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1

Endoplasmic reticulum targeting of active modified beta-glucuronidase (GUS) in transgenic tobacco plants.  

PubMed

We have investigated targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of wild-type GUS and a modified form (GUS S358) by making an N-terminal fusion of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme with the wheat alpha-amylase signal peptide. In vitro studies demonstrated that the modified GUS (S358) lacked the glycosylation site present within the wild-type enzyme. Analysis of transgenic tobacco plants revealed that the modified GUS enzyme retained activity upon passage to the ER. When further experiments were carried out to determine the cellular location of the modified GUS enzyme, it was found that (contrary to expectation) the majority of GUS activity was retained within the cell and was not secreted to the cell surface via the default pathway. The data indicated that the modified GUS enzyme is an unsuitable reporter enzyme for studying protein secretion. PMID:7951335

Firek, S; Whitelam, G C; Draper, J

1994-09-01

2

Induction of a tomato anionic peroxidase gene (tap1) by wounding in transgenic tobacco and activation of tap1/GUS and tap2/GUS chimeric gene fusions in transgenic tobacco by wounding and pathogen attack.  

PubMed

The anionic peroxidase genes of tomato, tap1 and tap2, are induced by wounding in tomato fruits and by elicitor treatment in cell suspension cultures. These homologous genes code for anionic peroxidases that are postulated to cause polymerization of the phenolic residues into wall polymers in wound-healing and pathogen-infected tissues. An expression construct containing the entire TAP1 gene with its 5' and 3' flanking sequences was introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. Also, constructs containing the 5' upstream regions of tap1 and tap2 including sequences coding for their respective putative leader peptides fused translationally to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were made and introduced into tobacco. Northern blot analysis of transcripts from wound-healing leaf tissues of transformants containing tap1 showed that the introduced gene was being transcribed in the heterologous host. The induction of tap1 transcripts in the wound-healing transgenic tobacco tissues was observed by 48 h and increased over time period of 84 h. Wounding also led to expression of GUS in tap1/GUS and tap2/GUS transformants and GUS activity was localized to the wound site. Activation of the tap1 and tap2 promoters in wound-healing transgenic tobacco tissues showed a GUS expression profile that correlated with the postulated role for anionic peroxidases in phenolic polymerization in suberizing tissues. Inoculation of tap1/GUS and tap2/GUS transformant leaves with fungal conidia from Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi caused expression of GUS in locally inoculated regions, and GUS expression increased over a period of four days. PMID:7678769

Mohan, R; Bajar, A M; Kolattukudy, P E

1993-01-01

3

Instructor: Gus Hart CID & NAME  

E-print Network

Instructor: Gus Hart CID & NAME: Show your work. Justify (in words) any non-obvious steps you make't be afraid to explain things (in words) when your math fails you. 0 K = -273.15 C 0 C = 32 F 4.186 J = 1 cal = 5.67 x 10-8 W/m2 K4 1.00 atm = 1.013 x 105 Pa R = 8.314 J/(mol · K) kB = 1.38 x 10-23 J/K c = 4186 J

Hart, Gus

4

Transient gus expression in zygotic embryos of Taxus Brevifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Germinated zygotic embryos of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) were transiently transformed with the expression vector pBl121, as demonstrated by expression of the ?-glucuronidase (GUS)\\u000a gene. Embryos exhibited sectors of blue color following treatment with DNA and dimethyl sulfoxide (optimal concentration of\\u000a 2.25%). However, transient expression depended on the presence of ions in the buffer, as no GUS activity was observed

Ellen C. Luan; Susan E. Allen; Mark G. Bolyard

1996-01-01

5

Cytokinin-dependent expression of the ARR5::GUS construct during transgenic arabidopsis growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and glucuronidase (GUS) activity were followed in the cotyledons and rosette leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh (ecotype Wassilewskija) plants transformed with the GUS gene under the control of the cytokinin-dependent promoter of the ARR5 gene. The presence of active cytokinins in plant tissues was assessed from GUS activity. Plants were grown for three weeks\\u000a on the nitrate-or ammonium-containing

V. Yu. Shtratnikova; O. N. Kulaeva

2008-01-01

6

Specificity of expression of the GUS reporter gene (uidA) driven by the tobacco ASA2 promoter in soybean plants and tissue cultures.  

PubMed

Twelve independent lines were transformed by particle bombardment of soybean embryogenic suspension cultures with the tobacco anthranilate synthase (ASA2) promoter driving the uidA (beta-glucuronidase, GUS) reporter gene. ASA2 appears to be expressed in a tissue culture specific manner in tobacco (Song H-S, Brotherton JE, Gonzales RA, Widholm JM. Tissue culture specific expression of a naturally occurring tobacco feedback-insensitive anthranilate synthase. Plant Physiol 1998;117:533-43). The transgenic lines also contained the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene and were selected using hygromycin. All the selected cultures or the embryos that were induced from these cultures expressed GUS measured histochemically. However, no histochemical GUS expression could be found in leaves, stems, roots, pods and root nodules of the plants formed from the embryos and their progeny. Pollen from some of the plants and immature and mature seeds and embryogenic cultures initiated from immature cotyledons did show GUS activity. Quantitative 4-methylumbelliferyl-glucuronide (MUG) assays of the GUS activity in various tissues showed that all with observable histochemical GUS activity contained easily measurable activities and leaves and stems that showed no observable histochemical GUS staining did contain very low but measurable MUG activity above that of the untransformed control but orders of magnitude lower than the constitutive 35S-uidA controls used. Low but clearly above background levels of boiling sensitive GUS activity could be observed in the untransformed control immature seeds and embryogenic cultures using the MUG assay. Thus in soybean the ASA2 promoter drives readily observable GUS expression in tissue cultures, pollen and seeds, with only extremely low levels seen in vegetative tissues of the plants. The ASA2 driven expression seen in mature seed was, however, much lower than that seen with the constitutive 35S promoter; less than 2% in seed coats and less than 0.13% in cotyledons and embryo axes. The predominate tissue culture specific expression pattern of the ASA2 promoter may be useful for genetic transformation of crops. PMID:17223226

Inaba, Yoshimi; Zhong, Wei Qun; Zhang, Xing-Hai; Widholm, Jack M

2007-07-01

7

Subsea completion data show steady activity levels  

SciTech Connect

Review of subsea completion statistics indicates 45 installations during 1992 - one more than during 1991. The 45 installations are still considerably less than the all-time high of 66 installations in 1985. Petrobras continues to install three times as many subsea completions as Shell, the next most active user. However, as in the past three years, the overall-lower number of installations last year was due to reduced applications by Petrobras. During 1991, that company installed 10 subsea completions, whereas during 1988, for example, it completed 37 installations. It should be noted that reduced activity by petrobras reflects problems with financing and general activity, rather than a lack of confidence in subsea completions. The number of future subsea completions identified for installation during the next 10 years is 1,144 - some 10% more than the 1,014 identified at the end of 1991. The present planned installation figure is an all-time high; the next highest number of installations identified was 1,083 at the end of 1989. These and other statistics are presented in 10 tables. A brief analysis of each is included.

Mohr, H.O. (H.O. Mohr Research and Engineering, Houston, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

8

Encounters with Insignificance in Teaching and Learning: Gus Van Sant's "Elephant"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how a curriculum of film becomes organized by the teacher's worries about what film may open up in class. The author focuses on her own worries about showing Gus Van Sant's (2003) film, "Elephant," an elliptical and dreamlike study of the murders in 1999 of twelve students and a teacher at Columbine High School, to a class of…

Sandlos, Karyn

2009-01-01

9

Directed Chromosomal Integration and Expression of the Reporter Gene gusA3 in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM ?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic microbe that survives passage through the human gastrointestinal tract and interacts with the host epithelium and mucosal immune cells. The potential for L. acidophilus to express antigens at mucosal surfaces has been investigated with various antigens and plasmid expression vectors. Plasmid instability and antibiotic selection complicate the possibility of testing these constructs in human clinical trials. Integrating antigen encoding genes into the chromosome for expression is expected to eliminate selection requirements and provide genetic stability. In this work, a reporter gene encoding a ?-glucuronidase (GusA3) was integrated into four intergenic chromosomal locations. The integrants were tested for genetic stability and GusA3 activity. Two locations were selected for insertion downstream of constitutively highly expressed genes, one downstream of slpA (LBA0169), encoding a highly expressed surface-layer protein, and one downstream of phosphopyruvate hydratase (LBA0889), a highly expressed gene with homologs in other lactic acid bacteria. An inducible location was selected downstream of lacZ (LBA1462), encoding a ?-galactosidase. A fourth location was selected in a low-expression region. The expression of gusA3 was evaluated from each location by measuring GusA3 activity on 4-methyl-umbelliferyl-?-d-glucuronide (MUG). GusA3 activity from both highly expressed loci was more than three logs higher than the gusA3-negative parent, L. acidophilus NCK1909. GusA3 activity from the lacZ locus was one log higher in cells grown in lactose than in glucose. The differences in expression levels between integration locations highlights the importance of rational targeting with gene cassettes intended for chromosomal expression. PMID:21873486

Douglas, Grace L.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

2011-01-01

10

Synthesis and evaluation of dioleoyl glyceric acids showing antitrypsin activity.  

PubMed

Previously, Lešová et al. reported the isolation and identification of metabolite OR-1, showing antitrypsin activity, produced during fermentation by Penicillium funiculosum. The structure of OR-1 was a mixture of glyceric acid (GA), esterified with C(14)-C(18) fatty acids, and oleic acid (C18:1) as the most predominant fatty acid (Folia Microbiol. 46, 21-23, 2001). In this study, dioleoyl D-GA and dioleoyl L-GA were synthesized via diesterification with oleoyl chloride, and their antitrypsin activities were evaluated using both a disk diffusion method and spectral absorption measurements. The results show that both compounds and their equivalent mixtures possess antitrypsin activities; however, their IC(50) values (approximately 2 mM) are much higher than that of OR-1 (4.25 µM), suggesting that dioleoyl GA does not play a major role in the OR-1 antitrypsin activity. PMID:21606621

Habe, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sato, Shun; Kitamoto, Dai; Sakaki, Keiji

2011-01-01

11

Chitinase A from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia shows transglycosylation and antifungal activities.  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia chitinase (StmChiA and StmChiB) genes were cloned and expressed as soluble proteins of 70.5 and 41.6 kDa in Escherichia coli. Ni-NTA affinity purified StmChiA and StmChiB were optimally active at pH 5.0 and 7.0, respectively and exhibited broad range pH activity. StmChiA and StmChiB had an optimum temperature of 40°C and are stable up to 50 and 40°C, respectively. Hydrolytic activity on chitooligosaccharides indicated that StmChiA was an endo-acting enzyme releasing chitobiose and StmChiB was both exo/endo-acting enzyme with the release of GlcNAc as the final product. StmChiA showed higher preference to ?-chitin and exhibited transglycosylation on even chain length tetra- and hexameric substrates. StmChiA, and not StmChiB, was active on chitinous polymers and showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:23428818

Suma, Katta; Podile, Appa Rao

2013-04-01

12

Podophyllotoxin derivatives show activity against Brontispa longissima larvae.  

PubMed

In an attempt to find biorational insecticides, eleven podophyllotoxin analogues were tested for their insecticidal activity against the fifth-instar larvae of Brontispa longissima in vivo for the first time. Among all of the tested compounds, deoxypodophyllotoxin (3) and beta-apopicropodophyllin (4) showed more promising and pronounced insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial insecticide derived from Melia toosendan, and important SAR information has been revealed. Together, these preliminary results may be useful in guiding further modification of podophyllotoxins in the development of potential new insecticides. PMID:20839628

Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying-Qian; Yang, Liu; Feng, Gang

2010-08-01

13

?-Glucuronidase activity in seedlings of the parasitic angiosperm Cusctua pentagona : developmental impact of the ?-glucuronidase inhibitor saccharic acid 1,4-lactone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogenous plant ?-glucuronidase (?-GUS) activity was detected in germinating seeds, seedlings, stems, flowers and haustoria of the parasitic angiosperm Cuscuta pentagona Engelm. In vitro characterisation of this activity showed it to have an acidic pH optimum, similar to previously characterised plant activities, and a sensitivity to the ?-GUS inhibitor saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (SAL). Application of SAL to seeds immediately after

Mark A. SchoenbeckA; Gabriel A. SwansonA

2007-01-01

14

Sirt5 Deacylation Activities Show Differential Sensitivities to Nicotinamide Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Sirtuins are protein deacylases regulating metabolism and aging processes, and the seven human isoforms are considered attractive therapeutic targets. Sirtuins transfer acyl groups from lysine sidechains to ADP-ribose, formed from the cosubstrate NAD+ by release of nicotinamide, which in turn is assumed to be a general Sirtuin inhibitor. Studies on Sirtuin regulation have been hampered, however, by shortcomings of available assays. Here, we describe a mass spectrometry–based, quantitative deacylation assay not requiring any substrate labeling. Using this assay, we show that the deacetylation activity of human Sirt5 features an unusual insensitivity to nicotinamide inhibition. In contrast, we find similar values for Sirt5 and Sirt3 for the intrinsic NAD+ affinity as well as the apparent NAD+ affinity in presence of peptide. Structure comparison and mutagenesis identify an Arg neighboring to the Sirt5 nicotinamide binding pocket as a mediator of nicotinamide resistance, and statistical sequence analyses along with testing further Sirtuins reveal a network of coevolved residues likely defining a nicotinamide-insensitive Sirtuin deacetylase family. The same Arg was recently reported to render Sirt5 a preferential desuccinylase, and we find that this Sirt5 activity is highly sensitive to nicotinamide inhibition. Analysis of Sirt5 structures and activity data suggest that an Arg/succinate interaction is the molecular basis of the differential nicotinamide sensitivities of the two Sirt5 activities. Our results thus indicate a Sirtuin subfamily with nicotinamide-insensitive deacetylase activity and suggest that the molecular features determining nicotinamide sensitivity overlap with those dominating deacylation specificity, possibly suggesting that other subfamily members might also prefer other acylations than acetylations. PMID:23028781

Suenkel, Benjamin; Lakshminarasimhan, Mahadevan; Schutkowski, Mike; Steegborn, Clemens

2012-01-01

15

A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

Tsukamoto, Ikuko, E-mail: tukamoto@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan)] [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kubota, Yasuo [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Tokuda, Masaaki [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Ashino, Hiromi [The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 1-6 Kamikitazawa2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan)] [The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 1-6 Kamikitazawa2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro [Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Sanbonmatsu, Higashikagawa, Kagawa 769-2695 (Japan)] [Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Sanbonmatsu, Higashikagawa, Kagawa 769-2695 (Japan); Konishi, Ryoji [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)

2010-09-03

16

First human treatment with investigational rhGUS enzyme replacement therapy in an advanced stage MPS VII patient.  

PubMed

Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII, Sly syndrome) is a very rare lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme ?-glucuronidase (GUS), which is required for the degradation of three glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate. Progressive accumulation of these GAGs in lysosomes leads to increasing dysfunction in numerous tissues and organs. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been used successfully for other MPS disorders, but there is no approved treatment for MPS VII. Here we describe the first human treatment with recombinant human GUS (rhGUS), an investigational therapy for MPS VII, in a 12-year old boy with advanced stage MPS VII. Despite a tracheostomy, nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure, and oxygen therapy, significant pulmonary restriction and obstruction led to oxygen dependence and end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels in the 60-80mmHg range, eventually approaching respiratory failure (ETCO2 of 100mmHg) and the need for full-time ventilation. Since no additional medical measures could improve his function, we implemented experimental ERT by infusing rhGUS at 2mg/kg over 4h every 2weeks for 24weeks. Safety was evaluated by standard assessments and observance for any infusion associated reactions (IARs). Urinary GAG (uGAG) levels, pulmonary function, oxygen dependence, CO2 levels, cardiac valve function, liver and spleen size, and growth velocity were assessed to evaluate response to therapy. rhGUS infusions were well tolerated. No serious adverse events (SAEs) or IARs were observed. After initiation of rhGUS infusions, the patient's uGAG excretion decreased by more than 50%. Liver and spleen size were reduced within 2weeks of the first infusion and reached normal size by 24weeks. Pulmonary function appeared to improve during the course of treatment based on reduced changes in ETCO2 after off-ventilator challenges and a reduced oxygen requirement. The patient regained the ability to eat orally, gained weight, and his energy and activity levels increased. Over 24weeks, treatment with every-other-week infusions of rhGUS was well tolerated with no SAEs, IARs, or hypersensitivity reactions and was associated with measurable improvement in objective clinical measures and quality of life. PMID:25468648

Fox, Joyce E; Volpe, Linda; Bullaro, Josephine; Kakkis, Emil D; Sly, William S

2015-02-01

17

High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in H?, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

2012-07-01

18

Thalidomide Shows Activity Against AIDS-Related Kaposi's Sarcoma  

Cancer.gov

The drug thalidomide, used in the 1950s and 1960s as a sedative which led to birth defects in newborns of mothers who took the drug, has now been shown to have clinical activity against Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).

19

China's Changbaishan volcano showing signs of increased activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roughly 1100 years ago, the Changbaishan volcano that lies along the border between northeastern China and North Korea erupted, sending pyroclastic flows dozens of kilometers and blasting a 5-kilometer-wide chunk off of the tip of the stratovolcano. The eruption, known as the Millennium eruption because of its proximity to the turn of the first millennium, was one of the largest volcanic events in the Common Era. In the subsequent period, there have been three smaller eruptions, the most recent of which took place in 1903. Starting in 1999, spurred by signs of resumed activity, scientists established the Changbaishan Volcano Observatory, a network to track changing gas compositions, seismic activity, and ground deformation. Reporting on the data collected over the past 12 years, Xu et al. found that these volcanic indices each leapt during a period of heightened activity from 2002 to 2006.

Schultz, Colin

2012-10-01

20

Conjugation of ovotransferrin with catechin shows improved antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Ovotransferrin (OTF), representing 12-13% of the total egg white, is a member of transferrin family with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Catechin is a polyphenolic antioxidant found in green tea. The objective of the study was to conjugate ovotransferrin with catechin to improve the antioxidant activity of OTF. Conjugates were prepared either by the free radical method using hydrogen peroxide-ascorbic acid as the initiator or by the alkaline method at pH of 9.0. The oxygen-radical-scavenging effect was increased from 3.95 mol trolox equivalent (TE)/mol of ovotransferrin to 22.80 and 17.14 mol TE/mol sample, respectively, in radical and alkaline prepared conjugates, which indicated that conjugation with catechin is an effective way to improve antioxidant activity of the protein. Conjugation between ovotransferrin and catechin was analyzed by fluorescence analyses, ultra performance liquid chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled online to a tandem mass spectrometer. Catechin was covalently bound to lysine (residues 327) and glutamic acid (residues 186) in ovotransferrin. The ovotransferrin-catechin conjugate may have a potential application as a functional food and nutraceutical ingredient. PMID:24606536

You, Juan; Luo, Yongkang; Wu, Jianping

2014-03-26

21

Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insurance loss modeling for earthquakes utilizes available maps of active faulting produced by geoscientists. All such maps are subject to uncertainty, arising from lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history. Field work to undertake geological fault investigations drains human and monetary resources, and this inevitably limits the resolution of fault parameters. Some areas are more accessible than others; some may be of greater social or economic importance than others; some areas may be investigated more rapidly or diligently than others; or funding restrictions may have curtailed the extent of the fault mapping program. In contrast with the aleatory uncertainty associated with the inherent variability in the dynamics of earthquake fault rupture, uncertainty associated with lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history is epistemic. The extent of this epistemic uncertainty may vary substantially from one regional or national fault map to another. However aware the local cartographer may be, this uncertainty is generally not conveyed in detail to the international map user. For example, an area may be left blank for a variety of reasons, ranging from lack of sufficient investigation of a fault to lack of convincing evidence of activity. Epistemic uncertainty in fault parameters is of concern in any probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, not least in insurance earthquake risk applications. A logic-tree framework is appropriate for incorporating epistemic uncertainty. Some insurance contracts cover specific high-value properties or transport infrastructure, and therefore are extremely sensitive to the geometry of active faulting. Alternative Risk Transfer (ART) to the capital markets may also be considered. In order for such insurance or ART contracts to be properly priced, uncertainty should be taken into account. Accordingly, an estimate is needed for the likelihood of surface rupture capable of causing severe damage. Especially where a high deductible is in force, this requires estimation of the epistemic uncertainty on fault geometry and activity. Transport infrastructure insurance is of practical interest in seismic countries. On the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey, there is uncertainty over an unbroken segment between the eastern end of the Dazce Fault and Bolu. This may have ruptured during the 1944 earthquake. Existing hazard maps may simply use a question mark to flag uncertainty. However, a far more informative type of hazard map might express spatial variations in the confidence level associated with a fault map. Through such visual guidance, an insurance risk analyst would be better placed to price earthquake cover, allowing for epistemic uncertainty.

Woo, G.

2005-12-01

22

Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

1998-01-01

23

GH3::GUS reflects cell-specific developmental patterns and stress-induced changes in wood anatomy in the poplar stem.  

PubMed

GH3 genes related to the auxin-inducible Glycine max (L.) Merr. GmGH3 gene encode enzymes that conjugate amino acids to auxin. To investigate the role of GH3 enzymes in stress responses and normal wood development, Populus x canescens (Ait.) was transformed with the promoter-reporter construct GH3::GUS containing a GH3 promoter and the 5' UTR from soybean. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) activity was present in the vascular tissues of leaves and in developing lateral roots and was inducible in silent tissues by external auxin application. A decrease in GUS activity from the stem apex to the bottom corresponded to decreases in auxin concentrations in these tissues. High auxin concentration and high GH3::GUS activity were present in the pith tissue, which may provide storage for auxin compounds. GH3 reporter was active in ray cells, paratracheal parenchyma cells, maturing vessels and in cells surrounding maturing phloem fibers but not in the cambium and immature phloem, despite high auxin concentrations in the latter tissues. However, the GH3 promoter in these tissues became active when the plants were exposed to abiotic stresses, like bending or salinity, causing changes in wood anatomy. We suggest that adjustment of the internal auxin balance in wood in response to environmental cues involves GH3 auxin conjugate synthases. PMID:18595842

Teichmann, Thomas; Bolu-Arianto, Waode Hamsinah; Olbrich, Andrea; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie; Göbel, Cornelia; Grzeganek, Peter; Feussner, Ivo; Hänsch, Robert; Polle, Andrea

2008-09-01

24

Functional Analysis of Plant Promoter rpL34 Using the GUS Marker Gene in New Tr,tnsgene Expression Vector pZD428  

SciTech Connect

Optimization of the transgene expression system is one of the critical steps for the high level production of heterologous proteins in plants, where the promoter is a key component regulating transgene expression. In this study, the activity of the rpL34 promoter was analyzed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) NTI calli. A DNA fragment containing the rpL34 promoter and the reporter gene B-D-glucuronidase (GUS) were cloned into binary vector pZD427 to generate the transgene expression vector pZD428. The insertion was verified by enzyme restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis analyses. The DNA fragment containing the rpL34 promoter and GUS reporter gene was then integrated into the tobacco genomes via Agrobacterium funiefaciens-mediated NT suspension cell transformation. The transformed CaNi were induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) plates containing proper amounts of 2,4-D, cefotoxime, and kanamycin. Two hundred and sixty transformed calli were harvested for GUS activity and protein concentration measurements. GUS activity analyses revealed the specific activity up to 278,358 units per milligram total soluble protein. The GUS activity under the control of the rpL34 promoter is much higher than that under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, a commonly used promoter in plant biology. These results suggest that the rpL34 promoter is one of the most active promoters that can be used for heterologous protein production in calli and suspension cells.

Mauzey-Amato, Jacqueline M. (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Dai, Ziyu (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-11-01

25

BY E..GUS COTHRAN, MICHAEL H. SMITH, JERRY O. WOLFF AND JOHN B. GENTRY  

E-print Network

BY E..GUS COTHRAN, MICHAEL H. SMITH, JERRY O. WOLFF AND JOHN B. GENTRY #12;SRO-NERP-21 MAMMALS OF THE SA VANNAH RIVER SITE E. GUS COTHRAN MICHAEL H. SMITH JERRY O. WOLFF AND JOHN B. GENTRY SAVANNAH Rnffi- Star-nosed Mole 58 Scalopus aquaticus howelli Jackson - Eastern Mole 59 Lasionycteris noctivagans (Le

Georgia, University of

26

Phytochrome-Mediated Light Regulation of PHYA- and PHYB-GUS Transgenes in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings.  

PubMed Central

Phytochrome wild-type gene-[beta]-glucuronidase (PHY-GUS) gene fusions were used in transgenic Arabidopsis to compare the activity levels and light regulation of the PHYA and PHYB promoters and to identify the photoreceptors mediating this regulation. In dark-grown seedlings, both promoters are 4-fold more active in shoots than in roots,but the PHYA promoter is nearly 20-fold more active than that of PHYB in both organs. In shoots, white light represses the activities of the PHYA and PHYB promoters 10- and 2-fold, respectively, whereas in roots light has no effect on the PHYA promoter but increases PHYB promoter activity 2-fold. Consequently, PHYA promoter activity remains higher than that of PHYB in light in both shoots (5-fold) and roots (11-fold). Experiments with narrow-waveband light and photomorphogenic mutants suggest that no single photoreceptor is necessary for full white-light-directed PHYA repression in shoots, but that multiple, independent photoreceptor pathways are sufficient alone or in combination. In contrast, phytochrome B appears both necessary and sufficient for a light-mediated decrease in PHYB activity in shoots, and phytochrome A mediates a far-red-light-stimulated increase in PHYB promoter activity. Together, the data indicate that the PHYA and PHYB genes are regulated in divergent fashion at the transcriptional level, both developmentally and by the spectral distribution of the prevailing light, and that this regulation may be important to the photosensory function of the two photoreceptors. PMID:12228380

Somers, D. E.; Quail, P. H.

1995-01-01

27

Development of GUS for control applications at the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

A script-based interpretive shell GUS (General Purpose Data Acquisition for Unix Shell) has been developed for application to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control. The primary design objective of GUS is to provide a mechanism for efficient data flow among modularized objects called Data Access Modules (DAMs). GUS consists of four major components: user interface, kernel, built-in command module, and DAMS. It also incorporates the Unix shell to make use of the existing utility programs for file manipulation and data analysis. At this time, DAMs have been written for device access through EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), data I/O for SDDS (Self-Describing Data Set) files, matrix manipulation, graphics display, digital signal processing, and beam position feedback system control. The modular and object-oriented construction of GUS will facilitate addition of more DAMs with other functions in the future.

Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Borland, M.; Kirchman, J.; Decker, G.; Kim, K.

1994-08-01

28

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-04-01 true Qualified convention and trade show activity. 1.513-3 Section...1.513-3 Qualified convention and trade show activity. (a) Introduction ...513-3(b) provide that convention and trade show activities carried on by a...

2014-04-01

29

Do Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Show Different Daily Physical Activity Patterns From Healthy Individuals?  

PubMed

Background. Reduced physical activity is an important consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, little is known about the real quantity and type of daily activities that people with MS perform in their own home environment. Objective. To gain insight into differences in the amount and patterns of physical activities performed over a 24-hour period in the own community environment of patients with MS and healthy individuals. Methods. A total of 43 ambulatory patients with MS and 26 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals participated. Physical activity recorded with an ambulatory activity monitor was classified into postures and motions. Multilevel analyses were conducted to investigate whether the pattern of physical activities across daily periods (morning, afternoon, and evening) was dependent on the group (MS vs healthy individuals). Results. Results showed a significant overall lower amount of dynamic activity as compared with a group of healthy controls (P < .001). Patients with MS started with lower physical activity levels already in the morning (P < .001), and this difference persisted in the afternoon (P = .002) and evening (P = .032). Conclusion. Activity monitoring gives insight into real-world daily physical behavior. Our findings suggest that patients with MS may adopt a deliberate anticipatory strategy of lower activity in the morning, which persists throughout the day. Future trials evaluating daily changes in physical activity behavior should simultaneously sample self-report measures of energy levels and fatigue to elucidate the complex interaction between symptoms and physical activity. PMID:24515924

Rietberg, Marc B; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Kwakkel, Gert

2014-02-10

30

GUS Gene Expression Driven by A Citrus Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco and 'Valencia' Sweet Orange  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene promoter (CsPP). Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange explants with Agrobacteriu...

31

A Seed-GUS-Expression Enhancer-trap Library for Germination Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enhancer-trap lines are used to identify tissue- and stage-specific gene expression. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) enhancer-trap population from the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC), Ohio, USA, has been screened for '-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in germinating see...

32

A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza  

SciTech Connect

M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

33

LDL from obese patients with metabolic syndrome show increased lipid peroxidation and activate platelets  

E-print Network

1 LDL from obese patients with metabolic syndrome show increased lipid peroxidation and activate;3 Keywords Lipid peroxidation . Fatty acids . LDL. Oxidized LDL . Platelets . Metabolic syndrome . Type 2: Oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome *Corresponding author: Dr. Catherine Calzada UMR INSERM 1060

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis  

E-print Network

Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Amin is about 10 times higher on 5 nm silver nanoparticles than on bulk silver even though measurements of two catalysts, a silver metal and ionic liquid 1- ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIM

Kenis, Paul J. A.

35

Task Control Signals in Pediatric Tourette Syndrome Show Evidence of Immature and Anomalous Functional Activity  

PubMed Central

Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008). A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e., correlations outside the typical developmental range) limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009). The present study used functional MRI (fMRI) to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals), and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set). Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue) activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”). Second, group differences found in task-maintenance (i.e., sustained) activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task-maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents with TS. PMID:19949483

Church, Jessica A.; Wenger, Kristin K.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

2009-01-01

36

Functional characterization of a Plagiochasma appendiculatum flavone synthase I showing flavanone 2-hydroxylase activity.  

PubMed

FNS I is a 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenase (2-ODD) found mainly in species of the Apiaceae family. Here, an FNS I cDNA sequence was isolated from the liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum (Aytoniaceae) and characterized. The recombinant protein exhibited high FNS I activity catalyzing the conversion of naringenin to apigenin and 2-hydroxynaringenin. The critical residue for flavanone-2-hydroxylation activity was Tyr240, as identified from homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. The recombinant protein also showed some flavonol synthase activity, as it can convert dihydrokaempferol to kaempferol. When the Leu311 residue was mutated to Phe, the enzyme's capacity to convert dihydrokaempferol to kaempferol was substantially increased. PaFNS I represents a 2-ODD in which a hydrophobic ?-stacking interaction between the key residue and the naringenin A-ring determines 2-hydroxyflavanone formation. PMID:24859082

Han, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Yi-Feng; Gao, Shuai; Yu, Hai-Na; Xu, Rui-Xue; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Cheng, Ai-Xia

2014-06-27

37

Sterols from Mytilidae Show Anti-Aging and Neuroprotective Effects via Anti-Oxidative Activity  

PubMed Central

For screening anti-aging samples from marine natural products, K6001 yeast strain was employed as a bioassay system. The active mussel extract was separated to give an active sterol fraction (SF). SF was further purified, and four sterol compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined to be cholesterol (CHOL), brassicasterol, crinosterol, and 24-methylenecholesterol. All compounds showed similar anti-aging activity. To understand the action mechanism involved, anti-oxidative experiments, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, and malondialdehyde (MDA) tests were performed on the most abundant compound, CHOL. Results indicated that treatment with CHOL increases the survival rate of yeast under oxidative stress and decreases ROS and MDA levels. In addition, mutations of uth1, skn7, sod1, and sod2, which feature a K6001 background, were employed and the lifespans of the mutations were not affected by CHOL. These results demonstrate that CHOL exerts anti-aging effects via anti-oxidative stress. Based on the connection between neuroprotection and anti-aging, neuroprotective experiments were performed in PC12 cells. Paraquat was used to induce oxidative stress and the results showed that the CHOL and SF protect the PC12 cells from the injury induced by paraquat. In addition, these substance exhibited nerve growth factor (NGF) mimic activities again confirmed their neuroprotective function. PMID:25429428

Sun, Yujuan; Lin, Yanfei; Cao, Xueli; Xiang, Lan; Qi, Jianhua

2014-01-01

38

Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700?mol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts. PMID:25577085

Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

2015-05-15

39

Hoarding disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder show different patterns of neural activity during response inhibition.  

PubMed

Although hoarding disorder (HD) has been historically conceptualized as a subtype or dimension of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), preliminary evidence suggests that these two disorders have distinct neural underpinnings. The aim of the present study was to compare the hemodynamic responses of HD patients, OCD patients, and healthy controls (HC) during response inhibition on a high-conflict Go/NoGo task that has previously proved sensitive to OCD. Participants comprised 24 HD patients, 24 OCD patients, and 24 HCs who completed a Go/NoGo task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although behavioral data showed no difference among the groups in Go/NoGo task performance, significant differences in hemodynamic activity were noted. During correct rejects (successful response inhibition), HD patients showed greater right precentral gyrus activation, whereas OCD patients exhibited greater right orbitofrontal activation, as assessed using a region of interest approach. During errors of commission (response inhibition failures), OCD patients, but not HD patients, were characterized by excessive activity in left and right orbitofrontal gyrus. The present results lend further support to the biological distinction between HD and OCD, and they are consistent with previous research suggesting frontal hypoactivity in HD patients during hoarding-unrelated tasks. PMID:24389161

Tolin, David F; Witt, Suzanne T; Stevens, Michael C

2014-02-28

40

Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal membranes. Conclusion A berry specific cDNA clone, Vv-AMP1, was isolated and characterized and shown to encode a plant defensin. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 displayed non-morphogenic antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of fungi, probably altering the membrane permeability of the fungal pathogens. The expression of this peptide is highly regulated in Vitis vinifera, hinting at an important defense role during berry-ripening. PMID:18611251

de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

2008-01-01

41

Specimen block counter-staining for localization of GUS expression in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple counter-staining procedure has been developed for comparative beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression and anatomical localization in transgenic herbaceous arabidopsis and tobacco. This protocol provides good anatomical visualization for monitoring chimeric gene expression at both the organ and tissue levels. It can be used with different histochemical stains and can be extended to the study of woody species. The specimens are paraffin-embedded, the block is trimmed to reveal internal structure, safranin-O staining solution is briefly applied to the surface of the block, then washed off and, after drying, a drop of immersion oil is placed on the stained surface for subsequent photographic work. This gives tissue counter-staining with good structural preservation without loss of GUS staining product; moreover, sample observation is rapid and efficient compared to existing procedures.

Kim, M. K.; Choi, J-W; Jeon, J-H; Franceschi, V. R.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

2002-01-01

42

The use of transient GUS expression to develop an Agrobacterium -mediated gene transfer system for kiwifruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have monitored transient GUS expression 4–5 days after cocultivation of leaf explants with Agrobacterium, in order to optimise parameters of cocultivation and so develop an efficient, reproducible gene transfer system in kiwifruit. Factors that were important included the health of the explant, the strain of Agrobacterium, and the binary vector used. Pre-culture of the leaf explants before cocultivation inhibited

Bart-Jan Janssen; Richard C. Gardner

1993-01-01

43

A maize spermine synthase 1 PEST sequence fused to the GUS reporter protein facilitates proteolytic degradation.  

PubMed

Polyamines are low molecular weight aliphatic compounds involved in various biochemical, cellular and physiological processes in all organisms. In plants, genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis and catabolism are regulated at transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational level. In this research, we focused on the characterization of a PEST sequence (rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine) of the maize spermine synthase 1 (ZmSPMS1). To this aim, 123 bp encoding 40 amino acids of the C-terminal region of the ZmSPMS1 enzyme containing the PEST sequence were fused to the GUS reporter gene. This fusion was evaluated in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines and onion monolayers transient expression system. The ZmSPMS1 PEST sequence leads to specific degradation of the GUS reporter protein. It is suggested that the 26S proteasome may be involved in GUS::PEST fusion degradation in both onion and Arabidopsis. The PEST sequences appear to be present in plant spermine synthases, mainly in monocots. PMID:24642522

Maruri-López, Israel; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída Araceli; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Olivares-Grajales, Juan Elías; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

2014-05-01

44

Two systems in vitro that show insulin-stimulated serine kinase activity towards the insulin receptor.  

PubMed Central

Two systems in vitro are described that show insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the insulin receptor on serine residues. In the first system, insulin receptor was purified partially from Fao rat hepatoma cells by direct solubilization of the cells in Triton X-100 and chromatography on wheat-germ-agglutinin-agarose. Phosphorylation of these preparations with [gamma-32P]ATP in the presence or absence of insulin resulted in 32P incorporation exclusively into phosphotyrosine residues. Serine kinase activity towards the insulin receptor was reconstituted by adding extracts of Fao cells. Prior exposure of the cells to insulin stimulated serine kinase activity towards the insulin receptor in extracts 7.2-fold. A receptor serine kinase activity enhanced by treatment of cells with cyclic AMP analogues was also retained in the reconstituted system. In the second system, insulin receptor and insulin-sensitive serine kinase activity towards the insulin receptor were co-purified from human placenta. The protocol involved preparation of membranes, before solubilization and chromatography on wheat-germ-agglutinin-agarose, by using gentle procedures designed not to disrupt a potentially labile association between the insulin receptor and the serine kinase. Serine kinase activity in these preparations towards the insulin receptor was stimulated up to 10-fold by insulin, and the stoicheiometry of serine phosphorylation was estimated to be approx 0.8 mol/mol of insulin receptor for phosphorylations performed in the presence of insulin. Thus a preparation of insulin receptor is described for the first time that is phosphorylated to high stoicheiometry on serine in an insulin-dependent manner. Conditions that facilitate recovery and assay of serine kinase activity are defined and discussed. These systems provide a basis for characterizing the nature of the insulin-sensitive serine kinase that phosphorylates the insulin receptor, and defining its role in insulin action and control of receptor function. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2965579

Smith, D M; King, M J; Sale, G J

1988-01-01

45

Emodin isolated from Cassia obtusifolia (Leguminosae) seed shows larvicidal activity against three mosquito species.  

PubMed

Mosquito larvicidal activity of Cassia obtusifolia (Leguminosae) seed-derived materials against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Aedes togoi, and Culex pipiens pallens was examined. The chloroform fraction of C. obtusifolia extract showed a strong larvicidal activity of 100% mortality at 25 mg/L. The biologically active component of C. obtusifolia seeds was characterized as emodin by spectroscopic analyses. The LC(50) values of emodin were 1.4, 1.9, and 2.2 mg/L against C. pipiens pallens, A. aegypti, and A. togoi, respectively. Pirimiphos-methyl acts as a positive control directly compared to emodin. Pirimiphos-methyl was a much more potent mosquito larvicide than emodin. Nonetheless, emodin may be useful as a lead compound and new agent for a naturally occurring mosquito larvicidal agent. In tests with hydroxyanthraquinones, no activity was observed with alizarin, danthron, and quinizarin, but purpurin has an apparent LC(50) value of approximately 19.6 mg/L against A. aegypti. PMID:14664519

Yang, Young-Cheol; Lim, Mi-Youn; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2003-12-17

46

The novel AKT inhibitor afuresertib shows favorable safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity in multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

The PI3K/AKT pathway is constitutively active in hematologic malignancies, providing proliferative and antiapoptotic signals and possibly contributing to drug resistance. We conducted an open-label phase 1 study to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of afuresertib—an oral AKT inhibitor—in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. Seventy-three patients were treated at doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg per day. The MTD was established at 125 mg per day because of 2 dose-limiting toxicities in the 150-mg cohort (liver function test abnormalities). The most frequent adverse events were nausea (35.6%), diarrhea (32.9%), and dyspepsia (24.7%). Maximum plasma concentrations and area under the plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to 24 hours were generally dose proportional at >75-mg doses; the median time to peak plasma concentrations was 1.5 to 2.5 hours post dose, with a half-life of approximately 1.7 days. Three multiple myeloma patients attained partial responses; an additional 3 attained minimal responses. Clinical activity was also observed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, and Hodgkin disease. Single-agent afuresertib showed a favorable safety profile and demonstrated clinical activity against hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00881946. PMID:25075128

Spencer, Andrew; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Harrison, Simon J.; Morris, Shannon R.; Smith, Deborah A.; Brigandi, Richard A.; Gauvin, Jennifer; Kumar, Rakesh; Opalinska, Joanna B.

2014-01-01

47

Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. Results We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a and LA-b have molecular masses of approximately 50 and 46 kDa, respectively, and are abundant in the soluble fraction of latex. Western blotting analysis suggested that they share sequence similarity with each other. The sequences of LA-a and LA-b, as determined by Edman degradation, showed chitin-binding domains of plant chitinases at the N termini. These proteins showed small but significant chitinase and chitosanase activities. Lectin RCA120 indicated that, unlike common plant chitinases, LA-a and LA-b are glycosylated. LA-a and LA-b showed insecticidal activities when fed to larvae of the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two LA proteins have a crucial role in defense against herbivorous insects, possibly by hydrolyzing their chitin. PMID:20109180

2010-01-01

48

Nodulation competitiveness of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli and Rhizobium tropici strains measured by glucuronidase ( gus ) gene fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nodulation competitiveness of 17 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli and 3 R. tropici strains was analysed in growth pouches, at pH 5.2 and 6.4. All 20 strains were coinoculated with a gus+ strain of R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strain KIM5s. The gus+ phenotype, carrying the glucuronidase gene, was used to type nodules directly in the growth pouches. Nodule occupancy ranged

W. Streit; K. Kosch; D. Werner

1992-01-01

49

PEG-mediated expression of GUS and CAT genes in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca  

Microsoft Academic Search

ß-Glucuronidase (GUS) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) were used as reporter proteins in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce). Plasmid DNA enclosing chimeric GUS and CAT constructs, using the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was introduced into Picea glauca protoplasts using polyethylene glycol (PEG). Transient expression was detected 12 to 40 h after PEG-mediated

Sherry M. Wilson; Trevor A. Thorpe; Maurice M. Moloney

1989-01-01

50

Two Analogues of Fenarimol Show Curative Activity in an Experimental Model of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is an increasing threat to global health. Available medicines were introduced over 40 years ago, have undesirable side effects, and give equivocal results of cure in the chronic stage of the disease. We report the development of two compounds, 6 and (S)-7, with PCR-confirmed curative activity in a mouse model of established T. cruzi infection after once daily oral dosing for 20 days at 20 mg/kg 6 and 10 mg/kg (S)-7. Compounds 6 and (S)-7 have potent in vitro activity, are noncytotoxic, show no adverse effects in vivo following repeat dosing, are prepared by a short synthetic route, and have druglike properties suitable for preclinical development. PMID:24304150

2013-01-01

51

Children with High Functioning Autism show increased prefrontal and temporal cortex activity during error monitoring  

PubMed Central

Evidence exists for deficits in error monitoring in autism. These deficits may be particularly important because they may contribute to excessive perseveration and repetitive behavior in autism. We examined the neural correlates of error monitoring using fMRI in 8–12-year-old children with high-functioning autism (HFA, n=11) and typically developing children (TD, n=15) during performance of a Go/No-Go task by comparing the neural correlates of commission errors versus correct response inhibition trials. Compared to TD children, children with HFA showed increased BOLD fMRI signal in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC) and the left superior temporal gyrus (STempG) during commission error (versus correct inhibition) trials. A follow-up region-of-interest analysis also showed increased BOLD signal in the right insula in HFA compared to TD controls. Our findings of increased amPFC and STempG activity in HFA, together with the increased activity in the insula, suggest a greater attention towards the internally-driven emotional state associated with making an error in children with HFA. Since error monitoring occurs across different cognitive tasks throughout daily life, an increased emotional reaction to errors may have important consequences for early learning processes. PMID:21151713

Goldberg, Melissa C.; Spinelli, Simona; Joel, Suresh; Pekar, James J.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

2010-01-01

52

Tannic Acid Modified Silver Nanoparticles Show Antiviral Activity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection  

PubMed Central

The interaction between silver nanoparticles and herpesviruses is attracting great interest due to their antiviral activity and possibility to use as microbicides for oral and anogenital herpes. In this work, we demonstrate that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles sized 13 nm, 33 nm and 46 nm are capable of reducing HSV-2 infectivity both in vitro and in vivo. The antiviral activity of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles was size-related, required direct interaction and blocked virus attachment, penetration and further spread. All tested tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles reduced both infection and inflammatory reaction in the mouse model of HSV-2 infection when used at infection or for a post-infection treatment. Smaller-sized nanoparticles induced production of cytokines and chemokines important for anti-viral response. The corresponding control buffers with tannic acid showed inferior antiviral effects in vitro and were ineffective in blocking in vivo infection. Our results show that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles are good candidates for microbicides used in treatment of herpesvirus infections. PMID:25117537

Orlowski, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Gniadek, Marianna; Baska, Piotr; Nowakowska, Julita; Sokolowska, Justyna; Nowak, Zuzanna; Donten, Mikolaj; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw; Krzyzowska, Malgorzata

2014-01-01

53

Native and recombinant Pg-AMP1 show different antibacterial activity spectrum but similar folding behavior.  

PubMed

Glycine-rich proteins (GRPs) derived from plants compose a family of proteins and peptides that share a glycine repeat domain and they can perform diverse functions. Two structural conformations have been proposed for GRPs: glycine loops arranged as a Velcro and an anti-parallel ?-sheet with several ?-strands. The antimicrobial peptide Pg-AMP1 is the only plant GRP with antibacterial activity reported so far and its structure remains unclear. Recently, its recombinant expression was reported, where the recombinant peptide had an additional methionine residue at the N-terminal and a histidine tag at the C-terminal (His6-tag). These changes seem to change the peptide's activity, generating a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity. In this report, through ab initio molecular modelling and molecular dynamics, it was observed that both native and recombinant peptide structures were composed of an N-terminal ?-helix and a dynamic loop that represents two-thirds of the protein. In contrast to previous reports, it was observed that there is a tendency to adopt a globular fold instead of an extended one, which could be in both, glycine loops or anti-parallel ?-sheet conformation. The recombinant peptide showed a slightly higher solvated potential energy compared to the native form, which could be related to the His6-tag exposition. In fact, the His6-tag could be mainly responsible for the broader spectrum of activity, but it does not seem to cause great structural changes. However, novel studies are needed for a better characterization of its pharmacological properties so that in the future novel drugs may be produced based on this peptide. PMID:24582624

Porto, William F; Nolasco, Diego O; Franco, Octavio L

2014-05-01

54

Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 ?g/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense system, potentially contributing towards the anti-proliferative effect. There is great potential for the ethyl acetate extract of P. betle leaf as a source of natural antioxidants and to be developed as therapeutics in cancer treatment. PMID:23153283

2012-01-01

55

Substituted aminopyrimidine protein kinase B (PknB) inhibitors show activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

A high-throughput screen against PknB, an essential serine–threonine protein kinase present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), allowed the identification of an aminoquinazoline inhibitor which was used as a starting point for SAR investigations. Although a significant improvement in enzyme affinity was achieved, the aminoquinazolines showed little or no cellular activity against M. tuberculosis. However, switching to an aminopyrimidine core scaffold and the introduction of a basic amine side chain afforded compounds with nanomolar enzyme binding affinity and micromolar minimum inhibitory concentrations against M. tuberculosis. Replacement of the pyrazole head group with pyridine then allowed equipotent compounds with improved selectivity against a human kinase panel to be obtained. PMID:22469702

Chapman, Timothy M.; Bouloc, Nathalie; Buxton, Roger S.; Chugh, Jasveen; Lougheed, Kathryn E.A.; Osborne, Simon A.; Saxty, Barbara; Smerdon, Stephen J.; Taylor, Debra L.; Whalley, David

2012-01-01

56

Synthesis and conformational analysis of a series of galactosyl enkephalin analogues showing high analgesic activity.  

PubMed Central

Two galactosyl derivatives of [DMet2,Pro5] enkephalin-amide (compound 1), namely [DMet2,Pro5] enkephalin [N1.5-beta-D-galactopyranosyl] amide (compound 2) and O1.5-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl) [DMet2,Hyp5] enkephalin-amide (compound 3) have been synthesized. Such glycosylpeptides have been shown to be extremely potent analgesic agonists. The conformational analysis of these three compounds in DMSO-d6 solution has been carried out using two-dimensional NMR methods. Both the parent compound (1) and the beta N-galactosyl derivative (2) show similar NMR parameters which are consistent with fairly rigid beta-strands at both the N-terminus and C-terminus, connected by a glycine residue that displays a mixture between multiple conformational states. Thus, although the beta N-galactosyl derivative (2) has been shown to be significantly more potent than the parent compound (1) in the tail immersion and paw pressure tests of analgesia, no correlation can be established between the conformation of (1) and (2) in DMSO and the difference in analgesic activity. In contrast, important conformational differences with respect to (1) and (2) have been detected in the beta O-galactosyl derivative (3). In this case, only one of the likely conformations for (1) and (2) are consistent with the experimental data. These data show that the position of the galactose residue in compound (3) causes Gly3 to loose flexibility leading to a more rigid folded conformation. Such a change in conformation could be related to the difference in analgesic activity between (2) and (3). Images PMID:2583086

Torres, J L; Pepermans, H; Valencia, G; Reig, F; García-Antón, J M; Van Binst, G

1989-01-01

57

The Left Occipitotemporal Cortex Does Not Show Preferential Activity for Words  

PubMed Central

Regions in left occipitotemporal (OT) cortex, including the putative visual word form area, are among the most commonly activated in imaging studies of single-word reading. It remains unclear whether this part of the brain is more precisely characterized as specialized for words and/or letters or contains more general-use visual regions having properties useful for processing word stimuli, among others. In Analysis 1, we found no evidence of greater activity in left OT regions for words or letter strings relative to other high–spatial frequency high-contrast stimuli, including line drawings and Amharic strings (which constitute the Ethiopian writing system). In Analysis 2, we further investigated processing characteristics of OT cortex potentially useful in reading. Analysis 2 showed that a specific part of OT cortex 1) is responsive to visual feature complexity, measured by the number of strokes forming groups of letters or Amharic strings and 2) processes learned combinations of characters, such as those in words and pseudowords, as groups but does not do so in consonant and Amharic strings. Together, these results indicate that while regions of left OT cortex are not specialized for words, at least part of OT cortex has properties particularly useful for processing words and letters. PMID:22235035

Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

2012-01-01

58

Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show a stronger vaccine adjuvant activity than traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles  

PubMed Central

Aluminum hydroxide is used as a vaccine adjuvant in various human vaccines. Unfortunately, despite its favorable safety profile, aluminum hydroxide can only weakly or moderately potentiate antigen-specific antibody responses. When dispersed in an aqueous solution, aluminum hydroxide forms particulates of 1–20 µm. There is increasing evidence that nanoparticles around or less than 200 nm as vaccine or antigen carriers have a more potent adjuvant activity than large microparticles. In the present study, we synthesized aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles of 112 nm. Using ovalbumin and Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein as model antigens, we showed that protein antigens adsorbed on the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles induced a stronger antigen-specific antibody response than the same protein antigens adsorbed on the traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles of around 9.3 µm. The potent adjuvant activity of the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles was likely related to their ability to more effectively facilitate the uptake of the antigens adsorbed on them by antigen-presenting cells. Finally, the local inflammation induced by aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles in the injection sites was milder than that induced by microparticles. Simply reducing the particle size of the traditional aluminum hydroxide adjuvant into nanometers represents a novel and effective approach to improve its adjuvanticity. PMID:24188959

Li, Xinran; Aldayel, Abdulaziz M.; Cui, Zhengrong

2013-01-01

59

Crystal structure of plant light-harvesting complex shows the active, energy-transmitting state.  

PubMed

Plants dissipate excess excitation energy as heat by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). NPQ has been thought to resemble in vitro aggregation quenching of the major antenna complex, light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II). Both processes are widely believed to involve a conformational change that creates a quenching centre of two neighbouring pigments within the complex. Using recombinant LHC-II lacking the pigments implicated in quenching, we show that they have no particular role. Single crystals of LHC-II emit strong, orientation-dependent fluorescence with an emission maximum at 680 nm. The average lifetime of the main 680 nm crystal emission at 100 K is 1.31 ns, but only 0.39 ns for LHC-II aggregates under identical conditions. The strong emission and comparatively long fluorescence lifetimes of single LHC-II crystals indicate that the complex is unquenched, and that therefore the crystal structure shows the active, energy-transmitting state of LHC-II. We conclude that quenching of excitation energy in the light-harvesting antenna is due to the molecular interaction with external pigments in vitro or other pigment-protein complexes such as PsbS in vivo, and does not require a conformational change within the complex. PMID:19131972

Barros, Tiago; Royant, Antoine; Standfuss, Jörg; Dreuw, Andreas; Kühlbrandt, Werner

2009-02-01

60

Neural Activation in the ‘Reward Circuit’ Shows a Nonlinear Response to Facial Attractiveness  

PubMed Central

Positive behavioral responses to attractive faces have led neuroscientists to investigate underlying neural mechanisms in a ‘reward circuit’ that includes brain regions innervated by dopamine pathways. Using male faces ranging from attractive to extremely unattractive, disfigured ones, this study is the first to demonstrate heightened responses to both rewarding and aversive faces in numerous areas of this putative reward circuit. Parametric analyses employing orthogonal linear and nonlinear regressors revealed positive nonlinear effects in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), lateral orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC), striatum (nucleus accumbens (NAC), caudate, putamen), and ventral tegmental area (VTA), in addition to replicating previously documented linear effects in MOFC and LOFC and nonlinear effects in AMY and MOFC. The widespread nonlinear responses are consistent both with single cell recordings in animals showing responses to both rewarding and aversive stimuli and some human fMRI investigations of non-face stimuli. They indicate that the reward circuit does not process face valence with any simple dissociation of function across structures. Perceiver gender modulated some responses to our male faces: women showed stronger linear effects, and men showed stronger nonlinear effects, which may have functional implications. Our discovery of nonlinear responses to attractiveness throughout the reward circuit echoes the history of amygdala research: early work indicated a linear response to threatening stimuli, including faces; later work also revealed a nonlinear response with heightened activation to affectively salient stimuli regardless of valence. The challenge remains to determine how such dual coding influences feelings, like pleasure and pain, and guides goal-related behavioral responses, like approach and avoidance. PMID:20221946

Liang, Xiaoyun; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Zhang, Yi

2010-01-01

61

Total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir shows anti-angiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Total alkaloids is an active ingredient of the natural plant Rubus alceifolius Poir, commonly used for the treatment of various cancers. Antitumor effects may be mediated through anti-angiogenic mechanisms. As such, the goal of the present study was to investigate and evaluate the effect of total alkaloids in Rubus alceifolius Poir (TARAP) on tumor angiogenesis and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of TARAP action in vivo and in vitro. A chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used to assess angiogenesis in vivo. An MTT assay was performed to determine the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with and without treatment. Cell cycle progression of HUVECs was examined by FACS analysis with propidium iodide staining. HUVEC migration was determined using a scratch wound method. Tube formation of HUVECs was assessed with an ECMatrix gel system, and mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HUVECs and HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were examined by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Our results showed that TARAP inhibited angiogenesis in the CAM model in vivo and inhibited HUVEC proliferation via blocking cell cycle G1 to S progression in a dose- and time-dependent manners in vitro. Moreover, TARAP inhibited HUVEC migration and tube formation and downregulated mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HepG2 cells and HUVECs. Our findings suggest that the anti-angiogenic activity of TARAP may partly contribute to its antitumor properties and may be valuable for the treatment of diseases involving pathologic angiogenesis such as cancer. PMID:25148840

Zhao, Jinyan; Lin, Wei; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Cao, Zhiyun; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

2014-11-01

62

Xylanase XYN IV from Trichoderma reesei showing exo- and endo-xylanase activity.  

PubMed

A minor xylanase, named XYN IV, was purified from the cellulolytic system of the fungus Trichoderma reesei Rut C30. The enzyme was discovered on the basis of its ability to attack aldotetraohexenuronic acid (HexA-2Xyl-4Xyl-4Xyl, HexA(3)Xyl(3)), releasing the reducing-end xylose residue. XYN IV exhibited catalytic properties incompatible with previously described endo-?-1,4-xylanases of this fungus, XYN I, XYN II and XYN III, and the xylan-hydrolyzing endo-?-1,4-glucanase EG I. XYN IV was able to degrade several different ?-1,4-xylans, but was inactive on ?-1,4-mannans and ?-1,4-glucans. It showed both exo-and endo-xylanase activity. Rhodymenan, a linear soluble ?-1,3-?-1,4-xylan, was as the best substrate. Linear xylooligosaccharides were attacked exclusively at the first glycosidic linkage from the reducing end. The gene xyn4, encoding XYN IV, was also isolated. It showed clear homology with xylanases classified in glycoside hydrolase family 30, which also includes glucanases and mannanases. The xyn4 gene was expressed slightly when grown on xylose and xylitol, clearly on arabinose, arabitol, sophorose, xylobiose, xylan and cellulose, but not on glucose or sorbitol, resembling induction of other xylanolytic enzymes from T. reesei. A recombinant enzyme prepared in a Pichia pastoris expression system exhibited identical catalytic properties to the enzyme isolated from the T. reesei culture medium. The physiological role of this unique enzyme remains unknown, but it may involve liberation of xylose from the reducing end of branched oligosaccharides that are resistant toward ?-xylosidase and other types of endoxylanases. In terms of its catalytic properties, XYN IV differs from bacterial GH family 30 glucuronoxylanases that recognize 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) substituents as substrate specificity determinants. PMID:23167779

Tenkanen, Maija; Vršanská, Mária; Siika-aho, Matti; Wong, Dominic W; Puchart, Vladimír; Penttilä, Merja; Saloheimo, Markku; Biely, Peter

2013-01-01

63

Using analogy role-play activity in an undergraduate biology classroom to show central dogma revision.  

PubMed

For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego® blocks (Lego System A/S, Denmark). Students were studying in the course of mathematics, physics, or chemistry, so biology was not among their usual studies. In this exercise, students perform the central dogma role-play and respectively act out nuclear matrix proteins, a transcription factor, an RNA polymerase II, an mRNA transport protein, nuclear pore proteins, a large ribosomal subunit, a small ribosomal subunit, and several amino-acyl tRNA synthetases. Questionnaire results obtained after the activity show that this central dogma role-play analogy holds student interest in the practical molecular biological processes of transcription and translation. PMID:24898113

Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

2014-01-01

64

A nanoparticle depot formulation of 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine shows a strong antitumor activity  

PubMed Central

Objectives Depot formulation as a carrier for cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs is not well studied. The objective of the present study is to test the feasibility of using a subcutaneous depot formulation to administer a cytotoxic anticancer drug for systemic therapy. Methods A fatty acid amide prodrug of the nucleoside analog gemcitabine (4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine (GemC18)) was incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles or microspheres. A GemC18 solution was used as a control. The antitumor activities were evaluated after subcutaneous injection of the different formulations in C57BL/6 mice with pre-established model tumors. The clearance of GemC18 from the injection site was determined by measuring the percentage of GemC18 remaining at the injection site at different time after the injection. Key findings The depot formulation based on the GemC18-loaded PLGA nanoparticles showed the strongest antitumor, likely due to the proper ‘release’ of GemC18 from the injection site. Conclusions It is feasible to dose cytotoxic anticancer drugs as a nanoparticle-based depot formulation, especially when combined with an advanced prodrug strategy. PMID:23278691

Zhu, Saijie; Li, Xinran; Lansakara-P, Dharmika S.P.; Kumar, Amit; Cui, Zhengrong

2012-01-01

65

EGFR-targeted stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticles show enhanced anti-tumor activity  

PubMed Central

Previously, it was shown that a novel 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticle formulation was more effective than gemcitabine hydrochloride in controlling the growth of model mouse or human tumors pre-established in mice. In the present study, the feasibility of targeting the stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticles (GemC18-NPs) into tumor cells that over-express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to more effectively control tumor growth was evaluated. EGFR is over-expressed in a variety of tumor cells, and EGF is a known natural ligand of EGFR. Recombinant murine EGF was conjugated onto the GemC18-NPs. The ability of the EGF to target the GemC18-NPs to human breast adenocarcinoma cells that expressed different levels of EGFR was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In culture, the extent to which the EGF-conjugated GemC18-NPs were taken up by tumor cells was correlated to the EGFR density on the tumor cells, whereas the uptake of untargeted GemC18-NPs exhibited no difference among those same cell lines. The relative cytotoxicity of the EGF-conjugated GemC18-NPs to tumor cells in culture was correlated to EGFR expression as well. In vivo, EGFR-over-expressing MDA-MB-468 tumors in mice treated with the EGF-conjugated GemC18-NPs grew significantly slower than in mice treated with untargeted GemC18-NPs, likely due to that the EGF-GemC18-NPs were more anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and pro-apoptotic. Fluorescence intensity data from ex vivo imaging showed that the EGF on the nanoparticles helped increase the accumulation of the GemC18-NPs into MDA-MB-468 tumors pre-established in mice by more than 2-fold as compared to the un-targeted GemC18-NPs. In conclusion, active targeting of the GemC18-NPs into EGFR-over-expressed tumors can further enhance their anti-tumor activity. PMID:21871505

Sandoval, Michael A.; Sloat, Brian R.; Lansakara-P, Dharmika S.P.; Kumar, Amit; Rodriguez, B. Leticia; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John; Cui, Zhengrong

2011-01-01

66

Mice lacking brain-type creatine kinase activity show defective thermoregulation  

PubMed Central

The cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase and mitochondrial ubiquitous creatine kinase (CK-B and UbCKmit) are expressed during the prepubescent and adult period of mammalian life. These creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are present in neural cell types throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in smooth muscle containing tissues, where they have an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report on the coupling of CK activity to body temperature rhythm and adaptive thermoregulation in mice. With both brain-type CK isoforms being absent, the body temperature reproducibly drops ~1.0°C below normal during every morning (inactive) period in the daily cycle. Facultative non-shivering thermogenesis is also impaired, since CK??/?? mice develop severe hypothermia during 24 h cold exposure. A relationship with fat metabolism was suggested because comparison of CK??/?? mice with wildtype controls revealed decreased weight gain associated with less white and brown fat accumulation and smaller brown adipocytes. Also, circulating levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin are reduced. Extensive physiological testing and uncoupling protein1 analysis showed, however, that the thermogenic problems are not due to abnormal responsiveness of brown adipocytes, since noradrenaline infusion produced a normal increase of body temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cyclic drop in morning temperature is also not related to altered rhythmicity with reduced locomotion, diminished food intake or increased torpor sensitivity. Although several integral functions appear altered when CK is absent in the brain, combined findings point into the direction of inefficient neuronal transmission as the dominant factor in the thermoregulatory defect. PMID:19419668

Streijger, Femke; Pluk, Helma; Oerlemans, Frank; Beckers, Gaby; Bianco, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Wieringa, Bé; Van der Zee, Catharina E.E.M.

2010-01-01

67

NASA's Fermi Shows How Active Galaxies Can Be - Duration: 2:02.  

NASA Video Gallery

Active galaxies called blazars make up the largest class of objects detected by Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT). Massive black holes in the hearts of these galaxies fire particle jets in our dir...

68

Water Works: A Great Show on Earth. Classroom Activities for Third and Fourth Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is divided into five lessons, each containing several activities that reflect the natural path of inquiry that third or fourth grade students might take in considering the water that arrives in their bathroom sinks each morning. Starting from the familiar faucet, the students are encouraged to reflect on their own habits and…

McClure, Judy; Clark, Neil

69

Human area MT+ shows load-dependent activation during working memory maintenance with continuously morphing stimulation  

PubMed Central

Background Initially, human area MT+ was considered a visual area solely processing motion information but further research has shown that it is also involved in various different cognitive operations, such as working memory tasks requiring motion-related information to be maintained or cognitive tasks with implied or expected motion. In the present fMRI study in humans, we focused on MT+ modulation during working memory maintenance using a dynamic shape-tracking working memory task with no motion-related working memory content. Working memory load was systematically varied using complex and simple stimulus material and parametrically increasing retention periods. Activation patterns for the difference between retention of complex and simple memorized stimuli were examined in order to preclude that the reported effects are caused by differences in retrieval. Results Conjunction analysis over all delay durations for the maintenance of complex versus simple stimuli demonstrated a wide-spread activation pattern. Percent signal change (PSC) in area MT+ revealed a pattern with higher values for the maintenance of complex shapes compared to the retention of a simple circle and with higher values for increasing delay durations. Conclusions The present data extend previous knowledge by demonstrating that visual area MT+ presents a brain activity pattern usually found in brain regions that are actively involved in working memory maintenance. PMID:25015103

2014-01-01

70

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stimulation of interest in, and demand for, the products or services of the industry...stimulate interest in, and demand for such products or services; (ii) Activities...stimulation of interest in, and demand for, the products or services of the...

2010-04-01

71

Intervention to increase physical activity in irritable bowel syndrome shows long-term positive effects  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the long-term effects of physical activity on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and on quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. METHODS: Seventy-six patients from a previous randomized controlled interventional study on increased physical activity in IBS were asked to participate in this long-term follow-up study. The included patients attended one visit in which they filled out questionnaires and they underwent a submaximal cycle ergometer test. The primary end point was the change in the IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) at baseline, i.e., before the intervention and at follow-up. The secondary endpoints were changes in quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. RESULTS: A total of 39 [32 women, median age 45 (28-61) years] patients were included in this follow-up. Median follow-up time was 5.2 (range: 3.8-6.2) years. The IBS symptoms were improved compared with baseline [IBS-SSS: 276 (169-360) vs 218 (82-328), P = 0.001]. This was also true for the majority of the dimensions of psychological symptoms such as disease specific quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. The reported time of physical activity during the week before the visit had increased from 3.2 (0.0-10.0) h at baseline to 5.2 (0.0-15.0) h at follow-up, P = 0.019. The most common activities reported were walking, aerobics and cycling. There was no significant difference in the oxygen uptake 31.8 (19.7-45.8) mL per min per kg at baseline vs 34.6 (19.0-54.6) mL/min per kg at follow-up. CONCLUSION: An intervention to increase physical activity has positive long-term effects on IBS symptoms and psychological symptoms.

Johannesson, Elisabet; Ringström, Gisela; Abrahamsson, Hasse; Sadik, Riadh

2015-01-01

72

Cerato-platanin shows expansin-like activity on cellulosic materials.  

PubMed

Cerato-platanin (CP) is a non-catalytic protein with a double ??-barrel fold located in the cell wall of the phytopathogenic fungus Ceratocystis platani. CP is released during growth and induces defence-related responses in plants. CP is also the first member of the "cerato-platanin family" (CPF) (Pfam PF07249). In the CPF, the molecular mechanism of action on plants and above all the biological role in fungal life are little-known aspects. However, an expansin-like function has recently been suggested concerning CP. Expansin-like proteins have the ability to act non-hydrolytically on cellulose. In the present work, the expansin-like activity of CP and Pop1, a CP family member, was investigated. Like expansins, CP and Pop1 were able to weaken filter paper in a concentration-dependent manner and without the production of reducing sugars. A metal-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenase-like activity was excluded. The optimum of activity was pH5.0, 38 °C. CP was also able to cause fragmentation of the crystalline cellulose Avicel and the breakage and defibration of cotton fibres. However, the interaction did not involve a stable bond with the substrates and CP did not significantly enhance the hydrolytic activity of cellulase. On the other hand, CP and Pop1 bound quickly to chitin. We consider CP as a novel one-domain expansin-like protein. We propose a structural role for CP in the fungal cell wall due to the ability to bind chitin, and hypothesize a functional role in the interaction of the fungus with the plant for the weakening activity shown on cellulose. PMID:23512479

Baccelli, Ivan; Luti, Simone; Bernardi, Rodolfo; Scala, Aniello; Pazzagli, Luigia

2014-01-01

73

Intervention to increase physical activity in irritable bowel syndrome shows long-term positive effects  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the long-term effects of physical activity on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and on quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. METHODS: Seventy-six patients from a previous randomized controlled interventional study on increased physical activity in IBS were asked to participate in this long-term follow-up study. The included patients attended one visit in which they filled out questionnaires and they underwent a submaximal cycle ergometer test. The primary end point was the change in the IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) at baseline, i.e., before the intervention and at follow-up. The secondary endpoints were changes in quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. RESULTS: A total of 39 [32 women, median age 45 (28-61) years] patients were included in this follow-up. Median follow-up time was 5.2 (range: 3.8-6.2) years. The IBS symptoms were improved compared with baseline [IBS-SSS: 276 (169-360) vs 218 (82-328), P = 0.001]. This was also true for the majority of the dimensions of psychological symptoms such as disease specific quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. The reported time of physical activity during the week before the visit had increased from 3.2 (0.0-10.0) h at baseline to 5.2 (0.0-15.0) h at follow-up, P = 0.019. The most common activities reported were walking, aerobics and cycling. There was no significant difference in the oxygen uptake 31.8 (19.7-45.8) mL per min per kg at baseline vs 34.6 (19.0-54.6) mL/min per kg at follow-up. CONCLUSION: An intervention to increase physical activity has positive long-term effects on IBS symptoms and psychological symptoms. PMID:25593485

Johannesson, Elisabet; Ringström, Gisela; Abrahamsson, Hasse; Sadik, Riadh

2015-01-01

74

Echinomycin, a potential binder of FKBP12, shows minor effect on calcineurin activity.  

PubMed

Echinomycin, a member of the quinoxaline family of antibiotics, is known to be a small-molecule inhibitor of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) DNA binding activity. Recently, it has been shown to suppress mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and growth in leukemia cell lines. In this study, we investigated whether echinomycin interacts with the FKBP12 protein. Molecular docking was used, and the predicted binding energy was -10.61 kcal/mol. Moreover, surface plasmon resonance imaging and fluorescence quenching techniques were used to validate this interaction. Echinomycin binds to FKBP12 with a strong binding affinity comparable with rapamycin. Furthermore, the echinomycin-FKBP12 complex has been shown to affect calcineurin activity when tested in a calcineurin phosphatase inhibition assay. All of these studies have shown that echinomycin may have a double impact on HIF signaling by direct inhibition and through mTOR. PMID:25085862

Singh, Vikramjeet; Nand, Amita; Chen, Caixia; Li, ZhiPeng; Li, Sheng-Jie; Wang, Songbai; Yang, Mo; Merino, Alejandro; Zhang, Lixin; Zhu, Jingsong

2014-10-01

75

A gluten metabolism study in healthy individuals shows the presence of faecal glutenasic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To study the gluten metabolism in healthy individuals and its effect over the intestinal microbial activity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The faeces of eleven healthy subjects were analysed under 4 diet regimens: their normal gluten diet, a strict gluten-free\\u000a diet (GFD), a GFD with a supplemental intake of 9 g gluten\\/day and a GFD with a supplemental intake of 30 g gluten\\/day. Gluten\\u000a content, faecal tryptic

Alberto CamineroEsther; Esther Nistal; Laura Arias; Santiago Vivas; Isabel Comino; Ana Real; Carolina Sousa; José M. Ruiz de Morales; Miguel A. Ferrero; Leandro B. Rodríguez-Aparicio; Javier Casqueiro

76

A novel thermostable nitrilase superfamily amidase from Geobacillus pallidus showing acyl transfer activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amidase (EC 3.5.1.4) in branch 2 of the nitrilase superfamily, from the thermophilic strain Geobacillus pallidus RAPc8, was produced at high expression levels (20 U\\/mg) in small-scale fermentations of Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to 90% homogeneity with specific activity of 1,800 U\\/mg in just two steps, namely, heat-treatment\\u000a and gel permeation chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and

H. S. Makhongela; A. E. Glowacka; V. B. Agarkar; B. T. Sewell; B. Weber; R. A. Cameron; D. A. Cowan; S. G. Burton

2007-01-01

77

New targeted therapy for advanced prostate cancer shows anti-tumor activity in clinical trials  

Cancer.gov

At the 24th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Dublin, Ireland, researchers from a multi-center study reported that a new drug that specifically targets a protein found on the surface of prostate cancer cells has performed well in a phase I clinical trial, and a phase II trial has started. The drug reduced levels of circulating tumor cells and levels of prostate specific antigen, a marker for tumor activity, in patients who had already failed previous chemotherapy and hormone treatments.

78

X-ray microtomography shows pore structure and tortuosity in alkali-activated binders  

SciTech Connect

Durability of alkali-activated binders is of vital importance in their commercial application, and depends strongly on microstructure and pore network characteristics. X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) offers, for the first time, direct insight into microstructural and pore structure characteristics in three dimensions. Here, {mu}CT is performed on a set of sodium metasilicate-activated fly ash/slag blends, using a synchrotron beamline instrument. Segmentation of the samples into pore and solid regions is then conducted, and pore tortuosity is calculated by a random walker method. Segmented porosity and diffusion tortuosity are correlated, and vary as a function of slag content (slag addition reduces porosity and increases tortuosity), and sample age (extended curing gives lower porosity and higher tortuosity). This is particularly notable for samples with {>=} 50% slag content, where a space-filling calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate gel provides porosity reductions which are not observed for the sodium aluminosilicate ('geopolymer') gels which do not chemically bind water of hydration.

Provis, John L., E-mail: jprovis@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Myers, Rupert J.; White, Claire E. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rose, Volker [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave, Argonne IL 60439 (United States); Deventer, Jannie S.J. van [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 210, Somerton, Victoria 3062 (Australia)

2012-06-15

79

Heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons show estrogenic activity upon metabolization in a recombinant transactivation assay.  

PubMed

Heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hetero-PAHs) are increasingly studied at contaminated sites; especially at former industrial facilities where coal tar-oil was handled, e.g., wood treatment plants, high concentrations of hetero-PAHs are frequently detected in groundwater plumes. In previous studies, fractions of groundwater with high estrogenic activity contained hetero-PAHs and their hydroxylated metabolites. To evaluate this preliminary evidence, selected hetero-PAHs were screened for their estrogenic activity in lyticase yeast estrogen screen (LYES) and ER CALUX. All tested substances were inactive in the LYES. Hetero-PAHs such as acridine, xanthene, indole, 2-methylbenzofuran, 2,3-dimethylbenzofuran, dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene, quinoline, and 6-methylquinoline were positive in the ER CALUX, with estradiol equivalence factors (EEFs) from 2.85 × 10(-7) to 3.18 × 10(-5). The EEF values of these substances were comparable to those of other xenoestrogens (e.g., alkylphenols or bisphenol A) that are sometimes found in surface water. Chemical analyses revealed that T47Dluc cells could metabolize most of the substances. Among the metabolites (tentatively) identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were hydroxides and their keto tautomers, sulfates, sulfoxides, and N-oxides. Because of their high concentrations measured in groundwater, we conclude that hetero-PAHs and metabolites may be a potential risk and should be the subject of further research. PMID:24724806

Brinkmann, Markus; Maletz, Sibylle; Krauss, Martin; Bluhm, Kerstin; Schiwy, Sabrina; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Tiehm, Andreas; Brack, Werner; Hollert, Henner

2014-05-20

80

Updated clinical results show experimental agent ibrutinib as highly active in CLL patients  

Cancer.gov

Updated results from a Phase Ib/II clinical trial led by the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute indicates that a novel therapeutic agent for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is highly active and well tolerated in patients who have relapsed and are resistant to other therapy. The agent, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), is the first drug designed to target Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein essential for CLL-cell survival and proliferation. CLL is the most common form of leukemia, with about 15,000 new cases annually in the U.S. About 4,400 Americans die of the disease each year.

81

TRANSFORMATION EFFICIENCIES AND EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF A SERIES OF TRUNCATED GS1-2 PROMOTER/GUS TRANSGENES IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One isoform of maize glutamine synthetase, encoded by GS1-2, is localized exclusively within the maternal tissues of the developing kernel. In this report, a series GS1-2 promoter/GUS reporter transgenes, progressively truncated from the 5' end of the promoter, were evaluated for transformation eff...

82

Montmorillonite enhanced ciprofloxacin transport in saturated porous media with sorbed ciprofloxacin showing antibiotic activity.  

PubMed

Antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) is immobile in the subsurface but it has been frequently detected in the aquatic system. Therefore it is important to investigate the factors impacting CIP's mobilization in aquifer. Laboratory columns packed with sand were used to test colloid-facilitated CIP transport by 1) using kaolinite or montmorillonite to mobilize presorbed-CIP in a column or 2) co-transporting with CIP by pre-mixing them before transport. The Langmuir model showed that CIP sorption by montmorillonite (23gkg(-1)) was 100 times more effective than sand or kaolinite. Even with strong CIP complexation ability to Fe/Al coating on sand surface, montmorillonite promoted CIP transport, but not kaolinite. All presorbed-CIP by sand was mobilized by montmorillonite after 3 pore volumes through co-transporting of CIP with montmorillonite. The majority of CIP was fixed onto the montmorillonite interlayer but still showed inhibition of bacteria growth. Our results suggested that montmorillonite with high CIP sorption ability can act as a carrier to enhance CIP's mobility in aquifer. PMID:25528132

Chen, Hao; Gao, Bin; Yang, Liu-Yan; Ma, Lena Q

2015-02-01

83

Montmorillonite enhanced ciprofloxacin transport in saturated porous media with sorbed ciprofloxacin showing antibiotic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) is immobile in the subsurface but it has been frequently detected in the aquatic system. Therefore it is important to investigate the factors impacting CIP's mobilization in aquifer. Laboratory columns packed with sand were used to test colloid-facilitated CIP transport by 1) using kaolinite or montmorillonite to mobilize presorbed-CIP in a column or 2) co-transporting with CIP by pre-mixing them before transport. The Langmuir model showed that CIP sorption by montmorillonite (23 g kg- 1) was 100 times more effective than sand or kaolinite. Even with strong CIP complexation ability to Fe/Al coating on sand surface, montmorillonite promoted CIP transport, but not kaolinite. All presorbed-CIP by sand was mobilized by montmorillonite after 3 pore volumes through co-transporting of CIP with montmorillonite. The majority of CIP was fixed onto the montmorillonite interlayer but still showed inhibition of bacteria growth. Our results suggested that montmorillonite with high CIP sorption ability can act as a carrier to enhance CIP's mobility in aquifer.

Chen, Hao; Gao, Bin; Yang, Liu-Yan; Ma, Lena Q.

2015-02-01

84

? Sulphate PNA (PNA S): highly selective DNA binding molecule showing promising antigene activity.  

PubMed

Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs), nucleic acid analogues showing high stability to enzyme degradation and strong affinity and specificity of binding toward DNA and RNA are widely investigated as tools to interfere in gene expression. Several studies have been focused on PNA analogues with modifications on the backbone and bases in the attempt to overcome solubility, uptake and aggregation issues. ? PNAs, PNA derivatives having a substituent in the ? position of the backbone show interesting properties in terms of secondary structure and affinity of binding toward complementary nucleic acids. In this paper we illustrate our results obtained on new analogues, bearing a sulphate in the ? position of the backbone, developed to be more DNA-like in terms of polarity and charge. The synthesis of monomers and oligomers is described. NMR studies on the conformational properties of monomers and studies on the secondary structure of single strands and triplexes are reported. Furthermore the hybrid stability and the effect of mismatches on the stability have also been investigated. Finally, the ability of the new analogue to work as antigene, interfering with the transcription of the ErbB2 gene on a human cell line overexpressing ErbB2 (SKBR3), assessed by FACS and qPCR, is described. PMID:22586450

Avitabile, Concetta; Moggio, Loredana; Malgieri, Gaetano; Capasso, Domenica; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Saviano, Michele; Pedone, Carlo; Romanelli, Alessandra

2012-01-01

85

Dammarenolic acid, a secodammarane triterpenoid from Aglaia sp. shows potent anti-retroviral activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Screening of a panel of purified compounds isolated from Aglaia sp. (Meliaceae) for inhibition of early steps in the lentiviral replication cycle led to the identification of the 3, 4-secodammarane triterpenoid, ignT1, which inhibited HIV-1 infection potently (IC(50)=0.48microg/ml), while cytotoxic effects and inhibition of cell proliferation were only observed at concentrations exceeding 10.69microg/ml. Time of addition experiments revealed similar kinetics to the non-nucleoside RT-inhibitor (NNRTI), Nevirapine, although the latter was significantly less cytotoxic. However, unlike Nevirapine, dammarenolic acid also potently inhibited the in vitro replication of other retroviruses, including Simian immunodeficiency virus and Murine leukemic virus in vector-based antiviral screening studies. Interestingly, the methyl ester analogue of dammarenolic acid-methyldammarenolate had no anti-HIV-1 activity. Cell cycle analysis revealed that ignT1 arrests HeLa cells at the S and G2/M phase. These results strongly suggest that dammarenolic acid could be a promising lead compound for the development of novel anti-retrovirals. PMID:19962871

Esimone, Charles O; Eck, Gero; Nworu, Chukwuemeka S; Hoffmann, Dennis; Uberla, Klaus; Proksch, Peter

2010-06-01

86

Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century.  

PubMed

A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(10(4))] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950-2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones. PMID:23836646

Emanuel, Kerry A

2013-07-23

87

Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century  

PubMed Central

A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(104)] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950–2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones. PMID:23836646

Emanuel, Kerry A.

2013-01-01

88

The benzimidazole based drugs show good activity against T. gondii but poor activity against its proposed enoyl reductase enzyme target  

PubMed Central

The enoyl acyl-carrier protein reductase (ENR) enzyme of the apicomplexan parasite family has been intensely studied for antiparasitic drug design for over a decade, with the most potent inhibitors targeting the NAD+ bound form of the enzyme. However, the higher affinity for the NADH co-factor over NAD+ and its availability in the natural environment makes the NADH complex form of ENR an attractive target. Herein, we have examined a benzimidazole family of inhibitors which target the NADH form of Francisella ENR, but despite good efficacy against T. gondii, the IC50 for T. gondii ENR is poor, with no inhibitory activity at 1?M. Moreover similar benzimidazole scaffolds are potent against fungi which lack the ENR enzyme and as such we believe that there maybe significant off target effects for this family of inhibitors. PMID:24398298

Wilkinson, Craig; McPhillie, Martin J.; Zhou, Ying; Woods, Stuart; Afanador, Gustavo A.; Rawson, Shaun; Khaliq, Farzana; Prigge, Sean T.; Roberts, Craig W.; Rice, David W.; McLeod, Rima; Fishwick, Colin W.; Muench, Stephen P.

2014-01-01

89

Chronic Back Pain Patients Show Differences in Behavior and Brain Activity During a Loss-Aversion Gambling Task  

E-print Network

Chronic Back Pain Patients Show Differences in Behavior and Brain Activity During a Loss with chronic back pain. Additionally, many labs have observed that people with a variety of chronic pain with chronic back pain. We then correlate these scores to participants' resting state data obtained on the same

Apkarian, A. Vania

90

Nonmetal ordering in TiC1-xNx: Ground-state structure and the effects of finite temperature Brian Kolb and Gus L. W. Hart  

E-print Network

Kolb and Gus L. W. Hart Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona 86011, USA Received 2 August temperature. Short-range ordering develops at T 800 K and exhibits the characteristic motifs of the predicted

Hart, Gus

91

Dillapiole, isolated from Peperomia pellucida, shows gastroprotector activity against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Peperomia pellucida is a plant used in traditional medicine to treat gastric ulcers. Although this gastroprotective activity was reported, the active compounds have not been identified. Therefore, the aim herein was to identify the most active compound in the gastroprotective activity of P. pellucida using an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer experimental rat model. A gastroprotective effect was observed when the hexane and dichloromethane extracts were tested, with the higher effect being obtained with the dichloromethane extract (82.3 ± 5.6%) at 100 mg/kg. Dillapiole was identified as the most active compound in this extract. Although there have been previous reports on dillapiole, this is the first on its gastroprotective activity. Rats treated with this compound at 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg showed 23.1, 56.1, 73.2 and 85.5% gastroprotection, respectively. The effect elicited by dillapiole at 100 mg/kg was not attenuated by pretreatment with indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c.), a prostaglandin synthesis blocker, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (70 mg/kg, i.p.), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, or N-ethylmaleimide (10 mg/kg, s.c.), a blocker of sulfhydryl groups. This suggests that the gastroprotective mechanism of action of dillapiole does not involve prostaglandins, NO or sulfhydryl groups. PMID:24064453

Rojas-Martínez, Raúl; Arrieta, Jesús; Cruz-Antonio, Leticia; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Velázquez-Méndez, Antonio Magdiel; Sánchez-Mendoza, María Elena

2013-01-01

92

Prion Protein-Deficient Cells Show Altered Response to Oxidative Stress Due to Decreased SOD1 Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular function of the prion protein (PrPC), a cell surface glycoprotein expressed in neurones and astrocytes, has not been elucidated. Cell culture experiments reveal that cerebellar cells lacking PrPCare more sensitive to oxidative stress and undergo cell death more readily than wild-type cells. This effect is reversible by treatment with vitamin E.In vivostudies show that the activity of Cu\\/Zn

David R. Brown; Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer; Bernhard Schmidt; Hans A. Kretzschmar

1997-01-01

93

Thiophene-degrading Escherichia coli mutants possess sulfone oxidase activity and show altered resistance to sulfur-containing antibiotics.  

