it [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Exposure during early development to chemicals with hormonal action may be associated with weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. It is known that organotins affect adipose mass when exposure occurs during fetal development, although no knowledge of effects are available for exposures after birth. Here we show that the environmental organotin tributyltin chloride (TBT) exerts adipogenic action when peripubertal and sexually mature mice are exposed to the chemical. The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and on the dose of the compound, and the effects are relevant at doses close to the estimated human intake (0.5 {mu}g/kg). At higher doses (50-500 {mu}g/kg), TBT also activated estrogen receptors (ERs) in adipose cells in vitro and in vivo, based on results from acute and longitudinal studies in ERE/luciferase reporter mice. In 3T3-L1 cells (which have no ERs), transiently transfected with the ERE-dependent reporter plus or minus ER{alpha} or ER{beta}, TBT (in a dose range of 1-100 nM) directly targets each ER subtype in a receptor-specific manner through a direct mechanism mediated by ER{alpha} in undifferentiated preadipocytic cells and by ER{beta} in differentiating adipocytes. The ER antagonist ICI-182,780 inhibits this effect. In summary, the results of this work suggest that TBT is adipogenic at all ages and in both sexes and that it might be an ER activator in fat cells. These findings might help to resolve the apparent paradox of an adipogenic chemical being also an estrogen receptor activator by showing that the two apparently opposite actions are separated by the different doses to which the organism is exposed. - Research Highlights: > The environmental organotin tributyltin chloride shows dose-dependent estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice. > The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and the dose of the compound. > The estrogenic and adipogenic effects of TBT occur at doses closed to the estimated human intake. > TBT activates the estrogen receptors (ER{alpha} and ER{beta}) in 3T3-L1 cells at nM concentrations.

  17. Lenvatinib, an angiogenesis inhibitor targeting VEGFR/FGFR, shows broad antitumor activity in human tumor xenograft models associated with microvessel density and pericyte coverage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lenvatinib is an oral inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR1-3), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR1-4), platelet growth factor receptor ? (PDGFR ?), RET and KIT. Antiangiogenesis activity of lenvatinib in VEGF- and FGF-driven angiogenesis models in both in vitro and in vivo was determined. Roles of tumor vasculature (microvessel density (MVD) and pericyte coverage) as biomarkers for lenvatinib were also examined in this study. Method We evaluated antiangiogenesis activity of lenvatinib against VEGF- and FGF-driven proliferation and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. Effects of lenvatinib on in vivo angiogenesis, which was enhanced by overexpressed VEGF or FGF in human pancreatic cancer KP-1 cells, were examined in the mouse dorsal air sac assay. We determined antitumor activity of lenvatinib in a broad panel of human tumor xenograft models to test if vascular score, which consisted of high MVD and low pericyte coverage, was associated with sensitivity to lenvatinib treatment. Vascular score was also analyzed using human tumor specimens with 18 different types of human primary tumors. Result Lenvatinib inhibited VEGF- and FGF-driven proliferation and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. In vivo angiogenesis induced by overexpressed VEGF (KP-1/VEGF transfectants) or FGF (KP-1/FGF transfectants) was significantly suppressed with oral treatments of lenvatinib. Lenvatinib showed significant antitumor activity in KP-1/VEGF and five 5 of 7 different types of human tumor xenograft models at between 1 to 100?mg/kg. We divided 19 human tumor xenograft models into lenvatinib-sensitive (tumor-shrinkage) and relatively resistant (slow-growth) subgroups based on sensitivity to lenvatinib treatments at 100?mg/kg. IHC analysis showed that vascular score was significantly higher in sensitive subgroup than relatively resistant subgroup (p?showed a broad spectrum of antitumor activity with a wide therapeutic window. MVD and pericyte-coverage of tumor vasculature might be biomarkers and suggest cases that would respond for lenvatinib therapy. PMID:25197551

  18. Antiviral Lectins from Red and Blue-Green Algae Show Potent In Vitro and In Vivo Activity against Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Takebe, Yutaka; Saucedo, Carrie J.; Lund, Garry; Uenishi, Rie; Hase, Saiki; Tsuchiura, Takayo; Kneteman, Norman; Ramessar, Koreen; Tyrrell, D. Lorne J.; Shirakura, Masayuki; Wakita, Takaji; McMahon, James B.; O'Keefe, Barry R.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant public health problem with over 170,000,000 chronic carriers and infection rates increasing worldwide. Chronic HCV infection is one of the leading causes of hepatocellular carcinoma which was estimated to result in ?10,000 deaths in the United States in the year 2011. Current treatment options for HCV infection are limited to PEG-ylated interferon alpha (IFN-?), the nucleoside ribavirin and the recently approved HCV protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir. Although showing significantly improved efficacy over the previous therapies, treatment with protease inhibitors has been shown to result in the rapid emergence of drug-resistant virus. Here we report the activity of two proteins, originally isolated from natural product extracts, which demonstrate low or sub-nanomolar in vitro activity against both genotype I and genotype II HCV. These proteins inhibit viral infectivity, binding to the HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 and block viral entry into human hepatocytes. In addition, we demonstrate that the most potent of these agents, the protein griffithsin, is readily bioavailable after subcutaneous injection and shows significant in vivo efficacy in reducing HCV viral titers in a mouse model system with engrafted human hepatocytes. These results indicate that HCV viral entry inhibitors can be an effective component of anti-HCV therapy and that these proteins should be studied further for their therapeutic potential. PMID:23700478

  19. Antiviral lectins from red and blue-green algae show potent in vitro and in vivo activity against hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Takebe, Yutaka; Saucedo, Carrie J; Lund, Garry; Uenishi, Rie; Hase, Saiki; Tsuchiura, Takayo; Kneteman, Norman; Ramessar, Koreen; Tyrrell, D Lorne J; Shirakura, Masayuki; Wakita, Takaji; McMahon, James B; O'Keefe, Barry R

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant public health problem with over 170,000,000 chronic carriers and infection rates increasing worldwide. Chronic HCV infection is one of the leading causes of hepatocellular carcinoma which was estimated to result in ?10,000 deaths in the United States in the year 2011. Current treatment options for HCV infection are limited to PEG-ylated interferon alpha (IFN-?), the nucleoside ribavirin and the recently approved HCV protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir. Although showing significantly improved efficacy over the previous therapies, treatment with protease inhibitors has been shown to result in the rapid emergence of drug-resistant virus. Here we report the activity of two proteins, originally isolated from natural product extracts, which demonstrate low or sub-nanomolar in vitro activity against both genotype I and genotype II HCV. These proteins inhibit viral infectivity, binding to the HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 and block viral entry into human hepatocytes. In addition, we demonstrate that the most potent of these agents, the protein griffithsin, is readily bioavailable after subcutaneous injection and shows significant in vivo efficacy in reducing HCV viral titers in a mouse model system with engrafted human hepatocytes. These results indicate that HCV viral entry inhibitors can be an effective component of anti-HCV therapy and that these proteins should be studied further for their therapeutic potential. PMID:23700478

  20. Two recombinant peptides, SpStrongylocins 1 and 2, from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, show antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Blencke, Hans-Matti; Smith, L Courtney; Karp, Matti T; Stensvĺg, Klara

    2010-03-01

    The cysteine-rich strongylocins were the first antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) discovered from the sea urchin species, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Homologous putative proteins (called SpStrongylocin) were found in the sister species, S. purpuratus. To demonstrate that they exhibit the same antibacterial activity as strongylocins, cDNAs encoding the 'mature' peptides (SpStrongylocins 1 and 2) were cloned into a direct expression system fusing a protease cleavage site and two purification tags to the recombinant peptide. Both recombinant fusion peptides were expressed in a soluble form in an Escherichia coli strain tolerant to toxic proteins. Enterokinase was used to remove the fusion tags and purified recombinant SpStrongylocins 1 and 2 showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The results of membrane integrity assays against cytoplasmic membranes of E. coli suggest that both recombinant SpStrongylocins 1 and 2 conduct their antibacterial activity by intracellular killing mechanisms because no increase in membrane permeability was detected. PMID:19852980

  1. Polysaccharides from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps taii Show Antioxidant and Immunoenhancing Activities in a D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jian-Hui; Xiao, Dai-Min; Chen, Dai-Xiong; Xiao, Yu; Liang, Zong-Qi; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Cordyceps taii, an edible medicinal mushroom native to south China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. In the present study, the antioxidant pharmacological properties of C. taii were systematically investigated. In vitro assays revealed the scavenging activities of the aqueous extract and polysaccharides of C. taii against various free radicals, that is, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical. The EC50 values for superoxide anion-free radical ranged from 2.04?mg/mL to 2.49?mg/mL, which was at least 2.6-fold stronger than that of antioxidant thiourea. The polysaccharides also significantly enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and markedly decreased the malondialdehyde production of lipid peroxidation in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Interestingly, the immune function of the administration group was significantly boosted compared with the D-galactose-induced aging model group. Therefore, the C. taii polysaccharides possessed potent antioxidant activity closely associated with immune function enhancement and free radical scavenging. These findings suggest that the polysaccharides are a promising source of natural antioxidants and antiaging drugs. Consequently, a preliminary chemical investigation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and revealed that the polysaccharides studied were mainly composed of glucose, mannose, and galactose. Fourier-transform infrared spectra also showed characteristic polysaccharide absorption bands. PMID:22536281

  2. Endosperm-specific activity of a storage protein gene promoter in transgenic wheat seed.

    PubMed

    Lamacchia, C; Shewry, P R; Di Fonzo, N; Forsyth, J L; Harris, N; Lazzeri, P A; Napier, J A; Halford, N G; Barcelo, P

    2001-02-01

    The characterization of the promoter of a wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Cheyenne high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW subunit) gene, Glu-1D-1 is reported. The nucleotide sequence of the promoter from position -1191 to -650 with respect to the transcription start site was determined, to add to that already determined. Analysis of this region of the promoter revealed the presence of an additional copy of part of the primary enhancer sequence and sequences related to regulatory elements present in other wheat seed protein genes. A chimaeric gene was constructed comprising the 5' flanking region of the Glu-1D-1 gene from position -1191 to +58, the coding region of the UID:A (Gus) gene, and the nopaline synthase (Nos) gene terminator. This chimaeric gene was introduced into wheat (Triticum durum cv. Ofanto) by particle bombardment of inflorescence explants. Two independent transgenic lines were produced, and both showed expression of the Gus gene specifically in the endosperm during mid-development (first detected 10-12 d after anthesis). Histochemical analysis of homozygous T(2) seed confirmed this pattern of expression, and showed that expression was initiated first in the central lobes of the starchy endosperm, and then spread throughout the endosperm tissue, while no expression was detected in the aleurone layer. Native HMW subunit protein was detectable by Western analysis 12-14 d after anthesis, consistent with concurrent onset of activity of the native and introduced HMW subunit gene promoters. PMID:11283168

  3. A new peptide (Ruviprase) purified from the venom of Daboia russelii russelii shows potent anticoagulant activity via non-enzymatic inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Rupamoni; Kumar, Ashok; Bose, Biplab; Panda, Dulal; Saikia, Debashree; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2014-10-01

    Compounds showing dual inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa (FXa) are the subject of great interest owing to their broader specificity for effective anticoagulation therapy against cardiovascular disorders. This is the first report on the functional characterization and assessment of therapeutic potential of a 4423.6 Da inhibitory peptide (Ruviprase) purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom. The secondary structure of Ruviprase is composed of ?-helices (61.9%) and random coils (38.1%). The partial N-terminal sequence (E(1)-V(2)-X(3)-W(4)-W(5)-W(6)-A(7)-Q(8)-L(9)-S(10)) of Ruviprase demonstrated significant similarity (80.0%) with an internal sequence of apoptosis-stimulating protein reported from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah and Python bivittatus; albeit Ruviprase did not show sequence similarity with existing thrombin/FXa inhibitors, suggesting its uniqueness. Ruviprase demonstrated a potent in vitro anticoagulant property and inhibited both thrombin and FXa following slow binding kinetics. Ruviprase inhibited thrombin by binding to its active site via an uncompetitive mechanism with a Ki value and dissociation constant (KD) of 0.42 ?M and 0.46 ?M, respectively. Conversely, Ruviprase demonstrated mixed inhibition (Ki = 0.16 ?M) of FXa towards its physiological substrate prothrombin. Furthermore, the biological properties of Ruviprase could not be neutralized by commercial polyvalent or monovalent antivenom. Ruviprase at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg was non-toxic and showed potent in vivo anticoagulant activity after 6 h of intraperitoneal treatment in mice. Because of the potent anticoagulant property as well as non-toxic nature of Ruviprase, the possible application of the peptide as an antithrombotic agent for combating thrombosis-associated ailments appears promising. PMID:25038567

  4. Murine bone marrow chimeras developing autoimmunity after CTLA-4-blockade show an expansion of T regulatory cells with an activated cytokine profile.

    PubMed

    De Somer, Lien; Fevery, Sabine; Bullens, Dominique M A; Rutgeerts, Omer; Lenaerts, Caroline; Mathieu, Chantal; Boon, Louis; Kasran, Ahmad; Waer, Mark; Billiau, An D

    2010-09-01

    Autoimmune adverse events are a concern in patients treated with blocking anti-CTLA-4-mAb for solid and hematological tumors. Patient and mouse data on the contribution of a quantitative or qualitative defect of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) in this autoimmune phenomenon are conflicting. We have previously shown that a treatment course with blocking anti-CTLA-4-mAb in murine allogeneic bone marrow chimeras induces an antileukemic response in close association with systemic autoimmunity. Here, we used this model to investigate the effect of CTLA-4-blocking therapy on the kinetics of T(reg) frequency and function. As previously published, CTLA-4-blocking treatment, initiated on day 20 after bone marrow transplantation, led to overt autoimmunity by day 35. CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) frequency was determined (flowcytometry) on day 21, 23, 25 and 35: treated chimeras showed an expansion of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) frequencies on day 25 and 35, without a prior frequency decrease. The T(reg) expansion occurred selectively in the recipient-derived CD4+ T-cell compartment. In vitro, purified CD4(+)CD25(+)FR4(high) T(reg) from 'day 35' autoimmune and control chimeras showed equal suppressive effects towards self-antigen-specific autoimmune T cells. Purified CD4(+)CD25(high)FR4(high) T(reg) from 'day 35' treated chimeras showed increased IL-10 and IFN-gamma mRNA-expression (RT-PCR) relative to control chimeras. In this model of CTLA-4-blockade-induced autoimmunity after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, anti-CTLA-4-mAb gives rise to a progressive expansion - without a prior transient reduction - of T(reg) cells. T(reg) of autoimmune animals do not show a defect in in vitro suppressive function but show an in vivo activated cytokine profile, suggesting that the expansion occurs as a compensatory phenomenon to control autoimmunity. PMID:20600326

  5. Dual Fatty Acid Synthase and HER2 Signaling Blockade Shows Marked Antitumor Activity against Breast Cancer Models Resistant to Anti-HER2 Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Blancafort, Adriana; Giró-Perafita, Ariadna; Oliveras, Glňria; Palomeras, Sňnia; Turrado, Carlos; Campuzano, Ňscar; Carrión-Salip, Dolors; Massaguer, Anna; Brugada, Ramon; Palafox, Marta; Gómez-Miragaya, Jorge; González-Suárez, Eva; Puig, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Blocking the enzyme Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) leads to apoptosis of HER2-positive breast carcinoma cells. The hypothesis is that blocking FASN, in combination with anti-HER2 signaling agents, would be an effective antitumor strategy in preclinical HER2+ breast cancer models of trastuzumab and lapatinib resistance. We developed and molecularly characterized in vitro HER2+ models of resistance to trastuzumab (SKTR), lapatinib (SKLR) and both (SKLTR). The cellular interactions of combining anti-FASN polyphenolic compounds (EGCG and the synthetic G28UCM) with anti-HER2 signaling drugs (trastuzumab plus pertuzumab and temsirolimus) were analyzed. Tumor growth inhibition after treatment with EGCG, pertuzumab, temsirolimus or the combination was evaluated in two in vivo orthoxenopatients: one derived from a HER2+ patient and another from a patient who relapsed on trastuzumab and lapatinib-based therapy. SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR showed hyperactivation of EGFR and p-ERK1/2 and PI3KCA mutations. Dual-resistant cells (SKLTR) also showed hyperactivation of HER4 and recovered levels of p-AKT compared with mono-resistant cells. mTOR, p-mTOR and FASN expression remained stable in SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR. In vitro, anti-FASN compounds plus pertuzumab showed synergistic interactions in lapatinib- and dual- resistant cells and improved the results of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab co-treatment. FASN inhibitors combined with temsirolimus displayed the strongest synergistic interactions in resistant cells. In vivo, both orthoxenopatients showed strong response to the antitumor activity of the combination of EGCG with pertuzumab or temsirolimus, without signs of toxicity. We showed that the simultaneous blockade of FASN and HER2 pathways is effective in cells and in breast cancer models refractory to anti-HER2 therapies. PMID:26107737

  6. Structural analysis of the alcohol acyltransferase protein family from Cucumis melo shows that enzyme activity depends on an essential solvent channel.

    PubMed

    Galaz, Sebastián; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Herrera, Raúl

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol acyltransferases (AAT) play a key role in ester biosynthesis. In Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis, AATs are encoded by a gene family of four members (CmAAT1-4). CmAAT1, CmAAT3 and CmAAT4 are capable of synthesizing esters, with CmAAT1 the most active. CmAAT2 is inactive and has an Ala268 residue instead of a threonine which is present in all other active AATs, although the role of this residue is still unclear. The present work aims to understand the molecular mechanism involved in ester biosynthesis in melon fruit and to clarify the importance of the Ala268 residue. First, structural models for each protein were built by comparative modelling methodology. Afterwards, conformational interaction between the protein and several ligands, alcohols and acyl-CoAs was explored by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Structural analysis showed that CmAATs share a similar structure. Also, well-defined solvent channels were described in the CmAATs except for CmAAT2 which does not have a proper channel and instead has a small pocket around Ala268. Residues of the catalytic HxxxD motif interact with substrates within the solvent channel, with Ser363 also important. Strong binding interaction energies were described for the best substrate couple of each CmAAT (hexyl-, benzyl- and cinnamyl-acetate for CmAAT1, 3 and 4 respectively). CmAAT1 and CmAAT2 protein surfaces share similar electrostatic potentials; nevertheless the entrance channels for the substrates differ in location and electrostatic character, suggesting that Ala268 might be responsible for that. This could partly explain the major differences in activity reported for these two enzymes. PMID:23311868

  7. Tentacles of in vitro-grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) show induction of chitinase activity upon mimicking the presence of prey.

    PubMed

    Matusíková, Ildikó; Salaj, Ján; Moravcíková, Jana; Mlynárová, Ludmila; Nap, Jan-Peter; Libantová, Jana

    2005-12-01

    Induction of plant-derived chitinases in the leaves of a carnivorous plant was demonstrated using aseptically grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.). The presence of insect prey was mimicked by placing the chemical inducers gelatine, salicylic acid and crustacean chitin on leaves. In addition, mechanical stirring of tentacles was performed. Chitinase activity was markedly increased in leaf exudates upon application of notably chitin. Application of gelatine increased the proteolytic activity of leaf exudates, indicating that the reaction of sundew leaves depends on the molecular nature of the inducer applied. In situ hybridization of sundew leaves with a Drosera chitinase probe showed chitinase gene expression in different cell types of non-treated leaves, but not in the secretory cells of the glandular heads. Upon induction, chitinase mRNA was also present in the secretory cells of the sundew leaf. The combined results indicate that chitinase is likely to be involved in the decomposition of insect prey by carnivorous plants. This adds a novel role to the already broad function of chitinases in the plant kingdom and may contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the ecological success of carnivorous plants in nutritionally poor environments. PMID:16049675

  8. Taurine-induced long-lasting potentiation in the rat hippocampus shows a partial dissociation from total hippocampal taurine content and independence from activation of known taurine transporters.

    PubMed

    Dominy, John; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S; Peris, Joanna; Dawson, Ralph; Papke, Roger L

    2004-06-01

    Perfusion with high millimolar levels of taurine evoked a long-lasting potentiation (LLP-TAU) of synaptic transmission in the Schaffer-collateral CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. Although LLP-TAU showed some correlations to increases in the total taurine content of hippocampal slices, it could not be blocked by the taurine transport inhibitor guanidinoethanesulfonic acid (GES), which was able to significantly reduce total slice taurine uptake. Inhibition of GABA transport by either nipecotic acid or beta-guanidinopropionate failed to abolish LLP-TAU and had no significant effect on taurine uptake. The combination of GES and nipecotic acid also had no significant effect on LLP-TAU. Experiments with transportable structural analogs of taurine (beta-aminoisobutyric acid, homotaurine, and isethionic acid) suggest that activation of classical taurine transport pathways does not always yield a robust LLP-TAU. Hippocampal LLP-TAU could be significantly attenuated, however, by pre-incubation with submillimolar levels of taurine. In summary, the development of LLP-TAU in the rat hippocampus appears to be associated with the intracellular accumulation rather than the activation of known transporters of taurine, but the precise means of its accumulation remains to be identified. PMID:15147512

  9. 1. Show the synthesis of prontosil. Show the starting

    E-print Network

    Gates, Kent. S.

    how the three analogs shown below can be prepared. Draw an arrow-pushing mechanism for each step is not active in an in vitro assay, but shows good activity in animal models and human patients. Explain: what

  10. New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity: crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N.; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles.

  11. Th2-like CD8+ T cells showing B cell helper function and reduced cytolytic activity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed at clonal level the functional profile of circulating or skin-infiltrating T lymphocytes from two individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), suffering from a Job's- like syndrome (eczematous dermatitis, recurrent skin and sinopulmonary infections, and hypergammaglobulinemia E) and showing virtually no circulating CD4+ T cells. Most of the CD3+ T cell clones generated from both patients were CD4- CD8+ TCR alpha beta +. The others were CD4- CD8- TCR alpha beta + which exhibited reduced mRNA expression for the CD8 molecule or no mRNA expression for either CD4 or CD8 molecules. The great majority of both CD4- CD8+ and CD4- CD8- did not produce interferon (IFN) gamma and exhibited reduced cytolytic activity. Rather, most of them produced large amounts of both interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-5 and provided B cell helper function for IgE synthesis. These data suggest that a switch of cytolytic CD8+ T cells showing a Th1-like cytokine secretion profile to cells that make Th2-type cytokines, exhibit reduced cytolytic potential, and provide B cell helper function can occur in the course of HIV-1 infection. These cells may contribute to the reduced defense against viral infections and intracellular parasites and account for the elevated IgE serum levels, eosinophilia, and the allergic-like clinical manifestations seen in a proportion of HIV-1-infected individuals. PMID:8046328

  12. A socio-ecological approach promoting physical activity and limiting sedentary behavior in adolescence showed weight benefits maintained 2.5 years after intervention cessation

    PubMed Central

    Simon, C; Kellou, N; Dugas, J; Platat, C; Copin, N; Schweitzer, B; Hausser, F; Bergouignan, A; Lefai, E; Blanc, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity in youth remains a major public health issue. Yet no effective long-term preventive strategy exists. We previously showed that a school-based socio-ecological approach targeting behavior and social/environmental influences on physical activity (PA) prevented 4-year excessive weight gain in 12-year olds. In this study, we investigated if this efficacy persists 30 months after intervention cessation. Methods and Findings: The program targeted students, family, school and the living environment to promote/support PA and prevent sedentary behavior (SB). A total of 732 students from eight randomized middle schools completed the 4-year trial. At the 30-month post-trial follow-up, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), leisure PA (LPA), home/school/workplace active commuting, TV/video time (TVT), and attitudes toward PA were measured in 531 adolescents. The beneficial effects of the intervention on the excess BMI increase (+0.01 vs +0.34?kg?m?2 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) and on the overweight incidence in initially non-overweight students (4.3% vs 8.6% odds ratio=0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.23–1.01)) were maintained at the post-trial follow-up. LPA was not maintained at the level achieved during the trial. However, we still observed a prevention of the age-related decrease of the adolescents' percentage reporting regular LPA (?14.4% vs ?26.5%) and a higher intention to exercise in the intervention group. The intervention promoted lower TVT (?14.0 vs +13.6?min per day) and higher active commuting changes (+11.7% vs ?4.8%). Trends in higher BMI reduction in students with high initial TVT and in the least wealthy group were noted. TVT changes throughout the follow-up predicted excess BMI and FMI changes. Conclusions: Long-term multilevel approach targeting PA and SB prevents excessive weight gain up to 30 months after intervention cessation. The efficacy may be higher in the most sedentary and least wealthy adolescents. Healthy PA-related behavior inducing long-lasting weight effects can be promoted in youth providing that an ecological approach is introduced in the prevention strategy. PMID:24509504

  13. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  14. [A case of neuro-Sweet disease showing the close association between disease activity and levels of soluble IL-2 receptor].

    PubMed

    Nukui, Takamasa; Takashima, Shutaro; Taguchi, Yoshiharu; Dougu, Nobuhiro; Konishi, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Kortaro

    2014-01-01

    A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital presenting with fever, redness and pain in both the periocular regions, and disturbance of consciousness. He had neck stiffness, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis suggested aseptic meningoencephalitis. Laboratory tests showed increased levels of C-reactive protein, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and MPO-ANCA. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperplastic bone marrow in the clivus and cervical vertebra. Although T-cell receptor gene rearrangement was detected in the bone marrow blood, bone marrow biopsy of the ilium showed no malignant findings. Then he experienced bilateral auricular inflammation and painful erythema of the ankle. A leg skin biopsy demonstrated neutrophilic infiltration into the dermis with no signs of vasculitis. His HLA-type was defined as Cw1. He was subsequently diagnosed with neuro-Sweet disease. Intravenous administration of methylprednisolone (1,000 mg/day) for 5 days and subsequent oral intake of prednisolone (60 mg/day) improved his symptoms. When the prednisolone dose was reduced to 30 mg/day, his symptoms returned and a new lesion was detected in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Upon additional treatment with cyclosporine, the prednisolone dose could be reduced without symptom relapse; sIL-2R and MPO-ANCA levels also decreased to normal. The present case suggested that the activity of neuro-Sweet disease may be associated with myeloid hyperplasia, T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and the amounts of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and MPO-ANCA. PMID:25420560

  15. Combination of novel HER2-targeting antibody 1E11 with trastuzumab shows synergistic antitumor activity in HER2-positive gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ko, Bong-Kook; Lee, Sook-Yeon; Lee, Young-Ha; Hwang, In-Sik; Persson, Helena; Rockberg, Johan; Borrebaeck, Carl; Park, Dongeun; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Uhlen, Mathias; Lee, Jong-Seo

    2015-02-01

    The synergistic interaction of two antibodies targeting the same protein could be developed as an effective anti-cancer therapy. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20-25% of breast and gastric cancer patients, and HER2-targeted antibody therapy using trastuzumab is effective in many of these patients. Nonetheless, improving therapeutic efficacy and patient survival is important, particularly in patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer. Here, we describe the development of 1E11, a HER2-targeted humanized monoclonal antibody showing increased efficacy in a highly synergistic manner in combination with trastuzumab in the HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer cell lines NCI-N87 and OE-19. The two antibodies bind to sub-domain IV of the receptor, but have non-overlapping epitopes, allowing them to simultaneously bind HER2. Treatment with 1E11 alone induced apoptosis in HER2-positive cancer cells, and this effect was enhanced by combination treatment with trastuzumab. Combination treatment with 1E11 and trastuzumab reduced the levels of total HER2 protein and those of aberrant HER2 signaling molecules including phosphorylated HER3 and EGFR. The synergistic antitumor activity of 1E11 in combination with trastuzumab indicates that it could be a novel potent therapeutic antibody for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing gastric cancers. PMID:25306393

  16. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Nováková, Slavomíra; Flores-Ramírez, Gabriela; Glasa, Miroslav; Danchenko, Maksym; Fiala, Roderik; Skultety, Ludovit

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance toward infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant) were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins) developed 6–7 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis. PMID:25972878

  17. Armillariella mellea shows anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the expression of NO, iNOS, COX-2 and cytokines in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Jing; Tsai, Jenn-Yi; Lai, Min-Nan; Ng, Lean-Teik

    2007-01-01

    Armillariella mellea (AM), also known as Mi-Huan-Ku, a popular medicinal fungus used in the traditional Chinese medicine for treating headache, neurasthenia and insomnia. In the present study, our aim was to determine the effects of aqueous (AAM) and ethanol (EAM) extracts of A. mellea on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response by measuring the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2) protein expression, cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IL-8) formation, nitric oxide (NO) release and prostaglandin (PGE(2)) production in human monocytic (THP-1) cells. At concentration of 100 microg/ml, EAM, but not AAM, effectively protected against LPS-induced cell death in THP-1 cells. At concentrations of 10 approximately 100 microg/ml, EAM showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity as demonstrated by a dose-dependent inhibition of LPS (1 microg/ml)-induced release of NO and PGE(2), and significantly decreased the transcription of proinflammatory cytokines. EAM at 100 mug/ml significantly blocked the LPS induction of iNOS and COX-2 expression, but not COX-1. Therefore, the protective effect of EAM against LPS-induced inflammatory mediators release could explain, at least in part, its effectiveness in alleviating certain inflammatory related diseases. PMID:17597509

  18. A 'Propagating' Active Across-Arc Normal Fault Shows Rupture Process of the Basement: the Case of the Southwestern Ryukyu Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Shinjo, R.; Nakamura, M.; Kubo, A.; Doi, A.; Tamanaha, S.

    2011-12-01

    Ryukyu Arc is located on the southwestern extension of Japanese Island-arc towards the east of Taiwan Island along the margin of the Asian continent off China. The island-arc forms an arcuate trench-arc-backarc system. A NW-ward subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP)at a rate of 6-8 cm/y relative to the Eurasian Plate (EP) causes frequent earthquakes. The PSP is subducting almost normally in the north-central area and more obliquely around the southwestern area. Behind the arc-trench system, the Okinawa Trough (OT) was formed by back-arc rifting, where active hydrothermal vent systems have been discovered. Several across-arc submarine faults are located in the central and southern Ryukyu Arc. The East Ishigaki Fault (EIF) is one of the across-arc normal faults located in the southwestern Ryukyu Arc, ranging by 44km and extending from SE to NW. This fault was surveyed by SEABAT8160 multibeam echo sounder and by ROV Hyper-Dolphin in 2005 and 2008. The result shows that the main fault consists of five fault segments. A branched segment from the main fault was also observed. The southernmost segment is most mature (oldest but still active) and the northernmost one is most nascent. This suggests the north-westward propagation of the fault rupture corresponding to the rifting of the southwestern OT and the southward retreat of the arc-trench system. Considering that the fault is segmented and in some part branched, propagation might take place episodically rather than continuously from SE to NW. The ROV survey also revealed the rupture process of the limestone basement along this fault from the nascent stage to the mature stage. Most of the rock samples collected from the basement outcrop were limestone blocks (or calcareous sedimentary rocks). Limestone basement was observed to the west on the hanging wall far away from the main fault scarp. Then fine-grained sand with ripple marks was observed towards the main scarp. Limestone basement was observed on the main scarp and on the footwall. These suggest that basically the both sides are composed of the same material, that the whole study area is characterised by Ryukyu limestone exposure and that the basement was split by the across-arc normal fault. Coarse-grained sand and gravels/rubbles were observed towards and on the trough of the fault. On the main scarp an outcrop of limestone basement was exposed and in some part it was broken into rubbles. These facts suggest that crash of the basement due to rupturing is taking place repeatedly on the scarp and the trough. The observed fine-grained sand on the hanging wall might be the final product by the process of the crash of the limestone basement.

  19. 55P0110, a Novel Synthetic Compound Developed from a Plant Derived Backbone Structure, Shows Promising Anti-Hyperglycaemic Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brunmair, Barbara; Lehner, Zsuzsanna; Stadlbauer, Karin; Adorjan, Immanuel; Frobel, Klaus; Scherer, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Bauer, Leonhardt; Fürnsinn, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Starting off with a structure derived from the natural compound multiflorine, a derivatisation program aimed at the discovery and initial characterisation of novel compounds with antidiabetic potential. Design and discovery of the structures was guided by oral bioactivities obtained in oral glucose tolerance tests in mice. 55P0110, one among several new compounds with distinct anti-hyperglycaemic activity, was further examined to characterise its pharmacology and mode of action. Whereas a single oral dose of 55P0110 did not affect basal glycaemia, it markedly improved the glucose tolerance of healthy and diabetic mice (peak blood glucose in glucose tolerance test, mmol/l: healthy mice with 90 mg/kg 55P0110, 17.0±1.2 vs. 10.1±1.1; diabetic mice with 180 mg/kg 55P0110, 23.1±0.9 vs. 11.1±1.4; p<0.001 each). Closer examination argued against retarded glucose resorption from the gut, increased glucose excretion in urine, acute insulin-like or insulin sensitising properties, and direct inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 as the cause of glucose lowering. Hence, 55P0110 seems to act via a target not exploited by any drug presently approved for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Whereas the insulinotropic sulfonylurea gliclazide (16 mg/kg) distinctly increased the circulating insulin-per-glucose ratio under basal conditions, 55P0110 (90 mg/kg) lacked such an effect (30 min. after dosing, nmol/mol: vehicle, 2.49±0.27; 55P0110, 2.99±0.35; gliclazide, 8.97±0.49; p<0.001 each vs. gliclazide). Under an exogenous glucose challenge, however, 55P0110 increased this ratio to the same extent as gliclazide (20 min. after glucose feeding: vehicle, 2.53±0.41; 55P0110, 3.80±0.46; gliclazide, 3.99±0.26; p<0.05 each vs. vehicle). By augmenting the glucose stimulated increase in plasma insulin, 55P0110 thus shows distinct anti-hyperglycaemic action in combination with low risk for fasting hypoglycaemia in mice. In summary, we have discovered a novel class of fully synthetic substituted quinazolidines with an attractive pharmacological profile that recommends the structures for further evaluation as candidates for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25973898

  20. Single-agent CEP701, a novel FLT3 inhibitor, shows biologic and clinical activity in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Douglas Smith; Mark Levis; Miloslav Beran; Francis Giles; Hagop Kantarjian; Karin Berg; Kathleen M. Murphy; Tianna Dauses; Jeffrey Allebach; Donald Small

    2004-01-01

    Activating mutations of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) are present in approxi- mately 30% of patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associ- ated with lower cure rates from standard chemotherapy-based treatment. Target- ing the mutation by inhibiting the tyrosine kinase activity of FLT3 is cytotoxic to cell lines and primary AML cells harboring FLT3 mutations. Successful

  1. Turkish freshwater and marine macrophyte extracts show in vitro antiprotozoal activity and inhibit FabI, a key enzyme of Plasmodium falciparum fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Orhan, I; Sener, B; Atici, T; Brun, R; Perozzo, R; Tasdemir, D

    2006-06-01

    The ethanolic extracts of a number of Turkish freshwater macrophytes (Potamogeton perfoliatus, Ranunculus tricophyllus and Cladophora glomerata) and marine macroalgae (Dictyota dichotoma, Halopteris scoparia, Posidonia oceanica, Scinaia furcellata, Sargassum natans and Ulva lactuca) were assayed for their in vitro antiprotozoal activity. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum were used as test organisms. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also assessed against primary rat skeletal myoblasts (L6 cells). Whereas none of the extracts were active against T. cruzi, all crude extracts displayed appreciable trypanocidal activity against T. brucei rhodesiense, with S. natans being the most active one (IC(50) 7.4microg/ml). Except for the marine alga H. scoparia, all extracts also possessed leishmanicidal potential. The best antileishmanial activity was exerted by U. lactuca and P. oceanica (IC(50)'s 5.9 and 8.0microg/ml, respectively). Five extracts that demonstrated inhibitory activity towards P. falciparum (IC(50)'s 18.1-48.8microg/ml) were simultaneously assayed against FabI, a crucial enzyme of the fatty acid system of P. falciparum, to find out whether FabI was their target. The extracts of C. glomerata and U. lactuca efficiently inhibited the FabI enzyme with IC(50) values of 1.0 and 4.0microg/ml, respectively. None of the extracts were cytotoxic towards mammalian L6 cells. This work reports for the first time antiprotozoal activity of some Turkish marine and freshwater algae, as well as a target-based antiplasmodial screening for the identification of P. falciparum FabI inhibitors from aquatic and marine macrophytes. PMID:16697632

  2. Glycinergic inhibition to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body shows prominent facilitation and can sustain high levels of ongoing activity.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Florian; Albrecht, Otto; Dondzillo, Anna; Klug, Achim

    2014-12-01

    Neurons in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) are well known for their prominent excitatory inputs, mediated by the calyx of Held. Less attention has been paid to the prominent inhibitory inputs that MNTB neurons also receive. Because of their auditory nature, both excitatory and inhibitory synapses are highly active in vivo. These high levels of activity are known to reduce excitatory synaptic currents considerably, such that in vivo synaptic currents produced by the calyx are smaller than typically measured in standard brain slice experiments. The goal of this study was to investigate the properties of the inhibitory inputs in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) under activity levels that correspond to those in the intact brain to facilitate a direct comparison between the two inputs. Our results suggest that inhibitory inputs to MNTB are largely mediated by a fast and phasic glycinergic component, and to a lesser degree by a GABAergic component. The glycinergic component can sustain prolonged high levels of activity. Even when challenged with stimulus patterns consisting of thousands of stimuli over tens of minutes, glycinergic inputs to MNTB maintain large conductances and fast decays and even facilitate substantially when the stimulation frequency is increased. The inhibition is mediated by a relatively small number of independent input fibers. The data presented here suggest that inhibitory inputs to MNTB sustain high levels of activity and need to be considered for a full understanding of mechanisms underlying processing of auditory information in MNTB. PMID:25185813

  3. Supplementation with Sodium Selenite and Selenium-Enriched Microalgae Biomass Show Varying Effects on Blood Enzymes Activities, Antioxidant Response, and Accumulation in Common Barbel (Barbus barbus)

    PubMed Central

    Kouba, Antonín; Velíšek, Josef; Stará, Alžb?ta; Masojídek, Ji?í; Kozák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Yearling common barbel (Barbus barbus L.) were fed four purified casein-based diets for 6 weeks in outdoor cages. Besides control diet, these were supplemented with 0.3?mg?kg?1 dw selenium (Se) from sodium selenite, or 0.3 and 1.0?mg?kg?1 from Se-enriched microalgae biomass (Chlorella), a previously untested Se source for fish. Fish mortality, growth, Se accumulation in muscle and liver, and activity of selected enzymes in blood plasma, muscle, liver, and intestine were evaluated. There was no mortality, and no differences in fish growth, among groups. Se concentrations in muscle and liver, activity of alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase in blood plasma, glutathione reductase (GR) in muscle, and GR and catalase in muscle and liver suggested that selenium from Se-enriched Chlorella is more readily accumulated and biologically active while being less toxic than sodium selenite. PMID:24772422

  4. Supplementation with sodium selenite and selenium-enriched microalgae biomass show varying effects on blood enzymes activities, antioxidant response, and accumulation in common barbel (Barbus barbus).

    PubMed

    Kouba, Antonín; Velíšek, Josef; Stará, Alžb?ta; Masojídek, Ji?í; Kozák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Yearling common barbel (Barbus barbus L.) were fed four purified casein-based diets for 6 weeks in outdoor cages. Besides control diet, these were supplemented with 0.3 mg kg(-1) dw selenium (Se) from sodium selenite, or 0.3 and 1.0 mg kg(-1) from Se-enriched microalgae biomass (Chlorella), a previously untested Se source for fish. Fish mortality, growth, Se accumulation in muscle and liver, and activity of selected enzymes in blood plasma, muscle, liver, and intestine were evaluated. There was no mortality, and no differences in fish growth, among groups. Se concentrations in muscle and liver, activity of alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase in blood plasma, glutathione reductase (GR) in muscle, and GR and catalase in muscle and liver suggested that selenium from Se-enriched Chlorella is more readily accumulated and biologically active while being less toxic than sodium selenite. PMID:24772422

  5. Quantitative genome-wide enhancer activity maps for five Drosophila species show functional enhancer conservation and turnover during cis-regulatory evolution.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Cosmas D; Gerlach, Daniel; Spies, Daniel; Matts, Jessica A; Sytnikova, Yuliya A; Pagani, Michaela; Lau, Nelson C; Stark, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic differences between closely related species are thought to arise primarily from changes in gene expression due to mutations in cis-regulatory sequences (enhancers). However, it has remained unclear how frequently mutations alter enhancer activity or create functional enhancers de novo. Here we use STARR-seq, a recently developed quantitative enhancer assay, to determine genome-wide enhancer activity profiles for five Drosophila species in the constant trans-regulatory environment of Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. We find that the functions of a large fraction of D. melanogaster enhancers are conserved for their orthologous sequences owing to selection and stabilizing turnover of transcription factor motifs. Moreover, hundreds of enhancers have been gained since the D. melanogaster-Drosophila yakuba split about 11 million years ago without apparent adaptive selection and can contribute to changes in gene expression in vivo. Our finding that enhancer activity is often deeply conserved and frequently gained provides functional insights into regulatory evolution. PMID:24908250

  6. Enough is enough! Patients who do not conceive on 600 IU/d of gonadotropins show no improvement from an additional 150 IU of LH activity.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Marcy; Csokmay, John; Segars, James; Payson, Mark; Armstrong, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    Studies have suggested that supplemental LH improves outcomes in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. In this retrospective review, an additional 150 IU of LH activity did not improve ART outcomes in women undergoing a second round of IVF/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) after an initial failed cycle using 600 IU of gonadotropins. PMID:20850732

  7. Tentacles of in vitro-grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) show induction of chitinase activity upon mimicking the presence of prey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Matusikova; J. Salaj; J. Moravcikova; L. Mlynarova; J. P. H. Nap; J. Libantova

    2005-01-01

    Induction of plant-derived chitinases in the leaves of a carnivorous plant was demonstrated using aseptically grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.). The presence of insect prey was mimicked by placing the chemical inducers gelatine, salicylic acid and crustacean chitin on leaves. In addition, mechanical stirring of tentacles was performed. Chitinase activity was markedly increased in leaf exudates upon application of

  8. Nanocomposites of tantalum-based pyrochlore and indium hydroxide showing high and stable photocatalytic activities for overall water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Chun; Wu, Guan-Chang; Liu, Wei-Guang; Goddard, William A; Yang, Chia-Min

    2014-12-15

    Nanocomposites of tantalum-based pyrochlore nanoparticles and indium hydroxide were prepared by a hydrothermal process for UV-driven photocatalytic reactions including overall water splitting, hydrogen production from photoreforming of methanol, and CO2 reduction with water to produce CO. The best catalyst was more than 20?times more active than sodium tantalate in overall water splitting and 3?times more active than Degussa P25 TiO2 in CO2 reduction. Moreover, the catalyst was very stable while generating stoichiometric products of H2 (or CO) and O2 throughout long-term photocatalytic reactions. After the removal of In(OH)3, the pyrochlore nanoparticles remained highly active for H2 production from pure water and aqueous methanol solution. Both experimental studies and density functional theory calculations suggest that the pyrochlore nanoparticles catalyzed the water reduction to produce H2, whereas In(OH)3 was the major active component for water oxidation to produce O2. PMID:25384922

  9. Turkish freshwater and marine macrophyte extracts show in vitro antiprotozoal activity and inhibit FabI, a key enzyme of Plasmodium falciparum fatty acid biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Orhan; B. Sener; T. At?c?; R. Brun; R. Perozzo; D. Tasdemir

    2006-01-01

    The ethanolic extracts of a number of Turkish freshwater macrophytes (Potamogeton perfoliatus, Ranunculus tricophyllus and Cladophora glomerata) and marine macroalgae (Dictyota dichotoma, Halopteris scoparia, Posidonia oceanica, Scinaia furcellata, Sargassum natans and Ulva lactuca) were assayed for their in vitro antiprotozoal activity. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum were used as test organisms. The cytotoxicity of the

  10. Tentacles of in vitro-grown round-leaf sundew ( Drosera rotundifolia L.) show induction of chitinase activity upon mimicking the presence of prey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ildikó Matušíková; Ján Salaj; Jana Morav?íková; Ludmila Mlynárová; Jan-Peter Nap; Jana Libantová

    2005-01-01

    Induction of plant-derived chitinases in the leaves of a carnivorous plant was demonstrated using aseptically grown round-leaf\\u000a sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.). The presence of insect prey was mimicked by placing the chemical inducers gelatine, salicylic acid and crustacean chitin\\u000a on leaves. In addition, mechanical stirring of tentacles was performed. Chitinase activity was markedly increased in leaf\\u000a exudates upon application of

  11. The natural, peptaibolic peptide SPF-5506-A4 adopts a ?-bend spiral structure, shows low hemolytic activity and targets membranes through formation of large pores.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Heidi F; Hansen, Sara K; Vad, Brian S; Nielsen, Erik H; Nielsen, Jakob T; Vosegaard, Thomas; Skrydstrup, Troels; Otzen, Daniel E

    2015-08-01

    The medium-length fungal peptaibol SPF-5506-A4 has been shown to inhibit formation of the A? peptide involved in Alzheimer''s disease. As A? is a cleavage-product from the membrane-bound APP protein, we hypothesized that SPF-5506-A4's activity might be linked to membrane interactions in general. Here we describe the synthesis, structure and membrane interactions of SPF-5506-A4. The challenging synthesis was carried out on solid phase and a detailed conformational analysis in solution revealed a ?-bend ribbon spiral core structure with flexible termini. Investigations of its membrane activity revealed low hemolytic activity, limited inhibition of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative cell growth and a preference for an overall negatively charged membrane surface mimicking the bacterial cell surface. SPF-5506-A4 is the first peptaibol to be shown to facilitate leakage of large (4.6nm diameter) fluorescence-labeled dextran from vesicles while leaving the vesicles intact. We conclude that SPF-5506-A4 follows the toroidal pore model in its mode of action. PMID:25796141

  12. Plasma renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in early stage Alzheimer's disease and show gender differences but are not related to apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed

    Puertas, María Del Carmen; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel; Cobo, Manuela; Lorite, Pedro; Sandalio, Rosa María; Palomeque, Teresa; Torres, María Isabel; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús

    2013-06-01

    Alterations in blood pressure and components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contribute to the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), resulting in changes that can lead or contribute to cognitive decline. Aspartyl aminopeptidase (ASAP), aminopeptidase A (APA), aminopeptidase N (APN) and aminopeptidase B (APB) catabolise circulating angiotensins, whereas insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) has been described as the AT4 receptor. We have found in AD patients a significant decrease of APA activity in men but not in women, and of APN, APB and IRAP in both genders, when compared with control subjects. No changes were found in ASAP activity. Also, APN, APB and IRAP but not APA correlated with the Mini-Mental test, but no relationship with APOE genotype was found. We conclude that several components of the RAS are modified in AD patients, with gender differences. Furthermore, ROC analysis indicates that APN, APB and IRAP activities could be useful non-invasive biomarkers of AD from the earliest stages. PMID:23500679

  13. Missense mutation in immunodeficient patients shows the multifunctional roles of coiled-coil domain 3 (CC3) in STIM1 activation.

    PubMed

    Maus, Mate; Jairaman, Amit; Stathopulos, Peter B; Muik, Martin; Fahrner, Marc; Weidinger, Carl; Benson, Melina; Fuchs, Sebastian; Ehl, Stephan; Romanin, Christoph; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Prakriya, Murali; Feske, Stefan

    2015-05-12

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a universal Ca(2+) influx pathway that is important for the function of many cell types. SOCE occurs upon depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores and relies on a complex molecular interplay between the plasma membrane (PM) Ca(2+) channel ORAI1 and the ER Ca(2+) sensor stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1. Patients with null mutations in ORAI1 or STIM1 genes present with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-like disease. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which a loss-of-function STIM1 mutation (R429C) in human patients abolishes SOCE. R429 is located in the third coiled-coil (CC3) domain of the cytoplasmic C terminus of STIM1. Mutation of R429 destabilizes the CC3 structure and alters the conformation of the STIM1 C terminus, thereby releasing a polybasic domain that promotes STIM1 recruitment to ER-PM junctions. However, the mutation also impairs cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization and abolishes STIM1-ORAI1 interactions. Thus, despite its constitutive localization at ER-PM junctions, mutant STIM1 fails to activate SOCE. Our results demonstrate multifunctional roles of the CC3 domain in regulating intra- and intermolecular STIM1 interactions that control (i) transition of STIM1 from a quiescent to an active conformational state, (ii) cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization, and (iii) STIM1-ORAI1 binding required for ORAI1 activation. PMID:25918394

  14. Expanding the family of heteroleptic oxidovanadium(IV) compounds with salicylaldehyde semicarbazones and polypyridyl ligands showing anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity.

    PubMed

    Scalese, Gonzalo; Benítez, Julio; Rostán, Santiago; Correia, Isabel; Bradford, Lara; Vieites, Marisol; Minini, Lucía; Merlino, Alicia; Coitińo, E Laura; Birriel, Estefania; Varela, Javier; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Pessoa, Joăo Costa; Gambino, Dinorah

    2015-06-01

    Searching for prospective vanadium-based drugs for the treatment of Chagas disease, a new series of heteroleptic [V(IV)O(L-2H)(NN)] compounds was developed by including the lipophilic 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (tmp) NN ligand and seven tridentate salicylaldehyde semicarbazone derivatives (L1-L7). The compounds were characterized in the solid state and in solution. EPR spectroscopy suggests that the NN ligand is bidentate bound through both nitrogen donor atoms in an axial-equatorial mode. The EPR and (51)V-NMR spectra of aerated solutions at room temperature indicate that the compounds are stable to hydrolysis and that no significant oxidation of V(IV) to V(V) takes place at least in 24h. The complexes are more active in vitro against Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite responsible for Chagas disease, than the reference drug Nifurtimox and most of them are more active than previously reported [V(IV)O(L-2H)(NN)] complexes of other NN co-ligands. Selectivity towards the parasite was analyzed using J-774 murine macrophages as mammalian cell model. Due to both, high activity and high selectivity, L2, L4, L5 and L7 complexes could be considered new hits for further drug development. Lipophilicity probably plays a relevant role in the bioactivity of the new compounds. The [V(IV)O(L-2H)(NN)] compounds were designed aiming DNA as potential molecular target. Therefore, the novel L1-L7 tmp complexes were screened by computational modeling, comparing their DNA-binding features with those of previously reported [V(IV)O(L-2H)(NN)] compounds with different NN co-ligands. Whereas all the complexes interact well with DNA, with binding modes and strength tuned in different extents by the NN and semicarbazone co-ligands, molecular docking suggests that the observed anti-T. cruzi activity cannot be explained upon DNA intercalation as the sole mechanism of action. PMID:25824466

  15. Convolvulus galaticus, Crocus antalyensis, and Lilium candidum extracts show their antitumor activity through induction of p53-mediated apoptosis on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Tokgun, Onur; Akca, Hakan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Aykurt, Candan; Deniz, Gökhan

    2012-11-01

    Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. It has been reported that several members of the Convolvulaceae, Iridaceae, and Liliaceae families have antitumor activity against some tumor cell lines. Here we first report that Convolvulus galaticus, Crocus antalyensis, and Lilium candidum species have cytotoxic activity on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells. Plant samples were collected and identified, and their cytotoxic effects on the MCF-7 cell line were examined at different concentrations of methanol extracts. We found that all three plants have cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 cells but that C. galaticus has the strongest cytotoxic effect even in the lowest extract concentration tested (0.32??g/mL). Our results indicate that these plant extracts have cytotoxic effects on human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 cells and that this cytotoxic effect comes from p53-mediated stimulation of apoptosis. PMID:22897477

  16. Taurine-induced long-lasting potentiation in the rat hippocampus shows a partial dissociation from total hippocampal taurine content and independence from activation of known taurine transporters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Dominy Jr; Jeffrey S. Thinschmidt; Joanna Peris; Ralph Dawson Jr; Roger L. Papke

    2004-01-01

    Perfusion with high millimolar levels of taurine evoked a long- lasting potentiation (LLP-TAU) of synaptic transmission in the Schaffer-collateral CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. Although LLP-TAU showed some correlations to increases in the total taurine content of hippocampal slices, it could not be blocked by the taurine transport inhibitor guanidinoethane- sulfonic acid (GES), which was able to significantly reduce

  17. Arabidopsis DNA methyltransferase AtDNMT2 associates with histone deacetylase AtHD2s activity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Agroecology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China) [Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Agroecology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON, Canada N5V4T3 (Canada); Wu, Keqiang [Institute of Plant Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Plant Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta [Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON, Canada N5V4T3 (Canada)] [Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON, Canada N5V4T3 (Canada); An, Lizhe, E-mail: lizhean@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Agroecology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Agroecology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Tian, Lining, E-mail: tianl@agr.gc.ca [Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON, Canada N5V4T3 (Canada)] [Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON, Canada N5V4T3 (Canada)

    2010-05-28

    DNA methyltransferase2 (DNMT2) is always deemed to be enigmatic, because it contains highly conserved DNA methyltransferase motifs but lacks the DNA methylation catalytic capability. Here we show that Arabidopsis DNA methyltransferase2 (AtDNMT2) is localized in nucleus and associates with histone deacetylation. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and pull-down assays show AtDNMT2 interacts with type-2 histone deacetylases (AtHD2s), a unique type of histone deacetylase family in plants. Through analyzing the expression of AtDNMT2: ss-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion protein, we demonstrate that AtDNMT2 has the ability to repress gene expression at transcription level. Meanwhile, the expression of AtDNMT2 gene is altered in athd2c mutant plants. We propose that AtDNMT2 possibly involves in the activity of histone deacetylation and plant epigenetic regulatory network.

  18. Laninamivir prodrug CS-8958, a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor, shows superior anti-influenza virus activity after a single administration.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Shuku; Tomozawa, Takanori; Kakuta, Masayo; Tokumitsu, Akane; Yamashita, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    Two neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu), have been licensed for use for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. We have reported on laninamivir (code name, R-125489), a novel neuraminidase inhibitor, and have discovered that the laninamivir prodrug CS-8958 worked as a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor in a mouse influenza virus infection model when it is intranasally administered. In this study, CS-8958 was administered just once 7 days before infection and showed significant efficacy in vivo. The efficacy of a single administration of CS-8958 after viral infection was then compared with that of repeated administrations of oseltamivir phosphate or zanamivir in mice and ferrets. CS-8958 showed efficacy superior or similar to the efficacies of the two licensed NA inhibitors. CS-8958 also significantly reduced the titers of an oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 virus with a neuraminidase H274Y substitution in a mouse infection model. These results suggest that since CS-8958 is characteristically long lasting in the lungs, it may be ideal for the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza. PMID:20047917

  19. A membrane-associated movement protein of Pelargonium flower break virus shows RNA-binding activity and contains a biologically relevant leucine zipper-like motif.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Turińo, Sandra; Hernández, Carmen

    2011-05-10

    Two small viral proteins (DGBp1 and DGBp2) have been proposed to act in a concerted manner to aid intra- and intercellular trafficking of carmoviruses though the distribution of functions and mode of action of each protein partner are not yet clear. Here we have confirmed the requirement of the DGBps of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), p7 and p12, for pathogen movement. Studies focused on p12 have shown that it associates to cellular membranes, which is in accordance to its hydrophobic profile and to that reported for several homologs. However, peculiarities that distinguish p12 from other DGBps2 have been found. Firstly, it contains a leucine zipper-like motif which is essential for virus infectivity in plants. Secondly, it has an unusually long and basic N-terminal region that confers RNA binding activity. The results suggest that PFBV p12 may differ mechanistically from related proteins and possible roles of PFBV DGBps are discussed. PMID:21444100

  20. Show Your Colors!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-20

    In this family or group activity, learners conduct a chromatography experiment to reveal the colors that leaves "hide" under their green pigments. Use this experiment to predict what colors the leaves will "turn" in the fall.

  1. KSC Wildlife Show

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This video highlights footage of the many forms of animal and plant life that inhabit the environs surrounding KSC. Shown are birds, alligators, butterflies, and plants as they react to shuttle launches and other activities eminating from KSC.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells adapted to benzalkonium chloride show resistance to other membrane-active agents but not to clinically relevant antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, M F; Jones, M V; Lambert, P A

    2002-04-01

    Our objective was to determine whether strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can adapt to growth in increasing concentrations of the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BKC), and whether co-resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobial agents occurs. Attempts were made to determine what phenotypic alterations accompanied resistance and whether these explained the mechanism of resistance. Strains were serially passaged in increasing concentrations of BKC in static nutrient broth cultures. Serotyping and genotyping were used to determine purity of the cultures. Two strains were examined for cross-resistance to other disinfectants and antibiotics by broth dilution MIC determination. Alterations in outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) expressed were examined by SDS-PAGE. Cell surface hydrophobicity and charge, uptake of disinfectant and proportion of specific fatty acid content of outer and cytoplasmic membranes were determined. Two P. aeruginosa strains showed a stable increase in resistance to BKC. Co-resistance to other quaternary ammonium compounds was observed in both strains; chloramphenicol and polymyxin B resistance were observed in one and a reduction in resistance to tobramycin observed in the other. However, no increased resistance to other biocides (chlorhexidine, triclosan, thymol) or antibiotics (ceftazidime, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin) was detected. Characteristics accompanying resistance included alterations in outer membrane proteins, uptake of BKC, cell surface charge and hydrophobicity, and fatty acid content of the cytoplasmic membrane, although no evidence was found for alterations in LPS. Each of the two strains had different alterations in phenotype, indicating that such adaptation is unique to each strain of P. aeruginosa and does not result from a single mechanism shared by the whole species. PMID:11909837

  3. Autumn shows roundup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Bloss

    2002-01-01

    A report on three major American automation shows where innovative products and automated assembly technologies formed a focus. Products reviewed include grippers, actuators, assembly modules, dispensing controller and pneumatic components from a number of suppliers.

  4. Do Elephants Show Empathy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucy A. Bates; Phyllis C. Lee; Norah Njiraini; Joyce H. Poole; Katito Sayialel; Soila Sayialel; Cynthia J. Moss; Richard W. Byrne

    2008-01-01

    Elephants show a rich social organization and display a number of unusual traits. In this paper, we analyse reports collected over a thirty-five year period, describing behaviour that has the potential to reveal signs of empathic understanding. These include coalition formation, the offering of protection and comfort to others, retrieving and 'babysitting' calves, aiding individuals that would otherwise have difficulty

  5. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  6. Demonstration Road Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-04-06

    The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

  7. Earthquake Damage Slide Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This slide show presents examples of various types of damage caused by earthquakes. Photos include structural failures in bridges and buildings, landshifts, landslides, liquefaction, fires, tsunamis, and human impacts. Supplemental notes are provided to aid instructors about the photos presented on each slide.

  8. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  9. Show Me the Money

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-26

    In this math lesson, learners make wallets or purses and then participate in a variety of money-related activities. First, learners make their own paper money and paper wallets or purses. Next, learners identify coins while singing a money-themed song. Then, learners consider how they would spend various denominations of coins and record their thoughts in a Money Journal. Finally, learners rotate through various Money Centers, where they record coin flips (heads vs. tails), sort coins, make a money cube graph, create a book of coin rubbings, and play store.

  10. Show-Me Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Show-Me Center is a partnership of four NSF-sponsored middle grades mathematics curriculum development Satellite Centers (University of Wisconsin, Michigan State University, University of Montana, and the Educational Development Center). The group's website provides "information and resources needed to support selection and implementation of standards-based middle grades mathematics curricula." The Video Showcase includes segments on Number, Algebra, Geometry, Measure, and Data Analysis, with information on ways to obtain the complete video set. The Curricula Showcase provides general information, unit goals, sample lessons and teacher pages spanning four projects: the Connected Mathematics Project (CMP), Mathematics in Context (MiC), MathScape: Seeing and Thinking Mathematically, and Middle Grades Math Thematics. The website also posts Show-Me Center newsletters, information on upcoming conferences and workshops, and links to resources including published articles and unpublished commentary on mathematics school reform.

  11. The Truman Show

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf F. Nohr

    The Truman Show is hardly a film you would automatically speak about as a game. At first glance, it is tempting to interpret the story of\\u000a Truman Burbank — his perpetual subjection to the artificial (televisual) world of Seahaven and its gargantuan reality TV project,\\u000a his eventual escape from the “OmniCam Ecosphere” building and the paternalistic surveillance of director Christof

  12. Analysis of the rolC promoter region involved in somatic embryogenesis-related activation in carrot cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, N; Yokoyama, R; Uchimiya, H

    1994-01-01

    In cell cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L.), somatic embryogenesis can be induced by transferring cells from a medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to one devoid of 2,4-D. Previous analysis of transgenic carrot cells containing the 5' non-coding sequence of the Ri plasmid rolC and a structural gene for bacterial beta-glucuronidase (uidA) has shown that the chimeric gene is actively expressed after induction of somatic embryogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that activation of the rolC promoter is dependent on the process of embryo development but not on the duration of the cell culture in 2,4-D-free medium. We also analyzed the cis region of the rolC promoter that is responsible for somatic embryogenesis-related activation (SERA), namely relatively low beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in calli and proembryogenic masses (PEM) and high GUS activity in heart- and torpedo-stage embryos. When the -255-bp region of the rolC gene was used, SERA was retained. Internal deletions within this -255-bp region did not alter SERA by the rolC promoter. Furthermore, when a rolC promoter fragment (-848 to -94 bp) was fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S core region (-90 to +6 bp), it conferred relatively low GUS activity in calli and PEM but high GUS activity in heart and torpedo embryos. When -848 to -255-bp or -255- to -94-bp fragments of the rolC promoter were fused to the same CaMV 35S core region, GUS activity patterns were not related to somatic embryogenesis. These results suggest that the combination of several regulatory regions in the rolC promoter may be required for SERA in carrot cell cultures. PMID:8016259

  13. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase, a fibrin-specific plasminogen activator of bacterial origin, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; ?uchniak, Piotr; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most dynamically developing sectors of green biotechnology is molecular farming using transgenic plants as natural bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins with biopharmaceutical and therapeutic values. Such properties are characteristic of certain proteins of bacterial origin, including staphylokinase. For many years, work has been carried out on the use of this protein in thrombolytic therapy. In this study, transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants expressing a CaMV::sak-mgpf-gusA gene fusion, were obtained. AGL1 A. tumefaciens strain was used in the process of transformation. The presence of the staphylokinase gene was confirmed by PCR in 22.5% of the investigated plants. The expression of the fusion transgene was detected using the ?-glucuronidase activity assay in 32 putative transgenic plants. Furthermore, on the basis of the GUS histochemical reaction, the transgene expression pattern had a strong, constitutive character in seven of the transformants. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a protein extract from the SAK/PCR-positive plants, revealed the presence of a119 kDa protein that corresponds to that of the fusion protein SAK-mGFP-GUSA. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against staphylokinase, showed the presence of the staphylokinase domain in the 119 kDa protein in six analyzed transformants. However, the enzymatic test revealed amidolytic activity characteristic of staphylokinase in the protein extract of only one plant. This is the first report on a Solanum tuberosum plant producing a recombinant staphylokinase protein, a plasminogen activator of bacterial origin. PMID:22347774

  14. Show Me the Genes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    By this point in the unit, students have learned all the necessary information and conceptualized a design for how an optical biosensor could be used to detect a target strand of DNA associated with a cancer-causing gene as their solution to the unit's challenge question. Now student groups act as engineers again, using a poster format to communicate and prove the validity of the design. Successful posters include a description of refraction, explanations of refraction in a thin film, and the factors that can alter the interference pattern of a thin film. The posters culminate with an explanation of what is expected to be seen in a biosensing device of this type if it were coupled to a target molecule, proven with a specific example and illustrated with drawings and diagrams throughout. All the poster elements combine to prove the accuracy and viability of this method of gene detection. Together with its associated lesson, this activity functions as part of the summative assessment for this unit.

  15. American History Picture Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bennion

    2009-11-23

    In class we read Katie's Picture Show, a book about a girl who discovers art first-hand one day at an art museum in London. She realizes she can climb into the paintings, explore her surroundings, and even solve problems for the subjects of the paintings. As part of our unit on American history, we are going to use art to further learn about some of the important events we have been discussing. Each of these works of art depicts an important event in American History. When you click on a picture, you will be able to see the name of the event as well as the artist who created it. You will be using all three pictures for this assignment.Use the websites ...

  16. Expression of the GUS-gene in the monocot tulip after introduction by particle bombardment and Agrobacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wilmink; B. C. E. van de Ven; J. J. M. Dons

    1992-01-01

    Gene transfer to the monocotyledon tulip (Tulipa sp. L.) was obtained both by particle bombardment and Agrobacterium transformation. Using a Particle Delivery System, transient expression of the reporter gene for ßglucuronidase was demonstrated. It was shown that the CAMV 35S as well as the TR2' promoter were active in flower stem expiants. Various wildtype and disarmed Agrobacterium strains, harbouring the

  17. Different Functional and Structural Characteristics between ApoA-I and ApoA-4 in Lipid-Free and Reconstituted HDL State: ApoA-4 Showed Less Anti-Atherogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Eun-Young; Park, Ji Yoon; Lee, Seung-Taek; Ham, Sihyun; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I and A-IV are protein constituents of high-density lipoproteins although their functional difference in lipoprotein metabolism is still unclear. To compare anti-atherogenic properties between apoA-I and apoA-4, we characterized both proteins in lipid-free and lipid-bound state. In lipid-free state, apoA4 showed two distinct bands, around 78 and 67 Ĺ on native gel electrophoresis, while apoA-I showed scattered band pattern less than 71 Ĺ. In reconstituted HDL (rHDL) state, apoA-4 showed three major bands around 101 Ĺ and 113 Ĺ, while apoA-I-rHDL showed almost single band around 98 Ĺ size. Lipid-free apoA-I showed 2.9-fold higher phospholipid binding ability than apoA-4. In lipid-free state, BS3-crosslinking revealed that apoA-4 showed less multimerization tendency upto dimer, while apoA-I showed pentamerization. In rHDL state (95:1), apoA-4 was existed as dimer as like as apoA-I. With higher phospholipid content (255:1), five apoA-I and three apoA-4 were required to the bigger rHDL formation. Regardless of particle size, apoA-I-rHDL showed superior LCAT activation ability than apoA-4-rHDL. Uptake of acetylated LDL was inhibited by apoA-I in both lipid-free and lipid-bound state, while apoA-4 inhibited it only lipid-free state. ApoA-4 showed less anti-atherogenic activity with more sensitivity to glycation. In conclusion, apoA-4 showed inferior physiological functions in lipid-bound state, compared with those of apoA-I, to induce more pro-atherosclerotic properties. PMID:25997739

  18. Different Functional and Structural Characteristics between ApoA-I and ApoA-4 in Lipid-Free and Reconstituted HDL State: ApoA-4 Showed Less Anti-Atherogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Eun-Young; Park, Ji Yoon; Lee, Seung-Taek; Ham, Sihyun; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-06-30

    Apolipoprotein A-I and A-IV are protein constituents of high-density lipoproteins although their functional difference in lipoprotein metabolism is still unclear. To compare anti-atherogenic properties between apoA-I and apoA-4, we characterized both proteins in lipid-free and lipid-bound state. In lipid-free state, apoA4 showed two distinct bands, around 78 and 67 Ĺ on native gel electrophoresis, while apoA-I showed scattered band pattern less than 71 Ĺ. In reconstituted HDL (rHDL) state, apoA-4 showed three major bands around 101 Ĺ and 113 Ĺ, while apoA-I-rHDL showed almost single band around 98 Ĺ size. Lipid-free apoA-I showed 2.9-fold higher phospholipid binding ability than apoA-4. In lipid-free state, BS3-crosslinking revealed that apoA-4 showed less multimerization tendency upto dimer, while apoA-I showed pentamerization. In rHDL state (95:1), apoA-4 was existed as dimer as like as apoA-I. With higher phospholipid content (255:1), five apoA-I and three apoA-4 were required to the bigger rHDL formation. Regardless of particle size, apoA-I-rHDL showed superior LCAT activation ability than apoA-4-rHDL. Uptake of acetylated LDL was inhibited by apoA-I in both lipid-free and lipid-bound state, while apoA-4 inhibited it only lipid-free state. ApoA-4 showed less anti-atherogenic activity with more sensitivity to glycation. In conclusion, apoA-4 showed inferior physiological functions in lipid-bound state, compared with those of apoA-I, to induce more pro-atherosclerotic properties. PMID:25997739

  19. S-15176 and its methylated derivative suppress the CsA-insensitive mitochondrial permeability transition and subsequent cytochrome c release induced by silver ion, and show weak protonophoric activity.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takenori; Horiuchi, Yuka; Fujiwara, Kengo; Gouda, Shunichi; Yoshimura, Yuya; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inotani, Yuki; Yamashita, Kikuji; Kitamura, Seiichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Kanematsu, Makoto; Shishido, Kozo; Shinohara, Yasuo

    2011-12-01

    A recent report has described that S-15176 (N-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-1-thiophenyl)]-3-propyl-N'-(2,3,4-trimethoxybenzyl) piperazine), an anti-ischemic agent, inhibits the mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) induced by not only Ca(2+) and inorganic phosphate, but also by tert-butylhydroperoxide or phenylarsine oxide [Morin et al. (Biochem Pharmacol 72:911-918, 2006)]. In the present study, we tested the effects of S-15176 on the PT induced by Ag(+), PT of which is not suppressed by cyclosporin A or oligomycin. S-15176 was effective in suppressing the PT and the subsequent cytochrome c release induced by Ag(+), and hence, it was concluded to be a more universal PT inhibitor than cyclosporin A or oligomycin. In addition to the PT-suppression activity, S-15176 also showed weak protonophoric activity. Thus, we further tested to investigate whether the hydroxyl group of S-15176 was involved in its PT-suppression or weak protonophoric activities. The methylated derivative of S-15176 also showed both PT suppression and weak protonophoric activities; hence, the hydroxyl group of S-15176 was concluded not to be involved in these activities. PMID:21688046

  20. Novel antiseptic compound OPB-2045G shows potent bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus both in vitro and in vivo: a pilot study in animals.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasuhide; Hagi, Akifumi; Nii, Takuya; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Nakata, Hikaru; Iwata, Koushi

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for new compounds to effectively treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). The novel monobiguanide compound 1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate (OPB-2045G) has potential bactericidal activity. We sought to elucidate the potency of OPB-2045G bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE compared to those of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and povidone iodine (PVP-I). In vitro bactericidal activity was analysed using minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) as the index. The in vivo bactericidal efficacy of OPB-2045G was examined by determining MRSA and VRE contamination of the normal dorsal skin of mice following removal of hair. After a 3 min treatment period, the MBC of OPB-2045G was lower than that of CHG and PVP-I against standard strains and clinical isolates. Additionally, in our in vivo mouse model, the in vivo bactericidal activity of 1.5?% OPB-2045G (a clinically relevant dose) was higher than that of 0.5?% CHG and equivalent to that of 10?% PVP-I against MRSA. Similarly, the in vivo bactericidal activity of OPB-2045G was higher than that of 0.5?% CHG and 10?% PVP-I against VRE. OPB-2045G showed more potent bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE both in vitro and in vivo compared to CHG and PVP-I, indicating that OPB-2045G may provide better protection against health care-associated infections caused by these pathogens. PMID:25351713

  1. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity?†

    PubMed Central

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so other compounds/mechanisms must be present in the other Pseudoalteromonas strains with antifouling activity. PMID:22003011

  2. Infection-specific activation of the Medicago truncatula Enod11 early nodulin gene promoter during actinorhizal root nodulation.

    PubMed

    Svistoonoff, Sergio; Sy, Mame-Ourčye; Diagne, Nathalie; Barker, David G; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine

    2010-06-01

    The MtEnod11 gene from Medicago truncatula is widely used as an early infection-related molecular marker for endosymbiotic associations involving both rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this article, heterologous expression of the MtEnod11 promoter has been studied in two actinorhizal trees, Casuarina glauca and Allocasuarina verticillata. Transgenic C. glauca and A. verticillata expressing a ProMtEnod11::beta-glucuronidase (gus) fusion were generated and the activation of the transgene investigated in the context of the symbiotic associations with the N-fixing actinomycete Frankia and both endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices and Pisolithus albus, respectively). ProMtEnod11::gus expression was observed in root hairs, prenodules, and nodules and could be correlated with the infection of plant cells by Frankia spp. However, no activation of the gus reporter gene was detected prior to infection or in response to either rhizobial Nod factors or the wasp venom peptide MAS-7. Equally, ProMtEnod11::gus expression was not elicited during the symbiotic associations with either ecto- or endomycorrhizal fungi. These observations suggest that, although there is a conservation of gene regulatory pathways between legumes and actinorhizal plants in cells accommodating endosymbiotic N-fixing bacteria, the events preceding bacterial infection or related to mycorrhization appear to be less conserved. PMID:20459313

  3. Fumosorinone, a novel PTP1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling in insulin-resistance HepG2 cells and shows anti-diabetic effect in diabetic KKAy mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Qin; Liu, Ting; Chen, Chuan; Li, Ming-Yan; Wang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Ruo-Song; Wei, Gui-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Luo, Du-Qiang

    2015-05-15

    Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathways, and its increased activity and expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Therefore, the inhibition of PTP1B is anticipated to become a potential therapeutic strategy to treat T2DM. Fumosorinone (FU), a new natural product isolated from insect fungi Isaria fumosorosea, was found to inhibit PTP1B activity in our previous study. Herein, the effects of FU on insulin resistance and mechanism in vitro and in vivo were investigated. FU increased the insulin-provoked glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and also reduced blood glucose and lipid levels of type 2 diabetic KKAy mice. FU decreased the expression of PTP1B both in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. Furthermore, FU increased the phosphorylation of IR?, IRS-2, Akt, GSK3? and Erk1/2 in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, as well as the phosphorylation of IR?, IRS-2, Akt in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. These results showed that FU increased glucose uptake and improved insulin resistance by down-regulating the expression of PTP1B and activating the insulin signaling pathway, suggesting that it may possess antidiabetic properties. PMID:25796170

  4. A bispecific fusion protein and a bifunctional enediyne-energized fusion protein consisting of TRAIL, EGFR peptide ligand, and apoprotein of lidamycin against EGFR and DR4/5 show potent antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Daqiang; Wang, Xiaofei; Shang, Yue; Li, Yi; Jiang, Wenguo; Li, Liang; Chen, Shu-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mainly induces apoptosis through the extrinsic death receptor-induced pathway by ligation with death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5). On the basis of the antitumor activity to cancer cells and no cytotoxity to normal cells of TRAIL and the target of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand peptide, the study constructed a new bispecific fusion protein and a new bifunctional enediyne-energized fusion protein and investigated their antitumor efficacy. Bispecific fusion protein Ec-LDP-TRAIL showed potent binding activity to cancer cell lines with a high expression of EGFR or DR4/DR5 such as A431 and H460 cells, whereas poor binding activity to NIH/3T3 cells with low expressing EGFR and DR4/DR5. Ec-LDP-TRAIL also showed more potent cytotoxicity to A431 and H460 cells than Ec-LDP, which could result from the TRAIL-inducing apoptosis. Results of an in-vivo efficacy study showed that Ec-LDP-TRAIL at a dose of 10 mg/kg decreased the growth of epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenografts by 80.19% (P < 0.01) on day 26. Immunohistochemical detection of nuclear antigen factor Ki-67 suggested that Ec-LDP-TRAIL effectively induced cell necrosis and inhibited cell proliferation of tumor. From IC50 values, bispecific and bifunctional energized fusion protein Ec-LDP-TRAIL-AE was more potent and selective in its cytotoxicity against different carcinoma cell lines than corresponding lidamycin in vitro and induction of the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase was observed in A431 cells treated with Ec-LDP-TRAIL-AE and lidamycin, respectively. Ec-LDP-TRAIL-AE also significantly inhibited the growth of A431 xenografts in a nude mouse model. These properties suggested that Ec-LDP-TRAIL and Ec-LDP-TRAIL-AE may be promising candidates for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:25122444

  5. The skin migratory stage of the schistosomulum of Schistosoma mansoni has a surface showing greater permeability and activity in membrane internalisation than other forms of skin or mechanical schistosomula.

    PubMed

    DE Jesus Jeremias, Wander; DA Cunha Melo, Jose Renan; Baba, Elio Hideo; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Kusel, John Robert

    2015-08-01

    Skin schistosomula can be prepared by collecting them after isolated mouse skin have been penetrated by cercariae in vitro. The schistosomula can also migrate out of isolated mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vitro and from mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vivo. Schistosomula can also be produced from cercariae applied through a syringe or in a vortex. When certain surface properties of the different forms of schistosomula were compared, those migrating from mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vivo or in vitro had greatly increased permeability to membrane impermeant molecules such as Lucifer yellow and high molecular weight dextrans. These migrating forms also possessed surfaces which showed greatly enhanced uptake into internal membrane vesicles of the dye FM 143, a marker for endocytosis. This greatly enhanced activity and permeability of the surfaces of tissue migrating schistosomula is likely to be of great importance in the adaptation to the new host. PMID:26028506

  6. Optical and SPION-Enhanced MR Imaging Shows that trans-Stilbene Inhibitors of NF-?B Concomitantly Lower Alzheimer’s Disease Plaque Formation and Microglial Activation in A?PP/PS-1 Transgenic Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Nathan O.; Chamberlin, Ryan; Vigil, Jenette R.; Deck, Lorraine M.; Heidrich, John E.; Brown, David C.; Brady, Christina I.; Vander Jagt, Thomas A.; Garwood, Michael; Bisoffi, Marco; Severns, Virginia; Vander Jagt, David L.; Sillerud, Laurel O.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with a microglia-dependent neuroinflammatory response against plaques containing the fibrous protein amyloid-? (A?). Activation of microglia, which closely associate with A? plaques, engenders the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the internalization of A? fibrils. Since the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-?B is one of the major regulators of A?-induced inflammation, we treated transgenic amyloid-? protein protein/presenilin-1 (A?PP/PS1) mice for one year with a low dose (0.01% by weight in the diet) of either of two trans-stilbene NF-?B inhibitors, resveratrol or a synthetic analog LD55. The 3D distribution of A? plaques was measured ex vivo in intact brains at 60 ?m resolution by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using blood-brain barrier-permeable, anti-A?PP-conjugated superparamagentic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The MRI measurements were confirmed by optical microscopy of thioflavin-stained brain tissue sections and indicated that supplementation with either of the two trans-stilbenes lowered A? plaque density in the cortex, caudoputamen, and hippocampus by 1.4 to 2-fold. The optical measurements also included the hippocampus and indicated that resveratrol and LD55 reduced average A? plaque density by 2.3-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively. Ex vivo measurements of the regional distribution of microglial activation by Iba-1 immunofluorescence of brain tissue sections showed that resveratrol and LD55 reduced average microglial activation by 4.2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively. Since LD55 lacked hydroxyl groups but both resveratrol and LD55 concomitantly reduced both A? plaque burden and neuroinflammation to a similar extent, it appears that the antioxidant potential of resveratrol is not an important factor in plaque reduction. PMID:24413613

  7. Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing End Framing, Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Lower Stringers, End Elevation - Covered Bridge, Spanning Contoocook River, Hopkinton, Merrimack County, NH

  8. Phytochrome-Mediated Photoperiod Perception, Shoot Growth, Glutamine, Calcium, and Protein Phosphorylation Influence the Activity of the Poplar Bark Storage Protein Gene Promoter (bspA)1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Baolong; Coleman, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    In poplars (Populus), bspA encodes a 32-kD bark storage protein that accumulates in the inner bark of plants exposed to either short-day (SD) photoperiods or elevated levels of nitrogen. In this study, poplars transformed with a chimeric gene consisting of the bspA promoter fused to ?-glucuronidase (uidA) were used to investigate the transcriptional regulation of the bspA promoter. Photoperiodic activation of the bspA promoter was shown to involve perception by phytochrome and likely involves both a low fluence response and a parallel very low fluence response pathway. Activity of the bspA promoter was also influenced by shoot growth. High levels of bspA expression usually occur in the bark of plants during SD but not long day or SD with a night break. When growth was inhibited under growth permissive photoperiods (SD with night break) levels of bark ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity increased. Stimulating shoot growth in plants treated with SD inhibited SD-induced increases in bark GUS activity. Because changes in photoperiod and growth also alter carbon and nitrogen partitioning, the role of carbon and nitrogen metabolites in modulating the activity of the bspA promoter were investigated by treating excised stems with amino acids or NH4NO3 with or without sucrose. Treatment with either glutamine or NH4NO3 resulted in increased stem GUS activity. The addition of sucrose with either glutamine or NH4NO3 resulted in synergistic induction of GUS, whereas sucrose alone had no effect. Glutamine plus sucrose induction of GUS activity was inhibited by EGTA, okadaic acid, or K-252A. Inhibition by EGTA was partially relieved by the addition of Ca2+. The Ca2+ ionophore, ionomycin, also induced GUS activity in excised shoots. These results indicate that transcriptional activation of bspA is complex. It is likely that SD activation of bspA involves perception by phytochrome coupled to changes in growth. These growth changes may then alter carbon and nitrogen partitioning that somehow signals bspA induction by a yet undefined mechanism that involves carbon and nitrogen metabolites, Ca2+, and protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. PMID:11351097

  9. Roanoke Area Junior Livestock Show

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    & Computations Tom Stanley, Chairman Tyler Painter Beth Hawse Katherine Carter Ribbons & Record Keeping Carolyn Supper at Arena 6:00 PM Hog Show: Showmanship, Market Hog Show and Breeding Gilt Show 7:00 pm Check

  10. A new C-type lectin (RVsnaclec) purified from venom of Daboia russelii russelii shows anticoagulant activity via inhibition of FXa and concentration-dependent differential response to platelets in a Ca˛?-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Dutta, Sumita; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2014-11-01

    This is the first report on the characterization of a snaclec (RVsnaclec) purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom. The RVsnaclec is a heterodimer of two subunits, ? (15.1 kDa) and ? (9 kDa). These subunits are covalently linked to form multimeric (??)? and (??)? structures. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis of RVsnaclec via LC-MS/MS demonstrated its similarity to snaclecs purified from other viperid snake venoms. Two tryptic peptide sequences of RVsnaclec revealed the putative conserved domains of C-type lectin (CTL). RVsnaclec dose-dependently increased the Ca-clotting time and prothrombin time of platelet-poor plasma (PPP); however, it did not affect the partial thromboplastin time (APTT) or thrombin time of PPP. The in vitro and in vivo anticoagulant activity of RVsnaclec is correlated to its binding and subsequent uncompetitive inhibition of FXa (Ki = 0.52 ?mole) in a Ca(2+)-independent manner; however, supplementation with 0.25 mM Ca(2+) enhanced the Xa binding potency of RVsnaclec. Monovalent or polyvalent antivenom failed to neutralize its anticoagulant potency, and RVsnaclec did not inhibit trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin or plasmin. RVsnaclec was devoid of hemolytic activity or cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines, demonstrated concentration-dependent aggregation and deaggregation of human platelets, and inhibited the ADP-induced aggregation of platelet. RVsnaclec (5.0 mg/kg body weight) was non-lethal to mice and showed no adverse pharmacological effects, suggesting that it has potential as a lead compound for future therapeutic applications in cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25281435

  11. Human NR5A1/SF-1 Mutations Show Decreased Activity on BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor), an Important Regulator of Energy Balance: Testing Impact of Novel SF-1 Mutations Beyond Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Malikova, Jana; Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Heath, Karen; González, Isabel; Caimarí, María; del Campo, Miguel; Albisu, Marian; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Audí, Laura; Flück, Christa E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Objective To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. Patients 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. Methods SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Results Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Conclusions Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations. PMID:25122490

  12. 6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, SHOWING SEEPAGE CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, SHOWING SEEPAGE CONTROL REINFORCEMENT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  13. 10. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MOUNTINGS FROM TUNING DEVICE. VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MOUNTINGS FROM TUNING DEVICE. VIEW SHOWS COPPER SHEETING ON WALLS. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Helix House, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  14. International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The 1995 International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show in Ontario, Canada has a site of the Web. The IPM is a non-profit organization of volunteers which annually organizes Canada's largest farm machinery show. The event is commercial and educational. Thousands of school children and educators attend and participate in organized educational activities.

  15. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Do Blood Tests Show? Blood tests show whether the levels ... changes may work best. Result Ranges for Common Blood Tests This section presents the result ranges for ...

  16. Asia: Showing the Changing Seasons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1998-09-09

    SeaWiFS false color data showing seasonal change in the oceans and on land for Asia. The data is seasonally averaged, and shows the sequence: fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring (for the Northern Hemisphere).

  17. The universal bundling activity of AtVLN4 in diffusely growing cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fei; Zhang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that AtVLN4, a member of villin/gelsolin/fragmin superfamily in Arabidopsis thaliana, participated in root hair growth through its actin bundling activity. To further understand the functions of AtVLN4, we investigated its in vivo expression pattern and roles in diffusely growing cells. Transcription analysis of AtVLN4 and detection of AtVLN4 promoter-GUS activity consistently indicated that AtVLN4 had a universal expression pattern and was preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues. Observation of actin structures labeled by GFP-fABD2 revealed that there were less actin bundles in many diffusely growing cell types in atvln4-1 seedlings than in wild-type seedlings. Pharmacological studies by treatment with Latrunculin B showed that the actin filaments were much easier to be disrupted in diffusely growing cells of atvln4-1 seedlings. Collectively, these results demonstrate that AtVLN4 has a universal actin bundling activity in diffusely growing cells just like that in the tip growing cell, root hairs. PMID:22019634

  18. Family-wide expression characterization of Arabidopsis beta-carbonic anhydrase genes using qRT-PCR and Promoter::GUS fusions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Qiong; Liu, Fang-Chun; Xie, Wei-Fa; Wang, Guang-Dong; Wang, Jun; Gao, Qing-Hua; Duan, Ke

    2014-02-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes found throughout the phylogenetic tree. The ?-class carbonic anhydrases (?-CAs) are the predominating class of CAs in plants. Growing evidence underscores the importance of ?-CAs in plant immunity and environmental adaptation in addition to their roles in photosynthesis. However, many fundamental problems in Arabidopsis ?CAs expression remain unsolved. Here we examined the transcript abundance of At?CAs in different tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the accumulation of mRNA in response to CO2 and darkness. Histochemical analysis was performed to study the promoter activity of At?CAs during post-germination seedling growth and in mature plants. All six members of the At?CA subfamily showed a response to changed CO2 level and darkness, but each member showed a specific dynamic pattern. Although expression of each At?CA was unique, in general most At?CAs were synchronously expressed in green leaves since 5 days after germination until flowering. At?CA1 and At?CA2 were most highly expressed in leaves but At?CA2 displayed weaker expression in roots. The level of At?CA3 transcripts was highest in flowers, while At?CA5 was most widely expressed and might be involved in more processes than other members. At?CA6 was unique for increased expression in darkness and no expression in either the anther or pistil. The present study provides useful information for further functional investigation. PMID:24211190

  19. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  20. Activation of the pathogen-inducible Gst1 promoter of potato after elicitation by Venturia inaequalis and Erwinia amylovora in transgenic apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Malnoy, M; Reynoird, J P; Borejsza-Wysocka, E E; Aldwinckle, H S

    2006-02-01

    Rather than using a constitutive promoter to drive transgenes for resistance against fungal and bacterial diseases in genetic engineering of apple (Malus x domestica) cultivars, a promoter induced only after infection was preferred. The ability of the Pgst1 promoter from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to drive expression of the gusA reporter gene was determined in two genotypes of apple: the fruit cultivar Royal Gala and the M.26 rootstock. beta-Glucuronidase activity in the transgenic lines grown in a growth chamber was determined quantitatively using fluorometric assays and compared to the activity in Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter-driven transgenic lines. In both apple genotypes, the Pgst1 promoter exhibited a low level of expression after bacterial and fungal inoculation compared to the level obtained with the PCaMV35S promoter (15% and 8% respectively). The Pgst1 promoter was systematically activated in apple at the site of infection with a fungal pathogen. It was also activated after treatment with salicylic acid, but not after wounding. Taken together, these data show that, although the Pgst1 promoter is less active than the PCaMV35S promoter in apple, its pathogen responsiveness could be useful in driving the expression of transgenes to promote bacterial and fungal disease resistance. PMID:16475012

  1. In plant activation: an inducible, hyperexpression platform for recombinant protein production in plants.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A; Harding, Robert M; Dale, James L

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we describe a novel protein production platform that provides both activation and amplification of transgene expression in planta. The In Plant Activation (INPACT) system is based on the replication machinery of tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus (TYDV) and is essentially transient gene expression from a stably transformed plant, thus combining the advantages of both means of expression. The INPACT cassette is uniquely arranged such that the gene of interest is split and only reconstituted in the presence of the TYDV-encoded Rep/RepA proteins. Rep/RepA expression is placed under the control of the AlcA:AlcR gene switch, which is responsive to trace levels of ethanol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) plants containing an INPACT cassette encoding the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter had negligible background expression but accumulated very high GUS levels (up to 10% total soluble protein) throughout the plant, within 3 d of a 1% ethanol application. The GUS reporter was replaced with a gene encoding a lethal ribonuclease, barnase, demonstrating that the INPACT system provides exquisite control of transgene expression and can be adapted to potentially toxic or inhibitory compounds. The INPACT gene expression platform is scalable, not host-limited, and has been used to express both a therapeutic and an industrial protein. PMID:23839786

  2. Diarrheal Disease in Show Swine

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    2007-02-27

    Diarrhea, an important problem in show pigs, can be caused by poor nutrition, infectious diseases, internal parasites or a combination of factors. This publication explains how the cause is diagnosed and the illness treated....

  3. The Maths File Game Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    The British Broadcasting Corporation offers this great collection of fun, educational games that help children learn basic concepts of mathematics. Twelve interactive games are available in all, illustrating principles of data handling, numbers, algebra, and measurement. Children can practice interpreting Cartesian coordinates by guiding a space ship across a grid, or compete with an animated character in a test of fractions and percentages. In addition to the online games, several other activities are presented in one-page documents for easy printing.

  4. What Do These Images Show?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students, working in small groups, will examine images of surface features on Mars and attempt to identify them, speculate as to their origins, and determine their size. They will share their ideas in a class discussion and attempt to reach a consensus for the interpretation of each image. Most of the images are from the Viking missions; they are accompanied by sample questions for the class.

  5. Diarrheal Disease in Show Swine 

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    2007-02-27

    of gain. Lawsonia intracellularis is the causative bacterium. Though it is rarely the cause of diarrheal disease in show swine, veterinarians consider this organism as a potential cause when making a differ- ential diagnosis. L. intracellularis does.... TGE does not cause human disease. Clinical Diagnosis The stool of the normal pig should be firm and well- formed. When a normal show pig is on free-choice feed and water, the stool tends to loosen to the consistency of a cow patty as feed consumption...

  6. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy. PMID:25895920

  7. The OOPSLA trivia show (TOOTS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Gray; Douglas C. Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    OOPSLA has a longstanding tradition of being a forum for discussing the cutting edge of technology in a fun and participatory environment. The type of events sponsored by OOPSLA sometimes border on the unconventional. This event represents an atypical panel that conforms to the concept of a game show that is focused on questions and answers related to OOPSLA themes.

  8. Managing Beef Cattle for Show

    E-print Network

    Herd, Dennis B.; Boleman, Chris; Boleman, Larry L.

    2001-11-16

    in show diets because of its rapid digestion and tendency to cause acido- sis (see the section on health). Oats are excellent for growth and development of steers or heifers. A mixture similar in nutrient content to oats can be formulated with a high...

  9. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  10. Substitution of active-site His-223 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase and expression of the mutated lasB alleles in Escherichia coli show evidence for autoproteolytic processing of proelastase.

    PubMed Central

    McIver, K; Kessler, E; Ohman, D E

    1991-01-01

    The neutral metalloprotease elastase is one of the major proteins secreted into the culture medium by many Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Encoded by the lasB gene, the 33-kDa elastase is initially synthesized as a 53-kDa preproenzyme which is processed to the mature form via a 51-kDa proelastase intermediate. To facilitate studies on proteolytic processing of elastase precursors and on secretion, we developed systems for overexpression of lasB in Escherichia coli under the control of the inducible T7 and tac promoters. Although the 51-kDa proelastase form was detectable in E. coli under inducible conditions, most of the elastase produced under these conditions was found in an enzymatically active 33-kDa form. The amino-terminal sequence of the first 15 amino acid residues of this 33-kDa elastase species was identical to that of the mature P. aeruginosa enzyme, suggesting that processing was autocatalytic. To test this possibility, the codon in lasB encoding His-223, a presumed active-site residue, was changed to encode Asp-223 (lasB1) and Tyr-223 (lasB2). The effects of these mutations on enzyme activity and processing were examined. No proteolytic or elastolytic activities were detected in extracts of E. coli cells containing the lasB mutant alleles. Overexpression of the mutated lasB genes in E. coli resulted in the accumulation of the corresponding 51-kDa proelastase species. These were processed in vitro to the respective 33-kDa forms by incubation with exogenous purified elastase, without an increase in proteolytic activity. Molecular modeling studies suggest that the mutations have little or no effect on the conformation of the mutant elastases. In addition, wild-type elastase and the mutant proelastases were localized to the periplasm of E. coli. The present results confirm that His-223 is essential for elastase activity and provide evidence for autoproteolytic processing of proelastase. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 4A FIG. 4B FIG. 4C FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1744034

  11. Pig and the Poultry Show 

    E-print Network

    Sloan

    2009-01-01

    directed toward 1ncreasing d1gestibi11ty of the gra1n. Fitch and Wolberg (2l) found that 435 of the grain of Kansas Orange and 36K of the grain of Atlas Sorgo s1lage was voided intact in the animal's feces. Analysis of the vo1ded grains showed... whole kernels, but the starchy endosperm had been digested. Davis and Waldern (14) observed that 7. 1~~ of the kernels and 1. 2? of the whole s1lage DM appeared in the feces as whole kernels. The propor- tion of in v1tro digestible dry matter ( IVDDM...

  12. Managing Beef Cattle for Show 

    E-print Network

    Herd, Dennis B.; Boleman, Chris; Boleman, Larry L.

    2001-11-16

    . Protein supplements?Feeds such as cottonseed meal, soybean meal and linseed meal increase the protein content of the diet. Small amounts (less than 3 percent) of fish meal, dried blood meal, corn gluten meal, linseed meal and brewers or distillers grains... of nutritional ailments of acidosis, bloat and possibly founder. A big full middle on a steer can be more effectively controlled by limiting feed and water the last few weeks before show, not by elimi- nating hay from the diet. Hay should be free of mold, dust...

  13. The Arsenic Project. The activity is an authentic research experience for students at early stages in their academic programs, and is designed to give you an insight into the way science is done and will show

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    arsenite and arsenate) can get into drinking water. The arsenic contamination of ground water (from rocks in food, especially rice, as the contaminated ground water is being used to irrigate agricultural land, India where millions of people are drinking highly contaminated water and are showing signs of arsenic

  14. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up.

    Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. The promoter of the Arabidopsis thaliana BAN gene is active in proanthocyanidin-accumulating cells of the Brassica napus seed coat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Nesi; Marie-Odile Lucas; Bathilde Auger; Cécile Baron; Alain Lécureuil; Philippe Guerche; Jocelyne Kronenberger; Loďc Lepiniec; Isabelle Debeaujon; Michel Renard

    2009-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research program dedicated to the understanding of proanthocyanidin (PA) accumulation in Brassica napus seed coat, transgenic rapeseed plants carrying a 2.3-kb fragment of the Arabidopsis thaliana BAN promoter (ProAtBAN) fused to the uidA reporter gene (GUS) were generated. Analysis of these plants revealed that ProAtBAN was activated in B. napus seed coat, following a spatio-temporal

  16. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    E-print Network

    Bo E. Sernelius

    2009-10-27

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  17. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E. [Division of Theory and Modeling, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  18. A novel class of PTEN protein in Arabidopsis displays unusual phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and efficiently binds phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Pribat, Anne; Sormani, Rodnay; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Julkowska, Magdalena M; Testerink, Christa; Joubčs, Jerôme; Castroviejo, Michel; Laguerre, Michel; Meyer, Christian; Germain, Véronique; Rothan, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) proteins are dual phosphatases with both protein and phosphoinositide phosphatase activity. They modulate signalling pathways controlling growth, metabolism and apoptosis in animals and are implied in several human diseases. In the present paper we describe a novel class of PTEN pro-teins in plants, termed PTEN2, which comprises the AtPTEN (Arabidopsis PTEN) 2a and AtPTEN2b proteins in Arabidopsis. Both display low in vitro tyrosine phosphatase activity. In addition, AtPTEN2a actively dephosphorylates in vitro the 3' phosphate group of PI3P (phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate), PI(3,4)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate) and PI(3,5)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate). In contrast with animal PTENs, PI(3,4,5)P3 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) is a poor substrate. Site-directed mutagenesis of AtPTEN2a and molecular modelling of protein-phosphoinositide interactions indicated that substitutions at the PTEN2 core catalytic site of the Lys267 and Gly268 residues found in animals, which are critical for animal PTEN activity, by Met267 and Ala268 found in the eudicot PTEN2 are responsible for changes in substrate specificity. Remarkably, the AtPTEN2a protein also displays strong binding activity for PA (phosphatidic acid), a major lipid second messenger in plants. Promoter::GUS (?-glucuronidase) fusion, transcript and protein analyses further showed the transcriptional regulation of the ubiquitously expressed AtPTEN2a and AtPTEN2b by salt and osmotic stress. The results of the present study suggest a function for this novel class of plant PTEN proteins as an effector of lipid signalling in plants. PMID:21864294

  19. Two short sequences in OsNAR2.1 promoter are necessary for fully activating the nitrate induced gene expression in rice roots

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Feng, Huimin; Huang, Daimin; Song, Miaoquan; Fan, Xiaorong; Xu, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is an essential nitrogen source and serves as a signal to control growth and gene expression in plants. In rice, OsNAR2.1 is an essential partner of multiple OsNRT2 nitrate transporters for nitrate uptake over low and high concentration range. Previously, we have reported that ?311?bp upstream fragment from the translational start site in the promoter of OsNAR2.1 gene is the nitrate responsive region. To identify the cis-acting DNA elements necessary for nitrate induced gene expression, we detected the expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter in the transgenic rice driven by the OsNAR2.1 promoter with different lengths and site mutations of the 311?bp region. We found that ?129 to ?1?bp region is necessary for the nitrate-induced full activation of OsNAR2.1. Besides, the site mutations showed that the 20?bp fragment between ?191 and ?172?bp contains an enhancer binding site necessary to fully drive the OsNAR2.1 expression. Part of the 20?bp fragment is commonly presented in the sequences of different promoters of both the nitrate induced NAR2 genes and nitrite reductase NIR1 genes from various higher plants. These findings thus reveal the presence of conserved cis-acting element for mediating nitrate responses in plants. PMID:26150107

  20. The maize Dof protein PBF activates transcription of ?-zein during maize seed development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pau Marzábal; Elisabet Gas; Pilar Fontanet; Jesús Vicente-Carbajosa; Margarita Torrent; M. Dolores Ludevid

    2008-01-01

    Maize PBF (prolamin-box binding factor) belongs to the Dof class of plant specific transcription factors containing one highly\\u000a conserved zinc finger DNA-binding domain, called Dof (DNA binding with one finger) domain. Maize PBF trans-activates the ?-zein\\u000a gene (?Z) promoter in developing maize seeds as shown by transient expression in maize endosperms. Co-transfection of a ?Z:GUS\\u000a construct with 35S:PBF resulted in

  1. 19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM AT UPPER LEFT HOLDING PULLEY SYSTEM AND ELECTRIC MOTOR TO ACTIVATE DOORS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  2. University of Florida Bee College Honey Show

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    University of Florida Bee College Honey Show A REMINDER TO JUDGES 1. Judging will begin promptly or the Honey Show Manager only. 3. The Show will provide color grading glasses if required, towel, basin equipment (see judges checklist). For cake judging, knifes will be provided by the Honey Show Manager. 4

  3. TV Talk: Instant Classroom Celebrities With TV Game Shows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Marti

    1977-01-01

    Suggests some learning activities that can be used to capitalize on the popularity of TV game shows so that students can build their learning skills. These game show formats can also strengthen and reinforce many areas of the elementary curriculum. (Author/RK)

  4. New Hampshire Guide 4-H Dog Shows

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    New Hampshire Guide to 4-H Dog Shows UNH Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development Moiles House cooperating. #12;NH Guide to 4-H Dog Shows i Table of Contents INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................2 Purpose of the 4-H Dog Project

  5. Flat Globe: Showing the Changing Seasons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1998-09-09

    SeaWiFS false color data showing seasonal change in the oceans and on land for the entire globe. The data is seasonally averaged, and shows the sequence: fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring (for the Northern Hemisphere).

  6. Inside Gun Shows What Goes On

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Epilogue #12;Inside Gun Shows;Epilogue In February 2010, I attended a Crossroads of the West gun show at the Arizona State Fairgrounds here an update on each of the Phoenix obser- vations made in the photo-essay portion of Inside Gun

  7. Inside Gun Shows What Goes On

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Preface Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching #12;#12;Inside Gun-Violence Effort. She put gun shows on my radar and is an ace straw-purchase spotter. Thanks also to Barbara Claire a great public institution. He was right. #12;Contents Preface Executive Summary Gun Shows in Context How

  8. Inside Gun Shows What Goes On

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Danh

    Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Executive Summary #12;Inside Gun Shows What Goes on When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Garen Wintemute, MD, MPH Violence;Executive Summary Gun shows are surrounded by controversy. On the one hand, they are important economic

  9. Planetarium Shows for K-12 School Groups

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Current Night Sky: Constellations versus Asterisms Phases of the Moon Planets and Current Space Missions-on activities. Interactive Demonstrations: Earth/Moon Scale Solar System Scale Diffraction and Spectral Lines

  10. Annual Show of Strength Registration Form

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    appropriate lifting attire: - Shorts not longer than knees - T-shirts not longer than elbows - Singlets, wraps, exposure to criminal activity, injuries caused by wild animals, and death. I have made myself aware

  11. The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

    This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

  12. Collegiate Cattle Growers 2012 Jackpot Show

    E-print Network

    Guerriero, Vince

    Collegiate Cattle Growers 2012 Jackpot Show February 18-19 At the U of A Ag Center Campbell Ave the evening before the show from 6 to 7 pm Make payment out to: Collegiate Cattle Growers Association Mail to: University of Arizona of Animal Sciences Attn. Collegiate Cattle Growers P.O. Box 210038, Tucson, AZ 85721

  13. BVA at the London Vet Show.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    The London Vet Show will take place at Olympia in London on November 19 and 20. A significant event in the veterinary calendar, the show hosts BVA Congress and several BVA programmed streams. Tim Keen, BVA marketing manager, takes a look at what's on offer. PMID:26139680

  14. End-of-Semester Barbecue Talent Show

    E-print Network

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    Highlights End-of-Semester Barbecue Talent Show Scholarship Winners St. Francis Food Drive eating, have fun tubing or canoeing, playing soccer, volleyball, and other games. This is the last Ceremony. Details will be in next week's Weekly. Talent Show Dress Rehearsal Dress Rehearsal: All acts MUST

  15. Salton Sea Satellite Image Showing Fault Slip

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Landsat satellite image (LE70390372003084EDC00) showing location of surface slip triggered along faults in the greater Salton Trough area. Red bars show the generalized location of 2010 surface slip along faults in the central Salton Trough and many additional faults in the southwestern section of t...

  16. SWINE PROSPECT SHOW Sunday, Dec. 7, 2014

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    BARN WARS SWINE PROSPECT SHOW Sunday, Dec. 7, 2014 Indian River County Fairgrounds 7955 58th Ave. Checks need to be made out to: Indian River County 4-H. Mail to: Indian River County 4-H Attn: Prospect to all of the rules and regulations set forth by Barn Wars Prospect Show. Exhibitor's Signature: Date

  17. Learning to Show You're Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Nigel G.; Escalante, Rafael; Al Bayyari, Yaffa; Solorio, Thamar

    2007-01-01

    Good listeners generally produce back-channel feedback, that is, short utterances such as "uh-huh" which signal active listening. As the rules governing back-channeling vary from language to language, second-language learners may need help acquiring this skill. This paper is an initial exploration of how to provide this. It presents a training…

  18. Gyroscopic Motion: Show Me the Forces!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Harvey; Hirsch, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Gyroscopes are frequently used in physics lecture demonstrations and in laboratory activities to teach students about rotational dynamics, namely, angular momentum and torque. Use of these powerful concepts makes it difficult for students to fully comprehend the mechanism that keeps the gyroscope from falling under the force of gravity. The…

  19. Salt tolerance and activity of antioxidative enzymes of transgenic finger millet overexpressing a vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase gene (SbVPPase) from Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Anjaneyulu, Ediga; Reddy, Palle Surender; Sunita, Merla Srilakshmi; Kishor, Polavarapu B Kavi; Meriga, Balaji

    2014-06-15

    A vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase cDNA clone was isolated from Sorghum bicolor (SbVPPase) using end-to-end gene-specific primer amplification. It showed 80-90% homology at the nucleotide and 85-95% homology at the amino acid level with other VPPases. The gene was introduced into expression vector pCAMBIA1301 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter and transformed into Agrobacterium tumifaciens strain LBA4404 to infect embryogenic calli of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Successful transfer of SbVPPase was confirmed by a GUS histochemical assay and PCR analysis. Both, controls and transgenic plants were subjected to 100 and 200mM NaCl and certain biochemical and physiological parameters were studied. Relative water content (RWC), plant height, leaf expansion, finger length and width and grain weight were severely reduced (50-70%), and the flowering period was delayed by 20% in control plants compared to transgenic plants under salinity stress. With increasing salt stress, the proline and chlorophyll contents as well as the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased by 25-100% in transgenics, while malondialdehyde (MDA) showed a 2-4-fold decrease. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and the reduction in the MDA content suggest efficient scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in transgenics and, as a consequence, probably alleviation of salt stress. Also, the leaf tissues of the transgenics accumulated 1.5-2.5-fold higher Na(+) and 0.4-0.8-fold higher K(+) levels. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that overexpression of SbVPPase in transgenic finger millet enhances the plant's performance under salt stress. PMID:24877670

  20. Sweet Concepts Inc.: Trade Show Marketing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Parry; Melanie Jones

    Brooks West of Sweet Concepts has recently adopted a new brand strategy for Butterfields, the company's line of hard candy. West must decide how the new branding stragtegy should affect his trade show marketing program.

  1. Do dogs (Canis familiaris) show contagious yawning?

    PubMed

    Harr, Aimee L; Gilbert, Valerie R; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2009-11-01

    We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly after viewing yawning videos than to the open-mouth videos, and most of these yawns occurred to the human videos. No dogs showed significantly more yawning to the open-mouth videos (human or dog). The percentage of dogs showing contagious yawning was less than chimpanzees and humans showing this behavior, and considerably less than a recently published report investigating this behavior in dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al. in Biol Lett 4:446-448, 2008). PMID:19452178

  2. Nutrition and Feeding of Show Poultry 

    E-print Network

    Cartwright, A. Lee

    2003-11-03

    The championship potential of a chicken or turkey is determined by genetics, but proper nutrition can help an animal achieve that genetic potential. This publication outlines four principles critical to developing a nutrition program for show...

  3. Incident Response Planning for Selected Livestock Shows 

    E-print Network

    Tomascik, Chelsea Roxanne

    2012-02-14

    was to determine local officials' perceptions and awareness of incident planning and response pertaining to selected livestock shows. Little research has been completed in this area; therefore, this foundational study was needed. The objectives of this study...

  4. System Generator Tips Show sample time colors

    E-print Network

    System Generator Tips · Show sample time colors · FormatPort/Signal DisplaysSample Time Colors/stop the simulation · Give subsystems and their ports meaningful names · Mask subsystems you'll use again · Using too

  5. New Drug Shows Promise Against Psoriasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153105.html New Drug Shows Promise Against Psoriasis Ixekizumab appeared to ... the disease clearing up, but people on the new drug also reporting a marked improvement in their ...

  6. The Moscow Show of Dissident Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet, Stephen M.

    1975-01-01

    Author described a show of dissident art held in Moscow on September 29, 1974, and contrasted the government's efforts to control artistic freedom with the determination of Russian artists to resist such imposition. (RK)

  7. World's Population Is Getting Sicker, Study Shows

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152968.html World's Population Is Getting Sicker, Study Shows People lose ... largest analysis of trends in health around the world for the years 1990 to 2013, the journal ...

  8. Early Intervention Shows Promise in Treating Schizophrenia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 153483.html Early Intervention Shows Promise in Treating Schizophrenia Programs that emphasize resiliency, education and job support ... health of patients in the early stages of schizophrenia, new research reveals. The finding, reported in the ...

  9. Ebola Treatment Shows Promise in Monkey Study

    MedlinePLUS

    Ebola Treatment Shows Promise in Monkey Study Antiviral drug cured animals with advanced infections, researchers say To ... HealthDay News) -- An experimental drug being tested on Ebola victims in Sierra Leone has proven effective in ...

  10. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with community thought. The difficulty with a show this elaborate and intricate is communicating on a level understandable for teenagers, whilst not treating them like children. Professional space scientists know how easy it is to lose oneself in technical specifics. This would, of course, only confuse young people. The author would like to discuss the ideas for this show with a knowledgeable audience and hopefully get some (constructive) feedback.

  11. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  12. Graphene oxide immobilized enzymes show high thermal and solvent stability.

    PubMed

    Hermanová, So?a; Zarevúcká, Marie; Bouša, Daniel; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zden?k

    2015-03-19

    The thermal and solvent tolerance of enzymes is highly important for their industrial use. We show here that the enzyme lipase from Rhizopus oryzae exhibits exceptionally high thermal stability and high solvent tolerance and even increased activity in acetone when immobilized onto a graphene oxide (GO) nanosupport prepared by Staudenmaier and Brodie methods. We studied various forms of immobilization of the enzyme: by physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and additional crosslinking. The activity recovery was shown to be dependent on the support type, enzyme loading and immobilization procedure. Covalently immobilized lipase showed significantly better resistance to heat inactivation (the activity recovery was 65% at 70 °C) in comparison with the soluble counterpart (the activity recovery was 65% at 40 °C). Physically adsorbed lipase achieved over 100% of the initial activity in a series of organic solvents. These findings, showing enhanced thermal stability and solvent tolerance of graphene oxide immobilized enzyme, will have a profound impact on practical industrial scale uses of enzymes for the conversion of lipids into fuels. PMID:25757536

  13. INTRODUCTION Mitotic metaphase chromosomes show sister chromatids

    E-print Network

    Villefranche sur mer

    . Meiosis I bivalents, as mitotic chromosomes, show sister-chromatid centromere and arm cohesions cohesion during meiosis I, and then release centromere cohesion during meiosis II (for review see Moore and Orr- Weaver, 1998). Consequently, this sequential loss of cohesion during meiosis might be precisely

  14. Olaparib shows promise in multiple tumor types.

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    A phase II study of the PARP inhibitor olaparib (AstraZeneca) for cancer patients with inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations confirmed earlier results showing clinical benefit for advanced breast and ovarian cancers, and demonstrated evidence of effectiveness against pancreatic and prostate cancers. PMID:23847380

  15. The object-oriented trivia show (TOOTS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Gray; Jules White

    2010-01-01

    OOPSLA has a longstanding tradition of being a forum for discussing the cutting edge of technology in a fun and participatory environment. The type of events sponsored by OOPSLA sometimes border on the unconventional. This event represents an atypical panel that conforms to the concept of a game show that is focused on questions and answers related to SPLASH, OOPSLA,

  16. George Arcement Shows Locations of USGS Streamgages

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement shows the locations of USGS' streamgage network to WAFB Meteorologist Jay Grymes.  USGS maintains more than 30 real-time streamgages throughout the area affected by the 2011 Flood. In addition, more than 50 non-real-time gages were...

  17. 2014 NORTHWEST MICHIGAN ORCHARD & VINEYARD SHOW

    E-print Network

    2014 NORTHWEST MICHIGAN ORCHARD & VINEYARD SHOW Grand Traverse Resort January 14-15 Costs Wing Drosophila and Other Invasive Vineyard Bugs: Should We Be Concerned? Dr. Rufus Isaacs, MSU Dept. of Entomology 9:40 ­ 10:00 Use of Compost Tea in the Vineyard Dr. Annemiek Schilder, MSU Dept. of Plant

  18. Children's Art Show: An Educational Family Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakerlis, Julienne

    2007-01-01

    In a time of seemingly rampant budget cuts in the arts in school systems throughout the country, a children's art show reaps many rewards. It can strengthen family-school relationships and community ties and stimulate questions and comments about the benefits of art and its significance in the development of young children. In this photo essay of…

  19. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  20. Press Release End of Year Show 2013

    E-print Network

    Stell, John

    Press Release End of Year Show 2013 Published 4 th July Record numbers of guests attended our End press coverage, featuring live on BBC1's Look North on the Private View evening. Alex Dodgson BA (Hons) Fine Art third year student performed live, using his body as a canvas and encouraging visitors

  1. SHOW YOUR ARTWORKTHIS SPRING COLOR AND DESIGN

    E-print Network

    Portman, Douglas

    . Students are warmly encouraged to submit up to three pieces for consideration. Choices for the show pm on Saturday, March 10 with the submission sheet filled out. Early submissions are encouraged! Help-276-8959 mag.rochester.edu, magcw@mag.rochester.edu Please fill out this form and return it by March 10, 2012

  2. More Dangerous Ebola Strain Unlikely, Study Shows

    MedlinePLUS

    More Dangerous Ebola Strain Unlikely, Study Shows Researchers compared virus samples that were 9 months apart, and found normal mutating rate ... 26, 2015 THURSDAY, March 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Ebola likely won't mutate into a strain that ...

  3. Agrobacterium T-DNA integration into the plant genome can occur without the activity of key non-homologous end-joining proteins.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Yon; Vaghchhipawala, Zarir; Vasudevan, Balaji; Lee, Lan-Ying; Shen, Yunjia; Singer, Kamy; Waterworth, Wanda M; Zhang, Zhanyuan J; West, Christopher E; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Gelvin, Stanton B

    2015-03-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major model proposed for Agrobacterium T-DNA integration into the plant genome. In animal cells, several proteins, including KU70, KU80, ARTEMIS, DNA-PKcs, DNA ligase IV (LIG4), Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), play an important role in 'classical' (c)NHEJ. Other proteins, including histone H1 (HON1), XRCC1, and PARP1, participate in a 'backup' (b)NHEJ process. We examined transient and stable transformation frequencies of Arabidopsis thaliana roots mutant for numerous NHEJ and other related genes. Mutants of KU70, KU80, and the plant-specific DNA Ligase VI (LIG6) showed increased stable transformation susceptibility. However, these mutants showed transient transformation susceptibility similar to that of wild-type plants, suggesting enhanced T-DNA integration in these mutants. These results were confirmed using a promoter-trap transformation vector that requires T-DNA integration into the plant genome to activate a promoterless gusA (uidA) gene, by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of Nicotiana benthamiana NHEJ genes, and by biochemical assays for T-DNA integration. No alteration in transient or stable transformation frequencies was detected with atm, atr, lig4, xrcc1, or parp1 mutants. However, mutation of parp1 caused high levels of T-DNA integration and transgene methylation. A double mutant (ku80/parp1), knocking out components of both NHEJ pathways, did not show any decrease in stable transformation or T-DNA integration. Thus, T-DNA integration does not require known NHEJ proteins, suggesting an alternative route for integration. PMID:25641249

  4. Do dogs ( Canis familiaris ) show contagious yawning?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aimee L. Harr; Valerie R. Gilbert; Kimberley A. Phillips

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown\\u000a video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs\\u000a showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly\\u000a after viewing yawning videos than to

  5. Learning helicopter control through “teaching by showing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. Montgomery; George A. Bekey

    1998-01-01

    A model-free “teaching by showing” methodology is developed to train a fuzzy-neural controller for an autonomous robot helicopter. The controller is generated and tuned using training data gathered while a teacher operates the helicopter. A hierarchical behavior-based control architecture is used, with each behavior implemented as a hybrid fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and general regression neural network controller (GRNNC). The

  6. Map showing depth to bedrock, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical and hydrologic characteristics of geologic materials is useful in determining the availability of groundwater for public and domestic supply and the suitability of areas for on-site septic systems. A generalized map of the Anchorage area shows the approximate distance from land surface to the top of the bedrock surface. Four depth zones are shown. The depths were determined from lithologic data contained in drillers ' logs. (USGS)

  7. Heat-inducible production of beta-glucuronidase in tobacco hairy root cultures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kung-Ta; Chen, Shih-Cheng; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Yamakawa, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    The production of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) driven by the Arabidopsis small heat shock protein 18.2 promoter in liquid cultures of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) hairy roots is reported. Clone GD-3, showing high GUS heat induction and a moderate growth rate, was selected from 436 clones for study. Treatment of GD-3 with heat shock at 36-42 degrees C for 2 h then recovery at 27 degrees C resulted in an increase in GUS specific activity, while higher heat-shock temperatures led to a decline. These results were in accordance with the change in esterase activity, a measure of tissue viability. Using 2 h of 42 degrees C heat shock and a recovery phase at 27 degrees C, GUS specific activity increased rapidly and reached a maximum of 267.6 nmol 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucuronic acid (MU) min-1 mg-1 protein at 24 h of recovery. When tissues were continuously heated at 42 degrees C and tested without a recovery period, GUS mRNA was detectable at 2 h and peaked at 5 h, but GUS activity was not seen until 10 h and did not peak until 28 h; in addition, the maximum activity was lower than that seen after heat shock for only 30 min or 2 h, followed by recovery. This shows that recovery at normal temperature is crucial for the heat-inducible heterogeneous expression system of transgenic hairy roots. Multiple heat-shock treatments showed that this system was heat reinducible, although a gradual decline in GUS specific activity was seen in the second and third cycles. PMID:16957892

  8. Groks Science Show for February 12, 2003

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chemistry has applications in many diverse fields from astronomy to zoology. With new applications emerging, it is the job of Chemical and Engineering News (CEN), a publication of the American Chemical Society, to report the breadth of activity in chemistry. This radio broadcast features an interview with the editor of CEN, Madeleine Jacobs, who discusses the CEN magazine and its handling of potentially controversial issues such as global warming; how chemistry has become increasingly interdisciplinary; the frontiers of chemistry, such as in nanotechnology; and the often negative public image of chemistry as solely toxic. The interview with Jacobs begins at 11 minutes and 50 seconds into the audio file; the interview is 14 minutes and 30 seconds in length.

  9. Gyroscopic Motion: Show Me the Forces!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Harvey; Hirsch, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Gyroscopes are frequently used in physics lecture demonstrations and in laboratory activities to teach students about rotational dynamics, namely, angular momentum and torque. Use of these powerful concepts makes it difficult for students to fully comprehend the mechanism that keeps the gyroscope from falling under the force of gravity. The analysis of gyroscopic motion presented here is in terms of linear forces and linear momentum, allowing students to understand gyroscopic motion using familiar concepts. Our simulation using VPython models the gyroscope as a number of point masses evenly spaced in a radial pattern. Students can alter the parameters of the gyroscope including starting position, mass, rotational velocity of the masses, and the force of gravity. All of this allows for a simulation intended to help students understand how such a complex system works.

  10. Effect of external and internal factors on the expression of reporter genes driven by the N resistance gene promoter

    PubMed Central

    Kathiria, Palak; Sidler, Corinne; Woycicki, Rafal; Yao, Youli; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The role of resistance (R) genes in plant pathogen interaction has been studied extensively due to its economical impact on agriculture. Interaction between tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the N protein from tobacco is one of the most widely used models to understand various aspects of pathogen resistance. The transcription activity governed by N gene promoter is one of the least understood elements of the model. In this study, the N gene promoter was cloned and fused with two different reporter genes, one encoding ?-glucuronidase (N::GUS) and another, luciferase (N::LUC). Tobacco plants transformed with the N::GUS or N::LUC reporter constructs were screened for homozygosity and stable expression. Histochemical analysis of N::GUS tobacco plants revealed that the expression is organ specific and developmentally regulated. Whereas two week old plants expressed GUS in midveins only, 6-wk-old plants also expressed GUS in leaf lamella. Roots did not show GUS expression at any time during development. Experiments to address effects of external stress were performed using N::LUC tobacco plants. These experiments showed that N gene promoter expression was suppressed when plants were exposed to high but not low temperatures. Expression was also upregulated in response to TMV, but no changes were observed in plants treated with SA. PMID:23656874

  11. Effect of external and internal factors on the expression of reporter genes driven by the N resistance gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Kathiria, Palak; Sidler, Corinne; Woycicki, Rafal; Yao, Youli; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2013-07-01

    The role of resistance (R) genes in plant pathogen interaction has been studied extensively due to its economical impact on agriculture. Interaction between tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the N protein from tobacco is one of the most widely used models to understand various aspects of pathogen resistance. The transcription activity governed by N gene promoter is one of the least understood elements of the model. In this study, the N gene promoter was cloned and fused with two different reporter genes, one encoding ?-glucuronidase (N::GUS) and another, luciferase (N::LUC). Tobacco plants transformed with the N::GUS or N::LUC reporter constructs were screened for homozygosity and stable expression. Histochemical analysis of N::GUS tobacco plants revealed that the expression is organ specific and developmentally regulated. Whereas two week old plants expressed GUS in midveins only, 6-wk-old plants also expressed GUS in leaf lamella. Roots did not show GUS expression at any time during development. Experiments to address effects of external stress were performed using N::LUC tobacco plants. These experiments showed that N gene promoter expression was suppressed when plants were exposed to high but not low temperatures. Expression was also upregulated in response to TMV, but no changes were observed in plants treated with SA. PMID:23656874

  12. Boron aluminum crippling strength shows improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, O. R.; Bohlmann, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental program directed toward improving boron aluminum crippling strength. Laminate changes evaluated were larger filament diameter, improved processing, shape changes, adding steel-aluminum cross plies, reduced filament volume in corners, adding boron aluminum angle plies, and using titanium interleaves. Filament diameter and steel-aluminum cross plies have little effect on crippling. It is shown that better processing combined with appropriate shape changes improved crippling over 50 percent at both room temperature and 600 F. Tests also show that crippling improvements ranging from 20 to 40 percent are achieved using angle plies and titanium interleaves.

  13. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous. PMID:17148159

  14. Leucine Aminopeptidase RNAs, Proteins, and Activities Increase in Response to Water Deficit, Salinity, and the Wound Signals Systemin, Methyl Jasmonate, and Abscisic Acid1

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Wun S.; Gu, Yong-Qiang; Pautot, Véronique; Bray, Elizabeth A.; Walling, Linda L.

    1999-01-01

    LapA RNAs, proteins, and activities increased in response to systemin, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, water deficit, and salinity in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Salicylic acid inhibited wound-induced increases of LapA RNAs. Experiments using the ABA-deficient flacca mutant indicated that ABA was essential for wound and systemin induction of LapA, and ABA and systemin acted synergistically to induce LapA gene expression. In contrast, pin2 (proteinase inhibitor 2) was not dependent on exogenous ABA. Whereas both LapA and le4 (L. esculentum dehydrin) were up-regulated by increases in ABA, salinity, and water deficit, only LapA was regulated by octadecanoid pathway signals. Comparison of LapA expression with that of the PR-1 (pathogenesis-related 1) and GluB (basic ?-1,3-glucanase) genes indicated that these PR protein genes were modulated by a systemin-independent jasmonic acid-signaling pathway. These studies showed that at least four signaling pathways were utilized during tomato wound and defense responses. Analysis of the expression of a LapA1:GUS gene in transgenic plants indicated that the LapA1 promoter was active during floral and fruit development and was used during vegetative growth only in response to wounding, Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato infection, or wound signals. This comprehensive understanding of the regulation of LapA genes indicated that this regulatory program is distinct from the wound-induced pin2, ABA-responsive le4, and PR protein genes. PMID:10444081

  15. Show Me the Invisible: Visualizing Hidden Content

    PubMed Central

    Geymayer, Thomas; Steinberger, Markus; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Content on computer screens is often inaccessible to users because it is hidden, e.g., occluded by other windows, outside the viewport, or overlooked. In search tasks, the efficient retrieval of sought content is important. Current software, however, only provides limited support to visualize hidden occurrences and rarely supports search synchronization crossing application boundaries. To remedy this situation, we introduce two novel visualization methods to guide users to hidden content. Our first method generates awareness for occluded or out-of-viewport content using see-through visualization. For content that is either outside the screen’s viewport or for data sources not opened at all, our second method shows off-screen indicators and an on-demand smart preview. To reduce the chances of overlooking content, we use visual links, i.e., visible edges, to connect the visible content or the visible representations of the hidden content. We show the validity of our methods in a user study, which demonstrates that our technique enables a faster localization of hidden content compared to traditional search functionality and thereby assists users in information retrieval tasks. PMID:25325078

  16. Color Voyager 2 Image Showing Crescent Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image shows a crescent Uranus, a view that Earthlings never witnessed until Voyager 2 flew near and then beyond Uranus on January 24, 1986. This planet's natural blue-green color is due to the absorption of redder wavelengths in the atmosphere by traces of methane gas. Uranus' diameter is 32,500 miles, a little over four times that of Earth. The hazy blue-green atmosphere probably extends to a depth of around 5,400 miles, where it rests above what is believed to be an icy or liquid mixture (an 'ocean') of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, which in turn surrounds a rocky core perhaps a little smaller than Earth.

  17. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings. PMID:22806150

  18. Survey shows successes, failures of horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J. [Maurer Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Reid, T.B. [Dept. of Energy, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1995-06-19

    Industry`s experience now shows that horizontal well technology must be applied thoughtfully and be site-specific to attain technical and economic success. This article, based on a comprehensive study done by Maurer Engineering for the US Department of Energy (DOE), addresses the success of horizontal wells in less-publicized formations, that is, other than the Austin chalk. Early excitement within the industry about the new technology reached a fever pitch at times, leaving some with the impression that horizontal drilling is a panacea for all drilling environments. This work gauges the overall success of horizontal technology in US and Canadian oil and gas fields, defines the applications where horizontal technology is most appropriate, and assesses its impact on oil recovery and reserves.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells show radioresistance in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvpreet; Kloss, Frank R; Brunauer, Regina; Schimke, Magdalena; Jamnig, Angelika; Greiderer-Kleinlercher, Brigitte; Klima, Günter; Rentenberger, Julia; Auberger, Thomas; Hächl, Oliver; Rasse, Michael; Gassner, Robert; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Irradiation impacts on the viability and differentiation capacity of tissue-borne mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which play a pivotal role in bone regeneration. As a consequence of radiotherapy, bones may develop osteoradionecrosis. When irradiating human bone-derived MSC in vitro with increasing doses, the cells’ self-renewal capabilities were greatly reduced. Mitotically stalled cells were still capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and pre-adipocytes. As a large animal model comparable to the clinical situation, pig mandibles were subjected to fractionized radiation of 2 ? 9 Gy within 1 week. This treatment mimics that of a standardized clinical treatment regimen of head and neck cancer patients irradiated 30 ? 2 Gy. In the pig model, fractures which had been irradiated, showed delayed osseous healing. When isolating MSC at different time points post-irradiation, no significant changes regarding proliferation capacity and osteogenic differentiation potential became apparent. Therefore, pig mandibles were irradiated with a single dose of either 9 or 18 Gy in vivo, and MSC were isolated immediately afterwards. No significant differences between the untreated and 9 Gy irradiated bone with respect to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were unveiled. Yet, cells isolated from 18 Gy irradiated specimens exhibited a reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity, and during the first 2 weeks proliferation rates were greatly diminished. Thereafter, cells recovered and showed normal proliferation behaviour. These findings imply that MSC can effectively cope with irradiation up to high doses in vivo. This finding should thus be implemented in future therapeutic concepts to protect regenerating tissue from radiation consequences. PMID:21762375

  20. Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names. PMID:14667368

  1. Electricity show and related educational programming. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-03-19

    The on-site version of Balance of Power reached a total audience of 21,331 between November 10, 1994 and January 31, 1996; in addition, the Physics on Wheels van offered exhibits and programs to an additional 30,000 students in the 1995-1996 school year. The program provided a groundbreaking new approach to informal science education, combining a dynamic demonstration with an intensely interactive game show. Between the on-site programming and the Physics on Wheels van programs, 51,331 students were impacted by the activities, exhibits and energy-conservation message of Balance of Power.

  2. Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lili

    2015-01-01

    This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it. PMID:25610413

  3. Showing and Telling Farming: Agricultural Shows and Re-Imaging British Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Lewis

    2004-01-01

    Some actors in the ''mainstream'' agricultural sector are beginning to engage in strategies of influencing public perceptions of farming, responding to public anxieties over industrialised agriculture and to a supposed separation of non-farming publics from food production. This paper focuses on agricultural shows as sites and events central to…

  4. Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated ?-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of life and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g?1 of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples. PMID:22428884

  5. The small subunit ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase ( ApS) promoter mediates okadaic acid-sensitive uidA expression in starch-synthesizing tissues and cells in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Siedlecka, Anna; Ciereszko, Iwona; Mellerowicz, Ewa; Martz, Françoise; Chen, Jychian; Kleczkowski, Leszek A

    2003-06-01

    Transgenic plants of Arabidopsis thaliana Heynh., transformed with a bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene under the control of the promoter of the small subunit (ApS) of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), exhibited GUS staining in leaves (including stomata), stems, roots and flowers. Cross-sections of stems revealed GUS staining in protoxylem parenchyma, primary phloem and cortex. In young roots, the staining was found in the root tips, including the root cap, and in vascular tissue, while the older root-hypocotyl axis showed prominent staining in the secondary phloem and paratracheary parenchyma of secondary xylem. The GUS staining co-localized with ApS protein, as found by tissue printing using antibodies against ApS. Starch was found only in cell and tissue types exhibiting GUS staining and ApS labelling, but not in all of them. For example, starch was lacking in the xylem parenchyma and secondary phloem of the root-hypocotyl axis. Sucrose potently activated ApS gene expression in leaves of wild-type (wt) plants, and in transgenic seedlings grown on sucrose medium where GUS activity was quantified with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-glucuronide as substrate. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, completely blocked expression of ApS in mature leaves of wt plants and prevented GUS staining in root tips and flowers of the transgenic plants, suggesting a similar signal transduction mechanism for ApS expression in various tissues. The data support the key role of AGPase in starch synthesis, but they also underlie the ubiquitous importance of the ApS gene for AGPase function in all organs/tissues of Arabidopsis. PMID:12783326

  6. Monitoring up to 16 Synthetic Television Pictures Showing a Great Deal of Movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. TICKNER; E. C. POULTON

    1973-01-01

    A total of 204 observes watched usually 16 synthetic television pictures for 1 hr. The 8 pictures in the middle 2 columns of the display showed activity inside prison. The 8 pictures in the 2 side columns of the display showed activity just outside prison walls. There were 14 suspicious incidents inside prison, 7 of them serious, and 170 other

  7. SUMOylated IRF-1 shows oncogenic potential by mimicking IRF-2

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun-Mi [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of) [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of); School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Myounghee [Clinical Trial Center for Functional Foods, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of)] [Clinical Trial Center for Functional Foods, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo-Kyoung [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of)] [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Taegun [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon [Proteome Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)] [Proteome Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Chul [School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Ho [Molecular Therapy Research Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)] [Molecular Therapy Research Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Junsoo, E-mail: junsoo@yonsei.ac.kr [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of)] [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is an interferon-induced transcriptional activator that suppresses tumors by impeding cell proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that the level of SUMOylated IRF-1 is elevated in tumor cells, and that SUMOylation of IRF-1 attenuates its tumor-suppressive function. Here we report that SUMOylated IRF-1 mimics IRF-2, an antagonistic repressor, and shows oncogenic potential. To demonstrate the role of SUMOylated IRF-1 in tumorigenesis, we used SUMO-IRF-1 recombinant protein. Stable expression of SUMO-IRF-1 in NIH3T3 cells resulted in focus formation and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Inoculation of SUMO-IRF-1-transfected cells into athymic nude mice resulted in tumor formation and infiltration of adipose tissues. Finally, we demonstrated that SUMO-IRF-1 transforms NIH3T3 cells in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that SUMOylated IRF-1 may act as an oncogenic protein in tumor cells.

  8. Physics Outreach: Road Shows and World Year of Physics 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklavzina, Stanley

    2003-05-01

    The general public's awareness of science and physics is decreasing along with the number of physics students at universities on a global scale. One way to increase public and student interest while promoting the university's image is through science outreach activities. In February the APS sponsored a Physics Road Show Conference in Fort Collins Colorado where 55 attendees from around the country shared program information and exchanged ideas about different types of physics (and other science) outreach activities. Papers describing some of the programs can be found at the APS Forum on Education Spring 2003 newsletter: http://www.aps.org/units/fed/spring2003/index.html . The inspiration for the conference is the IUPAP's declaration making 2005 The World Year in Physics. In planning for 2005, the APS has initiated a communication avenue for discussion of ideas of how we bring physics to the public in 2005. If you would like to join in on the discussion visit http://listsvr.apsmsgs.org/cgi-bin/lyris.pl?enter=physicsontheroad . I will share highlights from the conference and ideas developing for 2005.

  9. Cog2 Null Mutant CHO Cells Show Defective Sphingomyelin Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Spessott, Waldo; Uliana, Andrea; Maccioni, Hugo J. F.

    2010-01-01

    The COG (conserved oligomeric Golgi complex) is a Golgi-associated tethering complex involved in retrograde trafficking of multiple Golgi enzymes. COG deficiencies lead to misorganization of the Golgi, defective trafficking of glycosylation enzymes, and abnormal N-, O- and ceramide-linked oligosaccharides. Here, we show that in Cog2 null mutant ldlC cells, the content of sphingomyelin (SM) is reduced to ?25% of WT cells. Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) activity is essentially normal in ldlC cells, but in contrast with the typical Golgi localization in WT cells, in ldlC cells, transfected SMS1 localizes to vesicular structures scattered throughout the cytoplasm, which show almost no signal of co-transfected ceramide transfer protein (CERT). Cog2 transfection restores SM formation and the typical SMS1 Golgi localization phenotype. Adding exogenous N-6-[(7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl-4-d-erythro-sphingosine (C6-NBD-ceramide) to ldlC cell cultures results in normal SM formation. Endogenous ceramide levels were 3-fold higher in ldlC cells than in WT cells, indicating that Golgi misorganization caused by Cog2 deficiency affects the delivery of ceramide to sites of SM synthesis by SMS1. Considering the importance of SM as a structural component of membranes, this finding is also worth of consideration in relation to a possible contribution to the clinical phenotype of patients suffering congenital disorders of glycosylation type II. PMID:21047787

  10. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo, 400 years ago, to the world of modern astronomy, moving from the visible wavelength domain to explore the millimetre-wave view of the Universe, and leaving light-polluted cities for unique settings in some of the highest and driest places on Earth. "The fascinating topic, the breathtaking ESO astronomical images, the amazing 3D computer animations, and the very clever use of the music, all make this a really inspiring show," says Agnčs Acker, President of the APLF. In search of our Cosmic Origins is available in three different formats: fulldome video, classical with video windows, and classical with slides. Fulldome video shows immerse the audience in a true 360-degree projected computer-generated virtual environment. The ALMA planetarium show is currently available in French and English. Several other language versions are in preparation: German, Italian, Spanish and Chilean Spanish, while further languages are planned: Danish, Dutch, Greek, Japanese, Portuguese and Brazilian Portuguese. The show will be available to all planetariums worldwide for a small fee, depending on the type and the size of the planetarium, to cover basic costs. The media are invited to attend, and see firsthand, the official screening during the European Film Festival, between 24 and 26 April 2009 in Espinho, Portugal. For media accreditation, please go to http://iff.multimeios.pt/index.php?option=com_wrapper&Itemid=45 A set of educational materials is also being prepared and will be finished in late April. To learn more about the show, please go to www.cosmicorigins.org

  11. Stress Response to High Magnetic Fields in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana Plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, A. N.; Watson, B. C.; Maloney, J. R.; Meisel, M. W.; Brooks, J. S.; Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.

    2000-03-01

    With increasingly greater strength magnetic fields becoming available in research and medicine, the response of living tissue exposed to high magnetic fields has come under investigation. In this experiment, genetically engineered arabidopsis plants were exposed to homogeneous magnetic fields of varying strengths using a superconducting NMR magnet (0 to 9 T) at UF and a resistive magnet (0 to 25 T) at the NHMFL. The engineered plants produce the enzyme ?-glucaronidase (GUS) when under stressful environmental conditions. The level of GUS activity is determined through qualitative histochemical assays and quantitative fluorometric assays. The control group of plants experienced baseline levels of GUS activity, but some of the plants that were exposed to magnetic fields in excess of 9 T show increased stress response. Additional information is available at http://www.phys.ufl.edu/ ~meisel/maglev.htm.

  12. Auxin regulates the promoter of the root-inducing rolB gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes in transgenic tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Maurel; Jean Brevet; Hélčne Barbier-Brygoo; Jean Guern; Jacques Tempé

    1990-01-01

    The regulation in tobacco of the rolB and rolC promoters of Agrobacterium rhizogenes pRi 1855 TL-DNA was studied by using the ß-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter system in transgenic plants. A 20- to 100-fold increase of GUS activity was selectively induced by auxin in rolB-GUS transformed mesophyll protoplasts, whereas this auxin-dependent increase was only 5-fold in rolC-GUS protoplasts. Moreover, both gene fusions

  13. The novel Solanum tuberosum calcium dependent protein kinase, StCDPK3, is expressed in actively growing organs.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Verónica; Bialer, Magalí; Santin, Franco; Lin, Tian; Hannapel, David J; Ulloa, Rita M

    2012-12-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are key components of calcium regulated signaling cascades in plants. In this work, isoform StCDPK3 from Solanum tuberosum was studied and fully described. StCDPK3 encodes a 63 kDa protein with an N-terminal variable domain (NTV), rich in prolines and glutamines, which presents myristoylation and palmitoylation consensus sites and a PEST sequence indicative of rapid protein degradation. StCDPK3 gene (circa 11 kb) is localized in chromosome 3, shares the eight exons and seven introns structure with other isoforms from subgroup IIa and contains an additional intron in the 5'UTR region. StCDPK3 expression is ubiquitous being transcripts more abundant in early elongating stolons (ES), leaves and roots, however isoform specific antibodies only detected the protein in leaf particulate extracts. The recombinant 6xHis-StCDPK3 is an active kinase that differs in its kinetic parameters and calcium requirements from StCDPK1 and 2 isoforms. In vitro, StCDPK3 undergoes autophosphorylation regardless of the addition of calcium. The StCDPK3 promoter region (circa 1,800 bp) was subcloned by genome walking and fused to GUS. Light and ABRE responsive elements were identified in the promoter region as well as elements associated to expression in roots. StCDPK3 expression was enhanced by ABA while GA decreased it. Potato transgenic lines harboring StCDPK3 promoter?GUS construct were generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated plant transformation. Promoter activity was detected in leaves, root tips and branching points, early ES, tuber eyes and developing sprouts indicating that StCDPK3 is expressed in actively growing organs. PMID:22922879

  14. High Resolution Crystal Structure of Human ?-Glucuronidase Reveals Structural Basis of Lysosome Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Md. Imtaiyaz; Waheed, Abdul; Grubb, Jeffery H.; Klei, Herbert E.; Korolev, Sergey; Sly, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Human ?-glucuronidase (GUS) cleaves ?-D-glucuronic acid residues from the non-reducing termini of glycosaminoglycan and its deficiency leads to mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII). Here we report a high resolution crystal structure of human GUS at 1.7 Ĺ resolution and present an extensive analysis of the structural features, unifying recent findings in the field of lysosome targeting and glycosyl hydrolases. The structure revealed several new details including a new glycan chain at Asn272, in addition to that previously observed at Asn173, and coordination of the glycan chain at Asn173 with Lys197 of the lysosomal targeting motif which is essential for phosphotransferase recognition. Analysis of the high resolution structure not only provided new insights into the structural basis for lysosomal targeting but showed significant differences between human GUS, which is medically important in its own right, and E. coli GUS, which can be selectively inhibited in the human gut to prevent prodrug activation and is also widely used as a reporter gene by plant biologists. Despite these differences, both human and E. coli GUS share a high structure homology in all three domains with most of the glycosyl hydrolases, suggesting that they all evolved from a common ancestral gene. PMID:24260279

  15. A simple and efficient gene transfer system of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.).

    PubMed

    Kaneyoshi Hiramatsu, J; Kobayashi, S; Nakamura, Y; Shigemoto, N; Doi, Y

    1994-07-01

    A simple and efficient gene transfer system of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.) was developed using epicotyl segments. The segments were infected with Agrobacterium harboring the binary vector pBI121 or pBI101-O12-p1. Both vectors contained the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) and the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) genes. In the plasmid pBI101-O12-p1, the GUS gene was directed to the promoter region of ORF12 (rolC) of the Ri plasmid. On a selection medium containing 100 or 200 ?g/ml kanamycin, adventitious shoots were formed from 21.7-44.6% of the segments. Histochemical GUS assay showed that 55.4-87.7% of the shoots expressed the GUS gene. The stable integration of this gene was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and by Southern blot analysis. When the pBI101-O12-p1 plasmid was used, the GUS activity was found to be located in phloem cells of leaf, stem and root. More than 100 transformed plants were obtained using this method within 2-3 months. PMID:24196217

  16. Truncated Cotton Subtilase Promoter Directs Guard Cell-Specific Expression of Foreign Genes in Tobacco and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lei; Han, Ya-Nan; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A 993-bp regulatory region upstream of the translation start codon of subtilisin-like serine protease gene was isolated from Gossypium barbadense. This (T/A)AAAG-rich region, GbSLSP, and its 5?- and 3?-truncated versions were transferred into tobacco and Arabidopsis after fusing with GUS or GFP. Histochemical and quantitative GUS analysis and confocal GFP fluorescence scanning in the transgenic plants showed that the GbSLSP-driven GUS and GFP expressed preferentially in guard cells, whereas driven by GbSLSPF2 to GbSLSPF4, the 5?-truncated GbSLSP versions with progressively reduced Dof1 elements, both GUS and GFP expressed exclusively in guard cells, and the expression strength declined with (T/A)AAAG copy decrement. Deletion of 5?-untranslated region from GbSLSP markedly weakened the activity of GUS and GFP, while deletion from the strongest guard cell-specific promoter, GbSLSPF2, not only significantly decreased the expression strength, but also completely abolished the guard cell specificity. These results suggested both guard cell specificity and expression strength of the promoters be coordinately controlled by 5?-untranslated region and a cluster of at least 3 (T/A)AAAG elements within a region of about 100 bp relative to transcription start site. Our guard cell-specific promoters will enrich tools to manipulate gene expression in guard cells for scientific research and crop improvement. PMID:23555786

  17. Platelets from Asthmatic Individuals Show Less Reliance on Glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weiling; Cardenes, Nayra; Corey, Catherine; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Shiva, Sruti

    2015-01-01

    Asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is typified by high levels of TH2-cytokines and excessive generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, which contribute to bronchial epithelial injury and airway remodeling. While immune function plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is a key determinant in the predisposition and disease progression of asthma. Further, several studies demonstrate altered mitochondrial function in asthmatic airways and suggest that these changes may be systemic. However, it is unknown whether systemic metabolic changes can be detected in circulating cells in asthmatic patients. Platelets are easily accessible blood cells that are known to propagate airway inflammation in asthma. Here we perform a bioenergetic screen of platelets from asthmatic and healthy individuals and demonstrate that asthmatic platelets show a decreased reliance on glycolytic processes and have increased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data demonstrate a systemic alteration in asthma and are consistent with prior reports suggesting that oxidative phosphorylation is more efficient asthmatic individuals. The implications for this potential metabolic shift will be discussed in the context of increased oxidative stress and hypoxic adaptation of asthmatic patients. Further, these data suggest that platelets are potentially a good model for the monitoring of bioenergetic changes in asthma. PMID:26147848

  18. Map showing lava-flow hazard zones, Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Thomas L.; Chun, Jon Y.F.; Exposo, Jean; Heliker, Christina; Hodge, Jon; Lockwood, John P.; Vogt, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    This map shows lava-flow hazard zones for the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii. Volcano boundaries are shown as heavy, dark bands, reflecting the overlapping of lava flows from adjacent volcanoes along their common boundary. Hazard-zone boundaries are drawn as double lines because of the geologic uncertainty in their placement. Most boundaries are gradational, and the change In the degree of hazard can be found over a distance of a mile or more. The general principles used to place hazard-zone boundaries are discussed by Mullineaux and others (1987) and Heliker (1990). The differences between the boundaries presented here and in Heliker (1990) reflect new data used in the compilation of a geologic map for the Island of Hawaii (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). The primary source of information for volcano boundaries and generalized ages of lava flows for all five volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii is the geologic map of Hawaii (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). More detailed information is available for the three active volcanoes. For Hualalai, see Moore and others (1987) and Moore and Clague (1991); for Mauna Loa, see Lockwood and Lipman (1987); and for Kilauea, see Holcomb (1987) and Moore and Trusdell (1991).

  19. What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    2 How Gun Shows Work What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal. But other states have enacted more specific definitions as they acted to regulate gun shows themselves or gun sales at gun shows but not elsewhere (Table 2-1). In the parking lot of a gun show in Pharr, Texas

  20. The geology of the Gus area, Burleson county, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Napp, Donald Edward

    1956-01-01

    Citya)eches contact exposed at ocal- ity W-l . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . , . after page 17 Fossiliferous siltstone lodge in the !ueen City formation at Locality !-6 . . . . . . after page 18 Fossiliferous ;!ueen City siltstone ledge at Locality... )W . . . . ~ . . ? . ~ . ~ . after page 18 VIXI ' IXg Figure 1, View of Porters Prairie taken i'x'om Sparta cuesta looking northwest. Figure 2. View of Porters Prairie taken from Sparta cuest~ lookin west Figure 1 ~ Lower l(eches resistant...

  1. The geology of the Gus area, Burleson county, Texas

    E-print Network

    Napp, Donald Edward

    1956-01-01

    strata betueon the do@inant- 4y no~inc ~en City and Sysrta furuiatlonoi Tho sane' atrata ha4 previously been turned Lair Creek bode bj 0'catch (~)t and san Augustine eeaber of the cook ggeuntaia by Renick (lSRS) ~ The terninology of bendlandt...

  2. A NEW ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA MUTANT DEFICIENT IN THE EXPRESSION OF OMETHYLTRANSFERASE 1: IMPACT ON LIGNINS AND ON SINAPOYL ESTERI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A promoter-trap screen allowed us to identify an Arabidopsis line expressing GUS in the root vascular tissues. T-DNA border sequencing showed that the line was mutated in the COMT 1 gene (AtOMT1) and therefore deficient in OMT1 activity. In this knockout mutant and relative to the wild type, lignins...

  3. Transgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose synthesis and improved

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Richard E.

    , and development of enhanced extractable Vmax SPS activ- ity in leaf and fiber. Lines with the highest Vmax SPSTransgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose activity in leaf and fiber had higher fiber micro- naire and maturity ratio associated with greater thick

  4. "The George Lopez Show": The Same Old Hispano?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markert, John

    2007-01-01

    "The George Lopez Show" is the first successful television show with a Latino in a leading role that features Hispanic material since Freddie Prinze's thirty-year-old sitcom, "Chico and the Man." This study seeks to assess how Latinos are presented on "The George Lopez Show." A content analysis reveals that the show perpetuates some of the…

  5. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century

    E-print Network

    Rothman, Daniel

    climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950­2005 are compared frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global. It has been known for at least 60 y that tropical cyclones are driven by surface enthalpy fluxes (1, 2

  6. Aqueous extract of ginger shows antiproliferative activity through disruption of microtubule network of cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diptiman Choudhury; Amlan Das; Abhijit Bhattacharya; Gopal Chakrabarti

    2010-01-01

    Ginger has a long history of use as traditional medicine for varied human disease. Our present study has shown that the aqueous extract of ginger (GAE) interacts directly with cellular microtubules and disrupts its structure and induces apoptosis of cancer cells as well. The IC50 values of GAE, as determined from cell viability experiment on human non-small lung epithelium cancer

  7. Aqueous extract of ginger shows antiproliferative activity through disruption of microtubule network of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Diptiman; Das, Amlan; Bhattacharya, Abhijit; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2010-10-01

    Ginger has a long history of use as traditional medicine for varied human disease. Our present study has shown that the aqueous extract of ginger (GAE) interacts directly with cellular microtubules and disrupts its structure and induces apoptosis of cancer cells as well. The IC(50) values of GAE, as determined from cell viability experiment on human non-small lung epithelium cancer (A549) cells and human cervical epithelial carcinoma (HeLa), were 239.4+7.4 and 253.4+8.9 ?g/ml, respectively. It has been found that the apoptosis of A549 cells by GAE is mediated by up regulation of tumor suppressor gene p53 and alteration of the normal Bax/Bcl-2 ratio followed by down regulation of cellular pro-caspase3. The morphological change of cells upon GAE treatment has also been demonstrated. Both the structural and functional properties of tubulin and microtubule were lost, as confirmed by both ex vivo and invitro experiments. The major component of GAE is poly-phenols (around 2.5%), which consist of ? 80% flavones and flavonols. Poly-phenolic compounds are well known to have anti-mitotic properties, and may be further screened for the development of a potential anti-cancer agent. PMID:20647029

  8. IMPLICATIONS OF RESEARCH SHOWING HARMFUL EFFECTS OF GROUP ACTIVITIES WITH ANTI-SOCIAL ADOLESCENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Greene

    In a classic and often-cited research article, Dishion, McCord, and Poulin (1999) present experimental evidence that delinquent adolescents who associate with anti-social peers are at increased risk of continuing and escalating delinquent behavior (American Psychologist 1999, 54, 755-764). These findings, and much prior and subsequent research, have led to a radical change in thinking about the organization and structure of

  9. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century

    E-print Network

    Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(10[superscript 4])] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states ...

  10. Men and women show distinct brain activations during imagery of sexual and emotional infidelity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidehiko Takahashi; Masato Matsuura; Noriaki Yahata; Michihiko Koeda; Tetsuya Suhara; Yoshiro Okubo

    2006-01-01

    Jealousy-related behaviors such as intimate partner violence and morbid jealousy are more common in males. Principal questionnaire studies suggest that men and women have different modules to process cues of sexual and emotional infidelity. We aimed to elucidate the neural response to sentences depicting sexual and emotional infidelity in men and women using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although there was

  11. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation...not be subject to the tax imposed by section...for, the products or services of the industry (or...the exhibitor displays goods or services that...

  12. Flupirtine shows functional NMDA receptor antagonism by enhancing Mg21 block via activation of voltage independent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kornhuber; S. Bleich; J. Wiltfang; M. Maler; C. G. Parsons

    Summary. The spectrum of action of flupirtine includes analgesia, muscle relaxation and neuroprotection. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism has been discussed as a possible mechanism of action of this compound with little direct evidence. The objective of the present study was to develop a plausible model to explain flupirtine's spectrum of action. A four- stage strategy was selected for this purpose:

  13. The major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, shows ribonuclease activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albrecht Bufe; Michael D. Spangfort; Helga Kahlert; Max Schlaak; Wolf-Meinhard Becker

    1996-01-01

    The major birch (Betula alba L.) pollen allergen, Bet v 1, has been shown to be homologous to pathogenesis-related proteins in a number of plants. Recently, it was demonstrated that a ginseng protein with high homology to an intracellular pathogenesis-related protein of parsley and to Bet v 1 is a ribonuclease (RNase). Birch pollen extract was separated in an RNase

  14. addition, some functional brain imaging studies show differences in brain activation in frontal regions in dys-

    E-print Network

    -Educational Test Battery (Woodcock and Johnson 1989) were below a Standard Score of 90 (below the 25th percentile disadvantage. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and written informed consent­Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery Letter-word identification SS 122 13.7 84.2b 10.7 Word Attack SS 120 17.1 85

  15. Southern Brazilian autumnal propolis shows anti-angiogenic activity: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Meneghelli, Cristiane; Joaquim, Lisię Silva Dalsasso; Félix, Giovanni Loos Queiroz; Somensi, Amélia; Tomazzoli, Maíra; da Silva, Diego Adílio; Berti, Fernanda Vieira; Veleirinho, Maria Beatriz Rocha; Recouvreux, Derce de Oliveira Souza; de Mattos Zeri, Ana Carolina; Dias, Paulo Fernando; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2013-07-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of a hydro-alcoholic propolis extract collected in autumn (2010) in Santa Catarina State (Southern Brazil), on the angiogenesis, using in vitro and in vivo models. Cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used to assess the effects of propolis on viability, proliferation, and cell migration, as well as capillary tube formation. The propolis autumnal extracts significantly decreased the cell viability, based on CC50 values, which decreased (56%) from 297 to 130 ?g/ml in 24 h and 72 h of treatment, respectively (cytotoxicity assay). The process of cell proliferation was decreased by 81.7 to 48.4% due to exposure (72 h) to 130-180 ?g/ml of propolis extract, as compared with control (vehicle). In these same concentrations, the cell migration was also reduced by 39.6 to 12.6%, respectively (versus control). Furthermore, autumnal propolis extract (100-200 ?g/ml) inhibited the tube-like structure formation (tubulogenesis) of endothelial cells on Matrigel™ (16.2-69.9% inhibition). The treatments performed in vivo with administration of 450 mg propolis.kg(-1) inhibited both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis by 82.3 and 66.5% in the chorioallantoic and yolk-sac membranes of chick embryos. Furthermore, by means of UV-vis-spectrophotometry, reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography analysis and 1D and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance experiments reveal higher contents of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds with predominance of the flavonol quercetin and the phenolic acids, e.g., gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and chlorogenic acid in the propolis hydro-alcoholic extract. Our findings related to the anti-proliferative, anti-migration, and anti-tubulogenic actions on human umbilical vein endothelial cell line agree with the inhibitory effects in the in vivo vessel formation exerted by propolis extract under study. The results also suggest that autumnal propolis extract might be potentially instrumental in providing alternative tools for angiogenic disease therapeutics. PMID:23538317

  16. Preterm infants show reduced stress behaviors and activity after 5 days of massage therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Hernandez-Reif; Miguel Diego; Tiffany Field

    2007-01-01

    Preterm infants residing in an NICU were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or to a control group. The preterm infants in the massage therapy group received three 15-min massages each day for 5 consecutive days, with the massages consisting of moderate pressure stroking to the head, shoulders, back, arms and legs and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension

  17. Is Your Summer Program Showing? It Needs To!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blezek, Allen C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses extended summer contracts for vocational agricultural instructors in view of budget restrictions and the effectiveness of instructors' summer activities. Lists 23 activities normally undertaken by instructors during summer months and provides eight suggestions to vocational agriculture instructors to help them justify, maintain, and…

  18. 94. View looking south showing foundation equipment at work on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. View looking south showing foundation equipment at work on two of the piers. The view also shows the two completed cylinders in the midstream cluster of four. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. 5 CFR 2422.10 - Validity of showing of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Validity of showing of interest. 2422.10 Section...REPRESENTATION PROCEEDINGS § 2422.10 Validity of showing of interest. (a) Validity. Validity questions are raised by...

  20. 5 CFR 2422.10 - Validity of showing of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Validity of showing of interest. 2422.10 Section...REPRESENTATION PROCEEDINGS § 2422.10 Validity of showing of interest. (a) Validity. Validity questions are raised by...

  1. 42 CFR 456.655 - Validation of showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Validation of showings. 456.655 Section 456.655 Public Health CENTERS FOR...Utilization Control Program § 456.655 Validation of showings. ...procedures will include on-site sample surveys of institutions and...

  2. 42 CFR 456.655 - Validation of showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Validation of showings. 456.655 Section 456.655 Public Health CENTERS FOR...Utilization Control Program § 456.655 Validation of showings. ...procedures will include on-site sample surveys of institutions and...

  3. 42 CFR 456.655 - Validation of showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Validation of showings. 456.655 Section 456.655 Public Health CENTERS FOR...Utilization Control Program § 456.655 Validation of showings. ...procedures will include on-site sample surveys of institutions and...

  4. 42 CFR 456.655 - Validation of showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Validation of showings. 456.655 Section 456.655 Public Health CENTERS FOR...Utilization Control Program § 456.655 Validation of showings. ...procedures will include on-site sample surveys of institutions and...

  5. 42 CFR 456.655 - Validation of showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Validation of showings. 456.655 Section 456.655 Public Health CENTERS FOR...Utilization Control Program § 456.655 Validation of showings. ...procedures will include on-site sample surveys of institutions and...

  6. Journey to the Stars Educator's Guide: Teaching with the Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an educators guide to accompany the Journey to the Stars planetarium show. The materials include a section, titled Teaching With the Show, containing guiding questions to encourage class discussions about the life cycle of stars.

  7. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  8. North Pacific and North America: Showing the Changing Seasons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1998-09-09

    SeaWiFS false color data showing seasonal change in the oceans and on land for North America and the North Pacific. The data is seasonally averaged, and shows fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring, and summer.

  9. New Ebola Vaccine Shows Promise in Human Trials

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151665.html New Ebola Vaccine Shows Promise in Human Trials It appeared ... WEDNESDAY, March 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental Ebola vaccine shows promise in an early clinical trial, ...

  10. The OOPSLA Trivia Show (TOOTS) University of Alabama at Birmingham

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey G.

    The OOPSLA Trivia Show (TOOTS) Jeff Gray University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Computer participation. 1. Overview of the OOPSLA Trivia Show OOPSLA has one of the most diverse collections of attendees on topics related to OOPSLA. 2. The OOPSLA Trivia Show Rules The panel will follow the general rules

  11. 77. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RIVERFRONT SIDE OF THE PROPERTY, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RIVERFRONT SIDE OF THE PROPERTY, FROM WEST 77. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RIVERFRONT SIDE OF THE PROPERTY, FROM WEST 77. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RIVERFRONT SIDE OF THE PROPERTY, FROM WEST - Westover, State Route 633, Westover, Charles City, VA

  12. Using lake core data to show human environmental impacts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity was developed during the workshop, Teaching Climate Change: Insight from Large Lakes, held in June 2012.by Ester Sztein, Board on International Scientific Organizations, National Academy of ...

  13. Spel POPDEEDS and A.V. Show in schools.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The National Population Education Project (NPEP), known as Population and Development Education in Schools, is now in its fourth phase in India. The objective of the project is the institutionalization of the post-International Conference on Population and Development reconceptualized population education in the content and process of school education and teacher education. To achieve this goal, two approaches are being employed: formal curricular approach and co-curricular or non-course approach. This paper describes the co-curricular activities under NPEP, highlighting the Special Lectures on Population and Development Education in Schools popularly known as żSpel PopDEEDSż. These activities are targeted at students and teachers of secondary and higher schools, and will be organized by the implementing agencies of NPEP at national and state levels. The steps for organizing the activities are outlined, including the information on the themes/topics of lectures, coordination mechanism, and activity through nongovernmental organizations. PMID:12179772

  14. 10. Photocopy of drawings, 1937 (Amtrak Files) ELECTRIFICATION PLAN SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of drawings, 1937 (Amtrak Files) ELECTRIFICATION PLAN SHOWING CATENARY ATTACHMENTS - Christiana Borough Bridge, Bridge Street over Pennsylvania Railroad, Christiana, Lancaster County, PA

  15. View looking south, showing portico of north wing with pavilion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south, showing portico of north wing with pavilion and engine house in background - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, SOUTH WING, AND ENGINE HOUSE - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 1. DELAWARE AVE. (right, looking north) AND WASHINGTON AVE. SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DELAWARE AVE. (right, looking north) AND WASHINGTON AVE. SHOWING GLORIA DEI CHURCH (note steeple) - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished aluminum and brass balustrade - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 15. FIRST FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN / BEAM CONNECTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FIRST FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN / BEAM CONNECTION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  1. Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of cornice and window ornamentation - Hungarian Sick Benefit Societies Building, 1406-1418 State Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  2. 3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of the mansion, looking northwest. Original photograph at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Strawberry Mansion, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 17. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING ELEVATED CONVEYOR AND UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING ELEVATED CONVEYOR AND UNLOADING SYSTEM HOPPERS - Spencer Kellogg & Sons, Incorporated, Pier & Transit Shed, 139-155 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

  4. 2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES AND CLERESTORY ARRANGEMENT - Sulphur Springs Methodist Campground, Sulphur Springs Road (Sulphur Springs), Sulphur Springs, Washington County, TN

  5. 5. Elevated view across Stillwell Avenue showing control tower and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Elevated view across Stillwell Avenue showing control tower and storefronts. Looking east by northeast. - Stillwell Avenue Station, Intersection of Stillwell & Surf Avenues, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  6. 2. VIEW SHOWING FRONT (WEST) OF BURLEY SUBSTATION AND ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING FRONT (WEST) OF BURLEY SUBSTATION AND ADJACENT DRYCLEANERS, WITH ALBION AVENUE IN FOREGROUND - Bonneville Power Administration Burley Substation, 1221 Albion Avenue, Burley, Cassia County, ID

  7. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  8. 81. Stern area, linoleum has been removed showing possible original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. Stern area, linoleum has been removed showing possible original decking. Russell Booth photographer, December 1990. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish and woodwork details - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  10. 6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL RELIEF OF TRANSPORTATION BY AUTOMOBILE - Calvert Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 5. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING RAFTER CONSTRUCTION. SOUTHERN EXTENSION AT LEFT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING RAFTER CONSTRUCTION. SOUTHERN EXTENSION AT LEFT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Operational Storage Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  12. 3. Front view showing administration building (trellis since demolished) (as ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Front view showing administration building (trellis since demolished) (as of 1936). From photograph in Historical Society of Penna. - The Lazaretto, Delaware River vicinity, Essington, Delaware County, PA

  13. 23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING REHABILITATION AND BETTERMENT PROGRAM Photographer: unknown. April 1968 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. A Physics Show Performed by Students for Kids: From Mechanics to Elementary Particle Physics

    E-print Network

    Herbert K. Dreiner

    2007-02-01

    We describe an initiative at the University of Bonn, where the students develop and perform a 2 hour physics show for school classes and the general public. The show is entertaining and educational and is aimed at children aged 10 and older. For the physics students this is a unique experience to apply their knowledge at an early stage and gives them the chance to develop skills in the public presentation of science, in front of 520 people per show. We have extended the activity to put on an elementary particle physics show for teenagers. Furthermore, local high schools have picked up the idea; their students put on similar shows for fellow students and parents. We would be interested in hearing about related activities elsewhere.

  15. UF Bee College Honey Show Entry Registration Form

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    UF Bee College Honey Show Entry Registration Form Please select the class and mark number of entries you will be submitting. Please send the entry form to: Glinda Burnett C/O Bee College Honey Show: six 1lb jars of honey of any type (extracted, chunk, creamed) displayed with your own labels H2. Three

  16. 8. INTERIOR OF KERN RIVER No. 1 POWERHOUSE BUILDING SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF KERN RIVER No. 1 POWERHOUSE BUILDING SHOWING EXCITER No 1. SIDE VIEW OF LOMBARD GOVERNOR SHOWING BELT ATTACHMENT TO EXCITER SHAFT. GENERATOR UNIT No. 2 IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Kern County No. 1 Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Kern River Canyon, Bakersfield, Kern County, CA

  17. TV shows on Light Pollution Education for the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-03-01

    TV shows have the biggest impact for the public, so we can use them to inform and educate the public about light pollution and the importance of the dark sky for humanity and for the contemporary society. Some examples used in the TV show Us and the Sky at Columna TV, Romania, are presented.

  18. Proper Use of Sulfonamides in Market Show Animals 

    E-print Network

    Faries Jr., Floron C.; Fajt, Virginia

    2008-02-14

    When administering a drug to a show animal, the owner is responsible for ensuring that there will be no drug residues in the animal's urine when it is tested at a show. Sulfonamides are of special concern because, even when they are administered...

  19. 7. Photocopy of house, circa 1910. It shows small original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of house, circa 1910. It shows small original details which have been changed and also shows how little the exterior appearence has been altered. Original photograph at Nebraska State Historical Society. - Chambers-Mayberry House, Northwest corner of Oak Street & Fifth Avenue (moved to Crofton, NE), Niobrara, Knox County, NE

  20. 108. View showing storage yard where material is received and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. View showing storage yard where material is received and sorted: also shows derrick framed to raise material from tracks and land on deck of approach. Material is then moved by narrow gage locomotive out to erection traveler. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Children, Costume, and Identity in the Chester Midsummer Show

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susannah Crowder

    2007-01-01

    This essay focuses on the performances of children in late medieval and early modern Chester, using questions about gender identity and fashion to unpack the intricate social meanings of their representations in the Chester Midsummer Show. Roles for children in the Show changed drastically in the decades before and after 1600, when depictions of boys in performance shifted from representing

  2. 15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, c. 1934. SHOWS PRECIPITATION TANK No. 1 (NOTE LOCKS), ZINC FEEDER WITH MIXING CONE, VACUUM RECEIVER AND PIPING. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  3. Sensor innovations at the Assembly and Automation Technology Show

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Bloss

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the sensor technology innovations presented at the combined manufacturing-related shows which included Design & Manufacturing, Assembly, Electronics, Medical and Green Manufacturing and known as the Assembly and Automation Technology Show or AAT Expo. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws on in-depth interviews with exhibitors of sensor products. Findings – The paper

  4. 15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of Building 461 (9/4/56) showing Building 463 tanks to the right of the photo. Original is on file Mare Island Naval Shipyard-Photography Lab. Photographer unknown. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing wooden planks along the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing wooden planks along the upstream face and concrete base added in 1916/1917 and showing the iron grating covering upstream side of outlet structure is visible at lower photo center, view northeast - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with Arch; Part Long Section Showing Inside of External Side Wall; East Entrance; Part Side South External; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Floor; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Roof - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

  7. Anatomy of a Shows the 9 components of

    E-print Network

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    Anatomy of a Hillslope Shows the 9 components of hillslopes and the dominant transport processes and pathways Handout #12;Anatomy of a Hillslope Dominated by vertical soil formation processes Shows the 9 components of hillslopes and the dominant transport processes and pathways #12;Anatomy of a Hillslope

  8. 27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ONE-STORY OFFICES, SHOWING TYPICAL COLUMN BASE WITH TIMBER BOLTED TO STEEL 'L' SHOE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. North and South America: Showing the Changing Seasons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1998-09-09

    SeaWiFS false color data showing seasonal change in the oceans and on land for the Western Hemisphere. The data is seasonally averaged, and shows the sequence: fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring, summer (for the Northern Hemisphere).

  10. 11. SHOWS NORTH WALL OF ELL (interior part of ell), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SHOWS NORTH WALL OF ELL (interior part of ell), CONTINUING THRU SOUTH ENTRY (left-hand side barn entrance). ALSO SHOWS DETAILS OF PENS #2 AND #3, AND PLATE CONSTRUCTION OF MAIN LOFT. VIEW FROM NORTH. Date: July 10, 1937; negative #10625 - Witt Shields Barn, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  11. 14. SHOWS KEEPERS WHICH HELD THE SLIDING BOLT TO LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SHOWS KEEPERS WHICH HELD THE SLIDING BOLT TO LOCK DOOR; ALSO SHOWS FEED TROUGH AND HAY RACK (see HABS No. TN-160-13) IN BACKGROUND. SPIKES USED TO NAIL DOOR JAMBS TO WALL LOGS MADE FROM OLD HORSESHOES Date: July 1941; negative #10653 - Witt Shields Barn, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  12. Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

  13. 28. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAF IN RAISED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAF IN RAISED POSITION WITH THE EXTREME UPPER PORTION OF THE BASCULE RACK GEAR SHOWING IN THE LOWER RIGHT PORTION OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  14. The regulation of the SARK promoter activity by hormones and environmental signals.

    PubMed

    Delatorre, Carla A; Cohen, Yuval; Liu, Li; Peleg, Zvi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    The Senescence Associated Receptor Protein Kinase (P(SARK)) promoter, fused to isopentenyltransferase (IPT) gene has been shown to promote drought tolerance in crops. We dissected P(SARK) in order to understand the various elements associated with its activation and suppression. The activity of P(SARK) was higher in mature and early senescing leaves, and abiotic stress induced its activity in mature leaves. Bioinformatics analysis suggests the interactions of multiple cis-acting elements in the control of P(SARK) activity. In vitro gel shift assays and yeast one hybrid system revealed interactions of P(SARK) with transcription factors related to abscisic acid and cytokinin response. Deletion analysis of P(SARK), fused to GUS-reporter gene was used to identify specific regions regulating transcription under senescence or during drought stress. Effects of exogenous hormonal treatments were characterized in entire plants and in leaf disk assays, and regions responsive to various hormones were defined. Our results indicate a complex interaction of plant hormones and additional factors modulating P(SARK) activity under stress resulting in a transient induction of expression. PMID:22794917

  15. World pipeline construction plans show increase into next century

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.; True, W.R.

    1995-02-06

    Plans for worldwide pipeline construction into the next century increased in the past year, especially for developing regions of Latin America and Asia-Pacific. Many of the projects involve large capacity, international gas pipeline systems. By contrast, pipeline construction in Canada, The US, and Europe will decline. Those trends and others are revealed in the latest Oil and Gas Journal pipeline construction data, derived from a survey of world pipeline operators, industry sources, and published information. More than 61,000 miles of crude oil, product, and natural gas pipeline are to be built in 1995 and beyond. The paper discusses Europe's markets, North Sea pipelines, expansion of German pipeline, pipelines in the UK, European and African gas, the trans-Mediterranean gas pipeline, Caspian Sea pipeline, Middle East pipelines, Asia-Pacific activity, South American gas lines, pipelines in Colombia, TransCanada line, Gulf of Mexico pipelines, other Gulf activities, and other US activity.

  16. Active Mutants of the TCR-Mediated p38 Alternative Activation Site Show Changes in the Phosphorylation

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    including osmotic shock and UV radiation and biological signals such as growth *Corresponding author inflammatory diseases,8,9 psoriasis, and cancer,10­13 making it a viable target for drug design.10­16 The p38-octyl--D-glucopyranoside; ESRF, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility; PDB, Protein Data Bank; ZAP-70, zeta

  17. DYZ1 arrays show sequence variation between the monozygotic males

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monozygotic twins (MZT) are an important resource for genetical studies in the context of normal and diseased genomes. In the present study we used DYZ1, a satellite fraction present in the form of tandem arrays on the long arm of the human Y chromosome, as a tool to uncover sequence variations between the monozygotic males. Results We detected copy number variation, frequent insertions and deletions within the sequences of DYZ1 arrays amongst all the three sets of twins used in the present study. MZT1b showed loss of 35 bp compared to that in 1a, whereas 2a showed loss of 31 bp compared to that in 2b. Similarly, 3b showed 10 bp insertion compared to that in 3a. MZT1a germline DNA showed loss of 5 bp and 1b blood DNA showed loss of 26 bp compared to that of 1a blood and 1b germline DNA, respectively. Of the 69 restriction sites detected in DYZ1 arrays, MboII, BsrI, TspEI and TaqI enzymes showed frequent loss and or gain amongst all the 3 pairs studied. MZT1 pair showed loss/gain of VspI, BsrDI, AgsI, PleI, TspDTI, TspEI, TfiI and TaqI restriction sites in both blood and germline DNA. All the three sets of MZT showed differences in the number of DYZ1 copies. FISH signals reflected somatic mosaicism of the DYZ1 copies across the cells. Conclusions DYZ1 showed both sequence and copy number variation between the MZT males. Sequence variation was also noticed between germline and blood DNA samples of the same individual as we observed at least in one set of sample. The result suggests that DYZ1 faithfully records all the genetical changes occurring after the twining which may be ascribed to the environmental factors. PMID:24495361

  18. Growing Up in Scotland: Year 3 - The Impact of Children's Early Activities of Cognitive Development 

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Paul; Wasoff, Fran

    2009-03-18

    The Growing Up in Scotland study (GUS) is an important longitudinal research project aimed at tracking the lives of a cohort of Scottish children from the early years, through childhood and beyond. The study is funded by ...

  19. swimming. Along with stimulation experiments showing short-latency

    E-print Network

    Frank, Steven A.

    , these findings demonstrate that spinal neurons bypass the vestibular nucleus to make direct connections-fixed preparations, leaving open the major question of how normal vestibular signals might combine with efference). The resulting vestibular signals indeed drive appropriate compensatory oculomotor activity. Next they checked

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome patients show altered sensitivity to exogenous opioids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Lembo; Bruce D Naliboff; Kamran Matin; Julie Munakata; Robert A Parker; Richard H Gracely; Emeran A Mayer

    2000-01-01

    Alterations in activation of pain modulation systems may play a role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, little is known about the effects of exogenous opioids on the perceptual and autonomic responses to aversive visceral stimulation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the mu opioid-preferring analgesic fentanyl (FEN), given intravenously, on perceptual

  1. TRPV1 shows dynamic ionic selectivity during agonist stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man-Kyo Chung; Ali D Güler; Michael J Caterina

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel that is gated by noxious heat, capsaicin and other diverse stimuli. It is a nonselective cation channel that prefers Ca2+ over Na+. These permeability characteristics, as in most channels, are widely presumed to be static. On the contrary, we found that activation of native or recombinant rat TRPV1 leads to

  2. VEGF shows its attractive side at the midline

    PubMed Central

    Dickendesher, Travis L.; Giger, Roman J.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members are best known for their powerful mitotic and angiogenic activities toward endothelial cells. Two independent studies now provide compelling evidence that VEGF-A secreted at the CNS midline functions as an attractant for developing axons of spinal commissural neurons and contralaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells. PMID:21658576

  3. 15. SECOND FLOOR, PIER SHED LOOKING EAST, SHOWING ORIGINAL OVERHEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SECOND FLOOR, PIER SHED LOOKING EAST, SHOWING ORIGINAL OVERHEAD DOORS ABOVE TERRA COTTA/BRICK INFILL AND PLYWOOD AT WINDOWS, ADJACENT TO NEW DOORS-PIER 4 - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 4, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  4. 22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, UNION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE COMPANY AND IVANHOE MILL WHEELHOUSE UNDER RESTORATION. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  5. 8. VIEW WEST SHOWING EAST ELEVATION OF ROSEN'S, 1100 BLOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW WEST SHOWING EAST ELEVATION OF ROSEN'S, 1100 BLOCK OF CENTRAL AVENUE - Betts-Longworth (Houses & Commercial Buildings), Ezzard Charles Drive, Central Avenue, Old Court & Mound Street, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, OH

  6. 13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS -- MACHINE SHOP, DANFORTH (COOKE) LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE CO. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  7. 14. Drawing showing stress for central viaduct, Walworth Run portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Drawing showing stress for central viaduct, Walworth Run portion 1885. Drawing courtesy Engineering Department, City of Cleveland. - Abbey Avenue Viaduct, Spanning Walworth Valley at Abbey Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. Interior detail, view to northnortheast showing support system for roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail, view to north-northeast showing support system for roof truss (typical), 90 mm lens plus electronic flash lighting. - Travis Air Force Base, Readiness Maintenance Hangar, W Street, Air Defense Command Readiness Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  9. Interior, building 1205, view to west showing roof truss system, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, building 1205, view to west showing roof truss system, 90 mm lens plus electronic flash fill lighting. - Travis Air Force Base, Readiness Maintenance Hangar, W Street, Air Defense Command Readiness Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  10. 20. Detail, crack in southeast end wall showing hollow brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail, crack in southeast end wall showing hollow brick lining of exterior wall; view to south, 135mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  11. 21. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. Delineators: Charles L. Hillman and John McClintock. Original at the Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa. - Solitude, Zoo grounds, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 20. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing elevations and plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing elevations and plans of Soliture. Delineators: Charles L. Hillman and John McClintock. Original at the Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa. - Solitude, Zoo grounds, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 22. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of 1897 measured drawing showing details of Solitude. Delineators: Charles L. Hillman and John McClintock. Original at the Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa. - Solitude, Zoo grounds, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Detail, starpattern balustrade of north span, from northwest, showing row ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, star-pattern balustrade of north span, from northwest, showing row of four star-pattern railing slabs bracketed by simple molded concrete balusters - Horner Street Bridge, Horner Street over Stonycreek River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  15. 3. Interior view of centrifugal pump house showing pumps and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior view of centrifugal pump house showing pumps and engines, looking W. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Drainage Plant, 2 Miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  16. 6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING GROWTH OF ARSENAL OUTWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING GROWTH OF ARSENAL OUTWARD FROM FROM ORIGINAL SITE (CENTER RIGHT). - Frankford Arsenal, South of Tacony Street between Bridge Street & tracks of former Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Contextual view of bridge, showing singlespan pin connected parker through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of bridge, showing single-span pin connected parker through truss design, looking north from downstream of the kettle river - Orient Bridge, Spanning Kettle River at Richardson Road, Orient, Ferry County, WA

  18. Detail view of bridge, showing thin diagonal eyebars in tension ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of bridge, showing thin diagonal eyebars in tension and heavy channel beams with riveted bracing in compression - Orient Bridge, Spanning Kettle River at Richardson Road, Orient, Ferry County, WA

  19. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL AND REFRACTORY BRICK SUPPORT SYSTEM. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. 47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork askew after collapse of support posts. Note pattern of checkerwork refractories. looking west - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  1. 2. VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING STRUCTURE WHICH WAS ORIGINALLY A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING STRUCTURE WHICH WAS ORIGINALLY A METHODIST CHURCH AND ONCE THE GARFIELD REFRACTORIES COMPANY OFFICE ON WASHINGTON STREET. - Town of Bolivar, Bolivar, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. 1. INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING ROOM, NO. 2 WORKS, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING ROOM, NO. 2 WORKS, SHOWING BUCKET LINE FEEDING MOLDING MACHINES - Harbison-Walker Refractories Company, Molding Room, West end of Shirley Street, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA

  3. 9. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING MEDICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY ANNEX, EXAMINING ROOM, AND EQUIPMENT ROOM - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  4. 10. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING PUMP ROOM AND DRESSING ROOM - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  5. 23. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TWOLOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TWO-LOCK RECOMPRESSION CHAMBER IN PASSAGEWAY FROM ELEVATOR TO CUPOLA - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  6. 13. VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING HIGH PRESSURE AIR FLASK ROOM AND PUMP ROOM - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  7. 17. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ELEVATOR TO 18-FOOT LOCK, LOOKING EAST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  8. 21. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING INTERIOR OF CUPOLA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING INTERIOR OF CUPOLA AND TOP OF THE TANK, LOOKING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  9. 14. DETAIL VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING HOLDDOWN RODS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING HOLD-DOWN RODS, LOOKING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  10. 18. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ENCLOSED PASSAGEWAY FROM 50-FOOT LOCK TO ELEVATOR, LOOKING WEST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  11. 12. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING DRESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING DRESSING FROM AND WORK/CHAMBER ROOM - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  12. East wall, showing rails of a halfton aerial gantry attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East wall, showing rails of a half-ton aerial gantry attached to roof frame - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  13. North wall, showing modern switch boxes and in fill panel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, showing modern switch boxes and in fill panel at the east end (series 4 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  14. North wall, near east end, showing exhaust fan and exit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, near east end, showing exhaust fan and exit (series 3 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  15. Close view of statue showing her right hand on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of statue showing her right hand on the hilt of a sword - U.S. Capitol, Statue of Freedom, Intersection of North, South, & East Capitol Streets & Capitol Mall, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DC MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND SIDE ELEVATION, SHOWING EGYPTIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND SIDE ELEVATION, SHOWING EGYPTIAN REVIVAL TOMB SITUATED WITHIN SURROUNDING GRAVES - Mount Pleasant Cemetery, George Opdyke Tomb, 375 Broadway Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  18. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING CABLE ASSEMBLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF NON-SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING CABLE ASSEMBLY ATTACHMENT, LOOKING EAST (DOWNSTREAM) - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey February, 1953 LOOKING EAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey February, 1953 LOOKING EAST, SHOWING A GROUP OF HAGERSTOWN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF UNCOVERING THE ADDITIONAL FOUNDATION - Jonathan Hager House (Foundation), Hagerstown, Washington County, MD

  20. 3. Interior view southeast to northwest showing space heater in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior view southeast to northwest showing space heater in northwest corner - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Dispatcher House, North of Park Avenue at Forty-ninth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  1. 2. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING DISPATCH OFFICE / DISTRICT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING DISPATCH OFFICE / DISTRICT TRAFFIC AGENT'S PROJECTION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Illinois Central Railroad Passenger Depot, Iowa & Jones Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  2. 1. Exterior oblique view of north and east sides showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Exterior oblique view of north and east sides showing entrance and typical window - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Dispatcher House, North of Park Avenue at Forty-ninth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  3. 17. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING GRAFF MEMORIAL IN PARK SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING GRAFF MEMORIAL IN PARK SOUTH OF ENGINE HOUSE (4' x 5' negative) - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING WATER WORKS SITE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING WATER WORKS SITE AND PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART ON HILL ABOVE - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 27. INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF 'Saloon', SHOWING WALL, DOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF 'Saloon', SHOWING WALL, DOOR AND WINDOW MOLDINGS (4' x 5' negative) - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 64. INTERIOR VIEW OF AQUARIUM LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING DISPLAY TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. INTERIOR VIEW OF AQUARIUM LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING DISPLAY TANKS AQUARIUM LOCATED BELOW NORTH AND SOUTH WINGS AND PAVILION - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 53. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING PORTICO OF NORTH WING WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING PORTICO OF NORTH WING WITH PAVILION AND ENGINE HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 5. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART, SITE OF FORMER MAIN STORAGE RESERVOIR - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 4. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING WEST SIDE OF PIER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING WEST SIDE OF PIER AND PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE CONNECTING MARINE MAMMAL PAVILION WITH BALTIMORE AQUARIUM - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 4, South side of Pratt Street between Frederick Street & Market Place, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. 14. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM ROOF OF ENGINE HOUSE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM ROOF OF ENGINE HOUSE, SHOWING CARETAKER'S HOUSE CUPOLA AND PAVILION (4' x 5' negative) - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 15. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING RETAINING WALL ON EAST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING RETAINING WALL ON EAST SIDE OF PARK, SOUTH OF ENGINE HOUSE (4' X 5' negative) - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 36. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING HYPHEN CONNECTOR BETWEEN ENGINE HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING HYPHEN CONNECTOR BETWEEN ENGINE HOUSE AND CARETAKER'S COTTAGE (4' x 5' negative) - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 158. View looking SE showing 'Centennial Anniversary of the Declaration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. View looking SE showing 'Centennial Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence' fountain on Aquarium Drive with north facade of Art Museum in right background. - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 39. DETAIL VIEW OF PORTICO OF CARETAKER'S COTTAGE, SHOWING BALUSTRADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DETAIL VIEW OF PORTICO OF CARETAKER'S COTTAGE, SHOWING BALUSTRADE AND COLUMN BASE (4' x 5' negative) - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING NORTH ENTRANCE HOUSE AND CENTRAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING NORTH ENTRANCE HOUSE AND CENTRAL PAVILION, WITH SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE AND ENGINE HOUSE BEYOND - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 20. BANKING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTH FROM NORTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING ESCALATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BANKING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTH FROM NORTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING ESCALATOR ENTRANCE FROM STREET ON RIGHT AND BALCONY EDGES OF TWO MEZZANINES BEYOND - Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, Twelfth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 22. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BANKING ROOM, FROM EAST, SHOWING CLOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BANKING ROOM, FROM EAST, SHOWING CLOCK ON SOUTH WALL AND TWO MEZZANINES BEYOND COLUMNS - Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, Twelfth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE SHOWING CRANE RAILS, GREY IRON CUPOLA AND EMISSION RECOVERY SYSTEM. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOUNDRY LANDSCAPE LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST FROM MALLEABLE STOCK YARD CRANE, SHOWING CRANE MOTOR AND MALLEABLE CUPOLAS WITH OPEN TOPS AND EMISSION RECOVERY DUCTS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. 37. INTERIOR VIEW, PAINTING AREA SHOWING PAINT VAT AND CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. INTERIOR VIEW, PAINTING AREA SHOWING PAINT VAT AND CONVEYOR LINE WITH THE TOOLS HANGING FROM HOOKS TO DRY; NOTE PINCH POINT CROW BARS (CENTER) - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV