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Sample records for showed gus activity

  1. Detection of transformed cells in crown gall tumors using the GUS reporter gene and correlation of GUS stained cells with T-DNA gene activity

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.C. ); Labriola, J.; Binns, A.N. )

    1990-05-01

    Crown gall tumors are a mixture of transformed hormone producing cells and normal cells. Until now it has not been possible to directly visualize these cell types in situ. We have constructed strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens that carry the 35S-{beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in either wild type or mutant Ti plasmids. Using histochemical staining for GUS activity, blue (GUS positive) sectors are observed in tumor sections. In order to demonstrate that the blue sectors actually represent cells expressing other T-DNA genes, we have looked for T-DNA gene encoded enzyme activity in the stained and unstained sectors. The blue sectors accumulate octopine (a product of the octopine synthase gene on the T-DNA) while the white (GUS negative) sectors do not. We conclude that the use of the GUS reporter gene provides a sensitive and reliable method for visualizing transformation events in plant tissues. A comparison of the proportion of transformed and nontransformed cells in wild type tumors vs. tumors deficient in auxin or cytokinin encoding genes will be discussed.

  2. (Figs. 1A and 3C). (iii) Application of a H2O2 regenerating system elevated GUS activity in

    E-print Network

    Salzberg, Steven

    (Figs. 1A and 3C). (iii) Application of a H2O2 regenerating system elevated GUS activity in ropgap4). Thus, a Rop rheostat regulates the produc- tion of H2O2 that is required to trigger the expression of beneficial genes (for example, ADH) and the avoidance of H2O2-induced cell death. Rop signaling is controlled

  3. The sweet potato ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (ibAGP1) promoter confers high-level expression of the GUS reporter gene in the potato tuber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Won; Goo, Young-Min; Lee, Cheol-Ho; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Bae, Jung-Myung; Lee, Shin-Woo

    2009-10-01

    Molecular farming refers to the process of creating bioengineered plants with the capability of producing potentially valuable products, such as drugs, vaccines, and chemicals. We have investigated the potential of the sweet potato ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (ibAGP1) promoter and its transit peptide (TP) as an expression system for the mass production of foreign proteins in potato. The ibAGP1 promoter and its TP sequence were transformed into potato along with beta-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter gene, and GUS activity was subsequently analyzed in the transgenic potato plants. In tuber tissues, GUS activity in transgenic plants carrying only the ibAGP1 promoter (ibAGP1::GUS) increased up to 15.6-fold compared with that of transgenic plants carrying only the CaMV35S promoter (CaMV35S::GUS). GUS activity in transgenic plants was further enhanced by the addition of the sweetpotato TP to the recombinant vector (ibAGP1::TP::GUS), with tuber tissues showing a 26-fold increase in activity compared with that in the CaMV35S::GUS-transgenic lines. In leaf tissues, the levels of GUS activity found in ibAGP1::GUS-transgenic lines were similar to those in CaMV35S::GUS-lines, but they were significantly enhanced in ibAGP1::TP::GUS-lines. GUS activity gradually increased with increasing tuber diameter in ibAGP1::GUS-transgenic plants, reaching a maximum level when the tuber was 35 mm in diameter. In contrast, extremely elevated levels of GUS activity - up to about 10-fold higher than that found in CaMV35S::GUS-lines - were found in ibAGP1::TP::GUS-transgenic lines at a much earlier stage of tuber development (diameter 4 mm), and these higher levels were maintained throughout the entire tuber developmental stage. These results suggest that the sweetpotato ibAGP1 promoter and its TP are a potentially strong foreign gene expression system that can be used for molecular farming in potato plants. PMID:19819408

  4. [Molecular evolution of beta-glucuronidase in vitro: obtaining thermotolerant GUS gene].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Yao, Quan-Hong; Peng, Ri-He; Chen, Jian-Min; Li, Xian; Fan, Hui-Qin

    2002-01-01

    The Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase gene (gus) has been developed as a reporter gene for plants, and has been widely used for over a decade. Both chromogenic and fluorogenic GUS substrates have been synthesized, allowing rapid nonradioactive assays. The use of the Escherichia coli enzyme beta-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter in gene expression studies is limited by some plants and plant-associated bacteria express endogenous glucuronidase activities. The use of the enzyme as a reporter in transgenic plants is limited by high false positive. Laboratory evolution methods were used to enhance the thermostability and activity of the beta-glucuronidase. Using plasmid pBI121 as template, a 1.8 kb specific product was amplified and cloned into the vector pBluescript SK. The result of nucleotide sequence analysis was the same as reported. In vitro recombination (DNA shuffling), which involves DNase I digestion, primerless PCR, and primer PCR was used to generate mutant libraries. The mutant GUS3-3 gene was isolated after three rounds of mutation, DNA shuffling, and screening. The GUS3-3 enzyme can resistant high temperature up to 80 degrees C for 30 min. The nucleotide sequence analysis showed 99.2% homology between the GUS-ck gene from pBI121 and GUS3-3 gene. The deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that 11 amino acid was changed. The Tm value of GUS3-3 is 80 degrees C and increased by 25 degrees C above GUS-ck (55 degrees C). The researches indicated the feasibility of the molecular evolution of beta-glucuronidase in vitro to improve enzymatic thermostability. PMID:12645270

  5. Arches showing UV flaring activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The UVSP data obtained in the previous maximum activity cycle show the frequent appearance of flaring events in the UV. In many cases these flaring events are characterized by at least two footpoints which show compact impulsive non-simultaneous brightenings and a fainter but clearly observed arch developes between the footpoints. These arches and footpoints are observed in line corresponding to different temperatures, as Lyman alpha, N V, and C IV, and when observed above the limb display large Doppler shifts at some stages. The size of the arches can be larger than 20 arcsec.

  6. Detailed characterization of the posttranscriptional gene-silencing-related small RNA in a GUS gene-silenced tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Hutvágner, G; Mlynárová, L; Nap, J P

    2000-01-01

    Posttranscriptional gene-silencing phenomena such as cosuppression and RNA interference are associated with the occurrence of small, about 21-23 nt short RNA species homologous to the silenced gene. We here show that the small RNA present in silenced transgenic plants can easily be detected in total RNA isolated according to standard procedures. This will allow for the development of routine and early screenings for the presence of small RNA species and, therefore, gene silencing in transgenic plants. We further demonstrate that the small RNA fraction can be visualized with the SYBR Green II RNA stain, isolated from a gel, labeled and used as a specific probe. Using these approaches, we have fine-mapped the sequences of the GUS gene that are represented in the small RNA fraction of a GUS-silenced tobacco line containing an inverted repeat of the GUS gene. In this tobacco line, the silencing-associated small RNA is a mixture of fragments that cover the 3' two-thirds of the GUS coding region. The 5' coding and the 3' noncoding ends of the GUS mRNA are not represented in the small RNA fraction. The RNA fragments are not likely to be a primary synthesis product of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, but rather degradation products from nuclease activity. Surprisingly, RNA isolated from wild-type, untransformed plants showed the presence of a similar-sized small RNA pool. This might indicate the existence of small RNA species from putative endogenous genes that are down regulated by a similar posttranscriptional gene-silencing mechanism. The possibility of isolating and labeling the small RNA pool from wild-type plants will provide a way to identify and study such putative genes. PMID:11073220

  7. The sweet potato RbcS gene (IbRbcS1) promoter confers high-level and green tissue-specific expression of the GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Noriaki; Tamoi, Masahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2015-08-10

    Sweet potato is an important crop because of its high yield and biomass production. We herein investigated the potential of the promoter activity of a small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RbcS) from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) in order to develop the high expression system of exogenous DNA in Arabidopsis. We isolated two different cDNAs (IbRbcS1 and IbRbcS2) encoding RbcS from sweet potato. Their predicted amino acid sequences were well conserved with the mature RbcS protein of other plants. The tissue-specific expression patterns of these two genes revealed that expression of IbRbcS1 was specific to green tissue, whereas that of IbRbcS2 was non-photosynthetic tissues such as roots and tubers. These results suggested that IbRbcS1 was predominantly expressed in the green tissue-specific of sweet potato over IbRbcS2. Therefore, the IbRbcS1 promoter was transformed into Arabidopsis along with ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter gene. GUS staining and semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the IbRbcS1 promoter conferred the expression of the GUS reporter gene in green tissue-specific and light-inducible manners. Furthermore, qPCR showed that the expression levels of GUS reporter gene in IbRbcS1 pro:GUS were same as those in CaMV 35S pro:GUS plants. These results suggest that the IbRbcS1 promoter is a potentially strong foreign gene expression system for genetic transformation in plants. PMID:25958348

  8. Mirazid shows insignificant activity against ovine fascioliasis.

    PubMed

    Botros, S S; El-Lakkany, N M; Badawy, A A; Mahmoud, S S; Ebeid, F A; Fenwick, A

    2009-10-01

    In a recent study, the fasciolicidal activity of Mirazid (a myrrh-derived drug) and its effect on the function and histopathology of host liver were investigated in Egyptian sheep, with triclabendazole (TCBZ) used as the positive control. Sheep were infected with metacercariae (150/animal) and treated 3 months later, either with Mirazid (10 mg/kg/day for six consecutive days) or TCBZ (a single dose of 10 mg/kg), or left untreated, as controls. When the animals were killed 4 weeks after the end of treatment, no Fasciola flukes or eggs could be found in the animals given TCBZ but the number of flukes found in the Mirazid-treated animals was only 6% lower than that recorded in the untreated sheep (a statistically insignificant difference). In terms of their Fasciola egg loads, serum concentrations of hepatic enzymes and hepatic histopathological changes, the Mirazid-treated sheep appeared very similar to the untreated, infected animals. The TCBZ-treated animals, in contrast, showed remarkably little evidence of hepatic pathology. It therefore appears that, in the treatment of ovine fascioliasis, at least some batches of Mirazid have little, if any, value. PMID:19825282

  9. Transferring Gus gene into intact rice cells by low energy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengliang, Yu; Jianbo, Yang; Yuejin, Wu; Beijiu, Cheng; Jianjun, He; Yuping, Huo

    1993-06-01

    A new technique of transferring genes by low energy ion beam has been reported in this paper. The Gus and CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) genes, as "foreign" genetic materials, were introduced into the suspension cells and ripe embryos or rice by implantation of 20-30 keV Ar + at doses ranging from 1 × 10 15 to 4 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. The activities of CAT and Gus were detected in the cells and embryos after several weeks. The results indicate that the transfer was a success.

  10. Encounters with Insignificance in Teaching and Learning: Gus Van Sant's "Elephant"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlos, Karyn

    2009-01-01

    This article explores how a curriculum of film becomes organized by the teacher's worries about what film may open up in class. The author focuses on her own worries about showing Gus Van Sant's (2003) film, "Elephant," an elliptical and dreamlike study of the murders in 1999 of twelve students and a teacher at Columbine High School, to a class of…

  11. [The effect of transposon P(GUS . p53.259H)on the frequency of tumor clones in Drosophila melanogaster wtsp2/+ heterozygotes].

    PubMed

    Sidorov, R A; Belitski?, G A

    2002-07-01

    We showed that transposon P(GUS.p53.259H), mapped to chromosome 3 and carrying a dominant mutation p53(259)H.GUS, has a positive effect on the frequency of spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumor mosaic clones warts- in Drosopila melanogaster heterozygotes for the tumor suppressor gene warts located in the same chromosome. The transposon effect could be explained either by the arrest of apoptosis in the cells expressing mutant p53(259)H.GUS gene and containing carcinogen-induced pre-mutations, and/or by genetic instability introduced into chromosome 3 by the P(GUS.p53.259H) transposon itself. The effect of the P(GUS.p53.259H) appeared to be carcinogen-specific. It substantially increased the frequency of tumors induced by supermutagenic platinum complex, oxoplatin, and did not increase the frequencies of tumors induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo(alpha)pyrene and pyrene. In the spectrum of mutations induced by all carcinogens tested, somatic recombination events prevailed over somatic mutations. Hence, carcinogen-specificity of the P(GUS.p53.259H) effect cannot be explained by preferential induction of somatic mutations or somatic recombination by one of the carcinogens. Organ-specificity of the increased frequency of mosaic warts- clones induced by P(GUS.p53.259H) was established. PMID:12174585

  12. The Oral Antimalarial Drug Tafenoquine Shows Activity against Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luis; Martínez-García, Marta; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Manzano, José Ignacio; Yardley, Vanessa; Gamarro, Francisco; Pérez-Victoria, José M

    2015-10-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease that requires new, safer, and more effective treatments. Repurposing oral drugs could reduce both the time and cost involved in sleeping sickness drug discovery. Tafenoquine (TFQ) is an oral antimalarial drug belonging to the 8-aminoquinoline family which is currently in clinical phase III. We show here that TFQ efficiently kills different T. brucei spp. in the submicromolar concentration range. Our results suggest that TFQ accumulates into acidic compartments and induces a necrotic process involving cell membrane disintegration and loss of cytoplasmic content, leading to parasite death. Cell lysis is preceded by a wide and multitarget drug action, affecting the lysosome, mitochondria, and acidocalcisomes and inducing a depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+), and production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first report of an 8-aminoquinoline demonstrating significant in vitro activity against T. brucei. PMID:26195527

  13. Silver nanoparticles synthesised using plant extracts show strong antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Avnesh; Guliani, Anika; Singla, Rubbel; Yadav, Ramdhan; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    In this study, three plants Populus alba, Hibiscus arboreus and Lantana camara were explored for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs). The effect of reaction temperature and leaf extract (LE) concentration of P. alba, H. arboreus and L. camara was evaluated on the synthesis and size of SNPs. The SNPs were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The synthesis rate of SNPs was highest with LE of L. camara followed by H. arboreus and P. alba under similar conditions. L. camara LE showed maximum potential of smaller size SNPs synthesis, whereas bigger particles were formed by H. arboreous LE. The size and shape of L. camara LE synthesised SNPs were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM analysis revealed the formation of SNPs of average size 17±9.5 nm with 5% LE of L. camara. The SNPs synthesised by LE of L. camara showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The results document that desired size SNPs can be synthesised using these plant LEs at a particular temperature for applications in the biomedical field. PMID:26023158

  14. The scutellar vascular bundle-specific promoter of the wheat HD-Zip IV transcription factor shows similar spatial and temporal activity in transgenic wheat, barley and rice.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Wu, Wei; Eini, Omid; Bazanova, Natalia; Pallotta, Margaret; Shirley, Neil; Singh, Rohan; Ismagul, Ainur; Eliby, Serik; Johnson, Alexander; Langridge, Peter; Lopato, Sergiy

    2012-01-01

    An HD-Zip IV gene from wheat, TaGL9, was isolated using a Y1H screen of a cDNA library prepared from developing wheat grain. TaGL9 has an amino acid sequence distinct from other reported members of the HD-Zip IV family. The 3' untranslated region of TaGL9 was used as a probe to isolate a genomic clone of the TaGL9 homologue from a BAC library prepared from Triticum durum L. cv. Langdon. The full-length gene containing a 3-kb-long promoter region was designated TdGL9H1. Spatial and temporal activity of TdGL9H1 was examined using promoter-GUS fusion constructs in transgenic wheat, barley and rice plants. Whole-mount and histochemical GUS staining patterns revealed grain-specific expression of TdGL9H1. GUS expression was initially observed between 3 and 8?days after pollination (DAP) in embryos at the globular stage and adjacent to the embryo fraction of the endosperm. Expression was strongest in the outer cell layer of the embryo. In developed wheat and barley embryos, strong activity of the promoter was only detected in the main vascular bundle of the scutellum, which is known to be responsible for the uptake of nutrients from the endosperm during germination and the endosperm-dependent phase of seedling development. Furthermore, this pattern of GUS staining was observed in dry seeds several weeks after harvesting but quickly disappeared during imbibition. The promoter of this gene could be a useful tool for engineering of early seedling vigour and protecting the endosperm to embryo axis pathway from pathogens during grain desiccation and storage. PMID:21689369

  15. Classroom activity shows how to determine earthquake intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Dengler, L.

    1995-11-01

    When a strong earthquake occurs nearby, children are interested in what happened and why. This fascination can stimulate a variety of classroom activities and encourage discussion about the relationship between the natural forces that affect our world and us. The following is an easy classroom activity that focuses on your students` natural curiosity after an earthquake. It can be adapted for grades 3 through 12.

  16. Functional Analysis of Plant Promoter rpL34 Using the GUS Marker Gene in New Tr,tnsgene Expression Vector pZD428

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzey-Amato, Jacqueline M.; Dai, Ziyu )

    2000-11-01

    Optimization of the transgene expression system is one of the critical steps for the high level production of heterologous proteins in plants, where the promoter is a key component regulating transgene expression. In this study, the activity of the rpL34 promoter was analyzed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) NTI calli. A DNA fragment containing the rpL34 promoter and the reporter gene B-D-glucuronidase (GUS) were cloned into binary vector pZD427 to generate the transgene expression vector pZD428. The insertion was verified by enzyme restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis analyses. The DNA fragment containing the rpL34 promoter and GUS reporter gene was then integrated into the tobacco genomes via Agrobacterium funiefaciens-mediated NT suspension cell transformation. The transformed CaNi were induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) plates containing proper amounts of 2,4-D, cefotoxime, and kanamycin. Two hundred and sixty transformed calli were harvested for GUS activity and protein concentration measurements. GUS activity analyses revealed the specific activity up to 278,358 units per milligram total soluble protein. The GUS activity under the control of the rpL34 promoter is much higher than that under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, a commonly used promoter in plant biology. These results suggest that the rpL34 promoter is one of the most active promoters that can be used for heterologous protein production in calli and suspension cells.

  17. Ultraviolet imaging spectroscopy shows an active saturnian system.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Larry W; Colwell, Joshua E; Larsen, Kristopher; McClintock, William E; Stewart, A Ian F; Hallett, Janet Tew; Shemansky, Donald E; Ajello, Joseph M; Hansen, Candice J; Hendrix, Amanda R; West, Robert A; Keller, H Uwe; Korth, Axel; Pryor, Wayne R; Reulke, Ralf; Yung, Yuk L

    2005-02-25

    Neutral oxygen in the saturnian system shows variability, and the total number of oxygen atoms peaks at 4 x 10(34). Saturn's aurora brightens in response to solar-wind forcing, and the auroral spectrum resembles Jupiter's. Phoebe's surface shows variable water-ice content, and the data indicate it originated in the outer solar system. Saturn's rings also show variable water abundance, with the purest ice in the outermost A ring. This radial variation is consistent with initially pure water ice bombarded by meteors, but smaller radial structures may indicate collisional transport and recent renewal events in the past 10(7) to 10(8) years. PMID:15604361

  18. Australian plants show anthelmintic activity toward equine cyathostomins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Payne, S E; Kotze, A C; Durmic, Z; Vercoe, P E

    2013-09-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal parasites of horses is an increasing problem, particularly in cyathostomins, and there is a need to find alternative means for the control of these parasites. We screened crude extracts from 37 species of Australian native plants for their anthelmintic activity in vitro against cyathostomin larvae (development from egg to third larval stage), with the aim of identifying those species that may be suitable for incorporation into sustainable parasite management programs. Water extracts from seven species, namely Acacia baileyana, Acacia melanoxylon, Acacia podalyriifolia, Alectryon oleifolius, Duboisia hopwoodii, Eucalyptus gomphocephala and Santalum spicatum completely inhibited larval development (100% inhibition compared to the control), while another 10 species caused 90% inhibition at the initial screening concentration of 1400 ?g of extractable solids/mL. The seven most potent extracts produced IC50 values (concentration of extract which resulted in a 50% inhibition of development) in the range 30.9-196 ?g/mL. Fourteen extracts were incubated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) before the assays, which removed the anthelmintic activity from 12 of these extracts, indicating that tannins were likely to be the bioactive compound responsible for the effect, while in two species, i.e. A. melanoxylon and D. hopwoodii, compounds other than tannins were likely to be responsible for their anthelmintic action. Our results suggest that a number of Australian native plants have significant anthelmintic activity against cyathostomin larval development in vitro. There is potential for these plants to be used as part of sustainable parasite control programs in horses, although more research is needed to identify the compounds responsible for the anthelmintic effects and confirm their activity in vivo. PMID:23394801

  19. Conjugation of ovotransferrin with catechin shows improved antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    You, Juan; Luo, Yongkang; Wu, Jianping

    2014-03-26

    Ovotransferrin (OTF), representing 12-13% of the total egg white, is a member of transferrin family with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Catechin is a polyphenolic antioxidant found in green tea. The objective of the study was to conjugate ovotransferrin with catechin to improve the antioxidant activity of OTF. Conjugates were prepared either by the free radical method using hydrogen peroxide-ascorbic acid as the initiator or by the alkaline method at pH of 9.0. The oxygen-radical-scavenging effect was increased from 3.95 mol trolox equivalent (TE)/mol of ovotransferrin to 22.80 and 17.14 mol TE/mol sample, respectively, in radical and alkaline prepared conjugates, which indicated that conjugation with catechin is an effective way to improve antioxidant activity of the protein. Conjugation between ovotransferrin and catechin was analyzed by fluorescence analyses, ultra performance liquid chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled online to a tandem mass spectrometer. Catechin was covalently bound to lysine (residues 327) and glutamic acid (residues 186) in ovotransferrin. The ovotransferrin-catechin conjugate may have a potential application as a functional food and nutraceutical ingredient. PMID:24606536

  20. Adults' preferences between Picture Communication Symbols (PCSs) and Gus Communication Symbols (GCSs) used in AAC.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Ju

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether significantly different preference exists in typical adults between Picture Communication Symbols (PCSs) and Gus Communication Symbols (GCSs) frequently displayed on their AAC. A total of 56 participants participated in the study, including 15 participants in ages 20-35; 14 participants in ages 36-50; 13 participants in ages 51-60; and 14 participants in ages 66-80. Two tasks, an identification task and a preference task, were administered sequentially and individually. The results of this study suggest: (1) typical adults' preference between PCSs and GCSs did not show any significant difference; (2) the effect of age groups of typical adults did not have any significant effect on their preference between PCSs and GCSs. However, except the group of ages 51-65, the other three groups did consciously show their preferences for PCSs. Limitations and clinical implications of the current study have been concluded. PMID:23962601

  1. Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Insurance loss modeling for earthquakes utilizes available maps of active faulting produced by geoscientists. All such maps are subject to uncertainty, arising from lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history. Field work to undertake geological fault investigations drains human and monetary resources, and this inevitably limits the resolution of fault parameters. Some areas are more accessible than others; some may be of greater social or economic importance than others; some areas may be investigated more rapidly or diligently than others; or funding restrictions may have curtailed the extent of the fault mapping program. In contrast with the aleatory uncertainty associated with the inherent variability in the dynamics of earthquake fault rupture, uncertainty associated with lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history is epistemic. The extent of this epistemic uncertainty may vary substantially from one regional or national fault map to another. However aware the local cartographer may be, this uncertainty is generally not conveyed in detail to the international map user. For example, an area may be left blank for a variety of reasons, ranging from lack of sufficient investigation of a fault to lack of convincing evidence of activity. Epistemic uncertainty in fault parameters is of concern in any probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, not least in insurance earthquake risk applications. A logic-tree framework is appropriate for incorporating epistemic uncertainty. Some insurance contracts cover specific high-value properties or transport infrastructure, and therefore are extremely sensitive to the geometry of active faulting. Alternative Risk Transfer (ART) to the capital markets may also be considered. In order for such insurance or ART contracts to be properly priced, uncertainty should be taken into account. Accordingly, an estimate is needed for the likelihood of surface rupture capable of causing severe damage. Especially where a high deductible is in force, this requires estimation of the epistemic uncertainty on fault geometry and activity. Transport infrastructure insurance is of practical interest in seismic countries. On the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey, there is uncertainty over an unbroken segment between the eastern end of the Dazce Fault and Bolu. This may have ruptured during the 1944 earthquake. Existing hazard maps may simply use a question mark to flag uncertainty. However, a far more informative type of hazard map might express spatial variations in the confidence level associated with a fault map. Through such visual guidance, an insurance risk analyst would be better placed to price earthquake cover, allowing for epistemic uncertainty.

  2. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  3. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M.Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approximately 46 mb) and 585 K (approximately 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER. photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: (1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the UKMO temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; (2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; (3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  4. Sulfur dioxide - Episodic injection shows evidence for active Venus volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  5. Hybrid [FeFe]-hydrogenases with modified active sites show remarkable residual enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Siebel, Judith F; Adamska-Venkatesh, Agnieszka; Weber, Katharina; Rumpel, Sigrun; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-02-24

    [FeFe]-hydrogenases are to date the only enzymes for which it has been demonstrated that the native inorganic binuclear cofactor of the active site Fe2(adt)(CO)3(CN)2 (adt = azadithiolate = [S-CH2-NH-CH2-S](2-)) can be synthesized on the laboratory bench and subsequently inserted into the unmaturated enzyme to yield fully functional holo-enzyme (Berggren, G. et al. (2013) Nature 499, 66-70; Esselborn, J. et al. (2013) Nat. Chem. Biol. 9, 607-610). In the current study, we exploit this procedure to introduce non-native cofactors into the enzyme. Mimics of the binuclear subcluster with a modified bridging dithiolate ligand (thiodithiolate, N-methylazadithiolate, dimethyl-azadithiolate) and three variants containing only one CN(-) ligand were inserted into the active site of the enzyme. We investigated the activity of these variants for hydrogen oxidation as well as proton reduction and their structural accommodation within the active site was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Interestingly, the monocyanide variant with the azadithiolate bridge showed ?50% of the native enzyme activity. This would suggest that the CN(-) ligands are not essential for catalytic activity, but rather serve to anchor the binuclear subsite inside the protein pocket through hydrogen bonding. The inserted artificial cofactors with a propanedithiolate and an N-methylazadithiolate bridge as well as their monocyanide variants also showed residual activity. However, these activities were less than 1% of the native enzyme. Our findings indicate that even small changes in the dithiolate bridge of the binuclear subsite lead to a rather strong decrease of the catalytic activity. We conclude that both the Brønsted base function and the conformational flexibility of the native azadithiolate amine moiety are essential for the high catalytic activity of the native enzyme. PMID:25633077

  6. Growing Up In Scotland Study: GUS Exploring The Experience and Outcomes For Advantaged and Disadvantaged Families 

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Paul; Martin, Claudia; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2008-03-12

    This report draws on data from the first sweep of the Growing Up in Scotland ( GUS) study. The Sweep 1 Report highlighted the persistence of inequalities between advantaged and disadvantaged families which impact on parents ...

  7. Development of GUS for control applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Borland, M.; Kirchman, J.; Decker, G.; Kim, K.

    1994-08-01

    A script-based interpretive shell GUS (General Purpose Data Acquisition for Unix Shell) has been developed for application to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control. The primary design objective of GUS is to provide a mechanism for efficient data flow among modularized objects called Data Access Modules (DAMs). GUS consists of four major components: user interface, kernel, built-in command module, and DAMS. It also incorporates the Unix shell to make use of the existing utility programs for file manipulation and data analysis. At this time, DAMs have been written for device access through EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), data I/O for SDDS (Self-Describing Data Set) files, matrix manipulation, graphics display, digital signal processing, and beam position feedback system control. The modular and object-oriented construction of GUS will facilitate addition of more DAMs with other functions in the future.

  8. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exhibition space at a qualified convention or trade show where sales activity is permitted, and the treatment...) Certain activities—(1) Rental of exhibition space. The rental of display space to exhibitors (including... a qualified convention or trade show. In this situation, however, the rental of exhibition space...

  9. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exhibition space at a qualified convention or trade show where sales activity is permitted, and the treatment...) Certain activities—(1) Rental of exhibition space. The rental of display space to exhibitors (including... a qualified convention or trade show. In this situation, however, the rental of exhibition space...

  10. A Seed-GUS-Expression Enhancer-trap Library for Germination Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancer-trap lines are used to identify tissue- and stage-specific gene expression. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) enhancer-trap population from the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC), Ohio, USA, has been screened for '-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in germinating see...

  11. GUS Gene Expression Driven by A Citrus Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco and 'Valencia' Sweet Orange

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene promoter (CsPP). Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange explants with Agrobacteriu...

  12. Stable expression of a bacterial GUS gene in vegetatively propagated transgenic pear lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stability of a transgene in the genomes of in vitro propagated transgenic pear lines was assessed. A bacterial GUS reporter gene under the control of an Arabidopsis sucrose transporter gene promoter was introduced into pear cultivar ‘Old Home’ through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf-explant transfo...

  13. Toward a General Theory of Quantum Games Gus Gutoski John Watrous

    E-print Network

    Watrous, John

    Toward a General Theory of Quantum Games Gus Gutoski John Watrous Institute for Quantum Computing characterization QRG = EXP of the class of problems having quantum refereed games. 1 Introduction The theory by the theory of quantum information. While classical games can be viewed as a special case of quantum games

  14. Stress regulated expression of the GUS-marker gene (uidA) under the control of plant calmodulin and viral 35S promoters in a model fruit tree rootstock: Prunus incisa x serrula.

    PubMed

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; Khan, Mahmood Ali; Fernandez, Eduviges Borroto; Druart, Philippe; Watillon, Bernard; Laimer, Margit

    2008-05-20

    The fact that calmodulin genes (CaM) are tightly associated with the Ca(2+) regulatory pathway, as well as their putative role in plant defence against pathogens, indicate a potential use of alternative plant promoters to express genes of interest in specific tissues or developmental stages. To study the expression level of the apple CaM promoter, 981 bp sequences upstream were fused to the uidA gene, introduced into cherry and compared with a 35S-GUS construct. Transgene copy number and transgenic expression levels were analysed using Southern blot, Western blot and RT-PCR techniques. Transcription levels were assessed by GUS fluorometry, histochemistry and real-time PCR techniques in leaves of plantlets grown in vitro under various abiotic stresses like low- and high-temperature, salicylic acid and wounding, harvested after 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 10, 24 and 72 h. Histochemical analyses showed staining only in veins and petioles of CaM-GUS lines, while in 35S-GUS plants staining extended to the entire leaf. Furthermore, real-time qPCR data indicate that both promoters are differently regulated by various stresses. Obtained results suggest that the selected apple CaM promoter responsible for the expression of a gene in vascular tissues may offer interesting perspectives for plant defense programs. PMID:18403038

  15. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.513-3 Qualified convention and trade show activity....

  16. 26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.513-3 Qualified convention and trade show activity....

  17. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Chironomidae showed differential activity towards metals.

    PubMed

    Chong, Isaac K W; Ho, Wing S

    2013-09-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is known to interact with different biomolecules and was implicated in many novel cellular activities including programmed cell death, nuclear RNA transport unrelated to the commonly known carbohydrate metabolism. We reported here the purification of GAPDH from Chironomidae larvae (Insecta, Diptera) that showed different biologic activity towards heavy metals. It was inhibited by copper, cobalt nickel, iron and lead but was activated by zinc. The GAPDH was purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation and Chelating Sepharose CL-6B chromatography followed by Blue Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. The 150-kDa tetrameric GAPDH showed optimal activity at pH 8.5 and 37°C. The multiple alignment of sequence of the Chironomidae GAPDH with other known species showed 78 - 88% identity to the conserved regions of the GADPH. Bioinformatic analysis unveils substantial N-terminal sequence similarity of GAPDH of Chironomidae larvae to mammalian GADPHs. However, the GADPH of Chironomidae larvae showed different biologic activities and cytotoxicity towards heavy metals. The GAPDH enzyme would undergo adaptive molecular changes through binding at the active site leading to higher tolerance to heavy metals. PMID:23607280

  18. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Showing Antioxidative and Probiotic Activities from Kimchi and Infant Feces.

    PubMed

    Ji, Keunho; Jang, Na Young; Kim, Young Tae

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lactic acid bacteria with antioxidative and probiotic activities isolated from Korean healthy infant feces and kimchi. Isolates A1, A2, S1, S2, and S3 were assigned to Lactobacillus sp. and isolates A3, A4, E1, E2, E3, and E4 were assigned to Leuconostoc sp. on the basis of their physiological properties and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Most strains were confirmed as safe bioresources through nonhemolytic activities and non-production of harmful enzymes such as ?-glucosidase, ?- glucuronidase and tryptophanase. The 11 isolates showed different resistance to acid and bile acids. In addition, they exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, all strains showed significantly high levels of hydrophobicity. The antioxidant effects of culture filtrates of the 11 strains included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2.2'- azino-bis (2-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase activity. The results revealed that most of the culture filtrates have effective scavenging activity for DPPH and ABTS radicals. All strains appeared to have effective superoxide dismutase activity. In conclusion, the isolated strains A1, A3, S1, and S3 have significant probiotic activities applicable to the development of functional foods and health-related products. These strains might also contribute to preventing and controlling several diseases associated with oxidative stress, when used as probiotics. PMID:25951843

  19. Specimen block counter-staining for localization of GUS expression in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, M. K.; Choi, J-W; Jeon, J-H; Franceschi, V. R.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

    2002-01-01

    A simple counter-staining procedure has been developed for comparative beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression and anatomical localization in transgenic herbaceous arabidopsis and tobacco. This protocol provides good anatomical visualization for monitoring chimeric gene expression at both the organ and tissue levels. It can be used with different histochemical stains and can be extended to the study of woody species. The specimens are paraffin-embedded, the block is trimmed to reveal internal structure, safranin-O staining solution is briefly applied to the surface of the block, then washed off and, after drying, a drop of immersion oil is placed on the stained surface for subsequent photographic work. This gives tissue counter-staining with good structural preservation without loss of GUS staining product; moreover, sample observation is rapid and efficient compared to existing procedures.

  20. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Andrew M; Velappan, Nileena; Schmidt, Jurgen G

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  1. Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis

    E-print Network

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Amin,§ and Richard I. Masel*, Dioxide Materials, 60 Hazelwood Drive, Champaign, Illinois 61820, United States, except for small amounts of carbon and oxygen from the vacuum system. The samples were loaded

  2. Alectinib shows potent antitumor activity against RET-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Tatsushi; Tsukaguchi, Toshiyuki; Satoh, Yasuko; Yoshida, Miyuki; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Kondoh, Osamu; Sakamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Alectinib/CH5424802 is a known inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and is being evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of ALK fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, some RET and ROS1 fusion genes have been implicated as driver oncogenes in NSCLC and have become molecular targets for antitumor agents. This study aims to explore additional target indications of alectinib by testing its ability to inhibit the activity of kinases other than ALK. We newly verified that alectinib inhibited RET kinase activity and the growth of RET fusion-positive cells by suppressing RET phosphorylation. In contrast, alectinib hardly inhibited ROS1 kinase activity unlike other ALK/ROS1 inhibitors such as crizotinib and LDK378. It also showed antitumor activity in mouse models of tumors driven by the RET fusion. In addition, alectinib showed kinase inhibitory activity against RET gatekeeper mutations (RET V804L and V804M) and blocked cell growth driven by the KIF5B-RET V804L and V804M. Our results suggest that alectinib is effective against RET fusion-positive tumors. Thus, alectinib might be a therapeutic option for patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC. PMID:25349307

  3. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds. PMID:18390447

  4. Functional characterization of a Plagiochasma appendiculatum flavone synthase I showing flavanone 2-hydroxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Yi-Feng; Gao, Shuai; Yu, Hai-Na; Xu, Rui-Xue; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Cheng, Ai-Xia

    2014-06-27

    FNS I is a 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenase (2-ODD) found mainly in species of the Apiaceae family. Here, an FNS I cDNA sequence was isolated from the liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum (Aytoniaceae) and characterized. The recombinant protein exhibited high FNS I activity catalyzing the conversion of naringenin to apigenin and 2-hydroxynaringenin. The critical residue for flavanone-2-hydroxylation activity was Tyr240, as identified from homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. The recombinant protein also showed some flavonol synthase activity, as it can convert dihydrokaempferol to kaempferol. When the Leu311 residue was mutated to Phe, the enzyme's capacity to convert dihydrokaempferol to kaempferol was substantially increased. PaFNS I represents a 2-ODD in which a hydrophobic ?-stacking interaction between the key residue and the naringenin A-ring determines 2-hydroxyflavanone formation. PMID:24859082

  5. Exoenzyme S shows selective ADP-ribosylation and GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activities towards small GTPases in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Maria L; Sundin, Charlotta; Jansson, Anna L; Forsberg, Ake; Palmer, Ruth H; Hallberg, Bengt

    2002-01-01

    Intracellular targeting of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxins exoenzyme S (ExoS) and exoenzyme T (ExoT) initially results in disruption of the actin microfilament structure of eukaryotic cells. ExoS and ExoT are bifunctional cytotoxins, with N-terminal GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and C-terminal ADP-ribosyltransferase activities. We show that ExoS can modify multiple GTPases of the Ras superfamily in vivo. In contrast, ExoT shows no ADP-ribosylation activity towards any of the GTPases tested in vivo. We further examined ExoS targets in vivo and observed that ExoS modulates the activity of several of these small GTP-binding proteins, such as Ras, Rap1, Rap2, Ral, Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42. We suggest that ExoS is the major ADP-ribosyltransferase protein modulating small GTPase function encoded by P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, we show that the GAP activity of ExoS abrogates the activation of RhoA, Cdc42 and Rap1. PMID:12132999

  6. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal membranes. Conclusion A berry specific cDNA clone, Vv-AMP1, was isolated and characterized and shown to encode a plant defensin. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 displayed non-morphogenic antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of fungi, probably altering the membrane permeability of the fungal pathogens. The expression of this peptide is highly regulated in Vitis vinifera, hinting at an important defense role during berry-ripening. PMID:18611251

  7. A novel cathelicidin from Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor showed specific activity to its habitat bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tongyi; Zhan, Bo; Gao, Yuanyuan

    2015-10-25

    Toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor is still used in China as traditional Chinese medicine. However, present investigations on its skin secretions were mainly focused on the bufadienolides, the proteins/peptides contained in the secretions are largely unknown. A cDNA encoding a novel cathelicidin termed BG-CATH was identified by analysis of the toad skin transcriptome. The BG-CATH precursor was predicted to have 2 possible cleavage sites following dibasic cleavage signals at its C-terminal, which will generate two mature peptides, BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that amphibian cathelicidins might evolve from common ancestors. The two predicted mature cathelicidins from B. bufo gargarizans were synthesized and both of them showed weak antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ? 200 ?g/mL). However, BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) had strong antimicrobial activities against aquatic bacteria of Vibrio splendidus, Streptococcus iniae and Aeromorus hydrophila, which were common microorganisms in the habitat of B. bufo gargarizans (MIC 3.125-40 ?g/mL). BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) showed no hemolytic activity even at high concentrations (400 ?g/mL). CD spectra analysis suggested that structure rigidity of BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) might play an important role to regulate their biological activities. Selective antimicrobial activity against habitat microorganisms might reflect the adaptation of amphibians to their living environments. PMID:26091834

  8. Triterpenoids of sour jujube show pronounced inhibitory effect on human tumor cells and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Aimin; Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Zhang, Zhenxue; He, Xiangjiu

    2014-10-01

    Sour jujube is a common fruit and traditional medicine in China. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of sour jujube was used to determine the chemical identity of potent antiproliferative and antioxidant constituents. Four novel ursane-type triterpenoids, together with 8 known were isolated and identified. The new triterpenoids were elucidated to be 2?,3?,13?,23-tetrahydroxy-urs-11-en-28-oic acid (3), 2?,3?-dihydroxy-urs-20(30)-en-28-oic acid (9), 2?,3?,28-trihydroxy-urs-20(30)-ene (10), and 3?,12?,13?-trihydroxy-ursan-28-oic acid (11). Among the triterpenoids isolated, 2?,3?,19?-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (7), 9 and 10 showed high potent inhibitory activity toward the proliferation of HepG2 cells, which the IC50 values were lower than 5 ?M. Compounds 9 and 10 also exhibited pronounced activity against MCF-7 cells, with IC50 value of 0.8 ± 0.03 and 1.5 ± 0.1 ?M, respectively. Compound 10 showed high antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 0.8 ± 0.02 ?M, which was 18.9 times higher than ascorbic acid in antioxidant capacity. PMID:25088972

  9. Newly derived GH43 gene from compost metagenome showing dual xylanase and cellulase activities.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lee, Ritthironk; Boonmee, Atcha

    2014-09-01

    A metagenomic fosmid library was constructed from compost microbial communities that were collected from various farms throughout the Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The library was enriched in carboxymethylcellulose (CM-cellulose)--containing media prior to the screening of clones capable of degrading cellulosic materials. Two clones were selected for further subcloning and sequencing based on different patterns from restriction analysis. Deduced amino acid analysis of possible ORFs revealed one novel gene encoding an enzyme belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 43 (GH43), which is a GH family rarely found in metagenomic studies. The most notable finding is that this enzyme, designated as Biof1_09, shows dual activities, namely endocellulase and endoxylanase activities. Biof1_09 showed greater than 50% of its activity under acidic conditions ranging from pH 3.5 to 5.5 with a pH optimum of 4.5. The optimum temperature of this enzyme was between 45 and 55 °C with an optimum of 50 °C. The properties of Biof1_09 make this enzyme an attractive candidate for large-scale expression for use in lignocellulose degradation for various bioprocess applications, including bioethanol fermentation. PMID:24737296

  10. Enhancer activation by a single type of transcription factor shows cell type dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, M; Westin, G

    1991-01-01

    Promoter and enhancer elements contain multiple binding sites for ubiquitous and cell type-specific transcription factors which stimulate transcription synergistically. Here we show that cell type-dependent enhancer activity can be achieved by mechanisms other than interactions between cell type-specific transcription factors and DNA. The ability of the SV40 enhancer and the E2 transactivator from bovine papillomavirus (BPV-1) to stimulate transcription from a reporter gene with different minimal promoters was tested in four cell lines. In lymphoid BJA-B cells all minimal promoters that synergized with the SV40 enhancer did so also with the E2-dependent enhancer. In sharp contrast to these results, the E2 enhancer stimulated transcription only from a subset of promoters in fibroblasts and in epithelial cells. The results suggest that lymphoid cells, unlike fibroblasts and epithelial cells, contain auxiliary factor(s) which are necessary for the activation of certain promoters by the E2 enhancer and infer that the specificity of enhancers also is regulated at a co-activator level. Images PMID:1714381

  11. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M.; Aljarbou, Ahmad N.; Alorainy, Mohammed S.; Alsharidah, Mansour S.; Khan, Masood A.

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs. PMID:25821817

  12. Cysteamine, the natural metabolite of pantetheinase, shows specific activity against Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Min-Oo, Gundula; Ayi, Kodjo; Bongfen, Silayuv E; Tam, Mifong; Radovanovic, Irena; Gauthier, Susan; Santiago, Helton; Rothfuchs, Antonio Gigliotti; Roffê, Ester; Sher, Alan; Mullick, Alaka; Fortin, Anny; Stevenson, Mary M; Kain, Kevin C; Gros, Philippe

    2010-08-01

    In mice, loss of pantetheinase activity causes susceptibility to infection with Plasmodium chabaudi AS. Treatment of mice with the pantetheinase metabolite cysteamine reduces blood-stage replication of P. chabaudi and significantly increases survival. Similarly, a short exposure of Plasmodium to cysteamine ex vivo is sufficient to suppress parasite infectivity in vivo. This effect of cysteamine is specific and not observed with a related thiol (dimercaptosuccinic acid) or with the pantethine precursor of cysteamine. Also, cysteamine does not protect against infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi or the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, suggesting cysteamine acts directly against the parasite and does not modulate host inflammatory response. Cysteamine exposure also blocks replication of P. falciparum in vitro; moreover, these treated parasites show higher levels of intact hemoglobin. This study highlights the in vivo action of cysteamine against Plasmodium and provides further evidence for the involvement of pantetheinase in host response to this infection. PMID:20219464

  13. Sphaeropsidin A shows promising activity against drug-resistant cancer cells by targeting regulatory volume increase.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Véronique; Chantôme, Aurélie; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Miklos, Walter; Paulitschke, Verena; Mohr, Thomas; Maddau, Lucia; Kornienko, Alexander; Berger, Walter; Vandier, Christophe; Evidente, Antonio; Delpire, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Despite the recent advances in the treatment of tumors with intrinsic chemotherapy resistance, such as melanoma and renal cancers, their prognosis remains poor and new chemical agents with promising activity against these cancers are urgently needed. Sphaeropsidin A, a fungal metabolite whose anticancer potential had previously received little attention, was isolated from Diplodia cupressi and found to display specific anticancer activity in vitro against melanoma and kidney cancer subpanels in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60-cell line screen. The NCI data revealed a mean LC50 of ca. 10 µM and a cellular sensitivity profile that did not match that of any other agent in the 765,000 compound database. Subsequent mechanistic studies in melanoma and other multidrug-resistant in vitro cancer models showed that sphaeropsidin A can overcome apoptosis as well as multidrug resistance by inducing a marked and rapid cellular shrinkage related to the loss of intracellular Cl(-) and the decreased HCO3 (-) concentration in the culture supernatant. These changes in ion homeostasis and the absence of effects on the plasma membrane potential were attributed to the sphaeropsidin A-induced impairment of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Preliminary results also indicate that depending on the type of cancer, the sphaeropsidin A effects on RVI could be related to Na-K-2Cl electroneutral cotransporter or Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) anion exchanger(s) targeting. This study underscores the modulation of ion-transporter activity as a promising therapeutic strategy to combat drug-resistant cancers and identifies the fungal metabolite, sphaeropsidin A, as a lead to develop anticancer agents targeting RVI in cancer cells. PMID:25868554

  14. Boehmenan, a lignan from Hibiscus ficulneus, showed Wnt signal inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Shono, Takumi; Ishikawa, Naoki; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Ahmed, Firoj; Sadhu, Samir K; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-07-15

    The Wnt signal pathway modulates numerous biological processes, and its aberrant activation is related to various diseases. Therefore, inhibition of the Wnt signal may provide an effective (or efficient) strategy for these diseases. Cell-based luciferase assay targeting the Wnt signal (TOP assay) revealed that Hibiscus ficulneus extract inhibited the Wnt signal. The activity-guided isolation of the MeOH extract of H. ficulneus stems yielded four known (1-4) lignans along with myriceric acid (5). Compounds 1-4 potently inhibited the Wnt signal with TOPflash IC50 values of 1.0, 4.5, 6.3, and 1.9 ?M, respectively. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against both Wnt-dependent (HCT116) and Wnt-independent (RKO) cells. Western blot analysis showed that 1 decreased the expression of full, cytosolic and nuclear ?-catenin along with c-myc in STF/293 cells. Our results suggested that 1 may have inhibited the Wnt signal by decreasing ?-catenin levels. PMID:26026364

  15. Structural variants of yeast prions show conformer-specific requirements for chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Stein, Kevin C; True, Heather L

    2014-09-01

    Molecular chaperones monitor protein homeostasis and defend against the misfolding and aggregation of proteins that is associated with protein conformational disorders. In these diseases, a variety of different aggregate structures can form. These are called prion strains, or variants, in prion diseases, and cause variation in disease pathogenesis. Here, we use variants of the yeast prions [RNQ+] and [PSI+] to explore the interactions of chaperones with distinct aggregate structures. We found that prion variants show striking variation in their relationship with Hsp40s. Specifically, the yeast Hsp40 Sis1 and its human orthologue Hdj1 had differential capacities to process prion variants, suggesting that Hsp40 selectivity has likely changed through evolution. We further show that such selectivity involves different domains of Sis1, with some prion conformers having a greater dependence on particular Hsp40 domains. Moreover, [PSI+] variants were more sensitive to certain alterations in Hsp70 activity as compared to [RNQ+] variants. Collectively, our data indicate that distinct chaperone machinery is required, or has differential capacity, to process different aggregate structures. Elucidating the intricacies of chaperone-client interactions, and how these are altered by particular client structures, will be crucial to understanding how this system can go awry in disease and contribute to pathological variation. PMID:25060529

  16. HATS-2b: A transiting extrasolar planet orbiting a K-type star showing starspot activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohler-Fischer, M.; Mancini, L.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Penev, K.; Bayliss, D.; Jordán, A.; Csubry, Z.; Zhou, G.; Rabus, M.; Nikolov, N.; Brahm, R.; Espinoza, N.; Buchhave, L. A.; Béky, B.; Suc, V.; Csák, B.; Henning, T.; Wright, D. J.; Tinney, C. G.; Addison, B. C.; Schmidt, B.; Noyes, R. W.; Papp, I.; Lázár, J.; Sári, P.; Conroy, P.

    2013-10-01

    We report the discovery of HATS-2b, the second transiting extrasolar planet detected by the HATSouth survey. HATS-2b is moving on a circular orbit around a V = 13.6 mag, K-type dwarf star (GSC 6665-00236), at a separation of 0.0230 ± 0.0003 AU and with a period of 1.3541 days. The planetary parameters have been robustly determined using a simultaneous fit of the HATSouth, MPG/ESO 2.2 m/GROND, Faulkes Telescope South/Spectral transit photometry, and MPG/ESO 2.2 m/FEROS, Euler 1.2 m/CORALIE, AAT 3.9 m/CYCLOPS radial-velocity measurements. HATS-2b has a mass of 1.37 ± 0.16 MJ, a radius of 1.14 ± 0.03 RJ, and an equilibrium temperature of 1567 ± 30 K. The host star has a mass of 0.88 ± 0.04 M? and a radius of 0.89 ± 0.02 R?, and it shows starspot activity. We characterized the stellar activity by analyzing two photometric follow-up transit light curves taken with the GROND instrument, both obtained simultaneously in four optical bands (covering the wavelength range of 3860-9520 Å). The two light curves contain anomalies compatible with starspots on the photosphere of the host star along the same transit chord. Tables of the individual photometric measurements are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/558/A55

  17. Using analogy role-play activity in an undergraduate biology classroom to show central dogma revision.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego® blocks (Lego System A/S, Denmark). Students were studying in the course of mathematics, physics, or chemistry, so biology was not among their usual studies. In this exercise, students perform the central dogma role-play and respectively act out nuclear matrix proteins, a transcription factor, an RNA polymerase II, an mRNA transport protein, nuclear pore proteins, a large ribosomal subunit, a small ribosomal subunit, and several amino-acyl tRNA synthetases. Questionnaire results obtained after the activity show that this central dogma role-play analogy holds student interest in the practical molecular biological processes of transcription and translation. PMID:24898113

  18. Hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids from the Pacific krill show high ligand activities for PPARs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hidetoshi; Oshiro, Eriko; Kikuchi, Sayaka; Hakozaki, Mayuka; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kimura, Ken-Ichi

    2014-05-01

    PPARs regulate the expression of genes for energy metabolism in a ligand-dependent manner. PPARs can influence fatty acid oxidation, the level of circulating triglycerides, glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate that 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), 8-HEPE, 9-HEPE, 12-HEPE and 18-HEPE (hydroxylation products of EPA) obtained from methanol extracts of Pacific krill (Euphausia pacifica) can act as PPAR ligands. Two of these products, 8-HEPE and 9-HEPE, enhanced the transcription levels of GAL4-PPARs to a significantly greater extent than 5-HEPE, 12-HEPE, 18-HEPE, EPA, and EPA ethyl-ester. 8-HEPE also activated significantly higher transcription of GAL4-PPAR?, GAL4-PPAR?, and GAL4-PPAR? than EPA at concentrations greater than 4, 64, and 64 ?M, respectively. We also demonstrated that 8-HEPE increased the expression levels of genes regulated by PPARs in FaO, 3T3-F442A, and C2C12 cells. Furthermore, 8-HEPE enhanced adipogenesis and glucose uptake. By contrast, at the same concentrations, EPA showed weak or little effect, indicating that 8-HEPE was the more potent inducer of physiological effects. PMID:24668940

  19. Do the spectral energy distributions of type 1 active galactic nuclei show diversity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. E.; Stewart, G. C.

    2014-03-01

    We create broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 761 type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN). The Scott et al. sample, created by a cross-correlation of the optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalogue and the 2XMMi catalogue of serendipitous X-ray sources, is further matched with the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm catalogue of radio sources, the mid-infrared (MIR) Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky data release, the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-infrared point source catalogue, the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey Data Release 9 Large Area Survey and the Galaxy Evolution Explorer all-sky and medium ultraviolet (UV) imaging surveys. This allows broad-band SEDs including up to 19 flux measurements covering log ? ˜ 9.2-18.1 to be created. We investigate variations in the SED shape by binning a subsample of 237 AGN with the best quality SEDs according to their X-ray spectral parameters, their quasar subtype and physical parameters such as luminosity, black hole mass and Eddington ratio. The AGN subpopulations show some significant differences in their SEDs; X-ray absorbed AGN show a deficit of emission at X-ray/UV frequencies and an excess in the MIR consistent with absorption and re-emission, radio-loud AGN show increased radio and X-ray emission consistent with the presence of a jet component in addition to the emission seen from radio-quiet AGN and the SEDs of narrow-line Seyfert 1s only differ from other type 1s in the X-ray regime, suggesting any physical differences are limited to their X-ray emitting region. Binning the AGN according to underlying physical parameters reveals more subtle differences in the SEDs. The X-ray spectral slope does not appear to have any influence or dependence on the multiwavelength emission in the rest of the SED. The contribution of X-rays to the bolometric luminosity is lower in higher luminosity sources, and relatively more emission in the optical/UV is seen in AGN with higher X-ray luminosities. Variations in the relative flux and peak frequency of the big blue bump are observed and may suggest higher inner disc temperatures with increasing accretion rates. Overall, we find that the diversity in the SED shapes is relatively small, and we find no apparent single driver for the variations.

  20. Mice lacking brain-type creatine kinase activity show defective thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Streijger, Femke; Pluk, Helma; Oerlemans, Frank; Beckers, Gaby; Bianco, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Wieringa, Bé; Van der Zee, Catharina E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase and mitochondrial ubiquitous creatine kinase (CK-B and UbCKmit) are expressed during the prepubescent and adult period of mammalian life. These creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are present in neural cell types throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in smooth muscle containing tissues, where they have an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report on the coupling of CK activity to body temperature rhythm and adaptive thermoregulation in mice. With both brain-type CK isoforms being absent, the body temperature reproducibly drops ~1.0°C below normal during every morning (inactive) period in the daily cycle. Facultative non-shivering thermogenesis is also impaired, since CK??/?? mice develop severe hypothermia during 24 h cold exposure. A relationship with fat metabolism was suggested because comparison of CK??/?? mice with wildtype controls revealed decreased weight gain associated with less white and brown fat accumulation and smaller brown adipocytes. Also, circulating levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin are reduced. Extensive physiological testing and uncoupling protein1 analysis showed, however, that the thermogenic problems are not due to abnormal responsiveness of brown adipocytes, since noradrenaline infusion produced a normal increase of body temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cyclic drop in morning temperature is also not related to altered rhythmicity with reduced locomotion, diminished food intake or increased torpor sensitivity. Although several integral functions appear altered when CK is absent in the brain, combined findings point into the direction of inefficient neuronal transmission as the dominant factor in the thermoregulatory defect. PMID:19419668

  1. COMICS, CARTOONS, AND FUNNY PAPERS The Rube Goldberg, Phil Frank, and Gus Arriola Archives in The Bancroft Library

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    COMICS, CARTOONS, AND FUNNY PAPERS The Rube Goldberg, Phil Frank, and Gus Arriola Archives) to the absurd "inventions" of Berkeley alumnus Rube Goldberg, who seems indirectly indebted to Leonardo--cartoons continue to be a substantial, socially significant, topical and time- less art form. RUBE GOLDBERG 1883

  2. TRANSFORMATION EFFICIENCIES AND EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF A SERIES OF TRUNCATED GS1-2 PROMOTER/GUS TRANSGENES IN MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One isoform of maize glutamine synthetase, encoded by GS1-2, is localized exclusively within the maternal tissues of the developing kernel. In this report, a series GS1-2 promoter/GUS reporter transgenes, progressively truncated from the 5' end of the promoter, were evaluated for transformation eff...

  3. NASA's Fermi Shows How Active Galaxies Can Be - Duration: 2 minutes, 2 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Active galaxies called blazars make up the largest class of objects detected by Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT). Massive black holes in the hearts of these galaxies fire particle jets in our dir...

  4. A transgenic apple callus showing reduced polyphenol oxidase activity and lower browning potential.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Nishimura, M; Murai, N; Haruta, M; Homma, S; Itoh, Y

    2001-02-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is responsible for enzymatic browning of apples. Apples lacking PPO activity might be useful not only for the food industry but also for studies of the metabolism of polyphenols and the function of PPO. Transgenic apple calli were prepared by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the kanamycin (KM) resistant gene and antisense PPO gene. Four KM-resistant callus lines were obtained from 356 leaf explants. Among these transgenic calli, three calli grew on the medium containing KM at the same rate as non-transgenic callus on the medium without KM. One callus line had an antisense PPO gene, in which the amount and activity of PPO were reduced to half the amount and activity in non-transgenic callus. The browning potential of this line, which was estimated by adding chlorogenic acid, was also half the browning potential of non-transgenic callus. PMID:11302173

  5. Isolation of novel Bacillus species showing high mosquitocidal activity against several mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sabrina R; Hudon, Michael; Park, Hyun-Woo

    2011-05-01

    Two novel mosquitocidal bacteria, VB17 and VB24, identified as new Bacillus species were isolated from dead mosquito larvae obtained in Florida aquatic habitats. Gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (GC-FAME) and 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that VB24 is closely related to Bacillus sphaericus whereas VB17 does not have a close relationship with either Bacillus thuringiensis or B. sphaericus. Both isolates were significantly more active than B. sphaericus 2362 against Aedes taeniorhynchus, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, and as active as B. sphaericus 2362 against Anopheles gambiae. Interestingly, however, both were not active against Aedes aegypti larvae, indicating some level of insecticidal specificity. PMID:21276795

  6. Water Works: A Great Show on Earth. Classroom Activities for Third and Fourth Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Judy; Clark, Neil

    This curriculum guide is divided into five lessons, each containing several activities that reflect the natural path of inquiry that third or fourth grade students might take in considering the water that arrives in their bathroom sinks each morning. Starting from the familiar faucet, the students are encouraged to reflect on their own habits and…

  7. Cerato-platanin shows expansin-like activity on cellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Baccelli, Ivan; Luti, Simone; Bernardi, Rodolfo; Scala, Aniello; Pazzagli, Luigia

    2014-01-01

    Cerato-platanin (CP) is a non-catalytic protein with a double ??-barrel fold located in the cell wall of the phytopathogenic fungus Ceratocystis platani. CP is released during growth and induces defence-related responses in plants. CP is also the first member of the "cerato-platanin family" (CPF) (Pfam PF07249). In the CPF, the molecular mechanism of action on plants and above all the biological role in fungal life are little-known aspects. However, an expansin-like function has recently been suggested concerning CP. Expansin-like proteins have the ability to act non-hydrolytically on cellulose. In the present work, the expansin-like activity of CP and Pop1, a CP family member, was investigated. Like expansins, CP and Pop1 were able to weaken filter paper in a concentration-dependent manner and without the production of reducing sugars. A metal-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenase-like activity was excluded. The optimum of activity was pH5.0, 38 °C. CP was also able to cause fragmentation of the crystalline cellulose Avicel and the breakage and defibration of cotton fibres. However, the interaction did not involve a stable bond with the substrates and CP did not significantly enhance the hydrolytic activity of cellulase. On the other hand, CP and Pop1 bound quickly to chitin. We consider CP as a novel one-domain expansin-like protein. We propose a structural role for CP in the fungal cell wall due to the ability to bind chitin, and hypothesize a functional role in the interaction of the fungus with the plant for the weakening activity shown on cellulose. PMID:23512479

  8. Identification of MET and SRC Activation in Melanoma Cell Lines Showing Primary Resistance to PLX403212

    PubMed Central

    Vergani, Elisabetta; Vallacchi, Viviana; Frigerio, Simona; Deho, Paola; Mondellini, Piera; Perego, Paola; Cassinelli, Giuliana; Lanzi, Cinzia; Testi, Maria Adele; Rivoltini, Licia; Bongarzone, Italia; Rodolfo, Monica

    2011-01-01

    PLX4032/vemurafenib is a first-in-class small-molecule BRAFV600E inhibitor with clinical activity in patients with BRAF mutant melanoma. Nevertheless, drug resistance develops in treated patients, and strategies to overcome primary and acquired resistance are required. To explore the molecular mechanisms involved in primary resistance to PLX4032, we investigated its effects on cell proliferation and signaling in a panel of 27 genetically characterized patient-derived melanoma cell lines. Cell sensitivity to PLX4032 was dependent on BRAFV600E and independent from other gene alterations that commonly occur in melanoma such as PTEN loss, BRAF, and MITF gene amplification. Two cell lines lacking sensitivity to PLX4032 and harboring a different set of genetic alterations were studied as models of primary resistance. Treatment with the MEK inhibitor UO126 but not with PLX4032 inhibited cell growth and ERK activation. Resistance to PLX4032 was maintained after CRAF down-regulation by siRNA indicating alternative activation of MEK-ERK signaling. Genetic characterization by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and analysis of phosphotyrosine signaling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis revealed the activation of MET and SRC signaling, associated with the amplification of MET and of CTNNB1 and CCND1 genes, respectively. The combination of PLX4032 with drugs or siRNA targeting MET was effective in inhibiting cell growth and reducing cell invasion and migration in melanoma cells with MET amplification; similar effects were observed after targeting SRC in the other cell line, indicating a role for MET and SRC signaling in primary resistance to PLX4032. Our results support the development of classification of melanoma in molecular subtypes for more effective therapies. PMID:22241959

  9. X-ray microtomography shows pore structure and tortuosity in alkali-activated binders

    SciTech Connect

    Provis, John L.; Myers, Rupert J.; White, Claire E.; Rose, Volker; Deventer, Jannie S.J. van

    2012-06-15

    Durability of alkali-activated binders is of vital importance in their commercial application, and depends strongly on microstructure and pore network characteristics. X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) offers, for the first time, direct insight into microstructural and pore structure characteristics in three dimensions. Here, {mu}CT is performed on a set of sodium metasilicate-activated fly ash/slag blends, using a synchrotron beamline instrument. Segmentation of the samples into pore and solid regions is then conducted, and pore tortuosity is calculated by a random walker method. Segmented porosity and diffusion tortuosity are correlated, and vary as a function of slag content (slag addition reduces porosity and increases tortuosity), and sample age (extended curing gives lower porosity and higher tortuosity). This is particularly notable for samples with {>=} 50% slag content, where a space-filling calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate gel provides porosity reductions which are not observed for the sodium aluminosilicate ('geopolymer') gels which do not chemically bind water of hydration.

  10. Montmorillonite enhanced ciprofloxacin transport in saturated porous media with sorbed ciprofloxacin showing antibiotic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Gao, Bin; Yang, Liu-Yan; Ma, Lena Q.

    2015-02-01

    Antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) is immobile in the subsurface but it has been frequently detected in the aquatic system. Therefore it is important to investigate the factors impacting CIP's mobilization in aquifer. Laboratory columns packed with sand were used to test colloid-facilitated CIP transport by 1) using kaolinite or montmorillonite to mobilize presorbed-CIP in a column or 2) co-transporting with CIP by pre-mixing them before transport. The Langmuir model showed that CIP sorption by montmorillonite (23 g kg- 1) was 100 times more effective than sand or kaolinite. Even with strong CIP complexation ability to Fe/Al coating on sand surface, montmorillonite promoted CIP transport, but not kaolinite. All presorbed-CIP by sand was mobilized by montmorillonite after 3 pore volumes through co-transporting of CIP with montmorillonite. The majority of CIP was fixed onto the montmorillonite interlayer but still showed inhibition of bacteria growth. Our results suggested that montmorillonite with high CIP sorption ability can act as a carrier to enhance CIP's mobility in aquifer.

  11. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Kerry A

    2013-07-23

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(10(4))] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950-2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones. PMID:23836646

  12. Polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica show hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in mice with experimentally induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xibei; Yang, Juan; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Ruichan; Xie, Rujuan

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder of the endocrine system. The rapid increase in the incidence of DM is a serious public health concern worldwide. The treatment of DM and its complications mainly involves the use of chemically or biochemically synthesized drugs, but these drugs also have adverse side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to search for drugs from natural sources that would cause fewer side effects. This study aimed to determine whether polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica (LJP) exert hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. To this end, diabetes was induced by alloxan injection (200?mg/kg body weight [bw], intraperitoneal [ip]). After induction of diabetes, diabetic mice were randomly divided into five groups: diabetic control (DC) group, glibenclamide-treated (DG) group, low-dose LJP-treated (DLL) group, moderate-dose LJP-treated (DML) group, and high-dose LJP-treated (DHL) group, with normal mice used as the control group (NC group). After treatment for 28 days, body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured. The results revealed that LJP administration prevented body-weight loss, decreased FBG levels, and increased serum insulin levels in diabetic mice. Furthermore, it decreased TC, TG, and LDL-C levels, and increased HDL-C levels in these mice. Thus, the results indicate that LJP possesses hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities and polysaccharides from LJP may hold promise for the development of a drug of natural origin for the treatment of DM. PMID:24928865

  13. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers show carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity against ?-, ?-, ?- and ?-class enzymes.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Osman, Sameh M; Vullo, Daniela; AlOthman, Zeid; Del Prete, Sonia; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-11-01

    Four generations of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers incorporating benzenesulfonamide moieties were investigated as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) belonging to the ?-, ?-, ?- and ?-classes which are present in pathogenic bacteria, fungi or protozoa. The following bacterial, fungal and protozoan organisms were included in the study: Vibrio cholerae, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani chagasi, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida glabrata, and Plasmodium falciparum. The eight pathozymes present in these organisms were efficiently inhibited by the four generations PAMAM-sulfonamide dendrimers, but multivalency effects were highly variable among the different enzyme classes. The Vibrio enzyme VchCA was best inhibited by the G3 dendrimer incorporating 32 sulfamoyl moieties. The Trypanosoma enzyme TcCA on the other hand was best inhibited by the first generation dendrimer G0 (with 4 sulfamoyl groups), whereas for other enzymes the optimal inhibitory power was observed for the G1 or G2 dendrimers, with 8 and 16 sulfonamide functionalities. This study thus proves that the multivalency may be highly relevant for enzyme inhibition for some but not all CAs from pathogenic organisms. On the other hand, some dendrimers investigated here showed a better inhibitory power compared to acetazolamide for enzymes from widespread pathogens, such as the ?-CA from Plasmodium falciparum. Overall, the main conclusion is that this class of molecules may lead to important developments in the field of anti-infective CA inhibitors. PMID:26476668

  14. Expression pattern and activity of six glutelin gene promoters in transgenic rice*

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Le Qing; Xing, Yan Ping; Liu, Wen Xian; Xu, Xiu Ping; Song, Yan Ru

    2008-01-01

    The shortage of strong endosperm-specific expression promoters for driving the expression of recombinant protein genes in cereal endosperm is a major limitation in obtaining the required level and pattern of expression. Six promoters of seed storage glutelin genes (GluA-1, GluA-2, GluA-3, GluB-3, GluB-5, and GluC) were isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) genomic DNA by PCR. Their spatial and temporal expression patterns and expression potential in stable transgenic rice plants were examined with ?-glucuronidase (GUS) used as a reporter gene. All the promoters showed the expected spatial expression within the endosperm. The GluA-1, GluA-2, and GluA-3 promoters directed GUS expression mainly in the outer portion (peripheral region) of the endosperm. The GluB-5 and GluC promoters directed GUS expression in the whole endosperm, with the latter expressed almost evenly throughout the whole endosperm, a feature different from that of other rice glutelin gene promoters. The GluB-3 promoter directed GUS expression solely in aleurone and subaleurone layers. Promoter activities examined during seed maturation showed that the GluC promoter had much higher activity than the other promoters. These promoters are ideal candidates for achieving gene expression for multiple purposes in monocot endosperm but avoid promoter homology-based gene silencing. The GluC promoter did not contain the endosperm specificity-determining motifs GCN4, AACA, and the prolamin-box, which suggests the existence of additional regulatory mechanism in determining endosperm specificity. PMID:18467323

  15. A specific cathepsin-L-like protease purified from an insect midgut shows antibacterial activity against gut symbiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Jin Hee; Seo, Eun Sil; Lee, Jun Beom; Lee, Min Ja; Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Yoo, Jin Wook; Jung, Yunjin; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-11-01

    Because gut symbiotic bacteria affect host biology, host insects are expected to evolve some mechanisms for regulating symbiont population. The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, harbors the Burkholderia genus as a gut symbiont in the midgut organ, designated as the M4 region. Recently, we demonstrated that the lysate of M4B, the region adjacent to M4, harbors potent antibacterial activity against symbiotic Burkholderia but not to cultured Burkholderia. However, the bona fide substance responsible for observed antibacterial activity was not identified in the previous study. Here, we report that cathepsin-L-like protease purified from the lysate of M4B showed strong antibacterial activity against symbiotic Burkholderia but not the cultured Burkholderia. To further confirm this activity, recombinant cathepsin-L-like protease expressed in Escherichia coli also showed antibacterial activity against symbiotic Burkholderia. These results suggest that cathepsin-L-like protease purified from the M4B region plays a critical role in controlling the population of the Burkholderia gut symbiont. PMID:26159404

  16. Autistic adolescents show atypical activation of the brain's mentalizing system even without a prior history of mentalizing problems.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah J; Frith, Uta; Rellecke, Julian; Al-Noor, Zainab; Gilbert, Sam J

    2014-04-01

    Some autistic children pass classic Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks that others fail, but the significance of this finding is at present unclear. We identified two such groups of primary school age (labelled ToM+ and ToM-) and a matched comparison group of typically developing children (TD). Five years later we tested these participants again on a ToM test battery appropriate for adolescents and conducted an fMRI study with a story based ToM task. We also assessed autistic core symptoms at these two time points. At both times the ToM- group showed more severe social communication impairments than the ToM+ group, and while showing an improvement in mentalizing performance, they continued to show a significant impairment compared to the NT group. Two independent ROI analyses of the BOLD signal showed activation of the mentalizing network including medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate and lateral temporal cortices. Strikingly, both ToM+ and ToM- groups showed very similar patterns of heightened activation in comparison with the NT group. No differences in other brain regions were apparent. Thus, autistic adolescents who do not have a history of mentalizing problems according to our ToM battery showed the same atypical neurophysiological response during mentalizing as children who did have such a history. This finding indicates that heterogeneity at the behavioural level may nevertheless map onto a similar phenotype at the neuro-cognitive level. PMID:24361475

  17. Syzygium jambos and Solanum guaraniticum show similar antioxidant properties but induce different enzymatic activities in the brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Gabriela; Bitencourt, Paula Rodrigues; Bona, Karine Santos de; Silva, Priscila Sabino da; Jantsch, Letícia B; Pigatto, Aline S; Boligon, Aline; Athayde, Margareth L; Gonçalves, Thissiane L; Moretto, Maria Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Syzygium jambos and Solanum guaraniticum are both employed in Brazil as medicinal plants, even though their potential toxicity is not well established and they are frequently misused. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of both plants on ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (?-ALA-D) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities and the antioxidant action against oxidative damage induced by sodium nitroprusside in rats, using in vitro assays. In addition, the presence of gallic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids, as well as rutin, quercetin and kaempferol as bioactive compounds in the extracts was identified by HPLC and their levels quantified. The antioxidant activities of both extracts were assessed by their capabilities to scavenge nitric oxide and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Only Syzygium jambos presented thiol-peroxidase-like activity. Although neither extract affected the AChE activity, the aqueous extract of Solanum guaraniticum inhibited brain ?-ALA-D activity, suggesting a possible impairment effect on the central nervous system. Our results showed that both extracts exhibited efficient free radical scavenger activity and are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, justifying their use in folk medicine, although Solanum guaraniticum extract could have neurotoxicity properties and we therefore suggest that its use should be restricted to ensure the health of the population. PMID:23912272

  18. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate shows anti-proliferative activity in HeLa cells targeting tubulin-microtubule equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Subhendu; Ganguli, Arnab; Das, Amlan; Nag, Debasish; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2015-12-01

    In this study our main objective was to find out a novel target of the major bioactive green tea polyphenol, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), in cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. We found that EGCG showed antiproliferative activity against HeLa cells through depolymerization of cellular microtubule. EGCG also prevented the reformation of the cellular microtubule network distorted by cold treatment and inhibited polymerization of tubulin in cell-free system with IC50 of 39.6 ± 0.63 ?M. Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis showed that EGCG prevented colchicine binding to tubulin and in silico study revealed that EGCG bound to the ?-subunit of tubulin at the interphase of the ?-and ?-heterodimers and very close to colchicine binding site. The binding is entropy driven (?S(0) was 18.75 ± 1.48 cal K(-1) mol(-1)) with Kd value of 3.50 ± 0.40 ?M. This is a novel mechanism of antipriliferative activity of EGCG. PMID:26554336

  19. Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).

    PubMed

    Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

    2008-07-01

    Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides. PMID:18557620

  20. Actinobacteria from Termite Mounds Show Antiviral Activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model for Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Marina Aiello; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Martini, Matheus Cavalheiro; Barnabé, Ana Caroline de Souza; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Bomfim, Getúlio Freitas; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP) equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s) responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s) that had a peak retention time of 5?min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection. PMID:26579205

  1. Actinobacteria from Termite Mounds Show Antiviral Activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model for Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Marina Aiello; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Martini, Matheus Cavalheiro; Barnabé, Ana Caroline de Souza; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Bomfim, Getúlio Freitas; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP) equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s) responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s) that had a peak retention time of 5?min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection. PMID:26579205

  2. Thiophene-degrading Escherichia coli mutants possess sulfone oxidase activity and show altered resistance to sulfur-containing antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Juhl, M J; Clark, D P

    1990-01-01

    We have previously isolated mutants of Escherichia coli which show increased oxidation of heterocyclic furan and thiophene substrates. We have now found that strains carrying the thdA mutation express a novel enzyme activity which oxidizes a variety of substrates containing a sulfone (SO2) moiety. Both heterocyclic sulfones (e.g., tetramethylene sulfone) and simple aliphatic sulfones (e.g., ethyl sulfone) were oxidized. The thdA mutants were more resistant than wild-type strains to aromatic sulfone antibiotics such as dapsone. In contrast they showed increased susceptibility to thiolutin, a cyclic antibiotic containing sulfur at the sulfide level of oxidation. Several new thdA mutant alleles were isolated by selecting for increased oxidation of various aliphatic sulfur compounds. These new thdA mutants showed similar sulfone oxidase activity and the same map location (at 10.7 min) as the original thdA1 mutation. The constitutive fadR mutation was required for the phenotypic expression of thdA-mediated oxidation of sulfur compounds. However, the thdA-directed expression of sulfone oxidase activity was not fadR dependent. The thdC and thdD mutations probably protect against the toxicity of thiophene derivatives rather than conferring improved metabolic capability. PMID:2285321

  3. Development of a transgenic hairy root system in jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) with gusA reporter gene through Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated co-transformation.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Tirthartha; Roy, Sheuli; Mitra, Adinpunya; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic hairy root system is important in several recalcitrant plants, where Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation and generation of transgenic plants are problematic. Jute (Corchorus spp.), the major fibre crop in Indian subcontinent, is one of those recalcitrant plants where in vitro tissue culture has provided a little success, and hence, Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation remains to be a challenging proposition in this crop. In the present work, a system of transgenic hairy roots in Corchorus capsularis L. has been developed through genetic transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes harbouring two plasmids, i.e. the natural Ri plasmid and a recombinant binary vector derived from the disarmed Ti plasmid of A. tumefaciens. Our findings indicate that the system is relatively easy to establish and reproducible. Molecular analysis of the independent lines of transgenic hairy roots revealed the transfer of relevant transgenes from both the T-DNA parts into the plant genome, indicating the co-transformation nature of the event. High level expression and activity of the gusA reporter gene advocate that the transgenic hairy root system, thus developed, could be applicable as gene expression system in general and for root functional genomics in particular. Furthermore, these transgenic hairy roots can be used in future as explants for plantlet regeneration to obtain stable transgenic jute plants. PMID:21153028

  4. Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-27

    The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils. PMID:25110971

  5. Cloning and characterization of a novel amidase from Paracoccus sp. M-1, showing aryl acylamidase and acyl transferase activities.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weiliang; Chen, Honghong; Jia, Kaizhi; Ni, Jun; Yan, Xin; Li, Shunpeng

    2012-05-01

    A novel amidase gene, designated pamh, was cloned from Paracoccus sp. M-1. Site-directed mutagenesis and bioinformatic analysis showed that the PamH protein belonged to the amidase signature enzyme family. PamH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. The molecular mass of PamH was determined to be 52 kDa with an isoelectric point of 5.13. PamH displayed its highest enzymatic activity at 45°C and at pH 8.0 and was stable within a pH range of 5.0-10.0. The PamH enzyme exhibited amidase activity, aryl acylamidase activity, and acyl transferase activity, allowing it to function across a very broad substrate spectrum. PamH was highly active on aromatic and short-chain aliphatic amides (benzamide and propionamide), moderately active on amino acid amides, and possessed weak urease activity. Of the anilides examined, only propanil was a good substrate for PamH. For propanil, the k (cat) and K (m) were 2.8 s(-1) and 158 ?M, respectively, and the catalytic efficiency value (k (cat)/K (m)) was 0.018 ?M(-1) s(-1). In addition, PamH was able to catalyze the acyl transfer reaction to hydroxylamine for both amide and anilide substrates, including acetamide, propanil, and 4-nitroacetanilide; the highest reaction rate was shown with isobutyramide. These characteristics make PamH an excellent candidate for environmental remediation and an important enzyme for the biosynthesis of novel amides. PMID:22101784

  6. Quercetin and quercetin 3-O-glycosides from Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. show anti-Mayaro virus activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The arthropod-borne Mayaro virus (MAYV) causes ‘Mayaro fever’, a disease of medical significance, primarily affecting individuals in permanent contact with forested areas in tropical South America. Recently, MAYV has attracted attention due to its likely urbanization. Currently, there are no licensed drugs against most mosquito-transmitted viruses. Here, we investigated the in vitro anti-MAYV activity of the flavonoids quercetin and its derivatives from the Brazilian shrub Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. Methods Flavonoids were purified by chromatographic fractionation from leaf extracts of B. longifolia and chemically identified as quercetin and quercetin glycosides using spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxicity of purified flavonoids and of EtOAc- and n-BuOH-containing flavonoid mixtures was measured by the dye-uptake assay while their antiviral activity was evaluated by a virus yield inhibition assay. Results The following flavonoids were purified from B. longifolia leaves: non-glycosylated quercetin and its glycosides guaijaverin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and hyperin. EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions containing these flavonoids demonstrated the highest antiviral activity of all tested substances, while quercetin had the highest antiviral activity amongst purified flavonoids. Quercetin, EtOAc, or n-BuOH fractions inhibited MAYV production by more than 90% at 25 ?g/mL, displaying a stronger antiviral effect than the licensed antiviral ribavirin. A mixture of the isomers isoquercitrin and hyperin had a modest antiviral effect (IC90?=?104.9), while guaijaverin and quercitrin did not show significant antiviral activity. Conclusions B. longifolia is a good source of flavonoids with anti-Mayaro virus activity. This is the first report of the activity of quercetin and its derivatives against an alphavirus. PMID:24678592

  7. Rosmarinic Acid from Eelgrass Shows Nematicidal and Antibacterial Activities against Pine Wood Nematode and Its Carrying Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC50 (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L9 (34) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina. PMID:23201594

  8. Rosmarinic acid from eelgrass shows nematicidal and antibacterial activities against pine wood nematode and its carrying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

    2012-12-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC?? (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L? (3?) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina. PMID:23201594

  9. Discovery of LPMO activity on hemicelluloses shows the importance of oxidative processes in plant cell wall degradation

    PubMed Central

    Agger, Jane W.; Isaksen, Trine; Várnai, Anikó; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Willats, William G. T.; Ludwig, Roland; Horn, Svein J.; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Westereng, Bjørge

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are known to carry out oxidative cleavage of glycoside bonds in chitin and cellulose, thus boosting the activity of well-known hydrolytic depolymerizing enzymes. Because biomass-degrading microorganisms tend to produce a plethora of LPMOs, and considering the complexity and copolymeric nature of the plant cell wall, it has been speculated that some LPMOs may act on other substrates, in particular the hemicelluloses that tether to cellulose microfibrils. We demonstrate that an LPMO from Neurospora crassa, NcLPMO9C, indeed degrades various hemicelluloses, in particular xyloglucan. This activity was discovered using a glycan microarray-based screening method for detection of substrate specificities of carbohydrate-active enzymes, and further explored using defined oligomeric hemicelluloses, isolated polymeric hemicelluloses and cell walls. Products generated by NcLPMO9C were analyzed using high performance anion exchange chromatography and multidimensional mass spectrometry. We show that NcLPMO9C generates oxidized products from a variety of substrates and that its product profile differs from those of hydrolytic enzymes acting on the same substrates. The enzyme particularly acts on the glucose backbone of xyloglucan, accepting various substitutions (xylose, galactose) in almost all positions. Because the attachment of xyloglucan to cellulose hampers depolymerization of the latter, it is possible that the beneficial effect of the LPMOs that are present in current commercial cellulase mixtures in part is due to hitherto undetected LPMO activities on recalcitrant hemicellulose structures. PMID:24733907

  10. High affinity and covalent-binding microtubule stabilizing agents show activity in chemotherapy-resistant acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Pera, Benet; Calvo-Vidal, M Nieves; Ambati, Srikanth; Jordi, Michel; Kahn, Alissa; Díaz, J Fernando; Fang, Weishuo; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Cerchietti, Leandro; Moore, Malcolm A S

    2015-11-01

    Treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is frequently due to the persistence of a cell population resistant to chemotherapy through different mechanisms, in which drug efflux via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, specifically P-glycoprotein, is one of the most recognized. However, disappointing results from clinical trials employing inhibitors for these transporters have demonstrated the need to adopt different strategies. We hypothesized that microtubule targeting compounds presenting high affinity or covalent binding could overcome the effect of ABC transporters. We therefore evaluated the activity of the high-affinity paclitaxel analog CTX-40 as well as the covalent binder zampanolide (ZMP) in AML cells. Both molecules were active in chemosensitive as well as in chemoresistant cell lines overexpressing P-glycoprotein. Moreover, ZMP or CTX-40 in combination with daunorubicin showed synergistic killing without increased in vitro hematopoietic toxicity. In a primary AML sample, we further demonstrated that ZMP and CTX-40 are active in progenitor and differentiated leukemia cell populations. In sum, our data indicate that high affinity and covalent-binding anti-microtubule agents are active in AML cells otherwise chemotherapy resistant. PMID:26277539

  11. Silk gland-specific proteinase inhibitor serpin16 from the Bombyx mori shows cysteine proteinase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng-Chao; Dong, Zhaoming; Xiao, Li; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yan; He, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2015-01-30

    Serpins (serine proteinase inhibitors) are widely distributed in different species and are well known for their inhibitory activities towards serine proteinases. Here, we report the functional characterization of Bombyx mori serpin16. Expression analysis showed that serpin16 was specifically expressed at high levels in the silk gland at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, homology modeling and multi-sequence alignment suggested that serpin16 had a canonical serpin fold, but it contained a unique reactive center loop, which was obviously shorter than that of typical serpins. Inhibitory activity analyses revealed that the target proteinase of serpin18 is a cysteine proteinase, rather than a serine proteinase. Furthermore, a Michaelis complex model of serpin16 with its target proteinase was constructed to explain the structural basis of how serpin16 recognizes the cysteine proteinase and its target specificity. PMID:25529451

  12. Coadministration of doxorubicin and etoposide loaded in camel milk phospholipids liposomes showed increased antitumor activity in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Aljarbou, Ahmed N; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Rahmani, Arshad H; Khan, Masood A

    2015-01-01

    Small unilamellar vesicles from camel milk phospholipids (CML) mixture or from 1,2 dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were prepared, and anticancer drugs doxorubicin (Dox) or etoposide (ETP) were loaded. Liposomal formulations were used against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Results showed a very high percentage of Dox encapsulation (~98%) in liposomes (Lip) prepared from CML-Lip or DPPC-Lip, whereas the percentage of encapsulations of ETP was on the lower side, 22% of CML-Lip and 18% for DPPC-Lip. Differential scanning calorimetry curves show that Dox enhances the lamellar formation in CML-Lip, whereas ETP enhances the nonlamellar formation. Differential scanning calorimetry curves also showed that the presence of Dox and ETP together into DPPC-Lip produced the interdigitation effect. The in vivo anticancer activity of liposomal formulations of Dox or ETP or a combination of both was assessed against benzopyrene (BAP)-induced fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of Dox and ETP loaded into CML-Lip showed increased survival and reduced tumor growth compared to other groups, including the combination of Dox and ETP in DPPC-Lip. Fibrosarcoma-bearing mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP) showed much higher tumor growth compared to those groups treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP) or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP). Immunohistochemical study was also performed to show the expression of tumor-suppressor PTEN, and it was found that the tumor tissues from the group of mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP) showed greater loss of cytoplasmic PTEN than tumor tissues obtained from the groups of mice treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP) or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP). PMID:25926730

  13. Brain Correlates of Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Activation Likelihood Analysis Shows Preliminary Evidence of Neural Target Engagement.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Ian S; MacDonald, Angus W

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive remediation training (CRT) for schizophrenia has been found to improve cognitive functioning and influence neural plasticity. However, with various training approaches and mixed findings, the mechanisms driving generalization of cognitive skills from CRT are unclear. In this meta-analysis of extant imaging studies examining CRT's effects, we sought to clarify whether varying approaches to CRT suggest common neural changes and whether such mechanisms are restorative or compensatory. We conducted a literature search to identify studies appropriate for inclusion in an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. Our criteria required studies to consist of training-based interventions designed to improve patients' cognitive or social functioning, including generalization to untrained circumstances. Studies were also required to examine changes in pre- vs posttraining functional activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. The literature search identified 162 articles, 9 of which were appropriate for inclusion. ALE analyses comparing pre- and posttraining brain activation showed increased activity in the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal cortex, insula, and the caudate and thalamus. Notably, activation associated with CRT in the left PFC and thalamus partially overlapped with previous meta-analytically identified areas associated with deficits in working memory, executive control, and facial emotion processing in schizophrenia. We conclude that CRT interventions from varying theoretic modalities elicit plasticity in areas that support cognitive and socioemotional processes in this early set of studies. While preliminary, these changes appear to be both restorative and compensatory, though thalamocortical areas previously associated with dysfunction may be common sources of plasticity for cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. PMID:25800249

  14. Copper(II) complexes of L-arginine as netropsin mimics showing DNA cleavage activity in red light.

    PubMed

    Patra, Ashis K; Bhowmick, Tuhin; Roy, Sovan; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2009-04-01

    Copper(II) complexes [Cu(L-arg)(2)](NO(3))(2) (1) and [Cu(L-arg)(B)Cl]Cl (2-5), where B is a heterocyclic base, namely, 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy, 2), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 3), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq, 4), and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz, 5), are prepared and their DNA binding and photoinduced DNA cleavage activity studied. Ternary complex 3, structurally characterized using X-ray crystallography, shows a square-pyramidal (4 + 1) coordination geometry in which the N,O-donor L-arginine and N,N-donor 1,10-phenanthroline form the basal plane with one chloride at the elongated axial site. The complex has a pendant cationic guanidinium moiety. The one-electron paramagnetic complexes display a metal-centered d-d band in the range of 590-690 nm in aqueous DMF. They show quasireversible cyclic voltammetric response due to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple in the range of -0.1 to -0.3 V versus a saturated calomel electrode in a DMF-Tris HCl buffer (pH 7.2). The DNA binding propensity of the complexes is studied using various techniques. Copper(II) bis-arginate 1 mimics the minor groove binder netropsin by showing preferential binding to the AT-rich sequence of double-strand (ds) DNA. DNA binding study using calf thymus DNA gives an order: 5 (L-arg-dppz) > or = 1 (bis-L-arg) > 4 (L-arg-dpq) > 3 (L-arg-phen) > 2 (L-arg-bpy). Molecular docking calculations reveal that the complexes bind through extensive hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions with ds-DNA. The complexes cleave supercoiled pUC19 DNA in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a reducing agent forming hydroxyl ((*)OH) radicals. The complexes show oxidative photoinduced DNA cleavage activity in UV-A light of 365 nm and red light of 647.1 nm (Ar-Kr mixed-gas-ion laser) in a metal-assisted photoexcitation process forming singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) species in a type-II pathway. All of the complexes, barring complex 2, show efficient DNA photocleavage activity. Complexes 4 and 5 exhibit significant double-strand breaks of DNA in red light of 647.1 nm due to the presence of two photosensitizers, namely, L-arginine and dpq or dppz in the molecules. PMID:19254037

  15. Ttyh1 protein is expressed in glia in vitro and shows elevated expression in activated astrocytes following status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Wiernasz, Elzbieta; Kaliszewska, Aleksandra; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Bednarczyk, Joanna; Gorniak, Malgorzata; Kaza, Beata; Lukasiuk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    In a previous study, we showed that Ttyh1 protein is expressed in neurons in vitro and in vivo in the form of punctuate structures, which are localized to neuropil and neuronal somata. Herein, we provide the first description of Ttyh1 protein expression in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia in vitro. Moreover, using double immunofluorescence, we show Ttyh1 protein expression in activated astrocytes in the hippocampus following amygdala stimulation-induced status epilepticus. We demonstrate that in migrating astrocytes in in vitro wound model Ttyh1 concentrates at the edges of extending processes. These data suggest that Ttyh1 not only participates in shaping neuronal morphology, as previously described, but may also play a role in the function of activated glia in brain pathology. To localize Ttyh1 expression in the cellular compartments of neurons and astrocytes, we performed in vitro double immunofluorescent staining using markers for the following subcellular structures: endoplasmic reticulum (GRP78), Golgi apparatus (GM130), clathrin-coated vehicles (clathrin), early endosomes (Rab5 and APPL2), recycling endosomes (Rab11), trans-Golgi network (TGN46), endoplasmic reticulum membrane (calnexin), late endosomes and lysosomes (LAMP1) and synaptic vesicles (synaptoporin and synaptotagmin 1). We found that Ttyh1 is present in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and clathrin-coated vesicles (clathrin) in both neurons and astrocytes and also in late endosomes or lysosomes in astrocytes. The presence of Ttyh1 was negligible in early endosomes, recycling endosomes, trans-Golgi network, endoplasmic reticulum membrane and synaptic vesicles. PMID:25316497

  16. B chromosomes showing active ribosomal RNA genes contribute insignificant amounts of rRNA in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Badisco, Liesbeth; Broeck, Jozef Vanden; Perfectti, Francisco; López-León, María Dolores; Cabrero, Josefa; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    2014-12-01

    The genetic inertness of supernumerary (B) chromosomes has recently been called into question after finding several cases of gene activity on them. The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans harbors B chromosomes containing large amounts of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, some of which are eventually active, but the amount of rRNA transcripts contributed by B chromosomes, compared to those of the standard (A) chromosomes, is unknown. Here, we address this question by means of quantitative PCR (qPCR) for two different ITS2 amplicons, one coming from rDNA units located in both A and B chromosomes (ITS2(A+B)) and the other being specific to B chromosomes (ITS2(B)). We analyzed six body parts in nine males showing rDNA expression in their B chromosomes in the testis. Amplification of the ITS2(B) amplicon was successful in RNA extracted from all six body parts analyzed, but showed relative quantification (RQ) values four orders of magnitude lower than those obtained for the ITS(A+B) amplicon. RQ values differed significantly between body parts for the two amplicons, with testis, accessory gland and wing muscle showing threefold higher values than head, gastric cecum and hind leg. We conclude that the level of B-specific rDNA expression is extremely low even in individuals where B chromosome rDNA is not completely silenced. Bearing in mind that B chromosomes carry the largest rDNA cluster in the E. plorans genome, we also infer that the relative contribution of B chromosome rRNA genes to ribosome biogenesis is insignificant, at least in the body parts analyzed. PMID:24997085

  17. Evaluation of About Being Active, an online lesson about physical activity shows that perception of being physically active is higher in eating competent low-income women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eating competence (EC) has been associated with positive health outcomes such as reduced cardiovascular risk and higher diet quality. This study compared reported physical activity and EC in 512 low-income women participating in an online program that included a physical activity lesson and assessed response to this lesson. Methods Educational intervention and surveys were completed online. EC was assessed with the Satter Eating Competence Inventory for Low-Income (ecSI/LI). Results Participants were mostly white, <31 years, overweight/obese (60%), and food insecure (58%). EC was higher for those who self-reported being physically active (30.1 ± 8.3 vs. 24.9 ± 8.1; P<0.001) and were active for ? 30 minutes/day (29.9 ± 8.3 vs. 26.3 ± 8.6), even with age, weight satisfaction, and BMI controlled. EC of obese physically active persons was higher than normal weight, but physically inactive women. The physical activity module was well received with responses unrelated to time involved or physical activity level. Conclusions Low-income women were interested in learning about physical activity and responded positively to online delivery. Overall EC levels were low, but higher for physically active women, supporting efforts to enhance EC. Additional research is needed to determine if EC is associated with responses to physical activity education. PMID:23496893

  18. The Nucleoside Analog BMS-986001 Shows Greater In Vitro Activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Raugi, Dana N; Wu, Vincent H; Leong, Sally S; Parker, Kate M; Oakes, Mariah K; Sow, Papa Salif; Ba, Selly; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2015-12-01

    Treatment options for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are restricted by the intrinsic resistance of the virus to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and the reduced susceptibility of HIV-2 to several protease inhibitors (PIs) used in antiretroviral therapy (ART). In an effort to identify new antiretrovirals for HIV-2 treatment, we evaluated the in vitro activity of the investigational nucleoside analog BMS-986001 (2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxy-4'-ethynylthymidine; also known as censavudine, festinavir, OBP-601, 4'-ethynyl stavudine, or 4'-ethynyl-d4T). In single-cycle assays, BMS-986001 inhibited HIV-2 isolates from treatment-naive individuals, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 30 to 81 nM. In contrast, EC50s for group M and O isolates of HIV-1 ranged from 450 to 890 nM. Across all isolates tested, the average EC50 for HIV-2 was 9.5-fold lower than that for HIV-1 (64 ± 18 nM versus 610 ± 200 nM, respectively; mean ± standard deviation). BMS-986001 also exhibited full activity against HIV-2 variants whose genomes encoded the single amino acid changes K65R and Q151M in reverse transcriptase, whereas the M184V mutant was 15-fold more resistant to the drug than the parental HIV-2ROD9 strain. Taken together, our findings show that BMS-986001 is an effective inhibitor of HIV-2 replication. To our knowledge, BMS-986001 is the first nucleoside analog that, when tested against a diverse collection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, exhibits more potent activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1 in culture. PMID:26392486

  19. Novel triterpenoid saponins from residual seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel. show anti-proliferative activity against tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zong, Jianfa; Wang, Ruilong; Bao, Guanhu; Ling, Tiejun; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Xinfu; Hou, Ruyan

    2015-07-01

    Four oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel.: camelliasaponin B1 and three new saponins, oleiferasaponin C1-C3 (1-3). Their structures were identified as 22-O-angeloyl-camelliagenin B 3-O-[?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?2)]-[?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1?3)]-?-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (1); 22-O-angeloyl-camelliagenin A 3-O-[?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?2)]-[?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)]-?-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (2); and 28-O-cinnamoyl-camelliagenin B 3-O-[?-d-galactopyranosylz-(1?2)] [?-d-galactopyranosyl(1?2)-?-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1?3)]-?-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (3) through 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS, as well as GC-MS spectroscopic methods. The anti-proliferative activities of these four compounds were investigated on five human tumor cell lines (BEL-7402, BGC-823, MCF-7, HL-60 and KB). Compounds 1 and 2 and camelliasaponin B1 showed significant cytotoxic activities. PMID:25958771

  20. The human interferon-regulated ISG95 protein interacts with RNA polymerase II and shows methyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haline-Vaz, Thais; Lima Silva, Tereza Cristina; Zanchin, Nilson I.T.

    2008-08-08

    A major mechanism of cellular resistance to viral invasion involves genes from the interferon signaling pathway, called ISGs (interferon stimulated genes). Global transcriptional profiling studies have linked increased expression of ISG95 (KIAA0082) to response to interferon treatment and viral infection, suggesting that it may be part of the cellular defense against viral replication. In this work, we show that the ISG95 promoter can drive interferon-induced transcription of a reporter gene in Vero cells. Recombinant ISG95 shows RNA- and S-adenosyl-methionine binding and protein methyltransferase activity in vitro. ISG95 interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, which is consistent with its nuclear localization and with the predicted function of the WW domain found in the C-terminal region of ISG95. The results presented in this work indicate that ISG95 is part of the interferon response pathway and functions in the pre-mRNA processing events mediated by the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II.

  1. Patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage show higher levels of DR+ activated T-cells that are less responsive to mitogens.

    PubMed

    Kuon, R J; Schaumann, J; Goeggl, T; Strowitzki, T; Sadeghi, M; Opelz, G; Daniel, V; Toth, B

    2015-11-01

    In 50% of recurrent miscarriages (RM) the cause remains unknown and standardized immunological diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic RM (iRM) is yet not established. In this prospective case-control study, out of 220 RM patients screened, 97 iRM patients were identified and compared to 26 healthy controls without a previous pregnancy or blood transfusion in order to identify deregulated immunological parameters. Blood levels of lymphocyte subpopulations, cytokines and neopterin were determined by FACS, ELISA, and Luminex technique. Lymphocyte function was studied by in-vitro lympocyte proliferation tests. As compared to controls, patients had significantly higher proportions of activated CD3+DR+, CD4+DR+ and CD8+DR+ lymphocytes, elevated levels of neopterin and a lower in-vitro proliferation of lymphocytes (all p<0.05). Within the iRM patients higher proportions of CD3+DR+ T-lymphocytes correlated with higher proportions and absolute numbers of CD4+DR+ and CD8+DR+ T-lymphocytes and lower CD16+CD56+ NK-cells. Further, it was associated with lower absolute numbers of CD19+ B-lymphocytes, CD3+CD25+ T-lymphocytes and CD45+ total lymphocytes (all p<0.05). In addition we found decreased in-vitro lymphocyte proliferation in iRM patients with high CD3+DR+ T-lymphocytes (p<0.05). In summary patients with iRM showed increased activated T-cells that are less responsive to mitogens in-vitro. The inverse relationship of increased DR but decreased CD25 expression on CD3+ T-cells and the decreased in-vitro proliferation characterize an immunological disorder with similarities to T-cell exhaustion in patients with HIV and cancer. These abnormalities potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of iRM and might be a target for future immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:26398781

  2. Individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease show differential patterns of ERP brain activation during odor identification

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that older adults at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease may show olfactory processing deficits before other signs of dementia appear. Methods We studied 60 healthy non-demented individuals, half of whom were positive for the genetic risk factor the Apolipoprotein E ?4 allele, in three different age groups. Event-related potentials to visual and olfactory identification tasks were recorded and analyzed for latency and amplitude differences, and plotted via topographical maps. Results Varying patterns of brain activation were observed over the post-stimulus epoch for ?4- versus ?4+ individuals on topographical maps. Individuals with the ?4 allele demonstrated different ERP peak latencies during identification of olfactory but not visual stimuli. High correct ApoE classification rates were obtained utilizing the olfactory ERP. Conclusions Olfactory ERPs demonstrate functional decline in individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease at much earlier ages than previously observed, suggesting the potential for pre-clinical detection of AD at very early stages. PMID:22849610

  3. Voluntary and involuntary running in the rat show different patterns of theta rhythm, physical activity, and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Terry B J; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2014-05-01

    Involuntarily exercising rats undergo more physical and mental stress than voluntarily exercising rats; however, these findings still lack electrophysiological evidence. Many studies have reported that theta rhythm appears when there is mental stress and that it is affected by emotional status. Thus we hypothesized that the differences between voluntary and involuntary movement should also exist in the hippocampal theta rhythm. Using the wheel and treadmill exercise models as voluntary and involuntary exercise models, respectively, this study wirelessly recorded the hippocampal electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and three-dimensional accelerations of young male rats. Treadmill and wheel exercise produced different theta patterns in the rats before and during running. Even though the waking baselines for the two exercise types were recorded in different environments, there did not exist any significant difference after distinguishing the rats' sleep/wake status. When the same movement-related parameters are considered, the treadmill running group showed more changes in their theta frequency (4-12 Hz), in their theta power between 9.5-12 Hz, and in their heart rate than the wheel running group. A positive correlation between the changes in high-frequency (9.5-12 Hz) theta power and heart rate was identified. Our results reveal various voluntary and involuntary changes in hippocampal theta rhythm as well as divergences in heart rate and high-frequency theta activity that may represent the effects of an additional emotional state or the sensory interaction during involuntary running by rats. PMID:24623507

  4. The nodulation protein NodG shows the enzymatic activity of an 3-oxoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase.

    PubMed

    López-Lara, I M; Geiger, O

    2001-03-01

    The acyl carrier protein NodF is required for the synthesis of unusual polyunsaturated fatty acids that confer specificity to lipochitin oligosaccharide nodulation (Nod) factors of Rhizobium leguminosarum. In this study, homogeneous NodF protein was used as a ligand to identify proteins of R. leguminosarum that specifically interact with NodF and presumably are involved in the biosynthesis or transfer of the unusual fatty acids. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of a 29-kDa protein that interacts strongly with NodF revealed high similarity to NodG of Rhizobium sp. N33 and to NodG of Sinorhizobium meliloti We cloned and sequenced the gene coding for the NodG-like protein of R. leguminosarum and found it to be the product of the constitutively expressed gene fabG. FabG is the 3-oxoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase that catalyzes the first reduction step in each cycle of fatty acid elongation. FabG of R. leguminosarum and NodG of Rhizobium sp. N33 were expressed in Escherichia coli. In both cases, the purified protein showed 3-oxoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase activity in vitro. Therefore, NodG has the same biochemical function as FabG, and the high degree of similarity at the protein and DNA level suggest that nodG is a duplication of the housekeeping genefabG. PMID:11277432

  5. Hog Show 

    E-print Network

    2009-01-01

    rate of the antimicrobial through the polymer matrix [24]. 2.4. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC) 2.4.1. Bacterial cultures. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and Listeria monocytogenes strain Scott A were... surfaces following incubation for all replicates, the treatment concentration was considered bactericidal. The lowest concentration of nanoparticles demonstrating bactericidal activity across all replicates was considered the MBC. 2.5. Statistical analysis...

  6. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  7. Sertaconazole Nitrate Shows Fungicidal and Fungistatic Activities against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum, Causative Agents of Tinea Pedis?

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso J.; Tur-Tur, Cristina; Cárdenes, Delia C.; Estivill, Dolors; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The fungistatic and fungicidal activities of sertaconazole against dermatophytes were evaluated by testing 150 clinical isolates of causative agents of tinea pedis, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The overall geometric means for fungistatic and fungicidal activities of sertaconazole against these isolates were 0.26 and 2.26 ?g/ml, respectively, although values were higher for T. mentagrophytes than for the others. This is the first comprehensive demonstration of the fungicidal activity of sertaconazole against dermatophytes. PMID:21746955

  8. Lung Adenocarcinomas and Lung Cancer Cell Lines Show Association of MMP-1 Expression With STAT3 Activation1

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Alexander; Röser, Katrin; Klitzsch, Jana; Lieder, Franziska; Aberger, Fritz; Gruber, Wolfgang; Mueller, Kristina M.; Pupyshev, Alexander; Moriggl, Richard; Friedrich, Karlheinz

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in the majority of lung cancer. This study aims at defining connections between STAT3 function and the malignant properties of non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. To address possible mechanisms by which STAT3 influences invasiveness, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) was analyzed and correlated with the STAT3 activity status. Studies on both surgical biopsies and on lung cancer cell lines revealed a coincidence of STAT3 activation and strong expression of MMP-1. MMP-1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated activated STAT3 were found co-localized in cancer tissues, most pronounced in tumor fronts, and in particular in adenocarcinomas. STAT3 activity was constitutive, although to different degrees, in the lung cancer cell lines investigated. Three cell lines (BEN, KNS62, and A549) were identified in which STAT3 activitation was inducible by Interleukin-6 (IL-6). In A549 cells, STAT3 activity enhanced the level of MMP-1 mRNA and stimulated transcription from the MMP-1 promoter in IL-6–stimulated A549 cells. STAT3 specificity of this effect was confirmed by STAT3 knockdown through RNA interference. Our results link aberrant activity of STAT3 in lung cancer cells to malignant tumor progression through up-regulation of expression of invasiveness-associated MMPs. PMID:25926075

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Assays of Seeds from Balanites aegyptiaca: Compounds of the Extract Show Growth Inhibition and Activity against Plasmodial Aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Peter; Deininger, Susanne; Specht, Sabine; Maniako, Rudeka; Haubrich, Stefanie; Pommerening, Tanja; Lin, Paul Kong Thoo; Hoerauf, Achim; Kaiser, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) is a widely grown desert plant with multiuse potential. In the present paper, a crude extract from B. aegyptiaca seeds equivalent to a ratio of 1?:?2000 seeds to the extract was screened for antiplasmodial activity. The determined IC50 value for the chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum NF54 strain was 68.26??g/?L ± 3.5. Analysis of the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 6-phenyl-2(H)-1,2,4-triazin-5-one oxime, an inhibitor of the parasitic M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase as one of the compounds which is responsible for the in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The crude plant extract had a Ki of 2.35??g/?L and showed a dose-dependent response. After depletion of the compound, a significantly lower inhibition was determined with a Ki of 4.8??g/?L. Moreover, two phenolic compounds, that is, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol, with determined IC50 values of 50.29??M ± 3 and 47.82??M ± 2.5, respectively, were detected. These compounds may contribute to the in vitro antimalarial activity due to their antioxidative properties. In an in vivo experiment, treatment of BALB/c mice with the aqueous Balanite extract did not lead to eradication of the parasites, although a reduced parasitemia at day 12 p.i. was observed. PMID:21687598

  10. Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K. R.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

  11. Quantitative variation in plasma angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity shows allelic heterogeneity in the ABO blood group locus.

    PubMed

    Terao, Chikashi; Bayoumi, Nervana; McKenzie, Colin A; Zelenika, Diana; Muro, Shigeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Connell, John M C; Vickers, Mark A; Lathrop, G Mark; Farrall, Martin; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Keavney, Bernard D

    2013-11-01

    Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) occupies a pivotal role in cardiovascular homeostasis. Major loci for plasma ACE have been identified at ACE on Chromosome 17 and at ABO on Chromosome 9. We sought to characterise the genetic architecture of plasma ACE at finer resolution in two populations. We carried out a GWAS in 1810 individuals of Japanese ethnicity; this identified signals at ACE and ABO that together accounted for nearly half of the population variability of the trait. We conducted measured haplotype analysis at the ABO locus in 1425 members of 248 British families using haplotypes of three SNPs, which together tagged the alleles responsible for the principal blood group antigens A1, A2, B and O. Type O alleles were associated with intermediate plasma ACE activity compared to Type A1 alleles (in whom plasma ACE activity was ?36% lower) and Type B alleles (in whom plasma ACE activity was ?36% higher). We demonstrated heterogeneity among A alleles: A2 alleles were associated with plasma ACE activity that was very similar to the O alleles. Variation at ACE accounted for 35% of the trait variance, and variation at ABO accounted for 15%. A further 10% could be ascribed to polygenic effects. PMID:23937567

  12. Individuals with low working memory spans show greater interference from irrelevant information because of poor source monitoring, not greater activation.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Lindsey; Rose, Nathan S; Tamez, Elaine; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    Although individuals with high and low working memory (WM) span appear to differ in the extent to which irrelevant information interferes with their performance on WM tasks, the locus of this interference is not clear. The present study investigated whether, when performing a WM task, high- and low-span individuals differ in the activation of formerly relevant, but now irrelevant items, and/or in their ability to correctly identify such irrelevant items. This was done in two experiments, both of which used modified complex WM span tasks. In Experiment 1, the span task included an embedded lexical decision task designed to obtain an implicit measure of the activation of both currently and formerly relevant items. In Experiment 2, the span task included an embedded recognition judgment task designed to obtain an explicit measure of both item and source recognition ability. The results of these experiments indicate that low-span individuals do not hold irrelevant information in a more active state in memory than high-span individuals, but rather that low-span individuals are significantly poorer at identifying such information as irrelevant at the time of retrieval. These results suggest that differences in the ability to monitor the source of information, rather than differences in the activation of irrelevant information, are the more important determinant of performance on WM tasks. PMID:25921723

  13. Insect and wound induced GUS gene expression from a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor gene promoter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inducible gene promoters that are specifically activated by pathogen invasion or insect pest attack are needed for effective expression of resistance genes to control plant diseases. In the present study, a promoter from a serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) shown to be up-regulated in resist...

  14. Our previous studies on G. dumetorum yielded several aporphine alkaloids that showed significant activity against Leishmania spp.

    E-print Network

    Coley, Phyllis

    Our previous studies on G. dumetorum yielded several aporphine alkaloids that showed significant conducted additional isolation efforts on the minor alkaloids of this species. A standard alkaloid on the identification of alkaloids 1±9 from G. dumetorum (Fig.1). All nine of these metabolites were tested against

  15. Patients with ARDS show improvement but not normalisation of alveolar surface activity with surfactant treatment: putative role of neutral lipids

    PubMed Central

    Markart, Philipp; Ruppert, Clemens; Wygrecka, Malgorzata; Colaris, Thorsten; Dahal, Bhola; Walmrath, Dieter; Harbach, Heinz; Wilhelm, Jochen; Seeger, Werner; Schmidt, Reinhold; Guenther, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Background Extensive biochemical and biophysical changes of the pulmonary surfactant system occur in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods The effect of intrabronchial administration of a recombinant surfactant protein C?based surfactant preparation (Venticute) on gas exchange, surfactant composition and function was investigated in 31 patients with ARDS in a randomised controlled phase I/II clinical pilot trial. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids for surfactant analysis were obtained 3?h before and 48 and 120?h after the first surfactant application. Potentially deleterious effects of surfactant neutral lipids in patients with ARDS were also identified. Results Before treatment all patients had marked abnormalities in the surfactant phospholipid and protein composition. In response to surfactant treatment, gas exchange improved and surfactant phospholipid and protein content were almost normalised. Alveolar surface activity was dramatically impaired before treatment and only partially improved after surfactant administration. Further analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids revealed a twofold increase in neutral lipid content and altered neutral lipid profile in patients with ARDS compared with healthy controls. These differences persisted even after administration of large amounts of Venticute. Supplementation of Venticute or natural surfactant with a synthetic neutral lipid preparation, mimicking the profile in ARDS, caused a dose?dependent deterioration of surface activity in vitro. Conclusion Intrabronchial surfactant treatment improves gas exchange in ARDS, but the efficacy may be limited by increased concentration and altered neutral lipid profile in surfactant under these conditions. PMID:17287298

  16. Antimicrobial Peptides Expressed in Medicinal Maggots of the Blow Fly Lucilia sericata Show Combinatorial Activity against Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pöppel, Anne-Kathrin; Vogel, Heiko; Wiesner, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The larvae of the common green bottle fly (Lucilia sericata) produce antibacterial secretions that have a therapeutic effect on chronic and nonhealing wounds. Recent developments in insect biotechnology have made it possible to use these larvae as a source of novel anti-infectives. Here, we report the application of next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to characterize the transcriptomes of the larval glands, crop, and gut, which contribute to the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteins secreted into wounds. Our data confirm that L. sericata larvae have adapted in order to colonize microbially contaminated habitats, such as carrion and necrotic wounds, and are protected against infection by a diverse spectrum of AMPs. L. sericata AMPs include not only lucifensin and lucimycin but also novel attacins, cecropins, diptericins, proline-rich peptides, and sarcotoxins. We identified 47 genes encoding putative AMPs and produced 23 as synthetic analogs, among which some displayed activities against a broad spectrum of microbial pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, and Enterococcus faecalis. Against Escherichia coli (Gram negative) and Micrococcus luteus (Gram positive), we found mostly additive effects but also synergistic activity when selected AMPs were tested in combination. The AMPs that are easy to synthesize are currently being produced in bulk to allow their evaluation as novel anti-infectives that can be formulated in hydrogels to produce therapeutic wound dressings and adhesive bandages. PMID:25666157

  17. Antagonist activities of mecamylamine and nicotine show reciprocal dependence on beta subunit sequence in the second transmembrane domain

    PubMed Central

    Webster, J Christopher; Francis, Michael M; Porter, Julia K; Robinson, Gillian; Stokes, Clare; Horenstein, Ben; Papke, Roger L

    1999-01-01

    We show that a portion of the TM2 domain regulates the sensitivity of beta subunit-containing rat neuronal nicotinic AChR to the ganglionic blocker mecamylamine, such that the substitution of 4 amino acids of the muscle beta subunit sequence into the neuronal beta4 sequence decreases the potency of mecamylamine by a factor of 200 and eliminates any long-term effects of this drug on receptor function.The same exchange of sequence that decreases inhibition by mecamylamine produces a comparable potentiation of long-term inhibition by nicotine.Inhibition by mecamylamine is voltage-dependent, suggesting a direct interaction of mecamylamine with sequence elements within the membrane field. We have previously shown that sensitivity to TMP (tetramethylpiperidine) inhibitors is controlled by the same sequence elements that determine mecamylamine sensitivity. However, inhibition by bis-TMP compounds is independent of voltage.Our experiments did not show any influence of voltage on the inhibition of chimeric receptors by nicotine, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of nicotine are mediated by binding to a site outside the membrane's electric field.An analysis of point mutations indicates that the residues at the 6? position within the beta subunit TM2 domain may be important for determining the effects of both mecamylamine and nicotine in a reciprocal manner. Single mutations at the 10? position are not sufficient to produce effects, but 6? 10? double mutants show more effect than do the 6? single mutants. PMID:10455283

  18. Artemisia dracunculus L. polyphenols complexed to soy protein show enhanced bioavailability and hypoglycemic activity in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Ribnicky, D.M.; Roopchand, D.E.; Poulev, A; Kuhn, P.; Oren, A.; Cefalu, W.T.; Raskin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Scientifically-validated food-based interventions are a practical means of addressing the epidemic of metabolic syndrome. An ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (PMI-5011) containing bioactive polyphenols, such as 2?, 4?–dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone (DMC-2), improved insulin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Plant polyphenols are concentrated and stabilized when complexed to protein-rich matrices, such as soy protein isolate (SPI), which act as effective food-based delivery vehicles. In this study we compared bioaccessibility, bioavailability and efficacy of polyphenols extracted from A. dracunculus and delivered as PMI-5011 (ethanolic extract alone), formulated with the non-food excipient Gelucire®, (5011- Gelucire), or sorbed to SPI (5011-Nutrasorb®). Materials and Methods PMI-5011, 5011-Gelucire or 5011-Nutrasorb each containing 162 ?g of DMC-2 was delivered to the TNO Intestinal Model-1 (TIM-1) of the human upper gastrointestinal tract to compare the effect of delivery vehicle on DMC-2 bioaccessibility. C57BL6/J mice were orally administered 5011-Nutrasorb or PMI-5011 to compare effects of polyphenol-protein complexation on acute hypoglycemic activity and bioavailability of DMC-2 in serum. Results At 500 mg/kg, 5011-Nutrasorb and PMI-5011 had similar hypoglycemic activity in high fat diet-induced diabetes mouse model despite the fact that 5011-Nutrasorb delivered 15-times less DMC-2 (40 ?g/kg vs. 600 ?g/kg). This can be partially explained by 8 times greater DMC-2 absorption into serum from 5011-Nutrasorb than from PMI-5011. TIM-1 experiments confirmed higher total bioaccessibility of DMC-2 in vitro when delivered in 5011-Nutrasorb (50.2 %) or Gelucire-5011 (44.4 %) compared to PMI-5011 (27.1 %) (p = 0.08). Conclusion Complexation with soy protein makes anti-diabetic A. dracunculus polyphenols more bioavailable and bioaccessible. PMID:24985105

  19. Roflumilast, a Type 4 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor, Shows Promising Adjunctive, Host-Directed Therapeutic Activity in a Mouse Model of Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Maiga, Mariama C; Ahidjo, Bintou Ahmadou; Maiga, Mamoudou; Bishai, William R

    2015-12-01

    With phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) showing significant promise in shortening tuberculosis treatment, we assessed the effect of roflumilast, an FDA-approved type 4 PDE-I, in both acute and chronic murine models of tuberculosis. Alone, roflumilast had no effect on lung bacillary burden and mortality. However, when roflumilast was used in combination with isoniazid, a reduction in lung bacillary burden was observed. These data suggest that roflumilast may be a good candidate for tuberculosis host-directed therapy (HDT). PMID:26438491

  20. PF2401-SF, standardized fraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza shows anti-inflammatory activity in macrophages and acute arthritis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-Yi; Jeon, Byeong-Ho; Kim, Youn-Chul; Lee, Sung Hee; Sohn, Dong Hwan; Seo, Geom Seog

    2013-06-01

    Standardization of processing methods for herbs is as important as authentication to maintain their quality and ensure their safe use. We had previously prepared a standardized and purified Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge extract, PF2401-SF, and showed that it protects against liver injury in vivo, at a greater potency than an ethanol extract. PF2401-SF was enriched with tanshinone I (11.5%), tanshinone IIA (41.0%), and cryptotanshinone (19.1%). In this study, we investigated potential anti-inflammatory effects of PF2401-SF in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that PF2401-SF shows anti-inflammatory potency on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells. A mechanistic study indicated that PF2401-SF induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression through extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Moreover, we also evaluated that PF2401-SF significantly reduced inflammation on carrageenan- or dextran-induced acute arthritis in rats. Our results suggest that PF2401-SF may be a potential candidate for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:23583334

  1. A major EBNA1 variant from Asian EBV isolates shows enhanced transcriptional activity compared to prototype B95.8.

    PubMed

    Do, Nguyen-Van; Ingemar, Ernberg; Phi, Phan-Thi Phi; Jenny, Almqvist; Chinh, Tran-Thi; Zeng, Yixin; Hu, Lifu

    2008-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) has an instrumental role in maintaining EBV latent infection by controlling EBV episome replication and regulating viral transcription. It is a ubiquitously expressed protein during latent viral infection and in EBV-associated tumors. The EBNA1 C-terminus interacts functionally with the Qp and Cp that control viral gene expression in latency I/II and III, respectively. EBNA1 has been classified into five subtypes due to sequence variation in the DNA-interacting C-terminus. By DNA sequence analysis of its C-terminus, we detected a main sub-variant (V-val-v1) of EBNA1 with valine located in both positions 487 and 528 from matched samples including NPC biopsies and peripheral blood taken from Vietnamese (9), Chinese (12) NPC patients and healthy donors (5). In the FR-region of oriP from nine NPC biopsies from Vietnam we also frequently found substitutions, deletions and variable numbers of repeats. Using a luciferase reporter system, EBNA1 and FR both derived from Asian isolates induced higher transcriptional activity than those from B95-8 virus. PMID:18096263

  2. Ecotoxicological assessment of solar cell leachates: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells show higher activity than organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells.

    PubMed

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Wehrli, Bernhard; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Despite the increasing use of photovoltaics their potential environmental risks are poorly understood. Here, we compared ecotoxicological effects of two thin-film photovoltaics: established copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Leachates were produced by exposing photovoltaics to UV light, physical damage, and exposure to environmentally relevant model waters, representing mesotrophic lake water, acidic rain, and seawater. CIGS cell leachates contained 583?gL(-1) molybdenum at lake water, whereas at acidic rain and seawater conditions, iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, silver, and tin were present up to 7219?gL(-1). From OPV, copper (14?gL(-1)), zinc (87?gL(-1)) and silver (78?gL(-1)) leached. Zebrafish embryos were exposed until 120h post-fertilization to these extracts. CIGS leachates produced under acidic rain, as well as CIGS and OPV leachates produced under seawater conditions resulted in a marked hatching delay and increase in heart edema. Depending on model water and solar cell, transcriptional alterations occurred in genes involved in oxidative stress (cat), hormonal activity (vtg1, ar), metallothionein (mt2), ER stress (bip, chop), and apoptosis (casp9). The effects were dependent on the concentrations of cationic metals in leachates. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid protected zebrafish embryos from morphological and molecular effects. Our study suggests that metals leaching from damaged CIGS cells, may pose a potential environmental risk. PMID:26615488

  3. A G-quadruplex-binding compound showing anti-tumour activity in an in vivo model for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ohnmacht, Stephan A; Marchetti, Chiara; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Besser, Rachael J; Haider, Shozeb M; Di Vita, Gloria; Lowe, Helen L; Mellinas-Gomez, Maria; Diocou, Seckou; Robson, Mathew; Šponer, Jiri; Islam, Barira; Barbara Pedley, R; Hartley, John A; Neidle, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We report here that a tetra-substituted naphthalene-diimide derivative (MM41) has significant in vivo anti-tumour activity against the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer xenograft model. IV administration with a twice-weekly 15?mg/kg dose produces ca 80% tumour growth decrease in a group of tumour-bearing animals. Two animals survived tumour-free after 279 days. High levels of MM41 are rapidly transported into cell nuclei and were found to accumulate in the tumour. MM41 is a quadruplex-interactive compound which binds strongly to the quadruplexes encoded in the promoter sequences of the BCL-2 and k-RAS genes, both of which are dis-regulated in many human pancreatic cancers. Levels of BCL-2 were reduced by ca 40% in tumours from MM41-treated animals relative to controls, consistent with BCL-2 being a target for MM41. Molecular modelling suggests that MM41 binds to a BCL-2 quadruplex in a manner resembling that previously observed in co-crystal structures with human telomeric quadruplexes. This supports the concept that MM41 (and by implication other quadruplex-targeting small molecules) can bind to quadruplex-forming promoter regions in a number of genes and down-regulate their transcription. We suggest that quadruplexes within those master genes that are up-regulated drivers for particular cancers, may be selective targets for compounds such as MM41. PMID:26077929

  4. Novel p38? mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor shows analgesic efficacy in acute postsurgical dental pain.

    PubMed

    Tong, Sandra E; Daniels, Stephen E; Black, Peter; Chang, Stephen; Protter, Andrew; Desjardins, Paul J

    2012-05-01

    SCIO-469 is a selective p38? mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor for preclinical models of acute pain. This prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical study compared efficacy and safety of oral SCIO-469, ibuprofen, and placebo in postsurgical dental pain. Subjects (n = 263) undergoing extraction of 1 or more impacted mandibular third molars received preoperative treatment with SCIO-469 (150, 210, or 300 mg), ibuprofen (400 mg), or placebo; the 210-mg group received 90 mg postoperatively. A 4-point categorical scale and a 100-mm visual analogue scale were used to measure pain intensity. The primary end point was median time from first incision to first rescue medication using the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator. All SCIO-469 groups had significantly longer times to rescue medication compared with placebo; preoperative and postoperative treatment with 210 + 90 mg SCIO-469 resulted in 8.1 hours versus 4.1 hours to rescue for placebo (P = .003). Ibuprofen also increased time to rescue medication (6.6 hours) versus placebo (P = .04). Dizziness, headache, and nausea were the most frequently reported adverse events. This is the first clinical demonstration of antinociceptive effects in acute pain with preoperative administration of a p38? MAPK inhibitor. PMID:21659629

  5. Glutaminase 2 negatively regulates the PI3K/AKT signaling and shows tumor suppression activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Zhang, Cen; Lin, Meihua; Zhu, Wei; Liang, Yingjian; Hong, Xuehui; Zhao, Yuhan; Young, Ken H; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

    2014-05-15

    The tumor suppressor p53 and its signaling pathway play a critical role in tumor prevention. As a direct p53 target gene, the role of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) in tumorigenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that GLS2 expression is significantly decreased in majority of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Restoration of GLS2 expression in HCC cells inhibits the anchorage-independent growth of cells and reduces the growth of HCC xenograft tumors. Interestingly, we found that GLS2 negatively regulates the PI3K/AKT signaling, which is frequently activated in HCC. Blocking the PI3K/AKT signaling in HCC cells largely abolishes the inhibitory effect of GLS2 on the anchorage-independent cell growth and xenograft tumor growth. The GLS2 promoter is hypermethylated in majority of HCC samples. CpG methylation of GLS2 promoter inhibits GLS2 transcription, whereas reducing the methylation of GLS2 promoter induces GLS2 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GLS2 plays an important role in tumor suppression in HCC, and the negative regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling contributes greatly to this function of GLS2. Furthermore, hypermethylation of GLS2 promoter is an important mechanism contributing to the decreased GLS2 expression in HCC. PMID:24797434

  6. Phosphatase activity of the voltage-sensing phosphatase, VSP, shows graded dependence on the extent of activation of the voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Souhei; Okamura, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    The voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a voltage sensor and a cytoplasmic phosphatase region, and the movement of the voltage sensor is coupled to the phosphatase activity. However, its coupling mechanisms still remain unclear. One possible scenario is that the phosphatase is activated only when the voltage sensor is in a fully activated state. Alternatively, the enzymatic activity of single VSP proteins could be graded in distinct activated states of the voltage sensor, and partial activation of the voltage sensor could lead to partial activation of the phosphatase. To distinguish between these two possibilities, we studied a voltage sensor mutant of zebrafish VSP, where the voltage sensor moves in two steps as evidenced by analyses of charge movements of the voltage sensor and voltage clamp fluorometry. Measurements of the phosphatase activity toward phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate revealed that both steps of voltage sensor activation are coupled to the tuning of phosphatase activities, consistent with the idea that the phosphatase activity is graded by the magnitude of the movement of the voltage sensor. PMID:24277865

  7. The Aminosteroid Derivative RM-133 Shows In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Activity in Human Ovarian and Pancreatic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kenmogne, Lucie Carolle; Ayan, Diana; Roy, Jenny; Maltais, René; Poirier, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian and pancreatic cancers are two of the most aggressive and lethal cancers, whose management faces only limited therapeutic options. Typically, these tumors spread insidiously accompanied first with atypical symptoms, and usually shift to a drug resistance phenotype with the current pharmaceutical armamentarium. Thus, the development of new drugs acting via a different mechanism of action represents a clear priority. Herein, we are reporting for the first time that the aminosteroid derivative RM-133, developed in our laboratory, displays promising activity on two models of aggressive cancers, namely ovarian (OVCAR-3) and pancreatic (PANC-1) cancers. The IC50 value of RM-133 was 0.8 ?M and 0.3 ?M for OVCAR-3 and PANC-1 cell lines in culture, respectively. Based on pharmacokinetic studies on RM-133 using 11 different vehicles, we selected two main vehicles: aqueous 0.4% methylcellulose:ethanol (92:8) and sunflower oil:ethanol (92:8) for in vivo studies. Using subcutaneous injection of RM-133 with the methylcellulose-based vehicle, growth of PANC-1 tumors xenografted to nude mice was inhibited by 63%. Quite interestingly, RM-133 injected subcutaneously with the methylcellulose-based or sunflower-based vehicles reduced OVCAR-3 xenograft growth by 122% and 100%, respectively. After the end of RM-133 treatment using the methylcellulose-based vehicle, OVCAR-3 tumor growth inhibition was maintained for ? 1 week. RM-133 was also well tolerated in the whole animal, no apparent sign of toxicity having been detected in the xenograft studies. PMID:26660672

  8. Combination of glycosphingosomes and liposomal doxorubicin shows increased activity against dimethyl-?-benzanthracene-induced fibrosarcoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Masood A; Aljarbou, Ahmed N; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Khan, Arif

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the antitumor effect of glycosphingolipid-incorporated liposomes (glycosphingosomes) in combination with liposomal doxorubicin (Lip-Dox) in a mouse model of fibrosarcoma. Glycosphingosomes were prepared by incorporating glycosphingolipids isolated from Sphingomonas paucimobilis into the liposomes of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol, and cardiolipin. Tumors were induced by administering dimethyl-?-benzanthracene, and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of Dox, including free Dox, Lip-Dox, or glycosphingosomes + Lip-Dox. Mice were observed for 90 days to monitor their survival and tumor size. Free Dox, but not Lip-Dox or a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox, caused the substantial depletion of leukocytes and significantly increased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase in mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox showed restricted tumor growth and increased survival when compared to those treated with free Dox or Lip-Dox. The results of the present study suggest that a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox may prove to be very effective in the treatment of tumors. PMID:26504383

  9. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant. PMID:26202846

  10. Ferrocene/fullerene hybrids showing large second-order nonlinear optical activities: impact of the cage unit size.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Yong; Wang, Li; Ma, Na-Na; Zhu, Chang-Li; Qiu, Yong-Qing

    2015-06-01

    The electron donor-acceptor complexes, which undergo intramolecular charge transfer under external stimulus, are an emerging class of materials showing important application in nonlinear optics. Synthesizing ferrocene/fullerene complexes through face-to-face fusion would enjoy the merits of both ferrocene and fullerene due to their strong donor-acceptor interactions. Four ferrocene/fullerene hybrid complexes with the gradual extension of fullerene cage size, including CpFe(C60H5), CpFe(C66H5), CpFe(C70H5), and CpFe(C80H5) (Cp is cyclopentadienyl), have been investigated by density functional theory. These hybrid molecules give eclipsed and staggered isomers. The main reason that the eclipsed isomer is stable is that the eclipsed structure possesses large CpFefullerene bonding energy. The CpFefullerene interaction is smaller than that of CpFefullerene, which must come from two different interfaces. The presence of covalent bond character between CpFe and fullerene is supported by the localized orbital locator, deformation of electron density distribution and energy decomposition analysis. Significantly, the absorption bands and first hyperpolarizabilities of these hybrid complexes are strongly sensitive to the fullerene cage size, which is ascribed to a change in the charge transfer pattern, especially for CpFe(C80H5), which displays reverse ? ? ?* charge transfer from bottom to top cage, leading to notable hyperpolarizability. Investigation of the structure-property relationship at the molecular level can benefit the design and preparation of such hybrid complexes in chemistry and materials science. PMID:25948375

  11. Activated macrophages in HIV encephalitis and a macaque model show increased [3H](R)-PK11195 binding in a PI3-kinase dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Venneti, Sriram; Wang, Guoji; Wiley., Clayton A.

    2007-01-01

    HIV encephalitis (HIVE) is a neurodegenerative disease seen in approximately one in four terminally infected patients. Macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus develop encephalitis (SIVE) very similar to the human disease. Neurodegeneration in both these conditions occurs from the effects of toxic viral proteins and neurotoxins derived from activated brain macrophages. Activated macrophages in the brain of macaques with SIVE can be labeled in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) using PK11195, a ligand that binds the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR). However, the functional significance and mechanisms mediating increased PK11195 binding in activated brain macrophages are not known. Using post mortem tissues from macaques with SIVE and macrophages cell cultures activated with lipopolysaccaride (LPS), we show that [3H](R)-PK11195 binding is increased in activated macrophages. Increased [3H](R)-PK11195 binding in LPS activated macrophages was reversed by pharmacologically inhibiting class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3-kinase), but was not altered by inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP-kinase) pathway. Our results suggest that activated macrophages in lentiviral encephalitis show increased [3H](R)-PK11195 binding in a PI3-kinase dependent fashion which may help elucidate the function of PBR in activated brain macrophages in HIVE and other neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:17888571

  12. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to temperature elevation shows seasonal variation in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Jost, Jennifer A; Keshwani, Sarah S; Abou-Hanna, Jacob J

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change is affecting ectothermic species, and a variety of studies are needed on thermal tolerances, especially from cellular and physiological perspectives. This study utilized AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of cellular energy levels, to examine the effects of high water temperatures on zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) physiology. During heating, AMPK activity increased as water temperature increased to a point, and maximum AMPK activity was detected at high, but sublethal, water temperatures. This pattern varied with season, suggesting that cellular mechanisms of seasonal thermal acclimatization affect basic metabolic processes during sublethal heat stress. There was a greater seasonal variation in the water temperature at which maximum AMPK activity was measured than in lethal water temperature. Furthermore, baseline AMPK activity varied significantly across seasons, most likely reflecting altered metabolic states during times of growth and reproduction. In addition, when summer-collected mussels were lab-acclimated to winter and spring water temperatures, patterns of heat stress mirrored those of field-collected animals. These data suggest that water temperature is the main driver of the seasonal variation in physiology. This study concluded that AMPK activity, which reflects changes in energy supply and demand during heat stress, can serve as a sensitive and early indicator of temperature stress in mussels. PMID:25498351

  13. Draft Genome Sequence and Annotation of the Entomopathogenic Bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens LN2, Which Shows Nematicidal Activity against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xuehong; Zhan, Zu-Bing; Yan, Xun

    2014-01-01

    We present here the 5.6-Mb genome sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens strain LN2, a Gram-negative bacterium that is a symbiont of Heterorhabditis indica LN2 and shows nematicidal activity against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 nematodes. PMID:25502667

  14. A Model for Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Activated Gene Expression Shows Potency and Efficacy Changes and Predicts Squelching Due to Competition for Transcription Co-Activators

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ted W.; Budinsky, Robert A.; Rowlands, J. Craig

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription was developed based on activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) and subsequent binding the activated AHR to xenobiotic response elements (XREs) on DNA. The model was based on effects observed in cells lines commonly used as in vitro experimental systems. Following ligand binding, the AHR moves into the cell nucleus and forms a heterodimer with the aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT). In the model, a requirement for binding to DNA is that a generic coregulatory protein is subsequently bound to the AHR-ARNT dimer. Varying the amount of coregulator available within the nucleus altered both the potency and efficacy of TCDD for inducing for transcription of CYP1A1 mRNA, a commonly used marker for activation of the AHR. Lowering the amount of available cofactor slightly increased the EC50 for the transcriptional response without changing the efficacy or maximal response. Further reduction in the amount of cofactor reduced the efficacy and produced non-monotonic dose-response curves (NMDRCs) at higher ligand concentrations. The shapes of these NMDRCs were reminiscent of the phenomenon of squelching. Resource limitations for transcriptional machinery are becoming apparent in eukaryotic cells. Within single cells, nuclear receptor-mediated gene expression appears to be a stochastic process; however, intercellular communication and other aspects of tissue coordination may represent a compensatory process to maintain an organism’s ability to respond on a phenotypic level to various stimuli within an inconstant environment. PMID:26039703

  15. Fusion peptide P15-CSP shows antibiofilm activity and pro-osteogenic activity when deposited as a coating on hydrophilic but not hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Contreras-Garcia, Angel; LoVetri, Karen; Yakandawala, Nandadeva; Wertheimer, Michael R; De Crescenzo, Gregory; Hoemann, Caroline D

    2015-12-01

    In the context of porous bone void filler for oral bone reconstruction, peptides that suppress microbial growth and promote osteoblast function could be used to enhance the performance of a porous bone void filler. We tested the hypothesis that P15-CSP, a novel fusion peptide containing collagen-mimetic osteogenic peptide P15, and competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), a cationic antimicrobial peptide, has emerging properties not shared by P15 or CSP alone. Peptide-coated surfaces were tested for antimicrobial activity toward Streptoccocus mutans, and their ability to promote human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment, spreading, metabolism, and osteogenesis. In the osteogenesis assay, peptides were coated on tissue culture plastic and on thin films generated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to have hydrophilic or hydrophobic character (water contact angles 63°, 42°, and 92°, respectively). S. mutans planktonic growth was specifically inhibited by CSP, whereas biofilm formation was inhibited by P15-CSP. MSC adhesion and actin stress fiber formation was strongly enhanced by CSP, P15-CSP, and fibronectin coatings and modestly enhanced by P15 versus uncoated surfaces. Metabolic assays revealed that CSP was slightly cytotoxic to MSCs. MSCs developed alkaline phosphatase activity on all surfaces, with or without peptide coatings, and consistently deposited the most biomineralized matrix on hydrophilic surfaces coated with P15-CSP. Hydrophobic thin films completely suppressed MSC biomineralization, consistent with previous findings of suppressed osteogenesis on hydrophobic bioplastics. Collective data in this study provide new evidence that P15-CSP has unique dual capacity to suppress biofilm formation, and to enhance osteogenic activity as a coating on hydrophilic surfaces. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 3736-3746, 2015. PMID:26097095

  16. Bid chimeras indicate that most BH3-only proteins can directly activate Bak and Bax, and show no preference for Bak versus Bax

    PubMed Central

    Hockings, C; Anwari, K; Ninnis, R L; Brouwer, J; O'Hely, M; Evangelista, M; Hinds, M G; Czabotar, P E; Lee, E F; Fairlie, W D; Dewson, G; Kluck, R M

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is initiated by Bcl-2 homology region 3 (BH3)-only members of the Bcl-2 protein family. On upregulation or activation, certain BH3-only proteins can directly bind and activate Bak and Bax to induce conformation change, oligomerization and pore formation in mitochondria. BH3-only proteins, with the exception of Bid, are intrinsically disordered and therefore, functional studies often utilize peptides based on just their BH3 domains. However, these reagents do not possess the hydrophobic membrane targeting domains found on the native BH3-only molecule. To generate each BH3-only protein as a recombinant protein that could efficiently target mitochondria, we developed recombinant Bid chimeras in which the BH3 domain was replaced with that of other BH3-only proteins (Bim, Puma, Noxa, Bad, Bmf, Bik and Hrk). The chimeras were stable following purification, and each immunoprecipitated with full-length Bcl-xL according to the specificity reported for the related BH3 peptide. When tested for activation of Bak and Bax in mitochondrial permeabilization assays, Bid chimeras were ~1000-fold more effective than the related BH3 peptides. BH3 sequences from Bid and Bim were the strongest activators, followed by Puma, Hrk, Bmf and Bik, while Bad and Noxa were not activators. Notably, chimeras and peptides showed no apparent preference for activating Bak or Bax. In addition, within the BH3 domain, the h0 position recently found to be important for Bax activation, was important also for Bak activation. Together, our data with full-length proteins indicate that most BH3-only proteins can directly activate both Bak and Bax. PMID:25906158

  17. Thalassemia major patients using iron chelators showed a reduced plasma thioredoxin level and reduced thioredoxin reductase activity, despite elevated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Z; Genc, G E; Kupesiz, A; Kurtoglu, E; Gumuslu, S

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate plasma levels of peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) and thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), and the activity of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), in thalassemia major (TM) patients living in the Antalya region, Turkey. The patients were divided into three groups, according to chelators - the deferoxamine group (DFO, n = 20), the deferasirox group (DFX, n = 20), and the deferiprone group (DFP, n = 20), to compare any possible effect of chelators on antioxidative and oxidative stress parameters. A control group (n = 20) was selected from healthy volunteers. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and TrxR, as well as the concentrations of Prx2, Trx1, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the plasma samples of TM patients and the controls. The activity of CAT and the levels of H2O2 and MDA in the TM patients were significantly higher than those in the controls, while the levels of GPx, Trx1, TrxR, and GSH were lower. The concentrations of ferritin, GSH, H2O2, and MDA, as well as the activities of GR, CAT and TrxR, showed significant differences among the chelator groups. Although TrxR activity showed an increase in TM patients due to an elevated iron overload, both TrxR activity and Trx1 level were lower in the patient groups compared with the cases in the control group. As a result, because Trx1 level and TrxR activity were measured at a low level in the patients, increasing the levels of Trx1 and TrxR in TM patients will be a target of future treatment. PMID:25564095

  18. A library of synthetic transcription activator-like effector-activated promoters for coordinated orthogonal gene expression in plants

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Kathleen; Schäfer, Petra; Weber, Ernst; Grützner, Ramona; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Tissier, Alain

    2015-01-01

    A library of synthetic promoters containing the binding site of a single designer transcription activator-like effector (dTALE) was constructed. The promoters contain a constant sequence, consisting of an 18-base long dTALE-binding site and a TATA box, flanked by degenerate sequences of 49 bases downstream and 19 bases upstream. Forty-three of these promoters were sequenced and tested in transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana using a GUS reporter gene. The strength of expression of the promoters ranged from around 5% to almost 100% of the viral 35S promoter activity. We then demonstrated the utility of these promoters for metabolic engineering by transiently expressing three genes for the production of a plant diterpenoid in N. benthamiana. The simplicity of the promoter structure shows great promise for the development of genetic circuits, with wide potential applications in plant synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. PMID:25846505

  19. Activating FLT3 Mutants Show Distinct Gain-of-Function Phenotypes In Vitro and a Characteristic Signaling Pathway Profile Associated with Prognosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Janke, Hanna; Pastore, Friederike; Schumacher, Daniela; Herold, Tobias; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Schneider, Stephanie; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Büchner, Thomas; Woermann, Bernhard J.; Subklewe, Marion; Bohlander, Stefan K.; Hiddemann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    About 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbour mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, mostly internal tandem duplications (ITD) and point mutations of the second tyrosine kinase domain (TKD). It was the aim of this study to comprehensively analyze clinical and functional properties of various FLT3 mutants. In 672 normal karyotype AML patients FLT3-ITD, but not FLT3-TKD mutations were associated with a worse relapse free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. In paired diagnosis-relapse samples FLT3-ITD showed higher stability (70%) compared to FLT3-TKD (30%). In vitro, FLT3-ITD induced a strong activating phenotype in Ba/F3 cells. In contrast, FLT3-TKD mutations and other point mutations – including two novel mutations – showed a weaker but clear gain-of-function phenotype with gradual increase in proliferation and protection from apoptosis. The pro-proliferative capacity of the investigated FLT3 mutants was associated with cell surface expression and tyrosine 591 phosphorylation of the FLT3 receptor. Western blot experiments revealed STAT5 activation only in FLT3-ITD positive cell lines, in contrast to FLT3-non-ITD mutants, which displayed an enhanced signal of AKT and MAPK activation. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct difference between FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD for STAT5 target gene expression as well as deregulation of SOCS2, ENPP2, PRUNE2 and ART3. FLT3-ITD and FLT3 point mutations show a gain-of-function phenotype with distinct signalling properties in vitro. Although poor prognosis in AML is only associated with FLT3-ITD, all activating FLT3 mutations can contribute to leukemogenesis and are thus potential targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24608088

  20. Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18? ? g/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41? ? g/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21? ? g/mL against EV71 and 9.08? ? g/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39? ? M) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24? ? M). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection. PMID:24078828

  1. B-Ring-Aryl Substituted Luotonin A Analogues with a New Binding Mode to the Topoisomerase 1-DNA Complex Show Enhanced Cytotoxic Activity

    PubMed Central

    González-Ruiz, Víctor; Pascua, Irene; Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Ribelles, Pascual; Bianchini, Giulia; Sridharan, Vellaisamy; Iniesta, Pilar; Ramos, M. Teresa; Olives, Ana I.; Martín, M. Antonia; Menéndez, J. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Topoisomerase 1 inhibition is an important strategy in targeted cancer chemotherapy. The drugs currently in use acting on this enzyme belong to the family of the camptothecins, and suffer severe limitations because of their low stability, which is associated with the hydrolysis of the ?-lactone moiety in their E ring. Luotonin A is a natural camptothecin analogue that lacks this functional group and therefore shows a much-improved stability, but at the cost of a lower activity. Therefore, the development of luotonin A analogues with an increased potency is important for progress in this area. In the present paper, a small library of luotonin A analogues modified at their A and B rings was generated by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-catalyzed Friedländer reactions. All analogues showed an activity similar or higher than the natural luotonin A in terms of topoisomerase 1 inhibition and some compounds had an activity comparable to that of camptothecin. Furthermore, most compounds showed a better activity than luotonin A in cell cytotoxicity assays. In order to rationalize these results, the first docking studies of luotonin-topoisomerase 1-DNA ternary complexes were undertaken. Most compounds bound in a manner similar to luotonin A and to standard topoisomerase poisons such as topotecan but, interestingly, the two most promising analogues, bearing a 3,5-dimethylphenyl substituent at ring B, docked in a different orientation. This binding mode allows the hydrophobic moiety to be shielded from the aqueous environment by being buried between the deoxyribose belonging to the G(+1) guanine and Arg364 in the scissile strand and the surface of the protein and a hydrogen bond between the D-ring carbonyl and the basic amino acid. The discovery of this new binding mode and its associated higher inhibitory potency is a significant advance in the design of new topoisomerase 1 inhibitors. PMID:24830682

  2. Gibberellin 2-oxidases from seedlings of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) show high gibberellin-binding activity in the presence of 2-oxoglutarate and Co2+.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Hyun; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Sakane, Masayuki; Xu, Zheng-Jun; Tomioka, Katsushi; Yamaguchi, Isomaro

    2005-08-01

    Five full-length cDNA encoding gibberellin 2-oxidases, VaGA2oxA1, VaGA2oxA2, VaGA2oxB1, VaGA2oxB2, and VaGA2oxB3, were cloned from etiolated adzuki bean (Vigna angularis cv. Dainagon) seedlings, and their enzymatic characteristics were examined using recombinant enzymes fused with glutathione S-transferase (GST). Recombinant VaGA2oxA1 (rVaGA2oxA1) and rVaGA2oxA2 showed 2beta-hydroxylation activity by converting GA1, GA4, GA9, GA20, GA4-methyl ester, and 16,17-dihydro-GA4 to the corresponding 2beta-hydroxylated gibberellins, which were identified by GC/MS. rVaGA2oxB1, rVaGA2oxB2, and rVaGA2oxB3 showed similar activity by converting [3H4]-16,17-dihydro-GA4 to a metabolite showing an Rf value of 16,17-dihydro-GA34. RNA-blot analysis showed that VaGA2oxA1 and VaGA2oxA2 were the major ones expressed in etiolated hypocotyls. The addition of Co2+ instead of Fe2+ to the assay medium apparently reduced the enzymatic activity, but increased the binding of [3H4]-16,17-dihydro-GA4 to rVaGA2oxA1, indicating the possibility that VaGA2oxs can be detected as gibberellin-binding proteins under certain conditions. PMID:16116277

  3. Mice repeatedly exposed to Group-A ?-Haemolytic Streptococcus show perseverative behaviors, impaired sensorimotor gating, and immune activation in rostral diencephalon.

    PubMed

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Onori, Martina Proietti; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bartolini, Erika; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Imperi, Monica; Orefici, Graziella; Creti, Roberta; Margarit, Immaculada; Magliozzi, Roberta; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Repeated exposure to Group-A ?-Haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) may constitute a vulnerability factor in the onset and course of pediatric motor disturbances. GAS infections/colonization can stimulate the production of antibodies, which may cross the blood brain barrier, target selected brain areas (e.g. basal ganglia), and exacerbate motor alterations. Here, we exposed developing SJL male mice to four injections with a GAS homogenate and evaluated the following domains: motor coordination; general locomotion; repetitive behaviors; perseverative responses; and sensorimotor gating (pre-pulse inhibition, PPI). To demonstrate that behavioral changes were associated with immune-mediated brain alterations, we analyzed, in selected brain areas, the presence of infiltrates and microglial activation (immunohistochemistry), monoamines (HPLC), and brain metabolites (in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). GAS-exposed mice showed increased repetitive and perseverative behaviors, impaired PPI, and reduced concentrations of serotonin in prefrontal cortex, a brain area linked to the behavioral domains investigated, wherein they also showed remarkable elevations in lactate. Active inflammatory processes were substantiated by the observation of infiltrates and microglial activation in the white matter of the anterior diencephalon. These data support the hypothesis that repeated GAS exposure may elicit inflammatory responses in brain areas involved in motor control and perseverative behavior, and result in phenotypic abnormalities. PMID:26304458

  4. Mice repeatedly exposed to Group-A ?-Haemolytic Streptococcus show perseverative behaviors, impaired sensorimotor gating, and immune activation in rostral diencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Onori, Martina Proietti; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bartolini, Erika; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Imperi, Monica; Orefici, Graziella; Creti, Roberta; Margarit, Immaculada; Magliozzi, Roberta; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Repeated exposure to Group-A ?-Haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) may constitute a vulnerability factor in the onset and course of pediatric motor disturbances. GAS infections/colonization can stimulate the production of antibodies, which may cross the blood brain barrier, target selected brain areas (e.g. basal ganglia), and exacerbate motor alterations. Here, we exposed developing SJL male mice to four injections with a GAS homogenate and evaluated the following domains: motor coordination; general locomotion; repetitive behaviors; perseverative responses; and sensorimotor gating (pre-pulse inhibition, PPI). To demonstrate that behavioral changes were associated with immune-mediated brain alterations, we analyzed, in selected brain areas, the presence of infiltrates and microglial activation (immunohistochemistry), monoamines (HPLC), and brain metabolites (in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). GAS-exposed mice showed increased repetitive and perseverative behaviors, impaired PPI, and reduced concentrations of serotonin in prefrontal cortex, a brain area linked to the behavioral domains investigated, wherein they also showed remarkable elevations in lactate. Active inflammatory processes were substantiated by the observation of infiltrates and microglial activation in the white matter of the anterior diencephalon. These data support the hypothesis that repeated GAS exposure may elicit inflammatory responses in brain areas involved in motor control and perseverative behavior, and result in phenotypic abnormalities. PMID:26304458

  5. 5-epi-Torrubiellutin C shows antiproliferative activity on DU145 prostate cancer cells through inactivation of the AKT/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashita; Mahipal, Bodugam; Chandrasekhar, Srivari; Ummanni, Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    Cell-based assays for evaluation of the anticancer potential of a focused small molecule library have identified a few potential hit molecules. Among the hits identified, Torrubiellutins (3a) showed good anticancer potential across the cells used in screening assays. Torrubiellutins are isolated from fungal insects Torrubiella luteorostrata and diverse pharmacological effects for these have been reported. However, it is not known as to how Torrubiellutins act through signaling pathways inhibiting the growth of eukaryotic cells. The current study aimed to determine the anticancer potential of Torrubiellutins by defining the molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity using DU145 cells. The results showed that the inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by 3a was associated with inhibition of anchorage-independent growth, cell migration, and, to a small extent, apoptosis-mediated cell death by caspase activation. The growth-inhibitory effects of 3a are supported by inactivation of prosurvival pathways. Immunoblot analysis showed that the treatment of DU145 cells with 3a resulted in specific downregulation of AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream effector proteins p70S6K, GSK3?, and STAT3. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the changes observed in the AKT/mTOR signaling axis are new targets of 3a that are involved in its inhibitory activity on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, suggesting its potential for further investigation as a promising anticancer agent. PMID:24445589

  6. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  7. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  8. The Arabidopsis homologs of CCR4-associated factor 1 show mRNA deadenylation activity and play a role in plant defence responses.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenxing; Li, Changbao; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Hongling; Li, Shuyu; Sun, Jiaqiang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, Chuanyou

    2009-03-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover in eukaryotic cells begins with shortening of the poly (A) tail at the 3' end, a process called deadenylation. In yeast, the deadenylation reaction is predominantly mediated by CCR4 and CCR4-associated factor 1 (CAF1), two components of the well-characterised protein complex named CCR4-NOT. We report here that AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b, putative Arabidopsis homologs of the yeast CAF1 gene, partially complement the growth defect of the yeast caf1 mutant in the presence of caffeine or at high temperatures. The expression of AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b is induced by multiple stress-related hormones and stimuli. Both AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b show deadenylation activity in vitro and point mutations in the predicted active sites disrupt this activity. T-DNA insertion mutants disrupting the expression of AtCAF1a and/or AtCAF1b are defective in deadenylation of stress-related mRNAs, indicating that the two AtCAF1 proteins are involved in regulated mRNA deadenylation in vivo. Interestingly, the single and double mutants of AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b show reduced expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR1 and PR2 and are more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) infection, whereas transgenic plants over-expressing AtCAF1a show elevated expression of PR1 and PR2 and increased resistance to the same pathogen. Our results suggest roles of the AtCAF1 proteins in regulated mRNA deadenylation and defence responses to pathogen infections. PMID:19065152

  9. Lenvatinib, an angiogenesis inhibitor targeting VEGFR/FGFR, shows broad antitumor activity in human tumor xenograft models associated with microvessel density and pericyte coverage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lenvatinib is an oral inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR1-3), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR1-4), platelet growth factor receptor ? (PDGFR ?), RET and KIT. Antiangiogenesis activity of lenvatinib in VEGF- and FGF-driven angiogenesis models in both in vitro and in vivo was determined. Roles of tumor vasculature (microvessel density (MVD) and pericyte coverage) as biomarkers for lenvatinib were also examined in this study. Method We evaluated antiangiogenesis activity of lenvatinib against VEGF- and FGF-driven proliferation and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. Effects of lenvatinib on in vivo angiogenesis, which was enhanced by overexpressed VEGF or FGF in human pancreatic cancer KP-1 cells, were examined in the mouse dorsal air sac assay. We determined antitumor activity of lenvatinib in a broad panel of human tumor xenograft models to test if vascular score, which consisted of high MVD and low pericyte coverage, was associated with sensitivity to lenvatinib treatment. Vascular score was also analyzed using human tumor specimens with 18 different types of human primary tumors. Result Lenvatinib inhibited VEGF- and FGF-driven proliferation and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. In vivo angiogenesis induced by overexpressed VEGF (KP-1/VEGF transfectants) or FGF (KP-1/FGF transfectants) was significantly suppressed with oral treatments of lenvatinib. Lenvatinib showed significant antitumor activity in KP-1/VEGF and five 5 of 7 different types of human tumor xenograft models at between 1 to 100?mg/kg. We divided 19 human tumor xenograft models into lenvatinib-sensitive (tumor-shrinkage) and relatively resistant (slow-growth) subgroups based on sensitivity to lenvatinib treatments at 100?mg/kg. IHC analysis showed that vascular score was significantly higher in sensitive subgroup than relatively resistant subgroup (p?showed a broad spectrum of antitumor activity with a wide therapeutic window. MVD and pericyte-coverage of tumor vasculature might be biomarkers and suggest cases that would respond for lenvatinib therapy. PMID:25197551

  10. The environmental chemical tributyltin chloride (TBT) shows both estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice which might depend on the exposure dose

    SciTech Connect

    Penza, M.; Jeremic, M.; Marrazzo, E.; Maggi, A.; Ciana, P.; Rando, G.; Grigolato, P.G.; Di Lorenzo, D.

    2011-08-15

    Exposure during early development to chemicals with hormonal action may be associated with weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. It is known that organotins affect adipose mass when exposure occurs during fetal development, although no knowledge of effects are available for exposures after birth. Here we show that the environmental organotin tributyltin chloride (TBT) exerts adipogenic action when peripubertal and sexually mature mice are exposed to the chemical. The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and on the dose of the compound, and the effects are relevant at doses close to the estimated human intake (0.5 {mu}g/kg). At higher doses (50-500 {mu}g/kg), TBT also activated estrogen receptors (ERs) in adipose cells in vitro and in vivo, based on results from acute and longitudinal studies in ERE/luciferase reporter mice. In 3T3-L1 cells (which have no ERs), transiently transfected with the ERE-dependent reporter plus or minus ER{alpha} or ER{beta}, TBT (in a dose range of 1-100 nM) directly targets each ER subtype in a receptor-specific manner through a direct mechanism mediated by ER{alpha} in undifferentiated preadipocytic cells and by ER{beta} in differentiating adipocytes. The ER antagonist ICI-182,780 inhibits this effect. In summary, the results of this work suggest that TBT is adipogenic at all ages and in both sexes and that it might be an ER activator in fat cells. These findings might help to resolve the apparent paradox of an adipogenic chemical being also an estrogen receptor activator by showing that the two apparently opposite actions are separated by the different doses to which the organism is exposed. - Research Highlights: > The environmental organotin tributyltin chloride shows dose-dependent estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice. > The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and the dose of the compound. > The estrogenic and adipogenic effects of TBT occur at doses closed to the estimated human intake. > TBT activates the estrogen receptors (ER{alpha} and ER{beta}) in 3T3-L1 cells at nM concentrations.

  11. Plumbagin shows anticancer activity in human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells via the inhibition of S-Phase checkpoints and down-regulation of c-myc

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chao-Hua; Li, Feng; Ma, Yuan-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone constituent of Plumbago zeylanica L. (Plumbaginaceae), has been extensively studied for its pharmacological activities and reported to show a good anti-cancer activity in different human cancer cell lines. It is known to exhibit proapoptotic, antiangiogenic and antimetastatic effects in cancer cells. Plumbagin is also known to inhibit NF-?B, JNK (Hsu), PKC?, and STAT-3. However, the anti-proliferatory activity and their core molecular mechanisms have been poorly determined. Methods: Human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells were exposed to plumbagin and the anti-proliferative activity was evaluated by MTT assay. The mechanism of action for the growth inhibitory activity of plumbagin on MG-63 cells was evaluated using flow cytometry for cell cycle distribution, and western blot for assessment of accumulation and phosphorylation of potential target proteins. Furthermore, morphology of MG-63 cells was assessed after treatment with Plumbagin. Results: Plumbagin has significantly induced growth inhibition against osteosarcoma MG-63 cells, primarily by S-phase cell cycle arrest which is confirmed by the down regulation of cyclin A and CDK2 protein levels determined by western blot analysis. It was also found that plumbagin has triggered the DNA damage in MG-63 cells, subsequently initiating the arrest in S-phase, which is evident by the up-regulation of phosphorylated p53 and histone. Furthermore, plumbagin resulted in the down-regulation of c-myc protein expression in the MG-63 cells. Conclusion: Plumbagin has triggered DNA damage and had induced S-phase arrest in MG-63 cells, suggesting it to be a potential compound in treatment against malignant human osteosarcoma. PMID:26550431

  12. Modified high-density lipoproteins by artificial sweetener, aspartame, and saccharin, showed loss of anti-atherosclerotic activity and toxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function. PMID:25142179

  13. A Novel Eg5 Inhibitor (LY2523355) Causes Mitotic Arrest and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and Shows Potent Antitumor Activity in Xenograft Tumor Models.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiang S; Fan, Li; Van Horn, Robert D; Nakai, Ryuichiro; Ohta, Yoshihisa; Akinaga, Shiro; Murakata, Chikara; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Yin, Tinggui; Credille, Kelly M; Donoho, Gregory P; Merzoug, Farhana F; Li, Heng; Aggarwal, Amit; Blanchard, Kerry; Westin, Eric H

    2015-11-01

    Intervention of cancer cell mitosis by antitubulin drugs is among the most effective cancer chemotherapies. However, antitubulin drugs have dose-limiting side effects due to important functions of microtubules in resting normal cells and are often rendered ineffective by rapid emergence of resistance. Antimitotic agents with different mechanisms of action and improved safety profiles are needed as new treatment options. Mitosis-specific kinesin Eg5 represents an attractive anticancer target for discovering such new antimitotic agents, because Eg5 is essential only in mitotic progression and has no roles in resting, nondividing cells. Here, we show that a novel selective Eg5 inhibitor, LY2523355, has broad target-mediated anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. LY2523355 arrests cancer cells at mitosis and causes rapid cell death that requires sustained spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation with a required threshold concentration. In vivo efficacy of LY2523355 is highly dose/schedule-dependent, achieving complete remission in a number of xenograft tumor models, including patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models. We further establish that histone-H3 phosphorylation of tumor and proliferating skin cells is a promising pharmacodynamic biomarker for in vivo anticancer activity of LY2523355. Mol Cancer Ther; 14(11); 2463-72. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26304237

  14. Polysaccharides from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps taii Show Antioxidant and Immunoenhancing Activities in a D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jian-Hui; Xiao, Dai-Min; Chen, Dai-Xiong; Xiao, Yu; Liang, Zong-Qi; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Cordyceps taii, an edible medicinal mushroom native to south China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. In the present study, the antioxidant pharmacological properties of C. taii were systematically investigated. In vitro assays revealed the scavenging activities of the aqueous extract and polysaccharides of C. taii against various free radicals, that is, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical. The EC50 values for superoxide anion-free radical ranged from 2.04?mg/mL to 2.49?mg/mL, which was at least 2.6-fold stronger than that of antioxidant thiourea. The polysaccharides also significantly enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and markedly decreased the malondialdehyde production of lipid peroxidation in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Interestingly, the immune function of the administration group was significantly boosted compared with the D-galactose-induced aging model group. Therefore, the C. taii polysaccharides possessed potent antioxidant activity closely associated with immune function enhancement and free radical scavenging. These findings suggest that the polysaccharides are a promising source of natural antioxidants and antiaging drugs. Consequently, a preliminary chemical investigation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and revealed that the polysaccharides studied were mainly composed of glucose, mannose, and galactose. Fourier-transform infrared spectra also showed characteristic polysaccharide absorption bands. PMID:22536281

  15. Hedgehog Signaling Pathway Is Active in GBM with GLI1 mRNA Expression Showing a Single Continuous Distribution Rather than Discrete High/Low Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Nidhan K.; Rote, Sarang; Chatterjee, Uttara; Ghosh, Samarendra N.; Deb, Sumit; Saha, Suniti K.; Chowdhury, Anup K.; Ghosh, Subhashish; Rudin, Charles M.; Mukherjee, Ankur; Basu, Analabha; Dhara, Surajit

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a valid therapeutic target in a wide range of malignancies. We focus here on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a lethal malignancy of the central nervous system (CNS). By analyzing RNA-sequencing based transcriptomics data on 149 clinical cases of TCGA-GBM database we show here a strong correlation (r = 0.7) between GLI1 and PTCH1 mRNA expression—as a hallmark of the canonical Hh-pathway activity in this malignancy. GLI1 mRNA expression varied in 3 orders of magnitude among the GBM patients of the same cohort showing a single continuous distribution—unlike the discrete high/low-GLI1 mRNA expressing clusters of medulloblastoma (MB). When compared with MB as a reference, the median GLI1 mRNA expression in GBM appeared 14.8 fold lower than that of the “high-Hh” cluster of MB but 5.6 fold higher than that of the “low-Hh” cluster of MB. Next, we demonstrated statistically significant up- and down-regulation of GLI1 mRNA expressions in GBM patient-derived low-passage neurospheres in vitro by sonic hedgehog ligand-enriched conditioned media (shh-CM) and by Hh-inhibitor drug vismodegib respectively. We also showed clinically achievable dose (50 ?M) of vismodegib alone to be sufficient to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in these low-passage GBM neurospheres in vitro. Vismodegib showed an effect on the neurospheres, both by down-regulating GLI1 mRNA expression and by inducing apoptosis/cell cycle arrest, irrespective of their relative endogenous levels of GLI1 mRNA expression. We conclude from our study that this single continuous distribution pattern of GLI1 mRNA expression technically puts almost all GBM patients in a single group rather than discrete high- or low-clusters in terms of Hh-pathway activity. That is suggestive of therapies with Hh-pathway inhibitor drugs in this malignancy without a need for further stratification of patients on the basis of relative levels of Hh-pathway activity among them. PMID:25775002

  16. A new peptide (Ruviprase) purified from the venom of Daboia russelii russelii shows potent anticoagulant activity via non-enzymatic inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Rupamoni; Kumar, Ashok; Bose, Biplab; Panda, Dulal; Saikia, Debashree; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2014-10-01

    Compounds showing dual inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa (FXa) are the subject of great interest owing to their broader specificity for effective anticoagulation therapy against cardiovascular disorders. This is the first report on the functional characterization and assessment of therapeutic potential of a 4423.6 Da inhibitory peptide (Ruviprase) purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom. The secondary structure of Ruviprase is composed of ?-helices (61.9%) and random coils (38.1%). The partial N-terminal sequence (E(1)-V(2)-X(3)-W(4)-W(5)-W(6)-A(7)-Q(8)-L(9)-S(10)) of Ruviprase demonstrated significant similarity (80.0%) with an internal sequence of apoptosis-stimulating protein reported from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah and Python bivittatus; albeit Ruviprase did not show sequence similarity with existing thrombin/FXa inhibitors, suggesting its uniqueness. Ruviprase demonstrated a potent in vitro anticoagulant property and inhibited both thrombin and FXa following slow binding kinetics. Ruviprase inhibited thrombin by binding to its active site via an uncompetitive mechanism with a Ki value and dissociation constant (KD) of 0.42 ?M and 0.46 ?M, respectively. Conversely, Ruviprase demonstrated mixed inhibition (Ki = 0.16 ?M) of FXa towards its physiological substrate prothrombin. Furthermore, the biological properties of Ruviprase could not be neutralized by commercial polyvalent or monovalent antivenom. Ruviprase at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg was non-toxic and showed potent in vivo anticoagulant activity after 6 h of intraperitoneal treatment in mice. Because of the potent anticoagulant property as well as non-toxic nature of Ruviprase, the possible application of the peptide as an antithrombotic agent for combating thrombosis-associated ailments appears promising. PMID:25038567

  17. Dual Fatty Acid Synthase and HER2 Signaling Blockade Shows Marked Antitumor Activity against Breast Cancer Models Resistant to Anti-HER2 Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Blancafort, Adriana; Giró-Perafita, Ariadna; Oliveras, Glòria; Palomeras, Sònia; Turrado, Carlos; Campuzano, Òscar; Carrión-Salip, Dolors; Massaguer, Anna; Brugada, Ramon; Palafox, Marta; Gómez-Miragaya, Jorge; González-Suárez, Eva; Puig, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Blocking the enzyme Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) leads to apoptosis of HER2-positive breast carcinoma cells. The hypothesis is that blocking FASN, in combination with anti-HER2 signaling agents, would be an effective antitumor strategy in preclinical HER2+ breast cancer models of trastuzumab and lapatinib resistance. We developed and molecularly characterized in vitro HER2+ models of resistance to trastuzumab (SKTR), lapatinib (SKLR) and both (SKLTR). The cellular interactions of combining anti-FASN polyphenolic compounds (EGCG and the synthetic G28UCM) with anti-HER2 signaling drugs (trastuzumab plus pertuzumab and temsirolimus) were analyzed. Tumor growth inhibition after treatment with EGCG, pertuzumab, temsirolimus or the combination was evaluated in two in vivo orthoxenopatients: one derived from a HER2+ patient and another from a patient who relapsed on trastuzumab and lapatinib-based therapy. SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR showed hyperactivation of EGFR and p-ERK1/2 and PI3KCA mutations. Dual-resistant cells (SKLTR) also showed hyperactivation of HER4 and recovered levels of p-AKT compared with mono-resistant cells. mTOR, p-mTOR and FASN expression remained stable in SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR. In vitro, anti-FASN compounds plus pertuzumab showed synergistic interactions in lapatinib- and dual- resistant cells and improved the results of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab co-treatment. FASN inhibitors combined with temsirolimus displayed the strongest synergistic interactions in resistant cells. In vivo, both orthoxenopatients showed strong response to the antitumor activity of the combination of EGCG with pertuzumab or temsirolimus, without signs of toxicity. We showed that the simultaneous blockade of FASN and HER2 pathways is effective in cells and in breast cancer models refractory to anti-HER2 therapies. PMID:26107737

  18. Saroglitazar, a novel PPAR?/? agonist with predominant PPAR? activity, shows lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects in preclinical models

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mukul R; Giri, Suresh R; Trivedi, Chitrang; Bhoi, Bibhuti; Rath, Akshyaya; Vanage, Geeta; Vyas, Purvi; Ranvir, Ramchandra; Patel, Pankaj R

    2015-01-01

    Saroglitazar is a novel nonthiazolidinediones (TZD) and nonfibric acid derivative designed to act as dual regulator of lipids and glucose metabolism by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). These studies evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of Saroglitazar in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models. The EC50 values of Saroglitazar assessed in HepG2 cells using PPAR transactivation assay for hPPAR? and hPPAR? were 0.65 pmol/L and 3 nmol/L, respectively. In db/db mice, 12-day treatment with Saroglitazar (0.01–3 mg/kg per day, orally) caused dose-dependent reductions in serum triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and glucose. The ED50 for these effects was found to be 0.05, 0.19, and 0.19 mg/kg, respectively with highly significant (91%) reduction in serum insulin and AUC-glucose following oral glucose administration (59%) at 1 mg/kg dose. Significant reduction in serum TG (upto 90%) was also observed in Zucker fa/fa rats, Swiss albino mice, and in high fat -high cholesterol (HF-HC)-fed Golden Syrian hamsters. LDL cholesterol was significantly lowered in hApoB100/hCETP double transgenic mice and HF-HC diet fed Golden Syrian Hamsters. Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic clamp study in Zucker fa/fa rats demonstrated potent insulin-sensitizing activity. Saroglitazar also showed a significant decrease in SBP (22 mmHg) and increase (62.1%) in serum adiponectin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats. A 90-day repeated dose comparative study in Wistar rats and marmosets confirmed efficacy (TG lowering) potential of Saroglitazar and has indicated low risk of PPAR-associated side effects in humans. Based on efficacy and safety profile, Saroglitazar appears to have good potential as novel therapeutic agent for treatment of dyslipidemia and diabetes. PMID:26171220

  19. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    PubMed Central

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders are at increased risk for affective disorders and express discrete structural and functional abnormalities in the brain reward system. However, value-based decision making is not well understood in these at-risk individuals. Methods We investigated healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorders (high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively) using functional MRI during a gambling task. We assessed group differences in activity related to gambling risk over the entire brain. Results We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response in the ventral striatum to increasing gambling risk and negatively correlated with individual risk-taking behaviour. Compared with low-risk twins, the high-risk twins showed a bilateral reduction of risk-related activity in the middle insula extending into the temporal cortex with increasing gambling risk. Post hoc analyses revealed that this effect was strongest in dizygotic twins. Limitations The relatively old average age of the mono- and dizygotic twin cohort (49.2 yr) may indicate an increased resilience to affective disorders. The size of the monozygotic high-risk group was relatively small (n = 13). Conclusion The reduced processing of risk magnitude in the middle insula may indicate a deficient integration of exteroceptive information related to risk-related cues with interoceptive states in individuals at familial risk for affective disorders. Impaired risk processing might contribute to increased vulnerability to affective disorders. PMID:26395812

  20. Saroglitazar, a novel PPAR?/? agonist with predominant PPAR? activity, shows lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects in preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mukul R; Giri, Suresh R; Trivedi, Chitrang; Bhoi, Bibhuti; Rath, Akshyaya; Vanage, Geeta; Vyas, Purvi; Ranvir, Ramchandra; Patel, Pankaj R

    2015-06-01

    Saroglitazar is a novel nonthiazolidinediones (TZD) and nonfibric acid derivative designed to act as dual regulator of lipids and glucose metabolism by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). These studies evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of Saroglitazar in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models. The EC50 values of Saroglitazar assessed in HepG2 cells using PPAR transactivation assay for hPPAR? and hPPAR? were 0.65 pmol/L and 3 nmol/L, respectively. In db/db mice, 12-day treatment with Saroglitazar (0.01-3 mg/kg per day, orally) caused dose-dependent reductions in serum triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and glucose. The ED50 for these effects was found to be 0.05, 0.19, and 0.19 mg/kg, respectively with highly significant (91%) reduction in serum insulin and AUC-glucose following oral glucose administration (59%) at 1 mg/kg dose. Significant reduction in serum TG (upto 90%) was also observed in Zucker fa/fa rats, Swiss albino mice, and in high fat -high cholesterol (HF-HC)-fed Golden Syrian hamsters. LDL cholesterol was significantly lowered in hApoB100/hCETP double transgenic mice and HF-HC diet fed Golden Syrian Hamsters. Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic clamp study in Zucker fa/fa rats demonstrated potent insulin-sensitizing activity. Saroglitazar also showed a significant decrease in SBP (22 mmHg) and increase (62.1%) in serum adiponectin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats. A 90-day repeated dose comparative study in Wistar rats and marmosets confirmed efficacy (TG lowering) potential of Saroglitazar and has indicated low risk of PPAR-associated side effects in humans. Based on efficacy and safety profile, Saroglitazar appears to have good potential as novel therapeutic agent for treatment of dyslipidemia and diabetes. PMID:26171220

  1. Methotrexate-conjugated PEGylated dendrimers show differential patterns of deposition and activity in tumor-burdened lymph nodes after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaminskas, Lisa M; McLeod, Victoria M; Ascher, David B; Ryan, Gemma M; Jones, Seth; Haynes, John M; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Chan, Linda J; Sloan, Erica K; Finnin, Benjamin A; Williamson, Mark; Velkov, Tony; Williams, Elizabeth D; Kelly, Brian D; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher J H

    2015-02-01

    The current study sought to explore whether the subcutaneous administration of lymph targeted dendrimers, conjugated with a model chemotherapeutic (methotrexate, MTX), was able to enhance anticancer activity against lymph node metastases. The lymphatic pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of PEGylated polylysine dendrimers conjugated to MTX [D-MTX(OH)] via a tumor-labile hexapeptide linker was examined in rats and compared to a similar system where MTX was ?-carboxyl O-tert-butylated [D-MTX(OtBu)]. The latter has previously been shown to exhibit longer plasma circulation times. D-MTX(OtBu) was well absorbed from the subcutaneous injection site via the lymph, and 3 to 4%/g of the dose was retained by sentinel lymph nodes. In contrast, D-MTX(OH) showed limited absorption from the subcutaneous injection site, but absorption was almost exclusively via the lymph. The retention of D-MTX(OH) by sentinel lymph nodes was also significantly elevated (approximately 30% dose/g). MTX alone was not absorbed into the lymph. All dendrimers displayed lower lymph node targeting after intravenous administration. Despite significant differences in the lymph node retention of D-MTX(OH) and D-MTX(OtBu) after subcutaneous and intravenous administration, the growth of lymph node metastases was similarly inhibited. In contrast, the administration of MTX alone did not significantly reduce lymph node tumor growth. Subcutaneous administration of drug-conjugated dendrimers therefore provides an opportunity to improve drug deposition in downstream tumor-burdened lymph nodes. In this case, however, increased lymph node biodistribution did not correlate well with antitumor activity, possibly suggesting constrained drug release at the site of action. PMID:25485615

  2. New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity: crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N.; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles.

  3. Peroxidases identified in a subtractive cDNA library approach show tissue-specific transcript abundance and enzyme activity during seed germination of Lepidium sativum

    PubMed Central

    Linkies, Ada; Schuster-Sherpa, Uta; Tintelnot, Stefanie; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Müller, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    The micropylar endosperm is a major regulator of seed germination in endospermic species, to which the close Brassicaceae relatives Arabidopsis thaliana and Lepidium sativum (cress) belong. Cress seeds are about 20 times larger than the seeds of Arabidopsis. This advantage was used to construct a tissue-specific subtractive cDNA library of transcripts that are up-regulated late in the germination process specifically in the micropylar endosperm of cress seeds. The library showed that a number of transcripts known to be up-regulated late during germination are up-regulated in the micropylar endosperm cap. Detailed germination kinetics of SALK lines carrying insertions in genes present in our library showed that the identified transcripts do indeed play roles during germination. Three peroxidases were present in the library. These peroxidases were identified as orthologues of Arabidopsis AtAPX01, AtPrx16, and AtPrxIIE. The corresponding SALK lines displayed significant germination phenotypes. Their transcripts were quantified in specific cress seed tissues during germination in the presence and absence of ABA and they were found to be regulated in a tissue-specific manner. Peroxidase activity, and particularly its regulation by ABA, also differed between radicles and micropylar endosperm caps. Possible implications of this tissue-specificity are discussed. PMID:19884228

  4. ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (AOC) gene family members of Arabidopsis thaliana: tissue- and organ-specific promoter activities and in vivo heteromerization*

    PubMed Central

    Stenzel, Irene; Otto, Markus; Hause, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Jasmonates are important signals in plant stress responses and plant development. An essential step in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is catalysed by ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (AOC) which establishes the naturally occurring enantiomeric structure of jasmonates. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four genes encode four functional AOC polypeptides (AOC1, AOC2, AOC3, and AOC4) raising the question of functional redundancy or diversification. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed an organ-specific expression pattern, whereas detailed inspection of transgenic lines expressing the GUS reporter gene under the control of individual AOC promoters showed partially redundant promoter activities during development: (i) In fully developed leaves, promoter activities of AOC1, AOC2, and AOC3 appeared throughout all leaf tissue, but AOC4 promoter activity was vascular bundle-specific; (ii) only AOC3 and AOC4 showed promoter activities in roots; and (iii) partially specific promoter activities were found for AOC1 and AOC4 in flower development. In situ hybridization of flower stalks confirmed the GUS activity data. Characterization of single and double AOC loss-of-function mutants further corroborates the hypothesis of functional redundancies among individual AOCs due to a lack of phenotypes indicative of JA deficiency (e.g. male sterility). To elucidate whether redundant AOC expression might contribute to regulation on AOC activity level, protein interaction studies using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) were performed and showed that all AOCs can interact among each other. The data suggest a putative regulatory mechanism of temporal and spatial fine-tuning in JA formation by differential expression and via possible heteromerization of the four AOCs. PMID:23028017

  5. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  6. Obatoclax in combination with fludarabine and rituximab is well-tolerated and shows promising clinical activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer R; Tesar, Bethany; Yu, Lijian; Werner, Lillian; Takebe, Naoko; Mikler, Evgeny; Reynolds, Hazel M; Thompson, Christina; Fisher, David C; Neuberg, Donna; Freedman, A S

    2015-12-01

    Obatoclax is a small molecule mimetic of the BH3 domain of BCL-2 family proteins. This phase 1 study combining obatoclax with FR was undertaken in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients relapsed after at least one prior therapy. Obatoclax was given as a 3-h infusion on days 1 and 3 and escalated through three dose levels, with standard dose FR days 1-5. Thirteen patients were enrolled, with a median of two prior therapies. One dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of a 2-week treatment delay for persistent grade 2-3 neutropenia was observed at the highest obatoclax dose (20 mg/m(2)), but no maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was reached. The overall response rate (ORR) was 85%, with 15% complete responses (CRs) by NCI-96 criteria and 54% by IWCLL 2008 criteria. Median time to progression was 20 months. It is concluded that obatoclax can be safely administered to relapsed CLL patients in combination with FR and shows promising clinical activity. PMID:25971907

  7. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Nováková, Slavomíra; Flores-Ramírez, Gabriela; Glasa, Miroslav; Danchenko, Maksym; Fiala, Roderik; Skultety, Ludovit

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance toward infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant) were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins) developed 6–7 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis. PMID:25972878

  8. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Slavomíra; Flores-Ramírez, Gabriela; Glasa, Miroslav; Danchenko, Maksym; Fiala, Roderik; Skultety, Ludovit

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance toward infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant) were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins) developed 6-7 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis. PMID:25972878

  9. A family of Fe(3+) based double-stranded helicates showing a magnetocaloric effect, and Rhodamine B dye and DNA binding activities.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Amit; Jena, Himanshu Sekhar; Konar, Sanjit

    2015-09-21

    Herein, the synthesis, structural characterization, magnetic properties and guest binding activities of four Fe(3+) based double-stranded helicates namely; [Fe2(L)2](ClO4)(Cl)·4(CH3OH)·2(H2O) (), [Fe2(L)2](BF4)2·2(H2O) (), [Fe2(L)2](NO3)2·3(CH3OH)·2(H2O) (), and [Fe2(L)2](Cl)2·2(CH3OH)·4(H2O) () are reported. Complexes have been synthesized using the hydrazide-based ligand H2L (H2L = N'1,N'4-bis(2-hydroxybenzylidene)succinohydrazide) and the corresponding Fe(2+) salts. Each of the independent cationic complexes [Fe2(L)2](2+) shows double-stranded helicates from the self-assembly of the ligand and metal ions in a 2?:?2 ratio, where the individual Fe(3+) centre is lying on a C2-axis and the ligand strands wrap around it. In , ligand L adopts "pseudo-C" conformations and forms a double-stranded dinuclear helicate with a small cage in between them. Moreover, in , each of the independent cationic complexes [Fe2L2](2+) is inherently chiral and possesses P for right-hand and M for left-hand helicity and as a consequence is a racemic solid. Detailed magnetic studies of all the complexes reveal that the Fe(3+) centres are magnetically isolated and isotropic in nature. Estimation of the Magnetocaloric Effect (MCE) from magnetization data unveils a moderate MCE at a temperature of 3 K with magnetic entropy changes (-?Sm) of 22.9, 27.7, 24.1, 26.5 J kg(-1) K(-1) at a magnetic field of 7 T for complexes , respectively. Also, the variation of the -?Sm values was justified by considering the parameter of magnetization per unit mass. Stability of all the complexes in solution phase was confirmed by ESI-mass spectrometric analysis and liquid phase FT-IR spectroscopy. Further, the interaction of the complexes with Rhodamine B dye was examined by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopic study. The observed blue-shift in the fluorescence study and hyperchromicity and hypochromicity with the appearance of two isosbestic points in the UV-vis study ascertain the interactions of the dye with the complexes. A DNA binding study by absorption spectral titration suggests the weak external intercalation of complex within the nucleotide of calf thymus DNA. Computational study supports the isotropic nature of the metal centres and the consequent high spin multiplicity, which assists the complexes to show significant magnetic entropy changes. PMID:26239620

  10. Chemically synthesized dicarba H2 relaxin analogues retain strong RXFP1 receptor activity but show an unexpected loss of in vitro serum stability.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammed Akhter; Haugaard-Kedström, Linda M; Rosengren, K Johan; Bathgate, Ross A D; Wade, John D

    2015-11-28

    Peptides and proteins are now acknowledged as viable alternatives to small molecules as potential therapeutic agents. A primary limitation to their more widespread acceptance is their generally short in vivo half-lives due to serum enzyme susceptibility and rapid renal clearance. Numerous chemical approaches to address this concern have been undertaken in recent years. The replacement of disulfide bonds with non-reducible elements has been demonstrated to be one effective means by eliminating the deleterious effect of serum reductases. In particular, substitution with dicarba bonds via ring closure metathesis has been increasingly applied to many bioactive cystine-rich peptides. We used this approach for the replacement of the A-chain intramolecular disulfide bond of human relaxin 2 (H2 relaxin), an insulin-like peptide that has important regulatory roles in cardiovascular and connective tissue homeostasis that has led to successful Phase IIIa clinical trials for the treatment of acute heart failure. Use of efficient solid phase synthesis of the two peptide chains was followed by on-resin ring closure metathesis and formation of the dicarba bond within the A-chain and then by off-resin combination with the B-chain via sequential directed inter-chain disulfide bond formation. After purification and comprehensive chemical characterization, the two isomeric synthetic H2 relaxin analogues were shown to retain near-equipotent RXFP1 receptor binding and activation propensity. Unexpectedly, the in vitro serum stability of the analogues was greatly reduced compared with the native peptide. Circular dichroism spectroscopy studies showed subtle differences in the secondary structures between dicarba analogues and H2 relaxin suggesting that, although the overall fold is retained, it may be destabilized which could account for rapid degradation of dicarba analogues in serum. Caution is therefore recommended when using ring closure metathesis as a general approach to enhance peptide stability. PMID:26368576

  11. Stress Sensitive Healthy Females Show Less Left Amygdala Activation in Response to Withdrawal-Related Visual Stimuli under Passive Viewing Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeken, Chris; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; De Raedt, Rudi; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Mey, Johan; Bossuyt, Axel; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The amygdalae are key players in the processing of a variety of emotional stimuli. Especially aversive visual stimuli have been reported to attract attention and activate the amygdalae. However, as it has been argued that passively viewing withdrawal-related images could attenuate instead of activate amygdalae neuronal responses, its role under…

  12. A 'Propagating' Active Across-Arc Normal Fault Shows Rupture Process of the Basement: the Case of the Southwestern Ryukyu Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Shinjo, R.; Nakamura, M.; Kubo, A.; Doi, A.; Tamanaha, S.

    2011-12-01

    Ryukyu Arc is located on the southwestern extension of Japanese Island-arc towards the east of Taiwan Island along the margin of the Asian continent off China. The island-arc forms an arcuate trench-arc-backarc system. A NW-ward subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP)at a rate of 6-8 cm/y relative to the Eurasian Plate (EP) causes frequent earthquakes. The PSP is subducting almost normally in the north-central area and more obliquely around the southwestern area. Behind the arc-trench system, the Okinawa Trough (OT) was formed by back-arc rifting, where active hydrothermal vent systems have been discovered. Several across-arc submarine faults are located in the central and southern Ryukyu Arc. The East Ishigaki Fault (EIF) is one of the across-arc normal faults located in the southwestern Ryukyu Arc, ranging by 44km and extending from SE to NW. This fault was surveyed by SEABAT8160 multibeam echo sounder and by ROV Hyper-Dolphin in 2005 and 2008. The result shows that the main fault consists of five fault segments. A branched segment from the main fault was also observed. The southernmost segment is most mature (oldest but still active) and the northernmost one is most nascent. This suggests the north-westward propagation of the fault rupture corresponding to the rifting of the southwestern OT and the southward retreat of the arc-trench system. Considering that the fault is segmented and in some part branched, propagation might take place episodically rather than continuously from SE to NW. The ROV survey also revealed the rupture process of the limestone basement along this fault from the nascent stage to the mature stage. Most of the rock samples collected from the basement outcrop were limestone blocks (or calcareous sedimentary rocks). Limestone basement was observed to the west on the hanging wall far away from the main fault scarp. Then fine-grained sand with ripple marks was observed towards the main scarp. Limestone basement was observed on the main scarp and on the footwall. These suggest that basically the both sides are composed of the same material, that the whole study area is characterised by Ryukyu limestone exposure and that the basement was split by the across-arc normal fault. Coarse-grained sand and gravels/rubbles were observed towards and on the trough of the fault. On the main scarp an outcrop of limestone basement was exposed and in some part it was broken into rubbles. These facts suggest that crash of the basement due to rupturing is taking place repeatedly on the scarp and the trough. The observed fine-grained sand on the hanging wall might be the final product by the process of the crash of the limestone basement.

  13. 55P0110, a Novel Synthetic Compound Developed from a Plant Derived Backbone Structure, Shows Promising Anti-Hyperglycaemic Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brunmair, Barbara; Lehner, Zsuzsanna; Stadlbauer, Karin; Adorjan, Immanuel; Frobel, Klaus; Scherer, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Bauer, Leonhardt; Fürnsinn, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Starting off with a structure derived from the natural compound multiflorine, a derivatisation program aimed at the discovery and initial characterisation of novel compounds with antidiabetic potential. Design and discovery of the structures was guided by oral bioactivities obtained in oral glucose tolerance tests in mice. 55P0110, one among several new compounds with distinct anti-hyperglycaemic activity, was further examined to characterise its pharmacology and mode of action. Whereas a single oral dose of 55P0110 did not affect basal glycaemia, it markedly improved the glucose tolerance of healthy and diabetic mice (peak blood glucose in glucose tolerance test, mmol/l: healthy mice with 90 mg/kg 55P0110, 17.0±1.2 vs. 10.1±1.1; diabetic mice with 180 mg/kg 55P0110, 23.1±0.9 vs. 11.1±1.4; p<0.001 each). Closer examination argued against retarded glucose resorption from the gut, increased glucose excretion in urine, acute insulin-like or insulin sensitising properties, and direct inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 as the cause of glucose lowering. Hence, 55P0110 seems to act via a target not exploited by any drug presently approved for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Whereas the insulinotropic sulfonylurea gliclazide (16 mg/kg) distinctly increased the circulating insulin-per-glucose ratio under basal conditions, 55P0110 (90 mg/kg) lacked such an effect (30 min. after dosing, nmol/mol: vehicle, 2.49±0.27; 55P0110, 2.99±0.35; gliclazide, 8.97±0.49; p<0.001 each vs. gliclazide). Under an exogenous glucose challenge, however, 55P0110 increased this ratio to the same extent as gliclazide (20 min. after glucose feeding: vehicle, 2.53±0.41; 55P0110, 3.80±0.46; gliclazide, 3.99±0.26; p<0.05 each vs. vehicle). By augmenting the glucose stimulated increase in plasma insulin, 55P0110 thus shows distinct anti-hyperglycaemic action in combination with low risk for fasting hypoglycaemia in mice. In summary, we have discovered a novel class of fully synthetic substituted quinazolidines with an attractive pharmacological profile that recommends the structures for further evaluation as candidates for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25973898

  14. Arabidopsis DNA methyltransferase AtDNMT2 associates with histone deacetylase AtHD2s activity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yuan; Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON, Canada N5V4T3 ; Wu, Keqiang; Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta; An, Lizhe; Tian, Lining

    2010-05-28

    DNA methyltransferase2 (DNMT2) is always deemed to be enigmatic, because it contains highly conserved DNA methyltransferase motifs but lacks the DNA methylation catalytic capability. Here we show that Arabidopsis DNA methyltransferase2 (AtDNMT2) is localized in nucleus and associates with histone deacetylation. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and pull-down assays show AtDNMT2 interacts with type-2 histone deacetylases (AtHD2s), a unique type of histone deacetylase family in plants. Through analyzing the expression of AtDNMT2: ss-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion protein, we demonstrate that AtDNMT2 has the ability to repress gene expression at transcription level. Meanwhile, the expression of AtDNMT2 gene is altered in athd2c mutant plants. We propose that AtDNMT2 possibly involves in the activity of histone deacetylation and plant epigenetic regulatory network.

  15. Allosteric mutants show that PrfA activation is dispensable for vacuole escape but required for efficient spread and Listeria survival in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Deshayes, Caroline; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Cain, Robert J; Scortti, Mariela; de las Heras, Aitor; Pietras, Zbigniew; Luisi, Ben F; Núñez Miguel, Ricardo; Vázquez-Boland, José A

    2012-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator PrfA controls key virulence determinants of the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. PrfA-dependent gene expression is strongly induced within host cells. While the basis of this activation is unknown, the structural homology of PrfA with the cAMP receptor protein (Crp) and the finding of constitutively activated PrfA* mutants suggests it may involve ligand-induced allostery. Here, we report the identification of a solvent-accessible cavity within the PrfA N-terminal domain that may accommodate an activating ligand. The pocket occupies a similar position to the cAMP binding site in Crp but lacks the cyclic nucleotide-anchoring motif and has its entrance on the opposite side of the ?-barrel. Site-directed mutations in this pocket impaired intracellular PrfA-dependent gene activation without causing extensive structural/functional alterations to PrfA. Two substitutions, L48F and Y63W, almost completely abolished intracellular virulence gene induction and thus displayed the expected phenotype for allosteric activation-deficient PrfA mutations. Neither PrfAallo substitution affected vacuole escape and initial intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes in epithelial cells and macrophages but caused defective cell-to-cell spread and strong attenuation in mice. Our data support the hypothesis that PrfA is allosterically activated during intracellular infection and identify the probable binding site for the effector ligand. They also indicate that PrfA allosteric activation is not required for early intracellular survival but is essential for full Listeria virulence and colonization of host tissues. PMID:22646689

  16. Glycinergic inhibition to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body shows prominent facilitation and can sustain high levels of ongoing activity

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Florian; Albrecht, Otto; Dondzillo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) are well known for their prominent excitatory inputs, mediated by the calyx of Held. Less attention has been paid to the prominent inhibitory inputs that MNTB neurons also receive. Because of their auditory nature, both excitatory and inhibitory synapses are highly active in vivo. These high levels of activity are known to reduce excitatory synaptic currents considerably, such that in vivo synaptic currents produced by the calyx are smaller than typically measured in standard brain slice experiments. The goal of this study was to investigate the properties of the inhibitory inputs in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) under activity levels that correspond to those in the intact brain to facilitate a direct comparison between the two inputs. Our results suggest that inhibitory inputs to MNTB are largely mediated by a fast and phasic glycinergic component, and to a lesser degree by a GABAergic component. The glycinergic component can sustain prolonged high levels of activity. Even when challenged with stimulus patterns consisting of thousands of stimuli over tens of minutes, glycinergic inputs to MNTB maintain large conductances and fast decays and even facilitate substantially when the stimulation frequency is increased. The inhibition is mediated by a relatively small number of independent input fibers. The data presented here suggest that inhibitory inputs to MNTB sustain high levels of activity and need to be considered for a full understanding of mechanisms underlying processing of auditory information in MNTB. PMID:25185813

  17. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-? inhibitor CAL-101 shows promising preclinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by antagonizing intrinsic and extrinsic cellular survival signals

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Sarah E. M.; Gordon, Amber L.; Wagner, Amy J.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Zhao, Weiqiang; Flynn, Joseph M.; Jones, Jeffrey; Andritsos, Leslie; Puri, Kamal D.; Lannutti, Brian J.; Giese, Neill A.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wei, Lai; Byrd, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted therapy with imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) prompted a new treatment paradigm. Unlike CML, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) lacks an aberrant fusion protein kinase but instead displays increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. To date, PI3K inhibitor development has been limited because of the requirement of this pathway for many essential cellular functions. Identification of the hematopoietic-selective isoform PI3K-? unlocks a new therapeutic potential for B-cell malignancies. Herein, we demonstrate that PI3K has increased enzymatic activity and that PI3K-? is expressed in CLL cells. A PI3K-? selective inhibitor CAL-101 promoted apoptosis in primary CLL cells ex vivo in a dose- and time-dependent fashion that was independent of common prognostic markers. CAL-101–mediated cytotoxicity was caspase dependent and was not diminished by coculture on stromal cells. In addition, CAL-101 abrogated protection from spontaneous apoptosis induced by B cell–activating factors CD40L, TNF-?, and fibronectin. In contrast to malignant cells, CAL-101 does not promote apoptosis in normal T cells or natural killer cells, nor does it diminish antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. However, CAL-101 did decrease activated T-cell production of various inflammatory and antiapoptotic cytokines. Collectively, these studies provide rationale for the clinical development of CAL-101 as a first-in-class targeted therapy for CLL and related B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:20522708

  18. Nanocomposites of tantalum-based pyrochlore and indium hydroxide showing high and stable photocatalytic activities for overall water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Chun; Wu, Guan-Chang; Liu, Wei-Guang; Goddard, William A; Yang, Chia-Min

    2014-12-15

    Nanocomposites of tantalum-based pyrochlore nanoparticles and indium hydroxide were prepared by a hydrothermal process for UV-driven photocatalytic reactions including overall water splitting, hydrogen production from photoreforming of methanol, and CO2 reduction with water to produce CO. The best catalyst was more than 20?times more active than sodium tantalate in overall water splitting and 3?times more active than Degussa P25 TiO2 in CO2 reduction. Moreover, the catalyst was very stable while generating stoichiometric products of H2 (or CO) and O2 throughout long-term photocatalytic reactions. After the removal of In(OH)3, the pyrochlore nanoparticles remained highly active for H2 production from pure water and aqueous methanol solution. Both experimental studies and density functional theory calculations suggest that the pyrochlore nanoparticles catalyzed the water reduction to produce H2, whereas In(OH)3 was the major active component for water oxidation to produce O2. PMID:25384922

  19. Piperidinols That Show Anti-Tubercular Activity as Inhibitors of Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An Essential Enzyme for Mycobacterial Survival Inside Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Abuhammad, Areej; Fullam, Elizabeth; Lowe, Edward D.; Staunton, David; Kawamura, Akane; Westwood, Isaac M.; Bhakta, Sanjib; Garner, Alun Christopher; Wilson, David L.; Seden, Peter T.; Davies, Stephen G.; Russell, Angela J.; Garman, Elspeth F.; Sim, Edith

    2012-01-01

    Latent M. tuberculosis infection presents one of the major obstacles in the global eradication of tuberculosis (TB). Cholesterol plays a critical role in the persistence of M. tuberculosis within the macrophage during latent infection. Catabolism of cholesterol contributes to the pool of propionyl-CoA, a precursor that is incorporated into cell-wall lipids. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) is encoded within a gene cluster that is involved in the cholesterol sterol-ring degradation and is essential for intracellular survival. The ability of the NAT from M. tuberculosis (TBNAT) to utilise propionyl-CoA links it to the cholesterol-catabolism pathway. Deleting the nat gene or inhibiting the NAT enzyme prevents intracellular survival and results in depletion of cell-wall lipids. TBNAT has been investigated as a potential target for TB therapies. From a previous high-throughput screen, 3-benzoyl-4-phenyl-1-methylpiperidinol was identified as a selective inhibitor of prokaryotic NAT that exhibited antimycobacterial activity. The compound resulted in time-dependent irreversible inhibition of the NAT activity when tested against NAT from M. marinum (MMNAT). To further evaluate the antimycobacterial activity and the NAT inhibition of this compound, four piperidinol analogues were tested. All five compounds exert potent antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis with MIC values of 2.3–16.9 µM. Treatment of the MMNAT enzyme with this set of inhibitors resulted in an irreversible time-dependent inhibition of NAT activity. Here we investigate the mechanism of NAT inhibition by studying protein-ligand interactions using mass spectrometry in combination with enzyme analysis and structure determination. We propose a covalent mechanism of NAT inhibition that involves the formation of a reactive intermediate and selective cysteine residue modification. These piperidinols present a unique class of antimycobacterial compounds that have a novel mode of action different from known anti-tubercular drugs. PMID:23285185

  20. Improving Hiroshima Air-Over-Ground Thermal/Epithermal Activation Calculations Using a MUSH Model to Show the Importance of Local Shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, J.V.

    2002-02-14

    Achieving agreement between measured and calculated neutron activation data resulting from Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb detonations has been a major problem since the early 1980's. This has been particularly true for the materials that are activated by thermal and epithermal neutrons. Since thermal and epithermal neutrons are not transported very far from the weapon, the local shielding environment around the measurement location can be very important. A set of calculations incorporating an average density local-environment material (mush) has been made to demonstrate that the local environment plays an important role in the calculation-measurement agreement process. The optimum solution would be to include the local environment in all thermal neutron response calculations.

  1. Cenicriviroc, a Novel CCR5 (R5) and CCR2 Antagonist, Shows In Vitro Activity against R5 Tropic HIV-2 Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Visseaux, Benoit; Charpentier, Charlotte; Collin, Gilles; Bertine, Mélanie; Peytavin, Gilles; Damond, Florence; Matheron, Sophie; Lefebvre, Eric; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Descamps, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Background Maraviroc activity against HIV-2, a virus naturally resistant to different HIV-1 antiretroviral drugs, has been recently demonstrated. The aim of this study was to assess HIV-2 susceptibility to cenicriviroc, a novel, once-daily, dual CCR5 and CCR2 antagonist that has completed Phase 2b development in HIV-1 infection. Methods Cenicriviroc phenotypic activity has been tested using a PBMC phenotypic susceptibility assay against four R5-, one X4- and one dual-tropic HIV-2 clinical primary isolates. All isolates were obtained by co-cultivation of PHA-activated PBMC from distinct HIV-2-infected CCR5-antagonist-naïve patients included in the French HIV-2 cohort and were previously tested for maraviroc susceptibility using the same protocol. HIV-2 tropism was determined by phenotypic assay using Ghost(3) cell lines. Results Regarding the 4 R5 HIV-2 clinical isolates tested, effective concentration 50% EC50 for cenicriviroc were 0.03, 0.33, 0.45 and 0.98 nM, similar to those observed with maraviroc: 1.13, 0.58, 0.48 and 0.68 nM, respectively. Maximum percentages of inhibition (MPI) of cenicriviroc were 94, 94, 93 and 98%, similar to those observed with maraviroc (93, 90, 82, 100%, respectively). The dual- and X4-tropic HIV-2 strains were resistant to cenicriviroc with EC50 >1000 nM and MPI at 33% and 4%, respectively. Conclusions In this first study assessing HIV-2 susceptibility to cenicriviroc, we observed an in vitro activity against HIV-2 R5-tropic strains similar to that observed with maraviroc. Thus, cenicriviroc may offer a once-daily treatment opportunity in the limited therapeutic arsenal for HIV-2. Clinical studies are warranted. PMID:26247470

  2. Missense mutation in immunodeficient patients shows the multifunctional roles of coiled-coil domain 3 (CC3) in STIM1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Mate; Jairaman, Amit; Stathopulos, Peter B.; Muik, Martin; Fahrner, Marc; Weidinger, Carl; Benson, Melina; Fuchs, Sebastian; Ehl, Stephan; Romanin, Christoph; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Prakriya, Murali; Feske, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a universal Ca2+ influx pathway that is important for the function of many cell types. SOCE occurs upon depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores and relies on a complex molecular interplay between the plasma membrane (PM) Ca2+ channel ORAI1 and the ER Ca2+ sensor stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1. Patients with null mutations in ORAI1 or STIM1 genes present with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-like disease. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which a loss-of-function STIM1 mutation (R429C) in human patients abolishes SOCE. R429 is located in the third coiled-coil (CC3) domain of the cytoplasmic C terminus of STIM1. Mutation of R429 destabilizes the CC3 structure and alters the conformation of the STIM1 C terminus, thereby releasing a polybasic domain that promotes STIM1 recruitment to ER–PM junctions. However, the mutation also impairs cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization and abolishes STIM1–ORAI1 interactions. Thus, despite its constitutive localization at ER–PM junctions, mutant STIM1 fails to activate SOCE. Our results demonstrate multifunctional roles of the CC3 domain in regulating intra- and intermolecular STIM1 interactions that control (i) transition of STIM1 from a quiescent to an active conformational state, (ii) cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization, and (iii) STIM1–ORAI1 binding required for ORAI1 activation. PMID:25918394

  3. Missense mutation in immunodeficient patients shows the multifunctional roles of coiled-coil domain 3 (CC3) in STIM1 activation.

    PubMed

    Maus, Mate; Jairaman, Amit; Stathopulos, Peter B; Muik, Martin; Fahrner, Marc; Weidinger, Carl; Benson, Melina; Fuchs, Sebastian; Ehl, Stephan; Romanin, Christoph; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Prakriya, Murali; Feske, Stefan

    2015-05-12

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a universal Ca(2+) influx pathway that is important for the function of many cell types. SOCE occurs upon depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores and relies on a complex molecular interplay between the plasma membrane (PM) Ca(2+) channel ORAI1 and the ER Ca(2+) sensor stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1. Patients with null mutations in ORAI1 or STIM1 genes present with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-like disease. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which a loss-of-function STIM1 mutation (R429C) in human patients abolishes SOCE. R429 is located in the third coiled-coil (CC3) domain of the cytoplasmic C terminus of STIM1. Mutation of R429 destabilizes the CC3 structure and alters the conformation of the STIM1 C terminus, thereby releasing a polybasic domain that promotes STIM1 recruitment to ER-PM junctions. However, the mutation also impairs cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization and abolishes STIM1-ORAI1 interactions. Thus, despite its constitutive localization at ER-PM junctions, mutant STIM1 fails to activate SOCE. Our results demonstrate multifunctional roles of the CC3 domain in regulating intra- and intermolecular STIM1 interactions that control (i) transition of STIM1 from a quiescent to an active conformational state, (ii) cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization, and (iii) STIM1-ORAI1 binding required for ORAI1 activation. PMID:25918394

  4. Expanding the family of heteroleptic oxidovanadium(IV) compounds with salicylaldehyde semicarbazones and polypyridyl ligands showing anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity.

    PubMed

    Scalese, Gonzalo; Benítez, Julio; Rostán, Santiago; Correia, Isabel; Bradford, Lara; Vieites, Marisol; Minini, Lucía; Merlino, Alicia; Coitiño, E Laura; Birriel, Estefania; Varela, Javier; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Pessoa, João Costa; Gambino, Dinorah

    2015-06-01

    Searching for prospective vanadium-based drugs for the treatment of Chagas disease, a new series of heteroleptic [V(IV)O(L-2H)(NN)] compounds was developed by including the lipophilic 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (tmp) NN ligand and seven tridentate salicylaldehyde semicarbazone derivatives (L1-L7). The compounds were characterized in the solid state and in solution. EPR spectroscopy suggests that the NN ligand is bidentate bound through both nitrogen donor atoms in an axial-equatorial mode. The EPR and (51)V-NMR spectra of aerated solutions at room temperature indicate that the compounds are stable to hydrolysis and that no significant oxidation of V(IV) to V(V) takes place at least in 24h. The complexes are more active in vitro against Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite responsible for Chagas disease, than the reference drug Nifurtimox and most of them are more active than previously reported [V(IV)O(L-2H)(NN)] complexes of other NN co-ligands. Selectivity towards the parasite was analyzed using J-774 murine macrophages as mammalian cell model. Due to both, high activity and high selectivity, L2, L4, L5 and L7 complexes could be considered new hits for further drug development. Lipophilicity probably plays a relevant role in the bioactivity of the new compounds. The [V(IV)O(L-2H)(NN)] compounds were designed aiming DNA as potential molecular target. Therefore, the novel L1-L7 tmp complexes were screened by computational modeling, comparing their DNA-binding features with those of previously reported [V(IV)O(L-2H)(NN)] compounds with different NN co-ligands. Whereas all the complexes interact well with DNA, with binding modes and strength tuned in different extents by the NN and semicarbazone co-ligands, molecular docking suggests that the observed anti-T. cruzi activity cannot be explained upon DNA intercalation as the sole mechanism of action. PMID:25824466

  5. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER

  6. Whole scalp resting state EEG of oscillatory brain activity shows no parametric relationship with psychoacoustic and psychosocial assessment of tinnitus: A repeated measures study.

    PubMed

    Pierzycki, Robert H; McNamara, Adam J; Hoare, Derek J; Hall, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is a perception of sound that can occur in the absence of an external stimulus. A brief review of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) literature demonstrates that there is no clear relationship between tinnitus presence and frequency band power in whole scalp or source oscillatory activity. Yet a preconception persists that such a relationship exists and that resting state EEG could be utilised as an outcome measure for clinical trials of tinnitus interventions, e.g. as a neurophysiological marker of therapeutic benefit. To address this issue, we first examined the test-retest correlation of EEG band power measures in tinnitus patients (n = 42). Second we examined the evidence for a parametric relationship between numerous commonly used tinnitus variables (psychoacoustic and psychosocial) and whole scalp EEG power spectra, directly and after applying factor reduction techniques. Test-retest correlation for both EEG band power measures and tinnitus variables were high. Yet we found no relationship between whole scalp EEG band powers and psychoacoustic or psychosocial variables. We conclude from these data that resting state whole scalp EEG should not be used as a biomarker for tinnitus and that greater caution should be exercised in regard to reporting of findings to avoid confirmation bias. The data was collected during a randomised controlled trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01541969). PMID:26584760

  7. The Q175 Mouse Model of Huntington’s Disease Shows Gene Dosage- and Age-Related Decline in Circadian Rhythms of Activity and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H.; Kudo, Takashi; Truong, Danny; Wu, Yingfei; Colwell, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep and circadian disruptions are commonly reported by patients with neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting these may be an endophenotype of the disorders. Several mouse models of Huntington’s disease (HD) that recapitulate the disease progression and motor dysfunction of HD also exhibit sleep and circadian rhythm disruption. Of these, the strongest effects are observed in the transgenic models with multiple copies of mutant huntingtin gene. For developing treatments of the human disease, knock-in (KI) models offer advantages of genetic precision of the insertion and control of mutation copy number. Therefore, we assayed locomotor activity and immobility-defined sleep in a new model of HD with an expansion of the KI repeats (Q175). We found evidence for gene dose- and age-dependent circadian disruption in the behavior of the Q175 line. We did not see evidence for loss of cells or disruption of the molecular oscillator in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The combination of the precise genetic targeting in the Q175 model and the observed sleep and circadian disruptions make it tractable to study the interaction of the underlying pathology of HD and the mechanisms by which the disruptions occur. PMID:23936129

  8. A membrane-associated movement protein of Pelargonium flower break virus shows RNA-binding activity and contains a biologically relevant leucine zipper-like motif.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; Hernández, Carmen

    2011-05-10

    Two small viral proteins (DGBp1 and DGBp2) have been proposed to act in a concerted manner to aid intra- and intercellular trafficking of carmoviruses though the distribution of functions and mode of action of each protein partner are not yet clear. Here we have confirmed the requirement of the DGBps of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), p7 and p12, for pathogen movement. Studies focused on p12 have shown that it associates to cellular membranes, which is in accordance to its hydrophobic profile and to that reported for several homologs. However, peculiarities that distinguish p12 from other DGBps2 have been found. Firstly, it contains a leucine zipper-like motif which is essential for virus infectivity in plants. Secondly, it has an unusually long and basic N-terminal region that confers RNA binding activity. The results suggest that PFBV p12 may differ mechanistically from related proteins and possible roles of PFBV DGBps are discussed. PMID:21444100

  9. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase, a fibrin-specific plasminogen activator of bacterial origin, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; ?uchniak, Piotr; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most dynamically developing sectors of green biotechnology is molecular farming using transgenic plants as natural bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins with biopharmaceutical and therapeutic values. Such properties are characteristic of certain proteins of bacterial origin, including staphylokinase. For many years, work has been carried out on the use of this protein in thrombolytic therapy. In this study, transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants expressing a CaMV::sak-mgpf-gusA gene fusion, were obtained. AGL1 A. tumefaciens strain was used in the process of transformation. The presence of the staphylokinase gene was confirmed by PCR in 22.5% of the investigated plants. The expression of the fusion transgene was detected using the ?-glucuronidase activity assay in 32 putative transgenic plants. Furthermore, on the basis of the GUS histochemical reaction, the transgene expression pattern had a strong, constitutive character in seven of the transformants. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a protein extract from the SAK/PCR-positive plants, revealed the presence of a119 kDa protein that corresponds to that of the fusion protein SAK-mGFP-GUSA. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against staphylokinase, showed the presence of the staphylokinase domain in the 119 kDa protein in six analyzed transformants. However, the enzymatic test revealed amidolytic activity characteristic of staphylokinase in the protein extract of only one plant. This is the first report on a Solanum tuberosum plant producing a recombinant staphylokinase protein, a plasminogen activator of bacterial origin. PMID:22347774

  10. KSC Wildlife Show

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This video highlights footage of the many forms of animal and plant life that inhabit the environs surrounding KSC. Shown are birds, alligators, butterflies, and plants as they react to shuttle launches and other activities eminating from KSC.

  11. Synthesis and photochemical transformation of 3?,21-dihydroxypregna-5,7-dien-20-one to novel secosteroids that show anti-melanoma activity

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, Michal A.; Li, Wei; Chen, Jianjun; Kim, Tae-Kang; Zjawiony, Jordan K.; Sweatman, Trevor W.; Miller, Duane D.; Slominski, Andrzej T.

    2010-01-01

    We have synthesized 3?,21-dihydroxypregna-5,7-dien-20-one (21(OH) 7DHP) and used UVB radiation to induce its photoconversion to analogues of vitamin D (pD), lumisterol (pL) and tachysterol (pT). The number and character of the products and the dynamics of the process were dependent on the UVB dose. The main products: pD and pT compounds were characterized by UV absorption, MS and NMR spectroscopy after RP-HPLC chromatography. In addition, formation of multiple oxidized derivatives of the primary products was detected and one of these derivatives was characterized as oxidized 21-hydroxyisotachysterol compound (21(OH)oxy-piT). These newly synthesized compounds inhibited growth of human melanoma cells in a dose dependent manner, with greater or equal potency to calcitriol. 3?,21-Dihydroxy-9?,10?-pregna-5,7-dien-20-one (21(OH)pL) and 21(OH)oxy-piT had higher potency against pigmented melanoma cells, while the EC50 for compounds 21(OH)7DHP and (5Z,7E)-3?,21-dihydroxy-9,10-secopregna-5,7,10(19)-trien-20-one (21(OH)pD) were similar in both pigmented and non-pigmented cells. Moreover, 21(OH)7DHP and its derivatives inhibited proliferation of human epidermal HaCaT keratinocytes, albeit at a lower activity compared to melanoma cells. Importantly, 21(OH)7DHP derivatives strongly inhibited the colony formation of human melanoma cells with 21(OH)pD being the most potent. The potential mechanism of action of newly synthesized compounds was similar to that mediated by 1,25(OH)2D3 and involved ligand-induced translocation of vitamin D receptor into the nucleus. In summary, we have characterized for the first time products of UVB-induced conversion of 21(OH)7DHP and documented that these compounds have selective, inhibitory effects on melanoma cells. PMID:21070794

  12. The Art Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolarici, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show

  13. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  14. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  15. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  16. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  17. Mars Slide Show

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a landslide that occurred off of a steep slope in Tithonium Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 4.8oS, 84.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  18. Keeping Show Pigs Healthy 

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    2006-10-13

    ? are approved antibiotics commonly used in rations. For more information on feed med- ication for specific diseases, check these Extension publications: Diarrheal Disease in Show Swine, L-5320; and Swine Pneumonia, L-5203. taking care dUring and after... requiring anesthesia, such as removal of a retained testicle (cryptorchidism), removal of an infected and enlarged urine pocket (preputial diverticulum removal), repair of scrotal or umbil- ical hernia, and removal of tumors. Before a sur- geon...

  19. Different Functional and Structural Characteristics between ApoA-I and ApoA-4 in Lipid-Free and Reconstituted HDL State: ApoA-4 Showed Less Anti-Atherogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Eun-Young; Park, Ji Yoon; Lee, Seung-Taek; Ham, Sihyun; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I and A-IV are protein constituents of high-density lipoproteins although their functional difference in lipoprotein metabolism is still unclear. To compare anti-atherogenic properties between apoA-I and apoA-4, we characterized both proteins in lipid-free and lipid-bound state. In lipid-free state, apoA4 showed two distinct bands, around 78 and 67 Å on native gel electrophoresis, while apoA-I showed scattered band pattern less than 71 Å. In reconstituted HDL (rHDL) state, apoA-4 showed three major bands around 101 Å and 113 Å, while apoA-I-rHDL showed almost single band around 98 Å size. Lipid-free apoA-I showed 2.9-fold higher phospholipid binding ability than apoA-4. In lipid-free state, BS3-crosslinking revealed that apoA-4 showed less multimerization tendency upto dimer, while apoA-I showed pentamerization. In rHDL state (95:1), apoA-4 was existed as dimer as like as apoA-I. With higher phospholipid content (255:1), five apoA-I and three apoA-4 were required to the bigger rHDL formation. Regardless of particle size, apoA-I-rHDL showed superior LCAT activation ability than apoA-4-rHDL. Uptake of acetylated LDL was inhibited by apoA-I in both lipid-free and lipid-bound state, while apoA-4 inhibited it only lipid-free state. ApoA-4 showed less anti-atherogenic activity with more sensitivity to glycation. In conclusion, apoA-4 showed inferior physiological functions in lipid-bound state, compared with those of apoA-I, to induce more pro-atherosclerotic properties. PMID:25997739

  20. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  1. Btu accounting: Showing results

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K.E.

    1994-10-01

    In the preceding article in this series last month, the author showed how to calculate the energy consumed to make a pound of product. To realize a payoff, however, the results must be presented in graphs or tables that clearly display what has happened. They must call attention to plant performance and ultimately lead to more efficient use of energy. Energy-consumption reporting is particularly valuable when viewed over a period of time. The author recommend compiling data annually and maintaining a ten-year performance history. Four cases are considered: individual plant performance; site performance for sites having more than one plant; company performance, for companies having more than one site; and performance based on product, for identical or similar products made at different plants or sites. Of these, individual plant performance is inherently the most useful. It also serves as the best basis for site, company and product performance reports. A key element in energy accounting is the relating of all energy consumption to a common basis. As developed last month in Part 1 in this series, the author chose Btu[sub meth] (i.e., Btu of methane equivalent, expressed as its higher heating value) for this purpose. It represents the amount of methane that would be needed to replace (in the case of fuels) or generate (in the case of steam and power) the energy being used.

  2. Human CD45RA(-) FoxP3(hi) Memory-Type Regulatory T Cells Show Distinct TCR Repertoires With Conventional T Cells and Play an Important Role in Controlling Early Immune Activation.

    PubMed

    Lei, H; Kuchenbecker, L; Streitz, M; Sawitzki, B; Vogt, K; Landwehr-Kenzel, S; Millward, J; Juelke, K; Babel, N; Neumann, A; Reinke, P; Volk, H-D

    2015-10-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with regulatory T cells (Treg) is a new option to promote immune tolerance following solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, Treg from elderly patients awaiting transplantation are dominated by the CD45RA(-) CD62L(+) central memory type Treg subset (TregCM), and the yield of well-characterized and stable naïve Treg (TregN) is low. It is, therefore, important to determine whether these TregCM are derived from the thymus and express high stability, suppressive capacity and a broad antigen repertoire like TregN. In this study, we showed that TregCM use a different T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire from conventional T cells (Tconv), using next-generation sequencing of all 24 V? families, with an average depth of 534?677 sequences. This showed almost no contamination with induced Treg. Furthermore, TregCM showed enhanced suppressive activity on Tconv at early checkpoints of immune activation controlling activation markers expression and cytokine secretion, but comparable inhibition of proliferation. Following in vitro expansion under mTOR inhibition, TregCM expanded equally as well as TregN without losing their function. Despite relatively limited TCR repertoire, TregCM also showed specific alloresponse, although slightly reduced compared to TregN. These results support the therapeutic usefulness of manufacturing Treg products from CD45RA(-) CD62L(+) Treg-enriched starting material to be applied for adoptive Treg therapy. PMID:25988290

  3. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity?†

    PubMed Central

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so other compounds/mechanisms must be present in the other Pseudoalteromonas strains with antifouling activity. PMID:22003011

  4. Shows 

    E-print Network

    Langley

    2009-01-01

    The present work examines the construction of race on reality television through the use of an exemplar in this genre, MTV's The Real World. By the sheer fact of its popularity and ubiquity, as The Real World is nearly two ...

  5. Heterologous Expression of MeLEA3: A 10 kDa Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein of Cassava, Confers Tolerance to Abiotic Stress in Escherichia coli with Recombinant Protein Showing In Vitro Chaperone Activity.

    PubMed

    Barros, Nicolle L F; da Silva, Diehgo T; Marques, Deyvid N; de Brito, Fabiano M; dos Reis, Savio P; de Souza, Claudia R B

    2015-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are small molecular weight proteins involved in acquisition of tolerance to drought, salinity, high temperature, cold, and freezing stress in many plants. Previous studies revealed a cDNA sequence coding for a 10 kDa atypical LEA protein, named MeLEA3, predicted to be located into mitochondria with potential role in salt stress response of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Here we aimed to produce the recombinant MeLEA3 protein by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and evaluate the tolerance of bacteria expressing this protein under abiotic stress. Our result revealed that the recombinant MeLEA3 protein conferred a protective function against heat and salt stress in bacterial cells. Also, the recombinant MeLEA3 protein showed in vitro chaperone activity by protection of NdeI restriction enzyme activity under heat stress. PMID:25990084

  6. Fumosorinone, a novel PTP1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling in insulin-resistance HepG2 cells and shows anti-diabetic effect in diabetic KKAy mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Qin; Liu, Ting; Chen, Chuan; Li, Ming-Yan; Wang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Ruo-Song; Wei, Gui-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Luo, Du-Qiang

    2015-05-15

    Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathways, and its increased activity and expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Therefore, the inhibition of PTP1B is anticipated to become a potential therapeutic strategy to treat T2DM. Fumosorinone (FU), a new natural product isolated from insect fungi Isaria fumosorosea, was found to inhibit PTP1B activity in our previous study. Herein, the effects of FU on insulin resistance and mechanism in vitro and in vivo were investigated. FU increased the insulin-provoked glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and also reduced blood glucose and lipid levels of type 2 diabetic KKAy mice. FU decreased the expression of PTP1B both in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. Furthermore, FU increased the phosphorylation of IR?, IRS-2, Akt, GSK3? and Erk1/2 in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, as well as the phosphorylation of IR?, IRS-2, Akt in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. These results showed that FU increased glucose uptake and improved insulin resistance by down-regulating the expression of PTP1B and activating the insulin signaling pathway, suggesting that it may possess antidiabetic properties. PMID:25796170

  7. Optical and SPION-enhanced MR imaging shows that trans-stilbene inhibitors of NF-?B concomitantly lower Alzheimer's disease plaque formation and microglial activation in A?PP/PS-1 transgenic mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Nathan O; Chamberlin, Ryan; Vigil, Jenette R; Deck, Lorraine M; Heidrich, John E; Brown, David C; Brady, Christina I; Vander Jagt, Thomas A; Garwood, Michael; Bisoffi, Marco; Severns, Virginia; Vander Jagt, David L; Sillerud, Laurel O

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with a microglia-dependent neuroinflammatory response against plaques containing the fibrous protein amyloid-? (A?). Activation of microglia, which closely associate with A? plaques, engenders the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the internalization of A? fibrils. Since the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-?B is one of the major regulators of A?-induced inflammation, we treated transgenic amyloid-? protein protein/presenilin-1 (A?PP/PS1) mice for one year with a low dose (0.01% by weight in the diet) of either of two trans-stilbene NF-?B inhibitors, resveratrol or a synthetic analog LD55. The 3D distribution of A? plaques was measured ex vivo in intact brains at 60 ?m resolution by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using blood-brain barrier-permeable, anti-A?PP-conjugated superparamagentic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The MRI measurements were confirmed by optical microscopy of thioflavin-stained brain tissue sections and indicated that supplementation with either of the two trans-stilbenes lowered A? plaque density in the cortex, caudoputamen, and hippocampus by 1.4 to 2-fold. The optical measurements also included the hippocampus and indicated that resveratrol and LD55 reduced average A? plaque density by 2.3-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively. Ex vivo measurements of the regional distribution of microglial activation by Iba-1 immunofluorescence of brain tissue sections showed that resveratrol and LD55 reduced average microglial activation by 4.2- fold and 3.5-fold, respectively. Since LD55 lacked hydroxyl groups but both resveratrol and LD55 concomitantly reduced both A? plaque burden and neuroinflammation to a similar extent, it appears that the antioxidant potential of resveratrol is not an important factor in plaque reduction. PMID:24413613

  8. Optical and SPION-Enhanced MR Imaging Shows that trans-Stilbene Inhibitors of NF-?B Concomitantly Lower Alzheimer’s Disease Plaque Formation and Microglial Activation in A?PP/PS-1 Transgenic Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Nathan O.; Chamberlin, Ryan; Vigil, Jenette R.; Deck, Lorraine M.; Heidrich, John E.; Brown, David C.; Brady, Christina I.; Vander Jagt, Thomas A.; Garwood, Michael; Bisoffi, Marco; Severns, Virginia; Vander Jagt, David L.; Sillerud, Laurel O.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with a microglia-dependent neuroinflammatory response against plaques containing the fibrous protein amyloid-? (A?). Activation of microglia, which closely associate with A? plaques, engenders the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the internalization of A? fibrils. Since the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-?B is one of the major regulators of A?-induced inflammation, we treated transgenic amyloid-? protein protein/presenilin-1 (A?PP/PS1) mice for one year with a low dose (0.01% by weight in the diet) of either of two trans-stilbene NF-?B inhibitors, resveratrol or a synthetic analog LD55. The 3D distribution of A? plaques was measured ex vivo in intact brains at 60 ?m resolution by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using blood-brain barrier-permeable, anti-A?PP-conjugated superparamagentic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The MRI measurements were confirmed by optical microscopy of thioflavin-stained brain tissue sections and indicated that supplementation with either of the two trans-stilbenes lowered A? plaque density in the cortex, caudoputamen, and hippocampus by 1.4 to 2-fold. The optical measurements also included the hippocampus and indicated that resveratrol and LD55 reduced average A? plaque density by 2.3-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively. Ex vivo measurements of the regional distribution of microglial activation by Iba-1 immunofluorescence of brain tissue sections showed that resveratrol and LD55 reduced average microglial activation by 4.2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively. Since LD55 lacked hydroxyl groups but both resveratrol and LD55 concomitantly reduced both A? plaque burden and neuroinflammation to a similar extent, it appears that the antioxidant potential of resveratrol is not an important factor in plaque reduction. PMID:24413613

  9. Human NR5A1/SF-1 Mutations Show Decreased Activity on BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor), an Important Regulator of Energy Balance: Testing Impact of Novel SF-1 Mutations Beyond Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Malikova, Jana; Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Heath, Karen; González, Isabel; Caimarí, María; del Campo, Miguel; Albisu, Marian; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Audí, Laura; Flück, Christa E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Objective To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. Patients 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. Methods SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Results Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Conclusions Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations. PMID:25122490

  10. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. PtoMYB92 is a Transcriptional Activator of the Lignin Biosynthetic Pathway During Secondary Cell Wall Formation in Populus tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaofeng; Wang, Xianqiang; Ran, Lingyu; Tian, Qiaoyan; Fan, Di; Luo, Keming

    2015-12-01

    Wood is the most abundant biomass in perennial woody plants and is mainly made up of secondary cell wall. R2R3-MYB transcription factors are important regulators of secondary wall biosynthesis in plants. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of a poplar MYB transcription factor PtoMYB92, a homolog of Arabidopsis MYB42 and MYB85, which is involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. PtoMYB92 is specifically expressed in xylem tissue in poplar. Subcellular localization and transcriptional activation analysis suggest that PtoMYB92 is a nuclear-localized transcriptional activator. Overexpression of PtoMYB92 in poplar resulted in an increase in secondary cell wall thickness in stems and ectopic deposition of lignin in leaves. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that PtoMYB92 specifically activated the expression of lignin biosynthetic genes. Furthermore, transient expression assays using a ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene revealed that PtoMYB92 is an activator in the lignin biosynthetic pathway during secondary cell wall formation. Taken together, our results suggest that PtoMYB92 is involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation in poplar by controlling the biosynthesis of monolignols. PMID:26508520

  12. 1. Show the synthesis of prontosil. Show the starting

    E-print Network

    Gates, Kent. S.

    to prepare the other five derivatives shown below. 4. Show the synthesis of the sulfa drug on the right. Show in the synthetic route. SH2N O O NH2 Sulfa drug SH2N O O H N ON Sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim/Septra) SH2N O O H N N N answer will appear in every undergraduate organic textbook). N N 5. The (imaginary) drug shown below

  13. Diarrheal Disease in Show Swine 

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    2007-02-27

    water is the main source of Giardia spp. Bacterial Causes Swine dysentery or ?bloody dysentery? from infec- tion with Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae is a major cause of diarrheal disease in show pigs. Pigs can be exposed to the organism.... Swine dysentery bac- teria are not known to cause disease in humans. Salmonella typhimurium infection is another impor- tant cause of diarrheal disease in show pigs. They become infected by exposure to contaminated swine manure on premises, trailers...

  14. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  15. Dna2 mutants reveal interactions with Dna polymerase alpha and Ctf4, a Pol alpha accessory factor, and show that full Dna2 helicase activity is not essential for growth.

    PubMed Central

    Formosa, T; Nittis, T

    1999-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for the conserved, essential nuclease-helicase Dna2 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to interact genetically with POL1 and CTF4, which encode a DNA Polymerase alpha subunit and an associated protein, suggesting that Dna2 acts in a process that involves Pol alpha. DNA2 alleles were isolated that cause either temperature sensitivity, sensitivity to alkylation damage, or both. The alkylation-sensitive alleles clustered in the helicase domain, including changes in residues required for helicase activity in related proteins. Additional mutations known or expected to destroy the ATPase and helicase activities of Dna2 were constructed and found to support growth on some media but to cause alkylation sensitivity. Only damage-sensitive alleles were lethal in combination with a ctf4 deletion. Full activity of the Dna2 helicase function is therefore not needed for viability, but is required for repairing damage and for tolerating loss of Ctf4. Arrest of dna2 mutants was RAD9 dependent, but deleting this checkpoint resulted in either no effect or suppression of defects, including the synthetic lethality with ctf4. Dna2 therefore appears to act in repair or lagging strand synthesis together with Pol alpha and Ctf4, in a role that is optimal with, but does not require, full helicase activity. PMID:10101169

  16. Deep-ultraviolet transparent phosphates RbBa2(PO3)5 and Rb2Ba3(P2O7)2 show nonlinear optical activity from condensation of [PO4](3-) units.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sangen; Gong, Pifu; Luo, Siyang; Bai, Lei; Lin, Zheshuai; Ji, Chengmin; Chen, Tianliang; Hong, Maochun; Luo, Junhua

    2014-06-18

    It is challenging to explore deep-ultraviolet (deep-UV) nonlinear optical (NLO) materials that can achieve a subtle balance between deep-UV transparency and high NLO activity. Known deep-UV NLO materials are almost exclusively limited to borates, except few newly discovered phosphates despite their small NLO activities. Here we report two asymmetric phosphates, RbBa2(PO3)5 (I) and Rb2Ba3(P2O7)2 (II), which feature [PO3]? chains and [P2O7](4-) dimers formed by condensation of [PO4](3-) units, respectively. Remarkably, I achieves the desired balance, with the shortest deep-UV absorption edge at 163 nm and the largest NLO activity of 1.4 × KDP (KH2PO4) in deep-UV NLO phosphates. According to first-principles calculations, the enhanced macroscopic SHG response of I can be attributed to the [PO3]? chains which exhibit significantly larger microscopic SHG coefficients as compared with the [P2O7](4-) dimers. PMID:24906077

  17. Graphene Oxides Show Angiogenic Properties.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sriram, Pavithra; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Chatterjee, Suvro; Suresh, Kattimuttathu Ittara; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    Angiogenesis, a process resulting in the formation of new capillaries from the pre-existing vasculature plays vital role for the development of therapeutic approaches for cancer, atherosclerosis, wound healing, and cardiovascular diseases. In this report, the synthesis, characterization, and angiogenic properties of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been demonstrated, observed through several in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The results here demonstrate that the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as well as activation of phospho-eNOS and phospho-Akt might be the plausible mechanisms for GO and rGO induced angiogenesis. The results altogether suggest the possibilities for the development of alternative angiogenic therapeutic approach for the treatment of cardiovascular related diseases where angiogenesis plays a significant role. PMID:26033847

  18. Cotransformation of Trichoderma harzianum with ?-Glucuronidase and Green Fluorescent Protein Genes Provides a Useful Tool for Monitoring Fungal Growth and Activity in Natural Soils†

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Yeoung-Seuk; Knudsen, Guy R.

    2000-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum was cotransformed with genes encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), ?-glucuronidase (GUS), and hygromycin B (hygB) resistance, using polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation. One cotransformant (ThzID1-M3) was mitotically stable for 6 months despite successive subculturing without selection pressure. ThzID1-M3 morphology was similar to that of the wild type; however, the mycelial growth rate on agar was reduced. ThzID1-M3 was formed into calcium alginate pellets and placed onto buried glass slides in a nonsterile soil, and its ability to grow, sporulate, and colonize sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was compared with that of the wild-type strain. Wild-type and transformant strains both colonized sclerotia at levels above those of indigenous Trichoderma spp. in untreated controls. There were no significant differences in colonization levels between wild-type and cotransformant strains; however, the presence of the GFP and GUS marker genes permitted differentiation of introduced Trichoderma from indigenous strains. GFP activity was a useful tool for nondestructive monitoring of the hyphal growth of the transformant in a natural soil. The green color of cotransformant hyphae was clearly visible with a UV epifluorescence microscope, while indigenous fungi in the same samples were barely visible. Green-fluorescing conidiophores and conidia were observed within the first 3 days of incubation in soil, and this was followed by the formation of terminal and intercalary chlamydospores and subsequent disintegration of older hyphal segments. Addition of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-?-d-glucuronic acid (X-Gluc) substrate to recovered glass slides confirmed the activity of GUS as well as GFP in soil. Our results suggest that cotransformation with GFP and GUS can provide a valuable tool for the detection and monitoring of specific strains of T. harzianum released into the soil. PMID:10653755

  19. ShowMe3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore »displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  20. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up.

    Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  2. Lhcb transcription is coordinated with cell size and chlorophyll accumulation. Studies on fluorescence-activated, cell-sorter-purified single cells from wild-type and immutans Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, L.; Harkins, K.; Rodermel, S.

    1996-11-01

    To study the mechanisms that integrate pigment and chlorophyll a/b-binding apoprotein biosynthesis during light-harvesting complex II assembly, we have examined {beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme activities, cell-sorting-separated single cells sizes in fluorescence activated, cell-sorting-separated single cells from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and immutans variegation mutant plants that express an Lhcb (photosystem II chlorophyll a/b-binding polypeptide gene)/GUS promoter fusion. We found that GUS activities are positively correlated with chlorophyll content and cell size in green cells from the control and immutans plants, indicating that Lhcb gene transcription is coordinated with cell size in this species. Compared with the control plants, however, chlorophyll production is enhanced in the green cells of immutans; this may represent part of a strategy to maximize photosynthesis in the white sectors of the mutant. Lhcb transcription is significantly higher in pure-white cells of the transgenic immutans plants than in pure-white cells from norflurazon-treated, photooxidized A. thaliana leaves. This suggests that immutans partially uncouples Lhcb transcription from its normal dependence on chlorophyll accumulation and chloroplast development. We conclude that immutans may play a role in regulating Lhcb transcription, and may be a key component in the signal transduction pathways that control chloroplast biogenesis. 58 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Promoter analysis and immunolocalisation show that puroindoline genes are exclusively expressed in starchy endosperm cells of wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Paul R; Tosi, Paola; Evrard, Alexandre; Lovegrove, Alison; Jones, Huw D; Shewry, Peter R

    2007-05-01

    The purolindolines are small cysteine-rich proteins which are present in the grain of wheat. They have a major impact on the utilisation of the grain as they are the major determinants of grain texture, which affects both milling and baking properties. Bread and durum wheats were transformed with constructs comprising the promoter regions of the Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes fused to the uidA (GUS) reporter gene. Nine lines showing 3:1 segregation for the transgene and comprising all transgene/species combinations were selected for detailed analysis of transgene expression during grain development. This showed that transgene expression occurred only in the starchy endosperm cells and was not observed in any other seed or vegetative tissues. The location of the puroindoline proteins in these cells was confirmed by tissue printing of developing grain, using a highly specific monoclonal antibody for detection and an antibody to the aleurone-localised 8S globulin as a control. This provides clear evidence that puroindolines are only synthesised and accumulated in the starchy endosperm cells of the wheat grain. PMID:17294254

  4. T-Cell-Rich Large-B-Cell Lymphomas Contain Non-Activated CD8+ Cytolytic T Cells, Show Increased Tumor Cell Apoptosis, and Have Lower Bcl-2 Expression Than Diffuse Large-B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Felgar, Raymond E.; Steward, Katherine R.; Cousar, John B.; Macon, William R.

    1998-01-01

    The factor(s) responsible for the reduced B cell number and increased T cell infiltrate in T-cell-rich large-B-cell lymphomas (TCRBCLs) have not been well characterized. We studied 18 TCRBCLs and 12 diffuse large-B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) to compare the 1) predominant T cell subpopulation(s), 2) expression of cytotoxic granule proteins (TIA-1 and granzyme B), 3) level of tumor cell apoptosis (Apoptag system, Oncor, Gaithersburg, MD), and 4) expression of Ki-67 (Mib-1) and apoptosis-related proteins (fas (CD95), bcl-2, and p53). T cells in TCRBCLs and DLBCLs were predominantly CD8+ T cells expressing ?? T-cell receptors and TIA-1 (16 of 18 TCRBCLs with >50% TIA-1+ small lymphocytes) but lacking granzyme B (16 of 18 TCRBCLs with <25% granzyme B+ small lymphocytes). Scattered apoptotic tumor cells (confirmed with CD20 co-labeling) were present in 15 of 18 TCRBCLs, with 14 of 15 cases having <10% apoptotic cells. No apoptotic cells were seen in 12 of 12 DLBCLs. In 16 of 16 immunoreactive TCRBCLs, <25% tumor cells were bcl-2+, whereas 6 of 12 DLBCLs had >50% bcl-2+ tumor cells. CD95 (fas) expression was also lower, with 3 of 18 (16.7%) TCRBCLs versus 4 of 12 (33%) DLBCLs having >25% CD95+ tumor cells. TCRBCLs and DLBCLs had similar levels of p53 and Ki-67 (Mib-1) expression. Thus, T cells in TCRBCLs are non-activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (TIA-1+, granzyme B?). Tumor cell apoptosis (perhaps cytotoxic T cell mediated) may partly account for the decreased number of large (neoplastic) B cells in TCRBCLs, but other factors (ie, decreased bcl-2 expression) may also be needed. PMID:9846961

  5. Performance on a pattern separation task by Alzheimer’s patients shows possible links between disrupted dentate gyrus activity and apolipoprotein E ?4 status and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-?42 levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Emerging evidence suggests that decreased adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents an early critical event in the course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In mice, adult neurogenesis is reduced by knock-in alleles for human apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ?4. Decreased dentate gyrus (DG) neural progenitor cells proliferation has been observed in the triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD); this reduction being directly associated with the presence of amyloid-? (A?) plaques and an increase in the number of A?-containing neurons in the hippocampus. Cognitive tasks involving difficult pattern separations have been shown to reflect DG activity and thus potentially neurogenesis in both animals and man. This study involved the administration of a pattern separation paradigm to Alzheimer’s patients to investigate relationships between task performance and both ApoE status and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A?42 levels. Methods The CDR System pattern separation task involves the presentation of pictures that must later be discriminated from closely similar pictures. This paper presents pattern separation data from 66 mild to moderate AD patients, of which 50 were genotyped and 65 in whom CSF A?42 was measured. Results ApoE ?4 homozygotes were not compromised on the easy pattern separations compared with the other patients, but they were statistically significantly poorer at the difficult separations. In all patients CSF A?42 correlated significantly with the ability to make the difficult discriminations, but not easier discriminations. Pattern separation speed correlated negatively with CSF A?42, and thus the association was not due to increased impulsivity. Conclusions These are, to our knowledge, the first human pattern separation data to suggest a possible genetic link to poor hippocampal neurogenesis in AD, as well as a relationship to A?42. Therapies which target neurogenesis may thus be useful in preventing the early stages of AD, notably in ApoE ?4 homocygotes. PMID:24735568

  6. Colonization by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme induces a defense response against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in the grapevine (Vitis amurensis Rupr.), which includes transcriptional activation of the class III chitinase gene VCH3.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Yang, Guo-Dong; Shu, Huai-Rui; Yang, Yu-Tao; Ye, Bao-Xing; Nishida, Ikuo; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2006-01-01

    Inoculation of the grapevine (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus versiforme significantly increased resistance against the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Studies using relative quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RQRT-PCR) analysis of grapevine root inoculation with the AM fungus revealed an up-regulation of VCH3 transcripts. This increase was greater than that observed following infection with RKN. However, inoculation of the mycorrhizal grapevine roots with RKN was able to enhance VCH3 transcript expression further. Moreover, the increase in VCH3 transcripts appeared to result in a higher level of resistance against subsequent RKN infection. Constitutive expression of VCH3 cDNA in transgenic tobacco under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter also conferred resistance against RKN, but had no significant effect on the growth of the AM fungus. We analyzed beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity directed by a 1,216 bp VCH3 promoter in transgenic tobacco following inoculation with both the AM fungus and RKN. GUS activity was negligible in the root tissues before inoculation, and was more effectively induced after inoculation with the AM fungus than with RKN. Moreover, GUS staining in the mycorrhizal transgenic tobacco roots was enhanced by subsequent RKN infection, and was found ubiquitously throughout the whole root tissue. Together, these results suggest that AM fungus induced a defense response against RKN in the mycorrhizal grapevine roots, which appeared to involve transcriptional control of VCH3 expression throughout the whole root tissue. PMID:16326755

  7. Endosperm-specific activity of a zein gene promoter in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Schernthaner, J P; Matzke, M A; Matzke, A J

    1988-05-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants containing maize gene (Z4) encoding a 23-kd zein protein, which is normally synthesized in the endosperm of maize seeds, were obtained using a modified Ti plasmid vector. Although a polyadenylated transcript homologous to the Z4 gene was present in the seeds of some of these transgenic plants, zein protein could not be detected in any of the plants tested (35 total). To simplify the analysis of the tissue specificity of the Z4 promoter (Z4(pro)) in different organs of transformed tobacco plants, additional transgenic plants containing the chimeric genes Z4(pro)-CAT and Z4(pro)-GUS were produced. Very weak seed-specific CAT activity was observed in one out of ten Z4(pro)-CAT-transformed plants. When the more sensitive GUS assay system was used to evaluate Z4(pro) activity in tobacco, it could be shown in all 11 transgenic plants obtained that GUS activity was restricted to the endosperm tissue of transgenic tobacco seeds. To study the synthesis and stability of the zein proteins in different organs of transgenic tobacco plants, the Z4 protein-coding region and also a cDNA clone (A30) encoding a 19-kd zein protein were placed under the control of the 35S promoter (35S(pro)) of cauliflower mosaic virus. Undegraded zein proteins of both size classes were detected in roots, leaves and endosperm tissue, but not embryos, of mature seeds from 35S(pro)-zein-transformed plants. The zein proteins did not appear to be broken down during tobacco seed germination; synthesis of zeins began in green cotyledons. PMID:16453838

  8. Activity Cycles in Solar-Type Stars SHOW105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Last year, we requested a one-year no cost extension because only one of four scheduled observations of HD 81809 had been conducted (in Apr. 2001). Our program consists of periodic snapshot observations (every 6 months) of HD 81809. As a G-type star (G2V, at a distance of 31.2 pc) it serves as a "solar analog" and has a known chromospheric CaII cycle with a period of 8.2 yr. Three A-01 observations were conducted, in Apr. 2001, Nov. 2001 and June 2002. Although the Apr. 2001 observation was contaminated by proton flaring and thus is of low quality, the other two observation are of excellent quality.

  9. A rhizobium selenitireducens protein showing selenite reductase activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biobarriers remove, via precipitation, the metalloid selenite (SeO3–2) from groundwater; a process that involves the biological reduction of soluble SeO3–2 to insoluble elemental red selenium (Se0). The enzymes associated with this reduction process are poorly understood. In Rhizobium selenitiredu...

  10. Peptidomimetic Inhibitors of Protein Farnesyltransferase Show Potent Antimalarial Activity

    E-print Network

    Gelb, Michael

    Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, WA 98195-1700, USA c, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA Received focused on mosquito eradication programs, the development of a vaccine against the parasites, and new drug

  11. Resisting risky sexual activity: SHINE project shows how. Philippines.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    This article presents the Sexual Health Initiatives through Networking and Education (SHINE), an 18-month project on reproductive health for young adults 13-25 years old by CARE/Philippines. SHINE targets the two most likely places to effectively reach large numbers of youth: the school and the workplace. Completed in December 1999, the project has made significant achievements in increasing the youth's knowledge of important reproductive health issues and enabling them to make informed decisions about their reproductive life. In addition, it has established a referral network of service providers to ensure sustainable access to quality reproductive health services. During its implementation, it addresses cultural constraints in promoting adolescent reproductive health in the Philippines. The SHINE Project encourages the involvement of the youth, school and community through the parents and other concerned organizations/agencies. It enables the youth to increase their knowledge and to focus on values that would guide them in making the right decisions about their reproductive life. Moreover, it provides supporting structures for the young, including youth-friendly medical facilities that offer counseling and medical services. PMID:12158249

  12. ColiSense, today's sample today: A rapid on-site detection of ?-d-Glucuronidase activity in surface water as a surrogate for E. coli.

    PubMed

    Heery, Brendan; Briciu-Burghina, Ciprian; Zhang, Dian; Duffy, Gillian; Brabazon, Dermot; O'Connor, Noel; Regan, Fiona

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive field-portable fluorimeter with incubating capability and triplicate sample chambers was designed and built. The system was optimised for the on-site analysis of E. coli in recreational waters using fluorescent based enzyme assays. The target analyte was ?-d-Glucuronidase (GUS) which hydrolyses a synthetic substrate 6-Chloro-4-Methyl-Umbelliferyl-?-d-Glucuronide (6-CMUG) to release the fluorescent molecule 6-Chloro-4-Methyl-Umbelliferyl (6-CMU). The system was calibrated with 6-CMU standards. A LOD of 5nM and a resolution of less than 1nM was determined while enzyme kinetic tests showed detection of activities below 1pmolmin(-1)mL(-1) of sample. A field portable sample preparation, enzyme extraction protocol and continuous assay were applied with the system to analyse freshwater and marine samples. Results from a one day field trial are shown which demonstrated the ability of the system to deliver results on-site within a 75min period. PMID:26653426

  13. Two short sequences in OsNAR2.1 promoter are necessary for fully activating the nitrate induced gene expression in rice roots

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Feng, Huimin; Huang, Daimin; Song, Miaoquan; Fan, Xiaorong; Xu, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is an essential nitrogen source and serves as a signal to control growth and gene expression in plants. In rice, OsNAR2.1 is an essential partner of multiple OsNRT2 nitrate transporters for nitrate uptake over low and high concentration range. Previously, we have reported that ?311?bp upstream fragment from the translational start site in the promoter of OsNAR2.1 gene is the nitrate responsive region. To identify the cis-acting DNA elements necessary for nitrate induced gene expression, we detected the expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter in the transgenic rice driven by the OsNAR2.1 promoter with different lengths and site mutations of the 311?bp region. We found that ?129 to ?1?bp region is necessary for the nitrate-induced full activation of OsNAR2.1. Besides, the site mutations showed that the 20?bp fragment between ?191 and ?172?bp contains an enhancer binding site necessary to fully drive the OsNAR2.1 expression. Part of the 20?bp fragment is commonly presented in the sequences of different promoters of both the nitrate induced NAR2 genes and nitrite reductase NIR1 genes from various higher plants. These findings thus reveal the presence of conserved cis-acting element for mediating nitrate responses in plants. PMID:26150107

  14. 19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM AT UPPER LEFT HOLDING PULLEY SYSTEM AND ELECTRIC MOTOR TO ACTIVATE DOORS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  15. New England 4-H Horse Show

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    New England 4-H Horse Show Rules and Guidelines Basic guide to local, county, and state/regional 4-H Horse shows as well as for those classes in open shows limited to 4-H membership entry. This rules-H Rule Book Page 2 Revised April 2014 All revisions of the New England 4-H Horse Show Rules

  16. Salt tolerance and activity of antioxidative enzymes of transgenic finger millet overexpressing a vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase gene (SbVPPase) from Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Anjaneyulu, Ediga; Reddy, Palle Surender; Sunita, Merla Srilakshmi; Kishor, Polavarapu B Kavi; Meriga, Balaji

    2014-06-15

    A vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase cDNA clone was isolated from Sorghum bicolor (SbVPPase) using end-to-end gene-specific primer amplification. It showed 80-90% homology at the nucleotide and 85-95% homology at the amino acid level with other VPPases. The gene was introduced into expression vector pCAMBIA1301 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter and transformed into Agrobacterium tumifaciens strain LBA4404 to infect embryogenic calli of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Successful transfer of SbVPPase was confirmed by a GUS histochemical assay and PCR analysis. Both, controls and transgenic plants were subjected to 100 and 200mM NaCl and certain biochemical and physiological parameters were studied. Relative water content (RWC), plant height, leaf expansion, finger length and width and grain weight were severely reduced (50-70%), and the flowering period was delayed by 20% in control plants compared to transgenic plants under salinity stress. With increasing salt stress, the proline and chlorophyll contents as well as the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased by 25-100% in transgenics, while malondialdehyde (MDA) showed a 2-4-fold decrease. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and the reduction in the MDA content suggest efficient scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in transgenics and, as a consequence, probably alleviation of salt stress. Also, the leaf tissues of the transgenics accumulated 1.5-2.5-fold higher Na(+) and 0.4-0.8-fold higher K(+) levels. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that overexpression of SbVPPase in transgenic finger millet enhances the plant's performance under salt stress. PMID:24877670

  17. Tuning of Pectin Methylesterification: PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR 7 MODULATES THE PROCESSIVE ACTIVITY OF CO-EXPRESSED PECTIN METHYLESTERASE 3 IN A pH-DEPENDENT MANNER.

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Fabien; L'Enfant, Mélanie; Domon, Jean-Marc; Rosiau, Emeline; Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne; Surcouf, Ogier; Esquivel-Rodriguez, Juan; Marcelo, Paulo; Mareck, Alain; Guérineau, François; Kim, Hyung-Rae; Mravec, Jozef; Bonnin, Estelle; Jamet, Elisabeth; Kihara, Daisuke; Lerouge, Patrice; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-09-18

    Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) catalyze the demethylesterification of homogalacturonan domains of pectin in plant cell walls and are regulated by endogenous pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs). In Arabidopsis dark-grown hypocotyls, one PME (AtPME3) and one PMEI (AtPMEI7) were identified as potential interacting proteins. Using RT-quantitative PCR analysis and gene promoter::GUS fusions, we first showed that AtPME3 and AtPMEI7 genes had overlapping patterns of expression in etiolated hypocotyls. The two proteins were identified in hypocotyl cell wall extracts by proteomics. To investigate the potential interaction between AtPME3 and AtPMEI7, both proteins were expressed in a heterologous system and purified by affinity chromatography. The activity of recombinant AtPME3 was characterized on homogalacturonans (HGs) with distinct degrees/patterns of methylesterification. AtPME3 showed the highest activity at pH 7.5 on HG substrates with a degree of methylesterification between 60 and 80% and a random distribution of methyl esters. On the best HG substrate, AtPME3 generates long non-methylesterified stretches and leaves short highly methylesterified zones, indicating that it acts as a processive enzyme. The recombinant AtPMEI7 and AtPME3 interaction reduces the level of demethylesterification of the HG substrate but does not inhibit the processivity of the enzyme. These data suggest that the AtPME3·AtPMEI7 complex is not covalently linked and could, depending on the pH, be alternately formed and dissociated. Docking analysis indicated that the inhibition of AtPME3 could occur via the interaction of AtPMEI7 with a PME ligand-binding cleft structure. All of these data indicate that AtPME3 and AtPMEI7 could be partners involved in the fine tuning of HG methylesterification during plant development. PMID:26183897

  18. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  19. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skin UV photography shows hidden sun damage UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  20. New Hampshire Guide 4H Dog Shows

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    New Hampshire Guide to 4H Dog Shows UNH Cooperative Extension 4H Youth ................................................................................................................................. 2 Purpose of the 4H Dog Project ................................................................................................................ 2 4H DOG SHOW GENERAL INFORMATION

  1. Effect of external and internal factors on the expression of reporter genes driven by the N resistance gene promoter

    PubMed Central

    Kathiria, Palak; Sidler, Corinne; Woycicki, Rafal; Yao, Youli; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The role of resistance (R) genes in plant pathogen interaction has been studied extensively due to its economical impact on agriculture. Interaction between tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the N protein from tobacco is one of the most widely used models to understand various aspects of pathogen resistance. The transcription activity governed by N gene promoter is one of the least understood elements of the model. In this study, the N gene promoter was cloned and fused with two different reporter genes, one encoding ?-glucuronidase (N::GUS) and another, luciferase (N::LUC). Tobacco plants transformed with the N::GUS or N::LUC reporter constructs were screened for homozygosity and stable expression. Histochemical analysis of N::GUS tobacco plants revealed that the expression is organ specific and developmentally regulated. Whereas two week old plants expressed GUS in midveins only, 6-wk-old plants also expressed GUS in leaf lamella. Roots did not show GUS expression at any time during development. Experiments to address effects of external stress were performed using N::LUC tobacco plants. These experiments showed that N gene promoter expression was suppressed when plants were exposed to high but not low temperatures. Expression was also upregulated in response to TMV, but no changes were observed in plants treated with SA. PMID:23656874

  2. The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

    This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

  3. Incident Response Planning for Selected Livestock Shows 

    E-print Network

    Tomascik, Chelsea Roxanne

    2012-02-14

    RESPONSE PLANNING FOR SELECTED LIVESTOCK SHOWS A Thesis by CHELSEA ROXANNE TOMASCIK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 2011 Major Subject: Agricultural Leadership, Education and Communications Incident Response Planning for Selected Livestock Shows Copyright 2011 Chelsea Roxanne Tomascik INCIDENT RESPONSE...

  4. Salton Sea Satellite Image Showing Fault Slip

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Landsat satellite image (LE70390372003084EDC00) showing location of surface slip triggered along faults in the greater Salton Trough area. Red bars show the generalized location of 2010 surface slip along faults in the central Salton Trough and many additional faults in the southwestern section of t...

  5. 2015 4-H State Food Show Guidelines

    E-print Network

    1 2015 4-H State Food Show Guidelines Bringing Texas to the Table Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, religion.D. Shawnte Clawson, MS Subject: 2015 4-H State Food Show Guidelines Being transmitted to you this year via e

  6. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  7. 47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Showing required. 90.505 Section 90.505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing required. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  8. 47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Showing required. 90.505 Section 90.505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing required. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  9. Graphene oxide immobilized enzymes show high thermal and solvent stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanová, So?a; Zarevúcká, Marie; Bouša, Daniel; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zden?k

    2015-03-01

    The thermal and solvent tolerance of enzymes is highly important for their industrial use. We show here that the enzyme lipase from Rhizopus oryzae exhibits exceptionally high thermal stability and high solvent tolerance and even increased activity in acetone when immobilized onto a graphene oxide (GO) nanosupport prepared by Staudenmaier and Brodie methods. We studied various forms of immobilization of the enzyme: by physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and additional crosslinking. The activity recovery was shown to be dependent on the support type, enzyme loading and immobilization procedure. Covalently immobilized lipase showed significantly better resistance to heat inactivation (the activity recovery was 65% at 70 °C) in comparison with the soluble counterpart (the activity recovery was 65% at 40 °C). Physically adsorbed lipase achieved over 100% of the initial activity in a series of organic solvents. These findings, showing enhanced thermal stability and solvent tolerance of graphene oxide immobilized enzyme, will have a profound impact on practical industrial scale uses of enzymes for the conversion of lipids into fuels.The thermal and solvent tolerance of enzymes is highly important for their industrial use. We show here that the enzyme lipase from Rhizopus oryzae exhibits exceptionally high thermal stability and high solvent tolerance and even increased activity in acetone when immobilized onto a graphene oxide (GO) nanosupport prepared by Staudenmaier and Brodie methods. We studied various forms of immobilization of the enzyme: by physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and additional crosslinking. The activity recovery was shown to be dependent on the support type, enzyme loading and immobilization procedure. Covalently immobilized lipase showed significantly better resistance to heat inactivation (the activity recovery was 65% at 70 °C) in comparison with the soluble counterpart (the activity recovery was 65% at 40 °C). Physically adsorbed lipase achieved over 100% of the initial activity in a series of organic solvents. These findings, showing enhanced thermal stability and solvent tolerance of graphene oxide immobilized enzyme, will have a profound impact on practical industrial scale uses of enzymes for the conversion of lipids into fuels. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00438a

  10. Gyroscopic Motion: Show Me the Forces!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Harvey; Hirsch, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Gyroscopes are frequently used in physics lecture demonstrations and in laboratory activities to teach students about rotational dynamics, namely, angular momentum and torque. Use of these powerful concepts makes it difficult for students to fully comprehend the mechanism that keeps the gyroscope from falling under the force of gravity. The…

  11. The promoter of the wheat puroindoline-a gene (PinA) exhibits a more complex pattern of activity than that of the PinB gene and is induced by wounding and pathogen attack in rice.

    PubMed

    Evrard, Alexandre; Meynard, Donaldo; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Joudrier, Philippe; Gautier, Marie-Françoise

    2007-01-01

    Puroindolines form the molecular basis of wheat grain hardness. However, little is known about puroindoline gene regulation. We previously reported that the Triticum aestivum puroindoline-b gene (PinB) promoter directs beta-glucuronidase gene (uidA) seed-specific expression in transgenic rice. In this study, we isolated a puroindoline-a gene (PinA), analyzed PinA promoter activity by 5' deletions and compared PinA and PinB promoters in transgenic rice. Seeds of PinA-1214 and PinB-1063 transgenic plants strongly expressed uidA in endosperm, in the aleurone layer and in epidermis cells in a developmentally regulated manner. The GUS activity was also observed in PinA-1214 embryos. Whereas the PinB promoter is seed specific, the PinA promoter also directed, but to a lower level, uidA expression in roots of seedlings and in the vascular tissues of palea and pollen grains of dehiscent anthers during flower development. In addition, the PinA promoter was induced by wounding and by Magnaporthe grisea. By deletion analysis, we showed that the "390-bp" PinA promoter drives the same expression pattern as the "1214-bp" promoter. Moreover, the "214-bp" PinA promoter drives uidA expression solely in pollen grains of dehiscent anthers. The presence of putative cis-regulatory elements that may be related to PinA expression is discussed from an evolutionary point of view. By electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we showed that putative cis-elements (WUN-box, TCA motifs and as-1-like binding sites) whose presence in the PinA promoter may be related to wounding and/or the pathogen response form complexes with nuclear extracts isolated from wounded wheat leaves. PMID:16845527

  12. Parkinson's Drug Shows Promise Against Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155695.html Parkinson's Drug Shows Promise Against Macular Degeneration But more ... THURSDAY, Nov. 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A common Parkinson's disease medication might hold potential for preventing or ...

  13. map showing predicted habitat potentional for tortoise

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This map shows the spatial representation of the predicted habitat potential index values for desert tortoise in the Mojave and parts of the Sonoran Deserts of California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. Map: USGS. ...

  14. Experiments showing dynamics of materials interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1997-02-01

    The discipline of materials science and engineering often involves understanding and controlling properties of interfaces. The authors address the challenge of educating students about properties of interfaces, particularly dynamic properties and effects of unstable interfaces. A series of simple, inexpensive, hands-on activities about fluid interfaces provides students with a testbed to develop intuition about interface dynamics. The experiments highlight the essential role of initial interfacial perturbations in determining the dynamic response of the interface. The experiments produce dramatic, unexpected effects when initial perturbations are controlled and inhibited. These activities help students to develop insight about unstable interfaces that can be applied to analogous problems in materials science and engineering. The lessons examine ``Rayleigh-Taylor instability,`` an interfacial instability that occurs when a higher-density fluid is above a lower-density fluid.

  15. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with community thought. The difficulty with a show this elaborate and intricate is communicating on a level understandable for teenagers, whilst not treating them like children. Professional space scientists know how easy it is to lose oneself in technical specifics. This would, of course, only confuse young people. The author would like to discuss the ideas for this show with a knowledgeable audience and hopefully get some (constructive) feedback.

  16. Cooling Tower Showing Fan at Top 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    bark extract (CBE) to improve its delivery to foodborne pathogens and control its release with temperature stimuli. CBE was used as a model for hydrophobic natural antimicrobials. A top-down procedure using crosslinked PNIPAAM was compared to a bottom..., lyophilization, and the effect of particle ultrafiltration. The top-down versus bottom-up synthesis methods yielded particles with significantly different characteristics, especially their release profiles and antimicrobial activities. The synthesis methods...

  17. Graphene oxide immobilized enzymes show high thermal and solvent stability.

    PubMed

    Hermanová, So?a; Zarevúcká, Marie; Bouša, Daniel; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zden?k

    2015-03-19

    The thermal and solvent tolerance of enzymes is highly important for their industrial use. We show here that the enzyme lipase from Rhizopus oryzae exhibits exceptionally high thermal stability and high solvent tolerance and even increased activity in acetone when immobilized onto a graphene oxide (GO) nanosupport prepared by Staudenmaier and Brodie methods. We studied various forms of immobilization of the enzyme: by physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and additional crosslinking. The activity recovery was shown to be dependent on the support type, enzyme loading and immobilization procedure. Covalently immobilized lipase showed significantly better resistance to heat inactivation (the activity recovery was 65% at 70 °C) in comparison with the soluble counterpart (the activity recovery was 65% at 40 °C). Physically adsorbed lipase achieved over 100% of the initial activity in a series of organic solvents. These findings, showing enhanced thermal stability and solvent tolerance of graphene oxide immobilized enzyme, will have a profound impact on practical industrial scale uses of enzymes for the conversion of lipids into fuels. PMID:25757536

  18. 11. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel operating rocket engine test controls and observer watching activity from observation room. May 27, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-45020. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. CARBON DIOXIDE EUTHANASIA: MICE AND RATS SHOW DIFFERENT

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    CARBON DIOXIDE EUTHANASIA: MICE AND RATS SHOW DIFFERENT BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSES Lee Niel, Daniel M Association's recommended method of CO2 euthanasia. Materials and Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats (N=8 activity, rearing and wall climbing, escape behaviours (rats: scratching and pushing at the chamber lid

  20. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  1. 69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic lines leading to water valve hydraulic control cylinders from control handles in bench; strings and pulleys activate meters. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  2. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  3. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  4. STAR Trial Shows Lower Toxicities from Raloxifene

    Cancer.gov

    Initial results in 2006 of the NCI-sponsored Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) showed that a common osteoporosis drug, raloxifene, prevented breast cancer to the same degree, but with fewer serious side-effects, than the drug tamoxifen that had bee

  5. George Arcement Shows Locations of USGS Streamgages

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement shows the locations of USGS' streamgage network to WAFB Meteorologist Jay Grymes.  USGS maintains more than 30 real-time streamgages throughout the area affected by the 2011 Flood. In addition, more than 50 non-real-time gages were...

  6. The Morning Show at WLES-TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondell, Beverley

    1979-01-01

    Describes the production and programing of daily quarter-hour television shows by different groups of students at Laurel (Maryland) Elementary School, guided by the library media specialist who started them five years ago. The video experience has improved students' reading, writing, and math skills, as well as behavior. (MF)

  7. Martinkus docos show reality of Afghanistan war

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    Martinkus docos show reality of Afghanistan war By ShAron Webb Journalist John Martinkus reels off the date he was kidnapped in the Iraq war as if it's perma- nently scratched on his brain. "It happened. It was terrible. I thought: Here we go." It's experiences like this that gave credibility to the television war

  8. What Pain Asymbolia Really Shows Colin Klein

    E-print Network

    Klein, Colin

    What Pain Asymbolia Really Shows Colin Klein Macquarie University cvklein@gmail.com Abstract Pain asymbolics feel pain, but act as if they are indifferent to it. Nikola Grahek argues that such patients present a clear counterexample to motivationalism about pain. I argue that Grahek has mischaracterised

  9. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  10. Showing Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Most of the articles and textbooks that show drawings of enantiomorphous crystals use an inadequate view to appreciate the fact that they are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. If a graphical presentation of crystal chirality is not evident, the main attribute of crystal enantiomorphism can not be recognized by students. The classic…

  11. Map showing depth to bedrock, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical and hydrologic characteristics of geologic materials is useful in determining the availability of groundwater for public and domestic supply and the suitability of areas for on-site septic systems. A generalized map of the Anchorage area shows the approximate distance from land surface to the top of the bedrock surface. Four depth zones are shown. The depths were determined from lithologic data contained in drillers ' logs. (USGS)

  12. Malignant melanoma showing smooth muscle differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, S S; Bishop, P W; Nicholson, C M; Eyden, B P

    1996-01-01

    A unique case of a metastatic non-desmoplastic sarcomatoid malignant melanoma in an axillary lymph node showing smooth muscle differentiation in a 54 year old woman is described. The tumour cells exhibited alpha-smooth muscle actin, HHF-35 and desmin positivity but were negative for S100 protein and HMB-45. Ultrastructural examination revealed smooth muscle phenotype and there was no evidence of myofibroblastic differentiation, a feature described previously in desmoplastic melanomas. Images PMID:8944620

  13. Jackson County Fed Cattle Show Rules

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    . The 1219-pound steer was the winner of Class 4; Case was awarded the W. H. Neel Award and won the Senior. #12;37th Annual Jackson County Market Steer Show & Sale PROGRAM Monday, February 15, 2016 4 P.M. ­ 6 Steer 4:30 ­ 6:30 P.M. Barbeque Dinner 6:15 P.M. All persons receiving awards meet at the Sale Ring 6

  14. New map of Io shows an otherworldly

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    AnEtArium shoWs Wednesday evenings @ 7 p.m. Astronomy PubliC lECturEs James Webb Telescope (Prof. Windhorst), April 13 @ 7 p.m. [Cover]. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has detected the solid form of buckyballs consisting of stacked buckyballs around a pair of stars called "XX Ophiuchi" SESE BuckyBAlls in spAce New

  15. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinner, Art

    2014-04-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this one, but when I searched the Internet for information and looked at YouTube presentations, I could only find simplistic references to Newton's laws and the conservation of mechanical energy principle. Nowhere could I find detailed calculations. On the other hand, there were several biomechanical articles with empirical reports of the results of kinetic and dynamic investigations of show jumping using high-speed digital cameras and force plates. They summarize their results in tables that give information about the motion of a horse jumping over high fences (1.40 m) and the magnitudes of the forces encountered when landing. However, they do not describe the physics of these results.

  16. European gasoline survey shows decreasing lead, MON

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-02

    Associated Octel Co. Ltd., London, has released the results of its 1994 survey of European gasoline quality. Octel collected and analyzed more than 200 gasoline samples taken from sampling points close to major European refineries. Over the past decade, Octel`s surveys have demonstrated reduced use of lead antiknock compounds and increased use of high-octane blending components. Despite increased blending of alkylate and isomerate into gasolines at European refineries, many gasolines tested had MONs close to minimum nation requirements. Figures show trends in, respectively, MON and RON, in four important European markets: France, Germany, Iberia (defined by Octel as Spain and Portugal), and the U.K.

  17. Can recurrence networks show small world property?

    E-print Network

    Rinku Jacob; K. P. Harikrishnan; R. Misra; G. Ambika

    2015-09-15

    Recurrence networks are important statistical tools used for the analysis of time series data with several practical applications. Though these networks are complex and characterize objects with structural scale invariance, their properties from a complex network perspective have not been fully understood. In this Letter, we argue, with numerical support, that the recurrence networks from chaotic attractors with continuous measure can neither show scale free topology nor small world property. However, if the critical threshold is increased from its optimum value, the recurrence network initially crosses over to a complex network with the small world property and finally to the classical random graph as the threshold approaches the size of the strange attractor.

  18. Show Me the Invisible: Visualizing Hidden Content

    PubMed Central

    Geymayer, Thomas; Steinberger, Markus; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Content on computer screens is often inaccessible to users because it is hidden, e.g., occluded by other windows, outside the viewport, or overlooked. In search tasks, the efficient retrieval of sought content is important. Current software, however, only provides limited support to visualize hidden occurrences and rarely supports search synchronization crossing application boundaries. To remedy this situation, we introduce two novel visualization methods to guide users to hidden content. Our first method generates awareness for occluded or out-of-viewport content using see-through visualization. For content that is either outside the screen’s viewport or for data sources not opened at all, our second method shows off-screen indicators and an on-demand smart preview. To reduce the chances of overlooking content, we use visual links, i.e., visible edges, to connect the visible content or the visible representations of the hidden content. We show the validity of our methods in a user study, which demonstrates that our technique enables a faster localization of hidden content compared to traditional search functionality and thereby assists users in information retrieval tasks. PMID:25325078

  19. Show Me the Invisible: Visualizing Hidden Content.

    PubMed

    Geymayer, Thomas; Steinberger, Markus; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Content on computer screens is often inaccessible to users because it is hidden, e.g., occluded by other windows, outside the viewport, or overlooked. In search tasks, the efficient retrieval of sought content is important. Current software, however, only provides limited support to visualize hidden occurrences and rarely supports search synchronization crossing application boundaries. To remedy this situation, we introduce two novel visualization methods to guide users to hidden content. Our first method generates awareness for occluded or out-of-viewport content using see-through visualization. For content that is either outside the screen's viewport or for data sources not opened at all, our second method shows off-screen indicators and an on-demand smart preview. To reduce the chances of overlooking content, we use visual links, i.e., visible edges, to connect the visible content or the visible representations of the hidden content. We show the validity of our methods in a user study, which demonstrates that our technique enables a faster localization of hidden content compared to traditional search functionality and thereby assists users in information retrieval tasks. PMID:25325078

  20. Color Voyager 2 Image Showing Crescent Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image shows a crescent Uranus, a view that Earthlings never witnessed until Voyager 2 flew near and then beyond Uranus on January 24, 1986. This planet's natural blue-green color is due to the absorption of redder wavelengths in the atmosphere by traces of methane gas. Uranus' diameter is 32,500 miles, a little over four times that of Earth. The hazy blue-green atmosphere probably extends to a depth of around 5,400 miles, where it rests above what is believed to be an icy or liquid mixture (an 'ocean') of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, which in turn surrounds a rocky core perhaps a little smaller than Earth.

  1. Lemurs and macaques show similar numerical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sarah M; Pearson, John; DeWind, Nicholas K; Paulsen, David; Tenekedjieva, Ana-Maria; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the precision of the approximate number system (ANS) in three lemur species (Lemur catta, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur macaco flavifrons), one Old World monkey species (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens). In Experiment 1, four individuals of each nonhuman primate species were trained to select the numerically larger of two visual arrays on a touchscreen. We estimated numerical acuity by modeling Weber fractions (w) and found quantitatively equivalent performance among all four nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 2, we tested adult humans in a similar procedure, and they outperformed the four nonhuman species but showed qualitatively similar performance. These results indicate that the ANS is conserved over the primate order. PMID:24068469

  2. Prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma showing Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Tulunay, Ozden; Orhan, Diclehan; Baltaci, Sümer; Gögü?, Cagatay; Müftüoglu, Yusuf Z

    2004-09-01

    Prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma represents a rare histological variant of prostatic carcinoma with features of a papillary lesion at cystoscopy. There are conflicts regarding the existence, origin, staging, grading, treatment and clinical behavior of this tumor. The aim of the present study is to examine the expression of Bcl-2 and p53 in prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma and to evaluate its origin by analyzing prostate specific antigen, prostate specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen expressions. The results confirmed the expression of prostate specific antigen and prostate specific acid phosphatase in prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The demonstrated expression of Bcl-2 was predominant in the better-differentiated tumor. Bcl-2 expression appears not to be associated with neuroendocrine differentiation as assessed by chromogranin A reactivity. Thus, the first case of a prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma showing Bcl-2 expression is presented. The tumor was negative for p53. PMID:15379952

  3. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings. PMID:22806150

  4. Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

  5. Temperature Data Shows Warming in 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. Warming around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest warming is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict warming. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has warmed by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).

  6. Transgenic apple (Malus x domestica) shoot showing low browning potential.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Haruta, M; Murai, N; Tanikawa, N; Nishimura, M; Homma, S; Itoh, Y

    2000-11-01

    Transgenic apple shoots were prepared from leaf disks by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the kanamycin (KM) resistance gene and antisense polyphenol oxidase (PPO) DNA. Four transgenic apple lines that grew on the medium containing 50 microgram/mL KM were obtained. They contained the KM resistance gene and grew stably on the medium for >3 years. Two transgenic shoot lines containing antisense PPO DNA in which PPO activity was repressed showed a lower browning potential than a control shoot. PMID:11087467

  7. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  8. Relapsed neuroblastomas show frequent RAS-MAPK pathway mutations.

    PubMed

    Eleveld, Thomas F; Oldridge, Derek A; Bernard, Virginie; Koster, Jan; Daage, Leo Colmet; Diskin, Sharon J; Schild, Linda; Bentahar, Nadia Bessoltane; Bellini, Angela; Chicard, Mathieu; Lapouble, Eve; Combaret, Valérie; Legoix-Né, Patricia; Michon, Jean; Pugh, Trevor J; Hart, Lori S; Rader, JulieAnn; Attiyeh, Edward F; Wei, Jun S; Zhang, Shile; Naranjo, Arlene; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Hogarty, Michael D; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Smith, Malcolm A; Guidry Auvil, Jaime M; Watkins, Thomas B K; Zwijnenburg, Danny A; Ebus, Marli E; van Sluis, Peter; Hakkert, Anne; van Wezel, Esther; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Westerhout, Ellen M; Schulte, Johannes H; Tytgat, Godelieve A; Dolman, M Emmy M; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Gerhard, Daniela S; Caron, Huib N; Delattre, Olivier; Khan, Javed; Versteeg, Rogier; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Molenaar, Jan J; Maris, John M

    2015-08-01

    The majority of patients with neuroblastoma have tumors that initially respond to chemotherapy, but a large proportion will experience therapy-resistant relapses. The molecular basis of this aggressive phenotype is unknown. Whole-genome sequencing of 23 paired diagnostic and relapse neuroblastomas showed clonal evolution from the diagnostic tumor, with a median of 29 somatic mutations unique to the relapse sample. Eighteen of the 23 relapse tumors (78%) showed mutations predicted to activate the RAS-MAPK pathway. Seven of these events were detected only in the relapse tumor, whereas the others showed clonal enrichment. In neuroblastoma cell lines, we also detected a high frequency of activating mutations in the RAS-MAPK pathway (11/18; 61%), and these lesions predicted sensitivity to MEK inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide a rationale for genetic characterization of relapse neuroblastomas and show that RAS-MAPK pathway mutations may function as a biomarker for new therapeutic approaches to refractory disease. PMID:26121087

  9. Mercury's Core Molten, Radar Study Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    Scientists using a high-precision planetary radar technique for the first time have discovered that the innermost planet Mercury probably has a molten core, resolving a mystery of more than three decades. The discovery, which used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia and Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, and NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory antennas in California, is an important step toward a better understanding of how planets form and evolve. Planetary Radar High-precision planetary radar technique sent signal to Mercury, received reflection. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file (447 KB) "For a long time it was thought we'd have to land spacecraft on Mercury to learn if its core is solid or molten. Now we've answered that question using ground-based telescopes," said Jean-Luc Margot, of Cornell University, leader of the research team, which published its results in the May 4 issue of the journal Science. Mercury is one of the least-understood of the planets in our Solar System. Its distance from the Sun is just over one-third that of the Earth, and it contains a mass just 5½ percent that of Earth. Only about half of Mercury's surface has been photographed by a spacecraft, Mariner 10, back in 1974. Mariner 10 also discovered that Mercury has a weak magnetic field, about one percent as strong as Earth's. That discovery spurred a scientific debate about the planet's core. Scientists normally expect a rocky planet's magnetic field to be caused by an electromagnetic dynamo in a molten core. However, Mercury is so small that most scientists expected its core to have cooled and solidified long ago. Those scientists speculated that the magnetic field seen today may have been "frozen" into the planet when the core cooled. "Whether the core is molten or solid today depends greatly on the chemical composition of the core. That chemical composition can provide important clues about the processes involved in planet formation," Margot said. To answer the question, the scientists implemented an ingenious, high-precision technique in which they sent a powerful beam of radio waves to bounce off Mercury, then received and analyzed the reflected signal using pairs of ground-based radio telescopes. While similar radar systems have been used in the past to map planetary surfaces, this technique instead measured the rate at which Mercury spins on its axis, and did so with an unprecedented precision of one part in 100,000. By making 21 separate observations, the research team was able to measure minute variations in the planet's spin rate. This was the key to learning whether Mercury's core is solid or molten. Using an understanding of the Sun's gravitational effect on the planet, they realized that the tiny variations in its spin rate would be twice as large if the core is liquid than they would be if Mercury has a solid core. "The variations in Mercury's spin rate that we measured are best explained by a core that is at least partially molten. We have a 95 percent confidence level in this conclusion," Margot said. For most of their observations, carried out from 2002-2006, the scientists transmitted a powerful radar beam from the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna at Goldstone, California, and received the reflected signal with the Green Bank Telescope and the Goldstone antenna. For some observations, they transmitted from the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico and received at Arecibo and two Goldstone antennas. They used radar signals at frequencies of 8.5 and 2.4 GHz. To make the precision measurements of Mercury's spin rate, the geometry between the planet and the receiving antennas had to match a specific alignment. Such an alignment only occurs for about 20 seconds a day. In addition to measuring Mercury's spin rate, their technique also made the best measurement ever of the alignment of the planet's axis of rotation. "We improved the accuracy of this measurement by 100 times, and showed that Mercury's spin axis

  10. Algorithm for generating derivative structures Gus L. W. Hart1

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    to lattice points of the parent lattice. Many structures of intermetallic compounds can be classified as fcc on a lattice to determine ground state properties of intermetallic systems. The approach is not limited

  11. Electricity show and related educational programming. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-19

    The on-site version of Balance of Power reached a total audience of 21,331 between November 10, 1994 and January 31, 1996; in addition, the Physics on Wheels van offered exhibits and programs to an additional 30,000 students in the 1995-1996 school year. The program provided a groundbreaking new approach to informal science education, combining a dynamic demonstration with an intensely interactive game show. Between the on-site programming and the Physics on Wheels van programs, 51,331 students were impacted by the activities, exhibits and energy-conservation message of Balance of Power.

  12. DIME Students Show Off their Lego(TM) Challenge Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Two students show the Lego (TM) Challenge device they designed and built to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  13. Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lili

    2015-01-01

    This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it. PMID:25610413

  14. Children with Autism Show Reduced Somatosensory Response: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Elysa J.; Khatibi, Kasra; Hill, Susanna S.; Siegel, Bryna; Arroyo, Monica S.; Dowling, Anne F.; Neuhaus, John M.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Hinkley, Leighton N. B.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2012-01-01

    Lay Abstract Autism spectrum disorders are reported to affect nearly one out of every one hundred children, with over 90% of these children showing behavioral disturbances related to the processing of basic sensory information. Behavioral sensitivity to light touch, such as profound discomfort with clothing tags and physical contact, is a ubiquitous finding in children on the autism spectrum. In this study, we investigate the strength and timing of brain activity in response to simple, light taps to the fingertip. Our results suggest that children with autism show a diminished early response in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). This finding is most evident in the left hemisphere. In exploratory analysis, we also show that tactile sensory behavior, as measured by the Sensory Profile, may be a better predictor of the intensity and timing of brain activity related to touch than a clinical autism diagnosis. We report that children with atypical tactile behavior have significantly lower amplitude somatosensory cortical responses in both hemispheres. Thus sensory behavioral phenotype appears to be a more powerful strategy for investigating neural activity in this cohort. This study provides evidence for atypical brain activity during sensory processing in autistic children and suggests that our sensory behavior based methodology may be an important approach to investigating brain activity in people with autism and neurodevelopmental disorders. Scientific Abstract The neural underpinnings of sensory processing differences in autism remain poorly understood. This prospective magnetoencephalography (MEG) study investigates whether children with autism show atypical cortical activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in comparison to matched controls. Tactile stimuli were clearly detectable, painless taps applied to the distal phalanx of the second (D2) and third (D3) fingers of the right and left hands. Three tactile paradigms were administered: an oddball paradigm (standard taps to D3 at an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 0.33 and deviant taps to D2 with ISI ranging from 1.32–1.64s); a slow-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the deviant taps in the oddball paradigm; and a fast-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the standard taps in the oddball. Study subjects were boys (age 7–11 years) with and without autism disorder. Sensory behavior was quantified using the Sensory Profile questionnaire. Boys with autism exhibited smaller amplitude left hemisphere S1 response to slow and deviant stimuli during the right hand paradigms. In post-hoc analysis, tactile behavior directly correlated with the amplitude of cortical response. Consequently, the children were re-categorized by degree of parent-report tactile sensitivity. This regrouping created a more robust distinction between the groups with amplitude diminution in the left and right hemispheres and latency prolongation in the right hemisphere in the deviant and slow-rate paradigms for the affected children. This study suggests that children with autism have early differences in somatosensory processing, which likely influence later stages of cortical activity from integration to motor response. PMID:22933354

  15. Gene transfer via pollen-tube pathway for anti-fusarium wilt in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Chen, W S; Chiu, C C; Liu, H Y; Lee, T L; Cheng, J T; Lin, C C; Wu, Y J; Chang, H Y

    1998-12-01

    In order to obtain transgenic fusarium wilt resistant watermelon plants, squash DNA was introduced into the ovaries of watermelon plants via the pollen-tube pathway. The introduction of foreign genes into ovaries was accomplished using co-transformation with the CaMV35S-GUS as a marker. Transformed watermelon plants contained integrated copies of the GUS activity and the seeds of transformed progeny produced a blue color when stained with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl glucuronide, whereas seeds from untransformed control plants did not. Of 200 transformed seedlings, ten were wilt resistant. The presence of the GUS activity in the genome of stable transgenic seedlings was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Furthermore, the generation of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprints using primers with embedded restriction sites showed amplification products unique to these transgenic plants. Primers OPA-1 and OPA-9 gave distinct band patterns of genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction. PMID:9891853

  16. Functional Characterization of a Strong Bi-directional Constitutive Plant Promoter Isolated from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zainul A.; Abdin, Malik Z.; Khan, Jawaid A.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), belonging to the genus Begomovirus, possesses single-stranded monopartite DNA genome. The bidirectional promoters representing Rep and coat protein (CP) genes of CLCuBuV were characterized and their efficacy was assayed. Rep and CP promoters of CLCuBuV and 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) were fused with ?-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes. GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by Rep, CP and 35S promoters was estimated using real-time PCR and fluorometric GUS assay. Histochemical staining of GUS in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) leaves showed highest expression driven by Rep promoter followed by 35S promoter and CP promoter. The expression level of GUS driven by Rep promoter in transformed tobacco plants was shown to be two to four-fold higher than that of 35S promoter, while the expression by CP promoter was slightly lower. Further, the expression of GFP was monitored in agroinfiltrated leaves of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rep promoter showed strong consistent transient expression in tobacco and cotton leaves as compared to 35S promoter. The strong constitutive CLCuBuV Rep promoter developed in this study could be very useful for high level expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells. PMID:25799504

  17. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    PubMed

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. PMID:26169655

  18. Showing and Telling Farming: Agricultural Shows and Re-Imaging British Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Lewis

    2004-01-01

    Some actors in the ''mainstream'' agricultural sector are beginning to engage in strategies of influencing public perceptions of farming, responding to public anxieties over industrialised agriculture and to a supposed separation of non-farming publics from food production. This paper focuses on agricultural shows as sites and events central to…

  19. Drosophila americana Diapausing Females Show Features Typical of Young Flies

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Micael; Valer, Felipe B.; Vieira, Cristina P.; Vieira, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Diapause is a period of arrested development which is controlled physiologically, preprogrammed environmentally and characterized by metabolic depression that can occur during any stage of insect development. Nevertheless, in the genus Drosophila, diapause is almost always associated with the cessation of ovarian development and reproductive activity in adult females. In this work, we show that, in D. americana (a temperate species of the virilis group), diapause is a genetically determined delay in ovarian development that is triggered by temperature and/or photoperiod. Moreover, we show that in this species diapause incidence increases with latitude, ranging from 13% in the southernmost to 91% in the northernmost range of the distribution. When exposed to diapause inducing conditions, both diapausing and non-diapausing females show a 10% increase in lifespan, that is further increased by 18.6% in diapausing females, although senescence is far from being negligible. ActinD1 expression levels suggest that diapausing females are biologically much younger than their chronological age, and that the fly as a whole, rather than the ovarian development alone, which is phenotypically more evident, is delayed by diapause. Therefore, diapause candidate genes that show expression levels that are compatible with flies younger than their chronological age may not necessarily play a role in reproductive diapause and in adaptation to seasonally varying environmental conditions. PMID:26398836

  20. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access During Spoken Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2015-12-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German bilinguals, German-English bilinguals and English monolinguals listened for target words in spoken English sentences while their eye-movements were recorded. Bilinguals' eye-movements reflected weaker lexical access relative to monolinguals; furthermore, the effect of semantic constraint differed across first versus second language processing. Specifically, English-native bilinguals showed fewer overall looks to target items, regardless of sentence constraint; German-native bilinguals activated target items more slowly and maintained target activation over a longer period of time in the low-constraint condition compared with monolinguals. No eye movements to cross-linguistic competitors were observed, suggesting that these lexical access disadvantages were present during bilingual spoken sentence comprehension even in the absence of overt interlingual competition. PMID:25266052

  1. High Resolution Crystal Structure of Human ?-Glucuronidase Reveals Structural Basis of Lysosome Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Md. Imtaiyaz; Waheed, Abdul; Grubb, Jeffery H.; Klei, Herbert E.; Korolev, Sergey; Sly, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Human ?-glucuronidase (GUS) cleaves ?-D-glucuronic acid residues from the non-reducing termini of glycosaminoglycan and its deficiency leads to mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII). Here we report a high resolution crystal structure of human GUS at 1.7 Å resolution and present an extensive analysis of the structural features, unifying recent findings in the field of lysosome targeting and glycosyl hydrolases. The structure revealed several new details including a new glycan chain at Asn272, in addition to that previously observed at Asn173, and coordination of the glycan chain at Asn173 with Lys197 of the lysosomal targeting motif which is essential for phosphotransferase recognition. Analysis of the high resolution structure not only provided new insights into the structural basis for lysosomal targeting but showed significant differences between human GUS, which is medically important in its own right, and E. coli GUS, which can be selectively inhibited in the human gut to prevent prodrug activation and is also widely used as a reporter gene by plant biologists. Despite these differences, both human and E. coli GUS share a high structure homology in all three domains with most of the glycosyl hydrolases, suggesting that they all evolved from a common ancestral gene. PMID:24260279

  2. Prkcz null mice show normal learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna M.; Kanter, Benjamin R.; Wang, Dan; Lim, Jana P.; Zou, Mimi E.; Qiu, Chichen; McMahon, Tom; Dadgar, Jahan; Fischbach-Weiss, Sarah C.; Messing, Robert O.

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinase M ? (PKM?) is a constitutively active form of atypical PKC that is exclusively expressed in the brain and implicated in the maintenance of long-term memory1–9. Most studies that support a role for PKM? in memory maintenance have used pharmacological PKM? inhibitors such as the myristoylated zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) or chelerythrine. Here, we used a genetic approach and targeted exon 9 of the Prkcz gene to generate mice that lack both protein kinase C ? (PKC?) and PKM? (Prkcz?/? mice). Prkcz?/? mice showed normal behavior in a cage environment and in baseline tests of motor function and sensory perception, but displayed reduced anxiety-like behavior. Surprisingly, they did not show deficits in learning or memory in tests of cued fear conditioning, novel object recognition, object location recognition, conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine, or motor learning, when compared with wild-type littermates. ZIP injection into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) reduced expression of cocaine CPP in Prkcz?/? mice. In vitro, ZIP and scrambled ZIP inhibited PKM?, PKC? and PKC? with similar Ki values. Chelerythrine was a weak inhibitor of PKM? (Ki = 76 µM). Our findings show that absence of PKM? does not impair learning and memory in mice, and that ZIP can erase reward memory even when PKM? is not present. PMID:23283171

  3. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    Barfield, Whitney L.; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C.; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P.

    2014-01-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. PMID:24626632

  4. Hydrocarbon shows in the scientific ocean drilling programs

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, B.J. ); Emeis, K.C. )

    1990-05-01

    For more than 20 yr, two major programs, the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), have been coring the deep oceans for scientific purposes. For technological as well as financial reasons, drilling was and is performed without a riser. Precruise preparation, therefore, is aimed at preventing an accidental hydrocarbon discovery. During the course of drilling, at the more than 700 locations studied to date, numerous black shales of various ages were encountered. Many of these represent thermally immature hydrocarbon source rocks. Although these organic-rich rocks (up to 34 wt.% total organic carbon) by themselves did not pose a safety problem, hydrocarbon shows were detected on no less than ten legs. These shows represent heavy (C{sub 15+}), thermally generated hydrocarbons. Commonly, these shows can be attributed to migration through a porous and permeable network into the penetrated section. In these situations, migration commonly occurs over distances on the order of several tens of miles from a more mature, structurally deeper section (e.g., Challenger Knoll, DSDP Site 2). There are, however, instances where there is strong geochemical evidence for in-situ hydrocarbon generation. In-situ hydrocarbon generation appears to be the result of anomalous thermal conditions associated with high heat flow, igneous and/or hydrothermal activity (e.g., Tyrrhenian Sea, ODP Site 652). Such conditions are more commonly associated with young marginal basins. The distribution of these shows provides valuable information on the long-term exploratory potential of the deep oceans and continental margins.

  5. SUMOylated IRF-1 shows oncogenic potential by mimicking IRF-2

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun-Mi; School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 ; Chae, Myounghee; Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Seo, Taegun; Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Il-Chul; Lee, Je-Ho; Park, Junsoo

    2010-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is an interferon-induced transcriptional activator that suppresses tumors by impeding cell proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that the level of SUMOylated IRF-1 is elevated in tumor cells, and that SUMOylation of IRF-1 attenuates its tumor-suppressive function. Here we report that SUMOylated IRF-1 mimics IRF-2, an antagonistic repressor, and shows oncogenic potential. To demonstrate the role of SUMOylated IRF-1 in tumorigenesis, we used SUMO-IRF-1 recombinant protein. Stable expression of SUMO-IRF-1 in NIH3T3 cells resulted in focus formation and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Inoculation of SUMO-IRF-1-transfected cells into athymic nude mice resulted in tumor formation and infiltration of adipose tissues. Finally, we demonstrated that SUMO-IRF-1 transforms NIH3T3 cells in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that SUMOylated IRF-1 may act as an oncogenic protein in tumor cells.

  6. Physics Outreach: Road Shows and World Year of Physics 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklavzina, Stanley

    2003-05-01

    The general public's awareness of science and physics is decreasing along with the number of physics students at universities on a global scale. One way to increase public and student interest while promoting the university's image is through science outreach activities. In February the APS sponsored a Physics Road Show Conference in Fort Collins Colorado where 55 attendees from around the country shared program information and exchanged ideas about different types of physics (and other science) outreach activities. Papers describing some of the programs can be found at the APS Forum on Education Spring 2003 newsletter: http://www.aps.org/units/fed/spring2003/index.html . The inspiration for the conference is the IUPAP's declaration making 2005 The World Year in Physics. In planning for 2005, the APS has initiated a communication avenue for discussion of ideas of how we bring physics to the public in 2005. If you would like to join in on the discussion visit http://listsvr.apsmsgs.org/cgi-bin/lyris.pl?enter=physicsontheroad . I will share highlights from the conference and ideas developing for 2005.

  7. The Post-transcriptional Regulator rsmA/csrA Activates T3SS by Stabilizing the 5? UTR of hrpG, the Master Regulator of hrp/hrc Genes, in Xanthomonas

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Maxuel O.; Farah, Chuck S.; Wang, Nian

    2014-01-01

    The RsmA/CsrA family of the post-transcriptional regulators of bacteria is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including pathogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that rsmA not only is required for the full virulence of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC) but also contributes to triggering the hypersensitive response (HR) in non-host plants. Deletion of rsmA resulted in significantly reduced virulence in the host plant sweet orange and a delayed and weakened HR in the non-host plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Microarray, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, western-blotting, and GUS assays indicated that RsmA regulates the expression of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The regulation of T3SS by RsmA is a universal phenomenon in T3SS-containing bacteria, but the specific mechanism seems to depend on the interaction between a particular bacterium and its hosts. For Xanthomonads, the mechanism by which RsmA activates T3SS remains unknown. Here, we show that RsmA activates the expression of T3SS-encoding hrp/hrc genes by directly binding to the 5? untranslated region (UTR) of hrpG, the master regulator of the hrp/hrc genes in XCC. RsmA stabilizes hrpG mRNA, leading to increased accumulation of HrpG proteins and subsequently, the activation of hrp/hrc genes. The activation of the hrp/hrc genes by RsmA via HrpG was further supported by the observation that ectopic overexpression of hrpG in an rsmA mutant restored its ability to cause disease in host plants and trigger HR in non-host plants. RsmA also stabilizes the transcripts of another T3SS-associated hrpD operon by directly binding to the 5? UTR region. Taken together, these data revealed that RsmA primarily activates T3SS by acting as a positive regulator of hrpG and that this regulation is critical to the pathogenicity of XCC. PMID:24586158

  8. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 94 (1998) 123126 Short communication

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    1998-01-01

    -glucuronidase (GUS) activity or by selection of stable transformants on plates following bombardment with the plasmid 1998; accepted 22 April 1998 Keywords: Biolistic transformation; Kinetoplastida; i,11]. In trypanosomatids, the genetic organization of the mitochondrion shows several unusual features like a complex DNA

  9. An Arabidopsis Ran-binding protein, AtRanBP1c, is a co-activator of Ran GTPase-activating protein and requires the C-terminus for its cytoplasmic localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soo-Hwan; Roux, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    Ran-binding proteins (RanBPs) are a group of proteins that bind to Ran (Ras-related nuclear small GTP-binding protein), and thus either control the GTP/GDP-bound states of Ran or help couple the Ran GTPase cycle to a cellular process. AtRanBP1c is a Ran-binding protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. that was recently shown to be critically involved in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression [S.-H. Kim et al. (2001) Plant Cell 13:2619-2630]. Here we report that AtRanBP1c inhibits the EDTA-induced release of GTP from Ran and serves as a co-activator of Ran-GTPase-activating protein (RanGAP) in vitro. Transient expression of AtRanBP1c fused to a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter reveals that the protein localizes primarily to the cytosol. Neither the N- nor C-terminus of AtRanBP1c, which flank the Ran-binding domain (RanBD), is necessary for the binding of PsRan1-GTP to the protein, but both are needed for the cytosolic localization of GUS-fused AtRanBP1c. These findings, together with a previous report that AtRanBP1c is critically involved in root growth and development, imply that the promotion of GTP hydrolysis by the Ran/RanGAP/AtRanBP1c complex in the cytoplasm, and the resulting concentration gradient of Ran-GDP to Ran-GTP across the nuclear membrane could be important in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression in root tips of A. thaliana.

  10. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo, 400 years ago, to the world of modern astronomy, moving from the visible wavelength domain to explore the millimetre-wave view of the Universe, and leaving light-polluted cities for unique settings in some of the highest and driest places on Earth. "The fascinating topic, the breathtaking ESO astronomical images, the amazing 3D computer animations, and the very clever use of the music, all make this a really inspiring show," says Agnès Acker, President of the APLF. In search of our Cosmic Origins is available in three different formats: fulldome video, classical with video windows, and classical with slides. Fulldome video shows immerse the audience in a true 360-degree projected computer-generated virtual environment. The ALMA planetarium show is currently available in French and English. Several other language versions are in preparation: German, Italian, Spanish and Chilean Spanish, while further languages are planned: Danish, Dutch, Greek, Japanese, Portuguese and Brazilian Portuguese. The show will be available to all planetariums worldwide for a small fee, depending on the type and the size of the planetarium, to cover basic costs. The media are invited to attend, and see firsthand, the official screening during the European Film Festival, between 24 and 26 April 2009 in Espinho, Portugal. For media accreditation, please go to http://iff.multimeios.pt/index.php?option=com_wrapper&Itemid=45 A set of educational materials is also being prepared and will be finished in late April. To learn more about the show, please go to www.cosmicorigins.org

  11. Caveolin-2-deficient mice show increased sensitivity to endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Cecilia J; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K; Jasmin, Jean-François; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Sotgia, Federica; Frank, Philippe G

    2011-01-01

    Caveolin proteins are structural components of caveolae and are involved in the regulation of many biological processes. Recent studies have shown that caveolin-1 modulates inflammatory responses and is important for sepsis development. In the present study, we show that caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 have opposite roles in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis using caveolin-deficient (Cav-1-/- and Cav-2-/-) mice for each of these proteins. While Cav-1-/- mice displayed delayed mortality following challenge with LPS, Cav-2-/- mice were more sensitive to LPS compared to wild-type (WT). With Cav-2-/- mice, this effect was associated with increased intestinal injury and increased intestinal permeability. This negative outcome was also correlated with enhanced expression of iNOS in intestinal epithelial cells, and enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO). By contrast, Cav-1-/- mice demonstrated a decrease in iNOS expression with decreased NO production, but no alteration in intestinal permeability. The differential expression of iNOS was associated with a significant increase in STAT-1 activation in these mice. Intestinal cells of Cav-2-/- mice showed increased phosphorylation of STAT-1 at tyrosine 701 compared to wild-type. However, Cav-1-/- mice-derived intestinal cells showed decreased levels of phosphorylation of STAT-1 at tyrosine 701. Since caveolin-2 is almost completely absent in Cav-1-/- mice, we conclude that it is not just the absence of caveolin-2 that is responsible for the observed effects, but that the balance between caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 is important for iNOS expression and ultimately for sepsis outcome. PMID:21670588

  12. Platelets from Asthmatic Individuals Show Less Reliance on Glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weiling; Cardenes, Nayra; Corey, Catherine; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Shiva, Sruti

    2015-01-01

    Asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is typified by high levels of TH2-cytokines and excessive generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, which contribute to bronchial epithelial injury and airway remodeling. While immune function plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is a key determinant in the predisposition and disease progression of asthma. Further, several studies demonstrate altered mitochondrial function in asthmatic airways and suggest that these changes may be systemic. However, it is unknown whether systemic metabolic changes can be detected in circulating cells in asthmatic patients. Platelets are easily accessible blood cells that are known to propagate airway inflammation in asthma. Here we perform a bioenergetic screen of platelets from asthmatic and healthy individuals and demonstrate that asthmatic platelets show a decreased reliance on glycolytic processes and have increased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data demonstrate a systemic alteration in asthma and are consistent with prior reports suggesting that oxidative phosphorylation is more efficient asthmatic individuals. The implications for this potential metabolic shift will be discussed in the context of increased oxidative stress and hypoxic adaptation of asthmatic patients. Further, these data suggest that platelets are potentially a good model for the monitoring of bioenergetic changes in asthma. PMID:26147848

  13. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-02-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day(-1)), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to "total metal", the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. PMID:26629643

  14. Time Adaptation Shows Duration Selectivity in the Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Masamichi J.; Ditye, Thomas; Harada, Tokiko; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro; Carlson, Synnöve; Walsh, Vincent; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    Although psychological and computational models of time estimation have postulated the existence of neural representations tuned for specific durations, empirical evidence of this notion has been lacking. Here, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation paradigm, we show that the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) (corresponding to the supramarginal gyrus) exhibited reduction in neural activity due to adaptation when a visual stimulus of the same duration was repeatedly presented. Adaptation was strongest when stimuli of identical durations were repeated, and it gradually decreased as the difference between the reference and test durations increased. This tuning property generalized across a broad range of durations, indicating the presence of general time-representation mechanisms in the IPL. Furthermore, adaptation was observed irrespective of the subject’s attention to time. Repetition of a nontemporal aspect of the stimulus (i.e., shape) did not produce neural adaptation in the IPL. These results provide neural evidence for duration-tuned representations in the human brain. PMID:26378440

  15. ELI Talent Show End-of-Semester Barbecue

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    , and other games. This is the last weekend activity this semester, so dont miss it! All ELI students, staff Immersion activities. Students, if you want to win the scholarship next semester, make sure to follow

  16. Gem and Mineral Shows as Geologic Teaching Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordua, William Sinclair

    1988-01-01

    Gem and mineral shows are excellent nontraditional opportunities for community education and outreach by geology teachers. Discusses initial club contacts, displays, shows, and the advantages of show participation to academic geologists. (CW)

  17. The Object-Oriented Trivia Show (TOOTS) University of Alabama

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey G.

    The Object-Oriented Trivia Show (TOOTS) Jeff Gray University of Alabama Department of Computer, Languages. Keywords Objects, Game Show. 1. Overview of the OOPSLA Trivia Show OOPSLA (and now SPLASH) has

  18. Characterization of cucumber violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene promoter in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhao, Wenchao; Huang, Hongyu; Chen, Yakun; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2015-04-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) activates the dissipation of excessive light energy as heat and protects the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage. Here we quantitatively analyzed the expression characteristics of cucumber violaxanthin de-epoxidase (CsVDE) promoter using the 1983 bp upstream fragment, and a series of 5'-truncated fragments, to drive ?-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in Arabidopsis. The activity of CsVDE promoter was altered by hormones and abiotic stresses are positively by indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellin, but negatively by polyethylene glycol, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, mannitol and sodium chloride. Quantitative analysis by fluorometry of GUS activity and histochemical localization showed that the CsVDE promoter is green tissue-specific. A 334 bp fragment was sufficient to drive the expression of GUS to the same extent as the longest 1983 bp one in green tissue-specific manner. Further analysis of the promoter led to the discovery of one enhancer region and two silencer regions. The activities of GUS driven by the CsVDE promoter fragments were increased when plants were exposed to high light for 4 h, but decreased by 8 h illumination. The high light responsive elements were defined in two positions. The normal-level light-responsive elements were also found in different regions. PMID:25449756

  19. Cloning of a wheat puroindoline gene promoter by IPCR and analysis of promoter regions required for tissue-specific expression in transgenic rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Digeon, J F; Guiderdoni, E; Alary, R; Michaux-Ferrière, N; Joudrier, P; Gautier, M F

    1999-04-01

    A genomic DNA fragment containing the 5'-upstream sequence and part of the open reading frame corresponding to Triticum aestivum puroindoline-b cDNA, was isolated by inverse PCR. Promoter fragments extending to -1068, -388, -210 or -124 upstream of the translation initiation ATG codon and the sequence coding for the first 13 amino acids of the puroindoline-b, were translationally fused to the uidA reporter gene encoding beta-glucuronidase and transferred to rice calli via particle bombardment-mediated transformation. The 1068 bp and 124 bp promoters were also transcriptionally fused to the uidA reporter gene. Out of the 196 plants regenerated from transformed rice calli, 118 plants set seeds. No GUS activity was detectable in the stems, roots, leaves or pollen of the transgenic rice which had integrated the puroindoline-b promoter or its deletions; GUS activity was detected only in seeds, except in those having integrated the 124 bp promoter. Within seeds, histological localisation showed GUS activity as being restricted to the endosperm, aleurone cells and pericarp cell layers; no GUS activity was detected in the embryonic axis. Analysis of 5' promoter deletions identified the region between -388 and -210 as essential for endosperm expression, and the region between -210 and -124 as essential for expression in the epithelium of the scutellum. No difference of expression was observed between the translational and transcriptional fusion genes. PMID:10380798

  20. The regulation of the SARK promoter activity by hormones and environmental signals.

    PubMed

    Delatorre, Carla A; Cohen, Yuval; Liu, Li; Peleg, Zvi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    The Senescence Associated Receptor Protein Kinase (P(SARK)) promoter, fused to isopentenyltransferase (IPT) gene has been shown to promote drought tolerance in crops. We dissected P(SARK) in order to understand the various elements associated with its activation and suppression. The activity of P(SARK) was higher in mature and early senescing leaves, and abiotic stress induced its activity in mature leaves. Bioinformatics analysis suggests the interactions of multiple cis-acting elements in the control of P(SARK) activity. In vitro gel shift assays and yeast one hybrid system revealed interactions of P(SARK) with transcription factors related to abscisic acid and cytokinin response. Deletion analysis of P(SARK), fused to GUS-reporter gene was used to identify specific regions regulating transcription under senescence or during drought stress. Effects of exogenous hormonal treatments were characterized in entire plants and in leaf disk assays, and regions responsive to various hormones were defined. Our results indicate a complex interaction of plant hormones and additional factors modulating P(SARK) activity under stress resulting in a transient induction of expression. PMID:22794917

  1. Growing Up in Scotland: Year 3 - The Impact of Children's Early Activities of Cognitive Development 

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Paul; Wasoff, Fran

    2009-03-18

    The Growing Up in Scotland study (GUS) is an important longitudinal research project aimed at tracking the lives of a cohort of Scottish children from the early years, through childhood and beyond. The study is funded by ...

  2. Using Analogy Role-Play Activity in an Undergraduate Biology Classroom to Show Central Dogma Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego®…

  3. Why DA and DB white dwarfs do not show coronal activity and p-mode oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Musielak, Z.E.; Fontenla, J.M. )

    1989-11-01

    The problems of nonradiative heating of outer atmospheric layers and p-mode oscillations in white dwarfs caused by acoustic waves generated in convective zones are discussed. These effects have been studied by calculating the cutoff periods for adiabatic and isothermal waves propagating in atmospheres of DA and DB stars with Teff greater than or equal 20,000 K and log g = 6-9. The obtained cutoff periods are approximately bounded by 0.01 and 40 sec for high- and low-gravity white dwarfs, respectively. Expected amplitudes of p-mode oscillations corresponding to trapped acoustic waves with small angular wave numbers are estimated, indicating that the amplitudes could be observed as Doppler shifts of spectral lines which might be detectable if adequate spectral resolution were available. The luminosity variations corresponding to these amplitudes are unlikely to be observable when all damping processes are accounted for. Results also indicate that the present theory of convection predicts some irregularities in the behavior of physical parameters. 34 refs.

  4. Molecular epidemiological studies show that hepatitis A virus is endemic among active homosexual men in Europe.

    PubMed

    Stene-Johansen, Kathrine; Tjon, Grace; Schreier, Eckart; Bremer, Viviane; Bruisten, Sylvia; Ngui, Siew-Lin; King, Mike; Pinto, Rosa M; Aragonès, Lluis; Mazick, Anne; Corbet, Sylvie; Sundqvist, Lena; Blystad, Hans; Norder, Helene; Skaug, Kjell

    2007-04-01

    Large outbreaks of hepatitis A have occurred in Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom during the period 1997-2005 affecting homosexual men. A collaborative study was undertaken between these countries to determine if the strains involved in these hepatitis A outbreaks were related genetically. The N-terminal region of VP1 and the VP1/P2A region of the strains were sequenced and compared. The majority of the strains found among homosexual men from the different European countries formed a closely related cluster, named MSM1, belonging to genotype IA. Different HAV strains circulated among other risk groups in these countries during the same period, indicating that specific strains were circulating among homosexual men exclusively. Similar strains found among homosexual men from 1997 to 2005 indicate that these HAV strains have been circulating among homosexual men for a long time. The homosexual communities are probably too small within the individual countries to maintain HAV in their population over time, whereas the homosexual communities across Europe are probably sufficiently large to sustain continued circulation of homologous HAV strains for years resulting in an endemic situation among homosexual men. PMID:17311331

  5. Why DA and DB white dwarfs do not show coronal activity and p-mode oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Fontenla, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The problems of nonradiative heating of outer atmospheric layers and p-mode oscillations in white dwarfs caused by acoustic waves generated in convective zones are discussed. These effects have been studied by calculating the cutoff periods for adiabatic and isothermal waves propagating in atmospheres of DA and DB stars with Teff greater than or equal 20,000 K and log g = 6-9. The obtained cutoff periods are approximately bounded by 0.01 and 40 sec for high- and low-gravity white dwarfs, respectively. Expected amplitudes of p-mode oscillations corresponding to trapped acoustic waves with small angular wave numbers are estimated, indicating that the amplitudes could be observed as Doppler shifts of spectral lines which might be detectable if adequate spectral resolution were available. The luminosity variations corresponding to these amplitudes are unlikely to be observable when all damping processes are accounted for. Results also indicate that the present theory of convection predicts some irregularities in the behavior of physical parameters.

  6. Xylanase XYN IV from Trichoderma reesei showing exo- and endo-xylanase activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel xylanase from Trichoderma reesei Rut C30, named XYN IV, was purified from the cellulolytic system of the fungus. The enzyme was discovered on its ability to attack aldotetraohexenuronic acid (HexA-2Xyl-4Xyl-4Xyl, HexA3Xyl3), releasing the reducing-end xylose residue. XYN IV exhibited catalyt...

  7. 94. View looking south showing foundation equipment at work on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. View looking south showing foundation equipment at work on two of the piers. The view also shows the two completed cylinders in the midstream cluster of four. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  9. 78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO SHOWING POOL ARRANGEMENT FOR TEMPORARILY UTILIZING WATER WITHOUT FILLING THE RESERVOIR, Print No. 232, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  10. View looking southwest showing northeast corner, with northwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking southwest showing northeast corner, with northwest corner of building no. 1015 (ice house/storage shed) showing at the left. - McGraw Ranch, Eagle's Nest Cabin, McGraw Ranch Road, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  11. Southeast upstairs room of northwest wing showing southeast masonry wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast upstairs room of northwest wing showing southeast masonry wall shared with Federal addition. note angled cracks showing original 1 1/2 story gable. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  12. How to Produce Broilers and Roasters for Show 

    E-print Network

    Thornberry, Fredrick D.

    2005-06-06

    The successful exhibitor of show broilers and roasters will give careful attention to purchasing, housing, feeding, and maintaining the health of birds. This publication gives complete instructions for 4-H members and anyone who shows poultry....

  13. 10. Close of the east elevation to show change in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Close of the east elevation to show change in building fabric from ceramic tile facing to brick masonry and to show the stone window sills - Arlington Realty Building, 2300 North Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  14. 22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; VIEW SHOWS SECTION OF FISH LADDER NEAR WHERE IT ENTERS THE COLUMBIA RIVER. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 46 CFR 502.66 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Order to show cause. 502.66 Section 502.66 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.66 Order to show cause. The Commission may institute a proceeding by order to show cause. The order shall...

  16. The OOPSLA Trivia Show (TOOTS) University of Alabama at Birmingham

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey G.

    The OOPSLA Trivia Show (TOOTS) Jeff Gray University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Computer participation. 1. Overview of the OOPSLA Trivia Show OOPSLA has one of the most diverse collections of attendees on topics related to OOPSLA. 2. The OOPSLA Trivia Show Rules The panel will follow the general rules

  17. "The Cosby Show": The View from the Black Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inniss, Leslie B.; Feagin, Joe R.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the black middle-class response to "The Cosby Show." The study asked about the portrayal of blacks in the media, but did not specifically ask about "The Cosby Show." Results from 100 respondents revealed two significant aspects: that the show renders black problems as irrelevant and that it fosters hope and optimism that the black…

  18. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey UNDATED EXTERIOR SHOWING NORTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey UNDATED EXTERIOR SHOWING NORTH AND EAST FACADES (View B) This view shows clapboards on gable end and therefore, predates View A which shows shingles in upper gable From the collection of Mrs. L. T. Hazall, descendent of Rev. Woodward - Reverend John Woodward House, 409 Forbes Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  19. The Hippocampus and Caudomedial Neostriatum Show Selective Responsiveness to Conspecific

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    , and their brains removed, sectioned, and immunocytochemically processed for FOS expres- sion. Animals exposed and Gentner, 1998). When adult male zebra finches or canaries sing, neuronal activation is de- tected

  20. Regulation of hly Expression in Listeria monocytogenes by Carbon Sources and pH Occurs through Separate Mechanisms Mediated by PrfA

    PubMed Central

    Behari, Jaideep; Youngman, Philip

    1998-01-01

    Expression of the PrfA-controlled virulence gene hly (encoding the pore-forming cytolysin listeriolysin) is under negative regulation by readily metabolized carbon sources in Listeria monocytogenes. However, the hyperhemolytic strain NCTC 7973 exhibits deregulated hly expression in the presence of repressing sugars, raising the possibility that a defect in carbon source regulation is responsible for its anomalous behavior. We show here that the activity of a second glucose-repressed enzyme, ?-glucosidase, is 10-fold higher in NCTC 7973 than in 10403S. Using hly-gus fusions, we show that the prfA allele from NCTC 7973 causes deregulated hly-gus expression in the presence of sugars in either the wild-type or the NCTC 7973 background, while the 10403S prfA allele restores carbon source regulation. However, the prfA genotype does not affect the regulation of ?-glucosidase activity by repressing sugars. Of the two mutational differences in PrfA, only a Gly145Ser change is important for regulation of hly-gus. Therefore, NCTC 7973 and 10403S have genetic differences in at least two loci: one in prfA that affects carbon source regulation of virulence genes and another in an unidentified gene(s) that up-regulates ?-glucosidase activity. We also show that the decrease in pH associated with utilization of sugars negatively regulates hly-gus expression, although sugars can affect hly-gus expression by another mechanism that is independent of pH. PMID:9673243

  1. Enlightening lightning! Producing and directing a multimedia planetarium show 

    E-print Network

    Fowler, Sarah Marie

    2005-02-17

    staff, and visualization specialists, an academically diverse group was formed through a grant from the National Science Foundation to develop a planetarium show on lightning. The show target audience is middle school aged children. The goal... of the show is to teach lightning safety and lightning facts in an immersive environment. Through the use of video, an animated character, and a meteorologist, the curriculum is presented to the audience. I fulfilled the roles of producer and director...

  2. 52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch with open port door in radar scanner building 105 showing emanating waveguides from lower switch in vertical run; photograph also shows catwalk to upper scanner switch in upper left side of photograph and structural supports. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  3. 56. View looking east. Detail showing an end of three ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View looking east. Detail showing an end of three crib side walls, being flown by the derrick. The upper part of the fourth member, marked with an identifying tag, shows evidence of burning. Notice how well the lower members fit together. This view shows that individual timber members were worked, in part, after assembly. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  4. A Physics Show Performed by Students for Kids: From Mechanics to Elementary Particle Physics

    E-print Network

    Herbert K. Dreiner

    2007-02-01

    We describe an initiative at the University of Bonn, where the students develop and perform a 2 hour physics show for school classes and the general public. The show is entertaining and educational and is aimed at children aged 10 and older. For the physics students this is a unique experience to apply their knowledge at an early stage and gives them the chance to develop skills in the public presentation of science, in front of 520 people per show. We have extended the activity to put on an elementary particle physics show for teenagers. Furthermore, local high schools have picked up the idea; their students put on similar shows for fellow students and parents. We would be interested in hearing about related activities elsewhere.

  5. 11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Fort David A. Russell, Gymnasium, Randall Avenue between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  6. 15. FIRST FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN / BEAM CONNECTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FIRST FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN / BEAM CONNECTION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  7. New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  8. 13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR SEPARATION AT THRESHOLD AND KEY-WINDING MECHANISM - Montgomery County Jail, Washington & Spring Streets, Crawfordsville, Montgomery County, IN

  9. 2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES AND CLERESTORY ARRANGEMENT - Sulphur Springs Methodist Campground, Sulphur Springs Road (Sulphur Springs), Sulphur Springs, Washington County, TN

  10. Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. 3. EAST ELEVATION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CONNECTICUT AVENUE BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAST ELEVATION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CONNECTICUT AVENUE BRIDGE IN THE DISTANCE. - Shoreham Hill Bridge, Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Spanning Rock Creek, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 6. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND SAWN REPLACEMENT EYEBROW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND SAWN REPLACEMENT EYEBROW RAFTERS - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  13. 12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL william E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  14. 1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Oil House, 650 feet Southeast of Cliff & Mechanic Streets, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  15. Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished aluminum and brass balustrade - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HANDHAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HAND-HAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS AND MARBLE. NOTE ALUMINUM LIGHT FIXTURE - Alcoa Research Laboratory, Freeport Road, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. 6. NORTH FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING AUTO ENTRANCE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NORTH FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING AUTO ENTRANCE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  18. 54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY BRIDGE, January 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. 3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of the mansion, looking northwest. Original photograph at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Strawberry Mansion, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 5. Elevated view across Stillwell Avenue showing control tower and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Elevated view across Stillwell Avenue showing control tower and storefronts. Looking east by northeast. - Stillwell Avenue Station, Intersection of Stillwell & Surf Avenues, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  1. INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 10. Detail, northerly spans, west side, showing deterioration; note spalls, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail, northerly spans, west side, showing deterioration; note spalls, cracks, and efflorescence; view to southeast. - Fordway Bridge, Spanning Concord River at Pollard Street, Billerica, Middlesex County, MA

  3. 8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION TANKS. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  4. Long-Distance Translocation of Protein during Morphogenesis of the Fruiting Body in the Filamentous Fungus, Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Woolston, Benjamin M.; Schlagnhaufer, Carl; Wilkinson, Jack; Larsen, Jeffrey; Shi, Zhixin; Mayer, Kimberly M.; Walters, Donald S.; Curtis, Wayne R.; Romaine, C. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Commercial cultivation of the mushroom fungus, Agaricus bisporus, utilizes a substrate consisting of a lower layer of compost and upper layer of peat. Typically, the two layers are seeded with individual mycelial inoculants representing a single genotype of A. bisporus. Studies aimed at examining the potential of this fungal species as a heterologous protein expression system have revealed unexpected contributions of the mycelial inoculants in the morphogenesis of the fruiting body. These contributions were elucidated using a dual-inoculant method whereby the two layers were differientially inoculated with transgenic ?-glucuronidase (GUS) and wild-type (WT) lines. Surprisingly, use of a transgenic GUS line in the lower substrate and a WT line in the upper substrate yielded fruiting bodies expressing GUS activity while lacking the GUS transgene. Results of PCR and RT-PCR analyses for the GUS transgene and RNA transcript, respectively, suggested translocation of the GUS protein from the transgenic mycelium colonizing the lower layer into the fruiting body that developed exclusively from WT mycelium colonizing the upper layer. Effective translocation of the GUS protein depended on the use of a transgenic line in the lower layer in which the GUS gene was controlled by a vegetative mycelium-active promoter (laccase 2 and ?-actin), rather than a fruiting body-active promoter (hydrophobin A). GUS-expressing fruiting bodies lacking the GUS gene had a bonafide WT genotype, confirmed by the absence of stably inherited GUS and hygromycin phosphotransferase selectable marker activities in their derived basidiospores and mycelial tissue cultures. Differientially inoculating the two substrate layers with individual lines carrying the GUS gene controlled by different tissue-preferred promoters resulted in up to a ?3.5-fold increase in GUS activity over that obtained with a single inoculant. Our findings support the existence of a previously undescribed phenomenon of long-distance protein translocation in A. bisporus that has potential application in recombinant protein expression and biotechnological approaches for crop improvement. PMID:22163014

  5. 27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ONE-STORY OFFICES, SHOWING TYPICAL COLUMN BASE WITH TIMBER BOLTED TO STEEL 'L' SHOE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of Building 461 (9/4/56) showing Building 463 tanks to the right of the photo. Original is on file Mare Island Naval Shipyard-Photography Lab. Photographer unknown. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Survey Shows Blacks Not Concerned Enough about Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Health officials may have an uphill battle in educating Blacks about a disease that's being called a "silent killer," a recent survey shows. Kidney disease is an illness that's become more prevalent, especially in the nation's Black population, but a survey conducted in Jackson, Atlanta, Baltimore and Cleveland shows only 15 percent of those…

  8. 47 CFR 73.24 - Broadcast facilities; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Broadcast facilities; showing required. 73.24 Section 73.24 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.24 Broadcast facilities; showing required. An authorization for a new AM broadcast station...

  9. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33 Section 73.33 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast...

  10. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... only upon a showing that the applicant has a definite program of research and development, the details... qualify the applicant technically to conduct the research and development program, including a description... renewed and upon a factual showing that further progress in the program of research and...

  11. 15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, c. 1934. SHOWS PRECIPITATION TANK No. 1 (NOTE LOCKS), ZINC FEEDER WITH MIXING CONE, VACUUM RECEIVER AND PIPING. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  12. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair Sarah Stewart Johnson*

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair Sarah Stewart Johnson* , Martin B. Hebsgaard , Torben for review June 14, 2007) Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environ- ments highlight-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence

  13. Proper Use of Sulfonamides in Market Show Animals 

    E-print Network

    Faries Jr., Floron C.; Fajt, Virginia

    2008-02-14

    When administering a drug to a show animal, the owner is responsible for ensuring that there will be no drug residues in the animal's urine when it is tested at a show. Sulfonamides are of special concern because, even when they are administered...

  14. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  15. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  16. Showing and Telling: The Difference That Makes a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to clarify an essential difference between the ways in which pictures and words convey meaning. Examines one attempt to differentiate and characterize various types of picture books and concludes by showing how Anthony Browne exploits the distinction between showing and telling to create the atmosphere of uncertainty and mystery in his…

  17. Anatomy of a Shows the 9 components of

    E-print Network

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    Anatomy of a Hillslope Shows the 9 components of hillslopes and the dominant transport processes and pathways Handout #12;Anatomy of a Hillslope Dominated by vertical soil formation processes Shows the 9 components of hillslopes and the dominant transport processes and pathways #12;Anatomy of a Hillslope

  18. 13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX TO END OF EAST DAM. FOREGROUND VIEW SHOWS TRIPLE WALL CONSTRUCTION OF TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING USED IN CRIBBING - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  19. 2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST (View is middle of the perimeter showing in MT-88-A-1 above.) - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  20. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  1. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  2. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  3. Virtual Fashion Show Using Real-time Markerless Motion Capture

    E-print Network

    Stenger, Björn

    consisting of many posture examples. The posture is estimated by hierarchically matching silhouettes gener with the observed silhouette in the current image. Based on this method, we have developed a virtual fashion show different clothes. 1 Introduction In a virtual fashion show application the goal is to animate a computer

  4. 14. SHOWS KEEPERS WHICH HELD THE SLIDING BOLT TO LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SHOWS KEEPERS WHICH HELD THE SLIDING BOLT TO LOCK DOOR; ALSO SHOWS FEED TROUGH AND HAY RACK (see HABS No. TN-160-13) IN BACKGROUND. SPIKES USED TO NAIL DOOR JAMBS TO WALL LOGS MADE FROM OLD HORSESHOES Date: July 1941; negative #10653 - Witt Shields Barn, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  5. 11. SHOWS NORTH WALL OF ELL (interior part of ell), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SHOWS NORTH WALL OF ELL (interior part of ell), CONTINUING THRU SOUTH ENTRY (left-hand side barn entrance). ALSO SHOWS DETAILS OF PENS #2 AND #3, AND PLATE CONSTRUCTION OF MAIN LOFT. VIEW FROM NORTH. Date: July 10, 1937; negative #10625 - Witt Shields Barn, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  6. 2015 Texas 4-H Trashion Show General Rules and Guidelines

    E-print Network

    participating in the Trashion Show contest are encouraged to use their design and construction skills on the Texas 4-H website. Videos must be submitted by uploading to You Tube by the designated deadline of the 4-H Fashion Show and is designed to recognize 4-H members who have completed a Clothing and Textiles

  7. 7. Photocopy of house, circa 1910. It shows small original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of house, circa 1910. It shows small original details which have been changed and also shows how little the exterior appearence has been altered. Original photograph at Nebraska State Historical Society. - Chambers-Mayberry House, Northwest corner of Oak Street & Fifth Avenue (moved to Crofton, NE), Niobrara, Knox County, NE

  8. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012. ] PLACE... to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  9. Page 1 of 3 2015 Texas 4-H Fashion Show

    E-print Network

    Page 1 of 3 2015 Texas 4-H Fashion Show Buying and Construction General Rules and Guidelines OVERVIEW The 4-H Fashion Show is designed to recognize 4-H members who have completed a Clothing of fibers and fabrics, wardrobe selection, clothing construction, comparison shopping, fashion

  10. 2015 Texas 4-H Fashion Show Natural Fiber

    E-print Network

    2015 Texas 4-H Fashion Show Natural Fiber General Rules and Guidelines OVERVIEW The 4-H Fashion, wardrobe selection, clothing construction, comparison shopping, fashion interpretation, understanding--natural fibers produced in Texas. PURPOSE The Fashion Show Natural Fiber Contest provides an opportunity for 4-H

  11. IMAGE: THIS IMAGE SHOWS SEAWEEDS RECONFIGURING IN FLOW, VIEWED FROM

    E-print Network

    Martone, Patrick T.

    IMAGE: THIS IMAGE SHOWS SEAWEEDS RECONFIGURING IN FLOW, VIEWED FROM DOWNSTREAM. view more CREDIT on seaweeds shows it takes more than being flexible to survive crashing waves Bladed and branched algae Seaweeds are important foundational species that are vital both as food and habitat to many aquatic

  12. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Studies on the expression of linalool synthase using a promoter-?-glucuronidase fusion in transgenic Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhen; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Han, Junli; Hao, Mengshu; Yang, Yiyi; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2014-01-15

    Artemisinin, an antimalarial endoperoxide sesquiterpene, is synthesized in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. A number of other enzymes of terpene metabolism utilize intermediates of artemisinin biosynthesis, such as isopentenyl and farnesyl diphosphate, and may thereby influence the yield of artemisinin. In order to study the expression of such enzymes, we have cloned the promoter regions of some enzymes and fused them to ?-glucuronidase (GUS). In this study, we have investigated the expression of the monoterpene synthase linalool synthase (LIS) using transgenic A. annua carrying the GUS gene under the control of the LIS promoter. The 652bp promoter region was cloned by the genome walker method. A number of putative cis-acting elements were predicted indicating that the LIS is driven by a complex regulation mechanism. Transgenic plants carrying the promoter-GUS fusion showed specific expression of GUS in T-shaped trichomes (TSTs) but not in glandular secretory trichomes, which is the site for artemisinin biosynthesis. GUS expression was observed at late stage of flower development in styles of florets and in TSTs and guard cells of basal bracts. GUS expression after wounding showed that LIS is involved in plant responsiveness to wounding. Furthermore, the LIS promoter responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). These results indicate that the promoter carries a number of cis-acting regulatory elements involved in the tissue-specific expression of LIS and in the response of the plant to wounding and MeJA treatment. Southern blot analysis indicated that the GUS gene was integrated in the A. annua genome as single or multi copies in different transgenic lines. Promoter activity analysis by qPCR showed that both the wild-type and the recombinant promoter are active in the aerial parts of the plant while only the recombinant promoter was active in roots. Due to the expression in TSTs but not in glandular trichomes, it may be concluded that LIS expression will most likely have little or no effect on artemisinin production. PMID:24331423

  14. World pipeline construction plans show increase into next century

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.; True, W.R.

    1995-02-06

    Plans for worldwide pipeline construction into the next century increased in the past year, especially for developing regions of Latin America and Asia-Pacific. Many of the projects involve large capacity, international gas pipeline systems. By contrast, pipeline construction in Canada, The US, and Europe will decline. Those trends and others are revealed in the latest Oil and Gas Journal pipeline construction data, derived from a survey of world pipeline operators, industry sources, and published information. More than 61,000 miles of crude oil, product, and natural gas pipeline are to be built in 1995 and beyond. The paper discusses Europe's markets, North Sea pipelines, expansion of German pipeline, pipelines in the UK, European and African gas, the trans-Mediterranean gas pipeline, Caspian Sea pipeline, Middle East pipelines, Asia-Pacific activity, South American gas lines, pipelines in Colombia, TransCanada line, Gulf of Mexico pipelines, other Gulf activities, and other US activity.

  15. 95. View of foundation plant looking east showing one of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. View of foundation plant looking east showing one of the four cylinders completed in the midstream tower known as Pier 3. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. 4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BEARING BLOCK AND CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BEARING BLOCK AND CONCRETE FILLED CYLINDRICAL STEEL RING PIER, WEST TRUSS OF MAIN SPAN AT SOUTH END - Little Missouri River Bridge, Spanning Little Missouri River at CR 179, Okolona, Clark County, AR

  17. 4. View showing cylinder end of two, cylinder, compound Corliss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View showing cylinder end of two, cylinder, compound Corliss steam engine with tandem air compressor. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Powerhouse, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  18. 16. DETAIL OF SOUTH ABUTMENT, SHOWING GIRDER, CYLINDRICAL FIXED BEARING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF SOUTH ABUTMENT, SHOWING GIRDER, CYLINDRICAL FIXED BEARING SHOE AND LATERAL BRACING. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  19. 26. Detail showing piston which is one of two steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Detail showing piston which is one of two steam powered drive units for winches for Marine Railways #1. and #2, Marine Railway Headhouse. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  20. 4. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STERN OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STERN OF VESSEL 37 Susan Kardas, photographer, December 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  1. 5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR WALL, CLEAT AND SINGLE BIT ON STERN DECK OF VESSEL 37 Edward Larrabee, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  2. 3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING BOW END OF VESSEL 37, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING BOW END OF VESSEL 37, STERN OF VESSEL 38 WITH COLLAPSING LIVING QUARTERS TO RIGHT Susan Kardas, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  3. 7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF MAIN CABIN. AFT CABIN STILL STANDS ON STERN IN BACKGROUND - Motorized Sailing Vessel "Fox", Beached on East Bank ofBayou Lafourche, Larose, Lafourche Parish, LA

  4. 8. VIEW OF VESSEL, SHOWING PORT SIDEPADDLE, SIDE LOCKER (USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF VESSEL, SHOWING PORT SIDE-PADDLE, SIDE LOCKER (USED FOR TOILET AND STORAGE DURING ATLANTIC CROSSING), MAINMAST, WHEELHOUSE AND STACK - Steam Tug EPPLETON HALL, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 12. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING CLOSEUP OF ORIGINAL RIBS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING CLOSEUP OF ORIGINAL RIBS OF THE VESSEL NEXT TO THE MORE MASSIVE NEW' RIBS - Motorized Sailing Vessel "Fox", Beached on East Bank ofBayou Lafourche, Larose, Lafourche Parish, LA

  6. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR VIEW OF VESSEL 37 SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  7. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), BROKEN BOW OF VESSEL IN FOREGROUND Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  8. 22. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WORKERS LOWERING CALCINER VESSEL INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WORKERS LOWERING CALCINER VESSEL INTO CELL THROUGH THE HATCH. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-2485. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 11. VIEW, LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL BREACH IN WALL CAUSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL BREACH IN WALL CAUSED BY MARSHY CONDITIONS. SORTED AND ASSEMBLED NATIVE BASALT COBBLES USED FOR BUILDING MATERIAL APPEAR IN BACKGROUND - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  10. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF COMMERCIAL DISTRICT FROM GREEN SHOWING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF COMMERCIAL DISTRICT FROM GREEN SHOWING WEST (NORTH MAIN STREET) ELEVATION OF HOTCHKISS BLOCK ON WEST - Hotchkiss Block (Irving Block), 11 East Main Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  11. 26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT AS TEMPORARY TRUSS REINFORCEMENT (NOTE STEEL STRUCTURES ATOP TIMBER BRACING) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 3. OBLIQUE GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EAST CORNER OF SHED, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EAST CORNER OF SHED, WITH RAILROAD TRACKS PASSING UNDER DERRICK ALONG WHARF - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE LOADING DOCKS, SHOWING SUSPENDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE LOADING DOCKS, SHOWING SUSPENDER BARS AND ORIGINAL SHIPLAP SIDING - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. 22. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF OFFICE, SHOWING ORIGINAL SASH WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF OFFICE, SHOWING ORIGINAL SASH WINDOWS AND DUCT WORK (OTHER OFFICE INTERIORS ARE GREATLY ALTERED FROM THE ORIGINAL) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. 7. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF SHED, SHOWING ALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF SHED, SHOWING ALL EIGHTEEN LOADING BAYS, LOOKING WEST FROM ACROSS TURNING BASIN - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF LOADING DOCK CANOPY, SHOWING TWIN TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF LOADING DOCK CANOPY, SHOWING TWIN TIMBER SUPPORT MEMBERS AND SUSPENDER BAR MOUNTING HARDWARE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. 5. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING ORIGINAL SETTING AT WHARFSIDE WITH CONTAINERIZED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING ORIGINAL SETTING AT WHARFSIDE WITH CONTAINERIZED FREIGHT LOADING EQUIPMENT AT PORT OF OAKLAND FACILITY - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. 10. WIDE GENERAL VIEW OF SHED SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACADE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. WIDE GENERAL VIEW OF SHED SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACADE AND TRUCK PLATFORM/STAGING AREA AT SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 18. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP TO OFFICE AREA TO STAIRS - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE UNITS FLANKING OVERHEAD PORT AT NORTHEAST END OF BUILDING - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. 17. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF TRUSS TO COLUMNS AND BAYS - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END (FRONT) OF TRANSIT SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END (FRONT) OF TRANSIT SHED, IN CONTEXT WITH LOADING YARD AND DERRICK, LOOKING WEST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. 6. GENERAL WIDE VIEW SHOWING EAST (SOUTHEAST) SIDE, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL WIDE VIEW SHOWING EAST (SOUTHEAST) SIDE, LOOKING WEST ACROSS TURNING BASIN; FREIGHTER LOADING IN FOREGROUND - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. 11. SOUTH AND EAST SIDE, THREEQUARTER VIEW, DETAIL SHOWING SIXTHFLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SOUTH AND EAST SIDE, THREE-QUARTER VIEW, DETAIL SHOWING SIXTH-FLOOR BRICK ADDITION AND ORIGINAL BRICK PILASTERS; LOOKING NORTHWEST - Crown Roller Mill, 105 Fifth Avenue, South, West Side Milling District, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  5. 2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING CHANNEL DOWNSTREAM FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING CHANNEL DOWNSTREAM FROM NAVIGATION LOCK #1; MOVABLE BRIDGE IS VISIBLE IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  6. 9. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM MITER GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM MITER GATES FOR NAVIGATION LOCK #1. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  7. OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A SPANISH-MADE FORADIA BORING MACHINE IN THE FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  8. 36. LARGE MOLD MAKING MACHINE, GREY IRON UNIT #4 SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. LARGE MOLD MAKING MACHINE, GREY IRON UNIT #4 SHOWING PATTERNS THAT FLASKS FIT OVER PRIOR TO BEING FILLED WITH SAND AND COMPRESSED. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. Five Kepler Target Stars That Show Multiple Transiting Exoplanet Candidates

    E-print Network

    Steffen, Jason H.

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, ...

  10. View northwest, wharf, A portion AA, detail showing timber groin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf, A portion AA, detail showing timber groin - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  11. Contextual view of building UD, showing quarters U in foreground; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building U-D, showing quarters U in foreground; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters U Servants Quarters, Cedar Avenue, behind Quarters U, west side between Tenth Street & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. Contextual view showing building 50 east elevation, with building 46 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing building 50 east elevation, with building 46 on right; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Interior view of second floor space showing roof trusses; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor space showing roof trusses; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Interior view of first floor space along south wall, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of first floor space along south wall, showing structural supports; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Interior view of first floor space showing stairs on north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of first floor space showing stairs on north wall; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. 4. Overview at top of crane showing crane bridge and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overview at top of crane showing crane bridge and south truss full length, looking south east. - General Dynamics Corporation Shipyard, XYZ Crane & Towers, 97 East Howard Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  17. 7. View of typical construction detail on south side, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of typical construction detail on south side, showing 1 track trusser, looking south east. - General Dynamics Corporation Shipyard, XYZ Crane & Towers, 97 East Howard Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  18. 21. Buttress construction work, buttress at left shows top portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Buttress construction work, buttress at left shows top portion of buttress hollow 'H' design. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 18. Standing on westerly fender looking easterly showing a portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Standing on westerly fender looking easterly showing a portion of the lower steel truss work and outside of turning mechanism enclosure. - Colusa Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River, Colusa, Colusa County, CA

  20. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF NORTH SPAN, SHOWING LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF NORTH SPAN, SHOWING LOWER BRACING, LOOKING FROM NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST - Marathon City Bridge, Spanning Big Rib River, on state Trunk Highway 107, Marathon, Marathon County, WI

  1. 13. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, TOP CHORD, SWAY BRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, TOP CHORD, SWAY BRACING, TOP STRUTS, CENTER OF SOUTH TRUSS - Marathon City Bridge, Spanning Big Rib River, on state Trunk Highway 107, Marathon, Marathon County, WI

  2. 12. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED ENDPOST, PORTAL BRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED ENDPOST, PORTAL BRACING, TOP CHORD, SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SOUTH TRUSS (RIVETED CONNECTION) - Marathon City Bridge, Spanning Big Rib River, on state Trunk Highway 107, Marathon, Marathon County, WI

  3. 2. VIEW OF NORTH SPAN TRUSS, SHOWING CAUSEWAY BETWEEN NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF NORTH SPAN TRUSS, SHOWING CAUSEWAY BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH TRUSS, LOOKING FROM SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST - Marathon City Bridge, Spanning Big Rib River, on state Trunk Highway 107, Marathon, Marathon County, WI

  4. 25. VIEW OF UPPER PORTION OF GRAND STAIRWAY SHOWING SKY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF UPPER PORTION OF GRAND STAIRWAY SHOWING SKY LIGHT, COLUMN CAPITALS AND COFFERED CEILING. PHOTO TAKEN FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  5. 10. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE DOORS TO AUDITORIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE DOORS TO AUDITORIUM BUILDING; STAIRS IN FOREGROUND LEAD TO BASKETBALL COURT/STAGE AREA. - Bonneville Project, Auditorium, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  6. 15. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF AUDITORIUM SHOWING BASKETBALL COURT; STAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF AUDITORIUM SHOWING BASKETBALL COURT; STAGE IS IN CENTER BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Auditorium, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  7. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. East wall, showing rails of a halfton aerial gantry attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East wall, showing rails of a half-ton aerial gantry attached to roof frame - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  9. North wall, near east end, showing exhaust fan and exit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, near east end, showing exhaust fan and exit (series 3 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  10. North wall, showing modern switch boxes and in fill panel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, showing modern switch boxes and in fill panel at the east end (series 4 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  11. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, showing present Watterson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, showing present Watterson Expressway entrance ramp, looking from area to be affected towards Beechmont Historic District, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  12. 29. View East, Central Court, Showing typical interior detail and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. View East, Central Court, Showing typical interior detail and lunettes above. Two lunettes present, Public Works Administration, 1938-42. - Ives Memorial Library, 133 Elm Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  13. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING ENDPANEL VERTICAL, ARCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING END-PANEL VERTICAL, ARCH SEGMENT, LOWER CHORD AND FLOOR SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Davis Bridge, Spanning Upper Iowa River at County Road 16, Lime Springs, Howard County, IA

  14. VIEW OF LIME KILN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STONE ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LIME KILN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STONE ELEVATOR (ON THE LEFT) AND SOUTH CONVEYOR. - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  15. 7. UNDERSIDE VIEW OF BRIDGE, SHOWING FLOOR SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. UNDERSIDE VIEW OF BRIDGE, SHOWING FLOOR SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND AND CONCRETE-PARGED PIER IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING WEST - Davis Bridge, Spanning Upper Iowa River at County Road 16, Lime Springs, Howard County, IA

  16. 18. PLAIN OFFICE; SHOWS WOODWORK AND WALL TREATMENT. ROOM 2662, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. PLAIN OFFICE; SHOWS WOODWORK AND WALL TREATMENT. ROOM 2662, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH SIDE. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Processing & Electronics Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Contextual view of building 505 showing west elevation from marsh; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 505 showing west elevation from marsh; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. Contextual view of building 505 Cedar avenue, showing south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 505 Cedar avenue, showing south and east elevations; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. 12. Detail, northern end, west parapet, showing open and misaligned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail, northern end, west parapet, showing open and misaligned expansion joint between last parapet section and northwest end post; view to northwest. - Fordway Bridge, Spanning Concord River at Pollard Street, Billerica, Middlesex County, MA

  20. 11. Detail, west parapet, showing typical expansion joint between the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail, west parapet, showing typical expansion joint between the two-span, poured-in-place parapet sections; view to southwest. - Fordway Bridge, Spanning Concord River at Pollard Street, Billerica, Middlesex County, MA

  1. 13. Interior, Hangar 1301, showing bottom of a truss, steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior, Hangar 1301, showing bottom of a truss, steel hinge point and expansion joint, and concrete buttress, looking north northwest - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  2. 16. PIER CAP DETAIL, SHOWING EXPANSION AND FIXED BEARING SHOES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. PIER CAP DETAIL, SHOWING EXPANSION AND FIXED BEARING SHOES, BOTTOM CHORD / END POST CONNECTION AND CANTILEVERED SIDEWALK. VIEW TO WEST. - Holbrook Bridge, Spanning Little Colorado River at AZ 77, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  3. 27. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  4. 28. VIEW SHOWING NORTH SIDE OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW SHOWING NORTH SIDE OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  5. Detail of framing and planking near midship section showing old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of framing and planking near midship section showing old frames and planks with bulwark timbers above. - Schooner ERNESTINA, New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park State Pier, New Bedford, Bristol County, MA

  6. 17. Building 202, observation room for test cell, showing panel, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Building 202, observation room for test cell, showing panel, abort button, phones, and observation window. View looking northwest. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. 32. Detail view of top of No. 2 Furnace showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Detail view of top of No. 2 Furnace showing off-tank, downcomer and skip-hoist. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. 17. SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN AND BEAM CONNECTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN AND BEAM CONNECTION. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  9. 8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING FIRST FLOOR STOREFRONT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING FIRST FLOOR STOREFRONT AND SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS. VIEW TO WEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  10. 10. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST SHOWING (from left) INDUSTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST SHOWING (from left) INDUSTRY MILL, HARMONY MILL, PHOENIX MILL, CONGDON MILL, TODD RAFFERTY MACHINE CO. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  11. 8. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION SHOWING NEON TWA SIGN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION SHOWING NEON TWA SIGN AND ROOF MASTS. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 5. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WEST VIEW OF MACHINERY FRAME, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WEST VIEW OF MACHINERY FRAME, SHOWING MAIN VERTICAL SHAFT WITH CAST-IRON WALLOWER GEAR AT LOWER END, AND THE GREAT SPUR WHEEL OF ALL WOODEN CONSTRUCTION - Robeson-Williams Grist Mill, Roslyn, Nassau County, NY

  13. 14. INTERIOR VIEW OF HEADHOUSE, SHOWING ROLLER GATE GAUGE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW OF HEADHOUSE, SHOWING ROLLER GATE GAUGE AND WHEEL GEAR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  14. 24. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMBS AND CRATES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMBS AND CRATES. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. E APPROACH, FACING W SHOWING PARAPET CURTAILS Stanley Brook ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    E APPROACH, FACING W SHOWING PARAPET CURTAILS - Stanley Brook Bridge, Spanning Stanley Brook, Stanley Brook Motor Road, & Seaside Trail on Barr Hill-Day Mountain Carriage Road, Seal Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  17. 19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation lookout (view is looking northwest) - Skinner Meat Packing Plant, Main Plant, 6006 South Twenty-seventh Street, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  18. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY HALL. SHOWING THE ORIGINAL ACIDSTAINED CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY HALL. SHOWING THE ORIGINAL ACID-STAINED CONCRETE FLOOR WITH INCISED STAR PATTERN. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type C, 208 Second Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  19. CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK SHEATHING IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO EAST - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  20. 9. VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING FLOOR SYSTEM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING FLOOR SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND AND CONCRETE PIER IN RIGHT BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Santa Fe Bridge, Spanning South Fork of Salt River at County Road 24, Santa Fe, Monroe County, MO

  1. 5. VIEW OF SOUTH PORTAL OF BRIDGE, SHOWING PONY TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SOUTH PORTAL OF BRIDGE, SHOWING PONY TRUSS APPROACH SPAN IN FOREGROUND AND THROUGH TRUSS IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTH - Santa Fe Bridge, Spanning South Fork of Salt River at County Road 24, Santa Fe, Monroe County, MO

  2. Building No. 905, showing typical aqua medias or rain hoods ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 905, showing typical aqua medias or rain hoods - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 12. Oblique view of northeast facade, showing missing rain gutter, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Oblique view of northeast facade, showing missing rain gutter, deteriorated slate roof, broken windows in tower; view west-northwest, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  4. Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing redwood dry storage building located inside. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  5. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical posts on concrete footing with diagonal timber bracing and wire bracing. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  6. Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing truss type A in foreground and truss type B behind that. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  7. Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  8. Rooftop view of new rain shed (Building No. 241) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rooftop view of new rain shed (Building No. 241) showing collection gutter and overhead pipeline. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  9. 9. VIEW SHOWING TRUSSES FROM DECK WITH 4' RANGE POLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING TRUSSES FROM DECK WITH 4' RANGE POLE AT SECOND VERTICAL POST ON SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING WEST - White River Bridge, Spanning White River at U.S. Highway 70, De Valls Bluff, Prairie County, AR

  10. 34. VIEW OF THE GENERATOR FLOOR, SHOWING ELECTRICIANS INSTALLING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW OF THE GENERATOR FLOOR, SHOWING ELECTRICIANS INSTALLING A GENERATOR UNIT. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  11. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF GENERATOR BAY, GENERATOR ROOM, SHOWING TURBINEGENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF GENERATOR BAY, GENERATOR ROOM, SHOWING TURBINE-GENERATOR DRIVE SHAFT IN FOREGROUND, ACCESS BULKHEAD TO TURBINE IN BACKGROUND - Nine Mile Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, State Highway 291 along Spokane River, Nine Mile Falls, Spokane County, WA

  12. 4. INTERIOR OF POWERHOUSE GENERATOR ROOM SHOWING GENERATOR UNITS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF POWERHOUSE GENERATOR ROOM SHOWING GENERATOR UNITS AT FOREGROUND RIGHT, GOVERNORS AND CONTROL VALVES AT LEFT, AND EXCITERS AT BACK LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  13. CLOSE VIEW ALONG WATERFRONT TO SHOW BULKHEAD Southwest Washington, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE VIEW ALONG WATERFRONT TO SHOW BULKHEAD - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  15. 5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  16. 4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  17. 3. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  18. 2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  19. Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon framing, including full two-story studs notched to carry girts supporting second story floor joists (210mm lens) - Scandia Hotel, 225 First Street, Eureka, Humboldt County, CA

  20. 35. VIEW SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL, DATE INSCRIBED IS 1937. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL, DATE INSCRIBED IS 1937. RIGHT (OR NORTH) SPILLWAY IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE AT UPPER RIGHT - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