PubMed Central

We have previously isolated mutants of Escherichia coli which show increased oxidation of heterocyclic furan and thiophene substrates. We have now found that strains carrying the thdA mutation express a novel enzyme activity which oxidizes a variety of substrates containing a sulfone (SO2) moiety. Both heterocyclic sulfones (e.g., tetramethylene sulfone) and simple aliphatic sulfones (e.g., ethyl sulfone) were oxidized. The thdA mutants were more resistant than wild-type strains to aromatic sulfone antibiotics such as dapsone. In contrast they showed increased susceptibility to thiolutin, a cyclic antibiotic containing sulfur at the sulfide level of oxidation. Several new thdA mutant alleles were isolated by selecting for increased oxidation of various aliphatic sulfur compounds. These new thdA mutants showed similar sulfone oxidase activity and the same map location (at 10.7 min) as the original thdA1 mutation. The constitutive fadR mutation was required for the phenotypic expression of thdA-mediated oxidation of sulfur compounds. However, the thdA-directed expression of sulfone oxidase activity was not fadR dependent. The thdC and thdD mutations probably protect against the toxicity of thiophene derivatives rather than conferring improved metabolic capability. PMID:2285321

Juhl, M J; Clark, D P

1990-01-01

94

Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.  

PubMed

The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils. PMID:25110971

Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2014-08-27

95

Discovery of LPMO activity on hemicelluloses shows the importance of oxidative processes in plant cell wall degradation  

PubMed Central

The recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are known to carry out oxidative cleavage of glycoside bonds in chitin and cellulose, thus boosting the activity of well-known hydrolytic depolymerizing enzymes. Because biomass-degrading microorganisms tend to produce a plethora of LPMOs, and considering the complexity and copolymeric nature of the plant cell wall, it has been speculated that some LPMOs may act on other substrates, in particular the hemicelluloses that tether to cellulose microfibrils. We demonstrate that an LPMO from Neurospora crassa, NcLPMO9C, indeed degrades various hemicelluloses, in particular xyloglucan. This activity was discovered using a glycan microarray-based screening method for detection of substrate specificities of carbohydrate-active enzymes, and further explored using defined oligomeric hemicelluloses, isolated polymeric hemicelluloses and cell walls. Products generated by NcLPMO9C were analyzed using high performance anion exchange chromatography and multidimensional mass spectrometry. We show that NcLPMO9C generates oxidized products from a variety of substrates and that its product profile differs from those of hydrolytic enzymes acting on the same substrates. The enzyme particularly acts on the glucose backbone of xyloglucan, accepting various substitutions (xylose, galactose) in almost all positions. Because the attachment of xyloglucan to cellulose hampers depolymerization of the latter, it is possible that the beneficial effect of the LPMOs that are present in current commercial cellulase mixtures in part is due to hitherto undetected LPMO activities on recalcitrant hemicellulose structures. PMID:24733907

Agger, Jane W.; Isaksen, Trine; Várnai, Anikó; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Willats, William G. T.; Ludwig, Roland; Horn, Svein J.; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Westereng, Bjørge

2014-01-01

96

Entorhinal stellate cells show preferred spike phase-locking to theta inputs that is enhanced by correlations in synaptic activity.  

PubMed

In active networks, excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs generate membrane voltage fluctuations that drive spike activity in a probabilistic manner. Despite this, some cells in vivo show a strong propensity to precisely lock to the local field potential and maintain a specific spike-phase relationship relative to other cells. In recordings from rat medial entorhinal cortical stellate cells, we measured spike phase-locking in response to sinusoidal "test" inputs in the presence of different forms of background membrane voltage fluctuations, generated via dynamic clamp. We find that stellate cells show strong and robust spike phase-locking to theta (4-12 Hz) inputs. This response occurs under a wide variety of background membrane voltage fluctuation conditions that include a substantial increase in overall membrane conductance. Furthermore, the IH current present in stellate cells is critical to the enhanced spike phase-locking response at theta. Finally, we show that correlations between inhibitory and excitatory conductance fluctuations, which can arise through feedback and feedforward inhibition, can substantially enhance the spike phase-locking response. The enhancement in locking is a result of a selective reduction in the size of low-frequency membrane voltage fluctuations due to cancellation of inhibitory and excitatory current fluctuations with correlations. Hence, our results demonstrate that stellate cells have a strong preference for spike phase-locking to theta band inputs and that the absolute magnitude of locking to theta can be modulated by the properties of background membrane voltage fluctuations. PMID:23554484

Fernandez, Fernando R; Malerba, Paola; Bressloff, Paul C; White, John A

2013-04-01

97

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2-knockout mice show reduced enzyme activity, airway hyporeactivity, and lung pathology  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The purpose of this study was to analyze the function of lung-specific cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2 (COX4i2) in vitro and in COX4i2-knockout mice in vivo. COX was isolated from cow lung and liver as control and functionally analyzed. COX4i2-knockout mice were generated and the effect of the gene knockout was determined, including COX activity, tissue energy levels, noninvasive and invasive lung function, and lung pathology. These studies were complemented by a comprehensive functional screen performed at the German Mouse Clinic (Neuherberg, Germany). We show that isolated cow lung COX containing COX4i2 is about twice as active (88 and 102% increased activity in the presence of allosteric activator ADP and inhibitor ATP, respectively) as liver COX, which lacks COX4i2. In COX4i2-knockout mice, lung COX activity and cellular ATP levels were significantly reduced (?50 and ?29%, respectively). Knockout mice showed decreased airway responsiveness (60% reduced Penh and 58% reduced airway resistance upon challenge with 25 and 100 mg methacholine, respectively), and they developed a lung pathology deteriorating with age that included the appearance of Charcot-Leyden crystals. In addition, there was an interesting sex-specific phenotype, in which the knockout females showed reduced lean mass (?12%), reduced total oxygen consumption rate (?8%), improved glucose tolerance, and reduced grip force (?14%) compared to wild-type females. Our data suggest that high activity lung COX is a central determinant of airway function and is required for maximal airway responsiveness and healthy lung function. Since airway constriction requires energy, we propose a model in which reduced tissue ATP levels explain protection from airway hyperresponsiveness, i.e., absence of COX4i2 leads to reduced lung COX activity and ATP levels, which results in impaired airway constriction and thus reduced airway responsiveness; long-term lung pathology develops in the knockout mice due to impairment of energy-costly lung maintenance processes; and therefore, we propose mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation as a novel target for the treatment of respiratory diseases, such as asthma.—Hüttemann, M., Lee, I., Gao, X., Pecina, P., Pecinova, A., Liu, J., Aras, S., Sommer, N., Sanderson, T. H., Tost, M., Neff, F., Aguilar-Pimentel, J. A., Becker, L., Naton, B., Rathkolb, B., Rozman, J., Favor, J., Hans, W., Prehn, C., Puk, O., Schrewe, A., Sun, M., Höfler, H., Adamski, J., Bekeredjian, R., Graw, J., Adler, T., Busch, D. H., Klingenspor, M., Klopstock, T., Ollert, M., Wolf, E., Fuchs, H., Gailus-Durner, V., Hrab? de Angelis, M., Weissmann, N., Doan, J. W., Bassett, D. J. P., Grossman, L. I. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2-knockout mice show reduced enzyme activity, airway hyporeactivity, and lung pathology. PMID:22730437

Hüttemann, Maik; Lee, Icksoo; Gao, Xiufeng; Pecina, Petr; Pecinova, Alena; Liu, Jenney; Aras, Siddhesh; Sommer, Natascha; Sanderson, Thomas H.; Tost, Monica; Neff, Frauke; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Naton, Beatrix; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Favor, Jack; Hans, Wolfgang; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Schrewe, Anja; Sun, Minxuan; Höfler, Heinz; Adamski, Jerzy; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Graw, Jochen; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H.; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin; Weissmann, Norbert; Doan, Jeffrey W.; Bassett, David J. P.; Grossman, Lawrence I.

2012-01-01

98

Silk gland-specific proteinase inhibitor serpin16 from the Bombyx mori shows cysteine proteinase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Serpins (serine proteinase inhibitors) are widely distributed in different species and are well known for their inhibitory activities towards serine proteinases. Here, we report the functional characterization of Bombyx mori serpin16. Expression analysis showed that serpin16 was specifically expressed at high levels in the silk gland at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, homology modeling and multi-sequence alignment suggested that serpin16 had a canonical serpin fold, but it contained a unique reactive center loop, which was obviously shorter than that of typical serpins. Inhibitory activity analyses revealed that the target proteinase of serpin18 is a cysteine proteinase, rather than a serine proteinase. Furthermore, a Michaelis complex model of serpin16 with its target proteinase was constructed to explain the structural basis of how serpin16 recognizes the cysteine proteinase and its target specificity. PMID:25529451

Guo, Peng-Chao; Dong, Zhaoming; Xiao, Li; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yan; He, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

2015-01-30

99

A novel ruthenium(III) complex with a tridentate dianionic P,O,O-ligand showing high cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

Tris(o-anisyl)phosphane was reacted with ruthenium(III) chloride forming a novel Ru(III) complex of formula [Ru(PAn(3))(P(An)(phenolate)(2))Cl] containing a tridentate dianionic P,O,O-ligand and a bidentate neutral P,O ligand. The tridentate ligand was formed by elimination of two methyl groups from the starting ligand in the reaction with the ruthenium salt. The molecular structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The compound shows a high cytotoxic activity in ovarian cancer cell lines comparable with cisplatin and overcoming cisplatin-resistance. PMID:20023901

van Rijn, Jimmy A; Marqués-Gallego, Patricia; Reedijk, Jan; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; Bouwman, Elisabeth

2009-12-28

100

Comparison of Microbial Diversity of Korean Commercial Makgeolli Showing High ?-Glucan Content and High Antihypertensive Activity, Respectively  

PubMed Central

We measured physiological functionalities, including antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and immun-stimulating ?-glucan content for sixty kinds of Makgeolli that is commercially available from the market. As a result, we selected R-12 commercial raw Makgeolli, with a high content of immuno-stimulating ?-glucan, and R-14 commercial raw Makgeolli, exhibiting high antihypertensive activity. Due to the similarities in their overall physicochemical properties and raw materials used for fermentation, we compared the microbial flora in order to investigate the reason for the differences in their functionalities. Nested PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for yeasts and bacteria were performed for analysis of microbial diversity of two different kinds of Makgeolli (i.e., R-12, R-14), which showed immuno-stimulating ?-glucan content and exhibited a very high level of antihypertensive activity, respectively. Analysis of the 18S rDNA amplicon revealed a major presence of the yeast strain Pichia burtonii in every Makgeolli sample. Analysis of the 16S rDNA amplicon revealed a predominance of lactic acid bacteria, and the most frequent lactic acid bacteria were Lactobacillus ingluviei, L. fermentum, and L. harbinensis, and Lactobacillus sp. Among these, L. harbinensis was detected only in R-12 and L. ingluviei was found only in R-14. Different functionalities from the individual commercially available Makgeolli may be attributed to actions of different microbial flora during fermentation. PMID:22870058

Min, Jin-Hong; Kim, Young-Hun; Kim, Jae-Ho; Choi, Shin-Yang; Lee, Jong-Soo

2012-01-01

101

New unusual iridoids from the leaves of noni ( Morinda citrifolia L.) show inhibitory effect on ultraviolet B-induced transcriptional activator protein-1 (AP1) activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel iridoid dimer in whose structure the two iridoid units are connected by a rare ether group, together with two new unusual iridoids showing significant inhibition of UVB-induced Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) activity in cell cultures, have been isolated from the leaves of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.). Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed high-field 1D and 2D

Shengmin Sang; Guangming Liu; Kan He; Nanqun Zhu; Zigang Dong; Qunyi Zheng; Robert T Rosen; Chi-Tang Ho

2003-01-01

102

The human anti-CD30 antibody 5F11 shows in vitro and in vivo activity against malignant lymphoma.  

PubMed

CD30 is a promising target for antibody-based immunotherapy of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. To overcome the limitations from currently available murine anti-CD30 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a new fully human anti-CD30 antibody was generated. Binding properties were evaluated by recombinant CD30 capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescence-activated cell-sorter (FACS) flow cytometry. Activity of this new mAb was assessed in vitro using growth inhibition and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays on several cell lines. In vivo activity was determined in a solid as well as in a disseminated xenografted model of HL in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. The mAb 5F11 showed specific binding to CD30 (cluster A). The ADCC assays indicated dose-dependent lysis of L540 cells when 5F11 was combined with human effector cells. Upon cross-linking in vitro, 5F11 inhibited the growth of CD30-expressing cell lines. In vivo, treatment with 5F11 induced a marked growth delay or even a complete regression of established xenografted HL in SCID mice. In the disseminated HL model, a high proportion of 5F11-treated mice experienced long-term survival. The new human anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody 5F11 shows promise as a means of CD30-targeted immunotherapy of malignant lymphomas. Based on these results, a clinical phase 1 study in patients with refractory CD30+ lymphoma has been initiated. PMID:12881320

Borchmann, Peter; Treml, John F; Hansen, Hinrich; Gottstein, Claudia; Schnell, Roland; Staak, Oliver; Zhang, Hui-fen; Davis, Thomas; Keler, Tibor; Diehl, Volker; Graziano, Robert F; Engert, Andreas

2003-11-15

103

Evaluation of About Being Active, an online lesson about physical activity shows that perception of being physically active is higher in eating competent low-income women  

PubMed Central

Background Eating competence (EC) has been associated with positive health outcomes such as reduced cardiovascular risk and higher diet quality. This study compared reported physical activity and EC in 512 low-income women participating in an online program that included a physical activity lesson and assessed response to this lesson. Methods Educational intervention and surveys were completed online. EC was assessed with the Satter Eating Competence Inventory for Low-Income (ecSI/LI). Results Participants were mostly white, <31 years, overweight/obese (60%), and food insecure (58%). EC was higher for those who self-reported being physically active (30.1 ± 8.3 vs. 24.9 ± 8.1; P<0.001) and were active for ? 30 minutes/day (29.9 ± 8.3 vs. 26.3 ± 8.6), even with age, weight satisfaction, and BMI controlled. EC of obese physically active persons was higher than normal weight, but physically inactive women. The physical activity module was well received with responses unrelated to time involved or physical activity level. Conclusions Low-income women were interested in learning about physical activity and responded positively to online delivery. Overall EC levels were low, but higher for physically active women, supporting efforts to enhance EC. Additional research is needed to determine if EC is associated with responses to physical activity education. PMID:23496893

2013-01-01

104

Fusion of protegrin-1 and plectasin to MAP30 shows significant inhibition activity against dengue virus replication.  

PubMed

Dengue virus (DENV) broadly disseminates in tropical and sub-tropical countries and there are no vaccine or anti-dengue drugs available. DENV outbreaks cause serious economic burden due to infection complications that requires special medical care and hospitalization. This study presents a new strategy for inexpensive production of anti-DENV peptide-fusion protein to prevent and/or treat DENV infection. Antiviral cationic peptides protegrin-1 (PG1) and plectasin (PLSN) were fused with MAP30 protein to produce recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein (PG1-MAP30-PLSN) as inclusion bodies in E. coli. High yield production of PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein was achieved by solubilization of inclusion bodies in alkaline buffer followed by the application of appropriate refolding techniques. Antiviral PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein considerably inhibited DENV protease (NS2B-NS3pro) with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 0.5±0.1 ?M. The real-time proliferation assay (RTCA) and the end-point proliferation assay (MTT assay) showed that the maximal-nontoxic dose of the peptide-fusion protein against Vero cells is approximately 0.67±0.2 ?M. The cell-based assays showed considerable inhibition of the peptide-fusion protein against binding and proliferating stages of DENV2 into the target cells. The peptide-fusion protein protected DENV2-challeged mice with 100% of survival at the dose of 50 mg/kg. In conclusion, producing recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein by combining short antiviral peptide with a central protein owning similar activity could be useful to minimize the overall cost of short peptide production and take advantage of its synergistic antiviral activities. PMID:24722532

Rothan, Hussin A; Bahrani, Hirbod; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Abd Rahman, Noorsaadah; Yusof, Rohana

2014-01-01

105

Fusion of Protegrin-1 and Plectasin to MAP30 Shows Significant Inhibition Activity against Dengue Virus Replication  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus (DENV) broadly disseminates in tropical and sub-tropical countries and there are no vaccine or anti-dengue drugs available. DENV outbreaks cause serious economic burden due to infection complications that requires special medical care and hospitalization. This study presents a new strategy for inexpensive production of anti-DENV peptide-fusion protein to prevent and/or treat DENV infection. Antiviral cationic peptides protegrin-1 (PG1) and plectasin (PLSN) were fused with MAP30 protein to produce recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein (PG1-MAP30-PLSN) as inclusion bodies in E. coli. High yield production of PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein was achieved by solubilization of inclusion bodies in alkaline buffer followed by the application of appropriate refolding techniques. Antiviral PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein considerably inhibited DENV protease (NS2B-NS3pro) with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 0.5±0.1 ?M. The real-time proliferation assay (RTCA) and the end-point proliferation assay (MTT assay) showed that the maximal-nontoxic dose of the peptide-fusion protein against Vero cells is approximately 0.67±0.2 ?M. The cell-based assays showed considerable inhibition of the peptide-fusion protein against binding and proliferating stages of DENV2 into the target cells. The peptide-fusion protein protected DENV2-challeged mice with 100% of survival at the dose of 50 mg/kg. In conclusion, producing recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein by combining short antiviral peptide with a central protein owning similar activity could be useful to minimize the overall cost of short peptide production and take advantage of its synergistic antiviral activities. PMID:24722532

Rothan, Hussin A.; Bahrani, Hirbod; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Abd Rahman, Noorsaadah; Yusof, Rohana

2014-01-01

106

The apo structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris shows an open active-site groove.  

PubMed

Glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH-13) mainly contains starch-degrading or starch-modifying enzymes. Sucrose hydrolases utilize sucrose instead of amylose as the primary glucosyl donor. Here, the catalytic properties and X-ray structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris are reported. Sucrose hydrolysis catalyzed by the enzyme follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a K(m) of 60.7 mM and a k(cat) of 21.7 s(-1). The structure of the enzyme was solved at a resolution of 1.9 A in the resting state with an empty active site. This represents the first apo structure from subfamily 4 of GH-13. Comparisons with structures of the highly similar sucrose hydrolase from X. axonopodis pv. glycines most notably showed that residues Arg516 and Asp138, which form a salt bridge in the X. axonopodis sucrose complex and define part of the subsite -1 glucosyl-binding determinants, are not engaged in salt-bridge formation in the resting X. campestris enzyme. In the absence of the salt bridge an opening is created which gives access to subsite -1 from the ;nonreducing' end. Binding of the glucosyl moiety in subsite -1 is therefore likely to induce changes in the conformation of the active-site cleft of the X. campestris enzyme. These changes lead to salt-bridge formation that shortens the groove. Additionally, this finding has implications for understanding the molecular mechanism of the closely related subfamily 4 glucosyl transferase amylosucrase, as it indicates that sucrose could enter the active site from the ;nonreducing' end during the glucan-elongation cycle. PMID:19966417

Champion, Elise; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Skov, Lars K; Kastrup, Jette S; Gajhede, Michael; Mirza, Osman

2009-12-01

107

Nanoencapsulation of tacrolimus in lipid-core nanocapsules showed similar immunosuppressive activity after oral and intraperitoneal administrations.  

PubMed

Tacrolimus is widely used in the prophylaxis of solid-organ transplant rejection. Several studies have reported that tacrolimus has variable and poor bioavailability after oral administration, apart from adverse effects such as gastrointestinal disorders, hyperglycemia, nephro- and neurotoxicity. The aim of this work was to encapsulate tacrolimus (TAC) in lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) as an oral strategy to deliver the drug. To validate our hypothesis, the pharmacodynamic effect of TAC-LNC was determined after oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administrations to mice. TAC-LNC had z-average diameter of 210 nm (unimodal), and 99.5% of encapsulation efficiency. In vitro sustained release was determined for TAC-LNC fitting an anomalous transport mechanism (n = 0.8). TAC-LNC demonstrated higher immunosuppressive activity after oral and i.p. administrations, when compared to the drug solution. TAC-LNC administered at 6.0 mg kg(-1) day(-1) showed equivalent percent reduction in lymphocyte when both routes of administration were used. After oral administration, drug nanoencapsulation allows reducing the dose by at least 40%. Furthermore, the nanoencapsulation of TAC in lipid-core nanocapsules showed pharmacodynamic effect similar for the oral and the i.p. routes. In conclusion, the lipid-core nanocapsules were able to improve the TAC deliver across the oral absorption barrier. PMID:25016659

Friedrich, R B; Dimer, F A; Guterres, S S; Beck, R C R; Pohlmann, A R

2014-08-01

108

A preorganized metalloreceptor for alkaline earth ions showing calcium versus magnesium selectivity in water: biological activity of selected metal complexes.  

PubMed

The N,N'-bis[(3-hydroxy-4-pyron-2-yl)methyl]-N,N'-dimethylethylendiamine (Malten = L) forms the highly stable [CuH(-2)L] species in water, in which the converging maltol oxygen atoms form an electron-rich area able to host hard metal ions. When considering the alkaline earth series (AE), the [Cu(H(-2)L)] species binds all metal ions, with the exception of Mg(2+), exhibiting the relevant property to discriminate Ca(2+) versus Mg(2+) at physiological pH?7.4; the binding of the AE metal is visible to the naked eye. The stability constant values of the trinuclear [AE{Cu(H(-2)L)}2](2+) species formed reach the maximum for Ca(2+) (log?K=7.7). Ca(2+) also forms a tetranuclear [Ca{Cu(H(-2)L)}]2(4+) species at a high Ca(2+) concentration. Tri- and tetranuclear calcium complexes show blue- and pink-colored crystals, respectively. [Cu(H(-2)L)] is the most active species in inducing DNA alterations. The DNA damages are compatible with its hydrolytic cleavages. PMID:25069710

Amatori, Stefano; Ambrosi, Gianluca; Fanelli, Mirco; Formica, Mauro; Fusi, Vieri; Giorgi, Luca; Macedi, Eleonora; Micheloni, Mauro; Paoli, Paola; Rossi, Patrizia

2014-08-25

109

Gender-linked Differences in the Toys, Television Shows, Computer Games, and Outdoor Activities of 5- to 13-year-old Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to compare how 5- to 13-year-old children's leisure activity preferences differ with age and gender. Responses from 60 boys and 60 girls about their favorite toys, television shows, computer games, and outdoor activities were compared across leisure categories. The results showed that gender was a significant factor. Overall, boys spent more time in these leisure activities

Isabelle D. Cherney; Kamala London

2006-01-01

110

Immunomodulatory activity of dietary fiber: arabinoxylan and mixed-linked beta-glucan isolated from barley show modest activities in vitro.  

PubMed

High intake of dietary fiber is claimed to protect against development of colorectal cancer. Barley is a rich source of dietary fiber, and possible immunomodulatory effects of barley polysaccharides might explain a potential protective effect. Dietary fiber was isolated by extraction and enzyme treatment. A mixed-linked ?-glucan (WSM-TPX, 96.5% ?-glucan, Mw 886 kDa), an arabinoxylan (WUM-BS-LA, 96.4% arabinoxylan, Mw 156 kDa), a mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fraction containing 10% arabinoxylan (WSM-TP) and an arabinoxylan rich fraction containing 30% mixed-linked ?-glucan (WUM-BS) showed no significant effect on IL-8 secretion and proliferation of two intestinal epithelial cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29, and had no significant effect on the NF-?B activity in the monocytic cell line U937-3?B-LUC. Further enriched arabinoxylan fractions (WUM-BS-LA) from different barley varieties (Tyra, NK96300, SB94897 and CDCGainer) were less active than the mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fractions (WSM-TP and WSM-TPX) in the complement-fixing test. The mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fraction from NK96300 and CDCGainer showed similar activities as the positive control while mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fractions from Tyra and SB94897 were less active. From these results it is concluded that the isolated high molecular weight mixed-linked ?-glucans and arabinoxylans from barley show low immunological responses in selected in vitro test systems and thus possible anti-colon cancer effects of barley dietary fiber cannot be explained by our observations. PMID:21340001

Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Rieder, Anne; Grimmer, Stine; Michaelsen, Terje E; Knutsen, Svein H

2011-01-01

111

Cell-Penetrating Peptide TP10 Shows Broad-Spectrum Activity against both Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei brucei?  

PubMed Central

Malaria and trypanosomiasis are diseases which afflict millions and for which novel therapies are urgently required. We have tested two well-characterized cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) for antiparasitic activity. One CPP, designated TP10, has broad-spectrum antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum, both blood and mosquito stages, and against blood-stage Trypanosoma brucei brucei. PMID:18519720

Arrighi, Romanico B. G.; Ebikeme, Charles; Jiang, Yang; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa; Barrett, Michael P.; Langel, Ülo; Faye, Ingrid

2008-01-01

112

In Vitro Analysis of Albendazole Sulfoxide Enantiomers Shows that (+)-(R)-Albendazole Sulfoxide Is the Active Enantiomer against Taenia solium  

PubMed Central

Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (?)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (?)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (?)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H.; Cass, Quezia B.

2013-01-01

113

In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Assays of Seeds from Balanites aegyptiaca: Compounds of the Extract Show Growth Inhibition and Activity against Plasmodial Aminopeptidase  

PubMed Central

Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) is a widely grown desert plant with multiuse potential. In the present paper, a crude extract from B. aegyptiaca seeds equivalent to a ratio of 1?:?2000 seeds to the extract was screened for antiplasmodial activity. The determined IC50 value for the chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum NF54 strain was 68.26??g/?L ± 3.5. Analysis of the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 6-phenyl-2(H)-1,2,4-triazin-5-one oxime, an inhibitor of the parasitic M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase as one of the compounds which is responsible for the in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The crude plant extract had a Ki of 2.35??g/?L and showed a dose-dependent response. After depletion of the compound, a significantly lower inhibition was determined with a Ki of 4.8??g/?L. Moreover, two phenolic compounds, that is, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol, with determined IC50 values of 50.29??M ± 3 and 47.82??M ± 2.5, respectively, were detected. These compounds may contribute to the in vitro antimalarial activity due to their antioxidative properties. In an in vivo experiment, treatment of BALB/c mice with the aqueous Balanite extract did not lead to eradication of the parasites, although a reduced parasitemia at day 12 p.i. was observed. PMID:21687598

Kusch, Peter; Deininger, Susanne; Specht, Sabine; Maniako, Rudeka; Haubrich, Stefanie; Pommerening, Tanja; Lin, Paul Kong Thoo; Hoerauf, Achim; Kaiser, Annette

2011-01-01

114

Nogo-A-deficient Transgenic Rats Show Deficits in Higher Cognitive Functions, Decreased Anxiety, and Altered Circadian Activity Patterns  

PubMed Central

Decreased levels of Nogo-A-dependent signaling have been shown to affect behavior and cognitive functions. In Nogo-A knockout and knockdown laboratory rodents, behavioral alterations were observed, possibly corresponding with human neuropsychiatric diseases of neurodevelopmental origin, particularly schizophrenia. This study offers further insight into behavioral manifestations of Nogo-A knockdown in laboratory rats, focusing on spatial and non-spatial cognition, anxiety levels, circadian rhythmicity, and activity patterns. Demonstrated is an impairment of cognitive functions and behavioral flexibility in a spatial active avoidance task, while non-spatial memory in a step-through avoidance task was spared. No signs of anhedonia, typical for schizophrenic patients, were observed in the animals. Some measures indicated lower anxiety levels in the Nogo-A-deficient group. Circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity was preserved in the Nogo-A knockout rats and their circadian period (tau) did not differ from controls. However, daily activity patterns were slightly altered in the knockdown animals. We conclude that a reduction of Nogo-A levels induces changes in CNS development, manifested as subtle alterations in cognitive functions, emotionality, and activity patterns. PMID:24672453

Petrasek, Tomas; Prokopova, Iva; Sladek, Martin; Weissova, Kamila; Vojtechova, Iveta; Bahnik, Stepan; Zemanova, Anna; Schönig, Kai; Berger, Stefan; Tews, Björn; Bartsch, Dusan; Schwab, Martin E.; Sumova, Alena; Stuchlik, Ales

2014-01-01

115

Healthy children show gender differences in correlations between nonverbal cognitive ability and brain activation during visual perception.  

PubMed

Humans perceive textual and nontextual information in visual perception, and both depend on language. In childhood education, students exhibit diverse perceptual abilities, such that some students process textual information better and some process nontextual information better. These predispositions involve many factors, including cognitive ability and learning preference. However, the relationship between verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during visual perception has not yet been examined in children. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between nonverbal and verbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during nontextual visual perception in large numbers of children. A significant positive correlation was found between nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation in the right temporoparietal junction, which is thought to be related to attention reorienting. This significant positive correlation existed only in boys. These findings suggested that male brain activation differed from female brain activation, and that this depended on individual cognitive processes, even if there was no gender difference in behavioral performance. PMID:24937269

Asano, Kohei; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

2014-08-01

116

Combined Targeting of Endothelin A Receptor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Ovarian Cancer Shows Enhanced Antitumor Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian carcinomas overexpress endothelin A receptors (ETAR) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR). In these cells, endothelin-1 (ET-1) triggers mitogenic and invasive signaling pathways that are in part mediated by EGFR trans- activation. Combined targeting of ETAR, by the specific ETAR antagonist ZD4054, and of EGFR by the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib (IRESSA), may offer improvements in ovarian carcinoma treatment.

Laura Rosano; Valeriana Di Castro; Francesca Spinella; Giampaolo Tortora; Maria Rita Nicotra; Pier Giorgio Natali; Anna Bagnato

2007-01-01

117

The human anti-CD30 antibody 5F11 shows in vitro and in vivo activity against malignant lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD30 is a promising target for antibody- based immunotherapy of Hodgkin lym- phoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lym- phoma. To overcome the limitations from currently available murine anti-CD30 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a new fully human anti-CD30 antibody was gener- ated. Binding properties were evaluated by recombinant CD30 capture enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescence-activated cell-sorter (FACS) flow cytometry.

Peter Borchmann; John F. Treml; Hinrich Hansen; Claudia Gottstein; Roland Schnell; Oliver Staak; Hui-fen Zhang; Thomas Davis; Tibor Keler; Volker Diehl; Robert F. Graziano; Andreas Engert

2003-01-01

118

Our previous studies on G. dumetorum yielded several aporphine alkaloids that showed significant activity against Leishmania spp.  

E-print Network

Our previous studies on G. dumetorum yielded several aporphine alkaloids that showed significant conducted additional isolation efforts on the minor alkaloids of this species. A standard alkaloid on the identification of alkaloids 1±9 from G. dumetorum (Fig.1). All nine of these metabolites were tested against

Coley, Phyllis

119

Microglia from Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease-Infected Brains Are Infectious and Show Specific mRNA Activation Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurons are often assumed to be the principal sites for replication of the infectious agents causing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), scrapie, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy because they express high levels of normal and pathological prion protein (PrP). However, isolated brain cell types have not been evaluated for either infection or gene expression. Microglia purified from CJD-infected mice showed infectivity comparable to

Christopher A. Baker; Daniel Martin; Laura Manuelidis

2002-01-01

120

microRNA response elements-regulated TRAIL expression shows specific survival-suppressing activity on bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Bladder transitional cell carcinoma greatly threatens human health all over the world. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) shows a strong apoptosis-inducing effect on a variety of cancer cells including bladder cancer. However, adenovirus-mediated TRAIL expression still showed cytotoxicity to normal cells mainly due to lack of tumor specificity. Methods To solve the problem, we applied miRNA response elements (MREs) of miR-1, miR-133 and miR-218 to confer TRAIL expression with specificity to bladder cancer cells. Results Expression of miR-1, miR-133 and miR-218 was greatly decreased in bladder cancer than normal bladder tissue. Luciferase assay showed that application of the 3 MREs was able to restrain exogenous gene expression to within bladder cancer cells. Subsequently, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus with TRAIL expression regulated by MREs of miR-1, miR-133 and miR-218, namely Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218. qPCR, immunoblotting and ELISA assays demonstrated that Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 expressed in bladder cancer cells, rather than normal bladder cells. The differential TRAIL expression also led to selective apoptosis-inducing and growth-inhibiting effect of Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 on bladder cancers. Finally, bladder cancer xenograft in mouse models further confirmed that Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 effectively suppressed the growth of bladder cancers. Conclusions Collectively, we demonstrated that MREs-based TRAIL delivery into bladder cancer cells was feasible and efficient for cancer gene therapy. PMID:23442927

2013-01-01

121

Ferrocenyl-L-amino acid copper(II) complexes showing remarkable photo-induced anticancer activity in visible light.  

PubMed

Ferrocene-conjugated copper(ii) complexes [Cu(Fc-aa)(aip)](ClO4) () and [Cu(Fc-aa)(pyip)](ClO4) () of l-amino acid reduced Schiff bases (Fc-aa), 2-(9-anthryl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (aip) and 2-(1-pyrenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (pyip), where Fc-aa is ferrocenylmethyl-l-tyrosine (Fc-Tyr in , ), ferrocenylmethyl-l-tryptophan (Fc-Trp in , ) and ferrocenylmethyl-l-methionine (Fc-Met in , ), were prepared and characterized, and their photocytotoxicity was studied (Fc = ferrocenyl moiety). Phenyl analogues, viz. [Cu(Ph-Met)(aip)](ClO4) () and [Cu(Ph-Met)(pyip)](ClO4) (), were prepared and used as control compounds. The bis-imidazophenanthroline copper(ii) complexes, viz. [Cu(aip)2(NO3)](NO3) () and [Cu(pyip)2(NO3)](NO3) (), were also prepared and used as controls. Complexes having a redox inactive cooper(ii) center showed the Fc(+)-Fc redox couple at ?0.5 V vs. SCE in DMF-0.1 mol [Bu(n)4N](ClO4). The copper(ii)-based d-d band was observed near 600 nm in DMF-Tris-HCl buffer (1?:?1 v/v). The ferrocenyl complexes showed low dark toxicity, but remarkably high photocytotoxicity in human cervical HeLa and human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cancer cells giving an excellent photo-dynamic effect while their phenyl analogues were inactive. The photo-exposure caused significant morphological changes in the cancer cells when compared to the non-irradiated ones. The photophysical processes were rationalized from the theoretical studies. Fluorescence microscopic images showed and localizing predominantly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cancer cells, thus minimizing any undesirable effects involving nuclear DNA. PMID:24971754

Goswami, Tridib K; Gadadhar, Sudarshan; Balaji, Babu; Gole, Bappaditya; Karande, Anjali A; Chakravarty, Akhil R

2014-08-21

122

Nanorods of a new metal-biomolecule coordination polymer showing novel bidirectional electrocatalytic activity and excellent performance in electrochemical sensing.  

PubMed

Metal organic coordination polymers (CPs), as most attractive multifunctional materials, have been studied extensively in many fields. However, metal-biomolecule CPs and CPs' electrochemical properties and applications were studied much less. We focus on this topic aiming at electrochemical biosensors with excellent performance and high biocompatibility. A new nanoscaled metal-biomolecule CP, Mn-tyr, containing manganese and tyrosine, was synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by various techniques, including XRD, TEM, EDS, EDX mapping, elemental analysis, XPS, and IR. Electrode modified with Mn-tyr showed novel bidirectional electrocatalytic ability toward both reduction and oxidation of H2O2, which might be due to Mn. With the assistance of CNTs, the sensing performance of Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE was improved to a much higher level, with high sensitivity of 543mAmol(-1)Lcm(-2) in linear range of 1.00×10(-6)-1.02×10(-4)molL(-1), and detection limit of 3.8×10(-7)molL(-1). Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE also showed fast response, high selectivity, high steadiness and reproducibility. The excellent performance implies that the metal-biomolecule CPs are promising candidates for using in enzyme-free electrochemical biosensing. PMID:25037318

Yang, Jiao; Zhou, Bo; Yao, Jie; Jiang, Xiao-Qing

2015-05-15

123

Glutaminase 2 negatively regulates the PI3K/AKT signaling and shows tumor suppression activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

The tumor suppressor p53 and its signaling pathway play a critical role in tumor prevention. As a direct p53 target gene, the role of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) in tumorigenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that GLS2 expression is significantly decreased in majority of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Restoration of GLS2 expression in HCC cells inhibits the anchorage-independent growth of cells and reduces the growth of HCC xenograft tumors. Interestingly, we found that GLS2 negatively regulates the PI3K/AKT signaling, which is frequently activated in HCC. Blocking the PI3K/AKT signaling in HCC cells largely abolishes the inhibitory effect of GLS2 on the anchorage-independent cell growth and xenograft tumor growth. The GLS2 promoter is hypermethylated in majority of HCC samples. CpG methylation of GLS2 promoter inhibits GLS2 transcription, whereas reducing the methylation of GLS2 promoter induces GLS2 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GLS2 plays an important role in tumor suppression in HCC, and the negative regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling contributes greatly to this function of GLS2. Furthermore, hypermethylation of GLS2 promoter is an important mechanism contributing to the decreased GLS2 expression in HCC. PMID:24797434

Liu, Juan; Zhang, Cen; Lin, Meihua; Zhu, Wei; Liang, Yingjian; Hong, Xuehui; Zhao, Yuhan; Young, Ken H; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

2014-05-15

124

Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis (1?6)-?-D-glucans show immunostimulatory activity on human THP-1 derived macrophages.  

PubMed

The (1?6)-?-D-glucans from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis were purified to evaluate their effects on the innate immune system. THP-1 macrophages were used to investigate the induction of the expression of TNF-?, IL1?, and COX-2 by RT-PCR. The purification of the polysaccharides gave rise to fractions containing 96-98% of glucose. The samples were analyzed by GC-MS, HPSEC and (13)C NMR, which confirmed the presence of homogeneous (1?6)-?-D-glucans. The ?-glucans were incubated with THP-1 derived macrophages, for 3 h and 6 h to evaluate their effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Both ?-glucans stimulated the expression of such genes as much as the pro-inflammatory control (LPS). When the cells were incubated with LPS+?-glucan, a significant inhibition of the expression of IL-1? and COX-2 was observed for both treatments after 3 h of incubation. By the results, we conclude that the (1?6)-?-D-glucans present an immunostimulatory activity when administered to THP-1 derived macrophages. PMID:23544515

Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Alquini, Giovana; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Iacomini, Marcello; Wichers, Harry J; Van Griensven, Leo J L D

2013-04-15

125

Glutaminase 2 negatively regulates the PI3K/AKT signaling and shows tumor suppression activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor p53 and its signaling pathway play a critical role in tumor prevention. As a direct p53 target gene, the role of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) in tumorigenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that GLS2 expression is significantly decreased in majority of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Restoration of GLS2 expression in HCC cells inhibits the anchorage-independent growth of cells and reduces the growth of HCC xenograft tumors. Interestingly, we found that GLS2 negatively regulates the PI3K/AKT signaling, which is frequently activated in HCC. Blocking the PI3K/AKT signaling in HCC cells largely abolishes the inhibitory effect of GLS2 on the anchorage-independent cell growth and xenograft tumor growth. The GLS2 promoter is hypermethylated in majority of HCC samples. CpG methylation of GLS2 promoter inhibits GLS2 transcription, whereas reducing the methylation of GLS2 promoter induces GLS2 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GLS2 plays an important role in tumor suppression in HCC, and the negative regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling contributes greatly to this function of GLS2. Furthermore, hypermethylation of GLS2 promoter is an important mechanism contributing to the decreased GLS2 expression in HCC. PMID:24797434

Liu, Juan; Zhang, Cen; Lin, Meihua; Zhu, Wei; Liang, Yingjian; Hong, Xuehui; Zhao, Yuhan; Young, Ken H.; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

2014-01-01

126

Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 3h-pyrrolo[3,2-f]-quinolin-9-one derivatives that show potent and selective anti-leukemic activity.  

PubMed

A series of new substituted 7-phenyl-3H-pyrrolo[3,2-f]quinolin-9-ones were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity. The most active derivatives showed high selectivity against human leukemia cell lines and potently inhibited their growth, with GI(50) values in the nanomolar range. The active compounds strongly blocked tubulin assembly and colchicine binding to tubulin. Their activities were equal to or greater than that of the reference compound combretastatin A-4. Flow cytometry studies showed that the two most active compounds arrested Jurkat cells in the G(2)/M cell-cycle phase in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was associated with apoptosis, mitochondrial depolarization, generation of reactive oxygen species, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. PMID:20629070

Ferlin, Maria Grazia; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Brun, Paola; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Hamel, Ernest; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

2010-08-01

127

Political activities at gun shows represent views that start at the conservative and move to the right from there. As with the  

E-print Network

6 Politics Political activities at gun shows represent views that start at the conservative that could usefully be explored by others. Candidates for public office see gun shows as a way to connect with a motivated constituency. As one observer described it, "There are people who vote guns and only guns

Leistikow, Bruce N.

128

Immunolocalization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (CAD?2) indicates a good correlation with cell-specific activity of CAD?2 promoter in transgenic poplar shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (CAD?2) localization and the cell-specific activity of the eucalyptus CAD?2 promoter were\\u000a investigated by CAD?2 immunogold localization and promoter ?-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemistry in apical and mature parts\\u000a of stable transformed poplar (Populus tremula?×?P. alba) stems. Both CAD?2 protein and GUS activity were found to be confined in the same types of cells in the shoot

Jozef Šamaj; Simon Hawkins; Virginie Lauvergeat; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati; Alain Boudet

1998-01-01

129

Draft Genome Sequence and Annotation of the Entomopathogenic Bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens LN2, Which Shows Nematicidal Activity against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 Nematodes  

PubMed Central

We present here the 5.6-Mb genome sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens strain LN2, a Gram-negative bacterium that is a symbiont of Heterorhabditis indica LN2 and shows nematicidal activity against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 nematodes. PMID:25502667

Qiu, Xuehong; Zhan, Zu-Bing; Yan, Xun

2014-01-01

130

The combined anti-HIV-1 activities of emtricitabine and tenofovir plus the integrase inhibitor elvitegravir or raltegravir show high levels of synergy in vitro.  

PubMed

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) involves combination treatment with three or more antiretroviral agents. The antiviral effects of combinations of emtricitabine (FTC) plus tenofovir (TFV) plus antiretroviral agents of all the major drug classes were investigated. Combinations of FTC and TFV with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) (efavirenz or rilpivirine) or with a protease inhibitor (PI) (atazanavir, lopinavir, or darunavir) showed additive to synergistic anti-HIV-1 activity. FTC-TFV with an HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) (elvitegravir or raltegravir) showed the strongest synergy. Anti-HIV-1 synergy suggests enhancement of individual anti-HIV-1 activities within cells that may contribute to potent treatment efficacy and open new areas of research into interactions between reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase inhibitors. PMID:25092710

Kulkarni, Rima; Hluhanich, Rebecca; McColl, Damian M; Miller, Michael D; White, Kirsten L

2014-10-01

131

(Figs. 1A and 3C). (iii) Application of a H2O2 regenerating system elevated GUS activity in  

E-print Network

. Chua, Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 2, 462 (1999). 14. Z. L. Zheng, Z. B. Yang, Plant Mol. Biol. 44, 1 (2000 waterlogging. References and Notes 1. M. C. Drew, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Mol. Biol. 48, 223 (1997). 2. E. S. Trewavas, P. H. Masson, Plant Physiol. 111, 243 (1996). 4. C. C. Subbaiah, J. K. Zhang, M. M. Sachs, Plant

Salzberg, Steven

132

Gold(I) Analogues of a Platinum–Acridine Antitumor Agent are only Moderately Cytotoxic but Show Potent Activity Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

A series of cationic gold(I) complexes containing 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea (1), [AuL(1)]n+ (where L is Cl?, Br-, SCN?, PEt3, PPh3, or 1), derived from a class of analogous platinum(II) antitumor agents, has been synthesized. Unlike platinum, gold does not form permanent adducts with DNA, and its complexes are two orders of magnitude less cytotoxic in non-small-cell lung cancer cells than the most active platinum-based agent. Instead, several gold analogues show submicromolar and selective antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:19803526

Eiter, Lauren C.; Hall, Nathan W.; Day, Cynthia S.; Saluta, Gilda; Kucera, Gregory L.; Bierbach, Ulrich

2011-01-01

133

The major indole alkaloid N,?-D-glucopyranosyl vincosamide from leaves of Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl. is not an antifeedant but shows broad antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

N,?-D-glucopyranosyl vincosamide (GPV), a major alkaloid of Psychotria leiocarpa, constitutes up to 2.5% of the dry weight in leaves. Alkaloid content was not elicited by mechanical wounding or jasmonate. At concentrations found in natural conditions or 2.5 fold higher, GPV did not inhibit herbivory in two unrelated generalist models (Helix aspersa and Spodoptera frugiperda) or in a specific interaction model (Heliconius erato fed with Passiflora suberosa). In situ staining assay showed quenching activity of hydrogen peroxide by GPV. Exposure of P. leiocarpa to acute UV-B stress did not change GPV or chlorophyll content, indicating high tolerance to this stress by the species. In vitro antioxidant tests against singlet oxygen, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals showed efficient quenching activity of the alkaloid. GPV was not effective as antifeedant, but it may act indirectly in P. leiocarpa protection against oxidative stress generated upon wounding, UV exposure and perhaps other environmental stresses. PMID:22891663

Matsuura, Hélio Nitta; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

2013-03-01

134

A minimum catalytic unit of F 1ATPase shows non-cooperative ATPase activity inherent in a single catalytic site with a K m 70 ?M  

Microsoft Academic Search

F1-ATPase has three interacting catalytic sites and shows complicated kinetics. Here, we report reconstitution of a complex, most likely composed of one ? subunit and one ? subunit, with a single catalytic site from thermophilic Bacillus PS3 F1-ATPase on the solid surface. The complex has an ATPase activity which obeys a simple non-cooperative kinetics with a Km(ATP) of 70 ?M

Koji Saika; Masasuke Yoshida

1995-01-01

135

Cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders show dysfunctional brain activation and connectivity in the emotional regulation networks during negative emotion maintenance and reappraisal.  

PubMed

Cocaine dependence often co-occurs with Cluster B personality disorders. Since both disorders are characterized by emotion regulation deficits, we predicted that cocaine comorbid patients would exhibit dysfunctional patterns of brain activation and connectivity during reappraisal of negative emotions. We recruited 18 cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders, 17 cocaine users without comorbidities and 21 controls to be scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance on a reappraisal task in which they had to maintain or suppress the emotions induced by negative affective stimuli. We followed region of interest (ROI) and whole-brain approaches to investigate brain activations and connectivity associated with negative emotion experience and reappraisal. Results showed that cocaine users with comorbid personality disorders had reduced activation of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex during negative emotion maintenance and increased activation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala during reappraisal. Amygdala activation correlated with impulsivity and antisocial beliefs in the comorbid group. Connectivity analyses showed that in the cocaine comorbid group the subgenual cingulate was less efficiently connected with the amygdala and the fusiform gyri and more efficiently connected with the anterior insula during maintenance, whereas during reappraisal the left orbitofrontal cortex was more efficiently connected with the amygdala and the right orbitofrontal cortex was less efficiently connected with the dorsal striatum. We conclude that cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders have distinctive patterns of brain activation and connectivity during maintenance and reappraisal of negative emotions, which correlate with impulsivity and dysfunctional beliefs. PMID:23712090

Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Asensio, Samuel; Martínez-González, José Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

2013-12-01

136

The Ozone Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

Mathieu, Aaron

2000-01-01

137

ISU Demonstration Road Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at SE Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Student activities and descriptions of the demonstrated material are also provided.

Shropshire, Steven

2004-04-06

138

Activating FLT3 Mutants Show Distinct Gain-of-Function Phenotypes In Vitro and a Characteristic Signaling Pathway Profile Associated with Prognosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

About 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbour mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, mostly internal tandem duplications (ITD) and point mutations of the second tyrosine kinase domain (TKD). It was the aim of this study to comprehensively analyze clinical and functional properties of various FLT3 mutants. In 672 normal karyotype AML patients FLT3-ITD, but not FLT3-TKD mutations were associated with a worse relapse free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. In paired diagnosis-relapse samples FLT3-ITD showed higher stability (70%) compared to FLT3-TKD (30%). In vitro, FLT3-ITD induced a strong activating phenotype in Ba/F3 cells. In contrast, FLT3-TKD mutations and other point mutations – including two novel mutations – showed a weaker but clear gain-of-function phenotype with gradual increase in proliferation and protection from apoptosis. The pro-proliferative capacity of the investigated FLT3 mutants was associated with cell surface expression and tyrosine 591 phosphorylation of the FLT3 receptor. Western blot experiments revealed STAT5 activation only in FLT3-ITD positive cell lines, in contrast to FLT3-non-ITD mutants, which displayed an enhanced signal of AKT and MAPK activation. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct difference between FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD for STAT5 target gene expression as well as deregulation of SOCS2, ENPP2, PRUNE2 and ART3. FLT3-ITD and FLT3 point mutations show a gain-of-function phenotype with distinct signalling properties in vitro. Although poor prognosis in AML is only associated with FLT3-ITD, all activating FLT3 mutations can contribute to leukemogenesis and are thus potential targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24608088

Janke, Hanna; Pastore, Friederike; Schumacher, Daniela; Herold, Tobias; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Schneider, Stephanie; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Büchner, Thomas; Woermann, Bernhard J.; Subklewe, Marion; Bohlander, Stefan K.; Hiddemann, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

139

B-Ring-Aryl Substituted Luotonin A Analogues with a New Binding Mode to the Topoisomerase 1-DNA Complex Show Enhanced Cytotoxic Activity  

PubMed Central

Topoisomerase 1 inhibition is an important strategy in targeted cancer chemotherapy. The drugs currently in use acting on this enzyme belong to the family of the camptothecins, and suffer severe limitations because of their low stability, which is associated with the hydrolysis of the ?-lactone moiety in their E ring. Luotonin A is a natural camptothecin analogue that lacks this functional group and therefore shows a much-improved stability, but at the cost of a lower activity. Therefore, the development of luotonin A analogues with an increased potency is important for progress in this area. In the present paper, a small library of luotonin A analogues modified at their A and B rings was generated by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-catalyzed Friedländer reactions. All analogues showed an activity similar or higher than the natural luotonin A in terms of topoisomerase 1 inhibition and some compounds had an activity comparable to that of camptothecin. Furthermore, most compounds showed a better activity than luotonin A in cell cytotoxicity assays. In order to rationalize these results, the first docking studies of luotonin-topoisomerase 1-DNA ternary complexes were undertaken. Most compounds bound in a manner similar to luotonin A and to standard topoisomerase poisons such as topotecan but, interestingly, the two most promising analogues, bearing a 3,5-dimethylphenyl substituent at ring B, docked in a different orientation. This binding mode allows the hydrophobic moiety to be shielded from the aqueous environment by being buried between the deoxyribose belonging to the G(+1) guanine and Arg364 in the scissile strand and the surface of the protein and a hydrogen bond between the D-ring carbonyl and the basic amino acid. The discovery of this new binding mode and its associated higher inhibitory potency is a significant advance in the design of new topoisomerase 1 inhibitors. PMID:24830682

González-Ruiz, Víctor; Pascua, Irene; Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Ribelles, Pascual; Bianchini, Giulia; Sridharan, Vellaisamy; Iniesta, Pilar; Ramos, M. Teresa; Olives, Ana I.; Martín, M. Antonia; Menéndez, J. Carlos

2014-01-01

140

Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18? ? g/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41? ? g/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21? ? g/mL against EV71 and 9.08? ? g/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39? ? M) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24? ? M). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection. PMID:24078828

Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

2013-01-01

141

The Arabidopsis homologs of CCR4-associated factor 1 show mRNA deadenylation activity and play a role in plant defence responses.  

PubMed

Messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover in eukaryotic cells begins with shortening of the poly (A) tail at the 3' end, a process called deadenylation. In yeast, the deadenylation reaction is predominantly mediated by CCR4 and CCR4-associated factor 1 (CAF1), two components of the well-characterised protein complex named CCR4-NOT. We report here that AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b, putative Arabidopsis homologs of the yeast CAF1 gene, partially complement the growth defect of the yeast caf1 mutant in the presence of caffeine or at high temperatures. The expression of AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b is induced by multiple stress-related hormones and stimuli. Both AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b show deadenylation activity in vitro and point mutations in the predicted active sites disrupt this activity. T-DNA insertion mutants disrupting the expression of AtCAF1a and/or AtCAF1b are defective in deadenylation of stress-related mRNAs, indicating that the two AtCAF1 proteins are involved in regulated mRNA deadenylation in vivo. Interestingly, the single and double mutants of AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b show reduced expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR1 and PR2 and are more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) infection, whereas transgenic plants over-expressing AtCAF1a show elevated expression of PR1 and PR2 and increased resistance to the same pathogen. Our results suggest roles of the AtCAF1 proteins in regulated mRNA deadenylation and defence responses to pathogen infections. PMID:19065152

Liang, Wenxing; Li, Changbao; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Hongling; Li, Shuyu; Sun, Jiaqiang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, Chuanyou

2009-03-01

142

Lenvatinib, an angiogenesis inhibitor targeting VEGFR/FGFR, shows broad antitumor activity in human tumor xenograft models associated with microvessel density and pericyte coverage  

PubMed Central

Background Lenvatinib is an oral inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR1-3), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR1-4), platelet growth factor receptor ? (PDGFR ?), RET and KIT. Antiangiogenesis activity of lenvatinib in VEGF- and FGF-driven angiogenesis models in both in vitro and in vivo was determined. Roles of tumor vasculature (microvessel density (MVD) and pericyte coverage) as biomarkers for lenvatinib were also examined in this study. Method We evaluated antiangiogenesis activity of lenvatinib against VEGF- and FGF-driven proliferation and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. Effects of lenvatinib on in vivo angiogenesis, which was enhanced by overexpressed VEGF or FGF in human pancreatic cancer KP-1 cells, were examined in the mouse dorsal air sac assay. We determined antitumor activity of lenvatinib in a broad panel of human tumor xenograft models to test if vascular score, which consisted of high MVD and low pericyte coverage, was associated with sensitivity to lenvatinib treatment. Vascular score was also analyzed using human tumor specimens with 18 different types of human primary tumors. Result Lenvatinib inhibited VEGF- and FGF-driven proliferation and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. In vivo angiogenesis induced by overexpressed VEGF (KP-1/VEGF transfectants) or FGF (KP-1/FGF transfectants) was significantly suppressed with oral treatments of lenvatinib. Lenvatinib showed significant antitumor activity in KP-1/VEGF and five 5 of 7 different types of human tumor xenograft models at between 1 to 100?mg/kg. We divided 19 human tumor xenograft models into lenvatinib-sensitive (tumor-shrinkage) and relatively resistant (slow-growth) subgroups based on sensitivity to lenvatinib treatments at 100?mg/kg. IHC analysis showed that vascular score was significantly higher in sensitive subgroup than relatively resistant subgroup (p?showed a broad spectrum of antitumor activity with a wide therapeutic window. MVD and pericyte-coverage of tumor vasculature might be biomarkers and suggest cases that would respond for lenvatinib therapy. PMID:25197551

2014-01-01

143

The environmental chemical tributyltin chloride (TBT) shows both estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice which might depend on the exposure dose  

SciTech Connect

Exposure during early development to chemicals with hormonal action may be associated with weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. It is known that organotins affect adipose mass when exposure occurs during fetal development, although no knowledge of effects are available for exposures after birth. Here we show that the environmental organotin tributyltin chloride (TBT) exerts adipogenic action when peripubertal and sexually mature mice are exposed to the chemical. The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and on the dose of the compound, and the effects are relevant at doses close to the estimated human intake (0.5 {mu}g/kg). At higher doses (50-500 {mu}g/kg), TBT also activated estrogen receptors (ERs) in adipose cells in vitro and in vivo, based on results from acute and longitudinal studies in ERE/luciferase reporter mice. In 3T3-L1 cells (which have no ERs), transiently transfected with the ERE-dependent reporter plus or minus ER{alpha} or ER{beta}, TBT (in a dose range of 1-100 nM) directly targets each ER subtype in a receptor-specific manner through a direct mechanism mediated by ER{alpha} in undifferentiated preadipocytic cells and by ER{beta} in differentiating adipocytes. The ER antagonist ICI-182,780 inhibits this effect. In summary, the results of this work suggest that TBT is adipogenic at all ages and in both sexes and that it might be an ER activator in fat cells. These findings might help to resolve the apparent paradox of an adipogenic chemical being also an estrogen receptor activator by showing that the two apparently opposite actions are separated by the different doses to which the organism is exposed. - Research Highlights: > The environmental organotin tributyltin chloride shows dose-dependent estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice. > The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and the dose of the compound. > The estrogenic and adipogenic effects of TBT occur at doses closed to the estimated human intake. > TBT activates the estrogen receptors (ER{alpha} and ER{beta}) in 3T3-L1 cells at nM concentrations.

Penza, M.; Jeremic, M.; Marrazzo, E. [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Maggi, A.; Ciana, P. [Centre of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Milan (Italy); Rando, G. [Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne (Switzerland); Grigolato, P.G. [Human Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Di Lorenzo, D., E-mail: dilorenzodiego@yahoo.it [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy)

2011-08-15

144

A Novel Small Molecule FL118 That Selectively Inhibits Survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP and cIAP2 in a p53-Independent Manner, Shows Superior Antitumor Activity  

PubMed Central

Drug/radiation resistance to treatment and tumor relapse are major obstacles in identifying a cure for cancer. Development of novel agents that address these challenges would therefore be of the upmost importance in the fight against cancer. In this regard, studies show that the antiapoptotic protein survivin is a central molecule involved in both hurdles. Using cancer cell-based survivin-reporter systems (US 7,569,221 B2) via high throughput screening (HTS) of compound libraries, followed by in vitro and in vivo analyses of HTS-derived hit-lead compounds, we identified a novel anticancer compound (designated FL118). FL118 shows structural similarity to irinotecan. However, while the inhibition of DNA topoisomerase 1 activity by FL118 was no better than the active form of irinotecan, SN-38 at 1 µM, FL118 effectively inhibited cancer cell growth at less than nM levels in a p53 status-independent manner. Moreover, FL118 selectively inhibited survivin promoter activity and gene expression also in a p53 status-independent manner. Although the survivin promoter-reporter system was used for the identification of FL118, our studies revealed that FL118 not only inhibits survivin expression but also selectively and independently inhibits three additional cancer-associated survival genes (Mcl-1, XIAP and cIAP2) in a p53 status-independent manner, while showing no inhibitory effects on control genes. Genetic silencing or overexpression of FL118 targets demonstrated a role for these targets in FL118’s effects. Follow-up in vivo studies revealed that FL118 exhibits superior antitumor efficacy in human tumor xenograft models in comparison with irinotecan, topotecan, doxorubicin, 5-FU, gemcitabine, docetaxel, oxaliplatin, cytoxan and cisplatin, and a majority of mice treated with FL118 showed tumor regression with a weekly × 4 schedule. FL118 induced favorable body-weight-loss profiles (temporary and reversible) and was able to eliminate large tumors. Together, the molecular targeting features of FL118 plus its superior antitumor activity warrant its further development toward clinical trials. PMID:23029106

Cheng, Qiuying; Keefe, James T.; Rustum, Youcef M.; Li, Fengzhi

2012-01-01

145

The antitumor drug aclacinomycin A, which inhibits the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, shows selectivity for the chymotrypsin-like activity of the bovine pituitary 20 S proteasome.  

PubMed

The antitumor drug aclacinomycin A was previously shown to inhibit the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in rabbit reticulocyte lysates with an IC50 of 52 microM (Isoe, T., Naito, M., Shirai, A., Hirai, R., and Tsuruo, T.(1992) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1117, 131-135). We report here that from all the catalytic activities of the 20 S proteasome tested, the chymotrypsin-like activity was the only one affected by the antitumor drug. An important requirement for inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like activity seemed to be the presence of hydrophobic nonpolar residues in positions P1 to P3. Degradation of Z-E(OtBu)AL-pNA and Z-LLL-AMC at pH 7.5 was dramatically (87-98%) inhibited by 50 microM of the drug, while that of Z-GGL-pNA (containing uncharged polar residues in positions P2 and P3) and succinyl-LLVY-AMC (containing an uncharged polar residue in the P1 position) was inhibited only 11 and 24%, respectively. Aclacinomycin A had no effect on cathepsin B, stimulated trypsin, and inhibited chymotrypsin and, to a lesser extent, calpain. The aglycone and sugar moieties of the cytotoxic drug are essential for inhibition. The results presented here support a major role for the chymotrypsin-like activity in the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Aclacinomycin A is the first described non-peptidic inhibitor showing discrete selectivity for the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20 S proteasome. PMID:8663210

Figueiredo-Pereira, M E; Chen, W E; Li, J; Johdo, O

1996-07-12

146

Antiviral Lectins from Red and Blue-Green Algae Show Potent In Vitro and In Vivo Activity against Hepatitis C Virus  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant public health problem with over 170,000,000 chronic carriers and infection rates increasing worldwide. Chronic HCV infection is one of the leading causes of hepatocellular carcinoma which was estimated to result in ?10,000 deaths in the United States in the year 2011. Current treatment options for HCV infection are limited to PEG-ylated interferon alpha (IFN-?), the nucleoside ribavirin and the recently approved HCV protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir. Although showing significantly improved efficacy over the previous therapies, treatment with protease inhibitors has been shown to result in the rapid emergence of drug-resistant virus. Here we report the activity of two proteins, originally isolated from natural product extracts, which demonstrate low or sub-nanomolar in vitro activity against both genotype I and genotype II HCV. These proteins inhibit viral infectivity, binding to the HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 and block viral entry into human hepatocytes. In addition, we demonstrate that the most potent of these agents, the protein griffithsin, is readily bioavailable after subcutaneous injection and shows significant in vivo efficacy in reducing HCV viral titers in a mouse model system with engrafted human hepatocytes. These results indicate that HCV viral entry inhibitors can be an effective component of anti-HCV therapy and that these proteins should be studied further for their therapeutic potential. PMID:23700478

Takebe, Yutaka; Saucedo, Carrie J.; Lund, Garry; Uenishi, Rie; Hase, Saiki; Tsuchiura, Takayo; Kneteman, Norman; Ramessar, Koreen; Tyrrell, D. Lorne J.; Shirakura, Masayuki; Wakita, Takaji; McMahon, James B.; O'Keefe, Barry R.

2013-01-01

147

Modified High-Density Lipoproteins by Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame, and Saccharin, Showed Loss of Anti-atherosclerotic Activity and Toxicity in Zebrafish.  

PubMed

Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function. PMID:25142179

Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

2014-08-21

148

Camptothecin analog (CPT-11)-sensitive human pancreatic tumor cell line QGP-1N shows resistance to SN-38, an active metabolite of CPT-11.  

PubMed

In the course of our study to determine the cross-sensitivity between CPT-11 and its active metabolite, SN-38, we found a SN-38-resistant human pancreatic tumor cell line, QGP-1N, which shows sensitivity to CPT-11. The IC50 of SN-38 was 152 times greater for QGP-1N than for SUIT-2, also a human pancreatic tumor cell line, whose IC50 of CPT-11 was similar to that for QGP-1N. The uptakes of CPT-11 and SN-38 and the intracellular conversion of CPT-11 to SN-38 could not explain the difference in sensitivity. DNA synthesis of QGP-1N cells was inhibited by CPT-11 which did not affect that of SUIT-2, while SN-38 inhibited the DNA synthesis of SUIT-2 at lower concentrations than that of QGP-1N. The inhibition test of topoisomerase I catalytic activity by CPT-11 or SN-38 revealed no difference in the biochemical properties of the topoisomerase I enzymes to the compounds between these two cell lines. These results indicate that CPT-11 should have its own inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis through a yet unknown mechanism in QGP-1N cells, although SN-38 plays an essential role in the antitumor activity of CPT-11 in SUIT-2 cells. In some cases, the antitumor effect of CPT-11 might be consequent not only on SN-38 but also on CPT-11 itself. PMID:1329748

Takeda, S; Shimazoe, T; Kuga, H; Sato, K; Kono, A

1992-10-15

149

Polysaccharides from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps taii Show Antioxidant and Immunoenhancing Activities in a D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Cordyceps taii, an edible medicinal mushroom native to south China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. In the present study, the antioxidant pharmacological properties of C. taii were systematically investigated. In vitro assays revealed the scavenging activities of the aqueous extract and polysaccharides of C. taii against various free radicals, that is, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical. The EC50 values for superoxide anion-free radical ranged from 2.04?mg/mL to 2.49?mg/mL, which was at least 2.6-fold stronger than that of antioxidant thiourea. The polysaccharides also significantly enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and markedly decreased the malondialdehyde production of lipid peroxidation in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Interestingly, the immune function of the administration group was significantly boosted compared with the D-galactose-induced aging model group. Therefore, the C. taii polysaccharides possessed potent antioxidant activity closely associated with immune function enhancement and free radical scavenging. These findings suggest that the polysaccharides are a promising source of natural antioxidants and antiaging drugs. Consequently, a preliminary chemical investigation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and revealed that the polysaccharides studied were mainly composed of glucose, mannose, and galactose. Fourier-transform infrared spectra also showed characteristic polysaccharide absorption bands. PMID:22536281

Xiao, Jian-Hui; Xiao, Dai-Min; Chen, Dai-Xiong; Xiao, Yu; Liang, Zong-Qi; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

2012-01-01

150

Intranasal formulation of erythropoietin (EPO) showed potent protective activity against amyloid toxicity in the A?????? non-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (EPO) promotes neurogenesis and neuroprotection. We here compared the protection induced by two EPO formulations in a rodent model of Alzheimer's disease (AD): rHu-EPO and a low sialic form, Neuro-EPO. We used the intracerebroventricular administration of aggregated A?????? peptide, a non-transgenic AD model. rHu-EPO was tested at 125-500 µg/kg intraperitoneally and Neuro-EPO at 62-250 µg/kg intranasally (IN). Behavioural procedures included spontaneous alternation, passive avoidance, water-maze and object recognition, to address spatial and non-spatial, short- and long-term memories. Biochemical markers of A?????? toxicity in the mouse hippocampus were examined and cell loss in the CA1 layer was determined. rHu-EPO and Neuro-EPO led to a significant prevention of A??????-induced learning deficits. Both EPO formulations prevented the induction of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus, showing an antioxidant activity. rHu-EPO (250 µg/kg) or Neuro-EPO (125 µg/kg) prevented the A??????-induced increase in Bax level, TNF? and IL-1? production and decrease in Akt activation. A significant prevention of the A??????-induced cell loss in CA1 was also observed. EPO is neuroprotective in the A?????? AD model, confirming its potential as an endogenous neuroprotection system that could be boosted for therapeutic efficacy. We here identified a new IN formulation of EPO showing high neuroprotective activity. Considering its efficacy, ease and safety, IN Neuro-EPO is a new promising therapeutic agent in AD. PMID:23813967

Maurice, Tangui; Mustafa, Muhammad-Hariri; Desrumaux, Catherine; Keller, Emeline; Naert, Gaëlle; de la C García-Barceló, María; Rodríguez Cruz, Yamila; Garcia Rodríguez, Julío César

2013-11-01

151

A new peptide (Ruviprase) purified from the venom of Daboia russelii russelii shows potent anticoagulant activity via non-enzymatic inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa.  

PubMed

Compounds showing dual inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa (FXa) are the subject of great interest owing to their broader specificity for effective anticoagulation therapy against cardiovascular disorders. This is the first report on the functional characterization and assessment of therapeutic potential of a 4423.6 Da inhibitory peptide (Ruviprase) purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom. The secondary structure of Ruviprase is composed of ?-helices (61.9%) and random coils (38.1%). The partial N-terminal sequence (E(1)-V(2)-X(3)-W(4)-W(5)-W(6)-A(7)-Q(8)-L(9)-S(10)) of Ruviprase demonstrated significant similarity (80.0%) with an internal sequence of apoptosis-stimulating protein reported from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah and Python bivittatus; albeit Ruviprase did not show sequence similarity with existing thrombin/FXa inhibitors, suggesting its uniqueness. Ruviprase demonstrated a potent in vitro anticoagulant property and inhibited both thrombin and FXa following slow binding kinetics. Ruviprase inhibited thrombin by binding to its active site via an uncompetitive mechanism with a Ki value and dissociation constant (KD) of 0.42 ?M and 0.46 ?M, respectively. Conversely, Ruviprase demonstrated mixed inhibition (Ki = 0.16 ?M) of FXa towards its physiological substrate prothrombin. Furthermore, the biological properties of Ruviprase could not be neutralized by commercial polyvalent or monovalent antivenom. Ruviprase at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg was non-toxic and showed potent in vivo anticoagulant activity after 6 h of intraperitoneal treatment in mice. Because of the potent anticoagulant property as well as non-toxic nature of Ruviprase, the possible application of the peptide as an antithrombotic agent for combating thrombosis-associated ailments appears promising. PMID:25038567

Thakur, Rupamoni; Kumar, Ashok; Bose, Biplab; Panda, Dulal; Saikia, Debashree; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Mukherjee, Ashis K

2014-10-01

152

ICAM-1-based rabies virus vaccine shows increased infection and activation of primary murine B cells in vitro and enhanced antibody titers in-vivo.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines infect and directly activate murine and human primary B cells in-vitro, which we propose can be exploited to help develop a single-dose RABV-based vaccine. Here we report on a novel approach to utilize the binding of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to its binding partner, Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1), on B cells to enhance B cell activation and RABV-specific antibody responses. We used a reverse genetics approach to clone, recover, and characterize a live-attenuated recombinant RABV-based vaccine expressing the murine Icam1 gene (rRABV-mICAM-1). We show that the murine ICAM-1 gene product is incorporated into virus particles, potentially exposing ICAM-1 to extracellular binding partners. While rRABV-mICAM-1 showed 10-100-fold decrease in viral titers on baby hamster kidney cells compared to the parental virus (rRABV), rRABV-mICAM-1 infected and activated primary murine B cells in-vitro more efficiently than rRABV, as indicated by significant upregulation of CD69, CD40, and MHCII on the surface of infected B cells. ICAM-1 expression on the virus surface was responsible for enhanced B cell infection since pre-treating rRABV-mICAM-1 with a neutralizing anti-ICAM-1 antibody reduced B cell infection to levels observed with rRABV alone. Furthermore, 100-fold less rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce antibody titers in immunized mice equivalent to antibody titers observed in rRABV-immunized mice. Of note, only 10(3) focus forming units (ffu)/mouse of rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce significant anti-RABV antibody titers as early as five days post-immunization. As both speed and potency of antibody responses are important in controlling human RABV infection in a post-exposure setting, these data show that expression of Icam1 from the RABV genome, which is then incorporated into the virus particle, is a promising strategy for the development of a single-dose RABV vaccine that requires only a minimum of virus. PMID:24489846

Norton, James E; Lytle, Andrew G; Shen, Shixue; Tzvetkov, Evgeni P; Dorfmeier, Corin L; McGettigan, James P

2014-01-01

153

Methotrexate-conjugated PEGylated dendrimers show differential patterns of deposition and activity in tumour-burdened lymph nodes after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in rats.  

PubMed

The current study sought to explore whether the subcutaneous administration of lymph-targeted dendrimers, conjugated with a model chemotherapeutic (methotrexate, MTX), was able to enhance anticancer activity against lymph node metastases. The lymphatic pharmacokinetics and antitumour activity of PEGylated polylysine dendrimers conjugated to MTX [D-MTX(OH)] via a tumour-labile hexapeptide linker was examined in rats and compared to a similar system where MTX was ?-carboxyl O-tert-butylated [D-MTX(OtBu)]. The latter has previously been shown to exhibit longer plasma circulation times. D-MTX(OtBu) was well absorbed from the subcutaneous injection site via the lymph, and 3 to 4%/g of the dose was retained by sentinel lymph nodes. In contrast, D-MTX(OH) showed limited absorption from the subcutaneous injection site, but absorption was almost exclusively via the lymph. The retention of D-MTX(OH) by sentinel lymph nodes was also significantly elevated (approximately 30% dose/g). MTX alone was not absorbed into the lymph. All dendrimers displayed lower lymph node targeting after intravenous administration. Despite significant differences in the lymph node retention of D-MTX(OH) and D-MTX(OtBu) after subcutaneous and intravenous administration, the growth of lymph node metastases was similarly inhibited. In contrast, the administration of MTX alone did not significantly reduce lymph node tumour growth. Subcutaneous administration of drug-conjugated dendrimers therefore provides an opportunity to improve drug deposition in downstream tumour-burdened lymph nodes. In this case, however, increased lymph node biodistribution did not correlate well with antitumour activity, possibly suggesting constrained drug release at the site of action. PMID:25485615

Kaminskas, Lisa M; McLeod, Victoria M; Ascher, David B; Ryan, Gemma M; Jones, Seth; Haynes, John M; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Chan, Linda J; Sloan, Erica K; Finnin, Benjamin A; Williamson, Mark; Velkov, Tony; Williams, Elizabeth D; Kelly, Brian D; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher J H

2014-12-01

154

Background Synaptic Activity in Rat Entorhinal Cortex Shows a Progressively Greater Dominance of Inhibition over Excitation from Deep to Superficial Layers  

PubMed Central

The entorhinal cortex (EC) controls hippocampal input and output, playing major roles in memory and spatial navigation. Different layers of the EC subserve different functions and a number of studies have compared properties of neurones across layers. We have studied synaptic inhibition and excitation in EC neurones, and we have previously compared spontaneous synaptic release of glutamate and GABA using patch clamp recordings of synaptic currents in principal neurones of layers II (L2) and V (L5). Here, we add comparative studies in layer III (L3). Such studies essentially look at neuronal activity from a presynaptic viewpoint. To correlate this with the postsynaptic consequences of spontaneous transmitter release, we have determined global postsynaptic conductances mediated by the two transmitters, using a method to estimate conductances from membrane potential fluctuations. We have previously presented some of this data for L3 and now extend to L2 and L5. Inhibition dominates excitation in all layers but the ratio follows a clear rank order (highest to lowest) of L2>L3>L5. The variance of the background conductances was markedly higher for excitation and inhibition in L2 compared to L3 or L5. We also show that induction of synchronized network epileptiform activity by blockade of GABA inhibition reveals a relative reluctance of L2 to participate in such activity. This was associated with maintenance of a dominant background inhibition in L2, whereas in L3 and L5 the absolute level of inhibition fell below that of excitation, coincident with the appearance of synchronized discharges. Further experiments identified potential roles for competition for bicuculline by ambient GABA at the GABAA receptor, and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in residual inhibition in L2. We discuss our results in terms of control of excitability in neuronal subpopulations of EC neurones and what these may suggest for their functional roles. PMID:24454801

Greenhill, Stuart David; Chamberlain, Sophie Elizabeth Lyn; Lench, Alex; Massey, Peter Vernon; Yuill, Kathryn Heather; Woodhall, Gavin Lawrence; Jones, Roland Spencer Gwynne

2014-01-01

155

Structural analysis of the alcohol acyltransferase protein family from Cucumis melo shows that enzyme activity depends on an essential solvent channel.  

PubMed

Alcohol acyltransferases (AAT) play a key role in ester biosynthesis. In Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis, AATs are encoded by a gene family of four members (CmAAT1-4). CmAAT1, CmAAT3 and CmAAT4 are capable of synthesizing esters, with CmAAT1 the most active. CmAAT2 is inactive and has an Ala268 residue instead of a threonine which is present in all other active AATs, although the role of this residue is still unclear. The present work aims to understand the molecular mechanism involved in ester biosynthesis in melon fruit and to clarify the importance of the Ala268 residue. First, structural models for each protein were built by comparative modelling methodology. Afterwards, conformational interaction between the protein and several ligands, alcohols and acyl-CoAs was explored by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Structural analysis showed that CmAATs share a similar structure. Also, well-defined solvent channels were described in the CmAATs except for CmAAT2 which does not have a proper channel and instead has a small pocket around Ala268. Residues of the catalytic HxxxD motif interact with substrates within the solvent channel, with Ser363 also important. Strong binding interaction energies were described for the best substrate couple of each CmAAT (hexyl-, benzyl- and cinnamyl-acetate for CmAAT1, 3 and 4 respectively). CmAAT1 and CmAAT2 protein surfaces share similar electrostatic potentials; nevertheless the entrance channels for the substrates differ in location and electrostatic character, suggesting that Ala268 might be responsible for that. This could partly explain the major differences in activity reported for these two enzymes. PMID:23311868

Galaz, Sebastián; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Herrera, Raúl

2013-03-01

156

Reduced Expression of the Retinoblastoma Protein Shows That the Related Signaling Pathway Is Essential for Mediating the Antineoplastic Activity of Erufosine  

PubMed Central

Erufosine is a new antineoplastic agent of the group of alkylphosphocholines, which interferes with signal transduction and induces apoptosis in various leukemic and tumor cell lines. The present study was designed to examine for the first time the mechanism of resistance to erufosine in malignant cells with permanently reduced expression of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Bearing in mind the high number of malignancies with reduced level of this tumor-suppressor, this investigation was deemed important for using erufosine, alone or in combination, in patients with compromised RB1 gene expression. For this purpose, clones of the leukemic T-cell line SKW-3 were used, which had been engineered to constantly express differently low Rb levels. The alkylphosphocholine induced apoptosis, stimulated the expression of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 and inhibited the synthesis of cyclin D3, thereby causing a G2 phase cell cycle arrest and death of cells with wild type Rb expression. In contrast, Rb-deficiency impeded the changes induced by eru-fosine in the expression of these proteins and abrogated the induction of G2 arrest, which was correlated with reduced antiproliferative and anticlonogenic activities of the compound. In conclusion, analysis of our results showed for the first time that the Rb signaling pathway is essential for mediating the antineoplastic activity of erufosine and its efficacy in patients with malignant diseases may be predicted by determining the Rb status. PMID:24987858

Zaharieva, Maya M.; Kirilov, Milen; Chai, Minquang; Berger, Stefan M.; Konstantinov, Spiro; Berger, Martin R.

2014-01-01

157

New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity: crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium  

SciTech Connect

Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles.

Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N.; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

2013-03-01

158

Androgen Regulation of Murine ?-Glucuronidase Expression: Identification and Characterization of a Nonresponse Variant  

PubMed Central

One of the major features of ?-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in inbred strains of the house mouse, Mus musculus, is the responsiveness of this enzyme to androgen stimulation in tubule cells of the kidney. Both GUS-specific and nonspecific mutations have been described which define genes that serve to control this response. During examination of the expression of GUS in the interbreeding subspecies, Mus hortulanus, a new GUS haplotype was uncovered that is characterized, in part, by a lack of GUS response to androgen stimulation in an apparently responsive kidney. Blot hybridization analyses of kidney RNA with a radiolabeled murine GUS cDNA shows this lack of response to be reflected in GUS mRNA levels. The difference in heat stability of GUS activity between M. hortulanus and a responsive inbred strain, ICR/Ha, was utilized to assess the contribution of each parent to kidney levels of GUS in androgen-treated and -untreated F(1) progeny of these strains. The results, together with preliminary genetic studies, suggest that the element controlling this responsiveness (or the lack thereof) is cis-active and tightly linked to the GUS structural gene on chromosome 5. It is not known whether this element is identical to another GUS-specific, cis-active element, Gus-r, which also controls the androgen response of GUS in mouse kidney. PMID:3396859

Lund, S. D.; Miller, D.; Chapman, V.; Ganschow, R. E.

1988-01-01

159

Androgen regulation of murine beta-glucuronidase expression: identification and characterization of a nonresponse variant.  

PubMed

One of the major features of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in inbred strains of the house mouse, Mus musculus, is the responsiveness of this enzyme to androgen stimulation in tubule cells of the kidney. Both GUS-specific and nonspecific mutations have been described which define genes that serve to control this response. During examination of the expression of GUS in the interbreeding subspecies, Mus hortulanus, a new GUS haplotype was uncovered that is characterized, in part, by a lack of GUS response to androgen stimulation in an apparently responsive kidney. Blot hybridization analyses of kidney RNA with a radiolabeled murine GUS cDNA shows this lack of response to be reflected in GUS mRNA levels. The difference in heat stability of GUS activity between M. hortulanus and a responsive inbred strain, ICR/Ha, was utilized to assess the contribution of each parent to kidney levels of GUS in androgen-treated and -untreated F1 progeny of these strains. The results, together with preliminary genetic studies, suggest that the element controlling this responsiveness (or the lack thereof) is cis-active and tightly linked to the GUS structural gene on chromosome 5. It is not known whether this element is identical to another GUS-specific, cis-active element, Gus-r, which also controls the androgen response of GUS in mouse kidney. PMID:3396859

Lund, S D; Miller, D; Chapman, V; Ganschow, R E

1988-05-01

160

Healthy working school teachers with high effort-reward-imbalance and overcommitment show increased pro-inflammatory immune activity and a dampened innate immune defence.  

PubMed

To test whether chronic work stress is accompanied by altered immune functioning, changes in lymphocyte subsets and in lymphocyte production of cytokines were examined in reaction to acute psychosocial stress. Work stress was measured according to Siegrist's effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) model. ERI reflects stress due to a lack of reciprocity between costs and gains at work. Overcommitment (OC) is conceptualized as a dysfunctional coping pattern mainly characterized by the inability to withdraw from work obligations. Fifty-five healthy teachers (34 women, 21 men, mean age 50.0 ± 8.47 years) were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). Lymphocyte subset counts and lymphocyte production of tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)-?, interferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL)-2, -4, -6 and -10 were measured before and after challenge. High levels of ERI and OC were associated with lower natural killer (NK) cell (CD16+/56+) numbers whereas high levels of OC were related to a lower increase in T-helper cells (CD4+) after stress. Furthermore, subjects with higher ERI showed an overall increased pro-inflammatory activity, with higher TNF-? production at both time points and elevated pre-stress IL-6 production. IL-10 production decreased with higher ERI after stress. The ratios of TNF-?/IL-10 and IL-6/IL-10 were significantly increased in subjects high on ERI. Finally, OC was associated with higher IL-2 production post-stress. The present findings suggest a dampened innate immune defence, reflected in lower NK cell numbers together with an increased pro-inflammatory activity in teachers high on ERI and OC. Such pathways could partly be responsible for the increased vulnerability for stress-related diseases in individuals suffering from chronic work stress. PMID:20599495

Bellingrath, Silja; Rohleder, Nicolas; Kudielka, Brigitte M

2010-11-01

161

Major molecular response achievement in CML Patients can be predicted by BCR-ABL1/ABL1 or BCR-ABL1/GUS ratio at an earlier time point of follow-up than currently recommended.  

PubMed

Recent studies demonstrate that early molecular response to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors is strongly predictive of outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia patients and that early response landmarks may identify patients at higher risk for transformation who would benefit from an early switch to second-line therapy. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the control gene GUS to identify relevant thresholds for known therapeutic decision levels (BCR-ABL1/ABL1IS ?= 10% and 0.1%). We then defined the most relevant cut-offs for early molecular response markers (transcript level at 3 months, halving time and log reduction between diagnosis and 3 months of treatment) using GUS or ABL1. We demonstrated that, although both control genes could be used (in an equivalent way) to accurately assess early molecular response, the BCR-ABL1/GUS level at diagnosis is impacted by the higher GUS copy number over-expressed in CML cells, thus negatively impacting its ability to completely replace ABL1 at diagnosis. Furthermore, we pointed out, for the first time, that it would be helpful to monitor BCR-ABL1 levels at an earlier time point than that currently performed, in order to assess response to first-line tyrosine-kinase inhibitors and consider a potential switch of therapy as early as possible. We evaluated this optimal time point as being 19 days after the start of treatment in our cohort. PMID:25203717

Huet, Sarah; Cony-Makhoul, Pascale; Heiblig, Maël; Tigaud, Isabelle; Gazzo, Sophie; Belhabri, Amine; Souche, Denis; Michallet, Mauricette; Magaud, Jean-Pierre; Hayette, Sandrine; Nicolini, Franck

2014-01-01

162

Major Molecular Response Achievement in CML Patients Can Be Predicted by BCR-ABL1/ABL1 or BCR-ABL1/GUS Ratio at an Earlier Time Point of Follow-Up than Currently Recommended  

PubMed Central

Recent studies demonstrate that early molecular response to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors is strongly predictive of outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia patients and that early response landmarks may identify patients at higher risk for transformation who would benefit from an early switch to second-line therapy. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the control gene GUS to identify relevant thresholds for known therapeutic decision levels (BCR-ABL1/ABL1IS ?=?10% and 0.1%). We then defined the most relevant cut-offs for early molecular response markers (transcript level at 3 months, halving time and log reduction between diagnosis and 3 months of treatment) using GUS or ABL1. We demonstrated that, although both control genes could be used (in an equivalent way) to accurately assess early molecular response, the BCR-ABL1/GUS level at diagnosis is impacted by the higher GUS copy number over-expressed in CML cells, thus negatively impacting its ability to completely replace ABL1 at diagnosis. Furthermore, we pointed out, for the first time, that it would be helpful to monitor BCR-ABL1 levels at an earlier time point than that currently performed, in order to assess response to first-line tyrosine-kinase inhibitors and consider a potential switch of therapy as early as possible. We evaluated this optimal time point as being 19 days after the start of treatment in our cohort. PMID:25203717

Huet, Sarah; Cony-Makhoul, Pascale; Heiblig, Maël; Tigaud, Isabelle; Gazzo, Sophie; Belhabri, Amine; Souche, Denis; Michallet, Mauricette; Magaud, Jean-Pierre; Hayette, Sandrine; Nicolini, Franck

2014-01-01

163

Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action  

PubMed Central

Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

2014-01-01

164

Identification of the specific sequence recognized by Penicillium citrinum MlcR, a GAL4-type transcriptional activator of ML-236B (compactin) biosynthetic genes.  

PubMed

MlcR is a pathway-specific transcriptional activator of the ML-236B biosynthetic genes in Penicillium citrinum. The MlcR-binding sequences were identified by an in vitro gel-shift assay and an in vivo reporter assay for the region between mlcA and mlcC as a model. The gel-shift assay showed that recombinant MlcR bound to the DNA sequence 5'-ACGGCGTTATTCGG-3' and most of the bases in this motif were required for the interaction between MlcR and DNA. In the reporter assay using beta-glucuronidase (GUS), substitution of the bases in this binding sequence resulted in the drastic reduction of GUS activities. These data clearly indicate that this MlcR-binding sequence is essential for the transcriptional activation of mlcA and mlcC in P. citrinum. Similar motifs were found in other loci of the ML-236B biosynthetic gene cluster and the consensus-binding motif for MlcR was predicted to be a direct repeat, 5'-WCGG-N(6)-TCGG-3'. PMID:18667169

Baba, S; Nihira, T; Hosobuchi, M

2008-09-01

165

Combination of novel HER2-targeting antibody 1E11 with trastuzumab shows synergistic antitumor activity in HER2-positive gastric cancer.  

PubMed

The synergistic interaction of two antibodies targeting the same protein could be developed as an effective anti-cancer therapy. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20-25% of breast and gastric cancer patients, and HER2-targeted antibody therapy using trastuzumab is effective in many of these patients. Nonetheless, improving therapeutic efficacy and patient survival is important, particularly in patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer. Here, we describe the development of 1E11, a HER2-targeted humanized monoclonal antibody showing increased efficacy in a highly synergistic manner in combination with trastuzumab in the HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer cell lines NCI-N87 and OE-19. The two antibodies bind to sub-domain IV of the receptor, but have non-overlapping epitopes, allowing them to simultaneously bind HER2. Treatment with 1E11 alone induced apoptosis in HER2-positive cancer cells, and this effect was enhanced by combination treatment with trastuzumab. Combination treatment with 1E11 and trastuzumab reduced the levels of total HER2 protein and those of aberrant HER2 signaling molecules including phosphorylated HER3 and EGFR. The synergistic antitumor activity of 1E11 in combination with trastuzumab indicates that it could be a novel potent therapeutic antibody for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing gastric cancers. PMID:25306393

Ko, Bong-Kook; Lee, Sook-Yeon; Lee, Young-Ha; Hwang, In-Sik; Persson, Helena; Rockberg, Johan; Borrebaeck, Carl; Park, Dongeun; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Uhlen, Mathias; Lee, Jong-Seo

2015-02-01

166

The novel toluidine sulphonamide EL102 shows pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo activity against prostate cancer and circumvents MDR1 resistance  

PubMed Central

Background: Taxanes are routinely used for the treatment of prostate cancer, however the majority of patients eventually develop resistance. We investigated the potential efficacy of EL102, a novel toluidine sulphonamide, in pre-clinical models of prostate cancer. Methods: The effect of EL102 and/or docetaxel on PC-3, DU145, 22Rv1 and CWR22 prostate cancer cells was assessed using cell viability, cell cycle analysis and PARP cleavage assays. Tubulin polymerisation and immunofluorescence assays were used to assess tubulin dynamics. CWR22 xenograft murine model was used to assess effects on tumour proliferation. Multidrug-resistant lung cancer DLKPA was used to assess EL102 in a MDR1-mediated drug resistance background. Results: EL102 has in vitro activity against prostate cancer, characterised by accumulation in G2/M, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of Hif1?, and inhibition of tubulin polymerisation and decreased microtubule stability. In vivo, a combination of EL102 and docetaxel exhibits superior tumour inhibition. The DLKP cell line and multidrug-resistant DLKPA variant (which exhibits 205 to 691-fold greater resistance to docetaxel, paclitaxel, vincristine and doxorubicin) are equally sensitive to EL102. Conclusion: EL102 shows potential as both a single agent and within combination regimens for the treatment of prostate cancer, particularly in the chemoresistance setting. PMID:24052043

Toner, A P; McLaughlin, F; Giles, F J; Sullivan, F J; O'Connell, E; Carleton, L A; Breen, L; Dunne, G; Gorman, A M; Lewis, J D; Glynn, S A

2013-01-01

167

CKR-L3, a deletion version CCR6-isoform shows coreceptor-activity for limited human and simian immunodeficiency viruses  

PubMed Central

Background The chemokine receptors (CKRs), mainly CCR5 and CXCR4 function as major coreceptors in infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Approximately 20 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified as minor coreceptors, alike CCR6 that we reported recently. Since CKR-L3 is indentified as a natural isoform of CCR6, we attempted in this study to explore the coreceptor function of CKR-L3. Methods NP-2 cells transduced with CD4-receptor (NP-2/CD4) normally remain resistant to HIV or SIV infection. However, the introduction of functional coreceptors can make these cells susceptible to these viruses. NP-2/CD4/CKR-L3 cells were produced to examine the coreceptor activity of CKR-L3. Likely, CCR6-isoform and the major coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4 were also examined in parallel. Presence of viral antigen in infected NP-2/CD4/coreceptor cells was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The results were validated by detection of syncytia, proviral DNA and by measuring reverse transcriptase (RT) activities. Results HIV-2MIR and SIVsmE660 were found to infect NP-2/CD4/CKR-L3 cells, indicative of the coreceptor function of CKR-L3. Viral antigens appeared faster in NP-2/CD4/CKR-L3 cells than in NP-2/CD4/CCR6, indicating that CKR-L3 is a more efficient coreceptor. Moreover, syncytia formation was more rapid and RT release evidenced earlier and at higher levels with CKR-L3 than with CCR6. Sequence analysis in the C2-V3 envelope region of HIV-2MIR replicated through CKR-L3 and CCR6 coreceptor showed two and three amino acid substitutions respectively, in the C2 region compared to the CCR5-variant. The SIVsmE660-CKRL3 variant showed three amino acid substitutions in the V1 region, one change in the V2 and two changes in the C2 region. The SIVsmE660-CCR6 variant produced two changes in the V1 region, and three in the C2 region. Conclusions Isoform CKR-L3 exhibited coreceptor activity for limited primary HIV and SIV isolates with better efficiency than the parent CCR6-isoform. Amino acid substitutions in the envelope region of these viruses may confer selective pressure towards CKR-L3-use. CKR-L3 with other minor coreceptors may contribute to HIV and SIV pathogenesis including dissemination, trafficking and latency especially when major coreceptors become compromised. However, further works will be required to determine its clinical significance in HIV and SIV infection. PMID:24980635

2014-01-01

168

Increased Expression of CCN2, Epithelial Membrane Antigen, and Fibroblast Activation Protein in Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Fibrous Stroma Showing Aggressive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Tumor behavior is affected by the tumor microenvironment, composed of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Meanwhile, hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) with fibrous stroma reportedly exhibit aggressive behavior suggestive of tumor-stroma interaction. However, evidence of the crosstalk remains unclear. In this study, CCN2, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), fibroblast activation protein (FAP), and keratin 19 (K19) expression was studied in 314 HCCs (cohort 1), 42 scirrhous HCCs (cohort 2), and 36 chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis specimens by immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathological parameters were analyzed according to the expressions of these markers. In tumor epithelial cells from cohort 1, CCN2 and EMA were expressed in 15.3% and 17.2%, respectively, and their expressions were more frequent in HCCs with fibrous stroma (?5% of tumor area) than those without (P<0.05 for all); CCN2 expression was well correlated with K19 and EMA expression. In tumor stromal cells, FAP expression was found in 6.7%. In cohort 2, CCN2, EMA, and FAP expression was noted in 40.5%, 40.5%, and 66.7%, respectively, which was more frequent than that in cohort 1 (P<0.05 for all). Additionally, EMA expression was associated with the expression of K19, CCN2, and FAP (P<0.05 for all); EMA expressing tumor epithelial cells showed a topographic closeness to FAP-expressing CAFs. Analysis of disease-free survival revealed CCN2 expression to be a worse prognostic factor in both cohort 1 (P?=?0.005) and cohort 2 (P?=?0.023), as well as EMA as a worse prognostic factor in cohort 2 (P?=?0.048). In conclusion, expression of CCN2, EMA, and FAP may be involved in the activation of CAFs in HCC, giving rise to aggressive behavior. Significant correlation between EMA-expressing tumor cells and FAP-expressing CAFs and their topographic closeness suggests possible cross-talk between tumor epithelial cells and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment of HCC. PMID:25126747

Yoo, Jeong Eun; Ko, Jung Eun; Lee, Jee San; Kim, Hyunki; Choi, Jin Sub; Park, Young Nyun

2014-01-01

169

Doxorubicin-conjugated PEGylated dendrimers show similar tumoricidal activity but lower systemic toxicity when compared to PEGylated liposome and solution formulations in mouse and rat tumor models.  

PubMed

PEGylated polylysine dendrimers show promise as novel drug delivery systems with the potential to direct site specific deposition patterns and to reduce toxicity at nontarget sites. Here the activity and toxicity profiles of a generation 5 polylysine dendrimer with 50% surface conjugation of PEG1100 and 50% surface conjugation of doxorubicin (via an acid labile 4-hydrazinosulfonyl benzoic acid linker) have been compared in a Walker 256 rat tumor model and a human MDA-MB231 xenograft in mice. A direct comparison was also made to a PEGylated liposomal formulation of doxorubicin and a doxorubicin solution. In both rat and mouse breast cancer models, the dendrimer formulation gave equivalent antitumor efficacy when compared to the liposomal or solution doxorubicin formulations and administration of all three doxorubicin formulations resulted in a significant reduction (>75%) in tumor growth in both models at doses ranging from 2 to 10 mg/kg doxorubicin equivalents. The dendrimer formulation, however, was better tolerated by both rats and mice, and approximately 2-fold higher doses were required to induce similar levels of toxicity (as assessed by organ weight, peripheral white cell counts, body weight and survival curves) when compared to administration of the doxorubicin solution or PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. In rats the appearance of palmar plantar erythematosis (PPE), or hand foot syndrome, was also less evident after administration of dendrimer doxorubicin when compared to the liposome. Finally, even after administration to mice at 2-fold higher doses, dendrimer-doxorubicin resulted in a reduced incidence of cardiotoxicity when compared with a simple solution formulation of doxorubicin. The data suggest that dendrimer-based doxorubicin formulations may provide advantage over solution and liposomal formulations of doxorubicin via a reduction in systemic toxicity. PMID:22233281

Kaminskas, Lisa M; McLeod, Victoria M; Kelly, Brian D; Cullinane, Carleen; Sberna, Gian; Williamson, Mark; Boyd, Ben J; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher J H

2012-03-01

170

Antimalarial Iron Chelator, FBS0701, Shows Asexual and Gametocyte Plasmodium falciparum Activity and Single Oral Dose Cure in a Murine Malaria Model  

PubMed Central

Iron chelators for the treatment of malaria have proven therapeutic activity in vitro and in vivo in both humans and mice, but their clinical use is limited by the unsuitable absorption and pharmacokinetic properties of the few available iron chelators. FBS0701, (S)3”-(HO)-desazadesferrithiocin-polyether [DADFT-PE], is an oral iron chelator currently in Phase 2 human studies for the treatment of transfusional iron overload. The drug has very favorable absorption and pharmacokinetic properties allowing for once-daily use to deplete circulating free iron with human plasma concentrations in the high µM range. Here we show that FBS0701 has inhibition concentration 50% (IC50) of 6 µM for Plasmodium falciparum in contrast to the IC50 for deferiprone and deferoxamine at 15 and 30 µM respectively. In combination, FBS0701 interfered with artemisinin parasite inhibition and was additive with chloroquine or quinine parasite inhibition. FBS0701 killed early stage P. falciparum gametocytes. In the P. berghei Thompson suppression test, a single dose of 100 mg/kg reduced day three parasitemia and prolonged survival, but did not cure mice. Treatment with a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg one day after infection with 10 million lethal P. yoelii 17XL cured all the mice. Pretreatment of mice with a single oral dose of FBS0701 seven days or one day before resulted in the cure of some mice. Plasma exposures and other pharmacokinetics parameters in mice of the 100 mg/kg dose are similar to a 3 mg/kg dose in humans. In conclusion, FBS0701 demonstrates a single oral dose cure of the lethal P. yoelii model. Significantly, this effect persists after the chelator has cleared from plasma. FBS0701 was demonstrated to remove labile iron from erythrocytes as well as enter erythrocytes to chelate iron. FBS0701 may find clinically utility as monotherapy, a malarial prophylactic or, more likely, in combination with other antimalarials. PMID:22629364

Ferrer, Patricia; Tripathi, Abhai K.; Clark, Martha A.; Hand, Carla Cerami; Rienhoff, Hugh Young; Sullivan, David J.

2012-01-01

171

Stress Sensitive Healthy Females Show Less Left Amygdala Activation in Response to Withdrawal-Related Visual Stimuli under Passive Viewing Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amygdalae are key players in the processing of a variety of emotional stimuli. Especially aversive visual stimuli have been reported to attract attention and activate the amygdalae. However, as it has been argued that passively viewing withdrawal-related images could attenuate instead of activate amygdalae neuronal responses, its role under…

Baeken, Chris; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; De Raedt, Rudi; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Mey, Johan; Bossuyt, Axel; Luypaert, Robert

2012-01-01

172

Repression vs. activation of MOX, FMD, MPP1 and MAL1 promoters by sugars in Hansenula polymorpha: the outcome depends on cell's ability to phosphorylate sugar.  

PubMed

A high-throughput approach was used to assess the effect of mono- and disaccharides on MOX, FMD, MPP1 and MAL1 promoters in Hansenula polymorpha. Site-specifically designed strains deficient for (1) hexokinase, (2) hexokinase and glucokinase, (3) maltose permease or (4) maltase were used as hosts for reporter plasmids in which ?-glucuronidase (Gus) expression was controlled by these promoters. The reporter strains were grown on agar plates containing varied carbon sources and Gus activity was measured in permeabilized cells on microtitre plates. We report that monosaccharides (glucose, fructose) repress studied promoters only if phosphorylated in the cell. Glucose-6-phosphate was proposed as a sugar repression signalling metabolite for H. polymorpha. Intriguingly, glucose and fructose strongly activated expression from these promoters in strains lacking both hexokinase and glucokinase, indicating that unphosphorylated monosaccharides have promoter-derepressing effect. We also show that maltose and sucrose must be internalized and split into monosaccharides to exert repression on MOX promoter. We demonstrate that at yeast growth on glucose-containing agar medium, glucose-limitation is rapidly created that promotes derepression of methanol-specific promoters and that derepression is specifically enhanced in hexokinase-negative strain. We recommend double kinase-negative and hexokinase-negative mutants as hosts for heterologous protein production from MOX and FMD promoters. PMID:23164245

Suppi, Sandra; Michelson, Tiina; Viigand, Katrin; Alamäe, Tiina

2013-03-01

173

Lacto-N-biosidase Encoded by a Novel Gene of Bifidobacterium longum Subspecies longum Shows Unique Substrate Specificity and Requires a Designated Chaperone for Its Active Expression*  

PubMed Central

Infant gut-associated bifidobacteria possess species-specific enzymatic sets to assimilate human milk oligosaccharides, and lacto-N-biosidase (LNBase) is a key enzyme that degrades lacto-N-tetraose (Gal?1–3GlcNAc?1–3Gal?1–4Glc), the main component of human milk oligosaccharides, to lacto-N-biose I (Gal?1–3GlcNAc) and lactose. We have previously identified LNBase activity in Bifidobacterium bifidum and some strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum (B. longum). Subsequently, we isolated a glycoside hydrolase family 20 (GH20) LNBase from B. bifidum; however, the genome of the LNBase+ strain of B. longum contains no GH20 LNBase homolog. Here, we reveal that locus tags BLLJ_1505 and BLLJ_1506 constitute LNBase from B. longum JCM1217. The gene products, designated LnbX and LnbY, respectively, showed no sequence similarity to previously characterized proteins. The purified enzyme, which consisted of LnbX only, hydrolyzed via a retaining mechanism the GlcNAc?1–3Gal linkage in lacto-N-tetraose, lacto-N-fucopentaose I (Fuc?1–2Gal?1–3GlcNAc?1–3Gal?1–4Glc), and sialyllacto-N-tetraose a (Neu5Ac?2–3Gal?1–3GlcNAc?1–3Gal?1–4Gal); the latter two are not hydrolyzed by GH20 LNBase. Among the chromogenic substrates examined, the enzyme acted on p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-?-lacto-N-bioside I (Gal?1–3GlcNAc?-pNP) and GalNAc?1–3GlcNAc?-pNP. GalNAc?1–3GlcNAc? linkage has been found in O-mannosyl glycans of ?-dystroglycan. Therefore, the enzyme may serve as a new tool for examining glycan structures. In vitro refolding experiments revealed that LnbY and metal ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) are required for proper folding of LnbX. The LnbX and LnbY homologs have been found only in B. bifidum, B. longum, and a few gut microbes, suggesting that the proteins have evolved in specialized niches. PMID:23843461

Sakurama, Haruko; Kiyohara, Masashi; Wada, Jun; Honda, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Masanori; Fukiya, Satoru; Yokota, Atsushi; Ashida, Hisashi; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Yamamoto, Kenji; Katayama, Takane

2013-01-01

174

Allosteric mutants show that PrfA activation is dispensable for vacuole escape but required for efficient spread and Listeria survival in vivo  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional regulator PrfA controls key virulence determinants of the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. PrfA-dependent gene expression is strongly induced within host cells. While the basis of this activation is unknown, the structural homology of PrfA with the cAMP receptor protein (Crp) and the finding of constitutively activated PrfA* mutants suggests it may involve ligand-induced allostery. Here, we report the identification of a solvent-accessible cavity within the PrfA N-terminal domain that may accommodate an activating ligand. The pocket occupies a similar position to the cAMP binding site in Crp but lacks the cyclic nucleotide-anchoring motif and has its entrance on the opposite side of the ?-barrel. Site-directed mutations in this pocket impaired intracellular PrfA-dependent gene activation without causing extensive structural/functional alterations to PrfA. Two substitutions, L48F and Y63W, almost completely abolished intracellular virulence gene induction and thus displayed the expected phenotype for allosteric activation-deficient PrfA mutations. Neither PrfAallo substitution affected vacuole escape and initial intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes in epithelial cells and macrophages but caused defective cell-to-cell spread and strong attenuation in mice. Our data support the hypothesis that PrfA is allosterically activated during intracellular infection and identify the probable binding site for the effector ligand. They also indicate that PrfA allosteric activation is not required for early intracellular survival but is essential for full Listeria virulence and colonization of host tissues. PMID:22646689

Deshayes, Caroline; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Cain, Robert J; Scortti, Mariela; de las Heras, Aitor; Pietras, Zbigniew; Luisi, Ben F; Núñez Miguel, Ricardo; Vázquez-Boland, José A

2012-01-01

175

Show Me Your Menu.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the importance of eating properly. Presents two middle school level activities: the first activity has students record what they eat for nine days; the second activity includes listing the foods according to the food pyramid and discussing their decisions. Recommends three Web sites. (YDS)

Allen, Barbara

2000-01-01

176

A GPBAR1 (TGR5) small molecule agonist shows specific inhibitory effects on myeloid cell activation in vitro and reduces experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) in vivo.  

PubMed

GPBAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by certain bile acids and plays an important role in the regulation of bile acid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that GPBAR1 may also have important effects in reducing the inflammatory response through its expression on monocytes and macrophages. To further understand the role of GPBAR1 in inflammation, we generated a novel, selective, proprietary GPBAR1 agonist and tested its effectiveness at reducing monocyte and macrophage activation in vitro and in vivo. We have used this agonist, together with previously described agonists to study agonism of GPBAR1, and shown that they can all induce cAMP and reduce TLR activation-induced cytokine production in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. Additionally, through the usage of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we identified a select set of genes that are regulated by GPBAR1 agonism during LPS activation. To further define the in vivo role of GPBAR1 in inflammation, we assessed GPBAR1 expression and found high levels on circulating mouse monocytes. Agonism of GPBAR1 reduced LPS-induced cytokine production in mouse monocytes ex vivo and serum cytokine levels in vivo. Agonism of GPBAR1 also had profound effects in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis, where monocytes play an important role. Mice treated with the GPBAR1 agonist exhibited a significant reduction in the EAE clinical score which correlated with reduced monocyte and microglial activation and reduced trafficking of monocytes and T cells into the CNS. These data confirm the importance of GPBAR1 in controlling monocyte and macrophage activation in vivo and support the rationale for selective agonists of GPBAR1 in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24967665

Lewis, Nuruddeen D; Patnaude, Lori A; Pelletier, Josephine; Souza, Donald J; Lukas, Susan M; King, F James; Hill, Jonathan D; Stefanopoulos, Dimitria E; Ryan, Kelli; Desai, Sudha; Skow, Donna; Kauschke, Stefan G; Broermann, Andre; Kuzmich, Daniel; Harcken, Christian; Hickey, Eugene R; Modis, Louise K

2014-01-01

177

A GPBAR1 (TGR5) Small Molecule Agonist Shows Specific Inhibitory Effects on Myeloid Cell Activation In Vitro and Reduces Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis (EAE) In Vivo  

PubMed Central

GPBAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by certain bile acids and plays an important role in the regulation of bile acid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that GPBAR1 may also have important effects in reducing the inflammatory response through its expression on monocytes and macrophages. To further understand the role of GPBAR1 in inflammation, we generated a novel, selective, proprietary GPBAR1 agonist and tested its effectiveness at reducing monocyte and macrophage activation in vitro and in vivo. We have used this agonist, together with previously described agonists to study agonism of GPBAR1, and shown that they can all induce cAMP and reduce TLR activation-induced cytokine production in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. Additionally, through the usage of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we identified a select set of genes that are regulated by GPBAR1 agonism during LPS activation. To further define the in vivo role of GPBAR1 in inflammation, we assessed GPBAR1 expression and found high levels on circulating mouse monocytes. Agonism of GPBAR1 reduced LPS-induced cytokine production in mouse monocytes ex vivo and serum cytokine levels in vivo. Agonism of GPBAR1 also had profound effects in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis, where monocytes play an important role. Mice treated with the GPBAR1 agonist exhibited a significant reduction in the EAE clinical score which correlated with reduced monocyte and microglial activation and reduced trafficking of monocytes and T cells into the CNS. These data confirm the importance of GPBAR1 in controlling monocyte and macrophage activation in vivo and support the rationale for selective agonists of GPBAR1 in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24967665

Lewis, Nuruddeen D.; Patnaude, Lori A.; Pelletier, Josephine; Souza, Donald J.; Lukas, Susan M.; King, F. James; Hill, Jonathan D.; Stefanopoulos, Dimitria E.; Ryan, Kelli; Desai, Sudha; Skow, Donna; Kauschke, Stefan G.; Broermann, Andre; Kuzmich, Daniel; Harcken, Christian; Hickey, Eugene R.; Modis, Louise K.

2014-01-01

178

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-? inhibitor CAL-101 shows promising preclinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by antagonizing intrinsic and extrinsic cellular survival signals  

PubMed Central

Targeted therapy with imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) prompted a new treatment paradigm. Unlike CML, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) lacks an aberrant fusion protein kinase but instead displays increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. To date, PI3K inhibitor development has been limited because of the requirement of this pathway for many essential cellular functions. Identification of the hematopoietic-selective isoform PI3K-? unlocks a new therapeutic potential for B-cell malignancies. Herein, we demonstrate that PI3K has increased enzymatic activity and that PI3K-? is expressed in CLL cells. A PI3K-? selective inhibitor CAL-101 promoted apoptosis in primary CLL cells ex vivo in a dose- and time-dependent fashion that was independent of common prognostic markers. CAL-101–mediated cytotoxicity was caspase dependent and was not diminished by coculture on stromal cells. In addition, CAL-101 abrogated protection from spontaneous apoptosis induced by B cell–activating factors CD40L, TNF-?, and fibronectin. In contrast to malignant cells, CAL-101 does not promote apoptosis in normal T cells or natural killer cells, nor does it diminish antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. However, CAL-101 did decrease activated T-cell production of various inflammatory and antiapoptotic cytokines. Collectively, these studies provide rationale for the clinical development of CAL-101 as a first-in-class targeted therapy for CLL and related B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:20522708

Herman, Sarah E. M.; Gordon, Amber L.; Wagner, Amy J.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Zhao, Weiqiang; Flynn, Joseph M.; Jones, Jeffrey; Andritsos, Leslie; Puri, Kamal D.; Lannutti, Brian J.; Giese, Neill A.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wei, Lai; Byrd, John C.

2010-01-01

179

Nanocomposites of tantalum-based pyrochlore and indium hydroxide showing high and stable photocatalytic activities for overall water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction.  

PubMed

Nanocomposites of tantalum-based pyrochlore nanoparticles and indium hydroxide were prepared by a hydrothermal process for UV-driven photocatalytic reactions including overall water splitting, hydrogen production from photoreforming of methanol, and CO2 reduction with water to produce CO. The best catalyst was more than 20?times more active than sodium tantalate in overall water splitting and 3?times more active than Degussa P25 TiO2 in CO2 reduction. Moreover, the catalyst was very stable while generating stoichiometric products of H2 (or CO) and O2 throughout long-term photocatalytic reactions. After the removal of In(OH)3, the pyrochlore nanoparticles remained highly active for H2 production from pure water and aqueous methanol solution. Both experimental studies and density functional theory calculations suggest that the pyrochlore nanoparticles catalyzed the water reduction to produce H2, whereas In(OH)3 was the major active component for water oxidation to produce O2. PMID:25384922

Hsieh, Meng-Chun; Wu, Guan-Chang; Liu, Wei-Guang; Goddard, William A; Yang, Chia-Min

2014-12-15

180

Improving Hiroshima Air-Over-Ground Thermal/Epithermal Activation Calculations Using a MUSH Model to Show the Importance of Local Shielding  

SciTech Connect

Achieving agreement between measured and calculated neutron activation data resulting from Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb detonations has been a major problem since the early 1980's. This has been particularly true for the materials that are activated by thermal and epithermal neutrons. Since thermal and epithermal neutrons are not transported very far from the weapon, the local shielding environment around the measurement location can be very important. A set of calculations incorporating an average density local-environment material (mush) has been made to demonstrate that the local environment plays an important role in the calculation-measurement agreement process. The optimum solution would be to include the local environment in all thermal neutron response calculations.

Pace, J.V.

2002-02-14

181

Mouse Cortical Collecting Duct Cells Show Nonselective Cation Channel Activity and Express a Gene Related to the cGMP-Gated Rod Photoreceptor Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apical nonselective cation channels with an average single-channel conductance of 34 ± 2.3 pS were found in M-1 mouse cortical collecting duct cells. Channel activity is increased by depolarization and abolished by cytoplasmic calcium removal. Cytoplasmic application of 0.1 mM cGMP decreases channel open probability by 27%. cDNAs corresponding to ≈40% of the coding region of the photoreceptor channel were

Iqbal Ahmad; Christoph Korbmacher; Alan S. Segal; Pamela Cheung; Emile L. Boulpaep; Colin J. Barnstable

1992-01-01

182

HaCaT Keratinocytes Overexpressing the S100 Proteins S100A8 and S100A9 Show Increased NADPH Oxidase and NF-?B Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcium- and arachidonic acid (AA)-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 are involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation in phagocytes. They are specifically expressed in myeloid cells, and are also found in epithelial cells in various (patho)physiological conditions. We have investigated the consequences of S100A8\\/A9 overexpression in epithelial cell lines on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and downstream

Malgorzata Benedyk; Claudia Sopalla; Wolfgang Nacken; Günther Bode; Harut Melkonyan; Botond Banfi; Claus Kerkhoff

2007-01-01

183

Two Proteins with Ornithine Acetyltransferase Activity Show Different Functions in Streptomyces clavuligerus: Oat2 Modulates Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis in Response to Arginine  

PubMed Central

The oat2 gene, located in the clavulanic acid gene cluster in Streptomyces clavuligerus, is similar to argJ, which encodes N-acetylornithine:glutamic acid acetyltransferase activity. Purified proteins obtained by expression in Escherichia coli of the argJ and oat2 genes of S. clavuligerus posses N-acetyltransferase activity. The kinetics and substrate specificities of both proteins are very similar. Deletion of the oat2 gene did not affect the total N-acetylornithine transferase activity and slightly reduced the formation of clavulanic acid under standard culture conditions. However, the oat2 mutant produced more clavulanic acid than the parental strain in cultures supplemented with high levels (above 1 mM) of arginine. The purified S. clavuligerus ArgR protein bound the arginine box in the oat2 promoter, and the expression of oat2 was higher in mutants with a disruption in argR (arginine-deregulated), confirming that the Arg boxes of oat2 are functional in vivo. Our results suggest that the Oat2 protein or one of its reaction products has a regulatory role that modulates clavulanic acid biosynthesis in response to high arginine concentrations. PMID:15375131

de la Fuente, A.; Martín, J. F.; Rodríguez-García, A.; Liras, P.

2004-01-01

184

Television Quiz Show Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

Hill, Jonnie Lynn

2007-01-01

185

The Great Cometary Show  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER

2007-01-01

186

A selective novel low-molecular-weight inhibitor of I?B kinase-? (IKK-?) prevents pulmonary inflammation and shows broad anti-inflammatory activity  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary inflammatory diseases such as asthma are characterized by chronic, cell-mediated inflammation of the bronchial mucosa. Recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells is orchestrated by a variety of mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, or adhesion molecules, the expression of which is regulated via the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). NF-?B signaling is controlled by the inhibitor of kappa B kinase complex (IKK), a critical catalytic subunit of which is IKK-?. We identified COMPOUND A as a small-molecule, ATP-competitive inhibitor selectively targeting IKK-? kinase activity with a Ki value of 2?nM. COMPOUND A inhibited stress-induced NF-?B transactivation, chemokine-, cytokine-, and adhesion molecule expression, and T- and B-cell proliferation. COMPOUND A is orally bioavailable and inhibited the release of LPS-induced TNF-? in rodents. In mice COMPOUND A inhibited cockroach allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperreactivity and efficiently abrogated leukocyte trafficking induced by carrageenan in mice or by ovalbumin in a rat model of airway inflammation. COMPOUND A was well tolerated by rodents over 3 weeks without affecting weight gain. Furthermore, in mice COMPOUND A suppressed edema formation in response to arachidonic acid, phorbol ester, or edema induced by delayed-type hypersensitivity. These data suggest that IKK-? inhibitors offer an effective therapeutic approach for inhibiting chronic pulmonary inflammation. PMID:15753951

Ziegelbauer, Karl; Gantner, Florian; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Berlin, Aaron; Fuchikami, Kinji; Niki, Toshiro; Sakai, Katsuya; Inbe, Hisayo; Takeshita, Keisuke; Ishimori, Mina; Komura, Hiroshi; Murata, Toshiki; Lowinger, Timothy; Bacon, Kevin B

2005-01-01

187

KSC Wildlife Show  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video highlights footage of the many forms of animal and plant life that inhabit the environs surrounding KSC. Shown are birds, alligators, butterflies, and plants as they react to shuttle launches and other activities eminating from KSC.

1994-01-01

188

Show Your Colors!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this family or group activity, learners conduct a chromatography experiment to reveal the colors that leaves "hide" under their green pigments. Use this experiment to predict what colors the leaves will "turn" in the fall.

2011-08-20

189

Active-Site Engineering of Benzaldehyde Lyase Shows That a Point Mutation Can Confer Both New Reactivity and Susceptibility to Mechanism-Based Inhibition  

SciTech Connect

Benzaldehyde lyase (BAL) from Pseudomonas putida is a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of (R)-benzoin. Here we report that a point mutant, BAL A28S, not only catalyzes the decarboxylation of benzoylformate but, like benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC), is also inactivated by the benzoylformate analogues methyl benzoylphosphonate (MBP) and benzoylphosphonate (BP). The latter has no effect on wild-type BAL, and the inactivation of the A28S variant is shown to result from phosphorylation of the newly introduced serine residue. This lends support to the proposal that an appropriately placed nucleophile facilitates the expulsion of carbon dioxide from the active site in many ThDP-dependent decarboxylases.

Brandt, Gabriel S.; Kneen, Malea M.; Petsko, Gregory A.; Ringe, Dagmar; McLeish, Michael J. (Brandeis); (IUPUI)

2010-02-11

190

Pseudoephedrine/ephedrine shows potent anti-inflammatory activity against TNF-?-mediated acute liver failure induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effects of pseudoephedrine/ephedrine were investigated using the experimental model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitised male rats in order to elucidate effects other than sympathomimetic effects. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with D-GalN (400 mg/kg) and LPS (40 ?g/kg) to induce acute liver failure. The treatment groups were then intraperitoneally administered pseudoephedrine/ephedrine at 0 h and 4 h after induction and the activation induced by treatment with pseudoephedrine and/or LPS on the primary Kupffer cells (KCs) was monitored. Compared with controls induced by GalN/LPS alone, pseudoephedrine dramatically reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and bile ductular hyperplasia and hepatic necrosis observed in liver sections. It inhibited both hepatocellular apoptosis and the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1. It lowered the production of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in the beginning of acute liver failure induced by D-GalN/LPS. Correspondingly, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and malondialdehyde were attenuated. Ephedrine demonstrated all these identical protective effects as well. In addition, pseudoephedrine significantly suppressed the production of p-I?B-?, reducing the degradation of sequestered nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in the cytoplasm, and inhibited the translocation of NF-?B/p65 to the nucleus, the transcription of TNF-? mRNA and the production of TNF-? in primary KCs. These results suggest that pseudoephedrine and ephedrine have a potent anti-inflammatory activity against D-GalN/LPS-induced acute liver failure in rats, and this comprehensive anti-inflammatory effect may result from the inhibition of TNF-? production. PMID:24365491

Wu, Zhongping; Kong, Xiangliang; Zhang, Tong; Ye, Jin; Fang, Zhaoqin; Yang, Xuejun

2014-02-01

191

Bare-faced curassow lysozyme carrying amino acid substitutions at subsites E and F shows a change in activity against chitooligosaccharide caused by a local conformational change.  

PubMed

A new form of avian lysozyme, bare-faced curassow lysozyme (BCL), was purified and chemically sequenced. Of the 26 substitutions relative to chicken lysozyme, three, F34Y, T47S, and R114H, are of substrate-interacting residues in the E and F subsites, which would contribute to the acceptor binding for transglycosylation. T47S is a novel substitution in this lysozyme class. While other lysozymes also have substitutions at positions 114 and 34, they also contain numerous others, including ones in the other substrate binding sites, A-D. Furthermore, T47S lies on the left side, while F34Y and R114H are located on the right side of the E-F subsites. BCL therefore should allow comparison of the independent contributions of these sites to substrate binding and transglycosylation. The activity toward the N-acetylglucosamine pentamer revealed that the substitutions at the E-F sites reduced the binding free energies at the E-F sites and the rate constant for transglycosylation without the conformation change of other substrate binding sites on the protein. MD simulation analysis of BCL suggested that the substituted amino acids changed the local conformation of this lysozyme at the E-F sites. PMID:15625318

Araki, Tomohiro; Seki, Shinobu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Chijiiwa, Yuki; Kawamura, Shunsuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Torikata, Takao

2004-10-01

192

A membrane-associated movement protein of Pelargonium flower break virus shows RNA-binding activity and contains a biologically relevant leucine zipper-like motif.  

PubMed

Two small viral proteins (DGBp1 and DGBp2) have been proposed to act in a concerted manner to aid intra- and intercellular trafficking of carmoviruses though the distribution of functions and mode of action of each protein partner are not yet clear. Here we have confirmed the requirement of the DGBps of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), p7 and p12, for pathogen movement. Studies focused on p12 have shown that it associates to cellular membranes, which is in accordance to its hydrophobic profile and to that reported for several homologs. However, peculiarities that distinguish p12 from other DGBps2 have been found. Firstly, it contains a leucine zipper-like motif which is essential for virus infectivity in plants. Secondly, it has an unusually long and basic N-terminal region that confers RNA binding activity. The results suggest that PFBV p12 may differ mechanistically from related proteins and possible roles of PFBV DGBps are discussed. PMID:21444100

Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; Hernández, Carmen

2011-05-10

193

The Diane Rehm Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.

194

Synthesis and photochemical transformation of 3?,21-dihydroxypregna-5,7-dien-20-one to novel secosteroids that show anti-melanoma activity  

PubMed Central

We have synthesized 3?,21-dihydroxypregna-5,7-dien-20-one (21(OH) 7DHP) and used UVB radiation to induce its photoconversion to analogues of vitamin D (pD), lumisterol (pL) and tachysterol (pT). The number and character of the products and the dynamics of the process were dependent on the UVB dose. The main products: pD and pT compounds were characterized by UV absorption, MS and NMR spectroscopy after RP-HPLC chromatography. In addition, formation of multiple oxidized derivatives of the primary products was detected and one of these derivatives was characterized as oxidized 21-hydroxyisotachysterol compound (21(OH)oxy-piT). These newly synthesized compounds inhibited growth of human melanoma cells in a dose dependent manner, with greater or equal potency to calcitriol. 3?,21-Dihydroxy-9?,10?-pregna-5,7-dien-20-one (21(OH)pL) and 21(OH)oxy-piT had higher potency against pigmented melanoma cells, while the EC50 for compounds 21(OH)7DHP and (5Z,7E)-3?,21-dihydroxy-9,10-secopregna-5,7,10(19)-trien-20-one (21(OH)pD) were similar in both pigmented and non-pigmented cells. Moreover, 21(OH)7DHP and its derivatives inhibited proliferation of human epidermal HaCaT keratinocytes, albeit at a lower activity compared to melanoma cells. Importantly, 21(OH)7DHP derivatives strongly inhibited the colony formation of human melanoma cells with 21(OH)pD being the most potent. The potential mechanism of action of newly synthesized compounds was similar to that mediated by 1,25(OH)2D3 and involved ligand-induced translocation of vitamin D receptor into the nucleus. In summary, we have characterized for the first time products of UVB-induced conversion of 21(OH)7DHP and documented that these compounds have selective, inhibitory effects on melanoma cells. PMID:21070794

Zmijewski, Michal A.; Li, Wei; Chen, Jianjun; Kim, Tae-Kang; Zjawiony, Jordan K.; Sweatman, Trevor W.; Miller, Duane D.; Slominski, Andrzej T.

2010-01-01

195

Demonstration Road Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

2009-04-06

196

Do Elephants Show Empathy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elephants show a rich social organization and display a number of unusual traits. In this paper, we analyse reports collected over a thirty-five year period, describing behaviour that has the potential to reveal signs of empathic understanding. These include coalition formation, the offering of protection and comfort to others, retrieving and 'babysitting' calves, aiding individuals that would otherwise have difficulty

Lucy A. Bates; Phyllis C. Lee; Norah Njiraini; Joyce H. Poole; Katito Sayialel; Soila Sayialel; Cynthia J. Moss; Richard W. Byrne

2008-01-01

197

Stage a Water Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

Frasier, Debra

2008-01-01

198

Show Me the Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners make wallets or purses and then participate in a variety of money-related activities. First, learners make their own paper money and paper wallets or purses. Next, learners identify coins while singing a money-themed song. Then, learners consider how they would spend various denominations of coins and record their thoughts in a Money Journal. Finally, learners rotate through various Money Centers, where they record coin flips (heads vs. tails), sort coins, make a money cube graph, create a book of coin rubbings, and play store.

2012-09-26

199

What Do Maps Show?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Geological Survey's Learning Web site Working with Maps contains a complete Web-based lesson for students between grades 5 and 8. The site introduces the basic concepts related to cartography, including the definition of a map, various map types, and information that you can find on them. Printable activity sheets are available for download, covering four lessons: Introduction to Maps, Some Things You Need to Know to Read a Map, What You Can Learn From a Map, and How to Read a Topographic Map. The tradition of quality material from the USGS continues with this well done, attractive site that gives educators premium content and ease of use.

200

Show-Me Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Come along as the folks at the University of Missouri show you the history of their college days through the Show Me magazine. It's a wonderful collection of college humor published from 1946 to 1963. First-time visitors would do well to read about the magazine's colorful past, courtesy of Jerry Smith. A good place to start is the November 1920 issue (easily found when you browse by date), which contains a number of parody advertisements along with some doggerels poking good natured fun at the football team and an assortment of deans. Also, it's worth noting that visitors can scroll through issues and save them to an online "bookbag" for later use.

2008-01-01

201

Mars Slide Show  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

15 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a landslide that occurred off of a steep slope in Tithonium Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

Location near: 4.8oS, 84.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

2006-01-01

202

Differential Expression of Vacuolar H+-ATPase Subunit c Genes in Tissues Active in Membrane Trafficking and Their Roles in Plant Growth as Revealed by RNAi1  

PubMed Central

Acidification of intracellular compartments by the vacuolar-type H+-ATPases (VHA) is known to energize ion and metabolite transport, though cellular processes influenced by this activity are poorly understood. At least 26 VHA genes encode 12 subunits of the V1Vo-ATPase complex in Arabidopsis, and how the expression, assembly, and activity of the pump are integrated into signaling networks that govern growth and adaptation are largely unknown. The role of multiple VHA-c genes encoding the 16-kD subunit of the membrane Vo sector was investigated. Expression of VHA-c1, monitored by promoter-driven ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity was responsive to light or dark in an organ-specific manner. VHA-c1 expression in expanding cotyledons, hypocotyls of etiolated seedlings, and elongation zone of roots supported a role for V-ATPase in cell enlargement. Mutants reduced in VHA-c1 transcript using dsRNA-mediated interference showed reduction in root growth relative to wild-type seedlings. In contrast, VHA-c3 promoter::GUS expression was undetectable in most organs of seedlings, but strong in the root cap. Interestingly, dsRNA-mediated mutants of vha-c3 also showed reduced root length and decreased tolerance to moderate salt stress. The results suggest that V-ATPase functions in the root cap influenced root growth. Expression of VHA-c1 and VHA-c3 in tissues with active membrane flow, including root cap, vascular strands, and floral style would support a model for participation of the Vo sector and V1Vo-ATPase in membrane trafficking and fusion. Two VHA-c genes are thus differentially expressed to support growth in expanding cells and to supply increased demand for V-ATPase in cells with active exocytosis. PMID:15051861

Padmanaban, Senthilkumar; Lin, Xiaoying; Perera, Imara; Kawamura, Yukio; Sze, Heven

2004-01-01

203

Show Me the Genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By this point in the unit, students have learned all the necessary information and conceptualized a design for how an optical biosensor could be used to detect a target strand of DNA associated with a cancer-causing gene as their solution to the unit's challenge question. Now student groups act as engineers again, using a poster format to communicate and prove the validity of the design. Successful posters include a description of refraction, explanations of refraction in a thin film, and the factors that can alter the interference pattern of a thin film. The posters culminate with an explanation of what is expected to be seen in a biosensing device of this type if it were coupled to a target molecule, proven with a specific example and illustrated with drawings and diagrams throughout. All the poster elements combine to prove the accuracy and viability of this method of gene detection. Together with its associated lesson, this activity functions as part of the summative assessment for this unit.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

204

NPR: The Picture Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Public Radio's "The Picture Show" photo blog is a great way to avoid culling through the thousands of less interesting and engaging photographs on the web. With a dedicated team of professionals, this blog brings together different posts that profile various sets of photographs that cover 19th century war in Afghanistan, visual memories of WWII, unpublished photographs of JFK's presidential campaign, and abandoned buildings on the islands in Boston Harbor. Visitors can search through previous posts, use social media features to share the photo features with friends, and also sign up to receive new materials via their RSS feed. There's quite a nice mix of material here, and visitors can also comment on the photos and recommend the collection to friends and others.

205

Solar Light Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last few days, the Earth has been buffeted by a geomagnetic storm caused by a major solar flare. In addition to disruptions in radio, telecommunications, and electric service, the flare may also produce a dramatic light show as it peaks tonight. Weather permitting, the aurora borealis, or northern lights, may be visible as far south as Washington, D.C. The best viewing time will be local midnight. The sun is currently at the peak of its eleven-year solar cycle, spawning flares and "coronal mass ejections" (CME), violent outbursts of gas from the sun's corona that can carry up to 10 billion tons of electrified gas traveling at speeds as high as 2000 km/s. Geomagnetic storms result when solar winds compress the magnetosphere, sometimes interfering with electric power transmission and satellites, but also creating beautiful aurorae, as many stargazers hope will occur tonight.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

206

Egg: the Arts Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Egg is a new TV show about people making art across America" from PBS. This accompanying Website presents excerpts from sixteen episodes of the series, with three more "hatching soon," such as Close to Home, profiling three photographers: Jeanine Pohlhaus, whose pictures document her father's struggle with mental illness; Gregory Crewdson's photos of Lee, Massachusetts; and Joseph Rodriguez's photos of Hispanics in New York City. Excerpts include video clips, gallery listings where the artists' work can be seen, and short interviews with artists. Some episodes also offer "peeps," glimpses of material not shown on TV, such as the Space episode's peep, Shooting Stars, that provides directions for astrophotography, taking photographs of star trails. Other sections of the site are airdates, for local listings; see and do usa, where vacationers can search for art events at their destinations; and egg on the arts, a discussion forum.

207

Public medical shows.  

PubMed

In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

Walusinski, Olivier

2014-01-01

208

Air Quality and Outdoor Activity Guidance for Schools Regular physical activity --at least 60 minutes each day --promotes health and fitness. The table below shows when and how to  

E-print Network

Air Quality and Outdoor Activity Guidance for Schools Regular physical activity -- at least 60, including teenagers, who are more sensitive than adults to air pollution. Check the air quality daily at www outside! Students who are unusually sensitive to air pollution could have symptoms, so watch for coughing

209

Novel antiseptic compound OPB-2045G shows potent bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus both in vitro and in vivo: a pilot study in animals.  

PubMed

There is a need for new compounds to effectively treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). The novel monobiguanide compound 1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate (OPB-2045G) has potential bactericidal activity. We sought to elucidate the potency of OPB-2045G bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE compared to those of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and povidone iodine (PVP-I). In vitro bactericidal activity was analysed using minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) as the index. The in vivo bactericidal efficacy of OPB-2045G was examined by determining MRSA and VRE contamination of the normal dorsal skin of mice following removal of hair. After a 3 min treatment period, the MBC of OPB-2045G was lower than that of CHG and PVP-I against standard strains and clinical isolates. Additionally, in our in vivo mouse model, the in vivo bactericidal activity of 1.5?% OPB-2045G (a clinically relevant dose) was higher than that of 0.5?% CHG and equivalent to that of 10?% PVP-I against MRSA. Similarly, the in vivo bactericidal activity of OPB-2045G was higher than that of 0.5?% CHG and 10?% PVP-I against VRE. OPB-2045G showed more potent bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE both in vitro and in vivo compared to CHG and PVP-I, indicating that OPB-2045G may provide better protection against health care-associated infections caused by these pathogens. PMID:25351713

Inoue, Yasuhide; Hagi, Akifumi; Nii, Takuya; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Nakata, Hikaru; Iwata, Koushi

2015-01-01

210

Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity?†  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so other compounds/mechanisms must be present in the other Pseudoalteromonas strains with antifouling activity. PMID:22003011

Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

2011-01-01

211

Infection-specific activation of the Medicago truncatula Enod11 early nodulin gene promoter during actinorhizal root nodulation.  

PubMed

The MtEnod11 gene from Medicago truncatula is widely used as an early infection-related molecular marker for endosymbiotic associations involving both rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this article, heterologous expression of the MtEnod11 promoter has been studied in two actinorhizal trees, Casuarina glauca and Allocasuarina verticillata. Transgenic C. glauca and A. verticillata expressing a ProMtEnod11::beta-glucuronidase (gus) fusion were generated and the activation of the transgene investigated in the context of the symbiotic associations with the N-fixing actinomycete Frankia and both endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices and Pisolithus albus, respectively). ProMtEnod11::gus expression was observed in root hairs, prenodules, and nodules and could be correlated with the infection of plant cells by Frankia spp. However, no activation of the gus reporter gene was detected prior to infection or in response to either rhizobial Nod factors or the wasp venom peptide MAS-7. Equally, ProMtEnod11::gus expression was not elicited during the symbiotic associations with either ecto- or endomycorrhizal fungi. These observations suggest that, although there is a conservation of gene regulatory pathways between legumes and actinorhizal plants in cells accommodating endosymbiotic N-fixing bacteria, the events preceding bacterial infection or related to mycorrhization appear to be less conserved. PMID:20459313

Svistoonoff, Sergio; Sy, Mame-Ourèye; Diagne, Nathalie; Barker, David G; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine

2010-06-01

212

Ecology- and bioassay-guided drug discovery for treatments of tropical parasitic disease: 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxycholest-6-en-3beta-ol isolated from the mollusk Dolabrifera dolabrifera shows significant activity against Leishmania donovani.  

PubMed

An ecology- and bioassay-guided search employed to discover compounds with activity against tropical parasitic diseases and cancer from the opisthobranch mollusk, Dolabrifera dolabrifera, led to the discovery of antileishmanial properties in the known compound, 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxycholest-6-en-3beta-ol (1). Compound 1 was identified through nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H, 13C) and mass spectrometry. The compound was concentrated in the digestive gland of D. dolabrifera, but was not detected in other body parts, fecal matter or mucus. Compound 1 showed an IC50 of 4.9 microM towards the amastigote form of Leishmania donovani compared with an IC50 of 281 microM towards the control Vero cell line, a 57.3-fold difference, and demonstrated no measurable activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, and the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. PMID:24427935

Clark, Kathryn E; Capper, Angela; Della Togna, Gina; Paul, Valerie J; Romero, Luz I; Johns, Timothy; Cubilla-Rios, Luis; Capson, Todd L

2013-11-01

213

13,14-bis(cis-3,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-?-elemene, a novel ?-elemene derivative, shows potent antitumor activities via inhibition of mTOR in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Elemene has been approved for the treatment of advanced cancer in China, however, it inhibits cell growth only at high concentrations and is an essential oil with poor water solubility and stability. The discovery of new ?-elemene derivatives is of increasing interest. We recently reported that the compound 13,14-bis(cis-3,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-?-elemene (IIi), a novel ?-elemene derivative with a cis-2,6-dimethylpiperazine substitution, is a potent agent for inhibiting the proliferation of SGC-7901 and HeLa cells. In the present study, we further verified that IIi is cytotoxic to a wide spectrum of human cancer cells in culture, including those of breast, ovarian, lung, gastric, hepatocellular and colon cancer, as well as leukemia cell lines, with an average IC50 of 3.44 ?mol/l. Notably, IIi showed significant cytotoxicity in two multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines, with an average resistance factor (RF) of 1.66. Moreover, in mice with S-180 sarcoma xenografts, the intraperitoneal administration of IIi inhibited tumor growth. The immunoblotting study showed that treatment with IIi decreases phosphorylated p70S6K1 and 4EBP1 levels in the human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells. In the MCF-7 cells, IIi also significantly increased the expression of cleaved LC3. This indicated that IIi inhibits mTOR activity and induces autophagy. The mTOR inhibitory function and the potent antitumor activity, taken together with the appreciable anti-multidrug resistance action, shows IIi to be a novel potential antitumor agent, which merits further research and development. PMID:23761818

Ding, Xiao-Fei; Shen, Mao; Xu, Li-Ying; Dong, Jin-Hua; Chen, Guang

2013-05-01

214

A bispecific fusion protein and a bifunctional enediyne-energized fusion protein consisting of TRAIL, EGFR peptide ligand, and apoprotein of lidamycin against EGFR and DR4/5 show potent antitumor activity.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mainly induces apoptosis through the extrinsic death receptor-induced pathway by ligation with death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5). On the basis of the antitumor activity to cancer cells and no cytotoxity to normal cells of TRAIL and the target of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand peptide, the study constructed a new bispecific fusion protein and a new bifunctional enediyne-energized fusion protein and investigated their antitumor efficacy. Bispecific fusion protein Ec-LDP-TRAIL showed potent binding activity to cancer cell lines with a high expression of EGFR or DR4/DR5 such as A431 and H460 cells, whereas poor binding activity to NIH/3T3 cells with low expressing EGFR and DR4/DR5. Ec-LDP-TRAIL also showed more potent cytotoxicity to A431 and H460 cells than Ec-LDP, which could result from the TRAIL-inducing apoptosis. Results of an in-vivo efficacy study showed that Ec-LDP-TRAIL at a dose of 10 mg/kg decreased the growth of epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenografts by 80.19% (P < 0.01) on day 26. Immunohistochemical detection of nuclear antigen factor Ki-67 suggested that Ec-LDP-TRAIL effectively induced cell necrosis and inhibited cell proliferation of tumor. From IC50 values, bispecific and bifunctional energized fusion protein Ec-LDP-TRAIL-AE was more potent and selective in its cytotoxicity against different carcinoma cell lines than corresponding lidamycin in vitro and induction of the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase was observed in A431 cells treated with Ec-LDP-TRAIL-AE and lidamycin, respectively. Ec-LDP-TRAIL-AE also significantly inhibited the growth of A431 xenografts in a nude mouse model. These properties suggested that Ec-LDP-TRAIL and Ec-LDP-TRAIL-AE may be promising candidates for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:25122444

Zhu, Daqiang; Wang, Xiaofei; Shang, Yue; Li, Yi; Jiang, Wenguo; Li, Liang; Chen, Shu-Zhen

2015-01-01

215

Characterization of sequence elements from Malvastrum yellow vein betasatellite regulating promoter activity and DNA replication  

PubMed Central

Background Many monopartite begomoviruses are associated with betasatellites, but only several promoters from which were isolated and studied. In this study, the ?C1 promoter from Malvastrum yellow vein betasatellite (MYVB) was characterized and important sequence elements were identified to modulate promoter activity and replication of MYVB. Results A 991 nucleotide (nt) fragment upstream of the translation start site of the ?C1 open reading frame of MYVB and a series of deletions within this fragment were constructed and fused to the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes, respectively. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assays showed that the 991 nt fragment was functional and that a 28 nt region (between ?390 nt and ?418 nt), which includes a 5?UTR Py-rich stretch motif, was important for promoter activity. Replication assays using Nicotiana benthamiana leaf discs and whole plants showed that deletion of the 5?UTR Py-rich stretch impaired viral satellite replication in the presence of the helper virus. Transgenic assays demonstrated that the 991 nt fragment conferred a constitutive expression pattern in transgenic tobacco plants and that a 214 nt fragment at the 3'-end of this sequence was sufficient to drive this expression pattern. Conclusion Our results showed that the ?C1 promoter of MYVB displayed a constitutive expression pattern and a 5?UTR Py-rich stretch motif regulated both ?C1 promoter activity and MYVB replication. PMID:23057573

2012-01-01

216

Combined inhibition of the phosphoinosityl-3-kinase (PI3Kinase) P110? subunit and mitogen-extracellular activated protein kinase (MEKinase) shows synergistic cytotoxicity against human acute myeloid leukemia progenitors.  

PubMed

Treatment of 32 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blast samples showing activation of the PI3K and RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathways with the PI3K p110? isoform and MEKinase selective inhibitors, PCN5603 and U0126 produced dose dependent progenitor kill and inhibition of p-Akt Ser473 and p-Erk Tyr204 expression. Normal marrow or blood progenitors were less sensitive to these inhibitors (median PCN5603 IC??s for AML and normal cells 1.5 and 5.8 ?M and for U0126 9.6 and 25.8 ?M, respectively). U0126 synergized with PCN5603 for killing of both AML and normal progenitors. However, the synergy was less for normal than for AML cells and the median IC?? of each drug in the combination 7- to 10-fold higher than for AML cells. PMID:23522913

Xing, Yan; Hogge, Donna E

2013-06-01

217

2013 Goat Shows Show Date Show Name Entries Due Eligibility Weigh In Show Time Contact Phone Extra Info  

E-print Network

2013 Goat Shows Show Date Show Name Entries Due Eligibility Weigh In Show Time Contact Phone Extra/13/2013 Cannon Co. Day of Show Youth Must 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. Carol 615-563-5260 Bring own Jr. Goat $1.00 a head Control 10 a.m. Melton Bedding Association Goat 7/20/2013 Overton Co. Day of Show Youth Before 5 p.m. 6

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

218

Detectable ,-glucuronidase activity in transgenic cranberry is affected by endogenous inhibitors and plant development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of cranberry, rich in flavonols and proanthocyanins, inactivated #-glucuronidase (GUS) in assays using either purified bacterial GUS or preparations of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) or transgenic cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) expressing the gusA gene. Histochemical GUS assays produced random and generally unpredictable staining. The addition of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) during the preparation of transgenic cranberry leaf extracts increased the

R. Serres; B. McCown; E. Zeldin

1997-01-01

219

Antigen-Specific CD4 T Cells Are Induced after Intravesical BCG-Instillation Therapy in Patients with Bladder Cancer and Show Similar Cytokine Profiles as in Active Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Specific T cell immunity in patients with active tuberculosis is associated with a decrease in multifunctionality. However, it is unknown whether cytokine profiles differ in patients with primary infection and those with prior contact. We therefore used intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated live Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) in patients with urothelial carcinoma as a model to characterise the induction of systemic immunity towards purified protein derivate (PPD) and to study whether cytokine profiles differ depending on pre-existing immunity. Eighteen patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer were recruited during the BCG-induction course. Fifty-four healthy individuals served as controls. Interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-2 producing PPD-specific CD4 T cells were analysed longitudinally before each instillation using a rapid flow-cytometric whole blood immunoassay. Baseline levels of IFN-? producing PPD-specific T cells were comparable to controls. T cells showed a 5-fold increase to 0.23% by week 2/3, and further increased 8-fold by week 4/5 (to 0.42%, p=0.0007). Systemic immunity was induced in all patients, although the increase was less pronounced in patients with pre-existing immunity. As in active TB, cytokine profiling during therapy revealed a lower percentage of multifunctional IFN-?/IL-2 double-positive T cells compared to controls (60.2% vs. 71.9%, p=0.0003). Of note, when comparing patients with and without pre-existing immunity, cytokine profiles in patients with primary immunity were shifted towards IL-2 single producing T cells (p=0.02), whereas those in patients with pre-existing immunity were shifted towards IFN-? single-positivity (p=0.01). In conclusion, systemic T cell responses were induced after BCG-therapy, and their kinetics and cytokine profile depended on pre-existing immunity. Decreased functionality is a typical feature of specific immunity in both patients with active tuberculosis and BCG-therapy. Among patients with active infection, a shift towards IL-2 or IFN-? single-positive cells may allow distinction between patients with primary infection and cases with boosted immunity after prior contact, respectively. PMID:24039703

Becker, Frank; Suttmann, Henrik; Schmitt, Kai; Sester, Urban; Stöckle, Michael; Sester, Martina

2013-01-01

220

Antigen-specific CD4 T cells are induced after intravesical BCG-instillation therapy in patients with bladder cancer and show similar cytokine profiles as in active tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Specific T cell immunity in patients with active tuberculosis is associated with a decrease in multifunctionality. However, it is unknown whether cytokine profiles differ in patients with primary infection and those with prior contact. We therefore used intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated live Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in patients with urothelial carcinoma as a model to characterise the induction of systemic immunity towards purified protein derivate (PPD) and to study whether cytokine profiles differ depending on pre-existing immunity. Eighteen patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer were recruited during the BCG-induction course. Fifty-four healthy individuals served as controls. Interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-2 producing PPD-specific CD4 T cells were analysed longitudinally before each instillation using a rapid flow-cytometric whole blood immunoassay. Baseline levels of IFN-? producing PPD-specific T cells were comparable to controls. T cells showed a 5-fold increase to 0.23% by week 2/3, and further increased 8-fold by week 4/5 (to 0.42%, p=0.0007). Systemic immunity was induced in all patients, although the increase was less pronounced in patients with pre-existing immunity. As in active TB, cytokine profiling during therapy revealed a lower percentage of multifunctional IFN-?/IL-2 double-positive T cells compared to controls (60.2% vs. 71.9%, p=0.0003). Of note, when comparing patients with and without pre-existing immunity, cytokine profiles in patients with primary immunity were shifted towards IL-2 single producing T cells (p=0.02), whereas those in patients with pre-existing immunity were shifted towards IFN-? single-positivity (p=0.01). In conclusion, systemic T cell responses were induced after BCG-therapy, and their kinetics and cytokine profile depended on pre-existing immunity. Decreased functionality is a typical feature of specific immunity in both patients with active tuberculosis and BCG-therapy. Among patients with active infection, a shift towards IL-2 or IFN-? single-positive cells may allow distinction between patients with primary infection and cases with boosted immunity after prior contact, respectively. PMID:24039703

Elsäßer, Julia; Janssen, Martin W; Becker, Frank; Suttmann, Henrik; Schmitt, Kai; Sester, Urban; Stöckle, Michael; Sester, Martina

2013-01-01

221

Soccer Tournament ELI Talent Show  

E-print Network

Highlights Soccer Tournament ELI Talent Show Notes from your Teachers Notes from the Office very quickly! ELI Talent Show As you probably already know, the ELI is going to have its second annual Talent Show. The talent show is open to ELI students, faculty, staff, and LAs. Acts can include

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

222

Human NR5A1/SF-1 Mutations Show Decreased Activity on BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor), an Important Regulator of Energy Balance: Testing Impact of Novel SF-1 Mutations Beyond Steroidogenesis  

PubMed Central

Context Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Objective To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. Patients 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. Methods SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Results Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Conclusions Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations. PMID:25122490

Malikova, Jana; Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Heath, Karen; González, Isabel; Caimarí, María; del Campo, Miguel; Albisu, Marian; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Audí, Laura; Flück, Christa E.

2014-01-01

223

A new C-type lectin (RVsnaclec) purified from venom of Daboia russelii russelii shows anticoagulant activity via inhibition of FXa and concentration-dependent differential response to platelets in a Ca²?-independent manner.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the characterization of a snaclec (RVsnaclec) purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom. The RVsnaclec is a heterodimer of two subunits, ? (15.1 kDa) and ? (9 kDa). These subunits are covalently linked to form multimeric (??)? and (??)? structures. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis of RVsnaclec via LC-MS/MS demonstrated its similarity to snaclecs purified from other viperid snake venoms. Two tryptic peptide sequences of RVsnaclec revealed the putative conserved domains of C-type lectin (CTL). RVsnaclec dose-dependently increased the Ca-clotting time and prothrombin time of platelet-poor plasma (PPP); however, it did not affect the partial thromboplastin time (APTT) or thrombin time of PPP. The in vitro and in vivo anticoagulant activity of RVsnaclec is correlated to its binding and subsequent uncompetitive inhibition of FXa (Ki = 0.52 ?mole) in a Ca(2+)-independent manner; however, supplementation with 0.25 mM Ca(2+) enhanced the Xa binding potency of RVsnaclec. Monovalent or polyvalent antivenom failed to neutralize its anticoagulant potency, and RVsnaclec did not inhibit trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin or plasmin. RVsnaclec was devoid of hemolytic activity or cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines, demonstrated concentration-dependent aggregation and deaggregation of human platelets, and inhibited the ADP-induced aggregation of platelet. RVsnaclec (5.0 mg/kg body weight) was non-lethal to mice and showed no adverse pharmacological effects, suggesting that it has potential as a lead compound for future therapeutic applications in cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25281435

Mukherjee, Ashis K; Dutta, Sumita; Mackessy, Stephen P

2014-11-01

224

What Do Blood Tests Show?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Do Blood Tests Show? Blood tests show whether the levels ... changes may work best. Result Ranges for Common Blood Tests This section presents the result ranges for ...

225

ELI Talent Show Final Exams  

E-print Network

Highlights ELI Talent Show Final Exams Scholarship Nominees Graduate Admissions Workshop Reminders from the Office Manners, Cultures, & Grammar TheELIWeekly ELI Talent Show It's going to be a blast! Come one, come all! The 2nd Annual ELI Talent Show will be on Tuesday, April 15th

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

226

A yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, shows potential moisturizing activity toward cultured human skin cells: the recovery effect of MEL-A on the SDS-damaged human skin cells.  

PubMed

Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are produced in large amounts from renewable vegetable oils by Pseudozyma antarctica, and are the most promising biosurfactants known due to its versatile interfacial and biochemical actions. In order to broaden the application in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, the skin care property of MEL-A, the major component of MELs, was investigated using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution of 1 wt%, and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were then evaluated on the basis of the cell viability. The viability of the damaged cells was markedly recovered by the addition of MEL-A in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the control, MEL-A solutions of 5 wt% and 10 wt% gave the recovery rate of 73% and 91%, respectively, while ceramide solution of 1 wt% gave the rate of over 100%. This revealed that MEL-A shows a ceramide-like moisturizing activity toward the skin cells. Considering the drawbacks of natural ceramides, namely limited amount and high production cost, the yeast biosurfactants should have a great potential as a novel moisturizer for treating the damaged skin. PMID:19915321

Morita, Tomotake; Kitagawa, Masaru; Suzuki, Michiko; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai

2009-01-01

227

International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1995 International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show in Ontario, Canada has a site of the Web. The IPM is a non-profit organization of volunteers which annually organizes Canada's largest farm machinery show. The event is commercial and educational. Thousands of school children and educators attend and participate in organized educational activities.

1995-01-01

228

Planning a Successful Tech Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

Nikirk, Martin

2011-01-01

229

Midterm Picnic ELI Talent Show  

E-print Network

: This activity is free. Wear tennis shoes and sun-block. We will provide the food, so come hungry!! IMPORTANT, October 27th, we will be going to Disney's Hollywood Studios! Get your Hollywood Studios tickets online, but are not be limited to: o Music o Dance o Cultural Presentations o Created Short Movies o Skits o Juggling o Songs o

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

230

Using Graphs to Show Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to show how graphs of GLOBE data over time show the interconnectedness of Earth's system components at the local level. Students visit a study site, where they observe and recall their existing knowledge of air, water, soil, and living things to make a list of interconnections among the four Earth system components. They make predictions about the effects of a change in a system, inferring ways these changes affect the characteristics of other related components.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

231

The Maths File Game Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Broadcasting Corporation offers this great collection of fun, educational games that help children learn basic concepts of mathematics. Twelve interactive games are available in all, illustrating principles of data handling, numbers, algebra, and measurement. Children can practice interpreting Cartesian coordinates by guiding a space ship across a grid, or compete with an animated character in a test of fractions and percentages. In addition to the online games, several other activities are presented in one-page documents for easy printing.

2007-12-12

232

Map showing of UT's Main,  

E-print Network

$ $ Map showing locations of UT's Main, Scott Park, and Health Science Campuses Student Parking HEALTH SCIENCE CAMPUS GLENDALE BANCROFT NEBRASKA DETROIT FERI A NG BUILDING DIRECTORY AC Scott Park..........................................WBReceiving..........................................WB Minority Business Development Ctr....FAMinority Business Development Ctr....FA NorthwestNorthwest State

Viola, Ronald

233

The OOPSLA trivia show (TOOTS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OOPSLA has a longstanding tradition of being a forum for discussing the cutting edge of technology in a fun and participatory environment. The type of events sponsored by OOPSLA sometimes border on the unconventional. This event represents an atypical panel that conforms to the concept of a game show that is focused on questions and answers related to OOPSLA themes.

Jeff Gray; Douglas C. Schmidt

2009-01-01

234

Diarrheal Disease in Show Swine  

E-print Network

or short-term diarrhea followed by systemic or blood stream infection. E-439 3-07 *Visiting Professor, Swine Practice, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The Texas A&M University System. Diarrheal Disease in Show Swine Bruce Lawhorn...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2007-02-27

235

Browse the archive Show summaries  

E-print Network

for consumers? www.fightthepowergrab.o Slide Shows for Physics MathType for science and math presentations that a "fast ignition" laser facility could make a significant contribution to fusion research, as well than magnets to confine the plasma, will be investigated by the National Ignition Facility (NIF

236

In plant activation: an inducible, hyperexpression platform for recombinant protein production in plants.  

PubMed

In this study, we describe a novel protein production platform that provides both activation and amplification of transgene expression in planta. The In Plant Activation (INPACT) system is based on the replication machinery of tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus (TYDV) and is essentially transient gene expression from a stably transformed plant, thus combining the advantages of both means of expression. The INPACT cassette is uniquely arranged such that the gene of interest is split and only reconstituted in the presence of the TYDV-encoded Rep/RepA proteins. Rep/RepA expression is placed under the control of the AlcA:AlcR gene switch, which is responsive to trace levels of ethanol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) plants containing an INPACT cassette encoding the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter had negligible background expression but accumulated very high GUS levels (up to 10% total soluble protein) throughout the plant, within 3 d of a 1% ethanol application. The GUS reporter was replaced with a gene encoding a lethal ribonuclease, barnase, demonstrating that the INPACT system provides exquisite control of transgene expression and can be adapted to potentially toxic or inhibitory compounds. The INPACT gene expression platform is scalable, not host-limited, and has been used to express both a therapeutic and an industrial protein. PMID:23839786

Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A; Harding, Robert M; Dale, James L

2013-07-01

237

In Plant Activation: An Inducible, Hyperexpression Platform for Recombinant Protein Production in Plants[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

In this study, we describe a novel protein production platform that provides both activation and amplification of transgene expression in planta. The In Plant Activation (INPACT) system is based on the replication machinery of tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus (TYDV) and is essentially transient gene expression from a stably transformed plant, thus combining the advantages of both means of expression. The INPACT cassette is uniquely arranged such that the gene of interest is split and only reconstituted in the presence of the TYDV-encoded Rep/RepA proteins. Rep/RepA expression is placed under the control of the AlcA:AlcR gene switch, which is responsive to trace levels of ethanol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) plants containing an INPACT cassette encoding the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter had negligible background expression but accumulated very high GUS levels (up to 10% total soluble protein) throughout the plant, within 3 d of a 1% ethanol application. The GUS reporter was replaced with a gene encoding a lethal ribonuclease, barnase, demonstrating that the INPACT system provides exquisite control of transgene expression and can be adapted to potentially toxic or inhibitory compounds. The INPACT gene expression platform is scalable, not host-limited, and has been used to express both a therapeutic and an industrial protein. PMID:23839786

Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L.; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A.; Harding, Robert M.; Dale, James L.

2013-01-01

238

A Talk Show from the Past.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony,…

Gallagher, Arlene F.

1991-01-01

239

Monospecific Inhibitors Show That Both Mannan-binding Lectin-associated Serine Protease-1 (MASP-1) and -2 Are Essential for Lectin Pathway Activation and Reveal Structural Plasticity of MASP-2*  

PubMed Central

The lectin pathway is an antibody-independent activation route of the complement system. It provides immediate defense against pathogens and altered self-cells, but it also causes severe tissue damage after stroke, heart attack, and other ischemia reperfusion injuries. The pathway is triggered by target binding of pattern recognition molecules leading to the activation of zymogen mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASPs). MASP-2 is considered as the autonomous pathway-activator, while MASP-1 is considered as an auxiliary component. We evolved a pair of monospecific MASP inhibitors. In accordance with the key role of MASP-2, the MASP-2 inhibitor completely blocks the lectin pathway activation. Importantly, the MASP-1 inhibitor does the same, demonstrating that MASP-1 is not an auxiliary but an essential pathway component. We report the first Michaelis-like complex structures of MASP-1 and MASP-2 formed with substrate-like inhibitors. The 1.28 ? resolution MASP-2 structure reveals significant plasticity of the protease, suggesting that either an induced fit or a conformational selection mechanism should contribute to the extreme specificity of the enzyme. PMID:22511776

Héja, Dávid; Harmat, Veronika; Fodor, Krisztián; Wilmanns, Matthias; Dobó, József; Kékesi, Katalin A.; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter; Pál, Gábor

2012-01-01

240

Casimir experiments showing saturation effects  

SciTech Connect

We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

Sernelius, Bo E. [Division of Theory and Modeling, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

2009-10-15

241

The Arsenic Project. The activity is an authentic research experience for students at early stages in their academic programs, and is designed to give you an insight into the way science is done and will show  

E-print Network

(or remediate) arsenic-contaminated sites. Naturally occurring arsenic compounds (mostly inorganic arsenite and arsenate) can get into drinking water. The arsenic contamination of ground water (from rocks, India where millions of people are drinking highly contaminated water and are showing signs of arsenic

Schweik, Charles M.

242

Senescence-associated vacuoles with intense proteolytic activity develop in leaves of Arabidopsis and soybean.  

PubMed

Vacuolar compartments associated with leaf senescence and the subcellular localization of the senescence-specific cysteine-protease SAG12 (senescence-associated gene 12) were studied using specific fluorescent markers, the expression of reporter genes, and the analysis of high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted samples. Senescence-associated vacuoles (SAVs) with intense proteolytic activity develop in the peripheral cytoplasm of mesophyll and guard cells in Arabidopsis and soybean. The vacuolar identity of these compartments was confirmed by immunolabeling with specific antibody markers. SAVs and the central vacuole differ in their acidity and tonoplast composition: SAVs are more acidic than the central vacuole and, whereas the tonoplast of central vacuoles is highly enriched in gamma-TIP (tonoplast intrinsic protein), the tonoplast of SAVs lacks this aquaporin. The expression of a SAG12-GFP fusion protein in transgenic Arabidopsis plants shows that SAG12 localizes to SAVs. The analysis of Pro(SAG12):GUS transgenic plants indicates that SAG12 expression in senescing leaves is restricted to SAV-containing cells, for example, mesophyll and guard cells. A homozygous sag12 Arabidopsis mutant develops SAVs and does not show any visually detectable phenotypical alteration during senescence, indicating that SAG12 is not required either for SAV formation or for progression of visual symptoms of senescence. The presence of two types of vacuoles in senescing leaves could provide different lytic compartments for the dismantling of specific cellular components. The possible origin and functions of SAVs during leaf senescence are discussed. PMID:15743448

Otegui, Marisa S; Noh, Yoo-Sun; Martínez, Dana E; Vila Petroff, Martin G; Staehelin, L Andrew; Amasino, Richard M; Guiamet, Juan J

2005-03-01

243

Mimas Showing False Colors #1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

The images were obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

2005-01-01

244

Isolation and characterization of signal transduction mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that constitutively activate the octadecanoid pathway and form necrotic microlesions.  

PubMed

Thionins are a group of antimicrobial polypeptides that form part of the plant's defense mechanism against pathogens. The Thi 2.1 thionin gene of Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown to be inducible by jasmonic acid (JA), an oxylipin-like hormone derived from oxygenated linolenic acid and synthesized via the octadecanoid pathway. The JA-dependent regulation of the Thi 2.1 gene has been exploited for setting up a genetic screen for the isolation of signal transduction mutants that constitutively express the Thi 2.1 gene. Ten cet-mutants have been isolated which showed a constitutive expression of the thionin gene. Allelism tests revealed that they represent at least five different loci. Some mutants are dominant, others recessive, but all cet mutations behaved as monogenic traits when backcrossed with Thi 2.1-GUS plants. Some of the mutants overproduce JA and its bioactive precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) up to 40-fold while others have the same low levels as the control wildtype plants. Two of the mutants showed a strong induction of both the salicylic acid (SA)- and the JA-dependent signaling pathways, while the majority seems to be affected only in the octadecanoid pathway. The Thi 2.1 thionin gene and the Pdf 1.2 defensin gene are activated independently, though both are regulated by JA. The cet-mutants, except for one, also show a spontaneous leaf cell necrosis, a reaction often associated with the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) pathway. PMID:11439130

Hilpert, B; Bohlmann, H; op den Camp, R O; Przybyla, D; Miersch, O; Buchala, A; Apel, K

2001-05-01

245

Performance on a pattern separation task by Alzheimer’s patients shows possible links between disrupted dentate gyrus activity and apolipoprotein E ?4 status and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-?42 levels  

PubMed Central

Introduction Emerging evidence suggests that decreased adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents an early critical event in the course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In mice, adult neurogenesis is reduced by knock-in alleles for human apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ?4. Decreased dentate gyrus (DG) neural progenitor cells proliferation has been observed in the triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD); this reduction being directly associated with the presence of amyloid-? (A?) plaques and an increase in the number of A?-containing neurons in the hippocampus. Cognitive tasks involving difficult pattern separations have been shown to reflect DG activity and thus potentially neurogenesis in both animals and man. This study involved the administration of a pattern separation paradigm to Alzheimer’s patients to investigate relationships between task performance and both ApoE status and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A?42 levels. Methods The CDR System pattern separation task involves the presentation of pictures that must later be discriminated from closely similar pictures. This paper presents pattern separation data from 66 mild to moderate AD patients, of which 50 were genotyped and 65 in whom CSF A?42 was measured. Results ApoE ?4 homozygotes were not compromised on the easy pattern separations compared with the other patients, but they were statistically significantly poorer at the difficult separations. In all patients CSF A?42 correlated significantly with the ability to make the difficult discriminations, but not easier discriminations. Pattern separation speed correlated negatively with CSF A?42, and thus the association was not due to increased impulsivity. Conclusions These are, to our knowledge, the first human pattern separation data to suggest a possible genetic link to poor hippocampal neurogenesis in AD, as well as a relationship to A?42. Therapies which target neurogenesis may thus be useful in preventing the early stages of AD, notably in ApoE ?4 homocygotes. PMID:24735568

2014-01-01

246

Molecular basis of ergosterol-induced protection of grape against botrytis cinerea: induction of type I LTP promoter activity, WRKY, and stilbene synthase gene expression.  

PubMed

Type I lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are basic, 9-kDa cystein-rich proteins believed to be involved in plant defense mechanisms. A 2,100-bp fragment containing the coding region of Vitis vinifera lipid transfer protein 1 (VvLTP1) and 1,420-bp of its promoter region was isolated by screening a grape genomic library. In silico analysis revealed several putative, defense-related, cis-regulatory elements such as W- and MYB-boxes, involved in the binding of WRKY and MYB transcription factors, respectively. The 5'-truncated versions of the VvLTP1 promoter were generated, cloned in front of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, and introduced in tobacco plants and grapevine cell suspensions using Agrobacterium spp. Single MYB- and the W-boxes identified on the 0.250-kbp fragment were sufficient to induce GUS activity in transgenic tobacco plants after transient expression of MYB and WRKY. Ergosterol, a nonspecific fungal elicitor, induced GUS activity in transgenic grapevine cell suspensions transformed with the 1,420- and 750-bp promoter containing a palindromic arrangement of two W-boxes but not the 650- or 250-bp fragment, where only one W-box was present. Moreover, ergosterol triggered WRKY, VvLTP1, and stilbene synthase gene expression in grape plantlets and enhanced protection against Botrytis cinerea. The molecular basis of ergosterol-induced protection is discussed. PMID:17022174

Laquitaine, Laurent; Gomès, Eric; François, Julie; Marchive, Chloé; Pascal, Stéphanie; Hamdi, Saïd; Atanassova, Rossitza; Delrot, Serge; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre

2006-10-01

247

Flesinoxan shows antidepressant activity in a DRL 72-s screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schedules which selectively reinforce low rates of responding (DRL, differential reinforcement of low rate) distinguish between antidepressants and other types of drugs. In a DRL schedule a subject is required to pause for a specified minimum period of time between two consecutive responses in order to obtain a reinforcer. The dependent variables are rate of responding and rate of reinforcement.

A. van Hest; M. van Drimmelen; B. Olivier

1992-01-01

248

STOP2 activates transcription of several genes for Al- and low pH-tolerance that are regulated by STOP1 in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The zinc-finger protein STOP1 (sensitive to proton rhizotoxicity 1) regulates transcription of multiple genes critical for tolerance to aluminum (Al) and low pH in Arabidopsis. We evaluated the contributions of genes that are suppressed in the stop1 mutant to Al- and low pH-tolerance using T-DNA-inserted disruptants, and transgenic stop1 mutants expressing each of the suppressed genes. STOP2, a STOP1 homolog, partially recovered Al- and low pH-tolerance by recovering the expression of genes regulated by STOP1. Growth and root tip viability under proton stress were partially rescued in the STOP2-complemented line. STOP2 localized in the nucleus and regulated transcription of two genes (PGIP1 and PGIP2) associated with cell wall stabilization at low pH. GUS assays revealed that STOP1 and STOP2 showed similar cellular expression in the root. However, the expression level of STOP2 was much lower than that of STOP1. In a STOP1 promoter::STOP2-complemented line, Al tolerance was slightly recovered, concomitant with the recovery of expression of ALS3 (aluminum sensitive 3) and AtMATE (Arabidopsis thaliana multidrug and toxic compound extrusion), while the expression of AtALMT1 (aluminum-activated malate transporter 1) was not recovered. These analyses indicated that STOP2 is a physiologically minor isoform of STOP1, but it can activate expression of some genes regulated by STOP1. PMID:23935008

Kobayashi, Yuriko; Ohyama, Yoshinao; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Ito, Hiroki; Iuchi, Satoshi; Fujita, Miki; Zhao, Cheng-Ri; Tanveer, Tazib; Ganesan, Markkandan; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Koyama, Hiroyuki

2014-02-01

249

Lhcb Transcription Is Coordinated with Cell Size and Chlorophyll Accumulation (Studies on Fluorescence-Activated, Cell-Sorter-Purified Single Cells from Wild-Type and immutans Arabidopsis thaliana).  

PubMed Central

To study the mechanisms that integrate pigment and chlorophyll a/b-binding apoprotein biosynthesis during light-harvesting complex II assembly, we have examined [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme activities, chlorophyll contents, and cell sizes in fluorescence-activated, cell-sorting-separated single cells from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and immutans variegation mutant plants that express an Lhcb (photosystem II chlorophyll a/b-binding polypeptide gene)/GUS promoter fusion. We found that GUS activities are positively correlated with chlorophyll content and cell size in green cells from the control and immutans plants, indicating that Lhcb gene transcription is coordinated with cell size in this species. Compared with the control plants, however, chlorophyll production is enhanced in the green cells of immutans; this may represent part of a strategy to maximize photosynthesis in the green sectors to compensate for a lack of photosynthesis in the white sectors of the mutant. Lhcb transcription is significantly higher in pure-white cells of the transgenic immutans plants than in pure-white cells from norflurazon-treated, photooxidized A. thaliana leaves. This suggests that immutans partially uncouples Lhcb transcription from its normal dependence on chlorophyll accumulation and chloroplast development. We conclude that immutans may play a role in regulating Lhcb transcription, and may be a key component in the signal transduction pathways that control chloroplast biogenesis. PMID:12226428

Meehan, L.; Harkins, K.; Chory, J.; Rodermel, S.

1996-01-01

250

Virus infection elevates transcriptional activity of miR164a promoter in plants  

PubMed Central

Background Micro RNAs (miRs) constitute a large group of endogenous small RNAs that have crucial roles in many important plant functions. Virus infection and transgenic expression of viral proteins alter accumulation and activity of miRs and so far, most of the published evidence involves post-transcriptional regulations. Results Using transgenic plants expressing a reporter gene under the promoter region of a characterized miR (P-miR164a), we monitored the reporter gene expression in different tissues and during Arabidopsis development. Strong expression was detected in both vascular tissues and hydathodes. P-miR164a activity was developmentally regulated in plants with a maximum expression at stages 1.12 to 5.1 (according to Boyes, 2001) along the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Upon quantification of P-miR164a-derived GUS activity after Tobacco mosaic virus Cg or Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) infection and after hormone treatments, we demonstrated that ORMV and gibberellic acid elevated P-miR164a activity. Accordingly, total mature miR164, precursor of miR164a and CUC1 mRNA (a miR164 target) levels increased after virus infection and interestingly the most severe virus (ORMV) produced the strongest promoter induction. Conclusion This work shows for the first time that the alteration of miR pathways produced by viral infections possesses a transcriptional component. In addition, the degree of miR alteration correlates with virus severity since a more severe virus produces a stronger P-miR164a induction. PMID:20042107

2009-01-01

251

Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a series of activities that help students discover the Pythagorean Theorem and extension activities to explore various dissection proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

Dotseth, Karen A., Ed.; And Others

1993-01-01

252

Talent Show Notes from the Office  

E-print Network

Highlights Paintball Talent Show Notes from the Office Spring B Places of Origin Birthdays's Weekly. Talent Show ­ Tryouts We're so excited about the Talent Show! We have a long list of students, March 24. This is also the last day to sign up to be in the Talent Show. We also need a Master

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

253

Empowering Women? The Oprah Winfrey Show  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oprah Winfrey Show, the most-watched US daytime talk show, aims to empower women. This article examines the show's representations of gender and how images of `race', sexuality and class cross-cut them. It considers the show's status as television psychology. It explores the show's translation of aspects of black feminism to television, and discusses the social implications of its `super-real'

Corinne Squire

1994-01-01

254

Transformation of Zea mays L. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Shoot Apex.  

PubMed

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is established as a vector for gene transfer in many dicotyledonous plants but is not accepted as a vector in monocotyledonous plants, especially in the important Gramineae. The use of Agrobacterium to transfer genes into monocot species could simplify the transformation and improvement of important crop plants. In this report we describe the use of Agrobacterium to transfer a gene into corn, the regeneration of plants, and detection of the transferred genes in the F(1) progeny. Shoot apices of Zea mays L. variety Funk's G90 were cocultivated with A. tumefaciens EHA 1, which harbored the plasmid pGUS3 containing genes for kanamycin resistance (NPT II) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS). Plants developed from these explants within 4 to 6 weeks. Fluorometric GUS assays of leaves and immature seeds from the plants exhibited low GUS activity. Both NOS and GUS gene fragments were amplified by polymerase chain reaction in the DNA isolated from the F(1) generations of one of the original transformed plants. Southern analysis showed both GUS and NPT probes hybridized to DNA in several of the F(1) progeny, demonstrating the incorporation of GUS and NPT II genes into high molecular weight DNA. These data establish successful gene transfer and sexual inheritance of the genes. PMID:16668001

Gould, J; Devey, M; Hasegawa, O; Ulian, E C; Peterson, G; Smith, R H

1991-02-01

255

New Hampshire Guide 4-H Dog Shows  

E-print Network

New Hampshire Guide to 4-H Dog Shows UNH Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development Moiles House cooperating. #12;NH Guide to 4-H Dog Shows i Table of Contents INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................2 Purpose of the 4-H Dog Project

New Hampshire, University of

256

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Epilogue #12;Inside Gun Shows;Epilogue In February 2010, I attended a Crossroads of the West gun show at the Arizona State Fairgrounds here an update on each of the Phoenix obser- vations made in the photo-essay portion of Inside Gun

Leistikow, Bruce N.

257

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Executive Summary #12;Inside Gun Shows What Goes on When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Garen Wintemute, MD, MPH Violence;Executive Summary Gun shows are surrounded by controversy. On the one hand, they are important economic

Nguyen, Danh

258

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Gun Shows Work Buying and Selling What's for Sale Culture Politics Interventions v 1 11 55 91 159 219Preface Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching #12;#12;Inside Gun-Violence Effort. She put gun shows on my radar and is an ace straw-purchase spotter. Thanks also to Barbara Claire

Leistikow, Bruce N.

259

Structure of the dehydrin tas 14 gene of tomato and its developmental and environmental regulation in transgenic tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a genomic clone encoding tomato TAS14, a dehydrin that accumulates in response to mannitol, NaCl or abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. A fragment of tas14 gene containing the region from -2591 to +162 fused to ß-glucuronidase gene drives ABA- and osmotic stress-induced GUS expression in transgenic tobacco. Histochemical analysis of salt-, mannitol-and ABA-treated plants showed GUS activity mainly

Maria del Mar Parra; Olga Pozo; Rosa Luna; José A. Godoy; José A. Pintor-Toro

1996-01-01

260

Solar System Odyssey - Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show. Learners go on a futuristic journey through our Solar System. They explore the inner and outer planets, then the moons: Titan, Europa, and Callisto as possible places to establish a human colony. A full-length preview of the show is available on the website, you need to scroll down about 3/4 of the page - under section on children's shows, direct link not available.

261

The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

Stinner, Art

2014-01-01

262

Salton Sea Satellite Image Showing Fault Slip  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Landsat satellite image (LE70390372003084EDC00) showing location of surface slip triggered along faults in the greater Salton Trough area. Red bars show the generalized location of 2010 surface slip along faults in the central Salton Trough and many additional faults in the southwestern section of t...

263

The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

264

Livestock Shows Quick Reference Health Requirements  

E-print Network

15 MARKET STEER INFO Knoxville Spring Junior Cattle Exposition Ownership Deadline: March 1 Tattooed Deadline: 90 days prior to show Tattooed and Ear Tagged: 90 days prior to show Entries Due to UT: May 1 INFO Knoxville Spring Junior Cattle Exposition Ownership Deadline: March 15 Tattooed and Ear Tagged

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

265

Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

Najman, M.

2009-09-01

266

Learning to Show You're Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good listeners generally produce back-channel feedback, that is, short utterances such as "uh-huh" which signal active listening. As the rules governing back-channeling vary from language to language, second-language learners may need help acquiring this skill. This paper is an initial exploration of how to provide this. It presents a training…

Ward, Nigel G.; Escalante, Rafael; Al Bayyari, Yaffa; Solorio, Thamar

2007-01-01

267

Gyroscopic Motion: Show Me the Forces!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gyroscopes are frequently used in physics lecture demonstrations and in laboratory activities to teach students about rotational dynamics, namely, angular momentum and torque. Use of these powerful concepts makes it difficult for students to fully comprehend the mechanism that keeps the gyroscope from falling under the force of gravity. The…

Kaplan, Harvey; Hirsch, Andrew

2014-01-01

268

Transplant Problems That May Show Up Later  

MedlinePLUS

... soon after transplant Next Topic Other transplant issues Transplant problems that may show up later The type ... called Second Cancers Caused by Cancer Treatment . Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder Post-transplant lymphoproliferative ( lim -fo-pruh- ...

269

Do dogs (Canis familiaris) show contagious yawning?  

PubMed

We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly after viewing yawning videos than to the open-mouth videos, and most of these yawns occurred to the human videos. No dogs showed significantly more yawning to the open-mouth videos (human or dog). The percentage of dogs showing contagious yawning was less than chimpanzees and humans showing this behavior, and considerably less than a recently published report investigating this behavior in dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al. in Biol Lett 4:446-448, 2008). PMID:19452178

Harr, Aimee L; Gilbert, Valerie R; Phillips, Kimberley A

2009-11-01

270

Nutrition and Feeding of Show Poultry  

E-print Network

The championship potential of a chicken or turkey is determined by genetics, but proper nutrition can help an animal achieve that genetic potential. This publication outlines four principles critical to developing a nutrition program for show...

Cartwright, A. Lee

2003-11-03

271

Identification and molecular characterization of tissue-preferred rice genes and their upstream regularly sequences on a genome-wide level.  

PubMed

BackgroundGene upstream regularly sequences (URSs) can be used as one of the tools to annotate the biological functions of corresponding genes. In addition, tissue-preferred URSs are frequently used to drive the transgene expression exclusively in targeted tissues during plant transgenesis. Although many rice URSs have been molecularly characterized, it is still necessary and valuable to identify URSs that will benefit plant transformation and aid in analyzing gene function.ResultsIn this study, we identified and characterized root-, seed-, leaf-, and panicle-preferred genes on a genome-wide level in rice. Subsequently, their expression patterns were confirmed through quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) by randomly selecting 9candidate tissue-preferred genes. In addition, 5 tissue-preferred URSs were characterized by investigating the URS::GUS transgenic plants. Of these URS::GUS analyses, the transgenic plants harboring LOC_Os03g11350 URS::GUS construct showed the GUS activity only in young pollen. In contrast, when LOC_Os10g22450 URS was used to drive the reporter GUS gene, the GUS activity was detected only in mature pollen. Interestingly, the LOC_Os10g34360 URS was found to be vascular bundle preferred and its activities were restricted only to vascular bundles of leaves, roots and florets. In addition, we have also identified two URSs from genes LOC_Os02G15090 and LOC_Os06g31070 expressed in a seed-preferred manner showing the highest expression levels of GUS activities in mature seeds.ConclusionBy genome-wide analysis, we have identified tissue-preferred URSs, five of which were further characterized using transgenic plants harboring URS::GUS constructs. These data might provide some evidence for possible functions of the genes and be a valuable resource for tissue-preferred candidate URSs for plant transgenesis. PMID:25428432

Jiang, Shu-Ye; Vanitha, Jeevanandam; Bai, Yanan; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

2014-11-27

272

Discovery of 7-arylsulfonyl-1,2,3,4, 4a,9a-hexahydro-benzo[4,5]furo[2,3-c]pyridines: identification of a potent and selective 5-HT? receptor antagonist showing activity in rat social recognition test.  

PubMed

Serotoninergic neurotransmission has been implicated in modulation of learning and memory. It has been demonstrated that 5-hydroxytryptamine(6) (5-HT(6)) receptor antagonists show beneficial effect on cognition in several animal models. Based on a pharmacophore model reported in the literature, we have designed and successfully identified a 7-benzenesulfonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-benzo[4,5]furo[2,3-c]pyridine (3a) scaffold as a novel class of 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists. Despite good activity against 5-HT(6) receptor, 3a exhibited poor liver microsome stability in mouse, rat and dog. It was demonstrated that the saturation of the double bond of the tetrahydropyridine ring of 3a enhanced metabolic stability. However the resulting compound, 4a (7-phenylsulfonyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9a-hexahydro-benzo[4,5]furo[2,3-c] pyridine-HCl salt) exhibited ?30-fold loss in potency along with introduction of two chiral centers. In our optimization process for this series, we found that substituents at the 2 or 3 positions on the distal aryl group are important for enhancing activity against 5-HT(6). Separation of enantiomers and subsequent optimization and SAR with bis substituted phenyl sulfone provided potent 5-HT(6) antagonists with improved PK profiles in rat. A potent, selective 5-HT(6)R antagonist (15k) was identified from this study which showed good oral bioavailability (F=39%) in rat with brain penetration (B/P=2.76) and in vivo activity in a rat social recognition test. PMID:22226656

Tripathy, Rabindranath; McHugh, Robert J; Bacon, Edward R; Salvino, Joseph M; Morton, George C; Aimone, Lisa D; Huang, Zeck; Mathiasen, Joanne R; DiCamillo, Amy; Huffman, Mark J; McKenna, Beth A; Kopec, Karla; Lu, Lily D; Qian, Jie; Angeles, Thelma S; Connors, Thomas; Spais, Chrysanthe; Holskin, Beverly; Duzic, Emir; Schaffhauser, Hervé; Rossé, Gerard C

2012-02-01

273

Experiments showing dynamics of materials interfaces  

SciTech Connect

The discipline of materials science and engineering often involves understanding and controlling properties of interfaces. The authors address the challenge of educating students about properties of interfaces, particularly dynamic properties and effects of unstable interfaces. A series of simple, inexpensive, hands-on activities about fluid interfaces provides students with a testbed to develop intuition about interface dynamics. The experiments highlight the essential role of initial interfacial perturbations in determining the dynamic response of the interface. The experiments produce dramatic, unexpected effects when initial perturbations are controlled and inhibited. These activities help students to develop insight about unstable interfaces that can be applied to analogous problems in materials science and engineering. The lessons examine ``Rayleigh-Taylor instability,`` an interfacial instability that occurs when a higher-density fluid is above a lower-density fluid.

Benjamin, R.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Dynamic Experimentation Div.

1997-02-01

274

Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

2003-01-01

275

The object-oriented trivia show (TOOTS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OOPSLA has a longstanding tradition of being a forum for discussing the cutting edge of technology in a fun and participatory environment. The type of events sponsored by OOPSLA sometimes border on the unconventional. This event represents an atypical panel that conforms to the concept of a game show that is focused on questions and answers related to SPLASH, OOPSLA,

Jeff Gray; Jules White

2010-01-01

276

Showing R-Rated Videos in School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1990, there have been at least six published court decisions concerning teachers' use of controversial videos in public schools. A relevant district policy led the Colorado Supreme Court to uphold a teacher's termination for showing 12th graders an R-rated 1900 Bertolucci film on fascism. Implications are discussed. (MLH)

Zirkel, Perry A.

1999-01-01

277

Show Them You Really Want the Job  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

Perlmutter, David D.

2012-01-01

278

THE CHARLIE ROSE SHOW DECEMBER 20, 2004  

E-print Network

1 THE CHARLIE ROSE SHOW DECEMBER 20, 2004 DISCUSSION WITH SIR PAUL NURSE CHARLIE ROSE, HOST are going to pop out really new ways that we can think about disease. (END VIDEO CLIP) CHARLIE ROSE: Paul Nurse for the hour, next. (COMMERCIAL BREAK) CHARLIE ROSE: Sir Paul Nurse is here. In 2001, he received

Papavasiliou, F. Nina

279

Type VII secretion — mycobacteria show the way  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence shows that mycobacteria have developed novel and specialized secretion systems for the transport of extracellular proteins across their hydrophobic, and highly impermeable, cell wall. Strikingly, mycobacterial genomes encode up to five of these transport systems. Two of these systems, ESX-1 and ESX-5, are involved in virulence — they both affect the cell-to-cell migration of pathogenic mycobacteria. Here, we

Abdallah M. Abdallah; Nicolaas C. Gey van Pittius; Patricia A. DiGiuseppe Champion; Jeffery Cox; Joen Luirink; Christina M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; Ben J. Appelmelk; Wilbert Bitter

2007-01-01

280

Spotted Wing Drosophila adult female. Inset shows  

E-print Network

crops are not at risk because they are not soft-fleshed fruit. Spotted Wing Drosophila flies are small America. Spotted Wing Drosophila is not a true fruit fly like blueberry maggot or cherry fruit flySpotted Wing Drosophila adult female. Inset shows saw-like ovipositor used to cut into fruit skin

Goodman, Robert M.

281

INTRODUCTION Mitotic metaphase chromosomes show sister chromatids  

E-print Network

. Meiosis I bivalents, as mitotic chromosomes, show sister-chromatid centromere and arm cohesions cohesion during meiosis I, and then release centromere cohesion during meiosis II (for review see Moore and Orr- Weaver, 1998). Consequently, this sequential loss of cohesion during meiosis might be precisely

Villefranche sur mer

282

George Arcement Shows Locations of USGS Streamgages  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement shows the locations of USGS' streamgage network to WAFB Meteorologist Jay Grymes.  USGS maintains more than 30 real-time streamgages throughout the area affected by the 2011 Flood. In addition, more than 50 non-real-time gages were...

283

ShowOrHide 1.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many Mac users have hidden files located on their computers that they might not know about. ShowOrHide is a utility designed to locate invisible files and folders so that users will have more knowledge about such items. This program is compatible with computers running Mac OS X 10.5 or later.

2012-08-24

284

Treatment of lysosomal storage disease in MPS VII mice using a recombinant adeno-associated virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a genetic deficiency of ?-glucuronidase (GUS). We used a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (AAV-GUS) to deliver GUS cDNA to MPS VII mice. The route of vector administration had a dramatic effect on the extent and distribution of GUS activity. Intramuscular injection of AAV-GUS resulted in high, localized production

GL Watson; JN Sayles; C Chen; SS Elliger; CA Elliger; NR Raju; GJ Kurtzman; GM Podsakoff

1998-01-01

285

Idaho State University Physics Road Show  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ISU Physics Road Show services over 40 schools and 12,000 students each year. Exciting and informative demonstration shows are conducted during assemblies at elementary, middle, and junior high schools. Discussion will focus on efforts taken to maximize the educational impact to students and teachers. These efforts include supplemental information and materials provided to teachers, teacher workshops, and careful catering of subject material to state and national education standards. A few sample demonstrations will be performed, including the boiling green water sucker, a magnet strongly repelled from a cooled copper disc, an artificial geyser that shoots water 6 meters, and a few liquid nitrogen tricks. This program is supported in part by a grant from the Idaho Community Foundation.

Shropshire, Steve

2009-05-01

286

Do dogs ( Canis familiaris ) show contagious yawning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown\\u000a video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs\\u000a showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly\\u000a after viewing yawning videos than to

Aimee L. Harr; Valerie R. Gilbert; Kimberley A. Phillips

2009-01-01

287

The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this one, but when I searched the Internet for information and looked at YouTube presentations, I could only find simplistic references to Newton's laws and the conservation of mechanical energy principle. Nowhere could I find detailed calculations. On the other hand, there were several biomechanical articles with empirical reports of the results of kinetic and dynamic investigations of show jumping using high-speed digital cameras and force plates. They summarize their results in tables that give information about the motion of a horse jumping over high fences (1.40 m) and the magnitudes of the forces encountered when landing. However, they do not describe the physics of these results.

Stinner, Art

2014-04-01

288

Salt tolerance and activity of antioxidative enzymes of transgenic finger millet overexpressing a vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase gene (SbVPPase) from Sorghum bicolor.  

PubMed

A vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase cDNA clone was isolated from Sorghum bicolor (SbVPPase) using end-to-end gene-specific primer amplification. It showed 80-90% homology at the nucleotide and 85-95% homology at the amino acid level with other VPPases. The gene was introduced into expression vector pCAMBIA1301 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter and transformed into Agrobacterium tumifaciens strain LBA4404 to infect embryogenic calli of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Successful transfer of SbVPPase was confirmed by a GUS histochemical assay and PCR analysis. Both, controls and transgenic plants were subjected to 100 and 200mM NaCl and certain biochemical and physiological parameters were studied. Relative water content (RWC), plant height, leaf expansion, finger length and width and grain weight were severely reduced (50-70%), and the flowering period was delayed by 20% in control plants compared to transgenic plants under salinity stress. With increasing salt stress, the proline and chlorophyll contents as well as the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased by 25-100% in transgenics, while malondialdehyde (MDA) showed a 2-4-fold decrease. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and the reduction in the MDA content suggest efficient scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in transgenics and, as a consequence, probably alleviation of salt stress. Also, the leaf tissues of the transgenics accumulated 1.5-2.5-fold higher Na(+) and 0.4-0.8-fold higher K(+) levels. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that overexpression of SbVPPase in transgenic finger millet enhances the plant's performance under salt stress. PMID:24877670

Anjaneyulu, Ediga; Reddy, Palle Surender; Sunita, Merla Srilakshmi; Kishor, Polavarapu B Kavi; Meriga, Balaji

2014-06-15

289

69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic lines leading to water valve hydraulic control cylinders from control handles in bench; strings and pulleys activate meters. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

290

Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

291

11. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel operating rocket engine test controls and observer watching activity from observation room. May 27, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-45020. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

292

Software for portable laser light show system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portable laser light show system LS-3500-10M is connected to the parallel port of IBM PC/AT compatible computer. Computer performs output of digital control data describing images. Specially designed control device is used to convert digital data coming from parallel port to the analog signal driving scanner. Capabilities of even cost nothing 286 computer are quite enough for laser graphics control. Technology of scanning used in laser graphics system LS-3500-10M essentially differs from widely spread systems based on galvanometers with mobile core or with mobile magnet. Such devices are based on the same principle of work as electrically driven servo-mechanism. As scanner we use elastic system with hydraulic dampen oscillations and opened loop. For most of applications of laser graphics such system provides satisfactory precision and speed of scanning. LS-3500-10M software gives user ability to create on PC and play his own laser graphics demonstrations. It is possible to render recognizable text and pictures using different styles, 3D and abstract animation. All types of demonstrations can be mixed in slide-show. Time synchronization is supported. Software has the following features: (1) Different types of text output. Built-in text editor for typing and editing of textural information. Different fonts can be used to display text. User can create his own fonts using specially developed font editor. (2) Editor of 3D animation with library of predefined shapes. (3) Abstract animation provided by software routines. (4) Support of different graphics files formats (PCX or DXF). Original algorithm of raster image tracing was implemented. (5) Built-in slide-show editor.

Buruchin, Dmitrey J.; Leonov, Alexander F.

1995-04-01

293

Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities  

PubMed Central

The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous. PMID:17148159

Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

2005-01-01

294

Boron aluminum crippling strength shows improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from an experimental program directed toward improving boron aluminum crippling strength. Laminate changes evaluated were larger filament diameter, improved processing, shape changes, adding steel-aluminum cross plies, reduced filament volume in corners, adding boron aluminum angle plies, and using titanium interleaves. Filament diameter and steel-aluminum cross plies have little effect on crippling. It is shown that better processing combined with appropriate shape changes improved crippling over 50 percent at both room temperature and 600 F. Tests also show that crippling improvements ranging from 20 to 40 percent are achieved using angle plies and titanium interleaves.

Otto, O. R.; Bohlmann, R. E.

1974-01-01

295

Show Me the Invisible: Visualizing Hidden Content  

PubMed Central

Content on computer screens is often inaccessible to users because it is hidden, e.g., occluded by other windows, outside the viewport, or overlooked. In search tasks, the efficient retrieval of sought content is important. Current software, however, only provides limited support to visualize hidden occurrences and rarely supports search synchronization crossing application boundaries. To remedy this situation, we introduce two novel visualization methods to guide users to hidden content. Our first method generates awareness for occluded or out-of-viewport content using see-through visualization. For content that is either outside the screen’s viewport or for data sources not opened at all, our second method shows off-screen indicators and an on-demand smart preview. To reduce the chances of overlooking content, we use visual links, i.e., visible edges, to connect the visible content or the visible representations of the hidden content. We show the validity of our methods in a user study, which demonstrates that our technique enables a faster localization of hidden content compared to traditional search functionality and thereby assists users in information retrieval tasks. PMID:25325078

Geymayer, Thomas; Steinberger, Markus; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Schmalstieg, Dieter

2014-01-01

296

Clathrin triskelia show evidence of molecular flexibility.  

PubMed

The clathrin triskelion, which is a three-legged pinwheel-shaped heteropolymer, is a major component in the protein coats of certain post-Golgi and endocytic vesicles. At low pH, or at physiological pH in the presence of assembly proteins, triskelia will self-assemble to form a closed clathrin cage, or "basket". Recent static light scattering and dynamic light scattering studies of triskelia in solution showed that an individual triskelion has an intrinsic pucker similar to, but differing from, that inferred from a high resolution cryoEM structure of a triskelion in a clathrin basket. We extend the earlier solution studies by performing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on isolated triskelia, allowing us to examine a higher q range than that probed by static light scattering. Results of the SANS measurements are consistent with the light scattering measurements, but show a shoulder in the scattering function at intermediate q values (0.016 A(-1)), just beyond the Guinier regime. This feature can be accounted for by Brownian dynamics simulations based on flexible bead-spring models of a triskelion, which generate time-averaged scattering functions. Calculated scattering profiles are in good agreement with the experimental SANS profiles when the persistence length of the assumed semiflexible triskelion is close to that previously estimated from the analysis of electron micrographs. PMID:18502808

Ferguson, Matthew L; Prasad, Kondury; Boukari, Hacene; Sackett, Dan L; Krueger, Susan; Lafer, Eileen M; Nossal, Ralph

2008-08-01

297

VLA Shows "Boiling" in Atmosphere of Betelgeuse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A team of astronomers says that observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show that a neighboring bloated star has giant convective plumes propelling gas from its surface (photosphere) up into the star's atmosphere. This new information contradicts long-held ideas that such stellar atmospheres are more uniform, and may resolve questions about how the star's atmosphere attains its enormous size as well as how dust and gas is driven away from the star. Jeremy Lim of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics in Taiwan; Chris Carilli, Anthony Beasley, and Ralph Marson of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM; and Stephen White of the University of Maryland studied the red-supergiant star Betelgeuse, about 430 light-years away in the constellation Orion. They reported their findings in the April 9 issue of the scientific journal Nature. "These radio-telescope images confirm that Betelgeuse -- already more than 600 times larger than our Sun -- has a dense atmosphere that extends to many times larger still than the star itself," said Lim. "The highest-resolution image shows the star's atmosphere to have a remarkably complex structure." "To our surprise," added White, "the images also show that most of the gas in the atmosphere is only about as hot as that on the surface. Previously, all of it was thought to be very much hotter." The astronomers used the VLA to make images of Betelgeuse at a variety of radio frequencies. The series of radio observations measured the temperature of the star's atmosphere at different heights. Previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at ultraviolet wavelengths showed that the star's atmosphere contains very hot gas at about twice the surface temperature. The VLA images showed that there also is lower-temperature gas throughout the atmosphere. This gas is near the surface temperature at low heights and decreases in temperature progressively outwards. Although its existence was not previously suspected, this lower-temperature gas turns out to be the most abundant constituent of Betelgeuse's atmosphere. "This alters our basic understanding of red-supergiant star atmospheres," explains Lim. "Instead of the star's atmosphere expanding uniformly because of gas heated to very high temperatures near its surface, it now appears that several giant convection cells propel gas from the star's surface into its atmosphere. This creates the complex structure we observe for Betelgeuse's atmosphere." Betelgeuse can be likened to an enormous "boiling" ball of gas heated by the release of energy from nuclear fusion in its core. The circulating boiling pattern -- convection -- appears as large regions of hot upwelling gas on the star's surface. "The idea that red-supergiant stars have enormous convection cells is not new," noted Marson. "This was suggested by Martin Schwarzschild more than 20 years ago, and was seen in optical images of Betelgeuse's surface in 1990." The new picture of Betelgeuse's atmosphere also helps resolve the mystery of how massive amounts of dust and gas are expelled from red supergiant stars, an important source of enrichment for the interstellar medium. If their atmospheres were entirely very hot at lower levels, dust grains would not be able to condense there. Dust grains could possibly condense at higher levels, but there they would not get enough "push" from the star's radiation to explain their outward movement. In the new picture, the relatively cool environment at lower levels allows dust grains to condense effectively; here they can be strongly propelled by the more-intense starlight, carrying gas with them. Indeed, dust has previously been inferred to form sporadically near Betelgeuse's surface, but its presence there was difficult to reconcile with the old picture. "This method for propelling the mass outflows of red giant and supergiant stars was proposed by Sun Kwok i

1998-04-01

298

Color Voyager 2 Image Showing Crescent Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows a crescent Uranus, a view that Earthlings never witnessed until Voyager 2 flew near and then beyond Uranus on January 24, 1986. This planet's natural blue-green color is due to the absorption of redder wavelengths in the atmosphere by traces of methane gas. Uranus' diameter is 32,500 miles, a little over four times that of Earth. The hazy blue-green atmosphere probably extends to a depth of around 5,400 miles, where it rests above what is believed to be an icy or liquid mixture (an 'ocean') of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, which in turn surrounds a rocky core perhaps a little smaller than Earth.

1990-01-01

299

ArtBots: The Robot Talent Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the Columbia University Computer Music Center and the Digital Media Center of Columbia University's School of the Arts, ArtBots is "an international art exhibition for robotic art and art-making robots." The annual event invites artists from around the world to enter their robots based on the broad guidelines: "if you think it's a robot and you think it's art, we encourage you to submit." The Participants section includes a photo, description (including some interpretive analysis) and website link for each of the ArtBot 2004 participants. Some sample entries include a robot that draws, one that picks up balls and a "robotic sculpture built around a section of tree trunk." The website even offers a sample of the Theme Song from the show.

300

Suprascapular neuropathy: what does the literature show?  

PubMed

Suprascapular neuropathy remains a rare, albeit increasingly recognized, diagnosis. Despite its relatively low prevalence, it must be kept in the shoulder surgeon's mind as a potential cause of shoulder pain, particularly in patients where the history, physical examination, and imaging studies do not adequately explain a patient's symptoms or disability. Although challenging to identify, suprascapular neuropathy can be successfully treated. The current literature shows that the location and mechanism of nerve injury are the most important factors guiding management. Different treatment strategies are required, depending on the specific location and type of nerve injury. Controversy regarding if and when to perform an isolated suprascapular nerve release continues. Furthermore, no recommendations regarding suprascapular nerve release in conjunction with rotator cuff repair can be made at this time, and further research is necessary to better delineate the indications in the future. PMID:22445163

Moen, Todd C; Babatunde, Oladapo M; Hsu, Stephanie H; Ahmad, Christopher S; Levine, William N

2012-06-01

301

Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.  

PubMed

It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names. PMID:14667368

Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

2003-11-01

302

Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.  

PubMed Central

It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names. PMID:14667368

Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

2003-01-01

303

Effect of external and internal factors on the expression of reporter genes driven by the N resistance gene promoter  

PubMed Central

The role of resistance (R) genes in plant pathogen interaction has been studied extensively due to its economical impact on agriculture. Interaction between tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the N protein from tobacco is one of the most widely used models to understand various aspects of pathogen resistance. The transcription activity governed by N gene promoter is one of the least understood elements of the model. In this study, the N gene promoter was cloned and fused with two different reporter genes, one encoding ?-glucuronidase (N::GUS) and another, luciferase (N::LUC). Tobacco plants transformed with the N::GUS or N::LUC reporter constructs were screened for homozygosity and stable expression. Histochemical analysis of N::GUS tobacco plants revealed that the expression is organ specific and developmentally regulated. Whereas two week old plants expressed GUS in midveins only, 6-wk-old plants also expressed GUS in leaf lamella. Roots did not show GUS expression at any time during development. Experiments to address effects of external stress were performed using N::LUC tobacco plants. These experiments showed that N gene promoter expression was suppressed when plants were exposed to high but not low temperatures. Expression was also upregulated in response to TMV, but no changes were observed in plants treated with SA. PMID:23656874

Kathiria, Palak; Sidler, Corinne; Woycicki, Rafal; Yao, Youli; Kovalchuk, Igor

2013-01-01

304

Neonatal electroencephalography shows low sensitivity to anesthesia.  

PubMed

This study examined EEG under clinical anesthesia in neonates and infants, to clarify how growth affects EEG during anesthesia. Subjects comprised 62 neonates and infants. Patients were divided into four groups according to age: Group 1 (neonates), <1 month; Group 2, 1-2 months; Group 3, 3-5 months; and Group 4, 6 months to 2 years. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and fentanyl and/or caudal block. At four points of sevoflurane concentration (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2%), 90% spectral edge frequency (SEF90), burst suppression ratio (BSR), relative beta ratio (RBR) and approximate entropy (ApEn) were analyzed. In Group 4, SEF90, BSR, RBR and ApEn changes were dependent on the concentration of anesthesia, along with changes in sevoflurane concentration from 0.5% to 2% (from 14.3 (2.7) [mean (SD)] Hz to 8.2 (3.8) Hz, from 0.0 to 0.32 (0.36), from -1.58 (0.14) to -1.10 (0.15), and from 0.56 (0.25) to 0.24 (0.25) respectively; p<0.05 each). Conversely, these processed EEG parameters in Group 1 showed little anesthesia-dependent change under sevoflurane concentrations between 0.5% and 2% (SEF90: 7.3 (1.2) Hz vs. 7.7 (2.1) Hz; BSR: 0.51 (0.20) vs. 0.62 (0.29); RBR: -1.00 (0.17) vs. -1.03 (0.27); ApEn: 0.32 (0.18) vs. 0.25 (0.14), respectively). The unique EEG features of neonates during anesthesia rapidly change to the usual anesthesia-dependent patterns seen in older children, with a boundary of 3-5 months old. In infants younger than 6 months old, neural network regulation reflected in EEG by anesthesia is weak. PMID:22542892

Hayashi, Kazuko; Shigemi, Kenji; Sawa, Teiji

2012-05-31

305

2014 Greenwood County Livestock Show Beef Show Saturday, August 30, 10:00 am  

E-print Network

29646 Concessions on Grounds General Rules and Regulations 1. Purebred cattle must be registered with their National Breed Association. Registration papers must be in the name of the exhibitor. Beef cattle the premises and forfeit any premium money. 10. A breed must have, at a minimum, five animals for a breed show

Stuart, Steven J.

306

Showing and Telling Farming: Agricultural Shows and Re-Imaging British Agriculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some actors in the ''mainstream'' agricultural sector are beginning to engage in strategies of influencing public perceptions of farming, responding to public anxieties over industrialised agriculture and to a supposed separation of non-farming publics from food production. This paper focuses on agricultural shows as sites and events central to…

Holloway, Lewis

2004-01-01

307

Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite as a plant gene delivery vector trans-activated by taxonomically diverse geminiviruses.  

PubMed

Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) replicates in tobacco, tomato and datura plants in the presence of the helper viruses tomato leaf curl virus-Australia, Iranian isolates of tomato yellow leaf curl virus, tomato leaf curl Karnataka virus, and beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV). Infectious recombinant CLCuMB constructs were made in which segments of either the CaMV 35S or the petunia ChsA promoter replaced the CLCuMB ?C1 ORF, and these were designated pBin??C1-35S and pBin??C1-ChsA, respectively. Inoculation of tobacco plants containing a functional 35S-GUS transgene with pBin??C1-35S, and normal petunia plants with pBin??C1-ChsA, in the presence of helper viruses resulted in silencing of GUS and ChsA activities in transgenic tobacco and non-transgenic petunia plants, respectively. Replication of CLCuMB with different geminiviruses, especially BSCTV, a curtovirus with a broad host range, makes it a valuable gene delivery vector to the large number of host plant species of geminiviruses that support CLCuMB. PMID:22476203

Kharazmi, S; Behjatnia, S A A; Hamzehzarghani, H; Niazi, A

2012-07-01

308

DIME Students Show Off their Lego(TM) Challenge Creation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two students show the Lego (TM) Challenge device they designed and built to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

2002-01-01

309

Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants  

PubMed Central

This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it. PMID:25610413

Ma, Lili

2015-01-01

310

In resting COS1 cells a dominant negative approach shows that specific, anchored PDE4 cAMP phosphodiesterase isoforms gate the activation, by basal cyclic AMP production, of AKAP-tethered protein kinase A type II located in the centrosomal region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ a novel, dominant negative approach to identify a key role for certain tethered cyclic AMP specific phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) isoforms in regulating cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA) sub-populations in resting COS1 cells. A fraction of PKA is clearly active in resting COS1 cells and this activity increases when cells are treated with the selective PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram.

Angela McCahill; Theresa McSorley; Elaine Huston; Elaine V. Hill; Martin J. Lynch; Irene Gall; Guy Keryer; Birgitte Lygren; Kjetil Tasken; Gino van Heeke; Miles D. Houslay

2005-01-01

311

Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

2010-01-01

312

Ulvan, a sulfated polysaccharide from green algae, activates plant immunity through the jasmonic acid signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

2010-01-01

313

Effects of a Non-Conservative Sequence on the Properties of ?-glucuronidase from Aspergillus terreus Li-20  

PubMed Central

We cloned the ?-glucuronidase gene (AtGUS) from Aspergillus terreus Li-20 encoding 657 amino acids (aa), which can transform glycyrrhizin into glycyrrhetinic acid monoglucuronide (GAMG) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). Based on sequence alignment, the C-terminal non-conservative sequence showed low identity with those of other species; thus, the partial sequence AtGUS(-3t) (1–592 aa) was amplified to determine the effects of the non-conservative sequence on the enzymatic properties. AtGUS and AtGUS(-3t) were expressed in E. coli BL21, producing AtGUS-E and AtGUS(-3t)-E, respectively. At the similar optimum temperature (55°C) and pH (AtGUS-E, 6.6; AtGUS(-3t)-E, 7.0) conditions, the thermal stability of AtGUS(-3t)-E was enhanced at 65°C, and the metal ions Co2+, Ca2+ and Ni2+ showed opposite effects on AtGUS-E and AtGUS(-3t)-E, respectively. Furthermore, Km of AtGUS(-3t)-E (1.95 mM) was just nearly one-seventh that of AtGUS-E (12.9 mM), whereas the catalytic efficiency of AtGUS(-3t)-E was 3.2 fold higher than that of AtGUS-E (7.16 vs. 2.24 mM s?1), revealing that the truncation of non-conservative sequence can significantly improve the catalytic efficiency of AtGUS. Conformational analysis illustrated significant difference in the secondary structure between AtGUS-E and AtGUS(-3t)-E by circular dichroism (CD). The results showed that the truncation of the non-conservative sequence could preferably alter and influence the stability and catalytic efficiency of enzyme. PMID:22347419

Liu, Yanli; Huangfu, Jie; Qi, Feng; Kaleem, Imdad; E, Wenwen; Li, Chun

2012-01-01

314

A homolog of the Rhizobium meliloti nitrogen fixation gene fixN is involved in the production of a microaerobically induced oxidase activity in the phytopathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

PubMed

Hybridization analysis using the Rhizobium meliloti nitrogen fixation gene fixN as a probe revealed the presence of a homologous DNA region in the phytopathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Hybridization signals were also detected with total DNAs of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, Rhodobacter capsulatus and Escherichia coli, but not those of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pseudomonas putida. The hybridizing fragment from A. tumefaciens was cloned and sequenced. The predicted gene product of one of the two open reading frames identified on the sequenced fragment shows homology to FixN of different Rhizobiaceae as well as a low but significant similarity to subunit I of heme copper oxidases from various bacteria. The presence of five strictly conserved histidine residues previously implicated in forming ligands to heme and CuB in oxidases and the predicted membrane topology provide evidence that the A. tumefaciens fixN-like gene product is a component of the heme copper oxidase superfamily. The incomplete open reading frame starting only 8 nucleotides downstream of the fixN-like gene exhibits homology to Rhizobium fixO. Using an uidA (GUS) gene fusion it could be shown that the A. tumefaciens fixN-like gene is preferentially expressed under microaerobic conditions. Expression of the uidA fusion is abolished in R. meliloti fixJ and fixK mutants, indicating that an Fnr-like protein is involved in transcriptional regulation of the fixN-like gene in A. tumefaciens. The presence of an upstream DNA sequence motif identical to the Fnr-consensus binding site (anaerobox) further supports this hypothesis. A. tumefaciens mutated in the fixN-like gene shows decreased TMPD-specific oxidase activity under microaerobic conditions, indicating that the fixN-like gene or operon codes for proteins involved in respiration under reduced oxygen availability. PMID:7753030

Schlüter, A; Rüberg, S; Krämer, M; Weidner, S; Priefer, U B

1995-04-20

315

Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage  

PubMed Central

A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. PMID:24626632

Barfield, Whitney L.; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C.; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P.

2014-01-01

316

Prkcz null mice show normal learning and memory  

PubMed Central

Protein kinase M ? (PKM?) is a constitutively active form of atypical PKC that is exclusively expressed in the brain and implicated in the maintenance of long-term memory1–9. Most studies that support a role for PKM? in memory maintenance have used pharmacological PKM? inhibitors such as the myristoylated zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) or chelerythrine. Here, we used a genetic approach and targeted exon 9 of the Prkcz gene to generate mice that lack both protein kinase C ? (PKC?) and PKM? (Prkcz?/? mice). Prkcz?/? mice showed normal behavior in a cage environment and in baseline tests of motor function and sensory perception, but displayed reduced anxiety-like behavior. Surprisingly, they did not show deficits in learning or memory in tests of cued fear conditioning, novel object recognition, object location recognition, conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine, or motor learning, when compared with wild-type littermates. ZIP injection into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) reduced expression of cocaine CPP in Prkcz?/? mice. In vitro, ZIP and scrambled ZIP inhibited PKM?, PKC? and PKC? with similar Ki values. Chelerythrine was a weak inhibitor of PKM? (Ki = 76 µM). Our findings show that absence of PKM? does not impair learning and memory in mice, and that ZIP can erase reward memory even when PKM? is not present. PMID:23283171

Lee, Anna M.; Kanter, Benjamin R.; Wang, Dan; Lim, Jana P.; Zou, Mimi E.; Qiu, Chichen; McMahon, Tom; Dadgar, Jahan; Fischbach-Weiss, Sarah C.; Messing, Robert O.

2012-01-01

317

Hydrocarbon shows in the scientific ocean drilling programs  

SciTech Connect

For more than 20 yr, two major programs, the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), have been coring the deep oceans for scientific purposes. For technological as well as financial reasons, drilling was and is performed without a riser. Precruise preparation, therefore, is aimed at preventing an accidental hydrocarbon discovery. During the course of drilling, at the more than 700 locations studied to date, numerous black shales of various ages were encountered. Many of these represent thermally immature hydrocarbon source rocks. Although these organic-rich rocks (up to 34 wt.% total organic carbon) by themselves did not pose a safety problem, hydrocarbon shows were detected on no less than ten legs. These shows represent heavy (C{sub 15+}), thermally generated hydrocarbons. Commonly, these shows can be attributed to migration through a porous and permeable network into the penetrated section. In these situations, migration commonly occurs over distances on the order of several tens of miles from a more mature, structurally deeper section (e.g., Challenger Knoll, DSDP Site 2). There are, however, instances where there is strong geochemical evidence for in-situ hydrocarbon generation. In-situ hydrocarbon generation appears to be the result of anomalous thermal conditions associated with high heat flow, igneous and/or hydrothermal activity (e.g., Tyrrhenian Sea, ODP Site 652). Such conditions are more commonly associated with young marginal basins. The distribution of these shows provides valuable information on the long-term exploratory potential of the deep oceans and continental margins.

Katz, B.J. (Texaco USA, Houston, TX (USA)); Emeis, K.C. (Geologisch Palaontologisches Institut, Kiel (West Germany))

1990-05-01

318

Resetting of FLOWERING LOCUS C expression after epigenetic repression by vernalization  

PubMed Central

The epigenetic repression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in winter-annual ecotypes of Arabidopsis by prolonged cold ensures that plants flower in spring and not during winter. Resetting of the FLC expression level in progeny is an important step in the life cycle of the plant. We show that both the paternally derived and the maternally derived FLC:GUS genes are reset to activity but that the timing of their first expression differs. The paternal FLC:GUS gene in vernalized plants is expressed in the male reproductive organs, the anthers, in both somatic tissue and in the sporogenous pollen mother cells, but there is no expression in mature pollen. In the progeny generation, the paternally derived FLC:GUS gene is expressed in the single-celled zygote (fertilized egg cell) and through embryo development, but not in the fertilized central cell, which generates the endosperm of the progeny seed. FLC:GUS is not expressed during female gametogenesis, with the maternally derived FLC:GUS being first expressed in the early multicellular embryo. We show that FLC activity during late embryo development is a prerequisite for the repressive action of FLC on flowering. PMID:18250331

Sheldon, Candice C.; Hills, Melissa J.; Lister, Clare; Dean, Caroline; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

2008-01-01

319

Mixtures of thermostable enzymes show high performance in biomass saccharification.  

PubMed

Optimal enzyme mixtures of six Trichoderma reesei enzymes and five thermostable enzyme components were developed for the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw, alkaline oxidised sugar cane bagasse and steam-exploded bagasse by statistically designed experiments. Preliminary studies to narrow down the optimization parameters showed that a cellobiohydrolase/endoglucanase (CBH/EG) ratio of 4:1 or higher of thermostable enzymes gave the maximal CBH-EG synergy in the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. The composition of optimal enzyme mixtures depended clearly on the substrate and on the enzyme system studied. The optimal enzyme mixture of thermostable enzymes was dominated by Cel7A and required a relatively high amount of xylanase, whereas with T. reesei enzymes, the high proportion of Cel7B appeared to provide the required xylanase activity. The main effect of the pretreatment method was that the required proportion of xylanase was higher and the proportion of Cel7A lower in the optimized mixture for hydrolysis of alkaline oxidised bagasse than steam-exploded bagasse. In prolonged hydrolyses, less Cel7A was generally required in the optimal mixture. Five-component mixtures of thermostable enzymes showed comparable hydrolysis yields to those of commercial enzyme mixtures. PMID:24752938

Kallioinen, Anne; Puranen, Terhi; Siika-aho, Matti

2014-07-01

320

New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo, 400 years ago, to the world of modern astronomy, moving from the visible wavelength domain to explore the millimetre-wave view of the Universe, and leaving light-polluted cities for unique settings in some of the highest and driest places on Earth. "The fascinating topic, the breathtaking ESO astronomical images, the amazing 3D computer animations, and the very clever use of the music, all make this a really inspiring show," says Agnès Acker, President of the APLF. In search of our Cosmic Origins is available in three different formats: fulldome video, classical with video windows, and classical with slides. Fulldome video shows immerse the audience in a true 360-degree projected computer-generated virtual environment. The ALMA planetarium show is currently available in French and English. Several other language versions are in preparation: German, Italian, Spanish and Chilean Spanish, while further languages are planned: Danish, Dutch, Greek, Japanese, Portuguese and Brazilian Portuguese. The show will be available to all planetariums worldwide for a small fee, depending on the type and the size of the planetarium, to cover basic costs. The media are invited to attend, and see firsthand, the official screening during the European Film Festival, between 24 and 26 April 2009 in Espinho, Portugal. For media accreditation, please go to http://iff.multimeios.pt/index.php?option=com_wrapper&Itemid=45 A set of educational materials is also being prepared and will be finished in late April. To learn more about the show, please go to www.cosmicorigins.org

2009-03-01

321

Yeast screens show aromatic residues at the end of the sixth helix anchor transient receptor  

E-print Network

membranes showed that Y458H channels were already active with little stimulus and showed marked flickers between the open and intraburst closed states. They remained responsive to membrane stretch force. TRPY1, the sole TRP homolog in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, forms a stretch- activated

Shorter, James

322

Children with autism show reduced somatosensory response: an MEG study.  

PubMed

The neural underpinnings of sensory processing differences in autism remain poorly understood. This prospective magnetoencephalography (MEG) study investigates whether children with autism show atypical cortical activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in comparison with matched controls. Tactile stimuli were clearly detectable, and painless taps were applied to the distal phalanx of the second (D2) and third (D3) fingers of the right and left hands. Three tactile paradigms were administered: an oddball paradigm (standard taps to D3 at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 0.33 and deviant taps to D2 with ISI ranging from 1.32?s to 1.64?s); a slow-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the deviant taps in the oddball paradigm; and a fast-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the standard taps in the oddball. Study subjects were boys (age 7-11 years) with and without autism disorder. Sensory behavior was quantified using the Sensory Profile questionnaire. Boys with autism exhibited smaller amplitude left hemisphere S1 response to slow and deviant stimuli during the right-hand paradigms. In post-hoc analysis, tactile behavior directly correlated with the amplitude of cortical response. Consequently, the children were re-categorized by degree of parent-report tactile sensitivity. This regrouping created a more robust distinction between the groups with amplitude diminution in the left and right hemispheres and latency prolongation in the right hemisphere in the deviant and slow-rate paradigms for the affected children. This study suggests that children with autism have early differences in somatosensory processing, which likely influence later stages of cortical activity from integration to motor response. PMID:22933354

Marco, Elysa J; Khatibi, Kasra; Hill, Susanna S; Siegel, Bryna; Arroyo, Monica S; Dowling, Anne F; Neuhaus, John M; Sherr, Elliott H; Hinkley, Leighton N B; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

2012-10-01

323

Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SG? promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.  

PubMed

Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SG?, 8SG?' and 8SG?. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SG?' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SG? was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SG? promoter was then fused to the gene encoding ?-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SG??GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SG? promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors. PMID:24503210

Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

2014-03-20

324

What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal  

E-print Network

2 How Gun Shows Work What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal. But other states have enacted more specific definitions as they acted to regulate gun shows themselves or gun sales at gun shows but not elsewhere (Table 2-1). In the parking lot of a gun show in Pharr, Texas

Leistikow, Bruce N.

325

The Object-Oriented Trivia Show (TOOTS) University of Alabama  

E-print Network

The Object-Oriented Trivia Show (TOOTS) Jeff Gray University of Alabama Department of Computer, Languages. Keywords Objects, Game Show. 1. Overview of the OOPSLA Trivia Show OOPSLA (and now SPLASH) has

Gray, Jeffrey G.

326

[Cloning and functional validation of promoter of mo-molybdopterin cofactor sulfurase gene in maize].  

PubMed

To overcome the problems caused by the over-expression of exogenous genes under the control of constitutive promoters, the promoter (ABA3s) sequence of maize (Zea mays) mo-molybdopterin cofactor sulfurase gene (ABA3) was cloned homologously, analyzed for its abiotic stress-responsive elements by the PlantCARE software, and detected for differential expression of the ABA3 gene under the abiotic stresses by real-time quantitative PCR. Then, this promoter was used to construct expression vector to start GUS (?-glucuronidase) gene, and transform maize calli by biolistics. After identification by histochemical staining, the ratio of the GUS activity relative to the luciferase activity (internal control) (GUS/LUC) was measured under the stresses of hypertonic, high salt, low temperature, and the induction of ABA, and used to evaluate the activity of the ABA3s promoter in response to abiotic stresses. The results showed that the ABA3 gene was differentially expressed under the stress of simulative drought, low temperature, high temperature, high salt, and the induction of ABA and ethylene, indicating that the promoter (ABA3s) of this gene is induced by abtiotic stress. The sequence analysis showed that the ABA3s promoter is 777 bp long, and contains abiotic stress-responsive elements ARE, HSE, MBS, TGA and circadian. The transformed calli by the expression vector of the GUS gene under the control of the ABA3s promoter showed positive in GUS detection in response to the abiotic stresses of drought, low temperature, high temperature, high salt, and the induction of ABA and ethylene. The GUS/LUC ratio was six folds higher than the blank control under the hypertonic stress of 8% mannitol. It is concluded that the promoter ABA3s is inducible in response to abiotic stresses, and might be applied to transgenic research of maize for abiotic tolerance after further functional evaluation. PMID:24929517

Gao, Xuehuan; Fu, Fengling; Mu, Wei; Zhou, Shufeng; Zhang, Suzhi; Li, Wanchen

2014-06-01

327

site plan, floor plan, southeast and east elevations, detail showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

site plan, floor plan, southeast and east elevations, detail showing original front entrance, interior detail showing fireplace in elevation - Neiman House, 1930 Providence Road, Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, NC

328

Freedom Alliance Drag Show 2010 Friday April 23, 2010  

E-print Network

Freedom Alliance Drag Show 2010 Friday April 23, 2010 8:00 p.m. UC Ballroom Outside Performer Information Were glad you are considering performing in this years Drag Show! Drag shows have long been a crucial element in queer culture; drag shows are a humorous, yet cathartic experience that explores

Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

329

Freedom Alliance Drag Show 2010 Friday April 23, 2010  

E-print Network

Freedom Alliance Drag Show 2010 Friday April 23, 2010 8:00 p.m. UC Ballroom Student Performer Information Were glad you are considering performing in this years Drag Show! Drag shows have long been a crucial element in queer culture; drag shows are a humorous, yet cathartic experience that explores

Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

330

A Meloidogyne incognita effector is imported into the nucleus and exhibits transcriptional activation activity in?planta.  

PubMed

Root-knot nematodes are sedentary biotrophic endoparasites that maintain a complex interaction with their host plants. Nematode effector proteins are synthesized in the oesophageal glands of nematodes and secreted into plant tissue through a needle-like stylet. Effectors characterized to date have been shown to mediate processes essential for nematode pathogenesis. To gain an insight into their site of action and putative function, the subcellular localization of 13 previously isolated Meloidogyne incognita effectors was determined. Translational fusions were created between effectors and EGFP-GUS (enhanced green fluorescent protein-?-glucuronidase) reporter genes, which were transiently expressed in tobacco leaf cells. The majority of effectors localized to the cytoplasm, with one effector, 7H08, imported into the nuclei of plant cells. Deletion analysis revealed that the nuclear localization of 7H08 was mediated by two novel independent nuclear localization domains. As a result of the nuclear localization of the effector, 7H08 was tested for the ability to activate gene transcription. 7H08 was found to activate the expression of reporter genes in both yeast and plant systems. This is the first report of a plant-parasitic nematode effector with transcriptional activation activity. PMID:24863562

Zhang, Lei; Davies, Laura J; Elling, Axel A

2015-01-01

331

Rare Cancer-Specific Mutations in PIK3CA Show Gain of Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen rare cancer-derived mutants of PIK3CA, the gene coding for the catalytic subunit p110? of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), were examined for their biological and biochemical properties. Fourteen of these mutants show a gain of function: they induce rapamycin-sensitive oncogenic transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts, constitutively activate Akt and TOR-mediated signaling, and show enhanced lipid kinase activity. Mapping of these mutants

Marco Gymnopoulos; Marc-André Elsliger; Peter K. Vogt

2007-01-01

332

An Arabidopsis Ran-binding protein, AtRanBP1c, is a co-activator of Ran GTPase-activating protein and requires the C-terminus for its cytoplasmic localization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ran-binding proteins (RanBPs) are a group of proteins that bind to Ran (Ras-related nuclear small GTP-binding protein), and thus either control the GTP/GDP-bound states of Ran or help couple the Ran GTPase cycle to a cellular process. AtRanBP1c is a Ran-binding protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. that was recently shown to be critically involved in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression [S.-H. Kim et al. (2001) Plant Cell 13:2619-2630]. Here we report that AtRanBP1c inhibits the EDTA-induced release of GTP from Ran and serves as a co-activator of Ran-GTPase-activating protein (RanGAP) in vitro. Transient expression of AtRanBP1c fused to a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter reveals that the protein localizes primarily to the cytosol. Neither the N- nor C-terminus of AtRanBP1c, which flank the Ran-binding domain (RanBD), is necessary for the binding of PsRan1-GTP to the protein, but both are needed for the cytosolic localization of GUS-fused AtRanBP1c. These findings, together with a previous report that AtRanBP1c is critically involved in root growth and development, imply that the promotion of GTP hydrolysis by the Ran/RanGAP/AtRanBP1c complex in the cytoplasm, and the resulting concentration gradient of Ran-GDP to Ran-GTP across the nuclear membrane could be important in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression in root tips of A. thaliana.

Kim, Soo-Hwan; Roux, Stanley J.

2003-01-01

333

46 CFR 502.66 - Order to show cause.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Order to show cause. 502.66 Section 502.66 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND...Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.66 Order to show cause. The Commission may...

2010-10-01

334

Southeast upstairs room of northwest wing showing southeast masonry wall ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Southeast upstairs room of northwest wing showing southeast masonry wall shared with Federal addition. note angled cracks showing original 1 1/2 story gable. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

335

North Pacific and North America: Showing the Changing Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWiFS false color data showing seasonal change in the oceans and on land for North America and the North Pacific. The data is seasonally averaged, and shows fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring, and summer.

Jesse Allen

1998-09-09

336

22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; VIEW SHOWS SECTION OF FISH LADDER NEAR WHERE IT ENTERS THE COLUMBIA RIVER. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

337

Journey to the Stars Educator's Guide: Teaching with the Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an educators guide to accompany the Journey to the Stars planetarium show. The materials include a section, titled Teaching With the Show, containing guiding questions to encourage class discussions about the life cycle of stars.

338

Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

1985-01-01

339

Cost of Diabetes Care Keeps Climbing, Report Shows  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Cost of Diabetes Care Keeps Climbing, Report Shows Increases also seen for prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes ... to more than $322 billion annually, a new report shows. Even greater increases in cost were seen ...

340

Desulfovibrio desulfuricans iron hydrogenase: the structure shows unusual coordination to an active site Fe binuclear center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many microorganisms have the ability to either oxidize molecular hydrogen to generate reducing power or to produce hydrogen in order to remove low-potential electrons. These reactions are catalyzed by two unrelated enzymes: the Ni–Fe hydrogenases and the Fe-only hydrogenases.Results: We report here the structure of the heterodimeric Fe-only hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans – the first for this class of

Yvain Nicolet; Claudine Piras; Pierre Legrand; Claude E Hatchikian; Juan C Fontecilla-Camps

1999-01-01

341

Apoptosis affects integration frequency: Adult stem cells injected in blastocysts show high caspase-3 activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chimeric organisms are commonly generated by injecting stem cells into blastocysts. Embryonic stem cells injected into the blastocoel cavity participate in the further development of the embryo. Adult stem cells have also been used in injection experiments to study their potential plasticity.In this study we focused on the early fate of injected human adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HSCs were

S. Koestenbauer; P. Vanderzwalmen; A. Hammer; L. Schoonjans; S. Danloy; H. Zech; G. Dohr; N. H. Zech

2007-01-01

342

Using Analogy Role-Play Activity in an Undergraduate Biology Classroom to Show Central Dogma Revision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego®…

Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

2014-01-01

343

Neuraminidase Is Essential for Fowl Plague Virus Hemagglutinin to Show Hemagglutinating Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When hemagglutinin (HA) of fowl plague virus (FPV) was expressed in CV-1 cells by a simian virus 40 vector, hemadsorption was barely detectable, although HA was exposed at the cell surface. However, treatment of HA-expressing cells with Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCNA) resulted in extensive hemadsorption. VCNA treatment enhanced the electrophoretic mobility of the HA1 subunit of HA, indicating the removal

Masanobu Ohuchi; Anke Feldmann; Reiko Ohuchi; Hans-Dieter Klenk

1995-01-01

344

Acetyl l-carnitine shows neuroprotective and neurotrophic activity in primary culture of rat embryo motoneurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the role of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) in protecting primary motoneuron cultures exposed to excitotoxic agents or serum-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) deprived. To exclude that ALCAR works as a metabolic source, we compared its effects with those of l-carnitine (L-CAR), that seems to have no neurotrophic effect. A concentration of 10 mM ALCAR, but not L-CAR, significantly reduced the

P Bigini; S Larini; C Pasquali; V Muzio; T Mennini

2002-01-01

345

A UA study shows how an active marihuana ingredient preserves vision in rats with retinosis pigmentosa  

E-print Network

, including ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. "Marijuana derivatives, known-robbing damage to the optic nerve", Nicolás Cuenca added. Dr. Cuenca also states that more research should

Escolano, Francisco

346

Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century  

E-print Network

frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global of global warming on tropical cyclones. climate change | natural hazards Some 90 tropical cyclones develop as the planet warms (e.g., refs. 4, 5). Although global warming increases the thermodynamic po- tential

Rothman, Daniel

347

addition, some functional brain imaging studies show differences in brain activation in frontal regions in dys-  

E-print Network

age 10.9 years) after informed consent had been obtained. Subjects for this study were recruited from disadvantage. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and written informed consent

348

Glyco-and Peptidomimetics from Three-Component Joullie-Ugi Coupling Show Selective Antiviral Activity  

E-print Network

of carbohydrate processing and one on peptide processing. Erythritol 3 and threitol 4 imines, formed from > 98%) was observed for erythritol 6vD.13 Deprotection with TFA proceeded smoothly in 90% for erythritol 8vD and 62% for the 2,3-trans threitol species 9vD. Conditions for ready parallel handling were

Davis, Ben G.

349

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...formed to promote the construction industry. Its membership is...manufacturers of heavy construction machinery many of...In addition, new construction machinery developed for use in the industry is on display...

2013-04-01

350

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...formed to promote the construction industry. Its membership is...manufacturers of heavy construction machinery many of...In addition, new construction machinery developed for use in the industry is on display...

2011-04-01

351

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...formed to promote the construction industry. Its membership is...manufacturers of heavy construction machinery many of...In addition, new construction machinery developed for use in the industry is on display...

2012-04-01

352

Preterm infants show reduced stress behaviors and activity after 5 days of massage therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preterm infants residing in an NICU were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or to a control group. The preterm infants in the massage therapy group received three 15-min massages each day for 5 consecutive days, with the massages consisting of moderate pressure stroking to the head, shoulders, back, arms and legs and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension

Maria Hernandez-Reif; Miguel Diego; Tiffany Field

2007-01-01

353

EGFR-targeted stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticles show enhanced anti-tumor activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, it was shown that a novel 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticle formulation was more effective than gemcitabine hydrochloride in controlling the growth of model mouse or human tumors pre-established in mice. In the present study, the feasibility of targeting the stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticles (GemC18-NPs) into tumor cells that over-express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to more effectively control tumor growth was

Michael A. Sandoval; Brian R. Sloat; Amit Kumar; B. Leticia Rodriguez; Kaoru Kiguchi; John DiGiovanni; Zhengrong Cui

354

Mutant forms of bcr-abl deficient in inducing abi degradation show different leukemogenic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bcr-Abl elicits the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Abl interactor (Abi) proteins, a family of proteins that antagonize the oncogenic potential of Abl. Significantly, expression of the Abi proteins is lost in cell lines and bone marrow cells isolated from patients with aggressive Bcr-Abl-positive leukemias. To determine the role of Abi degradation in Bcr-Abl-induced leukemogenesis, we have mapped the sequences in Bcr-Abl

Z. Dai; P. Kerzic; W. G. Schroeder; I. McNiece

2000-01-01

355

A NEW ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA MUTANT DEFICIENT IN THE EXPRESSION OF OMETHYLTRANSFERASE 1: IMPACT ON LIGNINS AND ON SINAPOYL ESTERI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A promoter-trap screen allowed us to identify an Arabidopsis line expressing GUS in the root vascular tissues. T-DNA border sequencing showed that the line was mutated in the COMT 1 gene (AtOMT1) and therefore deficient in OMT1 activity. In this knockout mutant and relative to the wild type, lignins...

356

Medicine’s Moment of Misrule: The Medical Student Show  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical student shows are a prominent feature of medical student life around the world. Following a traditional vaudeville format of skits and songs, the shows are notorious for their exuberance, bawdiness, and lack of political correctness. Despite their widespread prevalence and sometimes hostile reactions, there has been no previous study of these shows. Based on research of scripts, programs, reviews,

Charles R. R. Hayter

2006-01-01

357

The OOPSLA Trivia Show (TOOTS) University of Alabama at Birmingham  

E-print Network

The OOPSLA Trivia Show (TOOTS) Jeff Gray University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Computer participation. 1. Overview of the OOPSLA Trivia Show OOPSLA has one of the most diverse collections of attendees on topics related to OOPSLA. 2. The OOPSLA Trivia Show Rules The panel will follow the general rules

Gray, Jeffrey G.

358

When Oprah Intervenes: Political Correlates of Daytime Talk Show Viewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the influence of daytime talk shows on opinion formation. Using agenda-setting and cultivation perspectives, it was hypothesized that both exposure to daytime talk shows and the apparent reality of these shows would be positively related to support for government involvement in social issues. In addition to exposure and apparent reality being positively related to levels of support,

Carroll J. Glynn; Michael Huge; Jason B. Reineke; Bruce W. Hardy; James Shanahan

2007-01-01

359

Auxin distribution in Lotus japonicus during root nodule development.  

PubMed

For this work, Lotus japonicus transgenic plants were constructed expressing a fusion reporter gene consisting of the genes beta-glucuronidase (gus) and green fluorescent protein (gfp) under control of the soybean auxin-responsive promoter GH3. These plants expressed GUS and GFP in the vascular bundle of shoots, roots and leafs. Root sections showed that in mature parts of the roots GUS is mainly expressed in phloem and vascular parenchyma of the vascular cylinder. By detecting GUS activity, we describe the auxin distribution pattern in the root of the determinate nodulating legume L. japonicus during the development of nodulation and also after inoculation with purified Nod factors, N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and indoleacetic acid (IAA). Differently than white clover, which forms indeterminate nodules, L. japonicus presented a strong GUS activity at the dividing outer cortical cells during the first nodule cell divisions. This suggests different auxin distribution pattern between the determinate and indeterminate nodulating legumes that may be responsible of the differences in nodule development between these groups. By measuring of the GFP fluorescence expressed 21 days after treatment with Nod factors or bacteria we were able to quantify the differences in GH3 expression levels in single living roots. In order to correlate these data with auxin transport capacity we measured the auxin transport levels by a previously described radioactive method. At 48 h after inoculation with Nod factors, auxin transport showed to be increased in the middle root segment. The results obtained indicate that L. japonicus transformed lines expressing the GFP and GUS reporters under the control of the GH3 promoter are suitable for the study of auxin distribution in this legume. PMID:14682616

Pacios-Bras, Cristina; Schlaman, Helmi R M; Boot, Kees; Admiraal, Pieter; Langerak, Julio Mateos; Stougaard, Jens; Spaink, Herman P

2003-08-01

360

Using lake core data to show human environmental impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed during the workshop, Teaching Climate Change: Insight from Large Lakes, held in June 2012.by Ester Sztein, Board on International Scientific Organizations, National Academy of ...

361

56. View looking east. Detail showing an end of three ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. View looking east. Detail showing an end of three crib side walls, being flown by the derrick. The upper part of the fourth member, marked with an identifying tag, shows evidence of burning. Notice how well the lower members fit together. This view shows that individual timber members were worked, in part, after assembly. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

362

52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch with open port door in radar scanner building 105 showing emanating waveguides from lower switch in vertical run; photograph also shows catwalk to upper scanner switch in upper left side of photograph and structural supports. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

363

Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished aluminum and brass balustrade - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

364

INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HANDHAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HAND-HAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS AND MARBLE. NOTE ALUMINUM LIGHT FIXTURE - Alcoa Research Laboratory, Freeport Road, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

365

25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND KNIFE SWITCHES - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

366

23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING REHABILITATION AND BETTERMENT PROGRAM Photographer: unknown. April 1968 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

367

29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's room, west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

368

10. Detail, northerly spans, west side, showing deterioration; note spalls, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Detail, northerly spans, west side, showing deterioration; note spalls, cracks, and efflorescence; view to southeast. - Fordway Bridge, Spanning Concord River at Pollard Street, Billerica, Middlesex County, MA

369

24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-4407. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

370

View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

371

12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, SOUTH WING, AND ENGINE HOUSE - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

372

View looking south, showing portico of north wing with pavilion ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View looking south, showing portico of north wing with pavilion and engine house in background - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

373

47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required. (a)...

2010-10-01

374

26. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING OIL FILLED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING OIL- FILLED TRANSFORMER POTS - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

375

8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION TANKS. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

376

1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Oil House, 650 feet Southeast of Cliff & Mechanic Streets, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

377

13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

378

6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL RELIEF OF TRANSPORTATION BY AUTOMOBILE - Calvert Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

379

6. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND SAWN REPLACEMENT EYEBROW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND SAWN REPLACEMENT EYEBROW RAFTERS - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

380

New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

381

INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

382

7. Photocopy of photograph (from Broome County Historical Society) showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopy of photograph (from Broome County Historical Society) showing SWIMMERS, PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FACING NORTHEAST - Charles F. Johnson Pool, Charles F. Johnson Park, Johnson City, Broome County, NY

383

8. INTERIOR VIEW OF QUARTERS SHOWING FIREPLACE, NORTHWEST ROOM, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR VIEW OF QUARTERS SHOWING FIREPLACE, NORTHWEST ROOM, AND DOOR INTO SOUTHWEST ROOM - U. S. Lighthouse Reservation, Quarters & Lighthouse, South Manitou Island, Glen Arbor, Leelanau County, MI

384

Showing and Telling: The Difference That Makes a Difference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to clarify an essential difference between the ways in which pictures and words convey meaning. Examines one attempt to differentiate and characterize various types of picture books and concludes by showing how Anthony Browne exploits the distinction between showing and telling to create the atmosphere of uncertainty and mystery in his…

Lewis, David

2001-01-01

385

47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a...application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and...

2012-10-01

386

47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a...application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and...

2011-10-01

387

47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a...application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and...

2014-10-01

388

47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a...application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and...

2010-10-01

389

47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a...application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and...

2013-10-01

390

5. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CLUB MODERNE LOUNGE SHOWING EXAMPLES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CLUB MODERNE LOUNGE SHOWING EXAMPLES OF THE LEATHER COVERED BOOTHS INSTALLED IN 19486. FACADE OF THE CLUB MODERNE, SHOWING THE ORIGINAL CURVED CORNER PROFILE AND TRI-COLOR CARRERE GLASS FACADE. - Anaconda Historic District, Club Moderne, 801 East Park Avenue, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

391

28. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAF IN RAISED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAF IN RAISED POSITION WITH THE EXTREME UPPER PORTION OF THE BASCULE RACK GEAR SHOWING IN THE LOWER RIGHT PORTION OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

392

7. Photocopy of house, circa 1910. It shows small original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopy of house, circa 1910. It shows small original details which have been changed and also shows how little the exterior appearence has been altered. Original photograph at Nebraska State Historical Society. - Chambers-Mayberry House, Northwest corner of Oak Street & Fifth Avenue (moved to Crofton, NE), Niobrara, Knox County, NE

393

TV talk show therapy as a distinct genre of discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using therapeutic conversations from a televised talk show as the source data, this article investigates how people solve emotional problems in an institutional setting within a specific social cultural context. In light of the genre framework and the Systemic Functional Linguistics, the investigation considers the TV talk show therapy under examination a distinct genre. The claim is based on the

Xiaoping Yan

2008-01-01

394

13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX TO END OF EAST DAM. FOREGROUND VIEW SHOWS TRIPLE WALL CONSTRUCTION OF TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING USED IN CRIBBING - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

395

2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST (View is middle of the perimeter showing in MT-88-A-1 above.) - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

396

North and South America: Showing the Changing Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWiFS false color data showing seasonal change in the oceans and on land for the Western Hemisphere. The data is seasonally averaged, and shows the sequence: fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring, summer (for the Northern Hemisphere).

Jesse Allen

1998-09-09

397

Landsat 7 Images Show Scale of Tsunami Damage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA page shows before and after pictures taken by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument of a part of the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The images show that the scale of the tsunami's impact can be seen from space.

NASA

398

2012 Culpeper-Madison-Rappahannock Farm Show Sheep Entry Form  

E-print Network

2012 Culpeper-Madison-Rappahannock Farm Show Sheep Entry Form Name_________________________________ If you do not have registration papers for your sheep (except pending for purebred lambs) they will show Number____________ Number of non sale Sheep______ X $2________ Junior Senior Novice _____ Number

Liskiewicz, Maciej

399

15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, c. 1934. SHOWS PRECIPITATION TANK No. 1 (NOTE LOCKS), ZINC FEEDER WITH MIXING CONE, VACUUM RECEIVER AND PIPING. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

400

15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of Building 461 (9/4/56) showing Building 463 tanks to the right of the photo. Original is on file Mare Island Naval Shipyard-Photography Lab. Photographer unknown. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

401

Anatomy of a Shows the 9 components of  

E-print Network

Anatomy of a Hillslope Shows the 9 components of hillslopes and the dominant transport processes and pathways Handout #12;Anatomy of a Hillslope Dominated by vertical soil formation processes Shows the 9 components of hillslopes and the dominant transport processes and pathways #12;Anatomy of a Hillslope

Venditti, Jeremy G.

402

Enlightening lightning! Producing and directing a multimedia planetarium show  

E-print Network

ENLIGHTENING LIGHTNING! PRODUCING AND DIRECTING A MULTIMEDIA PLANETARIUM SHOW A Thesis by SARAH MARIE FOWLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Visualization Sciences ENLIGHTENING LIGHTNING! PRODUCING AND DIRECTING A MULTIMEDIA PLANETARIUM SHOW A Thesis...

Fowler, Sarah Marie

2005-02-17

403

Attic still life southsoutheast looking northnorthwest. Shows an early toilet, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Attic still life south-southeast looking north-northwest. Shows an early toilet, what is possibly the original front door, and a lead lined reservoir. Also shows the attic framing. - Samuel P. Grindle House, 13 School Street, Castine, Hancock County, ME

404

Game Show Mathematics: Specializing, Conjecturing, Generalizing, and Convincing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the authors' use of three game shows--"Survivor," "The Biggest Loser," and "Deal or No Deal?"--to determine to what degree students engaged in mathematical thinking: specializing, conjecturing, generalizing, and convincing (Burton, 1984). Student responses to the task of creating winning strategies to these shows were…

Lane, Catherine Pullin; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

2012-01-01

405

Phylogeny and palaeoecology of Polyommatus blue butterflies show  

E-print Network

Phylogeny and palaeoecology of Polyommatus blue butterflies show Beringia was a climate of Neotropical Polyommatus blue butterflies, and show that Beringia has served as a biological corridor con- ditions in Beringia acted as a decisive filter in determining which taxa crossed into the New

Childress, Michael J.

406

Survey Shows Blacks Not Concerned Enough about Kidney Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health officials may have an uphill battle in educating Blacks about a disease that's being called a "silent killer," a recent survey shows. Kidney disease is an illness that's become more prevalent, especially in the nation's Black population, but a survey conducted in Jackson, Atlanta, Baltimore and Cleveland shows only 15 percent of those…

Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

2004-01-01

407

World pipeline construction plans show increase into next century  

SciTech Connect

Plans for worldwide pipeline construction into the next century increased in the past year, especially for developing regions of Latin America and Asia-Pacific. Many of the projects involve large capacity, international gas pipeline systems. By contrast, pipeline construction in Canada, The US, and Europe will decline. Those trends and others are revealed in the latest Oil and Gas Journal pipeline construction data, derived from a survey of world pipeline operators, industry sources, and published information. More than 61,000 miles of crude oil, product, and natural gas pipeline are to be built in 1995 and beyond. The paper discusses Europe's markets, North Sea pipelines, expansion of German pipeline, pipelines in the UK, European and African gas, the trans-Mediterranean gas pipeline, Caspian Sea pipeline, Middle East pipelines, Asia-Pacific activity, South American gas lines, pipelines in Colombia, TransCanada line, Gulf of Mexico pipelines, other Gulf activities, and other US activity.

Koen, A.D.; True, W.R.

1995-02-06

408

DYZ1 arrays show sequence variation between the monozygotic males  

PubMed Central

Background Monozygotic twins (MZT) are an important resource for genetical studies in the context of normal and diseased genomes. In the present study we used DYZ1, a satellite fraction present in the form of tandem arrays on the long arm of the human Y chromosome, as a tool to uncover sequence variations between the monozygotic males. Results We detected copy number variation, frequent insertions and deletions within the sequences of DYZ1 arrays amongst all the three sets of twins used in the present study. MZT1b showed loss of 35 bp compared to that in 1a, whereas 2a showed loss of 31 bp compared to that in 2b. Similarly, 3b showed 10 bp insertion compared to that in 3a. MZT1a germline DNA showed loss of 5 bp and 1b blood DNA showed loss of 26 bp compared to that of 1a blood and 1b germline DNA, respectively. Of the 69 restriction sites detected in DYZ1 arrays, MboII, BsrI, TspEI and TaqI enzymes showed frequent loss and or gain amongst all the 3 pairs studied. MZT1 pair showed loss/gain of VspI, BsrDI, AgsI, PleI, TspDTI, TspEI, TfiI and TaqI restriction sites in both blood and germline DNA. All the three sets of MZT showed differences in the number of DYZ1 copies. FISH signals reflected somatic mosaicism of the DYZ1 copies across the cells. Conclusions DYZ1 showed both sequence and copy number variation between the MZT males. Sequence variation was also noticed between germline and blood DNA samples of the same individual as we observed at least in one set of sample. The result suggests that DYZ1 faithfully records all the genetical changes occurring after the twining which may be ascribed to the environmental factors. PMID:24495361

2014-01-01

409

88. EXTERIOR VIEW, SOUTH SIDE, SHOWING 1883 FARM ADDITION (BACKGROUND), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

88. EXTERIOR VIEW, SOUTH SIDE, SHOWING 1883 FARM ADDITION (BACKGROUND), AND BLACKSMITH SHOP ADDITION OF 1905. SMALL STRUCTURE ON RIGHT IS AN OUTHOUSE. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

410

4. SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 2, (HANDBALL COURT ADDITION) SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 2, (HANDBALL COURT ADDITION) SHOWING RELATIONSHIP WITH GARAGE ADDITION OF BUILDING 1. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Helix House, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

411

19. WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH WALL OF GARAGE ADDITION. VIEW SHOWS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH WALL OF GARAGE ADDITION. VIEW SHOWS CONCRETE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION OF ADDITION. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

412

1. GENERAL VIEW OF FACTORY SHOWING ORIGINAL STRUCTURE (MANSARD ROOFED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF FACTORY SHOWING ORIGINAL STRUCTURE (MANSARD ROOFED PORTION AT CENTER), SOUTH ADDITION (LEFT) AND NORTH ADDITION (RIGHT). - Silver Lake Cordage Company, 308 Nevada Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

413

12. POWER PLANT PART OF BUILDING SHOWING RELATION TO ADDITION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. POWER PLANT PART OF BUILDING SHOWING RELATION TO ADDITION AND EQUIPMENT PART OF BUILDING - Boswell Bay White Alice Site, Radio Relay Building, Chugach National Forest, Cordova, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

414

8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES MADE IN CARPENTER'S SHOP Ph: Jack E, Boucher - March 1961 - Joseph Carpenter Silversmith Shop, 71 East Town Street, Norwichtown, New London County, CT

415

Study Shows Men Can Get Oral HPV Infection from Women  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Study Shows Men Can Get Oral HPV Infection From Women Virus ... Sexual Health WEDNESDAY, Nov. 12, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Men are at increased risk for oral human papillomavirus ( ...

416

19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

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21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

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17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 3 SHOWING MODERN ALUMINUMFRAMED SLIDINGGLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 3 SHOWING MODERN ALUMINUM-FRAMED SLIDING-GLASS WINDOWS WITH WOOD SURROUNDS ON SOUTHWEST AND NORTHWEST WALLS. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

419

TOOL CRIB FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING ALUMINUM DOORS, STONE PIER, GYPSUM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TOOL CRIB FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING ALUMINUM DOORS, STONE PIER, GYPSUM BOARD-FACED PARTITION AND ORIGINAL TIMBER STRUCTURE - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stable, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

420

18. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM SHOWING DOOR TO SOUTH BEDROOM AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM SHOWING DOOR TO SOUTH BEDROOM AND ALUMINUM-FRAMED SLIDING GLASS WINDOW ABOVE BATHTUB AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

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24. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 2 SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAMED SLIDINGGLASS WINDOWS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 2 SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAMED SLIDING-GLASS WINDOWS ON NORTH AND EAST WALLS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

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Detail view to show one of the eighteen aluminum torcheres ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view to show one of the eighteen aluminum torcheres that surround the building; the torcheres were designed by C. Paul Jennwein - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

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5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW GLAZING REPLACEMENTS, AND RAILING FOR STAIRS TO BASEMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

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CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING THE REAR LOADING DOCK, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Eglin Air Force Base, Motor Repair Shop, Northwest of Flager Road, Chisk Lane & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

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DETAIL OF NORTHWESTERN CORNER, WEST FACADE, SHOWING WINDOW AND LOADING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF NORTHWESTERN CORNER, WEST FACADE, SHOWING WINDOW AND LOADING DOCK RAMP, LOOKING SOUTH - Eglin Air Force Base, Motor Repair Shop, Northwest of Flager Road, Chisk Lane & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

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INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE BUILDING, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE BUILDING, SHOWING DOORWAYS TO SOUTWESTERN CORNER OFFICE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Eglin Air Force Base, Motor Repair Shop, Northwest of Flager Road, Chisk Lane & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

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4. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 538, SHOWING BASE OF SMOKESTACK. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 538, SHOWING BASE OF SMOKESTACK. VIEW TO EAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Thaw House-Distilled Mustard Drum Disposal, 410 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1640 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

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7. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. SHOWING THREE STORY CONCRETE SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. SHOWING THREE STORY CONCRETE SHOP STRUCTURES DIVIDING HANGAR INTO THREE WORK BAYS. - Loring Air Force Base, Double Cantilever Hangar, East of Arizona Road, west of southern portion of Taxiway J, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

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Interior of west end entry showing double door, vertical image, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of west end entry showing double door, vertical image, view facing northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Prefabricated, Splinterproof Personnel Shelter, Avenue C, near Seventh Street intersection, adjacent to Facility No. 155, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

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PARTIAL ELEVATION OF THE SOUTH SIDE SHOWING THE ORIGINAL DOUBLEHUNG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PARTIAL ELEVATION OF THE SOUTH SIDE SHOWING THE ORIGINAL DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Gymnasium Building, North Waterfront & Pierce Street near Berth S-13, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

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8. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CENTER DOOR ON NORTH ELEVATION SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CENTER DOOR ON NORTH ELEVATION SHOWING FUSELAGE INSERT. - Loring Air Force Base, Double Cantilever Hangar, East of Arizona Road, west of southern portion of Taxiway J, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

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4. WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING STEAM PIPES CROSSING RAILROAD TRACKS AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING STEAM PIPES CROSSING RAILROAD TRACKS AT BASE OF BERM. - Loring Air Force Base, Double Cantilever Hangar, East of Arizona Road, west of southern portion of Taxiway J, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

433

Window detail, showing doublehung and hopper windows, view facing northeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Window detail, showing double-hung and hopper windows, view facing northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 4, Galley, Third Street at intersection of Avenue I, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

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3. EAST ELEVATION, SHOWING RAISED APRON BERM IN FOREGROUND. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EAST ELEVATION, SHOWING RAISED APRON BERM IN FOREGROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Double Cantilever Hangar, East of Arizona Road, west of southern portion of Taxiway J, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

435

20. BASE OF STEAM TURBINE NO. 1 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. BASE OF STEAM TURBINE NO. 1 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING WORTHINGTON CONDENSER IN PLACE. April 14, 1941 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

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76. TURBINE HALL, UNIT 2 SHOWING BOTH TURBINE AND CONDENSER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

76. TURBINE HALL, UNIT 2 SHOWING BOTH TURBINE AND CONDENSER (SEE ALSO, DRAWING No. 12 OF 13) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

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GENERAL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS, SHOWING ORE BIN, LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS, SHOWING ORE BIN, LEFT, CONDENSERS, CENTER, AND CIRCULAR REDWOOD TANK PLATFORMS, RIGHT, LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

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32. VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNIT #3. VACUUM PUMP ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNIT #3. VACUUM PUMP ON LEFT, CONDENSER TURBINE ON RIGHT, JET CONDENSER IN CENTER REAR - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

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10. INTERIOR, SHOWING RECEPTION ROOM IN CENTER SECTION, WITH MAIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. INTERIOR, SHOWING RECEPTION ROOM IN CENTER SECTION, WITH MAIN ENTRANCE AT RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Fort David A. Russell, Red Cross Building, Third Street between Randall Avenue & Tenth Cavalry Avenue, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

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Boiler room, interior view showing south wall common with machine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Boiler room, interior view showing south wall common with machine shop A and the additional bay to the east (left) - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

441

View of double floor boards with mortises cross beams, showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of double floor boards with mortises cross beams, showing spikes and flooring nails (Lower board layer exposed) - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

442

1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

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1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHWEST PORTION AND WING WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHWEST PORTION AND WING WALL OF WASTE WEIR #3 ON THE CANAL SIDE - Erie Canal (Enlarged), Oothout Culvert & Waste Weir, Lock No. 4 vicinity, near Maplewood village, Colonie, Albany County, NY

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32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. WASTE WATER IS TURNED INTO THE BED OF NEW RIVER. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

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3. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTHEAST PORTION OF WASTE WEIR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTHEAST PORTION OF WASTE WEIR #3 ON THE SPILLWAY SIDE - Erie Canal (Enlarged), Oothout Culvert & Waste Weir, Lock No. 4 vicinity, near Maplewood village, Colonie, Albany County, NY

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3. BUILDING 901, EXTERIOR DETAILING ON NORTH SIDE SHOWING CONCRETE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. BUILDING 901, EXTERIOR DETAILING ON NORTH SIDE SHOWING CONCRETE FOUNDATION AND METAL TERMITE SHIELD. - Presidio of San Francisco, Warehouse, West End of Crissy Field, Livingston Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

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8. VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LONGITUDINAL SUPPORTING IBEAMS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LONGITUDINAL SUPPORTING I-BEAMS, CORRUGATED IRON ARCH REINFORCEMENTS, TIE RODS, AND EASTERN POURED CONCRETE ABUTMENT. FACING EAST. - Brevard Bridge, Spanning Westland Run at Ullom Road, Export, Washington County, PA

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Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, looking west. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

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Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, looking southeast. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

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Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later addition), looking north. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

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12. INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER BUILDING, HIGHLINE PUMP PLANT, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER BUILDING, HIGHLINE PUMP PLANT, SHOWING NEW SWITCHES AND METERS, December 3, 1952 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

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8. Close view looking from the east to show cistern ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Close view looking from the east to show cistern and electric meter - Piece sur piece Building (House), On dirt road off of Highway 494, about 1 1/2 miles Northwest of Bermuda, Bermuda, Natchitoches Parish, LA

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5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

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View looking east showing the dam above Nooksack Falls; to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View looking east showing the dam above Nooksack Falls; to the left is the reinforced concrete box culvert carrying water from the headworks to the settling basin. - Nooksack Falls Hydroelectric Plant, Route 542, Glacier, Whatcom County, WA

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12. June 1988 INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER; SHOWING FIREFINDER (FOREGROUND), LIGHTNING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. June 1988 INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST CORNER; SHOWING FIREFINDER (FOREGROUND), LIGHTNING STOOL AND BED (BOTH TO RIGHT OF FIREFINDER) - Suntop Lookout, Forest Road 510, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Greenwater, Pierce County, WA

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Show design and control system for live theater  

E-print Network

Tod Machover's upcoming opera Death and the Powers calls for an unprecedented integration of technology and theater. These uses of technology are at the heart of the show and include a Greek chorus of nine "Operabots"; a ...

Miller, Michael R., M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

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1. DISTANT VIEW OF FRONT FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING AREA OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. DISTANT VIEW OF FRONT FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING AREA OF COUNCIL CHAMBERS, SHOP WITH PORTION OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT AND TRACK FILL AREA IN RIGHT HAND CORNER - Hardin City Water Works, 101 East Fourth Street, Hardin, Big Horn County, MT

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PERSPECTIVE FROM SOUTH SHOWING WEATHERED BOARD AND BATTEN SIDING. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PERSPECTIVE FROM SOUTH SHOWING WEATHERED BOARD AND BATTEN SIDING. NOTE BRIDGE SITS ON ONE CONCRETEFACED ABUTMENT AND ONE STONE PIER. - Beaverkill Bridge, Spanning Beaver Kill, TR 30 (Craigie Claire Road), Roscoe, Sullivan County, NY

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42. View forward on afterdeck, showing steering gear box in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. View forward on afterdeck, showing steering gear box in foreground, aft elevation of cabin beyond; weather canopy overhead is not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

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View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing thirty-acre irrigated field - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Weather Tower, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV