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1

Induction of a tomato anionic peroxidase gene (tap1) by wounding in transgenic tobacco and activation of tap1/GUS and tap2/GUS chimeric gene fusions in transgenic tobacco by wounding and pathogen attack.  

PubMed

The anionic peroxidase genes of tomato, tap1 and tap2, are induced by wounding in tomato fruits and by elicitor treatment in cell suspension cultures. These homologous genes code for anionic peroxidases that are postulated to cause polymerization of the phenolic residues into wall polymers in wound-healing and pathogen-infected tissues. An expression construct containing the entire TAP1 gene with its 5' and 3' flanking sequences was introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. Also, constructs containing the 5' upstream regions of tap1 and tap2 including sequences coding for their respective putative leader peptides fused translationally to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were made and introduced into tobacco. Northern blot analysis of transcripts from wound-healing leaf tissues of transformants containing tap1 showed that the introduced gene was being transcribed in the heterologous host. The induction of tap1 transcripts in the wound-healing transgenic tobacco tissues was observed by 48 h and increased over time period of 84 h. Wounding also led to expression of GUS in tap1/GUS and tap2/GUS transformants and GUS activity was localized to the wound site. Activation of the tap1 and tap2 promoters in wound-healing transgenic tobacco tissues showed a GUS expression profile that correlated with the postulated role for anionic peroxidases in phenolic polymerization in suberizing tissues. Inoculation of tap1/GUS and tap2/GUS transformant leaves with fungal conidia from Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi caused expression of GUS in locally inoculated regions, and GUS expression increased over a period of four days. PMID:7678769

Mohan, R; Bajar, A M; Kolattukudy, P E

1993-01-01

2

Detection of transformed cells in crown gall tumors using the GUS reporter gene and correlation of GUS stained cells with T-DNA gene activity  

SciTech Connect

Crown gall tumors are a mixture of transformed hormone producing cells and normal cells. Until now it has not been possible to directly visualize these cell types in situ. We have constructed strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens that carry the 35S-{beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in either wild type or mutant Ti plasmids. Using histochemical staining for GUS activity, blue (GUS positive) sectors are observed in tumor sections. In order to demonstrate that the blue sectors actually represent cells expressing other T-DNA genes, we have looked for T-DNA gene encoded enzyme activity in the stained and unstained sectors. The blue sectors accumulate octopine (a product of the octopine synthase gene on the T-DNA) while the white (GUS negative) sectors do not. We conclude that the use of the GUS reporter gene provides a sensitive and reliable method for visualizing transformation events in plant tissues. A comparison of the proportion of transformed and nontransformed cells in wild type tumors vs. tumors deficient in auxin or cytokinin encoding genes will be discussed.

Black, R.C. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Media (USA)); Labriola, J.; Binns, A.N. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

1990-05-01

3

Gus Fraenkel Medical Library Guide  

E-print Network

Medical Centre. It provides a library service to the University as a whole and to the School of MedicineGus Fraenkel Medical Library Guide 2014 #12;Gus Fraenkel Medical Library. Last update 17th December.................................................................10 Other Flinders University Libraries.................................12 The Gus Fraenkel Medical

4

Identifying Growth Conditions for Nicotiana benthimiana Resulting in Predictable Gene Expression of Promoter-Gus Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Revoluta (Rev) is a transcription factor that establishes leaf polarity inArabidopsis thaliana. Through previous work in Dr. Barton's Lab, it is known that Revoluta binds to the ZPR3 promoter, thus activating the ZPR3 gene product inArabidopsis thaliana. Using this knowledge, two separate DNA constructs were made, one carrying revgene and in the other, the ZPR3 promoter fussed with the GUS gene. When inoculated in Nicotiana benthimiana (tobacco), the pMDC32 plasmid produces the Rev protein. Rev binds to the ZPR3 promoter thereby activating the transcription of the GUS gene, which can only be expressed in the presence of Rev. When GUS protein comes in contact with X-Gluc it produce the blue stain seen (See Figure 1). In the past, variability has been seen of GUS expression on tobacco therefore we hypothesized that changing the growing conditions and leaf age might improve how well it's expressed.

Sandoval, V.; Barton, K.; Longhurst, A.

2012-12-01

5

Identification and Cloning of gusA, Encoding a New  Glucuronidase from Lactobacillus gasseri ADH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gusA gene, encoding a new b-glucuronidase enzyme, has been cloned from Lactobacillus gasseri ADH. This is the first report of a b-glucuronidase gene cloned from a bacterial source other than Escherichia coli .A plasmid library of L. gasseri chromosomal DNA was screened for complementation of an E. coli gus mutant. Two overlapping clones that restored b-glucuronidase activity in the

W. M. Russell; T. R. Klaenhammer

2001-01-01

6

Tetrahydrobiopterin shows chaperone activity for tyrosine hydroxylase.  

PubMed

Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Primary inherited defects in TH have been associated with l-DOPA responsive and non-responsive dystonia and infantile parkinsonism. In this study, we show that both the cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and the feedback inhibitor and catecholamine product dopamine increase the kinetic stability of human TH isoform 1 in vitro. Activity measurements and synthesis of the enzyme by in vitro transcription-translation revealed a complex regulation by the cofactor including both enzyme inactivation and conformational stabilization. Oral BH(4) supplementation to mice increased TH activity and protein levels in brain extracts, while the Th-mRNA level was not affected. All together our results indicate that the molecular mechanisms for the stabilization are a primary folding-aid effect of BH(4) and a secondary effect by increased synthesis and binding of catecholamine ligands. Our results also establish that orally administered BH(4) crosses the blood-brain barrier and therapeutic regimes based on BH(4) supplementation should thus consider the effect on TH. Furthermore, BH(4) supplementation arises as a putative therapeutic agent in the treatment of brain disorders associated with TH misfolding, such as for the human TH isoform 1 mutation L205P. PMID:18419768

Thöny, Beat; Calvo, Ana C; Scherer, Tanja; Svebak, Randi M; Haavik, Jan; Blau, Nenad; Martinez, Aurora

2008-07-01

7

Use of the Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (gusA) gene as a reporter gene for analyzing promoters in lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

A transcriptional fusion vector, designated pNZ272, based on the promoterless beta-glucuronidase gene (gusA) of Escherichia coli as a reporter gene, has been constructed for lactic acid bacteria. The replicon of pNZ272 was derived from the Lactococcus lactis plasmid pSH71, allowing replication in a wide range of gram-positive bacteria and E. coli. The applicability of pNZ272 and the expression of the gusA gene in L. lactis was demonstrated in shotgun cloning experiments with lactococcal chromosomal and bacteriophage DNA. In addition, three defined lactococcal promoters were inserted in pNZ272: the plasmid-derived lacA promoter, the chromosomal usp45 promoter, and a promoter from bacteriophage phi SK11G. The three resulting plasmids showed beta-glucuronidase activity in a gusA-deficient E. coli strain and in four species of lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. The copy numbers of the gusA-expressing plasmids were similar within a single species of lactic acid bacteria. However, the specific beta-glucuronidase activity and the gusA mRNA levels varied considerably both within a single species and among different species of lactic acid bacteria. The transcriptional start site of all three promoters was determined and found to be identical in the different species. The results of this comparative promoter analysis indicate that the requirements for efficient transcription initiation differ among the lactic acid bacteria studied. PMID:8135517

Platteeuw, C; Simons, G; de Vos, W M

1994-02-01

8

Study on transient expression of gus gene in Chlorelia ellipsoidea (Chlorophyta) by using biolistic particle delivery system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study on the transient expression of GUS gene at different growing stage of Chlorella ellipsoidea using high velocity microprojectiles, the effects of osmosis, the distance between microprojectile and target cell, bombardment times, are reported in this paper. The results showed that C. ellipsoidea in exponential phase has higer level of transient expression and that treatment with osmosis can improve the GUS transient expression notably. The effect of distance or bombardment times was not observed.

Chen, Ying; Li, Wen-Bin; Bai, Qin-Hua; Sun, Yong-Ru

1998-03-01

9

Encounters with Insignificance in Teaching and Learning: Gus Van Sant's "Elephant"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how a curriculum of film becomes organized by the teacher's worries about what film may open up in class. The author focuses on her own worries about showing Gus Van Sant's (2003) film, "Elephant," an elliptical and dreamlike study of the murders in 1999 of twelve students and a teacher at Columbine High School, to a class of…

Sandlos, Karyn

2009-01-01

10

Breaking-off tissue specific activity of the oil palm metallothionein-like gene promoter in T(1) seedlings of tomato exposed to metal ions.  

PubMed

Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins that are involved in cell growth regulation, transportation of metal ions and detoxification of heavy metals. A mesocarp-specific metallothionein-like gene (MT3-A) promoter was isolated from the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq). A vector construct containing the MT3-A promoter fused to the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in the pCAMBIA 1304 vector was produced and used in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato. Histochemical GUS assay of different tissues of transgenic tomato showed that the MT3-A promoter only drove GUS expression in the reproductive tissues and organs, including the anther, fruit and seed coat. Competitive RT-PCR and GUS fluorometric assay showed changes in the level of GUS mRNA and enzyme activity in the transgenic tomato (T(0)). No GUS mRNA was found in roots and leaves of transgenic tomato. In contrast, the leaves of transgenic tomato seedlings (T(1)) produced the highest GUS activity when treated with 150 ?M Cu(2+) compared to the control (without Cu(2+)). However, Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) treatments did not show GUS expression in the leaves of the transgenic tomato seedlings. Interestingly, the results showed a breaking-off tissue-specific activity of the oil palm MT3-A promoter in T(1) seedlings of tomato when subjected to Cu(2+) ions. PMID:23290536

Kamaladini, Hossein; Nor Akmar Abdullah, Siti; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Ismail, Ismanizan Bin; Haddadi, Fatemeh

2013-02-15

11

Characterization of alkaline phosphatase labeled UidA(Gus) probe and its application in testing of transgenic tritordeum.  

PubMed

Hybridization is a very important molecular biology technique to measure the degree of genetic similarity between DNA sequences, and detect the foreign genes in transgenic organisms. To label a DNA or RNA probe plays a key role in hybridization. A method using nonradioactive material alkaline phosphatase to label UidA(Gus) DNA as probe has been studied. On that basis of Renz and our previous work, alkaline phosphatase-labeled DNA was used as a probe to examine the transformation of the foreign UidA(Gus) gene in transgenic tritordeum. Such DNA-enzyme complexes were characterized and examined carefully, the results showed that it was a sensitive, specific, safe and economical probe. For dot hybridization and Southern blot under full-stringency conditions with alkaline phosphatase as the detector and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (BCIP)-Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT) as the substrate, dot hybridization showed that the UidA(Gus) gene was transformed into the target plants and inherited stable, Southern blot showed that at least two copies of UidA(Gus) gene were inserted into one line of our transgenic tritordeum. Histochemical staining with X-Gluc of transgenic tritordeum also certified that the foreign UidA(Gus) DNA were transformed into the transgenic tritordeum. PMID:21153926

Tu, Zhiming; Zhang, Jiangzhou; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

2011-08-01

12

ORIGINAL ARTICLES Schizophrenic Subjects Show Aberrant fMRI Activation  

E-print Network

: Working memory (WM) deficits in schizo- phrenia have been associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to pharmacotherapy (Goldberg and Weinberger 1996). The participation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFCORIGINAL ARTICLES Schizophrenic Subjects Show Aberrant fMRI Activation of Dorsolateral Prefrontal

Manoach, Dara S.

13

The IRIS-GUS Shuttle Borne Upper Stage System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Italian Research Interim Stage - Gyroscopic Upper Stage (IRIS-GUS) upper stage system that will be used to launch NASA's Triana Observatory from the Space Shuttle. Triana is a pathfinder earth science mission being executed on rapid schedule and small budget, therefore the mission's upper stage solution had to be a system that could be fielded quickly at relatively low cost and risk. The building of the IRIS-GUS system wa necessary because NASA lost the capability to launch moderately sized upper stage missions fro the Space Shuttle when the PAM-D system was retired. The IRIS-GUS system restores this capability. The resulting system is a hybrid which mates the existing, flight proven IRIS (Italian Research Interim Stage) airborne support equipment to a new upper stage, the Gyroscopic Upper Stage (GUS) built by the GSFC for Triana. Although a new system, the GUS exploits flight proven hardware and design approaches in most subsystems, in some cases implementing proven design approaches with state-of-the-art electronics. This paper describes the IRIS-GUS upper stage system elements, performance capabilities, and payload interfaces.

Tooley, Craig; Houghton, Martin; Bussolino, Luigi; Connors, Paul; Broudeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

14

High-efficiency Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of heat inducible sHSP18.2-GUS in Nicotiana tabacum.  

PubMed

The chimerical gene, Arabidopsis thaliana sHSP18.2 promoter fused to E. coli gusA gene, was Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformed into Nicotiana tabacum as a heat-regulatable model, and the thermo-inducible expression of GUS activity in N. tabacum transgenic hairy roots was profiled. An activation of A. rhizogenes with acetosyringone (AS) before cocultured with tobacco's leaf disc strongly promoted transgenic hairy roots formation. Transgenic hairy roots formation efficiency of A. rhizogenes precultured with 200 microM AS supplementation was 3.1-fold and 7.5-fold, respectively, compared to the formation efficiency obtained with and without AS supplementation in coculture. Transgenic hairy roots transformed with different AS concentration exhibited a similar pattern of thermo-inducibility after 10 min to 3 h heat treatments detected by GUS expression. The peak of expressed GUS specific activity, 399,530 pmol MUG per mg total protein per min, of the transgenic hairy roots was observed at 48 h after 3 h of 42 degrees C heat treatment, and the expressed GUS specific activity was 7-26 times more than that reported in A. thaliana, tobacco BY-2 cells and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Interference caused by AS supplementation on the growth of transgenic hairy roots, time-course of GUS expression and its expression level were not observed. PMID:16874528

Chen, Shih-Cheng; Liu, Hui-Wen; Lee, Kung-Ta; Yamakawa, Takashi

2007-01-01

15

Human resistin, a proinflammatory cytokine, shows chaperone-like activity  

PubMed Central

Resistin, a cysteine-rich adipocytokine, proposed as a link between obesity and diabetes in mice, was shown as a proinflammatory molecule in humans. We earlier reported that human resistin (hRes), a trimer, was resistant to heat and urea denaturation, existed in an oligomeric polydispersed state, and showed a concentration-dependent conformational change. These properties and an intimate correlation of hRes expression with cellular stress prompted us to investigate hRes as a possible chaperone. Here, we show that recombinant human resistin was able to protect the heat-labile enzymes citrate synthase and Nde1 from thermal aggregation and inactivation and was able to refold and restore their enzymatic activities after heat/guanidinium chloride denaturation. Furthermore, recombinant human resistin could bind misfolded proteins only. Molecular dynamics-based association–dissociation kinetics of hRes subunits pointed to resistin being a molecular chaperone. Bis-ANS, which blocks surface hydrophobicity, abrogated the chaperone activity of hRes, establishing the importance of surface hydrophobicity for chaperone activity. Replacement of Phe49 with Tyr (F49YhRes), a critical residue within the hydrophobic patch of hRes, although it could prevent thermal aggregation of citrate synthase and Nde1, was unable to refold and restore their activities. Treatment of U937 cells with tunicamycin/thapsigargin resulted in reduced hRes secretion and concomitant localization in the endoplasmic reticulum. Escherichia coli transformants expressing hRes could be rescued from thermal stress, pointing to hRes’s chaperone-like function in vivo. HeLa cells transfected with hRes showed protection from thapsigargin-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, hRes, an inflammatory protein, additionally exhibited chaperone-like properties, suggesting a possible link between inflammation and cellular stress. PMID:24282299

Suragani, Madhuri; Aadinarayana, Varma D.; Pinjari, Aleem Basha; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Pandey, Saurabh; Chaudhuri, Tapan K.; Ehtesham, Nasreen Zafar

2013-01-01

16

A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

Tsukamoto, Ikuko, E-mail: tukamoto@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan)] [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kubota, Yasuo [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Tokuda, Masaaki [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Ashino, Hiromi [The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 1-6 Kamikitazawa2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan)] [The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 1-6 Kamikitazawa2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro [Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Sanbonmatsu, Higashikagawa, Kagawa 769-2695 (Japan)] [Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Sanbonmatsu, Higashikagawa, Kagawa 769-2695 (Japan); Konishi, Ryoji [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)

2010-09-03

17

First human treatment with investigational rhGUS enzyme replacement therapy in an advanced stage MPS VII patient.  

PubMed

Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII, Sly syndrome) is a very rare lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme ?-glucuronidase (GUS), which is required for the degradation of three glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate. Progressive accumulation of these GAGs in lysosomes leads to increasing dysfunction in numerous tissues and organs. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been used successfully for other MPS disorders, but there is no approved treatment for MPS VII. Here we describe the first human treatment with recombinant human GUS (rhGUS), an investigational therapy for MPS VII, in a 12-year old boy with advanced stage MPS VII. Despite a tracheostomy, nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure, and oxygen therapy, significant pulmonary restriction and obstruction led to oxygen dependence and end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels in the 60-80mmHg range, eventually approaching respiratory failure (ETCO2 of 100mmHg) and the need for full-time ventilation. Since no additional medical measures could improve his function, we implemented experimental ERT by infusing rhGUS at 2mg/kg over 4h every 2weeks for 24weeks. Safety was evaluated by standard assessments and observance for any infusion associated reactions (IARs). Urinary GAG (uGAG) levels, pulmonary function, oxygen dependence, CO2 levels, cardiac valve function, liver and spleen size, and growth velocity were assessed to evaluate response to therapy. rhGUS infusions were well tolerated. No serious adverse events (SAEs) or IARs were observed. After initiation of rhGUS infusions, the patient's uGAG excretion decreased by more than 50%. Liver and spleen size were reduced within 2weeks of the first infusion and reached normal size by 24weeks. Pulmonary function appeared to improve during the course of treatment based on reduced changes in ETCO2 after off-ventilator challenges and a reduced oxygen requirement. The patient regained the ability to eat orally, gained weight, and his energy and activity levels increased. Over 24weeks, treatment with every-other-week infusions of rhGUS was well tolerated with no SAEs, IARs, or hypersensitivity reactions and was associated with measurable improvement in objective clinical measures and quality of life. PMID:25468648

Fox, Joyce E; Volpe, Linda; Bullaro, Josephine; Kakkis, Emil D; Sly, William S

2015-02-01

18

Ultraviolet Imaging Spectroscopy Shows an Active Saturnian System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutral oxygen in the saturnian system shows variability, and the total number of oxygen atoms peaks at 4 × 1034. Saturn's aurora brightens in response to solar-wind forcing, and the auroral spectrum resembles Jupiter's. Phoebe's surface shows variable water-ice content, and the data indicate it originated in the outer solar system. Saturn's rings also show variable water abundance, with the

Larry W. Esposito; Joshua E. Colwell; Kristopher Larsen; William E. McClintock; A. Ian F. Stewart; Janet Tew Hallett; Donald E. Shemansky; Joseph M. Ajello; Candice J. Hansen; Amanda R. Hendrix; Robert A. West; H. Uwe Keller; Axel Korth; Wayne R. Pryor; Ralf Reulke; Yuk L. Yung

2005-01-01

19

Classroom activity shows how to determine earthquake intensities  

SciTech Connect

When a strong earthquake occurs nearby, children are interested in what happened and why. This fascination can stimulate a variety of classroom activities and encourage discussion about the relationship between the natural forces that affect our world and us. The following is an easy classroom activity that focuses on your students` natural curiosity after an earthquake. It can be adapted for grades 3 through 12.

Dengler, L.

1995-11-01

20

Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insurance loss modeling for earthquakes utilizes available maps of active faulting produced by geoscientists. All such maps are subject to uncertainty, arising from lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history. Field work to undertake geological fault investigations drains human and monetary resources, and this inevitably limits the resolution of fault parameters. Some areas are more accessible than others; some may be of greater social or economic importance than others; some areas may be investigated more rapidly or diligently than others; or funding restrictions may have curtailed the extent of the fault mapping program. In contrast with the aleatory uncertainty associated with the inherent variability in the dynamics of earthquake fault rupture, uncertainty associated with lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history is epistemic. The extent of this epistemic uncertainty may vary substantially from one regional or national fault map to another. However aware the local cartographer may be, this uncertainty is generally not conveyed in detail to the international map user. For example, an area may be left blank for a variety of reasons, ranging from lack of sufficient investigation of a fault to lack of convincing evidence of activity. Epistemic uncertainty in fault parameters is of concern in any probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, not least in insurance earthquake risk applications. A logic-tree framework is appropriate for incorporating epistemic uncertainty. Some insurance contracts cover specific high-value properties or transport infrastructure, and therefore are extremely sensitive to the geometry of active faulting. Alternative Risk Transfer (ART) to the capital markets may also be considered. In order for such insurance or ART contracts to be properly priced, uncertainty should be taken into account. Accordingly, an estimate is needed for the likelihood of surface rupture capable of causing severe damage. Especially where a high deductible is in force, this requires estimation of the epistemic uncertainty on fault geometry and activity. Transport infrastructure insurance is of practical interest in seismic countries. On the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey, there is uncertainty over an unbroken segment between the eastern end of the Dazce Fault and Bolu. This may have ruptured during the 1944 earthquake. Existing hazard maps may simply use a question mark to flag uncertainty. However, a far more informative type of hazard map might express spatial variations in the confidence level associated with a fault map. Through such visual guidance, an insurance risk analyst would be better placed to price earthquake cover, allowing for epistemic uncertainty.

Woo, G.

2005-12-01

21

A Rhizobium selenitireducens protein showing selenite reductase activity.  

PubMed

Biobarriers remove, via precipitation, the metalloid selenite (SeO??²) from groundwater; a process that involves the biological reduction of soluble SeO??² to insoluble elemental red selenium (Se?). The enzymes associated with this reduction process are poorly understood. In Rhizobium selenitireducens at least two enzymes are potentially involved; one, a nitrite reductase reduces SeO??² to Se? but another protein may also be involved which is investigated in this study. Proteins from R. selenitireducens cells were precipitated with ammonium sulfate and run on native electrophoresis gels. When these gels were incubated with NADH and SeO??² a band of precipitated Se? developed signifying the presence of a SeO??² reducing protein. Bands were cut from the gel and analyzed for peptides via LCMSMS. The amino acid sequences associated with the bands indicated the presence of an NADH:flavin oxidoreductase that resembles YP_001326930 from Sinorhizobium medicae. The protein is part of a protein family termed old-yellow-enzymes (OYE) that contain a flavin binding domain. OYE enzymes are often involved in protecting cells from oxidative stress and, due in part to an active site that has a highly accessible binding pocket, are generally active on a wide range of substrates. This report is the first of an OYE enzyme being involved in SeO??² reduction. PMID:24474405

Hunter, W J

2014-03-01

22

Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

1998-01-01

23

Functional Analysis of Plant Promoter rpL34 Using the GUS Marker Gene in New Tr,tnsgene Expression Vector pZD428  

SciTech Connect

Optimization of the transgene expression system is one of the critical steps for the high level production of heterologous proteins in plants, where the promoter is a key component regulating transgene expression. In this study, the activity of the rpL34 promoter was analyzed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) NTI calli. A DNA fragment containing the rpL34 promoter and the reporter gene B-D-glucuronidase (GUS) were cloned into binary vector pZD427 to generate the transgene expression vector pZD428. The insertion was verified by enzyme restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis analyses. The DNA fragment containing the rpL34 promoter and GUS reporter gene was then integrated into the tobacco genomes via Agrobacterium funiefaciens-mediated NT suspension cell transformation. The transformed CaNi were induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) plates containing proper amounts of 2,4-D, cefotoxime, and kanamycin. Two hundred and sixty transformed calli were harvested for GUS activity and protein concentration measurements. GUS activity analyses revealed the specific activity up to 278,358 units per milligram total soluble protein. The GUS activity under the control of the rpL34 promoter is much higher than that under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, a commonly used promoter in plant biology. These results suggest that the rpL34 promoter is one of the most active promoters that can be used for heterologous protein production in calli and suspension cells.

Mauzey-Amato, Jacqueline M. (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Dai, Ziyu (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-11-01

24

Hybrid [FeFe]-Hydrogenases with Modified Active Sites Show Remarkable Residual Enzymatic Activity.  

PubMed

[FeFe]-hydrogenases are to date the only enzymes for which it has been demonstrated that the native inorganic binuclear cofactor of the active site Fe2(adt)(CO)3(CN)2 (adt = azadithiolate = [S-CH2-NH-CH2-S](2-)) can be synthesized on the laboratory bench and subsequently inserted into the unmaturated enzyme to yield fully functional holo-enzyme (Berggren, G. et al. (2013) Nature 499, 66-70; Esselborn, J. et al. (2013) Nat. Chem. Biol. 9, 607-610). In the current study, we exploit this procedure to introduce non-native cofactors into the enzyme. Mimics of the binuclear subcluster with a modified bridging dithiolate ligand (thiodithiolate, N-methylazadithiolate, dimethyl-azadithiolate) and three variants containing only one CN(-) ligand were inserted into the active site of the enzyme. We investigated the activity of these variants for hydrogen oxidation as well as proton reduction and their structural accommodation within the active site was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Interestingly, the monocyanide variant with the azadithiolate bridge showed ?50% of the native enzyme activity. This would suggest that the CN(-) ligands are not essential for catalytic activity, but rather serve to anchor the binuclear subsite inside the protein pocket through hydrogen bonding. The inserted artificial cofactors with a propanedithiolate and an N-methylazadithiolate bridge as well as their monocyanide variants also showed residual activity. However, these activities were less than 1% of the native enzyme. Our findings indicate that even small changes in the dithiolate bridge of the binuclear subsite lead to a rather strong decrease of the catalytic activity. We conclude that both the Brønsted base function and the conformational flexibility of the native azadithiolate amine moiety are essential for the high catalytic activity of the native enzyme. PMID:25633077

Siebel, Judith F; Adamska-Venkatesh, Agnieszka; Weber, Katharina; Rumpel, Sigrun; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang

2015-02-24

25

Development of GUS for control applications at the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

A script-based interpretive shell GUS (General Purpose Data Acquisition for Unix Shell) has been developed for application to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control. The primary design objective of GUS is to provide a mechanism for efficient data flow among modularized objects called Data Access Modules (DAMs). GUS consists of four major components: user interface, kernel, built-in command module, and DAMS. It also incorporates the Unix shell to make use of the existing utility programs for file manipulation and data analysis. At this time, DAMs have been written for device access through EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), data I/O for SDDS (Self-Describing Data Set) files, matrix manipulation, graphics display, digital signal processing, and beam position feedback system control. The modular and object-oriented construction of GUS will facilitate addition of more DAMs with other functions in the future.

Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Borland, M.; Kirchman, J.; Decker, G.; Kim, K.

1994-08-01

26

Growing Up In Scotland Study: GUS Exploring The Experience and Outcomes For Advantaged and Disadvantaged Families   

E-print Network

This report draws on data from the first sweep of the Growing Up in Scotland ( GUS) study. The Sweep 1 Report highlighted the persistence of inequalities between advantaged and disadvantaged families which impact on parents and their children...

Bradshaw, Paul; Martin, Claudia; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

2008-03-12

27

Calligraphy, Poetry, and Paradoxical Power in Wenda Gu’s Neon Calligraphy Series  

E-print Network

Citation: David Cateforis, “Calligraphy, Poetry, and Paradoxical Power in Wenda Gu’s Neon Calligraphy Series,” Word & Image 26, no. 1 (January-March 2010): 1-20. Available at http://hdl.handle.net/1808/5633. Abstract: Many contemporary... known as Gu Wenda, b. 1955), whose lifelong engagement with calligraphy recently climaxed in his Neon Calligraphy Series, six works made between 2004 and 2007 that feature large Chinese characters in Gu’s distinctive writing style, outlined in glowing...

Cateforis, David

2010-01-01

28

Quantitative Analysis of Bacterial Gene Expression by Using the gusA Reporter Gene System  

PubMed Central

An Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 strain containing a plasmid-borne translational cytN-gusA fusion was grown in a continuous culture to quantitatively evaluate the influence of extracellular signals (such as O2) on expression of the cytNOQP operon. The dissolved oxygen concentration was shifted at regular time intervals before the steady state was reached. The measured ?-glucuronidase activity was used to monitor cytN gene expression. However, as the ?-glucuronidase activity in the experimental setup not only depended on altered transcription of the hybrid gene when the signal was varied but was also influenced by cellular accumulation, degradation, and dilution of the hybrid fusion protein, a mathematical method was developed to describe the intrinsic properties of the dynamic bioprocess. After identification and validation of the mathematical model, the apparent specific rate of expression of the fusion, which was independent of the experimental setup, could be deduced from the model and used to quantify gene expression regulated by extracellular environmental signals. In principle, this approach can be generalized to assess the effects of external signals on bacterial gene expression. PMID:11472903

Sun, Jun; Smets, Ilse; Bernaerts, Kristel; Van Impe, Jan; Vanderleyden, Jos; Marchal, Kathleen

2001-01-01

29

Synthesis, activity and characterization of textiles showing self-cleaning activity under daylight irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation, activity and characterization of TiO2 clusters on several of textiles are presented having a self-cleaning effect under daylight irradiation. The textile pretreatment was carried out by RF-plasma, MW-plasma or vacuum-UV irradiation. The textile upper layers are modified in such a way that negatively charged TiO2 chelating groups such as carboxylic groups are introduced by the pretreatment methods used.

T. Yuranova; D. Laub; J. Kiwi

2007-01-01

30

A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza  

SciTech Connect

M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

31

A Seed-GUS-Expression Enhancer-trap Library for Germination Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enhancer-trap lines are used to identify tissue- and stage-specific gene expression. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) enhancer-trap population from the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC), Ohio, USA, has been screened for '-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in germinating see...

32

GUS Gene Expression Driven by A Citrus Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco and 'Valencia' Sweet Orange  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene promoter (CsPP). Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange explants with Agrobacteriu...

33

Stable expression of a bacterial GUS gene in vegetatively propagated transgenic pear lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The stability of a transgene in the genomes of in vitro propagated transgenic pear lines was assessed. A bacterial GUS reporter gene under the control of an Arabidopsis sucrose transporter gene promoter was introduced into pear cultivar ‘Old Home’ through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf-explant transfo...

34

Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis  

E-print Network

, except for small amounts of carbon and oxygen from the vacuum system. The samples were loadedNanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Amin,§ and Richard I. Masel*, Dioxide Materials, 60 Hazelwood Drive, Champaign, Illinois 61820, United States

Kenis, Paul J. A.

35

Cytorhabdovirus phosphoprotein shows RNA silencing suppressor activity in plants, but not in insect cells.  

PubMed

RNA silencing in plants and insects provides an antiviral defense and as a countermeasure most viruses encode RNA silencing suppressors (RSS). For the family Rhabdoviridae, no detailed functional RSS studies have been reported in plant hosts and insect vectors. In agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves we show for the first time for a cytorhabdovirus, lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV), that one of the nucleocapsid core proteins, phosphoprotein (P) has relatively weak local RSS activity and delays systemic silencing of a GFP reporter. Analysis of GFP small RNAs indicated that the P protein did not prevent siRNA accumulation. To explore RSS activity in insects, we used a Flock House virus replicon system in Drosophila S2 cells. In contrast to the plant host, LNYV P protein did not exhibit RSS activity in the insect cells. Taken together our results suggest that P protein may target plant-specific components of RNA silencing post siRNA biogenesis. PMID:25591176

Mann, Krin S; Johnson, Karyn N; Dietzgen, Ralf G

2015-02-01

36

Sterols from Mytilidae Show Anti-Aging and Neuroprotective Effects via Anti-Oxidative Activity  

PubMed Central

For screening anti-aging samples from marine natural products, K6001 yeast strain was employed as a bioassay system. The active mussel extract was separated to give an active sterol fraction (SF). SF was further purified, and four sterol compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined to be cholesterol (CHOL), brassicasterol, crinosterol, and 24-methylenecholesterol. All compounds showed similar anti-aging activity. To understand the action mechanism involved, anti-oxidative experiments, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, and malondialdehyde (MDA) tests were performed on the most abundant compound, CHOL. Results indicated that treatment with CHOL increases the survival rate of yeast under oxidative stress and decreases ROS and MDA levels. In addition, mutations of uth1, skn7, sod1, and sod2, which feature a K6001 background, were employed and the lifespans of the mutations were not affected by CHOL. These results demonstrate that CHOL exerts anti-aging effects via anti-oxidative stress. Based on the connection between neuroprotection and anti-aging, neuroprotective experiments were performed in PC12 cells. Paraquat was used to induce oxidative stress and the results showed that the CHOL and SF protect the PC12 cells from the injury induced by paraquat. In addition, these substance exhibited nerve growth factor (NGF) mimic activities again confirmed their neuroprotective function. PMID:25429428

Sun, Yujuan; Lin, Yanfei; Cao, Xueli; Xiang, Lan; Qi, Jianhua

2014-01-01

37

Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700 ?mol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts. PMID:25577085

Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

2015-05-15

38

Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal membranes. Conclusion A berry specific cDNA clone, Vv-AMP1, was isolated and characterized and shown to encode a plant defensin. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 displayed non-morphogenic antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of fungi, probably altering the membrane permeability of the fungal pathogens. The expression of this peptide is highly regulated in Vitis vinifera, hinting at an important defense role during berry-ripening. PMID:18611251

de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

2008-01-01

39

Eosinophils isolated with two different methods show different characteristics of activation.  

PubMed

Eosinophils can be isolated from a mixed suspension of granulocytes by different procedures. We compared functional responses of human eosinophils purified according to two different principles: (1) an fMLP-induced difference in specific gravity between eosinophils and neutrophils and (2) selective removal of neutrophils by means of immunomagnetic beads coated with CD16 mAb. The results showed that eosinophils isolated with the CD16 beads method have a higher capacity to synthesize platelet activating factor (PAF) after stimulation with serum-treated zymosan (STZ) than eosinophils purified with the fMLP method. Binding of STZ and subsequent activation of the respiratory burst were also increased in CD16-isolated eosinophils. Furthermore, eosinophils isolated with the CD16 beads showed stronger chemotactic responses towards C5a and PAF. The difference in activity of these eosinophil preparations might be explained by a loss of the more active cells during the isolation with the fMLP method: only 30-60% of the eosinophils were recovered with this method, in contrast to a recovery of more than 95% with the CD16 beads method. Indeed, this 'lost' population of eosinophils, subsequently purified with CD16-coated beads, had a higher respiratory burst activity. The alternative explanation, i.e., an enhancement of eosinophil function by the beads method, appeared not to be valid, because repurification of fMLP-isolated eosinophils in the presence of fresh neutrophils and CD16-coated beads did not change the reactivity of the eosinophils. We conclude that the fMLP method leads to selective purification of eosinophils with a resting (or 'unprimed') phenotype. PMID:7836780

Blom, M; Tool, A T; Mul, F P; Knol, E F; Roos, D; Verhoeven, A J

1995-01-27

40

ROSAT observations of V471 Tauri, showing that stellar activity is determined by rotation, not age  

E-print Network

I present pointed ROSAT PSPC observations of the pre-cataclysmic binary V471 Tauri. The hard X-ray emission (>0.4keV) is not eclipsed by the K star, demonstrating conclusively that this component cannot be emitted by the white dwarf. Instead I show that its spectrum and luminosity are consistent with coronal emission from the tidally spun-up K star. The star is more active than other K stars in the Hyades, but equally active as K stars in the Pleiades with the same rotation periods, demonstrating that rotation--and not age--is the key parameter in determining the level of stellar activity. The soft X-ray emission (<0.4keV) is emitted predominately by the white dwarf and is modulated on its spin period. I find that the pulse-profile is stable on timescales of hours and years, supporting the idea that it is caused by opacity of accreted material. The profile itself shows that the magnetic field configuration of the white dwarf is dipolar and that the magnetic axis passes through the centre of the star. There is an absorption feature in the lightcurve of the white dwarf, which occurs at a time when our line-of-sight passes within a stellar radius of the K star. The column density and duration of this feature imply a volume and mass for the absorber which are similiar to those of coronal mass ejections of the Sun.

Peter J. Wheatley

1998-02-20

41

The novel AKT inhibitor afuresertib shows favorable safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity in multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

The PI3K/AKT pathway is constitutively active in hematologic malignancies, providing proliferative and antiapoptotic signals and possibly contributing to drug resistance. We conducted an open-label phase 1 study to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of afuresertib—an oral AKT inhibitor—in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. Seventy-three patients were treated at doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg per day. The MTD was established at 125 mg per day because of 2 dose-limiting toxicities in the 150-mg cohort (liver function test abnormalities). The most frequent adverse events were nausea (35.6%), diarrhea (32.9%), and dyspepsia (24.7%). Maximum plasma concentrations and area under the plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to 24 hours were generally dose proportional at >75-mg doses; the median time to peak plasma concentrations was 1.5 to 2.5 hours post dose, with a half-life of approximately 1.7 days. Three multiple myeloma patients attained partial responses; an additional 3 attained minimal responses. Clinical activity was also observed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, and Hodgkin disease. Single-agent afuresertib showed a favorable safety profile and demonstrated clinical activity against hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00881946. PMID:25075128

Spencer, Andrew; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Harrison, Simon J.; Morris, Shannon R.; Smith, Deborah A.; Brigandi, Richard A.; Gauvin, Jennifer; Kumar, Rakesh; Opalinska, Joanna B.

2014-01-01

42

Bacillus strains isolated from rhizosphere showed plant growth promoting and antagonistic activity against phytopathogens.  

PubMed

Seven bacterial isolates screened from rhizosphere of common bean growing at Uttarakhand Himalaya showed potential plant growth promoting (PGP) and antagonistic activities. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence the isolate BPR7 was identified as Bacillus sp. BPR7. The strain BPR7 produced IAA, siderophore, phytase, organic acid, ACC deaminase, cyanogens, lytic enzymes, oxalate oxidase, and solubilized various sources of organic and inorganic phosphates as well as potassium and zinc. Strain BPR7 strongly inhibited the growth of several phytopathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Colletotricum sp. in vitro. Cell-free culture filtrate of strain BPR7 also caused colony growth inhibition of all test pathogens. PGP and antifungal activities of Bacillus sp. BPR7 suggest that it may be exploited as a potential bioinoculant agent for P. vulgaris. PMID:22677517

Kumar, Pankaj; Dubey, R C; Maheshwari, D K

2012-09-01

43

Specimen block counter-staining for localization of GUS expression in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple counter-staining procedure has been developed for comparative beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression and anatomical localization in transgenic herbaceous arabidopsis and tobacco. This protocol provides good anatomical visualization for monitoring chimeric gene expression at both the organ and tissue levels. It can be used with different histochemical stains and can be extended to the study of woody species. The specimens are paraffin-embedded, the block is trimmed to reveal internal structure, safranin-O staining solution is briefly applied to the surface of the block, then washed off and, after drying, a drop of immersion oil is placed on the stained surface for subsequent photographic work. This gives tissue counter-staining with good structural preservation without loss of GUS staining product; moreover, sample observation is rapid and efficient compared to existing procedures.

Kim, M. K.; Choi, J-W; Jeon, J-H; Franceschi, V. R.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

2002-01-01

44

Tannic Acid Modified Silver Nanoparticles Show Antiviral Activity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection  

PubMed Central

The interaction between silver nanoparticles and herpesviruses is attracting great interest due to their antiviral activity and possibility to use as microbicides for oral and anogenital herpes. In this work, we demonstrate that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles sized 13 nm, 33 nm and 46 nm are capable of reducing HSV-2 infectivity both in vitro and in vivo. The antiviral activity of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles was size-related, required direct interaction and blocked virus attachment, penetration and further spread. All tested tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles reduced both infection and inflammatory reaction in the mouse model of HSV-2 infection when used at infection or for a post-infection treatment. Smaller-sized nanoparticles induced production of cytokines and chemokines important for anti-viral response. The corresponding control buffers with tannic acid showed inferior antiviral effects in vitro and were ineffective in blocking in vivo infection. Our results show that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles are good candidates for microbicides used in treatment of herpesvirus infections. PMID:25117537

Orlowski, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Gniadek, Marianna; Baska, Piotr; Nowakowska, Julita; Sokolowska, Justyna; Nowak, Zuzanna; Donten, Mikolaj; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw; Krzyzowska, Malgorzata

2014-01-01

45

Adolescent earthquake survivors' show increased prefrontal cortex activation to masked earthquake images as adults.  

PubMed

The great Sichuan earthquake in China on May 12, 2008 was a traumatic event to many who live near the earthquake area. However, at present, there are few studies that explore the long-term impact of the adolescent trauma exposure on adults' brain function. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain activation evoked by masked trauma-related stimuli (earthquake versus neutral images) in 14 adults who lived near the epicenter of the great Sichuan earthquake when they were adolescents (trauma-exposed group) and 14 adults who lived farther from the epicenter of the earthquake when they were adolescents (control group). Compared with the control group, the trauma-exposed group showed significant elevation of activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to masked earthquake-related images. In the trauma-exposed group, the right ACC activation was negatively correlated with the frequency of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These findings differ markedly from the long-term effects of trauma exposure in adults. This suggests that trauma exposure during adolescence may have a unique long-term impact on ACC/MPFC function, top-down modulation of trauma-related information, and subsequent symptoms of PTSD. PMID:25486615

Du, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Ganzel, Barbara L; Kim, Pilyoung; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

2015-03-01

46

Use of the GUS gene as a selectable marker for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Rubus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transformation system was established for red raspberry, blackberry and blackberry x raspberry hybrids, utilizing the binary vector system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Leaf discs or internodal stem segments were inoculated with Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 containing the binary vectors PBI121.X, which has the ß-glucuronidase (GUS) marker gene, or Bin 19, which has the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) gene. Regenerants were

Julie Graham; R. J. McNicol; A. Kumar

1990-01-01

47

A maize spermine synthase 1 PEST sequence fused to the GUS reporter protein facilitates proteolytic degradation.  

PubMed

Polyamines are low molecular weight aliphatic compounds involved in various biochemical, cellular and physiological processes in all organisms. In plants, genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis and catabolism are regulated at transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational level. In this research, we focused on the characterization of a PEST sequence (rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine) of the maize spermine synthase 1 (ZmSPMS1). To this aim, 123 bp encoding 40 amino acids of the C-terminal region of the ZmSPMS1 enzyme containing the PEST sequence were fused to the GUS reporter gene. This fusion was evaluated in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines and onion monolayers transient expression system. The ZmSPMS1 PEST sequence leads to specific degradation of the GUS reporter protein. It is suggested that the 26S proteasome may be involved in GUS::PEST fusion degradation in both onion and Arabidopsis. The PEST sequences appear to be present in plant spermine synthases, mainly in monocots. PMID:24642522

Maruri-López, Israel; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída Araceli; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Olivares-Grajales, Juan Elías; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

2014-05-01

48

PEG-mediated expression of GUS and CAT genes in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca  

Microsoft Academic Search

ß-Glucuronidase (GUS) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) were used as reporter proteins in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce). Plasmid DNA enclosing chimeric GUS and CAT constructs, using the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was introduced into Picea glauca protoplasts using polyethylene glycol (PEG). Transient expression was detected 12 to 40 h after PEG-mediated

Sherry M. Wilson; Trevor A. Thorpe; Maurice M. Moloney

1989-01-01

49

Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 ?g/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense system, potentially contributing towards the anti-proliferative effect. There is great potential for the ethyl acetate extract of P. betle leaf as a source of natural antioxidants and to be developed as therapeutics in cancer treatment. PMID:23153283

2012-01-01

50

Vascular-specific expression of GUS and GFP reporter genes in transgenic grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albariño) conferred by the EgCCR promoter of Eucalyptus gunnii.  

PubMed

In the view of the economic importance of grapevine and the increasing threaten represented by vascular diseases, transgenic grapevine with enhanced tolerance could represent an attractive opportunity. Hitherto, constitutive promoters have been used generally to study the effects of transgene expression in grapevine. Given the fact that constitutive gene expression may be harmful to the host plant, affecting plant growth and development, the use of tissue -specific promoters restricting gene expression to tissues of interest and at given developmental stages could be more appropriate. For this purpose, we decided to study in grapevine the activity of the Eucalyptus gunnii CCR promoter that was previously reported to be vascular-preferential. We transformed grapevine with the "Sonication assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation" (SAAT) method and a construct where both GUS and GFP (green fluorescent protein) marker genes were under control of the EgCCR promoter. High GUS and GFP activities were found to be associated with the newly formed vascular tissues in stems, leaves and petioles of transformed grapevine, suggesting a preferential activity of the EgCCR promoter in the vascular tissues of grapevine. These results suggest the tissue-specificity of this promoter from eucalyptus is conserved in grapevine and that it could be used to drive expression of defense genes in order to enhance resistance against vascular pathogens. PMID:21393008

Gago, Jorge; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Gallego, Pedro Pablo

2011-04-01

51

Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

Maswadeh, Hamzah M.; Aljarbou, Ahmad N.; Alorainy, Mohammed S.; Alsharidah, Mansour S.; Khan, Masood A.

2015-01-01

52

The Reverse Transcription Inhibitor Abacavir Shows Anticancer Activity in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Background Transposable Elements (TEs) comprise nearly 45% of the entire genome and are part of sophisticated regulatory network systems that control developmental processes in normal and pathological conditions. The retroviral/retrotransposon gene machinery consists mainly of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs-1) and Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) that code for their own endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT). Interestingly, RT is typically expressed at high levels in cancer cells. Recent studies report that RT inhibition by non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) induces growth arrest and cell differentiation in vitro and antagonizes growth of human tumors in animal model. In the present study we analyze the anticancer activity of Abacavir (ABC), a nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor (NRTI), on PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. Principal Findings ABC significantly reduces cell growth, migration and invasion processes, considerably slows S phase progression, induces senescence and cell death in prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these observations, microarray analysis on PC3 cells shows that ABC induces specific and dose-dependent changes in gene expression, involving multiple cellular pathways. Notably, by quantitative Real-Time PCR we found that LINE-1 ORF1 and ORF2 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by ABC treatment. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the potential of ABC as anticancer agent able to induce antiproliferative activity and trigger senescence in prostate cancer cells. Noteworthy, we show that ABC elicits up-regulation of LINE-1 expression, suggesting the involvement of these elements in the observed cellular modifications. PMID:21151977

Molinari, Agnese; Parisi, Chiara; Bozzuto, Giuseppina; Toccacieli, Laura; Formisano, Giuseppe; De Orsi, Daniela; Paradisi, Silvia; Grober, OlÌ Maria Victoria; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Arcieri, Romano; Vella, Stefano; Gaudi, Simona

2010-01-01

53

A modified HSP70 inhibitor shows broad activity as an anticancer agent  

PubMed Central

The stress-induced heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that plays a key role in refolding misfolded proteins and promoting cell survival following stress. HSP70 is marginally expressed in non-transformed cells, but is greatly overexpressed in tumor cells. Silencing HSP70 is uniformly cytotoxic to tumor but not normal cells; therefore, there has been great interest in the development of HSP70 inhibitors for cancer therapy. Here we report that the HSP70 inhibitor 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) binds to the substrate-binding domain of HSP70, and requires the C-terminal helical ‘lid’ of this protein (amino acids 573-616) in order to bind. Using molecular modeling and in silico docking, we have identified a candidate binding site for PES in this region of HSP70, and we identify point mutants that fail to interact with PES. A preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis has revealed a derivative of PES, 2-(3-chlorophenyl) ethynesulfonamide (PES-Cl), which shows increased cytotoxicity and ability to inhibit autophagy, along with significantly improved ability to extend the life of mice with pre-B cell lymphoma, compared to the parent compound (p=0.015). Interestingly, we also show that these HSP70 inhibitors impair the activity of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in cell-free extracts, and induce G2/M arrest and genomic instability in cancer cells. PES-Cl is thus a promising new anti-cancer compound with several notable mechanisms of action. PMID:23303345

Balaburski, Gregor M.; Leu, Julia I-Ju; Beeharry, Neil; Hayik, Seth; Andrake, Mark D.; Zhang, Gao; Herlyn, Meenhard; Villanueva, Jessie; Dunbrack, Roland L.; Yen, Tim; George, Donna L.; Murphy, Maureen E.

2013-01-01

54

Water Extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus Shows Antihyperprolactinemia Activity via Dopamine D2 Receptor  

PubMed Central

Objective. Fructus Hordei Germinatus is widely used in treating hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) as a kind of Chinese traditional herb in China. In this study, we investigated the anti-hyperPRL activity of water extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus (WEFHG) and mechanism of action. Methods. Effect of WEFHG on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and hypothalamus protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels of hyperPRL rats were investigated. And effect of WEFHG on PRL secretion, D2 receptors, and dopamine transporters (DAT) was studied in MMQ, GH3, and PC12 cells, respectively. Results. WEFHG reduced the secretion of PRL in hyperPRL rats effectively. In MMQ cell, treatment with WEFHG at 1–5?mg/mL significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis. Consistent with a D2-action, WEFHG did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D2 receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D2 receptors and DAT in PC12 cells. In addition, WEFHG reduced the cAMP and PKA levels of hypothalamus in hyperPRL rats significantly. Conclusions. WEFHG showed anti-hyperPRL activity via dopamine D2 receptor, which was related to the second messenger cAMP and PKA. PMID:25254056

Wang, Xiong; Ma, Li; Zhang, En-jing; Zou, Ji-li; Guo, Hao; Peng, Si-wei; Wu, Jin-hu

2014-01-01

55

Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show a stronger vaccine adjuvant activity than traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles  

PubMed Central

Aluminum hydroxide is used as a vaccine adjuvant in various human vaccines. Unfortunately, despite its favorable safety profile, aluminum hydroxide can only weakly or moderately potentiate antigen-specific antibody responses. When dispersed in an aqueous solution, aluminum hydroxide forms particulates of 1–20 µm. There is increasing evidence that nanoparticles around or less than 200 nm as vaccine or antigen carriers have a more potent adjuvant activity than large microparticles. In the present study, we synthesized aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles of 112 nm. Using ovalbumin and Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein as model antigens, we showed that protein antigens adsorbed on the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles induced a stronger antigen-specific antibody response than the same protein antigens adsorbed on the traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles of around 9.3 µm. The potent adjuvant activity of the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles was likely related to their ability to more effectively facilitate the uptake of the antigens adsorbed on them by antigen-presenting cells. Finally, the local inflammation induced by aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles in the injection sites was milder than that induced by microparticles. Simply reducing the particle size of the traditional aluminum hydroxide adjuvant into nanometers represents a novel and effective approach to improve its adjuvanticity. PMID:24188959

Li, Xinran; Aldayel, Abdulaziz M.; Cui, Zhengrong

2013-01-01

56

The Left Occipitotemporal Cortex Does Not Show Preferential Activity for Words  

PubMed Central

Regions in left occipitotemporal (OT) cortex, including the putative visual word form area, are among the most commonly activated in imaging studies of single-word reading. It remains unclear whether this part of the brain is more precisely characterized as specialized for words and/or letters or contains more general-use visual regions having properties useful for processing word stimuli, among others. In Analysis 1, we found no evidence of greater activity in left OT regions for words or letter strings relative to other high–spatial frequency high-contrast stimuli, including line drawings and Amharic strings (which constitute the Ethiopian writing system). In Analysis 2, we further investigated processing characteristics of OT cortex potentially useful in reading. Analysis 2 showed that a specific part of OT cortex 1) is responsive to visual feature complexity, measured by the number of strokes forming groups of letters or Amharic strings and 2) processes learned combinations of characters, such as those in words and pseudowords, as groups but does not do so in consonant and Amharic strings. Together, these results indicate that while regions of left OT cortex are not specialized for words, at least part of OT cortex has properties particularly useful for processing words and letters. PMID:22235035

Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

2012-01-01

57

Neural Activation in the ‘Reward Circuit’ Shows a Nonlinear Response to Facial Attractiveness  

PubMed Central

Positive behavioral responses to attractive faces have led neuroscientists to investigate underlying neural mechanisms in a ‘reward circuit’ that includes brain regions innervated by dopamine pathways. Using male faces ranging from attractive to extremely unattractive, disfigured ones, this study is the first to demonstrate heightened responses to both rewarding and aversive faces in numerous areas of this putative reward circuit. Parametric analyses employing orthogonal linear and nonlinear regressors revealed positive nonlinear effects in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), lateral orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC), striatum (nucleus accumbens (NAC), caudate, putamen), and ventral tegmental area (VTA), in addition to replicating previously documented linear effects in MOFC and LOFC and nonlinear effects in AMY and MOFC. The widespread nonlinear responses are consistent both with single cell recordings in animals showing responses to both rewarding and aversive stimuli and some human fMRI investigations of non-face stimuli. They indicate that the reward circuit does not process face valence with any simple dissociation of function across structures. Perceiver gender modulated some responses to our male faces: women showed stronger linear effects, and men showed stronger nonlinear effects, which may have functional implications. Our discovery of nonlinear responses to attractiveness throughout the reward circuit echoes the history of amygdala research: early work indicated a linear response to threatening stimuli, including faces; later work also revealed a nonlinear response with heightened activation to affectively salient stimuli regardless of valence. The challenge remains to determine how such dual coding influences feelings, like pleasure and pain, and guides goal-related behavioral responses, like approach and avoidance. PMID:20221946

Liang, Xiaoyun; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Zhang, Yi

2010-01-01

58

Overexpression of a rice heme activator protein gene (OsHAP2E) confers resistance to pathogens, salinity and drought, and increases photosynthesis and tiller number.  

PubMed

Heme activator protein (HAP), also known as nuclear factor Y or CCAAT binding factor (HAP/NF-Y/CBF), has important functions in regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. The expression of rice HAP gene (OsHAP2E) was induced by probenazole (PBZ), a chemical inducer of disease resistance. To characterize the gene, the chimeric gene (OsHAP2E::GUS) engineered to carry the structural gene encoding ?-glucuronidase (GUS) driven by the promoter from OsHAP2E was introduced into rice. The transgenic lines of OsHAP2Ein::GUS with the intron showed high GUS activity in the wounds and surrounding tissues. When treated by salicylic acid (SA), isonicotinic acid (INA), abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), the lines showed GUS activity exclusively in vascular tissues and mesophyll cells. This activity was enhanced after inoculation with Magnaporthe oryzae or Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The OsHAP2E expression level was also induced after inoculation of rice with M. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzae and after treatment with SA, INA, ABA and H2 O2, respectively. We further produced transgenic rice overexpressing OsHAP2E. These lines conferred resistance to M. oryzae or X. oryzae pv. oryzae and to salinity and drought. Furthermore, they showed a higher photosynthetic rate and an increased number of tillers. Microarray analysis showed up-regulation of defence-related genes. These results suggest that this gene could contribute to conferring biotic and abiotic resistances and increasing photosynthesis and tiller numbers. PMID:25168932

Alam, Md Mahfuz; Tanaka, Toru; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Kappei; Yaeno, Takashi; Yamaoka, Naoto; Shimomoto, Kota; Takayama, Kotaro; Nishina, Hiroshige; Nishiguchi, Masamichi

2015-01-01

59

A cell penetrating peptide-integrated and enediyne-energized fusion protein shows potent antitumor activity.  

PubMed

Arginine-rich peptides belong to a subclass of cell penetrating peptides that are taken up by living cells and can be detected freely diffusing inside the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. This phenomenon has been attributed to either an endocytotic mode of uptake and a subsequent release from vesicles or a direct membrane penetration. Lidamycin is an antitumor antibiotic, which consists of an active enediyne chromophore (AE) and a noncovalently bound apoprotein (LDP). In the present study, a fusion protein (Arg)(9)-LDP composed of cell penetrating peptide (Arg)(9) and LDP was prepared by DNA recombination, and the enediyne-energized fusion protein (Arg)(9)-LDP-AE was prepared by molecular reconstitution. The data in fixed cells demonstrated that (Arg)(9)-LDP could rapidly enter cells, and the results based on fluorescence activated cell sorting indicated that the major route for (Arg)(9)-mediated cellular uptake of protein molecules was endocytosis. (Arg)(9)-LDP-AE demonstrated more potent cytotoxicity against different carcinoma cell lines than lidamycin in vitro. In the mouse hepatoma 22 model, (Arg)(9)-LDP-AE (0.3mg/kg) suppressed the tumor growth by 89.2%, whereas lidamycin (0.05 mg/kg) by 74.6%. Furthermore, in the glioma U87 xenograft model in nude mice, (Arg)(9)-LDP-AE at 0.2mg/kg suppressed tumor growth by 88.8%, compared with that of lidamycin by 62.9% at 0.05 mg/kg. No obvious toxic effects were observed in all groups during treatments. The results showed that energized fusion protein (Arg)(9)-LDP-AE was more effective than lidamycin and would be a promising candidate for glioma therapy. In addition, this approach to manufacturing fusion proteins might serve as a technology platform for the development of new cell penetrating peptides-based drugs. PMID:22982402

Ru, Qin; Shang, Bo-Yang; Miao, Qing-Fang; Li, Liang; Wu, Shu-Ying; Gao, Rui-Juan; Zhen, Yong-Su

2012-11-20

60

Total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir shows anti-angiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Total alkaloids is an active ingredient of the natural plant Rubus alceifolius Poir, commonly used for the treatment of various cancers. Antitumor effects may be mediated through anti-angiogenic mechanisms. As such, the goal of the present study was to investigate and evaluate the effect of total alkaloids in Rubus alceifolius Poir (TARAP) on tumor angiogenesis and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of TARAP action in vivo and in vitro. A chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used to assess angiogenesis in vivo. An MTT assay was performed to determine the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with and without treatment. Cell cycle progression of HUVECs was examined by FACS analysis with propidium iodide staining. HUVEC migration was determined using a scratch wound method. Tube formation of HUVECs was assessed with an ECMatrix gel system, and mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HUVECs and HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were examined by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Our results showed that TARAP inhibited angiogenesis in the CAM model in vivo and inhibited HUVEC proliferation via blocking cell cycle G1 to S progression in a dose- and time-dependent manners in vitro. Moreover, TARAP inhibited HUVEC migration and tube formation and downregulated mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HepG2 cells and HUVECs. Our findings suggest that the anti-angiogenic activity of TARAP may partly contribute to its antitumor properties and may be valuable for the treatment of diseases involving pathologic angiogenesis such as cancer. PMID:25148840

Zhao, Jinyan; Lin, Wei; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Cao, Zhiyun; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

2014-11-01

61

A nanoparticle depot formulation of 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine shows a strong antitumor activity  

PubMed Central

Objectives Depot formulation as a carrier for cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs is not well studied. The objective of the present study is to test the feasibility of using a subcutaneous depot formulation to administer a cytotoxic anticancer drug for systemic therapy. Methods A fatty acid amide prodrug of the nucleoside analog gemcitabine (4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine (GemC18)) was incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles or microspheres. A GemC18 solution was used as a control. The antitumor activities were evaluated after subcutaneous injection of the different formulations in C57BL/6 mice with pre-established model tumors. The clearance of GemC18 from the injection site was determined by measuring the percentage of GemC18 remaining at the injection site at different time after the injection. Key findings The depot formulation based on the GemC18-loaded PLGA nanoparticles showed the strongest antitumor, likely due to the proper ‘release’ of GemC18 from the injection site. Conclusions It is feasible to dose cytotoxic anticancer drugs as a nanoparticle-based depot formulation, especially when combined with an advanced prodrug strategy. PMID:23278691

Zhu, Saijie; Li, Xinran; Lansakara-P, Dharmika S.P.; Kumar, Amit; Cui, Zhengrong

2012-01-01

62

Using analogy role-play activity in an undergraduate biology classroom to show central dogma revision.  

PubMed

For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego® blocks (Lego System A/S, Denmark). Students were studying in the course of mathematics, physics, or chemistry, so biology was not among their usual studies. In this exercise, students perform the central dogma role-play and respectively act out nuclear matrix proteins, a transcription factor, an RNA polymerase II, an mRNA transport protein, nuclear pore proteins, a large ribosomal subunit, a small ribosomal subunit, and several amino-acyl tRNA synthetases. Questionnaire results obtained after the activity show that this central dogma role-play analogy holds student interest in the practical molecular biological processes of transcription and translation. PMID:24898113

Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

2014-01-01

63

Mice lacking brain-type creatine kinase activity show defective thermoregulation  

PubMed Central

The cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase and mitochondrial ubiquitous creatine kinase (CK-B and UbCKmit) are expressed during the prepubescent and adult period of mammalian life. These creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are present in neural cell types throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in smooth muscle containing tissues, where they have an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report on the coupling of CK activity to body temperature rhythm and adaptive thermoregulation in mice. With both brain-type CK isoforms being absent, the body temperature reproducibly drops ~1.0°C below normal during every morning (inactive) period in the daily cycle. Facultative non-shivering thermogenesis is also impaired, since CK??/?? mice develop severe hypothermia during 24 h cold exposure. A relationship with fat metabolism was suggested because comparison of CK??/?? mice with wildtype controls revealed decreased weight gain associated with less white and brown fat accumulation and smaller brown adipocytes. Also, circulating levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin are reduced. Extensive physiological testing and uncoupling protein1 analysis showed, however, that the thermogenic problems are not due to abnormal responsiveness of brown adipocytes, since noradrenaline infusion produced a normal increase of body temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cyclic drop in morning temperature is also not related to altered rhythmicity with reduced locomotion, diminished food intake or increased torpor sensitivity. Although several integral functions appear altered when CK is absent in the brain, combined findings point into the direction of inefficient neuronal transmission as the dominant factor in the thermoregulatory defect. PMID:19419668

Streijger, Femke; Pluk, Helma; Oerlemans, Frank; Beckers, Gaby; Bianco, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Wieringa, Bé; Van der Zee, Catharina E.E.M.

2010-01-01

64

NASA's Fermi Shows How Active Galaxies Can Be - Duration: 2:02.  

NASA Video Gallery

Active galaxies called blazars make up the largest class of objects detected by Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT). Massive black holes in the hearts of these galaxies fire particle jets in our dir...

65

Fluorescence-activated cell sorting-derived clones of Babesia bigemina show karyotype polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of the fluorescence-activated cell sorter proved to be an accurate and highly efficient means for cloningBabesia parasites. These qualities were examined by separating a mixed population ofBabesia-infected bovine erythrocytes composed of two isolates with different karyotypes. Direct evidence of polymorphism was detected during comparison of the resultant clones.

D. Mark Estes; Craig W. Bailey; Louise Barnett; David Lafrenz; Heidi M. Brandt; James B. Jensen; Gary K. Allen; C. Andrew Carson

1994-01-01

66

Fluorescence-activated cell sorting-derived clones of Babesia bigemina show karyotype polymorphism.  

PubMed

Use of the fluorescence-activated cell sorter proved to be an accurate and highly efficient means for cloning Babesia parasites. These qualities were examined by separating a mixed population of Babesia-infected bovine erythrocytes composed of two isolates with different karyotypes. Direct evidence of polymorphism was detected during comparison of the resultant clones. PMID:8202447

Estes, D M; Bailey, C W; Barnett, L; Lafrenz, D; Brandt, H M; Jensen, J B; Allen, G K; Carson, C A

1994-01-01

67

Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

2014-01-01

68

Human area MT+ shows load-dependent activation during working memory maintenance with continuously morphing stimulation  

PubMed Central

Background Initially, human area MT+ was considered a visual area solely processing motion information but further research has shown that it is also involved in various different cognitive operations, such as working memory tasks requiring motion-related information to be maintained or cognitive tasks with implied or expected motion. In the present fMRI study in humans, we focused on MT+ modulation during working memory maintenance using a dynamic shape-tracking working memory task with no motion-related working memory content. Working memory load was systematically varied using complex and simple stimulus material and parametrically increasing retention periods. Activation patterns for the difference between retention of complex and simple memorized stimuli were examined in order to preclude that the reported effects are caused by differences in retrieval. Results Conjunction analysis over all delay durations for the maintenance of complex versus simple stimuli demonstrated a wide-spread activation pattern. Percent signal change (PSC) in area MT+ revealed a pattern with higher values for the maintenance of complex shapes compared to the retention of a simple circle and with higher values for increasing delay durations. Conclusions The present data extend previous knowledge by demonstrating that visual area MT+ presents a brain activity pattern usually found in brain regions that are actively involved in working memory maintenance. PMID:25015103

2014-01-01

69

Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Human Stratum Corneum Shows Seasonal Variation with an Age-Dependent Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stratum corneum, as the body's principal barrier to the environment, is continuously exposed to environmental sources of reactive oxygen species like ultraviolet light, ozone, and pollution. Reactive oxygen species are believed to be involved in cancer, aging, and inflammatory skin disorders. We have developed a method to measure catalase and superoxide dismutase activity on tape strippings from the human

Lieveke Hellemans; Hugo Corstjens; Ann Neven; Lieve Declercq; Daniel Maes

2003-01-01

70

PLANT CRUDE EXTRACTS COULD BE THE SOLUTION: EXTRACTS SHOWING IN VIVO ANTITUMORIGENIC ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of:

AMARA AA; EL-MASRY MH; BOGDADY HH

71

Gargantulide A, a Complex 52-Membered Macrolactone Showing Antibacterial Activity from Streptomyces sp.  

PubMed

Gargantulide A (1), an extremely complex 52-membered macrolactone, was isolated from Streptomyces sp. A42983 and displayed moderate activity against MRSA. The planar structure of 1 was determined using 2D NMR, and its stereochemistry was partially established on the basis of NOESY correlations, J-based configuration analysis, and Kishi's universal NMR database. PMID:25723256

Rho, Jung-Rae; Subramaniam, Gurusamy; Choi, Hyukjae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Ng, Sok Peng; Yoganathan, K; Ng, Siewbee; Buss, Antony D; Butler, Mark S; Gerwick, William H

2015-03-20

72

Intervention to increase physical activity in irritable bowel syndrome shows long-term positive effects  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the long-term effects of physical activity on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and on quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. METHODS: Seventy-six patients from a previous randomized controlled interventional study on increased physical activity in IBS were asked to participate in this long-term follow-up study. The included patients attended one visit in which they filled out questionnaires and they underwent a submaximal cycle ergometer test. The primary end point was the change in the IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) at baseline, i.e., before the intervention and at follow-up. The secondary endpoints were changes in quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. RESULTS: A total of 39 [32 women, median age 45 (28-61) years] patients were included in this follow-up. Median follow-up time was 5.2 (range: 3.8-6.2) years. The IBS symptoms were improved compared with baseline [IBS-SSS: 276 (169-360) vs 218 (82-328), P = 0.001]. This was also true for the majority of the dimensions of psychological symptoms such as disease specific quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. The reported time of physical activity during the week before the visit had increased from 3.2 (0.0-10.0) h at baseline to 5.2 (0.0-15.0) h at follow-up, P = 0.019. The most common activities reported were walking, aerobics and cycling. There was no significant difference in the oxygen uptake 31.8 (19.7-45.8) mL per min per kg at baseline vs 34.6 (19.0-54.6) mL/min per kg at follow-up. CONCLUSION: An intervention to increase physical activity has positive long-term effects on IBS symptoms and psychological symptoms. PMID:25593485

Johannesson, Elisabet; Ringström, Gisela; Abrahamsson, Hasse; Sadik, Riadh

2015-01-01

73

Cerato-platanin shows expansin-like activity on cellulosic materials.  

PubMed

Cerato-platanin (CP) is a non-catalytic protein with a double ??-barrel fold located in the cell wall of the phytopathogenic fungus Ceratocystis platani. CP is released during growth and induces defence-related responses in plants. CP is also the first member of the "cerato-platanin family" (CPF) (Pfam PF07249). In the CPF, the molecular mechanism of action on plants and above all the biological role in fungal life are little-known aspects. However, an expansin-like function has recently been suggested concerning CP. Expansin-like proteins have the ability to act non-hydrolytically on cellulose. In the present work, the expansin-like activity of CP and Pop1, a CP family member, was investigated. Like expansins, CP and Pop1 were able to weaken filter paper in a concentration-dependent manner and without the production of reducing sugars. A metal-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenase-like activity was excluded. The optimum of activity was pH5.0, 38 °C. CP was also able to cause fragmentation of the crystalline cellulose Avicel and the breakage and defibration of cotton fibres. However, the interaction did not involve a stable bond with the substrates and CP did not significantly enhance the hydrolytic activity of cellulase. On the other hand, CP and Pop1 bound quickly to chitin. We consider CP as a novel one-domain expansin-like protein. We propose a structural role for CP in the fungal cell wall due to the ability to bind chitin, and hypothesize a functional role in the interaction of the fungus with the plant for the weakening activity shown on cellulose. PMID:23512479

Baccelli, Ivan; Luti, Simone; Bernardi, Rodolfo; Scala, Aniello; Pazzagli, Luigia

2014-01-01

74

Keratinolytic proteases of Bacillus species isolated from the Amazon basin showing remarkable de-hairing activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three keratinolytic Bacillus spp. isolated from the Brazilian Amazon basin were characterized. The strains P6, P7 and P11 were identified based on morphological\\u000a and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences. P6, P7 and P11 sequences shared more than 99% similarity with B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. velesensis. The keratinases produced by these bacteria were active on azokeratin and degradation

Janice Luhering Giongo; Françoise S. Lucas; Franciani Casarin; Philipp Heeb; Adriano Brandelli

2007-01-01

75

MK-801, memantine and amantadine show neuroprotective activity in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activation of glutamate receptors by endogenous glutamate has been implicated in the processes that underlie cell loss associated with ischemia and trauma and in the development of some neurodegenerative diseases. The antagonism of NMDA-sensitive glutamate receptors may therefore have therapeutic applications. The present study compared the side effects and neuroprotective potency of 1-aminoadamantane hydrochloride (amantadine), 1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane hydrochloride (memantine), and

Gary L. Wenk; Wojciech Danysz; Sherri L. Mobley

1995-01-01

76

Long-period accelerometer monitoring shows the role of physical activity in overweight and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT:Physical activity (PA) plays an important role in obesity. A new accelerometer has been developed to assess total energy expenditure as well as PA.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association of PA with overweight and obesity in Japanese men and women, a large cross-sectional study was performed using a single-axis accelerometer.DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:Population-based cross-sectional study of Japanese 18–84 y of age. Height,

M Yoshioka; M Ayabe; T Yahiro; H Higuchi; Y Higaki; J St-Amand; H Miyazaki; Y Yoshitake; M Shindo; H Tanaka

2005-01-01

77

Characterization of putative capsaicin synthase promoter activity.  

PubMed

Capsaicin is a very important secondary metabolite that is unique to Capsicum. Capsaicin biosynthesis is regulated developmentally and environmentally in the placenta of hot pepper. To investigate regulation of capsaicin biosynthesis, the promoter (1,537 bp) of pepper capsaicin synthase (CS) was fused to GUS and introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens to produce CSPRO::GUS transgenic plants. The CS was specifically expressed in the placenta tissue of immature green fruit. However, the transgenic Arabidopsis showed ectopic GUS expressions in the leaves, flowers and roots, but not in the stems. The CSPRO activity was relatively high under light conditions and was induced by both heat shock and wounding, as CS transcripts were increased by wounding. Exogenous capsaicin caused strong suppression of the CSPRO activity in transgenic Arabidopsis, as demonstrated by suppression of CS expression in the placenta after capsaicin treatment. Furthermore, the differential expression levels of Kas, Pal and pAmt, which are associated with the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway, were also suppressed in the placenta by capsaicin treatment. These results support that capsaicin, a feedback inhibitor, plays a pivotal role in regulating gene expression which is involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids. PMID:19809800

Kim, June-Sik; Park, Minkyu; Lee, Dong Ju; Kim, Byung-Dong

2009-10-31

78

KefF, the regulatory subunit of the potassium efflux system KefC, shows quinone oxidoreductase activity.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli and many other Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria protect themselves from the toxic effects of electrophilic compounds by using a potassium efflux system (Kef). Potassium efflux is coupled to the influx of protons, which lowers the internal pH and results in immediate protection. The activity of the Kef system is subject to complex regulation by glutathione and its S conjugates. Full activation of KefC requires a soluble ancillary protein, KefF. This protein has structural similarities to oxidoreductases, including human quinone reductases 1 and 2. Here, we show that KefF has enzymatic activity as an oxidoreductase, in addition to its role as the KefC activator. It accepts NADH and NADPH as electron donors and quinones and ferricyanide (in addition to other compounds) as acceptors. However, typical electrophilic activators of the Kef system, e.g., N-ethyl maleimide, are not substrates. If the enzymatic activity is disrupted by site-directed mutagenesis while retaining structural integrity, KefF is still able to activate the Kef system, showing that the role as an activator is independent of the enzyme activity. Potassium efflux assays show that electrophilic quinones are able to activate the Kef system by forming S conjugates with glutathione. Therefore, it appears that the enzymatic activity of KefF diminishes the redox toxicity of quinones, in parallel with the protection afforded by activation of the Kef system. PMID:21742892

Lyngberg, Lisbeth; Healy, Jessica; Bartlett, Wendy; Miller, Samantha; Conway, Stuart J; Booth, Ian R; Rasmussen, Tim

2011-09-01

79

AT1-receptor heterodimers show enhanced G-protein activation and altered receptor sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vasopressor angiotensin II regulates vascular contractility and blood pressure through binding to type 1 angiotensin II receptors (AT1; refs 1, 2). Bradykinin, a vasodepressor, is a functional antagonist of angiotensin II (ref. 3). The two hormone systems are interconnected by the angiotensin-converting enzyme, which releases angiotensin II from its precursor and inactivates the vasodepressor bradykinin. Here we show that

Said AbdAlla; Heinz Lother; Ursula Quitterer

2000-01-01

80

LDL from obese patients with the metabolic syndrome show increased lipid peroxidation and activate platelets  

PubMed Central

Aims/Hypothesis This study was aimed at assessing oxidative stress in LDL from obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) compared with LDL from type 2 diabetic patients or control volunteers, and determining their effects on platelets. Methods The profiles of lipids, fatty acids and fatty acid oxidation products were determined in LDL isolated from plasma of MetS patients, type 2 diabetic patients and volunteers (n=10 per group). The effects of LDL isolated from these participants on platelet arachidonic acid signaling cascade and aggregation were investigated. Results Compared with LDL from control volunteers, LDL from obese MetS and type 2 diabetic patients contained lower cholesteryl esters, higher triacylglycerols and lower ethanolamine plasmalogens levels. Proportions of linoleic acid were decreased in phosphatidylcholine and cholesteryl esters in patients’ LDL. Among the markers of lipid peroxidation, oxidation products of linoleic acid (hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids) and malondialdehyde were increased by 59% and 2-fold, respectively in LDL from MetS patients and to the same extent in LDL from type 2 diabetic patients. LDL from MetS patients were as potent as LDL from type 2 diabetic patients in activating platelet arachidonic acid signaling cascade through increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and cytosolic phospholipase A2, and increased thromboxane B2 formation. LDL from patients with MetS and type 2 diabetes potentiated 3-fold and 3.5-fold respectively platelet aggregation whereas control LDL had no activating effects on platelets. Conclusions/interpretation MetS in obese patients, without or with diabetes, is associated with increased oxidative stress in LDL, which trigger platelet activation. The protocol is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00932087. PMID:21847583

Colas, Romain; Sassolas, Agnès; Guichardant, Michel; Cugnet-Anceau, Christine; Moret, Myriam; Moulin, Philippe; Lagarde, Michel; Calzada, Catherine

2011-01-01

81

New targeted therapy for advanced prostate cancer shows anti-tumor activity in clinical trials  

Cancer.gov

At the 24th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Dublin, Ireland, researchers from a multi-center study reported that a new drug that specifically targets a protein found on the surface of prostate cancer cells has performed well in a phase I clinical trial, and a phase II trial has started. The drug reduced levels of circulating tumor cells and levels of prostate specific antigen, a marker for tumor activity, in patients who had already failed previous chemotherapy and hormone treatments.

82

Heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons show estrogenic activity upon metabolization in a recombinant transactivation assay.  

PubMed

Heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hetero-PAHs) are increasingly studied at contaminated sites; especially at former industrial facilities where coal tar-oil was handled, e.g., wood treatment plants, high concentrations of hetero-PAHs are frequently detected in groundwater plumes. In previous studies, fractions of groundwater with high estrogenic activity contained hetero-PAHs and their hydroxylated metabolites. To evaluate this preliminary evidence, selected hetero-PAHs were screened for their estrogenic activity in lyticase yeast estrogen screen (LYES) and ER CALUX. All tested substances were inactive in the LYES. Hetero-PAHs such as acridine, xanthene, indole, 2-methylbenzofuran, 2,3-dimethylbenzofuran, dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene, quinoline, and 6-methylquinoline were positive in the ER CALUX, with estradiol equivalence factors (EEFs) from 2.85 × 10(-7) to 3.18 × 10(-5). The EEF values of these substances were comparable to those of other xenoestrogens (e.g., alkylphenols or bisphenol A) that are sometimes found in surface water. Chemical analyses revealed that T47Dluc cells could metabolize most of the substances. Among the metabolites (tentatively) identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were hydroxides and their keto tautomers, sulfates, sulfoxides, and N-oxides. Because of their high concentrations measured in groundwater, we conclude that hetero-PAHs and metabolites may be a potential risk and should be the subject of further research. PMID:24724806

Brinkmann, Markus; Maletz, Sibylle; Krauss, Martin; Bluhm, Kerstin; Schiwy, Sabrina; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Tiehm, Andreas; Brack, Werner; Hollert, Henner

2014-05-20

83

X-ray microtomography shows pore structure and tortuosity in alkali-activated binders  

SciTech Connect

Durability of alkali-activated binders is of vital importance in their commercial application, and depends strongly on microstructure and pore network characteristics. X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) offers, for the first time, direct insight into microstructural and pore structure characteristics in three dimensions. Here, {mu}CT is performed on a set of sodium metasilicate-activated fly ash/slag blends, using a synchrotron beamline instrument. Segmentation of the samples into pore and solid regions is then conducted, and pore tortuosity is calculated by a random walker method. Segmented porosity and diffusion tortuosity are correlated, and vary as a function of slag content (slag addition reduces porosity and increases tortuosity), and sample age (extended curing gives lower porosity and higher tortuosity). This is particularly notable for samples with {>=} 50% slag content, where a space-filling calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate gel provides porosity reductions which are not observed for the sodium aluminosilicate ('geopolymer') gels which do not chemically bind water of hydration.

Provis, John L., E-mail: jprovis@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Myers, Rupert J.; White, Claire E. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rose, Volker [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave, Argonne IL 60439 (United States); Deventer, Jannie S.J. van [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 210, Somerton, Victoria 3062 (Australia)

2012-06-15

84

N-Chlorotaurine shows high in vitro activity against promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania species.  

PubMed

Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are the causative agents of life-threatening visceral as well as cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. First-line drugs are antimonials, but toxicity and resistance in some endemic areas cause serious problems. In the current study, the antileishmanial activity of the weak oxidant N-chlorotaurine (NCT) was investigated. NCT is a derivative of the amino acid taurine produced by granulocytes and monocytes during oxidative burst, but can also be synthesized chemically and used topically as an antiseptic at a concentration of 1 % (55 mM) in vivo. NCT susceptibility tests were performed in vitro with promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani. As NH(4)Cl is known to increase the activity of NCT by the formation of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl), co-treatment assays were included in the study. Mean EC(50) values after 1 h of treatment were 5.94 mM for L. infantum and 9.8 mM for L. donovani promastigotes. Co-treatment with 5.5 mM NCT plus 19 mM NH(4)Cl led to complete killing of promastigotes of both strains within 15 min. Amastigotes were inactivated by treatment with 2 mM NCT alone. The results of this study indicate a high potential of NCT against Leishmania species. PMID:19541788

Fürnkranz, Ursula; Nagl, Markus; Gottardi, Waldemar; Matt, Ulrich; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia

2009-10-01

85

Plant-produced human growth hormone shows biological activity in a rat model.  

PubMed

Plants have been shown to be efficient systems for expressing a wide range of recombinant proteins from various origins. Here, using a plant virus-based expression vector to produce human growth hormone (hGH) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the plant-produced hGH (pphGH) is biologically active in a hypophysectomized rat model. We observed an average weight gain of approximately 17 g per animal in a group of 10 animals that were injected subcutaneously with pphGH with 60 microg/dose for 10 days. With the increasing demand for hGH, accompanied with the need to make this recombinant protein available to a wider population at a more reasonable cost, plants provide a feasible alternative to current production platforms. PMID:19301254

Rabindran, Shailaja; Stevenson, Natalie; Roy, Gourgopal; Fedorkin, Oleg; Skarjinskaia, Marina; Ensley, Burt; Yusibov, Vidadi

2009-01-01

86

Updated clinical results show experimental agent ibrutinib as highly active in CLL patients  

Cancer.gov

Updated results from a Phase Ib/II clinical trial led by the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute indicates that a novel therapeutic agent for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is highly active and well tolerated in patients who have relapsed and are resistant to other therapy. The agent, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), is the first drug designed to target Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein essential for CLL-cell survival and proliferation. CLL is the most common form of leukemia, with about 15,000 new cases annually in the U.S. About 4,400 Americans die of the disease each year.

87

A thiabendazole sulfonamide shows potent inhibitory activity against mammalian and nematode alpha-carbonic anhydrases.  

PubMed

A sulfonamide derivative of the antihelmintic drug thiabendazole was prepared and investigated for inhibition of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase CA (EC 4.2.1.1). Mammalian isoforms CA I-XIV and the nematode enzyme of Caenorhabditis elegans CAH-4b were included in this study. Thiabendazole-5-sulfonamide was a very effective inhibitor of CAH-4b and CA IX (K(I)s of 6.4-9.5nm) and also inhibited effectively isozymes CA I, II, IV-VII, and XII, with K(I)s in the range of 17.8-73.2nM. The high resolution X-ray crystal structure of its adduct with isozyme II evidenced the structural elements responsible for this potent inhibitory activity. PMID:19186056

Crocetti, Letizia; Maresca, Alfonso; Temperini, Claudia; Hall, Rebecca A; Scozzafava, Andrea; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A; Supuran, Claudiu T

2009-03-01

88

Arsenic Trioxide and Resveratrol Show Synergistic Anti-Leukemia Activity and Neutralized Cardiotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Cardiotoxicity is an aggravating side effect of many clinical antineoplastic agents such as arsenic trioxide (As2O3), which is the first-line treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Clinically, drug combination strategies are widely applied for complex disease management. Here, an optimized, cardiac-friendly therapeutic strategy for APL was investigated using a combination of As2O3 and genistein or resveratrol. Potential combinations were explored with respect to their effects on mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, autophagy, and apoptosis in both NB4 cells and neonatal rat left ventricular myocytes. All experiments consistently suggested that 5 µM resveratrol remarkably alleviates As2O3-induced cardiotoxicity. To achieve an equivalent effect, a 10-fold dosage of genistein was required, thus highlighting the dose advantage of resveratrol, as poor bioavailability is a common concern for its clinical application. Co-administration of resveratrol substantially amplified the anticancer effect of As2O3 in NB4 cells. Furthermore, resveratrol exacerbated oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis, thereby reflecting its full range of synergism with As2O3. Addition of 5 µM resveratrol to the single drug formula of As2O3 also further increased the expression of LC3, a marker of cellular autophagy activity, indicating an involvement of autophagy-mediated tumor cell death in the synergistic action. Our results suggest a possible application of an As2O3 and resveratrol combination to treat APL in order to achieve superior therapeutics effects and prevent cardiotoxicity. PMID:25144547

Meng, Jia; Yu, Lei; Tu, Yingfeng; Wan, Lin; Fang, Kun; Zhu, Wenliang

2014-01-01

89

Montmorillonite enhanced ciprofloxacin transport in saturated porous media with sorbed ciprofloxacin showing antibiotic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) is immobile in the subsurface but it has been frequently detected in the aquatic system. Therefore it is important to investigate the factors impacting CIP's mobilization in aquifer. Laboratory columns packed with sand were used to test colloid-facilitated CIP transport by 1) using kaolinite or montmorillonite to mobilize presorbed-CIP in a column or 2) co-transporting with CIP by pre-mixing them before transport. The Langmuir model showed that CIP sorption by montmorillonite (23 g kg- 1) was 100 times more effective than sand or kaolinite. Even with strong CIP complexation ability to Fe/Al coating on sand surface, montmorillonite promoted CIP transport, but not kaolinite. All presorbed-CIP by sand was mobilized by montmorillonite after 3 pore volumes through co-transporting of CIP with montmorillonite. The majority of CIP was fixed onto the montmorillonite interlayer but still showed inhibition of bacteria growth. Our results suggested that montmorillonite with high CIP sorption ability can act as a carrier to enhance CIP's mobility in aquifer.

Chen, Hao; Gao, Bin; Yang, Liu-Yan; Ma, Lena Q.

2015-02-01

90

A new small-molecule Aurora B inhibitor shows antitumor activity in human cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The Aurora kinase family, as a group of serine/threonine kinases regulating cell cycles, are frequently overexpressed or amplified in human tumors. Here, we showed that the small molecule S4 could inhibit Aurora kinase in both of biochemincal and cell-based levels. The Aurora B inhibition of S4 treatment inhibited the phosphorylation of Histone H3 at serine 10 in HeLa and SMMC7721 cells. Cell proliferation assay showed that inhibition of Aurora kinase led to reduced cancer cell growth. As assessed in colony formation experiment, S4 blocked the capability of the HeLa cells to develop colonies. Subsequently, S4 treatment blocked the mitotic G2/M-G1 phase progression which is characterized by the accumulations of cells with 4 N DNA content, induced a cell cycle arrest in a pseudo G1 phase and resulted in apoptotic cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manners. Taken together, this Aurora kinase inhibitor S4 induces growth inhibition of cancer cell line. PMID:25348602

Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Jie; Jiang, Chenxiao; Yang, Xianmei; Cao, Lihuan; Yu, Long

2015-02-01

91

? sulphate PNA (PNA S): Highly Selective DNA Binding Molecule Showing Promising Antigene Activity  

PubMed Central

Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs), nucleic acid analogues showing high stability to enzyme degradation and strong affinity and specificity of binding toward DNA and RNA are widely investigated as tools to interfere in gene expression. Several studies have been focused on PNA analogues with modifications on the backbone and bases in the attempt to overcome solubility, uptake and aggregation issues. ? PNAs, PNA derivatives having a substituent in the ? position of the backbone show interesting properties in terms of secondary structure and affinity of binding toward complementary nucleic acids. In this paper we illustrate our results obtained on new analogues, bearing a sulphate in the ? position of the backbone, developed to be more DNA-like in terms of polarity and charge. The synthesis of monomers and oligomers is described. NMR studies on the conformational properties of monomers and studies on the secondary structure of single strands and triplexes are reported. Furthermore the hybrid stability and the effect of mismatches on the stability have also been investigated. Finally, the ability of the new analogue to work as antigene, interfering with the transcription of the ErbB2 gene on a human cell line overexpressing ErbB2 (SKBR3), assessed by FACS and qPCR, is described. PMID:22586450

Avitabile, Concetta; Moggio, Loredana; Malgieri, Gaetano; Capasso, Domenica; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Saviano, Michele; Pedone, Carlo; Romanelli, Alessandra

2012-01-01

92

? Sulphate PNA (PNA S): highly selective DNA binding molecule showing promising antigene activity.  

PubMed

Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs), nucleic acid analogues showing high stability to enzyme degradation and strong affinity and specificity of binding toward DNA and RNA are widely investigated as tools to interfere in gene expression. Several studies have been focused on PNA analogues with modifications on the backbone and bases in the attempt to overcome solubility, uptake and aggregation issues. ? PNAs, PNA derivatives having a substituent in the ? position of the backbone show interesting properties in terms of secondary structure and affinity of binding toward complementary nucleic acids. In this paper we illustrate our results obtained on new analogues, bearing a sulphate in the ? position of the backbone, developed to be more DNA-like in terms of polarity and charge. The synthesis of monomers and oligomers is described. NMR studies on the conformational properties of monomers and studies on the secondary structure of single strands and triplexes are reported. Furthermore the hybrid stability and the effect of mismatches on the stability have also been investigated. Finally, the ability of the new analogue to work as antigene, interfering with the transcription of the ErbB2 gene on a human cell line overexpressing ErbB2 (SKBR3), assessed by FACS and qPCR, is described. PMID:22586450

Avitabile, Concetta; Moggio, Loredana; Malgieri, Gaetano; Capasso, Domenica; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Saviano, Michele; Pedone, Carlo; Romanelli, Alessandra

2012-01-01

93

Cardiac genes show contextual SWI/SNF interactions with distinguishable gene activities.  

PubMed

Recent experimental evidence indicates that cardiac and chromatin remodeling are associated with changes in gene expression mediated by Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1), a member of the large group of SWI/SNF subunits. The second catalytic member of this family is Brahma (Brm), which shares close sequence homology to Brg1. Despite the sequence similarities, these determinants are found in distinct regulatory complexes; however, the precise nature and role of these remodeling enzymes in the failing heart remains unknown. Here we have hypothesized that Brg1 and Brm form distinct complexes in regulating gene expression in an animal model of cardiac hypertrophy. We have identified that the hypertrophic myocardium is characterized by profound morphological changes associated with increased expression of ANP (Nppa), BNP (Nppb) and ?-MHC (Myh7) genes, correlating with reduced expression of the ?-MHC (Myh6) and SERCA2A (Atp2a2) genes. Histone deacetylase inhibition prevented left ventricular hypertrophy indicating that the re-expression of gene activity can be associated with both contextual and distinct SWI/SNF interactions. We hypothesize that cardiac hypertrophy and the fetal gene expression program are associated with distinguishable binding of Brm and Brg1 on genes present in distinct complexes, suggesting possible independent-regulatory roles. PMID:21586902

Chang, Lisa; Kiriazis, Helen; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Du, Xiao-Jun; El-Osta, Assam

2011-06-01

94

Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century.  

PubMed

A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(10(4))] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950-2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones. PMID:23836646

Emanuel, Kerry A

2013-07-23

95

Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century  

PubMed Central

A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(104)] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950–2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones. PMID:23836646

Emanuel, Kerry A.

2013-01-01

96

TV as a Multimedia Synchronous Communication for Cooking and Eating Activities: Analysis of TV Cooking Shows in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

TV can be considered to be a synchronous tool for multimedia communication to deliver contents like cooking and eating activities. In this paper, we propose a framework of multimedia for cooking and eating activities. It consists of three facets namely contents, multimedia elements and communication. We demonstrate the framework with an example. Under this framework, we analyzed TV cooking shows

T. W. Lai-Yeung; S. W. W. So

2010-01-01

97

TRANSFORMATION EFFICIENCIES AND EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF A SERIES OF TRUNCATED GS1-2 PROMOTER/GUS TRANSGENES IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One isoform of maize glutamine synthetase, encoded by GS1-2, is localized exclusively within the maternal tissues of the developing kernel. In this report, a series GS1-2 promoter/GUS reporter transgenes, progressively truncated from the 5' end of the promoter, were evaluated for transformation eff...

98

Temporal and spatial requirement of EMF1 activity for Arabidopsis vegetative and reproductive development.  

PubMed

EMBRYONIC FLOWER (EMF) genes are required to maintain vegetative development via repression of flower homeotic genes in Arabidopsis. Removal of EMF gene function caused plants to flower upon germination, producing abnormal and sterile flowers. The pleiotropic effect of emf1 mutation suggests its requirement for gene programs involved in diverse developmental processes. Transgenic plants harboring EMF1 promoter::glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were generated to investigate the temporal and spatial expression pattern of EMF1. These plants displayed differential GUS activity in vegetative and flower tissues, consistent with the role of EMF1 in regulating multiple gene programs. EMF1::GUS expression pattern in emf mutants suggests organ-specific auto-regulation. Sense- and antisense (as) EMF1 cDNA were expressed under the control of stage- and tissue-specific promoters in transgenic plants. Characterization of these transgenic plants showed that EMF1 activity is required in meristematic as well as differentiating tissues to rescue emf mutant phenotype. Temporal removal or reduction of EMF1 activity in the embryo or shoot apex of wild-type seedlings was sufficient to cause early flowering and terminal flower formation in adult plants. Such reproductive cell memory is reflected in the flower MADS-box gene activity expressed prior to flowering in these early flowering plants. However, temporal removal of EMF1 activity in flower meristem did not affect flower development. Our results are consistent with EMF1's primary role in repressing flowering in order to allow for vegetative growth. PMID:19825645

Sánchez, Rosario; Kim, Minjung Y; Calonje, Myriam; Moon, Yong-Hwan; Sung, Z Renee

2009-07-01

99

Nonlinear Analysis of Motor Activity Shows Differences between Schizophrenia and Depression: A Study Using Fourier Analysis and Sample Entropy  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study has been to describe motor activity data obtained by using wrist-worn actigraphs in patients with schizophrenia and major depression by the use of linear and non-linear methods of analysis. Different time frames were investigated, i.e., activity counts measured every minute for up to five hours and activity counts made hourly for up to two weeks. The results show that motor activity was lower in the schizophrenic patients and in patients with major depression, compared to controls. Using one minute intervals the depressed patients had a higher standard deviation (SD) compared to both the schizophrenic patients and the controls. The ratio between the root mean square successive differences (RMSSD) and SD was higher in the schizophrenic patients compared to controls. The Fourier analysis of the activity counts measured every minute showed that the relation between variance in the low and the high frequency range was lower in the schizophrenic patients compared to the controls. The sample entropy was higher in the schizophrenic patients compared to controls in the time series from the activity counts made every minute. The main conclusions of the study are that schizophrenic and depressive patients have distinctly different profiles of motor activity and that the results differ according to period length analysed. PMID:21297977

Hauge, Erik R.; Berle, Jan Øystein; Oedegaard, Ketil J.; Holsten, Fred; Fasmer, Ole Bernt

2011-01-01

100

Chronic Back Pain Patients Show Differences in Behavior and Brain Activity During a Loss-Aversion Gambling Task  

E-print Network

who endure long-term pain and suffering. · In the present study, we compare performance scoresChronic Back Pain Patients Show Differences in Behavior and Brain Activity During a Loss with chronic back pain. Additionally, many labs have observed that people with a variety of chronic pain

Apkarian, A. Vania

101

Magnetosomes extracted from Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 showed enhanced peroxidase-like activity under visible-light irradiation.  

PubMed

Magnetosomes are intracellular structures produced by magnetotactic bacteria and are magnetic nanoparticles surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. Magnetosomes reportedly possess intrinsic enzyme mimetic activity similar to that found in horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and can scavenge reactive oxygen species depending on peroxidase activity. Our previous study has demonstrated the phototaxis characteristics of Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 cells, but the mechanism is not well understood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between visible-light irradiation and peroxidase-like activity of magnetosomes extracted from M. magneticum strain AMB-1. We then compared this characteristic with that of HRP, iron ions, and naked magnetosomes using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as a peroxidase substrate in the presence of H2O2. Results showed that HRP and iron ions had different activities from those of magnetosomes and naked magnetosomes when exposed to visible-light irradiation. Magnetosomes and naked magnetosomes had enhanced peroxidase-like activities under visible-light irradiation, but magnetosomes showed less affinity toward substrates than naked magnetosomes under visible-light irradiation. These results suggested that the peroxidase-like activity of magnetosomes may follow an ordered ternary mechanism rather than a ping-pong mechanism. This finding may provide new insight into the function of magnetosomes in the phototaxis in magnetotactic bacteria. PMID:25837510

Li, Kefeng; Chen, Chuanfang; Chen, Changyou; Wang, Yuzhan; Wei, Zhao; Pan, Weidong; Song, Tao

2015-05-01

102

Recombinant PNPLA3 protein shows triglyceride hydrolase activity and its I148M mutation results in loss of function.  

PubMed

The patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3, also called adiponutrin, ADPN) is a membrane-bound protein highly expressed in the liver. The genetic variant I148M (rs738409) was found to be associated with progression of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish a protein purification protocol in a yeast system (Pichia pastoris) and to examine the human PNPLA3 enzymatic activity, substrate specificity and the I148M mutation effect. hPNPLA3 148I wild type and 148M mutant cDNA were cloned into P. pastoris expression vectors. Yeast cells were grown in 3L fermentors. PNPLA3 protein was purified from membrane fractions by Ni-affinity chromatography. Enzymatic activity was assessed using radiolabeled substrates. Both 148I wild type and 148M mutant proteins are localized to the membrane. The wild type protein shows a predominant lipase activity with mild lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase activity (LPAAT) and the I148M mutation results in a loss of function of both these activities. Our data show that PNPLA3 has a predominant lipase activity and I148M mutation results in a loss of function. PMID:24369119

Pingitore, Piero; Pirazzi, Carlo; Mancina, Rosellina M; Motta, Benedetta M; Indiveri, Cesare; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana; Hedfalk, Kristina; Romeo, Stefano

2014-04-01

103

Peep show establishments, police activity, public place, and time: a study of secondary effects in San Diego, California.  

PubMed

An empirical study was undertaken in San Diego, California, to test assumptions made by the government and by conservative religious policy advocates that there is a greater incidence of crime in the vicinity of peep show establishments. We asked two questions: (a) Is criminal activity in San Diego particularly acute at peep show establishments compared to surrounding control locations? and (b) Is criminal activity in San Diego disproportionately greater at or near peep show establishments between the hours of 2 a.m. and 6 a.m. compared to other times of the day? The levels of crime activity and the expenditure of police resources were examined by measuring the number of calls-for-service (CFSs) to the police within a 1,000-ft. area on either side of the peep show establishments and comparably-sized control areas beyond the immediate 1,000-foot area. A more focused late-night (2 a.m. to 6 a.m.) analysis was also undertaken. The results showed no reliable evidence of differences in crime levels between the control and test areas, nor was there any evidence of disproportionately greater amounts of crime within the 2 a.m. to 6 a.m. time period in the areas surrounding the peep show establishments. We concluded that San Diego does not have a problem with crime at the peep show establishments generally, nor is there a heightened problem with crime during the 2 a.m. to 6 a.m. period. We discuss the implications of assuming that peep show establishments are associated with negative effects in the community and the possibility of viewpoint discrimination against sex communication. PMID:16817065

Linz, Daniel; Paul, Bryant; Yao, Mike

2006-05-01

104

Syzygium jambos and Solanum guaraniticum show similar antioxidant properties but induce different enzymatic activities in the brain of rats.  

PubMed

Syzygium jambos and Solanum guaraniticum are both employed in Brazil as medicinal plants, even though their potential toxicity is not well established and they are frequently misused. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of both plants on ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (?-ALA-D) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities and the antioxidant action against oxidative damage induced by sodium nitroprusside in rats, using in vitro assays. In addition, the presence of gallic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids, as well as rutin, quercetin and kaempferol as bioactive compounds in the extracts was identified by HPLC and their levels quantified. The antioxidant activities of both extracts were assessed by their capabilities to scavenge nitric oxide and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Only Syzygium jambos presented thiol-peroxidase-like activity. Although neither extract affected the AChE activity, the aqueous extract of Solanum guaraniticum inhibited brain ?-ALA-D activity, suggesting a possible impairment effect on the central nervous system. Our results showed that both extracts exhibited efficient free radical scavenger activity and are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, justifying their use in folk medicine, although Solanum guaraniticum extract could have neurotoxicity properties and we therefore suggest that its use should be restricted to ensure the health of the population. PMID:23912272

Bonfanti, Gabriela; Bitencourt, Paula Rodrigues; Bona, Karine Santos de; Silva, Priscila Sabino da; Jantsch, Letícia B; Pigatto, Aline S; Boligon, Aline; Athayde, Margareth L; Gonçalves, Thissiane L; Moretto, Maria Beatriz

2013-01-01

105

Males and females show differential brain activation to taste when hungry and sated in gustatory and reward areas  

PubMed Central

Although males and females differ in eating behavior and prevalence rates for eating disorders and obesity, little is known about gender differences in cortical activation to pleasant and unpleasant pure tastes during the physiological states of hunger and satiety. Twenty-one healthy young adults (12 females and 9 males) underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Using four pure tastants of differing qualities (i.e., salty, sour, bitter, sweet), the present study examined gender differences in fMRI activation during two motivational states (hunger and satiety). There was greater change in fMRI activation from hunger to satiety in males than females in response to all tastes within the middle frontal gyrus (BA 10), insula, and cerebellum. Males also had greater change in activation from hunger to satiety, relative to females, in limbic regions including dorsal striatum, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and posterior and anterior cingulate; however, activation was stimulus dependent, despite equivalent ratings in perceived pleasantness and intensity. Interestingly, males and females showed significant change from hunger to satiety in response to citric acid, suggesting that in addition to gender and physiological condition, stimulus quality is an important factor in taste fMRI activation. These gender differences may have implications for the pathophysiology of eating disorders and obesity. PMID:21718731

Haase, Lori; Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

2011-01-01

106

Comparison and Evaluation of Two Diagnostic Methods for Detection of npt II and GUS Genes in Nicotiana tabacum.  

PubMed

To diminish the time required for some diagnostic assays including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and also a visual detection protocol on the basis of npt II and GUS genes in transgenic tobacco plants were used. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Nicotiana tabacum leaf discs was performed with plant transformation vector of pBI 121. From kanamycin-resistant plants selected by their antibiotic resistance, four plants were selected for DNA isolation. Presence of the transgene was confirmed in the transformants by PCR and LAMP. In this regard, all LAMP and PCR primers were designed on the basis of the gene sequences of npt II and GUS. The LAMP assay was applied for direct detection of gene marker from plant samples without DNA extraction steps (direct LAMP assay). Also, a novel colorimetric LAMP assay for rapid and easy detection of npt II and GUS genes was developed here, its potential compared with PCR assay. The LAMP method, on the whole, had the following advantages over the PCR method: easy detection, high sensitivity, high efficiency, simple manipulation, safety, low cost, and user friendly. PMID:25820356

Almasi, Mohammad Amin; Aghapour-Ojaghkandi, Mehdi; Bagheri, Khadijeh; Ghazvini, Mohammadreza; Hosseyni-Dehabadi, Seyed Mohammad

2015-04-01

107

Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.  

PubMed

The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils. PMID:25110971

Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2014-08-27

108

Children undergoing cardiac surgery for complex cardiac defects show imbalance between pro- and anti-thrombotic activity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with the activation of inflammatory mediators that possess prothrombotic activity and could cause postoperative haemostatic disorders. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of cardiac surgery on prothrombotic activity in children undergoing cardiac surgery for complex cardiac defects. Methods Eighteen children (ages 3 to 163 months) undergoing univentricular palliation with total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) (n = 10) or a biventricular repair (n = 8) for complex cardiac defects were studied. Prothrombotic activity was evaluated by measuring plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thromboxane B2 (TxB2), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Anti-thrombotic activity was evaluated by measuring levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) before, during, and after cardiac surgery. Results In all patients, cardiac surgery was associated with a significant but transient increase of F1+2, TxB2, TFPI, and MCP-1. Maximal values of F1+2, TxB2, and MCP-1 were found at the end of CPB. In contrast, maximal levels of TFPI were observed at the beginning of CPB. Concentrations of F1+2 at the end of CPB correlated negatively with the minimal oesophageal temperature during CPB. Markers of prothrombotic activity returned to preoperative values from the first postoperative day on. Early postoperative TFPI levels were significantly lower and TxB2 levels significantly higher in patients with TCPC than in those with biventricular repair. Thromboembolic events were not observed. Conclusion Our data suggest that children with complex cardiac defects undergoing cardiac surgery show profound but transient imbalance between pro- and anti-thrombotic activity, which could lead to thromboembolic complications. These alterations are more important after TCPC than after biventricular repair but seem to be determined mainly by low antithrombin III. PMID:17125503

Heying, Ruth; van Oeveren, Wim; Wilhelm, Stefanie; Schumacher, Katharina; Grabitz, Ralph G; Messmer, Bruno J; Seghaye, Marie-Christine

2006-01-01

109

Quercetin and quercetin 3-O-glycosides from Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. show anti-Mayaro virus activity  

PubMed Central

Background The arthropod-borne Mayaro virus (MAYV) causes ‘Mayaro fever’, a disease of medical significance, primarily affecting individuals in permanent contact with forested areas in tropical South America. Recently, MAYV has attracted attention due to its likely urbanization. Currently, there are no licensed drugs against most mosquito-transmitted viruses. Here, we investigated the in vitro anti-MAYV activity of the flavonoids quercetin and its derivatives from the Brazilian shrub Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. Methods Flavonoids were purified by chromatographic fractionation from leaf extracts of B. longifolia and chemically identified as quercetin and quercetin glycosides using spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxicity of purified flavonoids and of EtOAc- and n-BuOH-containing flavonoid mixtures was measured by the dye-uptake assay while their antiviral activity was evaluated by a virus yield inhibition assay. Results The following flavonoids were purified from B. longifolia leaves: non-glycosylated quercetin and its glycosides guaijaverin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and hyperin. EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions containing these flavonoids demonstrated the highest antiviral activity of all tested substances, while quercetin had the highest antiviral activity amongst purified flavonoids. Quercetin, EtOAc, or n-BuOH fractions inhibited MAYV production by more than 90% at 25 ?g/mL, displaying a stronger antiviral effect than the licensed antiviral ribavirin. A mixture of the isomers isoquercitrin and hyperin had a modest antiviral effect (IC90?=?104.9), while guaijaverin and quercitrin did not show significant antiviral activity. Conclusions B. longifolia is a good source of flavonoids with anti-Mayaro virus activity. This is the first report of the activity of quercetin and its derivatives against an alphavirus. PMID:24678592

2014-01-01

110

Rosmarinic Acid from Eelgrass Shows Nematicidal and Antibacterial Activities against Pine Wood Nematode and Its Carrying Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC50 (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L9 (34) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina. PMID:23201594

Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

2012-01-01

111

Rosmarinic acid from eelgrass shows nematicidal and antibacterial activities against pine wood nematode and its carrying bacteria.  

PubMed

Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC?? (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L? (3?) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina. PMID:23201594

Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

2012-12-01

112

Discovery of LPMO activity on hemicelluloses shows the importance of oxidative processes in plant cell wall degradation  

PubMed Central

The recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are known to carry out oxidative cleavage of glycoside bonds in chitin and cellulose, thus boosting the activity of well-known hydrolytic depolymerizing enzymes. Because biomass-degrading microorganisms tend to produce a plethora of LPMOs, and considering the complexity and copolymeric nature of the plant cell wall, it has been speculated that some LPMOs may act on other substrates, in particular the hemicelluloses that tether to cellulose microfibrils. We demonstrate that an LPMO from Neurospora crassa, NcLPMO9C, indeed degrades various hemicelluloses, in particular xyloglucan. This activity was discovered using a glycan microarray-based screening method for detection of substrate specificities of carbohydrate-active enzymes, and further explored using defined oligomeric hemicelluloses, isolated polymeric hemicelluloses and cell walls. Products generated by NcLPMO9C were analyzed using high performance anion exchange chromatography and multidimensional mass spectrometry. We show that NcLPMO9C generates oxidized products from a variety of substrates and that its product profile differs from those of hydrolytic enzymes acting on the same substrates. The enzyme particularly acts on the glucose backbone of xyloglucan, accepting various substitutions (xylose, galactose) in almost all positions. Because the attachment of xyloglucan to cellulose hampers depolymerization of the latter, it is possible that the beneficial effect of the LPMOs that are present in current commercial cellulase mixtures in part is due to hitherto undetected LPMO activities on recalcitrant hemicellulose structures. PMID:24733907

Agger, Jane W.; Isaksen, Trine; Várnai, Anikó; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Willats, William G. T.; Ludwig, Roland; Horn, Svein J.; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Westereng, Bjørge

2014-01-01

113

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2-knockout mice show reduced enzyme activity, airway hyporeactivity, and lung pathology  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The purpose of this study was to analyze the function of lung-specific cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2 (COX4i2) in vitro and in COX4i2-knockout mice in vivo. COX was isolated from cow lung and liver as control and functionally analyzed. COX4i2-knockout mice were generated and the effect of the gene knockout was determined, including COX activity, tissue energy levels, noninvasive and invasive lung function, and lung pathology. These studies were complemented by a comprehensive functional screen performed at the German Mouse Clinic (Neuherberg, Germany). We show that isolated cow lung COX containing COX4i2 is about twice as active (88 and 102% increased activity in the presence of allosteric activator ADP and inhibitor ATP, respectively) as liver COX, which lacks COX4i2. In COX4i2-knockout mice, lung COX activity and cellular ATP levels were significantly reduced (?50 and ?29%, respectively). Knockout mice showed decreased airway responsiveness (60% reduced Penh and 58% reduced airway resistance upon challenge with 25 and 100 mg methacholine, respectively), and they developed a lung pathology deteriorating with age that included the appearance of Charcot-Leyden crystals. In addition, there was an interesting sex-specific phenotype, in which the knockout females showed reduced lean mass (?12%), reduced total oxygen consumption rate (?8%), improved glucose tolerance, and reduced grip force (?14%) compared to wild-type females. Our data suggest that high activity lung COX is a central determinant of airway function and is required for maximal airway responsiveness and healthy lung function. Since airway constriction requires energy, we propose a model in which reduced tissue ATP levels explain protection from airway hyperresponsiveness, i.e., absence of COX4i2 leads to reduced lung COX activity and ATP levels, which results in impaired airway constriction and thus reduced airway responsiveness; long-term lung pathology develops in the knockout mice due to impairment of energy-costly lung maintenance processes; and therefore, we propose mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation as a novel target for the treatment of respiratory diseases, such as asthma.—Hüttemann, M., Lee, I., Gao, X., Pecina, P., Pecinova, A., Liu, J., Aras, S., Sommer, N., Sanderson, T. H., Tost, M., Neff, F., Aguilar-Pimentel, J. A., Becker, L., Naton, B., Rathkolb, B., Rozman, J., Favor, J., Hans, W., Prehn, C., Puk, O., Schrewe, A., Sun, M., Höfler, H., Adamski, J., Bekeredjian, R., Graw, J., Adler, T., Busch, D. H., Klingenspor, M., Klopstock, T., Ollert, M., Wolf, E., Fuchs, H., Gailus-Durner, V., Hrab? de Angelis, M., Weissmann, N., Doan, J. W., Bassett, D. J. P., Grossman, L. I. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2-knockout mice show reduced enzyme activity, airway hyporeactivity, and lung pathology. PMID:22730437

Hüttemann, Maik; Lee, Icksoo; Gao, Xiufeng; Pecina, Petr; Pecinova, Alena; Liu, Jenney; Aras, Siddhesh; Sommer, Natascha; Sanderson, Thomas H.; Tost, Monica; Neff, Frauke; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Naton, Beatrix; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Favor, Jack; Hans, Wolfgang; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Schrewe, Anja; Sun, Minxuan; Höfler, Heinz; Adamski, Jerzy; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Graw, Jochen; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H.; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin; Weissmann, Norbert; Doan, Jeffrey W.; Bassett, David J. P.; Grossman, Lawrence I.

2012-01-01

114

New unusual iridoids from the leaves of noni ( Morinda citrifolia L.) show inhibitory effect on ultraviolet B-induced transcriptional activator protein-1 (AP1) activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel iridoid dimer in whose structure the two iridoid units are connected by a rare ether group, together with two new unusual iridoids showing significant inhibition of UVB-induced Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) activity in cell cultures, have been isolated from the leaves of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.). Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed high-field 1D and 2D

Shengmin Sang; Guangming Liu; Kan He; Nanqun Zhu; Zigang Dong; Qunyi Zheng; Robert T Rosen; Chi-Tang Ho

2003-01-01

115

C(5) modified uracil derivatives showing antiproliferative and erythroid differentiation inducing activities on human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells  

PubMed Central

The K562 cell line has been proposed as a useful experimental system to identify anti-tumor compounds acting by inducing terminal erythroid differentiation. K562 cells exhibit a low proportion of hemoglobin-synthesizing cells under standard cell growth conditions, but are able to undergo terminal erythroid differentiation when treated with a variety of anti-tumor compounds. In this paper we report a screening study on a set of different modified C(5) uracil derivatives for the evaluation of their antiproliferative effect in connection with erythroid differentiation pathways, and for defining a new class of drug candidates for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Activity of the derivatives tested can be classified in two effect: an antiproliferative effect linked to a high level of erythroid differentiation activity and an antiproliferative effect without activation of gamma globin genes The highest antiproliferative effect and erythroid induction was shown by compound 9, a thymine derivative bearing a n-octyl chain on nitrogen N(1), whereas thymine did not show any effect, suggesting the importance of the linear alkyl chain in position N(1). To our knowledge this compound should be considered among the most efficient inducers of erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. This work is the starting point for the quest of more effective and specific drugs for the induction of terminal erythroid differentiation, for leading new insights in the treatment of neoplastic diseases with molecules acting by inducing differentiation rather than by simply exerting cytotoxic effects. PMID:21958870

Brognara, Eleonora; Lampronti, Ilaria; Breveglieri, Giulia; Accetta, Alessandro; Corradini, Roberto; Manicardi, Alex; Borgatti, Monica; Canella, Alessandro; Multineddu, Chiara; Marchelli, Rosangela; Gambari, Roberto

2011-01-01

116

Comparison of Microbial Diversity of Korean Commercial Makgeolli Showing High ?-Glucan Content and High Antihypertensive Activity, Respectively.  

PubMed

We measured physiological functionalities, including antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and immun-stimulating ?-glucan content for sixty kinds of Makgeolli that is commercially available from the market. As a result, we selected R-12 commercial raw Makgeolli, with a high content of immuno-stimulating ?-glucan, and R-14 commercial raw Makgeolli, exhibiting high antihypertensive activity. Due to the similarities in their overall physicochemical properties and raw materials used for fermentation, we compared the microbial flora in order to investigate the reason for the differences in their functionalities. Nested PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for yeasts and bacteria were performed for analysis of microbial diversity of two different kinds of Makgeolli (i.e., R-12, R-14), which showed immuno-stimulating ?-glucan content and exhibited a very high level of antihypertensive activity, respectively. Analysis of the 18S rDNA amplicon revealed a major presence of the yeast strain Pichia burtonii in every Makgeolli sample. Analysis of the 16S rDNA amplicon revealed a predominance of lactic acid bacteria, and the most frequent lactic acid bacteria were Lactobacillus ingluviei, L. fermentum, and L. harbinensis, and Lactobacillus sp. Among these, L. harbinensis was detected only in R-12 and L. ingluviei was found only in R-14. Different functionalities from the individual commercially available Makgeolli may be attributed to actions of different microbial flora during fermentation. PMID:22870058

Min, Jin-Hong; Kim, Young-Hun; Kim, Jae-Ho; Choi, Shin-Yang; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Ha-Kun

2012-06-01

117

A plant plasma membrane proton-ATPase gene is regulated by development and environment and shows signs of a translational regulation.  

PubMed Central

A proton-pumping ATPase is present in the plasma membrane of plant cells where it sustains transport-related functions. This enzyme is encoded by a family of genes that shows signs of both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. The regulation of pma1, one of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia H+-ATPase genes, was characterized with the help of the beta-glucuronidase (gusA) receptor gene in transgenic plants. pma1 is active in the root epidermis, the stem cortex, and guard cells. This activity depends on developmental and growth conditions. For instance, pma1 activity in guard cells was strongly enhanced when the plant material (young seedlings or mature leaves) was incubated in liquid growth medium. pma1 is also expressed in several tissues of the reproductive organs where active transport is thought to occur but where scarcely any ATPase activity has been identified, namely in the tapetum, the pollen, the transmitting tissue, and the ovules. Several pma genes have a long 5'untranslated region (leader sequence) containing an upstream open reading frame (URF). Analysis of translational and transcriptional fusions with gusA in transgenic plants suggests that the pma1 leader sequence might activate translation of the main open reading frame, even though the URF is translated by a large majority of the scanning ribosomes. As confirmation, transient expression experiments showed that the pma1 leader causes a fourfold post-transcriptional increase of main open reading frame expression. Deletion of the URF by site-directed mutagenesis stimulated the main open reading frame translation 2.7-fold in an in vitro translational assay. These results are consistent with a regulatory mechanism involving translation reinitiation. Altogether, they suggest a fine, multilevel regulation of H+-ATPase activity in the plant. PMID:7994172

Michelet, B; Lukaszewicz, M; Dupriez, V; Boutry, M

1994-01-01

118

Two cutinase-like proteins secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis show very different lipolytic activities reflecting their physiological function.  

PubMed

Cutinases are extracellular enzymes that are able to degrade cutin, a polyester protecting plant leaves and many kinds of lipids. Although cutinases are mainly found in phytopathogenic fungi or bacteria, 7 genes related to the cutinase family have been predicted in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These genes may encode proteins that are involved in the complex lipid metabolism of the bacterium. Here, we report on the biochemical characterization of two secreted proteins of M. tuberculosis, Rv1984c and Rv3452, belonging to the cutinase family. Although their amino acid sequence shows 50% identity with that of the well-characterized cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi, and a high level of homology has been found to exist between these two enzymes, they show distinct substrate specificities. Rv1984c preferentially hydrolyzes medium-chain carboxylic esters and monoacylglycerols, whereas Rv3452 behaves like a phospholipase A(2), and it is able to induce macrophage lysis. The tetrahydrolipstatin inhibitor, a specific lipase inhibitor, abolishes the activity of both enzymes. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to identify the catalytic triad of Rv1984c. Structural models for Rv1984c and Rv3452 were built, based on the crystal structure of F. solani cutinase, with a view to investigating the contribution of specific residues to the substrate specificity. Our findings open new prospects for investigating the physiological roles of cutinase-like proteins in the lipid metabolism and virulence of M. tuberculosis. PMID:20103719

Schué, Mathieu; Maurin, Damien; Dhouib, Rabeb; Bakala N'Goma, Jean-Claude; Delorme, Vincent; Lambeau, Gérard; Carrière, Frédéric; Canaan, Stéphane

2010-06-01

119

Nanoencapsulation of tacrolimus in lipid-core nanocapsules showed similar immunosuppressive activity after oral and intraperitoneal administrations.  

PubMed

Tacrolimus is widely used in the prophylaxis of solid-organ transplant rejection. Several studies have reported that tacrolimus has variable and poor bioavailability after oral administration, apart from adverse effects such as gastrointestinal disorders, hyperglycemia, nephro- and neurotoxicity. The aim of this work was to encapsulate tacrolimus (TAC) in lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) as an oral strategy to deliver the drug. To validate our hypothesis, the pharmacodynamic effect of TAC-LNC was determined after oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administrations to mice. TAC-LNC had z-average diameter of 210 nm (unimodal), and 99.5% of encapsulation efficiency. In vitro sustained release was determined for TAC-LNC fitting an anomalous transport mechanism (n = 0.8). TAC-LNC demonstrated higher immunosuppressive activity after oral and i.p. administrations, when compared to the drug solution. TAC-LNC administered at 6.0 mg kg(-1) day(-1) showed equivalent percent reduction in lymphocyte when both routes of administration were used. After oral administration, drug nanoencapsulation allows reducing the dose by at least 40%. Furthermore, the nanoencapsulation of TAC in lipid-core nanocapsules showed pharmacodynamic effect similar for the oral and the i.p. routes. In conclusion, the lipid-core nanocapsules were able to improve the TAC deliver across the oral absorption barrier. PMID:25016659

Friedrich, R B; Dimer, F A; Guterres, S S; Beck, R C R; Pohlmann, A R

2014-08-01

120

The dipeptide H-Trp-Glu-OH shows highly antagonistic activity against PPARgamma: bioassay with molecular modeling simulation.  

PubMed

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is an important therapeutic drug target for several conditions, including diabetes, inflammation, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cancer. It is shown that an antagonist or partial agonist of PPARgamma has attractive potential applications in the discovery of novel antidiabetic agents that may retain efficacious insulin-sensitizing properties and minimize potential side effects. In this work, the dipeptide H-Trp-Glu-OH (G3335) was discovered to be a novel PPARgamma antagonist. Biacore 3000 results based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique showed that G3335 exhibits a highly specific binding affinity against PPARgamma (K(D) = 8.34 microM) and is able to block rosiglitazone, a potent PPARgamma agonist, in the stimulation of the interaction between the PPARgamma ligand-binding domain (LBD) and RXRalpha-LBD. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated that G3335 exhibits strong antagonistic activity (IC50 = 8.67 microM) in perturbing rosiglitazone in the promotion of the PPARgamma-LBD-CBP interaction. Moreover, in transactivation assays, G3335 was further confirmed as an antagonist of PPARgamma in that G3335 could competitively bind to PPARgamma against 0.1 microM rosiglitazone to repress reporter-gene expression with an IC50 value of 31.9 muM. In addition, homology modeling and molecular-docking analyses were performed to investigate the binding mode of PPARgamma-LBD with G3335 at the atomic level. The results suggested that residues Cys285, Arg288, Ser289, and His449 in PPARgamma play vital roles in PPARgamma-LBD-G3335 binding. The significance of Cys285 for PPARgamma-LBD-G3335 interaction was further demonstrated by PPARgamma point mutation (PPARgamma-LBD-Cys285Ala). It is hoped our current work will provide a powerful approach for the discovery of PPARgamma antagonists, and that G3335 might be developed as a possible lead compound in diabetes research. PMID:16317783

Ye, Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Shan; Luo, Hai-Bin; Shen, Jian-Hua; Chen, Kai-Xian; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hua-Liang

2006-01-01

121

Magic Show  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a concentration in theatre, I created a magic show from scratch. Over the course of the semester, I researched both the effects (more commonly known as magic tricks) in a variety of styles, especially mentalism, along with the patter, or script, that is integral in making a good effect into something utterly amazing. I chose a certain set of

Zachary Brass

2012-01-01

122

Microfluidic Single Cell Analysis Show Porcine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells Improve Myocardial Function by Paracrine Activation  

PubMed Central

Rationale Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for the development of patient-specific therapies for cardiovascular disease. However, clinical translation will require preclinical optimization and validation of large animal iPSC models. Objective To successfully derive endothelial cells from porcine iPSCs and demonstrate their potential utility for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. Methods and Results Porcine adipose stromal cells were reprogrammed to generate porcine iPSCs (piPSCs). Immunohistochemistry, quantitative PCR, microarray hybridization, and angiogenic assays confirmed that piPSC-derived endothelial cells (piPSC-ECs) shared similar morphological and functional properties as endothelial cells isolated from the autologous pig aorta. To demonstrate their therapeutic potential, piPSC-ECs were transplanted into mice with myocardial infarction (MI). Compared to control, animals transplanted with piPSC-ECs showed significant functional improvement measured by echocardiography (fractional shortening at week 4: 27.2±1.3% vs. 22.3±1.1%; P<0.001) and magnetic resonance imaging (ejection fraction at week 4: 45.8±1.3% vs. 42.3±0.9%; P<0.05). Quantitative protein assays and microfluidic single cell PCR profiling showed that piPSC-ECs released pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic factors in the ischemic microenvironment, which promoted neovascularization and cardiomyocyte survival, respectively. Release of paracrine factors varied significantly among subpopulations of transplanted cells, suggesting that transplantation of specific cell populations may result in greater functional recovery. Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to successfully differentiate piPSCs-ECs from piPSCs and demonstrate that transplantation of piPSC-ECs improved cardiac function following MI via paracrine activation. Further development of these large animal iPSC models will yield significant insights into their therapeutic potential and accelerate the clinical translation of autologous iPSC-based therapy. PMID:22821929

Gu, Mingxia; Nguyen, Patricia K.; Lee, Andrew S.; Xu, Dan; Hu, Shijun; Plews, Jordan R; Han, Leng; Huber, Bruno C.; Lee, Won Hee; Gong, Yongquan; de Almeida, Patricia E.; Lyons, Jennifer; Ikeno, Fumi; Pacharinsak, Cholawat; Connolly, Andrew J.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Robbins, Robert C.; Longaker, Michael T.; Wu, Joseph C.

2012-01-01

123

Sequential treatment with betulinic acid followed by 5-fluorouracil shows synergistic cytotoxic activity in ovarian cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Betulinic acid selectively inhibits the growth of ovarian carcinoma cell lines without affecting the normal cells. In the present study, the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and betulinic acid (BA) combination on ovarian carcinoma cells was studied. The results demonstrated that ovarian carcinoma cells on concurrent or 5-FU followed by BA treatment show increased Sub-G1 cell population, increased rate of cell apoptosis and morphological changes in mitochondrial membrane. In OVCAR 432 cells treatment with sequential combination of 5-FU and BA increased the Sub-G1 cell population to 51.3% and growth inhibition rate of > 72%. However, exposure to BA before 5-FU treatment caused a decrease in rate of inhibition to < 35%. Treatment with combination of 5 ?M of 5-FU and 1 ?M of BA for 48 h, led to an induction of apoptosis in 79.7% and induced morphological changes in OVCAR 432 cells. The Western blot results showed high concentration of cytochrome c in the cell cytosol after 24 h of 5-FU and BA combination treatment. Treatment of BA-responsive RMS-13 cells with 5-FU and BA combination resulted in inhibition of GLI1, GLI2, PTCH1, and IGF2 genes. In addition, we found a significant reduction in hedgehog activity of RMS-13 cells after 5-FU and BA combination treatment by means of a hedgehog-responsive reporter assay. Therefore, 5-FU and BA combination can be a promising regimen for the treatment of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:25755712

Wang, Ying-Jian; Liu, Jun-Bao; Dou, Yu-Chang

2015-01-01

124

Sequential treatment with betulinic acid followed by 5-fluorouracil shows synergistic cytotoxic activity in ovarian cancer cells.  

PubMed

Betulinic acid selectively inhibits the growth of ovarian carcinoma cell lines without affecting the normal cells. In the present study, the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and betulinic acid (BA) combination on ovarian carcinoma cells was studied. The results demonstrated that ovarian carcinoma cells on concurrent or 5-FU followed by BA treatment show increased Sub-G1 cell population, increased rate of cell apoptosis and morphological changes in mitochondrial membrane. In OVCAR 432 cells treatment with sequential combination of 5-FU and BA increased the Sub-G1 cell population to 51.3% and growth inhibition rate of > 72%. However, exposure to BA before 5-FU treatment caused a decrease in rate of inhibition to < 35%. Treatment with combination of 5 ?M of 5-FU and 1 ?M of BA for 48 h, led to an induction of apoptosis in 79.7% and induced morphological changes in OVCAR 432 cells. The Western blot results showed high concentration of cytochrome c in the cell cytosol after 24 h of 5-FU and BA combination treatment. Treatment of BA-responsive RMS-13 cells with 5-FU and BA combination resulted in inhibition of GLI1, GLI2, PTCH1, and IGF2 genes. In addition, we found a significant reduction in hedgehog activity of RMS-13 cells after 5-FU and BA combination treatment by means of a hedgehog-responsive reporter assay. Therefore, 5-FU and BA combination can be a promising regimen for the treatment of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:25755712

Wang, Ying-Jian; Liu, Jun-Bao; Dou, Yu-Chang

2015-01-01

125

Topically Delivered Adipose Derived Stem Cells Show an Activated-Fibroblast Phenotype and Enhance Granulation Tissue Formation in Skin Wounds  

PubMed Central

Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in various tissues and can proliferate extensively in vitro. MSCs have been used in preclinical animal studies and clinical trials in many fields. Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) have several advantages compared to other MSCs for use in cell-based treatments because they are easy to isolate with relative abundance. However, quantitative approaches for wound repair using ASCs have been limited because of lack of animal models which allow for quantification. Here, we addressed the effect of topically delivered ASCs in wound repair by quantitative analysis using the rabbit ear model. We characterized rabbit ASCs, and analyzed their multipotency in comparison to bone marrow derived-MSCs (BM-MSCs) and dermal fibroblasts (DFs) in vitro. Topically delivered ASCs increased granulation tissue formation in wounds when compared to saline controls, whereas BM-MSCs or DFs did not. These studies suggest that ASCs and BM-MSCs are not identical, though they have similar surface markers. We found that topically delivered ASCs are engrafted and proliferate in the wounds. We showed that transplanted ASCs exhibited activated fibroblast phenotype, increased endothelial cell recruitment, and enhanced macrophage recruitment in vivo. PMID:23383253

Hong, Seok Jong; Xu, Wei; Leung, Kai P.; Mustoe, Thomas A.; Galiano, Robert D.

2013-01-01

126

Topically delivered adipose derived stem cells show an activated-fibroblast phenotype and enhance granulation tissue formation in skin wounds.  

PubMed

Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in various tissues and can proliferate extensively in vitro. MSCs have been used in preclinical animal studies and clinical trials in many fields. Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) have several advantages compared to other MSCs for use in cell-based treatments because they are easy to isolate with relative abundance. However, quantitative approaches for wound repair using ASCs have been limited because of lack of animal models which allow for quantification. Here, we addressed the effect of topically delivered ASCs in wound repair by quantitative analysis using the rabbit ear model. We characterized rabbit ASCs, and analyzed their multipotency in comparison to bone marrow derived-MSCs (BM-MSCs) and dermal fibroblasts (DFs) in vitro. Topically delivered ASCs increased granulation tissue formation in wounds when compared to saline controls, whereas BM-MSCs or DFs did not. These studies suggest that ASCs and BM-MSCs are not identical, though they have similar surface markers. We found that topically delivered ASCs are engrafted and proliferate in the wounds. We showed that transplanted ASCs exhibited activated fibroblast phenotype, increased endothelial cell recruitment, and enhanced macrophage recruitment in vivo. PMID:23383253

Hong, Seok Jong; Jia, Sheng-Xian; Xie, Ping; Xu, Wei; Leung, Kai P; Mustoe, Thomas A; Galiano, Robert D

2013-01-01

127

Gender-linked Differences in the Toys, Television Shows, Computer Games, and Outdoor Activities of 5- to 13-year-old Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to compare how 5- to 13-year-old children's leisure activity preferences differ with age and gender. Responses from 60 boys and 60 girls about their favorite toys, television shows, computer games, and outdoor activities were compared across leisure categories. The results showed that gender was a significant factor. Overall, boys spent more time in these leisure activities

Isabelle D. Cherney; Kamala London

2006-01-01

128

Immunomodulatory Activity of Dietary Fiber: Arabinoxylan and Mixed-Linked Beta-Glucan Isolated from Barley Show Modest Activities in Vitro  

PubMed Central

High intake of dietary fiber is claimed to protect against development of colorectal cancer. Barley is a rich source of dietary fiber, and possible immunomodulatory effects of barley polysaccharides might explain a potential protective effect. Dietary fiber was isolated by extraction and enzyme treatment. A mixed-linked ?-glucan (WSM-TPX, 96.5% ?-glucan, Mw 886 kDa), an arabinoxylan (WUM-BS-LA, 96.4% arabinoxylan, Mw 156 kDa), a mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fraction containing 10% arabinoxylan (WSM-TP) and an arabinoxylan rich fraction containing 30% mixed-linked ?-glucan (WUM-BS) showed no significant effect on IL-8 secretion and proliferation of two intestinal epithelial cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29, and had no significant effect on the NF-?B activity in the monocytic cell line U937-3?B-LUC. Further enriched arabinoxylan fractions (WUM-BS-LA) from different barley varieties (Tyra, NK96300, SB94897 and CDCGainer) were less active than the mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fractions (WSM-TP and WSM-TPX) in the complement-fixing test. The mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fraction from NK96300 and CDCGainer showed similar activities as the positive control while mixed-linked ?-glucan rich fractions from Tyra and SB94897 were less active. From these results it is concluded that the isolated high molecular weight mixed-linked ?-glucans and arabinoxylans from barley show low immunological responses in selected in vitro test systems and thus possible anti-colon cancer effects of barley dietary fiber cannot be explained by our observations. PMID:21340001

Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Rieder, Anne; Grimmer, Stine; Michaelsen, Terje E.; Knutsen, Svein H.

2011-01-01

129

In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Assays of Seeds from Balanites aegyptiaca: Compounds of the Extract Show Growth Inhibition and Activity against Plasmodial Aminopeptidase  

PubMed Central

Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) is a widely grown desert plant with multiuse potential. In the present paper, a crude extract from B. aegyptiaca seeds equivalent to a ratio of 1?:?2000 seeds to the extract was screened for antiplasmodial activity. The determined IC50 value for the chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum NF54 strain was 68.26??g/?L ± 3.5. Analysis of the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 6-phenyl-2(H)-1,2,4-triazin-5-one oxime, an inhibitor of the parasitic M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase as one of the compounds which is responsible for the in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The crude plant extract had a Ki of 2.35??g/?L and showed a dose-dependent response. After depletion of the compound, a significantly lower inhibition was determined with a Ki of 4.8??g/?L. Moreover, two phenolic compounds, that is, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol, with determined IC50 values of 50.29??M ± 3 and 47.82??M ± 2.5, respectively, were detected. These compounds may contribute to the in vitro antimalarial activity due to their antioxidative properties. In an in vivo experiment, treatment of BALB/c mice with the aqueous Balanite extract did not lead to eradication of the parasites, although a reduced parasitemia at day 12 p.i. was observed. PMID:21687598

Kusch, Peter; Deininger, Susanne; Specht, Sabine; Maniako, Rudeka; Haubrich, Stefanie; Pommerening, Tanja; Lin, Paul Kong Thoo; Hoerauf, Achim; Kaiser, Annette

2011-01-01

130

In vitro analysis of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers shows that (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide is the active enantiomer against Taenia solium.  

PubMed

Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (-)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Cass, Quezia B

2013-02-01

131

Healthy children show gender differences in correlations between nonverbal cognitive ability and brain activation during visual perception.  

PubMed

Humans perceive textual and nontextual information in visual perception, and both depend on language. In childhood education, students exhibit diverse perceptual abilities, such that some students process textual information better and some process nontextual information better. These predispositions involve many factors, including cognitive ability and learning preference. However, the relationship between verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during visual perception has not yet been examined in children. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between nonverbal and verbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during nontextual visual perception in large numbers of children. A significant positive correlation was found between nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation in the right temporoparietal junction, which is thought to be related to attention reorienting. This significant positive correlation existed only in boys. These findings suggested that male brain activation differed from female brain activation, and that this depended on individual cognitive processes, even if there was no gender difference in behavioral performance. PMID:24937269

Asano, Kohei; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

2014-08-01

132

Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K. R.; Singh, R. K.

2015-01-01

133

The 20S proteasome isolated from Alzheimer's disease brain shows post-translational modifications but unchanged proteolytic activity.  

PubMed

Chronic neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the accumulation of aggregated protein species, and functional impairment of the ubiquitin proteasome system has been hypothesized to contribute to neuronal cell loss. Decreased proteolytic activity of the 20S proteasome has been shown postmortem in crude brain lysates from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In the present study, we demonstrate, however, that catalytic activity of the 20S proteasome increases during chromatographic purification from AD brains as compared with age-matched controls. By two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis we detected pI shifts in several proteasome subunits in AD samples pointing to differential post-translational modifications. Moreover, we identified N-terminal acetylation and dephosphorylation of subunit alpha7 in AD by tandem mass spectrometry. Thus, reduced peptidase activity in AD brain extracts is not an intrinsic property of the 20S proteasome, but may be resulting from the presence of endogenous inhibitory proteins or substrates. Post-translational modifications of non-catalytic subunits in situ may contribute to the trend towards enhanced hydrolytic activity of the isolated 20S proteasome after removal of the endogenous inhibitors. PMID:17286585

Gillardon, Frank; Kloss, Alexander; Berg, Matthias; Neumann, Manuela; Mechtler, Karl; Hengerer, Bastian; Dahlmann, Burkhardt

2007-06-01

134

UCLA study shows prostate cancer finds a way to circumvent hormone therapy by activating a survival cell signaling pathway:  

Cancer.gov

In a study at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, researchers found that when a common type of prostate cancer was treated with conventional hormone ablation therapy blocking androgen production or androgen receptor function, the cancer was able to adapt and compensate by activating a survival cell signaling pathway, effectively circumventing the roadblock put up by this treatment.

135

Schizophrenic subjects show aberrant fMRI activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia during working memory performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Working memory (WM) deficits in schizophrenia have been associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) dysfunction in neuroimaging studies. We previously found increased DLPFC activation in schizophrenic versus normal subjects during WM performance (Manoach et al 1999b). We now have investigated whether schizophrenic subjects recruit different brain regions, particularly the basal ganglia and thalamus, components of frontostriatal circuitry thought to

Dara S. Manoach; Randy L. Gollub; Etienne S. Benson; Meghan M. Searl; Donald C. Goff; Elkan Halpern; Clifford B. Saper; Scott L. Rauch

2000-01-01

136

Rice salT promoter is activated in Papaver somniferum and Nicotiana tabacum transgenic cells in the absence of exogenous ABA.  

PubMed

With the aim of modifying secondary metabolism in Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells, gene transfer was performed using the sam1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the salT promoter. This promoter is induced by ABA in rice and in tobacco and we have shown that it is also induced in poppy cells (gus gene). Putatively transformed poppy and tobacco cell lines with the sam1 gene were obtained. In the absence of exogenous inducer we noticed the expression of the transgene resulting in a significant increase of SAM-S activity in all tested transformants of poppy and in half the transgenic tobacco cell lines tested. Addition of ABA to the culture medium failed to enhance the expression of the transgene in both species and resulted in a decrease of the sam1 gene expression in some cell lines. Since the salT promoter is induced by exogenous ABA in both species (gus reporter gene), we suggest a partial sam1 transgene inactivation in certain cell lines. These results show that the efficiency of a regulatory sequence may be different when fused with a reporter gene (gus) compared to fusion with a gene belonging to the housekeeping family (sam1). PMID:11118604

Elleuch; Belbahri; Boetti; David; Thomassetb; David

2001-01-01

137

Parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone from the medical herb feverfew, shows anticancer activity against human melanoma cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Metastatic melanoma is a highly life-threatening disease. The lack of response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy highlights the critical need for novel treatments. Parthenolide, an active component of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), inhibits proliferation and kills various cancer cells mainly by inducing apoptosis. The aim of the study was to examine anticancer effects of parthenolide in melanoma cells in vitro. The cytotoxicity of parthenolide was tested in melanoma cell lines and melanocytes, as well as melanoma cells directly derived from a surgical excision. Adherent cell proliferation was measured by tetrazolium derivative reduction assay. Loss of the plasma membrane integrity, hypodiploid events, reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, and caspase-3 activity were assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Microscopy was used to observe morphological changes and cell detachment. Parthenolide reduced the number of viable adherent cells in melanoma cultures. Half maximal inhibitory concentration values around 4 mumol/l were determined. Cell death accompanied by mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspase-3 activation was observed as the result of parthenolide application. Interestingly, the melanoma cells from vertical growth phase and melanocytes were less susceptible to parthenolide-induced cell death than metastatic cells when drug concentration was at least 6 mumol/l. Reactive oxygen species level was not significantly increased in melanoma cells. However, preincubation of parthenolide with the thiol nucleophile N-acetyl-cysteine protected melanoma cells from parthenolide-induced cell death suggesting the reaction with intracellular thiols as the mechanism responsible for parthenolide activity. In conclusion, the observed anticancer activity makes parthenolide an attractive drug candidate for further testing in melanoma therapy. PMID:19949351

Lesiak, Karolina; Koprowska, Kamila; Zalesna, Izabela; Nejc, Dariusz; Düchler, Markus; Czyz, Malgorzata

2010-02-01

138

Single-trial fMRI shows contralesional activity linked to overt naming errors in chronic aphasic patients.  

PubMed

We used fMRI to investigate the roles played by perilesional and contralesional cortical regions during language production in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. We applied comprehensive psycholinguistic analyses based on well-established models of lexical access to overt picture-naming responses, which were evaluated using a single trial design that permitted distinction between correct and incorrect responses on a trial-by-trial basis. Although both correct and incorrect naming responses were associated with left-sided perilesional activation, incorrect responses were selectively associated with robust right-sided contralesional activity. Most notably, incorrect responses elicited overactivation in the right inferior frontal gyrus that was not observed in the contrasts for patients' correct responses or for responses of age-matched control subjects. Errors were produced at slightly later onsets than accurate responses and comprised predominantly semantic paraphasias and omissions. Both types of errors were induced by pictures with greater numbers of alternative names, and omissions were also induced by pictures with late acquired names. These two factors, number of alternative names per picture and age of acquisition, were positively correlated with activation in left and right inferior frontal gyri in patients as well as control subjects. These results support the hypothesis that some right frontal activation may normally be associated with increasing naming difficulty, but in patients with aphasia, right frontal overactivation may reflect ineffective effort when left hemisphere perilesional resources are insufficient. They also suggest that contralesional areas continue to play a role--dysfunctional rather than compensatory--in chronic aphasic patients who have experienced a significant degree of recovery. PMID:19413476

Postman-Caucheteux, Whitney Anne; Birn, Rasmus M; Pursley, Randall H; Butman, John A; Solomon, Jeffrey M; Picchioni, Dante; McArdle, Joe; Braun, Allen R

2010-06-01

139

Active aluminum status in surface horizons showing continuous climosequence of volcanic ash-derived soils in Towada district, northeastern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the status of active Al of surface horizons formed in Towada-a ash and climatic conditions was studied in the Towada district, Aomori Prefecture. The mean monthly air temperature and precipitation were estimated from 1-km mesh data supplied by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Thornthwaite’s P-E (precipitation-evapotranspiration) index was used as the single climatic index combining the temperature and

Tadashi Takahashi; Sadao Shoji

1996-01-01

140

Our previous studies on G. dumetorum yielded several aporphine alkaloids that showed significant activity against Leishmania spp.  

E-print Network

Our previous studies on G. dumetorum yielded several aporphine alkaloids that showed significant conducted additional isolation efforts on the minor alkaloids of this species. A standard alkaloid on the identification of alkaloids 1±9 from G. dumetorum (Fig.1). All nine of these metabolites were tested against

Coley, Phyllis

141

Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition shows antileukemic activity in MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), several signaling pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT and the mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway are deregulated and constitutively activated as a consequence of genetic and cytogenetic abnormalities. We tested the effectiveness of PI3K/AKT/mTOR-targeting therapies and tried to identify alterations that associate with treatment sensitivity. By analyzing primary samples and cell lines, we observed a wide range of cytotoxic activity for inhibition of AKT (MK-2206), mTORC1 (rapamycin) and PI3K/mTORC1/2 (BEZ-235) with a high sensitivity of cells carrying an MLL rearrangement. In vivo PI3K/mTOR inhibition delayed tumor progression, reduced tumor load and prolonged survival in an MLL-AF9(+)/FLT3-ITD(+) xenograft mouse model. By performing targeted amplicon sequencing in 38 MLL-AF9(+) and 125 cytogenetically normal AML patient samples, we found a high additional mutation rate for genes involved in growth factor signaling in 79% of all MLL-AF9(+) samples, which could lead to a possible benefit of this cohort. PI3K/mTOR inhibition for 24?h led to the cross-activation of the ERK pathway. Further in vitro studies combining PI3K/mTOR and ERK pathway inhibition revealed highly synergistic effects in apoptosis assays. Our data implicate a possible therapeutic benefit of PI3K/mTOR inhibition in the MLL-mutated subgroup. Inhibiting rescue pathways could improve the therapeutic efficacy of PI3K-targeted therapies in AML. PMID:25322685

Sandhöfer, N; Metzeler, K H; Rothenberg, M; Herold, T; Tiedt, S; Groiß, V; Carlet, M; Walter, G; Hinrichsen, T; Wachter, O; Grunert, M; Schneider, S; Subklewe, M; Dufour, A; Fröhling, S; Klein, H-G; Hiddemann, W; Jeremias, I; Spiekermann, K

2015-04-01

142

Mono- and dinuclear manganese(III) complexes showing efficient catechol oxidase activity: syntheses, characterization and spectroscopic studies.  

PubMed

Four side-off compartmental ligands L1-L4 [L1 = N,N'-ethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methyl-salicylaldimine), L2 = N,N'-1-methylethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine), L3 = N,N'-1,1-dimethylethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine) and L4= N,N'-cyclohexenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine)] having two binding sites, N2O2 and O4, have been chosen to synthesize mononuclear and dinuclear manganese(III) complexes with the aim to study their catecholase activity using 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) as substrate in the presence of molecular oxygen. In all cases only mononuclear manganese complexes (1-4) were obtained, with manganese coordination taking place at the N2O2 binding site only, irrespective of the amount of manganese salt used. All these complexes have been characterized by routine physico-chemical techniques. Complex MnL2Cl.4H2O (2) has further been structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal structure analysis. Four dinuclear manganese complexes, 5-8, were obtained after condensing the two pending formyl groups on each ligand (L1-L4) with aniline followed by reaction with MnCl2 to put the second Mn atom onto another N2O2 site. The catalytic activity of all complexes 1-8 has been investigated following the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) to 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) with molecular oxygen in two different solvents, methanol and acetonitrile. The study reveals that the catalytic activity is influenced by the solvent and to a significant extent by the backbone of the diamine and the behavior seems to be related mainly to steric rather than electronic factors. Experimental data suggest that a correlation, the lower the E(1/2) value the higher the catalytic activity, can be drawn between E(1/2) and Vmax of the complexes in a particular solvent. The EPR measurements suggest that the catalytic property of the complexes is related to the metal center(s) participation rather than to a radical mechanism. PMID:19809751

Banu, Kazi Sabnam; Chattopadhyay, Tanmay; Banerjee, Arpita; Mukherjee, Madhuparna; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Patra, Goutam Kumar; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis

2009-10-28

143

Antimicrobial Peptides Expressed in Medicinal Maggots of the Blow Fly Lucilia sericata Show Combinatorial Activity against Bacteria.  

PubMed

The larvae of the common green bottle fly (Lucilia sericata) produce antibacterial secretions that have a therapeutic effect on chronic and nonhealing wounds. Recent developments in insect biotechnology have made it possible to use these larvae as a source of novel anti-infectives. Here, we report the application of next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to characterize the transcriptomes of the larval glands, crop, and gut, which contribute to the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteins secreted into wounds. Our data confirm that L. sericata larvae have adapted in order to colonize microbially contaminated habitats, such as carrion and necrotic wounds, and are protected against infection by a diverse spectrum of AMPs. L. sericata AMPs include not only lucifensin and lucimycin but also novel attacins, cecropins, diptericins, proline-rich peptides, and sarcotoxins. We identified 47 genes encoding putative AMPs and produced 23 as synthetic analogs, among which some displayed activities against a broad spectrum of microbial pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, and Enterococcus faecalis. Against Escherichia coli (Gram negative) and Micrococcus luteus (Gram positive), we found mostly additive effects but also synergistic activity when selected AMPs were tested in combination. The AMPs that are easy to synthesize are currently being produced in bulk to allow their evaluation as novel anti-infectives that can be formulated in hydrogels to produce therapeutic wound dressings and adhesive bandages. PMID:25666157

Pöppel, Anne-Kathrin; Vogel, Heiko; Wiesner, Jochen; Vilcinskas, Andreas

2015-05-01

144

Novel role for pectin methylesterase in Arabidopsis: A new function showing ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs, EC 3.2.2.22) are plant enzymes that can inhibit the translation process by removing single adenine residues of the large rRNA. These enzymes are known to function in defense against pathogens, but their biological role is unknown, partly due to the absence of work on RIPs in a model plant. In this study, we purified a protein showing

Clelia De-la-Peña; Dayakar V. Badri; Jorge M. Vivanco

2008-01-01

145

Antagonist activities of mecamylamine and nicotine show reciprocal dependence on beta subunit sequence in the second transmembrane domain  

PubMed Central

We show that a portion of the TM2 domain regulates the sensitivity of beta subunit-containing rat neuronal nicotinic AChR to the ganglionic blocker mecamylamine, such that the substitution of 4 amino acids of the muscle beta subunit sequence into the neuronal beta4 sequence decreases the potency of mecamylamine by a factor of 200 and eliminates any long-term effects of this drug on receptor function.The same exchange of sequence that decreases inhibition by mecamylamine produces a comparable potentiation of long-term inhibition by nicotine.Inhibition by mecamylamine is voltage-dependent, suggesting a direct interaction of mecamylamine with sequence elements within the membrane field. We have previously shown that sensitivity to TMP (tetramethylpiperidine) inhibitors is controlled by the same sequence elements that determine mecamylamine sensitivity. However, inhibition by bis-TMP compounds is independent of voltage.Our experiments did not show any influence of voltage on the inhibition of chimeric receptors by nicotine, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of nicotine are mediated by binding to a site outside the membrane's electric field.An analysis of point mutations indicates that the residues at the 6? position within the beta subunit TM2 domain may be important for determining the effects of both mecamylamine and nicotine in a reciprocal manner. Single mutations at the 10? position are not sufficient to produce effects, but 6? 10? double mutants show more effect than do the 6? single mutants. PMID:10455283

Webster, J Christopher; Francis, Michael M; Porter, Julia K; Robinson, Gillian; Stokes, Clare; Horenstein, Ben; Papke, Roger L

1999-01-01

146

Nanorods of a new metal-biomolecule coordination polymer showing novel bidirectional electrocatalytic activity and excellent performance in electrochemical sensing.  

PubMed

Metal organic coordination polymers (CPs), as most attractive multifunctional materials, have been studied extensively in many fields. However, metal-biomolecule CPs and CPs' electrochemical properties and applications were studied much less. We focus on this topic aiming at electrochemical biosensors with excellent performance and high biocompatibility. A new nanoscaled metal-biomolecule CP, Mn-tyr, containing manganese and tyrosine, was synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by various techniques, including XRD, TEM, EDS, EDX mapping, elemental analysis, XPS, and IR. Electrode modified with Mn-tyr showed novel bidirectional electrocatalytic ability toward both reduction and oxidation of H2O2, which might be due to Mn. With the assistance of CNTs, the sensing performance of Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE was improved to a much higher level, with high sensitivity of 543mAmol(-1)Lcm(-2) in linear range of 1.00×10(-6)-1.02×10(-4)molL(-1), and detection limit of 3.8×10(-7)molL(-1). Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE also showed fast response, high selectivity, high steadiness and reproducibility. The excellent performance implies that the metal-biomolecule CPs are promising candidates for using in enzyme-free electrochemical biosensing. PMID:25037318

Yang, Jiao; Zhou, Bo; Yao, Jie; Jiang, Xiao-Qing

2015-05-15

147

Glutaminase 2 negatively regulates the PI3K/AKT signaling and shows tumor suppression activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor p53 and its signaling pathway play a critical role in tumor prevention. As a direct p53 target gene, the role of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) in tumorigenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that GLS2 expression is significantly decreased in majority of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Restoration of GLS2 expression in HCC cells inhibits the anchorage-independent growth of cells and reduces the growth of HCC xenograft tumors. Interestingly, we found that GLS2 negatively regulates the PI3K/AKT signaling, which is frequently activated in HCC. Blocking the PI3K/AKT signaling in HCC cells largely abolishes the inhibitory effect of GLS2 on the anchorage-independent cell growth and xenograft tumor growth. The GLS2 promoter is hypermethylated in majority of HCC samples. CpG methylation of GLS2 promoter inhibits GLS2 transcription, whereas reducing the methylation of GLS2 promoter induces GLS2 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GLS2 plays an important role in tumor suppression in HCC, and the negative regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling contributes greatly to this function of GLS2. Furthermore, hypermethylation of GLS2 promoter is an important mechanism contributing to the decreased GLS2 expression in HCC. PMID:24797434

Liu, Juan; Zhang, Cen; Lin, Meihua; Zhu, Wei; Liang, Yingjian; Hong, Xuehui; Zhao, Yuhan; Young, Ken H.; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

2014-01-01

148

Crack users show high rates of antisocial personality disorder, engagement in illegal activities and other psychosocial problems.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare three groups of Brazilian psychoactive substance (PAS) abuse patients (crack cocaine users, cocaine snorters, and non-cocaine PAS users) in terms of psychiatric comorbidities and severity of psychosocial problems. A cross-sectional, multi-center study was conducted at five Brazilian research centers. A total of 738 current PAS abusers seeking specialized treatment (outpatient and inpatient clinics) were assessed using the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6): 293 patients using crack cocaine were compared with 126 using powder cocaine and 319 using non-cocaine PAS (mostly alcohol and marijuana). Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed in a smaller sample (290 cases), originating from three of the centers, using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus (MINI-Plus). Crack and powder cocaine users were significantly younger than non-cocaine PAS users (31.1 ± 8.1 and 32.9 ± 8.8 vs. 42.4 ± 12, respectively; p < .001). Crack users presented a higher rate of antisocial personality disorder (25%) than powder cocaine (9%) and non-cocaine PAS users (9%), even when adjusted for confounding factors (Pr = 2.6; 95% CI 1.10-6.40). According to ASI-6 summary scores, crack users presented a significantly higher rate of occupational, family, and legal problems and reported more illegal and violent activities such as burglary and theft (23%) and threatening or assaulting (32%) than non-cocaine PAS users. Our findings, combined with the recent increase observed in the prevalence of crack use in Brazil, highlight the severity of psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial problems related to this powerful drug and corroborate the already suggested association between crack/cocaine, violence, and legal problems. Treatment programs for crack users should routinely consider the possibility of associated psychiatric comorbidities, such as antisocial personality disorder, which may affect treatment outcomes. PMID:22691017

Paim Kessler, Felix Henrique; Barbosa Terra, Mauro; Faller, Sibele; Ravy Stolf, Anderson; Carolina Peuker, Ana; Benzano, Daniela; Pechansky, Flavio

2012-01-01

149

Phosphatase activity of the voltage-sensing phosphatase, VSP, shows graded dependence on the extent of activation of the voltage sensor  

PubMed Central

The voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a voltage sensor and a cytoplasmic phosphatase region, and the movement of the voltage sensor is coupled to the phosphatase activity. However, its coupling mechanisms still remain unclear. One possible scenario is that the phosphatase is activated only when the voltage sensor is in a fully activated state. Alternatively, the enzymatic activity of single VSP proteins could be graded in distinct activated states of the voltage sensor, and partial activation of the voltage sensor could lead to partial activation of the phosphatase. To distinguish between these two possibilities, we studied a voltage sensor mutant of zebrafish VSP, where the voltage sensor moves in two steps as evidenced by analyses of charge movements of the voltage sensor and voltage clamp fluorometry. Measurements of the phosphatase activity toward phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate revealed that both steps of voltage sensor activation are coupled to the tuning of phosphatase activities, consistent with the idea that the phosphatase activity is graded by the magnitude of the movement of the voltage sensor. PMID:24277865

Sakata, Souhei; Okamura, Yasushi

2014-01-01

150

Homemade Laser Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a laser pointer and some household items, learners can create their own laser light show. They can explore diffuse reflection, refraction and diffraction. The webpage includes a video which shows how to set up the activity and also includes scientific explanation. Because this activity involves lasers, it requires adult supervision.

Children's Museum of Houston

2011-01-01

151

Political activities at gun shows represent views that start at the conservative and move to the right from there. As with the  

E-print Network

6 Politics Political activities at gun shows represent views that start at the conservative that could usefully be explored by others. Candidates for public office see gun shows as a way to connect with a motivated constituency. As one observer described it, "There are people who vote guns and only guns

Leistikow, Bruce N.

152

TRAIL shows potential cardioprotective activity.  

PubMed

Recent clinical trials carried out in patients with advanced cancer have shown that recombinant TRAIL administration is usually safe and well tolerated when used either alone or in association with chemotherapeutic drugs. Notably, anticancer chemotherapy can be associated to cardiomiopathy. We have here demonstrated that TRAIL (administrated as either recombinant soluble TRAIL or as AAV-TRAIL expression viral vector) reduced the development of cardiomyopathy in the ApoE(-/-) diabetic mouse model. These data suggest, for the first time, that therapeutically administration of TRAIL might have a cardioprotective effect. PMID:21197620

Toffoli, Barbara; Bernardi, Stella; Candido, Riccardo; Zacchigna, Serena; Fabris, Bruno; Secchiero, Paola

2012-06-01

153

Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to temperature elevation shows seasonal variation in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.  

PubMed

Global climate change is affecting ectothermic species, and a variety of studies are needed on thermal tolerances, especially from cellular and physiological perspectives. This study utilized AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of cellular energy levels, to examine the effects of high water temperatures on zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) physiology. During heating, AMPK activity increased as water temperature increased to a point, and maximum AMPK activity was detected at high, but sublethal, water temperatures. This pattern varied with season, suggesting that cellular mechanisms of seasonal thermal acclimatization affect basic metabolic processes during sublethal heat stress. There was a greater seasonal variation in the water temperature at which maximum AMPK activity was measured than in lethal water temperature. Furthermore, baseline AMPK activity varied significantly across seasons, most likely reflecting altered metabolic states during times of growth and reproduction. In addition, when summer-collected mussels were lab-acclimated to winter and spring water temperatures, patterns of heat stress mirrored those of field-collected animals. These data suggest that water temperature is the main driver of the seasonal variation in physiology. This study concluded that AMPK activity, which reflects changes in energy supply and demand during heat stress, can serve as a sensitive and early indicator of temperature stress in mussels. PMID:25498351

Jost, Jennifer A; Keshwani, Sarah S; Abou-Hanna, Jacob J

2015-04-01

154

Immunolocalization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (CAD?2) indicates a good correlation with cell-specific activity of CAD?2 promoter in transgenic poplar shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (CAD?2) localization and the cell-specific activity of the eucalyptus CAD?2 promoter were\\u000a investigated by CAD?2 immunogold localization and promoter ?-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemistry in apical and mature parts\\u000a of stable transformed poplar (Populus tremula?×?P. alba) stems. Both CAD?2 protein and GUS activity were found to be confined in the same types of cells in the shoot

Jozef Šamaj; Simon Hawkins; Virginie Lauvergeat; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati; Alain Boudet

1998-01-01

155

Draft Genome Sequence and Annotation of the Entomopathogenic Bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens LN2, Which Shows Nematicidal Activity against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 Nematodes.  

PubMed

We present here the 5.6-Mb genome sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens strain LN2, a Gram-negative bacterium that is a symbiont of Heterorhabditis indica LN2 and shows nematicidal activity against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 nematodes. PMID:25502667

Qiu, Xuehong; Zhan, Zu-Bing; Yan, Xun; Han, Richou

2014-01-01

156

Draft Genome Sequence and Annotation of the Entomopathogenic Bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens LN2, Which Shows Nematicidal Activity against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 Nematodes  

PubMed Central

We present here the 5.6-Mb genome sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens strain LN2, a Gram-negative bacterium that is a symbiont of Heterorhabditis indica LN2 and shows nematicidal activity against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 nematodes. PMID:25502667

Qiu, Xuehong; Zhan, Zu-Bing; Yan, Xun

2014-01-01

157

Flomoxef showed excellent in vitro activity against clinically important gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens causing community- and hospital-associated infections.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to better understand the in vitro activity of flomoxef against clinical pathogens. A total of 545 clinical isolates, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes, were isolated consecutively from clinical specimens from Peking Union Medical College Hospital in 2013. MICs were determined using broth microdilution method. esbl and ampC genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Flomoxef showed excellent activity against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates, with susceptibility rate of 88.8%, 88.3%, and 97.7%, separately. Moreover, flomoxef exhibited great activity against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, with MIC50/MIC90 of 0.125/(0.5-1) ?g/mL. Flomoxef showed MIC50/MIC90 of 0.5/0.5?g/mL against MSSA, 0.125/0.25?g/mL against S. pyogenes, and 2/16?g/mL against S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, flomoxef is one of the cephamycins showing excellent activity against ESBL-producing or ESBL-nonproducing E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis and was also potent against MSSA, S. pyogenes, and S. pneumoniae. PMID:25641126

Yang, Qiwen; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Jingwei; Xu, Zhipeng; Hou, Xin; Xu, Yingchun

2015-04-01

158

Thalassemia major patients using iron chelators showed a reduced plasma thioredoxin level and reduced thioredoxin reductase activity, despite elevated oxidative stress.  

PubMed

In the present study, we aimed to investigate plasma levels of peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) and thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), and the activity of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), in thalassemia major (TM) patients living in the Antalya region, Turkey. The patients were divided into three groups, according to chelators - the deferoxamine group (DFO, n = 20), the deferasirox group (DFX, n = 20), and the deferiprone group (DFP, n = 20), to compare any possible effect of chelators on antioxidative and oxidative stress parameters. A control group (n = 20) was selected from healthy volunteers. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and TrxR, as well as the concentrations of Prx2, Trx1, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the plasma samples of TM patients and the controls. The activity of CAT and the levels of H2O2 and MDA in the TM patients were significantly higher than those in the controls, while the levels of GPx, Trx1, TrxR, and GSH were lower. The concentrations of ferritin, GSH, H2O2, and MDA, as well as the activities of GR, CAT and TrxR, showed significant differences among the chelator groups. Although TrxR activity showed an increase in TM patients due to an elevated iron overload, both TrxR activity and Trx1 level were lower in the patient groups compared with the cases in the control group. As a result, because Trx1 level and TrxR activity were measured at a low level in the patients, increasing the levels of Trx1 and TrxR in TM patients will be a target of future treatment. PMID:25564095

Ozturk, Z; Genc, G E; Kupesiz, A; Kurtoglu, E; Gumuslu, S

2015-03-01

159

The major indole alkaloid N,?-D-glucopyranosyl vincosamide from leaves of Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl. is not an antifeedant but shows broad antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

N,?-D-glucopyranosyl vincosamide (GPV), a major alkaloid of Psychotria leiocarpa, constitutes up to 2.5% of the dry weight in leaves. Alkaloid content was not elicited by mechanical wounding or jasmonate. At concentrations found in natural conditions or 2.5 fold higher, GPV did not inhibit herbivory in two unrelated generalist models (Helix aspersa and Spodoptera frugiperda) or in a specific interaction model (Heliconius erato fed with Passiflora suberosa). In situ staining assay showed quenching activity of hydrogen peroxide by GPV. Exposure of P. leiocarpa to acute UV-B stress did not change GPV or chlorophyll content, indicating high tolerance to this stress by the species. In vitro antioxidant tests against singlet oxygen, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals showed efficient quenching activity of the alkaloid. GPV was not effective as antifeedant, but it may act indirectly in P. leiocarpa protection against oxidative stress generated upon wounding, UV exposure and perhaps other environmental stresses. PMID:22891663

Matsuura, Hélio Nitta; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

2013-03-01

160

The copper(i) metal azolate framework showing unusual coordination mode for the 1,2,4-triazole derivative and photocatalytic activity.  

PubMed

A unique three-dimensional metal azolate framework containing a tetranuclear copper cluster constructed by six 1,2,4-triazole units was synthesized in which the 1,2,4-triazole units show unusual bridging "crevice" coordination mode with their 1- and 2-positioned sp(2) N-atoms as symmetrically bridging centers. The photocatalytic activities of as-prepared compound were tested by degradation of rhodamine-B (RB) under different light irradiation. PMID:25650161

Song, Bai-Qiao; Qin, Chao; Zhang, Yu-Teng; Wu, Xue-Song; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Su, Zhong-Min

2015-02-17

161

Combined experimental and theoretical study on redox-active d8 metal dithione-dithiolato complexes showing molecular second-order nonlinear optical activity.  

PubMed

Synthesis, characterization, NLO properties, and theoretical studies of the mixed-ligand dithiolene complexes of the nickel triad [M(II)(Bz(2)pipdt)(mnt)] (Bz(2)pipdt = 1,4-dibenzyl-piperazine-3,2-dithione, mnt = maleonitriledithiolato, M(II) = Ni, 1, Pd, 2, Pt, 3) are reported. Molecular structural characterization of 1-3 points out that four sulfur atoms are in a slightly distorted square-planar geometry. While the M-S bond distances are only slightly different, comparison of the C-C and C-S bonds in the C(2)S(2)MS(2)C(2) core allows us to point out a significant difference between the C-C and the C-S distances in Bz(2)pipdt and mnt. These findings suggest assigning a dithiolato character to mnt (pull ligand) and a dithione one (push ligand) to Bz(2)pipdt. Cyclic voltammetry of 1-3 exhibits two reversible reduction waves and a broad irreversible oxidation wave. These complexes are characterized in the visible region by a peak of moderately strong intensity, which undergoes negative solvatochromism. The molecular quadratic optical nonlinearities were determined by the EFISH technique, which provided the following values ??(?) (10(-48) esu) = -1436 (1), -1450 (2), and -1950 (3) converted in ??(0) (10(-48) esu) = -463 (1), -684 (2), and -822 (3), showing that these complexes exhibit large negative second-order polarizabilities whose values depend on the metal, being highest for the Pt compound. DFT and TD-DFT calculations on 1-3 allow us to correlate geometries and electronic structures. Moreover, the first molecular hyperpolarizabilities have been calculated, and the results obtained support that the most appealing candidate as a second-order NLO chromophore is the platinum compound. This is due to (i) the most extensive mixture of the dithione/metal/dithiolato orbitals, (ii) the influence of the electric field of the solvent on the frontier orbitals that maximizes the difference in dipole moments between the excited and the ground state, and (iii) the largest oscillator strength in the platinum case vs nickel and palladium ones. PMID:21939192

Pilia, Luca; Espa, Davide; Barsella, Alberto; Fort, Alain; Makedonas, Christodoulos; Marchiò, Luciano; Mercuri, Maria Laura; Serpe, Angela; Mitsopoulou, Christiana A; Deplano, Paola

2011-10-17

162

Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18? ? g/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41? ? g/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21? ? g/mL against EV71 and 9.08? ? g/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39? ? M) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24? ? M). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection. PMID:24078828

Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

2013-01-01

163

B-Ring-Aryl Substituted Luotonin A Analogues with a New Binding Mode to the Topoisomerase 1-DNA Complex Show Enhanced Cytotoxic Activity  

PubMed Central

Topoisomerase 1 inhibition is an important strategy in targeted cancer chemotherapy. The drugs currently in use acting on this enzyme belong to the family of the camptothecins, and suffer severe limitations because of their low stability, which is associated with the hydrolysis of the ?-lactone moiety in their E ring. Luotonin A is a natural camptothecin analogue that lacks this functional group and therefore shows a much-improved stability, but at the cost of a lower activity. Therefore, the development of luotonin A analogues with an increased potency is important for progress in this area. In the present paper, a small library of luotonin A analogues modified at their A and B rings was generated by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-catalyzed Friedländer reactions. All analogues showed an activity similar or higher than the natural luotonin A in terms of topoisomerase 1 inhibition and some compounds had an activity comparable to that of camptothecin. Furthermore, most compounds showed a better activity than luotonin A in cell cytotoxicity assays. In order to rationalize these results, the first docking studies of luotonin-topoisomerase 1-DNA ternary complexes were undertaken. Most compounds bound in a manner similar to luotonin A and to standard topoisomerase poisons such as topotecan but, interestingly, the two most promising analogues, bearing a 3,5-dimethylphenyl substituent at ring B, docked in a different orientation. This binding mode allows the hydrophobic moiety to be shielded from the aqueous environment by being buried between the deoxyribose belonging to the G(+1) guanine and Arg364 in the scissile strand and the surface of the protein and a hydrogen bond between the D-ring carbonyl and the basic amino acid. The discovery of this new binding mode and its associated higher inhibitory potency is a significant advance in the design of new topoisomerase 1 inhibitors. PMID:24830682

González-Ruiz, Víctor; Pascua, Irene; Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Ribelles, Pascual; Bianchini, Giulia; Sridharan, Vellaisamy; Iniesta, Pilar; Ramos, M. Teresa; Olives, Ana I.; Martín, M. Antonia; Menéndez, J. Carlos

2014-01-01

164

B-ring-aryl substituted luotonin A analogues with a new binding mode to the topoisomerase 1-DNA complex show enhanced cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

Topoisomerase 1 inhibition is an important strategy in targeted cancer chemotherapy. The drugs currently in use acting on this enzyme belong to the family of the camptothecins, and suffer severe limitations because of their low stability, which is associated with the hydrolysis of the ?-lactone moiety in their E ring. Luotonin A is a natural camptothecin analogue that lacks this functional group and therefore shows a much-improved stability, but at the cost of a lower activity. Therefore, the development of luotonin A analogues with an increased potency is important for progress in this area. In the present paper, a small library of luotonin A analogues modified at their A and B rings was generated by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-catalyzed Friedländer reactions. All analogues showed an activity similar or higher than the natural luotonin A in terms of topoisomerase 1 inhibition and some compounds had an activity comparable to that of camptothecin. Furthermore, most compounds showed a better activity than luotonin A in cell cytotoxicity assays. In order to rationalize these results, the first docking studies of luotonin-topoisomerase 1-DNA ternary complexes were undertaken. Most compounds bound in a manner similar to luotonin A and to standard topoisomerase poisons such as topotecan but, interestingly, the two most promising analogues, bearing a 3,5-dimethylphenyl substituent at ring B, docked in a different orientation. This binding mode allows the hydrophobic moiety to be shielded from the aqueous environment by being buried between the deoxyribose belonging to the G(+1) guanine and Arg364 in the scissile strand and the surface of the protein and a hydrogen bond between the D-ring carbonyl and the basic amino acid. The discovery of this new binding mode and its associated higher inhibitory potency is a significant advance in the design of new topoisomerase 1 inhibitors. PMID:24830682

González-Ruiz, Víctor; Pascua, Irene; Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Ribelles, Pascual; Bianchini, Giulia; Sridharan, Vellaisamy; Iniesta, Pilar; Ramos, M Teresa; Olives, Ana I; Martín, M Antonia; Menéndez, J Carlos

2014-01-01

165

Activating FLT3 Mutants Show Distinct Gain-of-Function Phenotypes In Vitro and a Characteristic Signaling Pathway Profile Associated with Prognosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

About 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbour mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, mostly internal tandem duplications (ITD) and point mutations of the second tyrosine kinase domain (TKD). It was the aim of this study to comprehensively analyze clinical and functional properties of various FLT3 mutants. In 672 normal karyotype AML patients FLT3-ITD, but not FLT3-TKD mutations were associated with a worse relapse free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. In paired diagnosis-relapse samples FLT3-ITD showed higher stability (70%) compared to FLT3-TKD (30%). In vitro, FLT3-ITD induced a strong activating phenotype in Ba/F3 cells. In contrast, FLT3-TKD mutations and other point mutations – including two novel mutations – showed a weaker but clear gain-of-function phenotype with gradual increase in proliferation and protection from apoptosis. The pro-proliferative capacity of the investigated FLT3 mutants was associated with cell surface expression and tyrosine 591 phosphorylation of the FLT3 receptor. Western blot experiments revealed STAT5 activation only in FLT3-ITD positive cell lines, in contrast to FLT3-non-ITD mutants, which displayed an enhanced signal of AKT and MAPK activation. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct difference between FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD for STAT5 target gene expression as well as deregulation of SOCS2, ENPP2, PRUNE2 and ART3. FLT3-ITD and FLT3 point mutations show a gain-of-function phenotype with distinct signalling properties in vitro. Although poor prognosis in AML is only associated with FLT3-ITD, all activating FLT3 mutations can contribute to leukemogenesis and are thus potential targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24608088

Janke, Hanna; Pastore, Friederike; Schumacher, Daniela; Herold, Tobias; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Schneider, Stephanie; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Büchner, Thomas; Woermann, Bernhard J.; Subklewe, Marion; Bohlander, Stefan K.; Hiddemann, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

166

Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18??g/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41??g/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21??g/mL against EV71 and 9.08??g/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39??M) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24??M). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection. PMID:24078828

Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

2013-01-01

167

Showing What They Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

Cech, Scott J.

2008-01-01

168

What Do Maps Show?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

169

The Ozone Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

Mathieu, Aaron

2000-01-01

170

PP2A inhibition determines poor outcome and doxorubicin resistance in early breast cancer and its activation shows promising therapeutic effects.  

PubMed

The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a key tumor suppressor which has emerged as a novel molecular target in some human cancers. Here, we show that PP2A inhibition is a common event in breast cancer and identified PP2A phosphorylation and deregulation SET and CIP2A as molecular contributing mechanisms to inactivate PP2A. Interestingly, restoration of PP2A activity after FTY720 treatment reduced cell growth, induced apoptosis and decreased AKT and ERK activation. Moreover, FTY720 led to PP2A activation then enhancing doxorubicin-induced antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. PP2A inhibition (CPscore: PP2A phosphorylation and/or CIP2A overexpression) was detected in 27% of cases (62/230), and associated with grade (p = 0.017), relapse (p < 0.001), negative estrogen (p < 0.001) and progesterone receptor expression (p < 0.001), HER2-positive tumors (p = 0.049), Ki-67 expression (p < 0.001), and higher AKT (p < 0.001) and ERK (p < 0.001) phosphorylation. Moreover, PP2A inhibition determined shorter overall (p = 0.006) and event-free survival (p = 0.003), and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic impact. Altogether, our results indicate that PP2A is frequently inactivated in breast cancer and determines worse outcome, and its restoration using PP2A activators represents an alternative therapeutic strategy in this disease. PMID:25726524

Rincón, Raúl; Cristóbal, Ion; Zazo, Sandra; Arpí, Oriol; Menéndez, Silvia; Manso, Rebeca; Lluch, Ana; Eroles, Pilar; Rovira, Ana; Albanell, Joan; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan; Rojo, Federico

2015-02-28

171

The Arabidopsis homologs of CCR4-associated factor 1 show mRNA deadenylation activity and play a role in plant defence responses.  

PubMed

Messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover in eukaryotic cells begins with shortening of the poly (A) tail at the 3' end, a process called deadenylation. In yeast, the deadenylation reaction is predominantly mediated by CCR4 and CCR4-associated factor 1 (CAF1), two components of the well-characterised protein complex named CCR4-NOT. We report here that AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b, putative Arabidopsis homologs of the yeast CAF1 gene, partially complement the growth defect of the yeast caf1 mutant in the presence of caffeine or at high temperatures. The expression of AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b is induced by multiple stress-related hormones and stimuli. Both AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b show deadenylation activity in vitro and point mutations in the predicted active sites disrupt this activity. T-DNA insertion mutants disrupting the expression of AtCAF1a and/or AtCAF1b are defective in deadenylation of stress-related mRNAs, indicating that the two AtCAF1 proteins are involved in regulated mRNA deadenylation in vivo. Interestingly, the single and double mutants of AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b show reduced expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR1 and PR2 and are more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) infection, whereas transgenic plants over-expressing AtCAF1a show elevated expression of PR1 and PR2 and increased resistance to the same pathogen. Our results suggest roles of the AtCAF1 proteins in regulated mRNA deadenylation and defence responses to pathogen infections. PMID:19065152

Liang, Wenxing; Li, Changbao; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Hongling; Li, Shuyu; Sun, Jiaqiang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, Chuanyou

2009-03-01

172

The environmental chemical tributyltin chloride (TBT) shows both estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice which might depend on the exposure dose  

SciTech Connect

Exposure during early development to chemicals with hormonal action may be associated with weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. It is known that organotins affect adipose mass when exposure occurs during fetal development, although no knowledge of effects are available for exposures after birth. Here we show that the environmental organotin tributyltin chloride (TBT) exerts adipogenic action when peripubertal and sexually mature mice are exposed to the chemical. The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and on the dose of the compound, and the effects are relevant at doses close to the estimated human intake (0.5 {mu}g/kg). At higher doses (50-500 {mu}g/kg), TBT also activated estrogen receptors (ERs) in adipose cells in vitro and in vivo, based on results from acute and longitudinal studies in ERE/luciferase reporter mice. In 3T3-L1 cells (which have no ERs), transiently transfected with the ERE-dependent reporter plus or minus ER{alpha} or ER{beta}, TBT (in a dose range of 1-100 nM) directly targets each ER subtype in a receptor-specific manner through a direct mechanism mediated by ER{alpha} in undifferentiated preadipocytic cells and by ER{beta} in differentiating adipocytes. The ER antagonist ICI-182,780 inhibits this effect. In summary, the results of this work suggest that TBT is adipogenic at all ages and in both sexes and that it might be an ER activator in fat cells. These findings might help to resolve the apparent paradox of an adipogenic chemical being also an estrogen receptor activator by showing that the two apparently opposite actions are separated by the different doses to which the organism is exposed. - Research Highlights: > The environmental organotin tributyltin chloride shows dose-dependent estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice. > The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and the dose of the compound. > The estrogenic and adipogenic effects of TBT occur at doses closed to the estimated human intake. > TBT activates the estrogen receptors (ER{alpha} and ER{beta}) in 3T3-L1 cells at nM concentrations.

Penza, M.; Jeremic, M.; Marrazzo, E. [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Maggi, A.; Ciana, P. [Centre of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Milan (Italy); Rando, G. [Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne (Switzerland); Grigolato, P.G. [Human Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Di Lorenzo, D., E-mail: dilorenzodiego@yahoo.it [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy)

2011-08-15

173

A Novel Small Molecule FL118 That Selectively Inhibits Survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP and cIAP2 in a p53-Independent Manner, Shows Superior Antitumor Activity  

PubMed Central

Drug/radiation resistance to treatment and tumor relapse are major obstacles in identifying a cure for cancer. Development of novel agents that address these challenges would therefore be of the upmost importance in the fight against cancer. In this regard, studies show that the antiapoptotic protein survivin is a central molecule involved in both hurdles. Using cancer cell-based survivin-reporter systems (US 7,569,221 B2) via high throughput screening (HTS) of compound libraries, followed by in vitro and in vivo analyses of HTS-derived hit-lead compounds, we identified a novel anticancer compound (designated FL118). FL118 shows structural similarity to irinotecan. However, while the inhibition of DNA topoisomerase 1 activity by FL118 was no better than the active form of irinotecan, SN-38 at 1 µM, FL118 effectively inhibited cancer cell growth at less than nM levels in a p53 status-independent manner. Moreover, FL118 selectively inhibited survivin promoter activity and gene expression also in a p53 status-independent manner. Although the survivin promoter-reporter system was used for the identification of FL118, our studies revealed that FL118 not only inhibits survivin expression but also selectively and independently inhibits three additional cancer-associated survival genes (Mcl-1, XIAP and cIAP2) in a p53 status-independent manner, while showing no inhibitory effects on control genes. Genetic silencing or overexpression of FL118 targets demonstrated a role for these targets in FL118’s effects. Follow-up in vivo studies revealed that FL118 exhibits superior antitumor efficacy in human tumor xenograft models in comparison with irinotecan, topotecan, doxorubicin, 5-FU, gemcitabine, docetaxel, oxaliplatin, cytoxan and cisplatin, and a majority of mice treated with FL118 showed tumor regression with a weekly × 4 schedule. FL118 induced favorable body-weight-loss profiles (temporary and reversible) and was able to eliminate large tumors. Together, the molecular targeting features of FL118 plus its superior antitumor activity warrant its further development toward clinical trials. PMID:23029106

Cheng, Qiuying; Keefe, James T.; Rustum, Youcef M.; Li, Fengzhi

2012-01-01

174

A novel small molecule FL118 that selectively inhibits survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP and cIAP2 in a p53-independent manner, shows superior antitumor activity.  

PubMed

Drug/radiation resistance to treatment and tumor relapse are major obstacles in identifying a cure for cancer. Development of novel agents that address these challenges would therefore be of the upmost importance in the fight against cancer. In this regard, studies show that the antiapoptotic protein survivin is a central molecule involved in both hurdles. Using cancer cell-based survivin-reporter systems (US 7,569,221 B2) via high throughput screening (HTS) of compound libraries, followed by in vitro and in vivo analyses of HTS-derived hit-lead compounds, we identified a novel anticancer compound (designated FL118). FL118 shows structural similarity to irinotecan. However, while the inhibition of DNA topoisomerase 1 activity by FL118 was no better than the active form of irinotecan, SN-38 at 1 µM, FL118 effectively inhibited cancer cell growth at less than nM levels in a p53 status-independent manner. Moreover, FL118 selectively inhibited survivin promoter activity and gene expression also in a p53 status-independent manner. Although the survivin promoter-reporter system was used for the identification of FL118, our studies revealed that FL118 not only inhibits survivin expression but also selectively and independently inhibits three additional cancer-associated survival genes (Mcl-1, XIAP and cIAP2) in a p53 status-independent manner, while showing no inhibitory effects on control genes. Genetic silencing or overexpression of FL118 targets demonstrated a role for these targets in FL118's effects. Follow-up in vivo studies revealed that FL118 exhibits superior antitumor efficacy in human tumor xenograft models in comparison with irinotecan, topotecan, doxorubicin, 5-FU, gemcitabine, docetaxel, oxaliplatin, cytoxan and cisplatin, and a majority of mice treated with FL118 showed tumor regression with a weekly × 4 schedule. FL118 induced favorable body-weight-loss profiles (temporary and reversible) and was able to eliminate large tumors. Together, the molecular targeting features of FL118 plus its superior antitumor activity warrant its further development toward clinical trials. PMID:23029106

Ling, Xiang; Cao, Shousong; Cheng, Qiuying; Keefe, James T; Rustum, Youcef M; Li, Fengzhi

2012-01-01

175

Germ Line Variants of Human N-Methylpurine DNA Glycosylase Show Impaired DNA Repair Activity and Facilitate 1,N6-Ethenoadenine-induced Mutations.  

PubMed

Human N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (hMPG) initiates base excision repair of a number of structurally diverse purine bases including 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine, hypoxanthine, and alkylation adducts in DNA. Genetic studies discovered at least eight validated non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) of the hMPG gene in human populations that result in specific single amino acid substitutions. In this study, we tested the functional consequences of these nsSNPs of hMPG. Our results showed that two specific arginine residues, Arg-141 and Arg-120, are important for the activity of hMPG as the germ line variants R120C and R141Q had reduced enzymatic activity in vitro as well as in mammalian cells. Expression of these two variants in mammalian cells lacking endogenous MPG also showed an increase in mutations and sensitivity to an alkylating agent compared with the WT hMPG. Real time binding experiments by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy suggested that these variants have substantial reduction in the equilibrium dissociation constant of binding (KD) of hMPG toward 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine-containing oligonucleotide (?A-DNA). Pre-steady-state kinetic studies showed that the substitutions at arginine residues affected the turnover of the enzyme significantly under multiple turnover condition. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy further showed that both variants had significantly decreased nonspecific (undamaged) DNA binding. Molecular modeling suggested that R141Q substitution may have resulted in a direct loss of the salt bridge between ?A-DNA and hMPG, whereas R120C substitution redistributed, at a distance, the interactions among residues in the catalytic pocket. Together our results suggest that individuals carrying R120C and R141Q MPG variants may be at risk for genomic instability and associated diseases as a consequence. PMID:25538240

Adhikari, Sanjay; Chetram, Mahandranauth A; Woodrick, Jordan; Mitra, Partha S; Manthena, Praveen V; Khatkar, Pooja; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Dixon, Monica; Karmahapatra, Soumendra K; Nuthalapati, Nikhil K; Gupta, Suhani; Narasimhan, Ganga; Mazumder, Raja; Loffredo, Christopher A; Üren, Aykut; Roy, Rabindra

2015-02-20

176

Modified High-Density Lipoproteins by Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame, and Saccharin, Showed Loss of Anti-atherosclerotic Activity and Toxicity in Zebrafish.  

PubMed

Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function. PMID:25142179

Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

2015-01-01

177

Activity of the novel peptide arminin against multiresistant human pathogens shows the considerable potential of phylogenetically ancient organisms as drug sources.  

PubMed

The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria highlights the need for new antibacterial agents. Arminin 1a is a novel antimicrobial peptide discovered during investigations of the epithelial defense of the ancient metazoan Hydra. Following proteolytic processing, the 31-amino-acid-long positively charged C-terminal part of arminin 1a exhibits potent and broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, including multiresistant human pathogenic strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains (minimal bactericidal concentration, 0.4 microM to 0.8 microM). Ultrastructural observations indicate that bacteria are killed by disruption of the bacterial cell wall. Remarkably, the antibacterial activity of arminin 1a is not affected under the physiological salt conditions of human blood. In addition, arminin 1a is a selective antibacterial agent that does not affect human erythrocyte membranes. Arminin 1a shows no sequence homology to any known antimicrobial peptide. Because of its high level of activity against multiresistant bacterial strains pathogenic for humans, the peptide arminin 1a is a promising template for a new class of antibiotics. Our data suggest that ancient metazoan organisms such as Hydra hold promise for the detection of novel antimicrobial molecules and the treatment of infections caused by multiresistant bacteria. PMID:19770277

Augustin, René; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Jungnickel, Stephanie; Hemmrich, Georg; Spudy, Björn; Podschun, Rainer; Bosch, Thomas C G

2009-12-01

178

Activity of the Novel Peptide Arminin against Multiresistant Human Pathogens Shows the Considerable Potential of Phylogenetically Ancient Organisms as Drug Sources?  

PubMed Central

The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria highlights the need for new antibacterial agents. Arminin 1a is a novel antimicrobial peptide discovered during investigations of the epithelial defense of the ancient metazoan Hydra. Following proteolytic processing, the 31-amino-acid-long positively charged C-terminal part of arminin 1a exhibits potent and broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, including multiresistant human pathogenic strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains (minimal bactericidal concentration, 0.4 ?M to 0.8 ?M). Ultrastructural observations indicate that bacteria are killed by disruption of the bacterial cell wall. Remarkably, the antibacterial activity of arminin 1a is not affected under the physiological salt conditions of human blood. In addition, arminin 1a is a selective antibacterial agent that does not affect human erythrocyte membranes. Arminin 1a shows no sequence homology to any known antimicrobial peptide. Because of its high level of activity against multiresistant bacterial strains pathogenic for humans, the peptide arminin 1a is a promising template for a new class of antibiotics. Our data suggest that ancient metazoan organisms such as Hydra hold promise for the detection of novel antimicrobial molecules and the treatment of infections caused by multiresistant bacteria. PMID:19770277

Augustin, René; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Jungnickel, Stephanie; Hemmrich, Georg; Spudy, Björn; Podschun, Rainer; Bosch, Thomas C. G.

2009-01-01

179

Polysaccharides from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps taii Show Antioxidant and Immunoenhancing Activities in a D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Cordyceps taii, an edible medicinal mushroom native to south China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. In the present study, the antioxidant pharmacological properties of C. taii were systematically investigated. In vitro assays revealed the scavenging activities of the aqueous extract and polysaccharides of C. taii against various free radicals, that is, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical. The EC50 values for superoxide anion-free radical ranged from 2.04?mg/mL to 2.49?mg/mL, which was at least 2.6-fold stronger than that of antioxidant thiourea. The polysaccharides also significantly enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and markedly decreased the malondialdehyde production of lipid peroxidation in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Interestingly, the immune function of the administration group was significantly boosted compared with the D-galactose-induced aging model group. Therefore, the C. taii polysaccharides possessed potent antioxidant activity closely associated with immune function enhancement and free radical scavenging. These findings suggest that the polysaccharides are a promising source of natural antioxidants and antiaging drugs. Consequently, a preliminary chemical investigation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and revealed that the polysaccharides studied were mainly composed of glucose, mannose, and galactose. Fourier-transform infrared spectra also showed characteristic polysaccharide absorption bands. PMID:22536281

Xiao, Jian-Hui; Xiao, Dai-Min; Chen, Dai-Xiong; Xiao, Yu; Liang, Zong-Qi; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

2012-01-01

180

Tissue-specific microvascular endothelial cells show distinct capacity to activate NK cells: implications for the pathophysiology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis.  

PubMed

The relevance of tissue specificity of microvascular endothelial cells (MECs) in the response to inflammatory stimuli and sensitivity to immune cell-mediated injury is not well defined. We hypothesized that such MEC characteristics might shape their interaction with NK cells through the use of different adhesion molecules and NK cell receptor ligands or the release of different soluble factors and render them more or less vulnerable to NK cell injury during autoimmune vasculitis, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). To generate a comprehensive expression profile of human MECs of renal, lung, and dermal tissue origin, we characterized, in detail, their response to inflammatory cytokines and to proteinase 3, a major autoantigen in GPA, and analyzed the effects on NK cell activation. In this study, we show that renal MECs were more susceptible than lung and dermal MECs to the effect of inflammatory signals, showing upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on their surface, as well as release of CCL2, soluble fractalkine, and soluble VCAM-1. Proteinase 3-stimulated renal and lung MECs triggered CD107a degranulation in control NK cell. Notably, NK cells from GPA patients expressed markers of recent in vivo activation (CD69, CD107a), degranulated more efficiently than did control NK cells in the presence of renal MECs, and induced direct killing of renal MECs in vitro. These results suggest that, upon inflammatory conditions in GPA, renal MECs may contribute to the recruitment and activation of NK cells in the target vessel wall, which may participate in the necrotizing vasculitis of the kidney during this disease. PMID:24600034

Tognarelli, Sara; Gayet, Julie; Lambert, Marion; Dupuy, Stéphanie; Karras, Alexandre; Cohen, Pascal; Guillevin, Loïc; de Menthon, Mathilde; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie

2014-04-01

181

Hedgehog Signaling Pathway Is Active in GBM with GLI1 mRNA Expression Showing a Single Continuous Distribution Rather than Discrete High/Low Clusters  

PubMed Central

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a valid therapeutic target in a wide range of malignancies. We focus here on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a lethal malignancy of the central nervous system (CNS). By analyzing RNA-sequencing based transcriptomics data on 149 clinical cases of TCGA-GBM database we show here a strong correlation (r = 0.7) between GLI1 and PTCH1 mRNA expression—as a hallmark of the canonical Hh-pathway activity in this malignancy. GLI1 mRNA expression varied in 3 orders of magnitude among the GBM patients of the same cohort showing a single continuous distribution—unlike the discrete high/low-GLI1 mRNA expressing clusters of medulloblastoma (MB). When compared with MB as a reference, the median GLI1 mRNA expression in GBM appeared 14.8 fold lower than that of the “high-Hh” cluster of MB but 5.6 fold higher than that of the “low-Hh” cluster of MB. Next, we demonstrated statistically significant up- and down-regulation of GLI1 mRNA expressions in GBM patient-derived low-passage neurospheres in vitro by sonic hedgehog ligand-enriched conditioned media (shh-CM) and by Hh-inhibitor drug vismodegib respectively. We also showed clinically achievable dose (50 ?M) of vismodegib alone to be sufficient to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in these low-passage GBM neurospheres in vitro. Vismodegib showed an effect on the neurospheres, both by down-regulating GLI1 mRNA expression and by inducing apoptosis/cell cycle arrest, irrespective of their relative endogenous levels of GLI1 mRNA expression. We conclude from our study that this single continuous distribution pattern of GLI1 mRNA expression technically puts almost all GBM patients in a single group rather than discrete high- or low-clusters in terms of Hh-pathway activity. That is suggestive of therapies with Hh-pathway inhibitor drugs in this malignancy without a need for further stratification of patients on the basis of relative levels of Hh-pathway activity among them. PMID:25775002

Biswas, Nidhan K.; Rote, Sarang; Chatterjee, Uttara; Ghosh, Samarendra N.; Deb, Sumit; Saha, Suniti K.; Chowdhury, Anup K.; Ghosh, Subhashish; Rudin, Charles M.; Mukherjee, Ankur; Basu, Analabha; Dhara, Surajit

2015-01-01

182

Viewing television talk shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined how motivation, audience activity, and attitudes influenced the likelihood of watching societal?issue and relational topics on television talk programs. Path analysis supported differences in ritualized and instrumental motives for watching talk shows. Information and exciting?entertainment motivation predicted greater’ realism of, affinity with, involvement with, and intent to watch talk television. Pass?time motivation predicted reduced affinity with and intent

Alan M. Rubin; Mary M. Step

1997-01-01

183

Endosperm-specific activity of a storage protein gene promoter in transgenic wheat seed.  

PubMed

The characterization of the promoter of a wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Cheyenne high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW subunit) gene, Glu-1D-1 is reported. The nucleotide sequence of the promoter from position -1191 to -650 with respect to the transcription start site was determined, to add to that already determined. Analysis of this region of the promoter revealed the presence of an additional copy of part of the primary enhancer sequence and sequences related to regulatory elements present in other wheat seed protein genes. A chimaeric gene was constructed comprising the 5' flanking region of the Glu-1D-1 gene from position -1191 to +58, the coding region of the UID:A (Gus) gene, and the nopaline synthase (Nos) gene terminator. This chimaeric gene was introduced into wheat (Triticum durum cv. Ofanto) by particle bombardment of inflorescence explants. Two independent transgenic lines were produced, and both showed expression of the Gus gene specifically in the endosperm during mid-development (first detected 10-12 d after anthesis). Histochemical analysis of homozygous T(2) seed confirmed this pattern of expression, and showed that expression was initiated first in the central lobes of the starchy endosperm, and then spread throughout the endosperm tissue, while no expression was detected in the aleurone layer. Native HMW subunit protein was detectable by Western analysis 12-14 d after anthesis, consistent with concurrent onset of activity of the native and introduced HMW subunit gene promoters. PMID:11283168

Lamacchia, C; Shewry, P R; Di Fonzo, N; Forsyth, J L; Harris, N; Lazzeri, P A; Napier, J A; Halford, N G; Barcelo, P

2001-02-01

184

ICAM-1-Based Rabies Virus Vaccine Shows Increased Infection and Activation of Primary Murine B Cells In Vitro and Enhanced Antibody Titers In-Vivo  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines infect and directly activate murine and human primary B cells in-vitro, which we propose can be exploited to help develop a single-dose RABV-based vaccine. Here we report on a novel approach to utilize the binding of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to its binding partner, Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1), on B cells to enhance B cell activation and RABV-specific antibody responses. We used a reverse genetics approach to clone, recover, and characterize a live-attenuated recombinant RABV-based vaccine expressing the murine Icam1 gene (rRABV-mICAM-1). We show that the murine ICAM-1 gene product is incorporated into virus particles, potentially exposing ICAM-1 to extracellular binding partners. While rRABV-mICAM-1 showed 10-100-fold decrease in viral titers on baby hamster kidney cells compared to the parental virus (rRABV), rRABV-mICAM-1 infected and activated primary murine B cells in-vitro more efficiently than rRABV, as indicated by significant upregulation of CD69, CD40, and MHCII on the surface of infected B cells. ICAM-1 expression on the virus surface was responsible for enhanced B cell infection since pre-treating rRABV-mICAM-1 with a neutralizing anti-ICAM-1 antibody reduced B cell infection to levels observed with rRABV alone. Furthermore, 100-fold less rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce antibody titers in immunized mice equivalent to antibody titers observed in rRABV-immunized mice. Of note, only 103 focus forming units (ffu)/mouse of rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce significant anti-RABV antibody titers as early as five days post-immunization. As both speed and potency of antibody responses are important in controlling human RABV infection in a post-exposure setting, these data show that expression of Icam1 from the RABV genome, which is then incorporated into the virus particle, is a promising strategy for the development of a single-dose RABV vaccine that requires only a minimum of virus. PMID:24489846

Norton, James E.; Lytle, Andrew G.; Shen, Shixue; Tzvetkov, Evgeni P.; Dorfmeier, Corin L.; McGettigan, James P.

2014-01-01

185

Background Synaptic Activity in Rat Entorhinal Cortex Shows a Progressively Greater Dominance of Inhibition over Excitation from Deep to Superficial Layers  

PubMed Central

The entorhinal cortex (EC) controls hippocampal input and output, playing major roles in memory and spatial navigation. Different layers of the EC subserve different functions and a number of studies have compared properties of neurones across layers. We have studied synaptic inhibition and excitation in EC neurones, and we have previously compared spontaneous synaptic release of glutamate and GABA using patch clamp recordings of synaptic currents in principal neurones of layers II (L2) and V (L5). Here, we add comparative studies in layer III (L3). Such studies essentially look at neuronal activity from a presynaptic viewpoint. To correlate this with the postsynaptic consequences of spontaneous transmitter release, we have determined global postsynaptic conductances mediated by the two transmitters, using a method to estimate conductances from membrane potential fluctuations. We have previously presented some of this data for L3 and now extend to L2 and L5. Inhibition dominates excitation in all layers but the ratio follows a clear rank order (highest to lowest) of L2>L3>L5. The variance of the background conductances was markedly higher for excitation and inhibition in L2 compared to L3 or L5. We also show that induction of synchronized network epileptiform activity by blockade of GABA inhibition reveals a relative reluctance of L2 to participate in such activity. This was associated with maintenance of a dominant background inhibition in L2, whereas in L3 and L5 the absolute level of inhibition fell below that of excitation, coincident with the appearance of synchronized discharges. Further experiments identified potential roles for competition for bicuculline by ambient GABA at the GABAA receptor, and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in residual inhibition in L2. We discuss our results in terms of control of excitability in neuronal subpopulations of EC neurones and what these may suggest for their functional roles. PMID:24454801

Greenhill, Stuart David; Chamberlain, Sophie Elizabeth Lyn; Lench, Alex; Massey, Peter Vernon; Yuill, Kathryn Heather; Woodhall, Gavin Lawrence; Jones, Roland Spencer Gwynne

2014-01-01

186

Methotrexate-conjugated PEGylated dendrimers show differential patterns of deposition and activity in tumor-burdened lymph nodes after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in rats.  

PubMed

The current study sought to explore whether the subcutaneous administration of lymph targeted dendrimers, conjugated with a model chemotherapeutic (methotrexate, MTX), was able to enhance anticancer activity against lymph node metastases. The lymphatic pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of PEGylated polylysine dendrimers conjugated to MTX [D-MTX(OH)] via a tumor-labile hexapeptide linker was examined in rats and compared to a similar system where MTX was ?-carboxyl O-tert-butylated [D-MTX(OtBu)]. The latter has previously been shown to exhibit longer plasma circulation times. D-MTX(OtBu) was well absorbed from the subcutaneous injection site via the lymph, and 3 to 4%/g of the dose was retained by sentinel lymph nodes. In contrast, D-MTX(OH) showed limited absorption from the subcutaneous injection site, but absorption was almost exclusively via the lymph. The retention of D-MTX(OH) by sentinel lymph nodes was also significantly elevated (approximately 30% dose/g). MTX alone was not absorbed into the lymph. All dendrimers displayed lower lymph node targeting after intravenous administration. Despite significant differences in the lymph node retention of D-MTX(OH) and D-MTX(OtBu) after subcutaneous and intravenous administration, the growth of lymph node metastases was similarly inhibited. In contrast, the administration of MTX alone did not significantly reduce lymph node tumor growth. Subcutaneous administration of drug-conjugated dendrimers therefore provides an opportunity to improve drug deposition in downstream tumor-burdened lymph nodes. In this case, however, increased lymph node biodistribution did not correlate well with antitumor activity, possibly suggesting constrained drug release at the site of action. PMID:25485615

Kaminskas, Lisa M; McLeod, Victoria M; Ascher, David B; Ryan, Gemma M; Jones, Seth; Haynes, John M; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Chan, Linda J; Sloan, Erica K; Finnin, Benjamin A; Williamson, Mark; Velkov, Tony; Williams, Elizabeth D; Kelly, Brian D; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher J H

2015-02-01

187

Tentacles of in vitro-grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) show induction of chitinase activity upon mimicking the presence of prey.  

PubMed

Induction of plant-derived chitinases in the leaves of a carnivorous plant was demonstrated using aseptically grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.). The presence of insect prey was mimicked by placing the chemical inducers gelatine, salicylic acid and crustacean chitin on leaves. In addition, mechanical stirring of tentacles was performed. Chitinase activity was markedly increased in leaf exudates upon application of notably chitin. Application of gelatine increased the proteolytic activity of leaf exudates, indicating that the reaction of sundew leaves depends on the molecular nature of the inducer applied. In situ hybridization of sundew leaves with a Drosera chitinase probe showed chitinase gene expression in different cell types of non-treated leaves, but not in the secretory cells of the glandular heads. Upon induction, chitinase mRNA was also present in the secretory cells of the sundew leaf. The combined results indicate that chitinase is likely to be involved in the decomposition of insect prey by carnivorous plants. This adds a novel role to the already broad function of chitinases in the plant kingdom and may contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the ecological success of carnivorous plants in nutritionally poor environments. PMID:16049675

Matusíková, Ildikó; Salaj, Ján; Moravcíková, Jana; Mlynárová, Ludmila; Nap, Jan-Peter; Libantová, Jana

2005-12-01

188

New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity: crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium  

SciTech Connect

Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles.

Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N.; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

2013-03-01

189

Ferredoxin from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) intensifying harpin(pss)-mediated hypersensitive response shows an enhanced production of active oxygen species (AOS).  

PubMed

The hypersensitive response (HR) is a form of cell death associated with plant resistance to pathogen infection. Harpin(pss), an elicitor from the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, induces a HR in non-host plants. Previously, we reported an amphipathic protein from sweet pepper interfering with harpin(pss)-mediated HR. In this report, we isolated and characterized a cDNA clone encoded that amphipathic protein from sweet pepper. This protein is designated as PFLP (plant ferredoxin-like protein) by virtue of its high homology with plant ferredoxin protein containing an N-terminal signal peptide responsible for chloroplast targeting and a putative 2Fe-2S domain responsible for redox activity. Recombinant PFLP obtained from Escherichia coli was able to significantly increase active oxygen species (AOS) generation when mixed with harpin(pss) in tobacco suspension cells. It also showed enhanced HR when co-infiltrated with harpin(pss) in tobacco leaves. We used a transgenic tobacco suspension cells system that constitutively expresses the Pflp gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter to study the function of PFLP in enhancing harpin(pss)-mediated hypersensitive cell death in vivo. In response to harpin(pss), suspension cells derived from Pflp transgenic tobacco showed a significant increase both in the generation of AOS and in cell death as compared to the wild type. AOS inhibitors diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI) and lanthanum chlorate (LaCl3) were used to study the involvement of AOS in harpin(pss)-induced cell death. Our results demonstrate enhanced generation of AOS is necessary to cause enhanced hypersensitive cell death in Pflp transgenic tobacco cells and it is plasma membrane-bound NADPH-oxidase-dependent. Sub-cellular localization studies showed that PFLP is present in the cytoplasm and chloroplast of Pflp transgenic tobacco cells, but only in the chloroplast, not in the cytoplasm, of wild-type tobacco cells. It is possible that PFLP can change the redox state of the cell upon harpin(pss) inoculation to increase AOS generation and hypersensitive cell death. Overall, this study will provide a new insight in the functional properties of ferredoxin in hypersensitive cell death. PMID:12777051

Dayakar, Badri Venkata; Lin, Hao-Jan; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Ger, Mang-Jye; Lee, Bor-Heng; Pai, Chia-Hwei; Chow, David; Huang, Hsiang-En; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi; Chung, Mei-Chu; Feng, Teng-Yung

2003-04-01

190

A socio-ecological approach promoting physical activity and limiting sedentary behavior in adolescence showed weight benefits maintained 2.5 years after intervention cessation  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity in youth remains a major public health issue. Yet no effective long-term preventive strategy exists. We previously showed that a school-based socio-ecological approach targeting behavior and social/environmental influences on physical activity (PA) prevented 4-year excessive weight gain in 12-year olds. In this study, we investigated if this efficacy persists 30 months after intervention cessation. Methods and Findings: The program targeted students, family, school and the living environment to promote/support PA and prevent sedentary behavior (SB). A total of 732 students from eight randomized middle schools completed the 4-year trial. At the 30-month post-trial follow-up, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), leisure PA (LPA), home/school/workplace active commuting, TV/video time (TVT), and attitudes toward PA were measured in 531 adolescents. The beneficial effects of the intervention on the excess BMI increase (+0.01 vs +0.34?kg?m?2 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) and on the overweight incidence in initially non-overweight students (4.3% vs 8.6% odds ratio=0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.23–1.01)) were maintained at the post-trial follow-up. LPA was not maintained at the level achieved during the trial. However, we still observed a prevention of the age-related decrease of the adolescents' percentage reporting regular LPA (?14.4% vs ?26.5%) and a higher intention to exercise in the intervention group. The intervention promoted lower TVT (?14.0 vs +13.6?min per day) and higher active commuting changes (+11.7% vs ?4.8%). Trends in higher BMI reduction in students with high initial TVT and in the least wealthy group were noted. TVT changes throughout the follow-up predicted excess BMI and FMI changes. Conclusions: Long-term multilevel approach targeting PA and SB prevents excessive weight gain up to 30 months after intervention cessation. The efficacy may be higher in the most sedentary and least wealthy adolescents. Healthy PA-related behavior inducing long-lasting weight effects can be promoted in youth providing that an ecological approach is introduced in the prevention strategy. PMID:24509504

Simon, C; Kellou, N; Dugas, J; Platat, C; Copin, N; Schweitzer, B; Hausser, F; Bergouignan, A; Lefai, E; Blanc, S

2014-01-01

191

The triple combination of tenofovir, emtricitabine and efavirenz shows synergistic anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro: a mechanism of action study  

PubMed Central

Background Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC), and efavirenz (EFV) are the three components of the once-daily, single tablet regimen (Atripla) for treatment of HIV-1 infection. Previous cell culture studies have demonstrated that the double combination of tenofovir (TFV), the parent drug of TDF, and FTC were additive to synergistic in their anti-HIV activity, which correlated with increased levels of intracellular phosphorylation of both compounds. Results In this study, we demonstrated the combinations of TFV+FTC, TFV+EFV, FTC+EFV, and TFV+FTC+EFV synergistically inhibit HIV replication in cell culture and synergistically inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) catalyzed DNA synthesis in biochemical assays. Several different methods were applied to define synergy including median-effect analysis, MacSynergy®II and quantitative isobologram analysis. We demonstrated that the enhanced formation of dead-end complexes (DEC) by HIV-1 RT and TFV-terminated DNA in the presence of FTC-triphosphate (TP) could contribute to the synergy observed for the combination of TFV+FTC, possibly through reduced terminal NRTI excision. Furthermore, we showed that EFV facilitated efficient formation of stable, DEC-like complexes by TFV- or FTC-monophosphate (MP)-terminated DNA and this can contribute to the synergistic inhibition of HIV-1 RT by TFV-diphosphate (DP)+EFV and FTC-TP+EFV combinations. Conclusion This study demonstrated a clear correlation between the synergistic antiviral activities of TFV+FTC, TFV+EFV, FTC+EFV, and TFV+FTC+EFV combinations and synergistic HIV-1 RT inhibition at the enzymatic level. We propose the molecular mechanisms for the TFV+FTC+EFV synergy to be a combination of increased levels of the active metabolites TFV-DP and FTC-TP and enhanced DEC formation by a chain-terminated DNA and HIV-1 RT in the presence of the second and the third drug in the combination. This study furthers the understanding of the longstanding observations of synergistic anti-HIV-1 effects of many NRTI+NNRTI and certain NRTI+NRTI combinations in cell culture, and provides biochemical evidence that combinations of anti-HIV agents can increase the intracellular drug efficacy, without increasing the extracellular drug concentrations. PMID:19439089

Feng, Joy Y; Ly, John K; Myrick, Florence; Goodman, Derrick; White, Kirsten L; Svarovskaia, Evguenia S; Borroto-Esoda, Katyna; Miller, Michael D

2009-01-01

192

Identification of the specific sequence recognized by Penicillium citrinum MlcR, a GAL4-type transcriptional activator of ML-236B (compactin) biosynthetic genes.  

PubMed

MlcR is a pathway-specific transcriptional activator of the ML-236B biosynthetic genes in Penicillium citrinum. The MlcR-binding sequences were identified by an in vitro gel-shift assay and an in vivo reporter assay for the region between mlcA and mlcC as a model. The gel-shift assay showed that recombinant MlcR bound to the DNA sequence 5'-ACGGCGTTATTCGG-3' and most of the bases in this motif were required for the interaction between MlcR and DNA. In the reporter assay using beta-glucuronidase (GUS), substitution of the bases in this binding sequence resulted in the drastic reduction of GUS activities. These data clearly indicate that this MlcR-binding sequence is essential for the transcriptional activation of mlcA and mlcC in P. citrinum. Similar motifs were found in other loci of the ML-236B biosynthetic gene cluster and the consensus-binding motif for MlcR was predicted to be a direct repeat, 5'-WCGG-N(6)-TCGG-3'. PMID:18667169

Baba, S; Nihira, T; Hosobuchi, M

2008-09-01

193

Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action  

PubMed Central

Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

2014-01-01

194

[A case of neuro-Sweet disease showing the close association between disease activity and levels of soluble IL-2 receptor].  

PubMed

A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital presenting with fever, redness and pain in both the periocular regions, and disturbance of consciousness. He had neck stiffness, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis suggested aseptic meningoencephalitis. Laboratory tests showed increased levels of C-reactive protein, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and MPO-ANCA. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperplastic bone marrow in the clivus and cervical vertebra. Although T-cell receptor gene rearrangement was detected in the bone marrow blood, bone marrow biopsy of the ilium showed no malignant findings. Then he experienced bilateral auricular inflammation and painful erythema of the ankle. A leg skin biopsy demonstrated neutrophilic infiltration into the dermis with no signs of vasculitis. His HLA-type was defined as Cw1. He was subsequently diagnosed with neuro-Sweet disease. Intravenous administration of methylprednisolone (1,000 mg/day) for 5 days and subsequent oral intake of prednisolone (60 mg/day) improved his symptoms. When the prednisolone dose was reduced to 30 mg/day, his symptoms returned and a new lesion was detected in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Upon additional treatment with cyclosporine, the prednisolone dose could be reduced without symptom relapse; sIL-2R and MPO-ANCA levels also decreased to normal. The present case suggested that the activity of neuro-Sweet disease may be associated with myeloid hyperplasia, T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and the amounts of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and MPO-ANCA. PMID:25420560

Nukui, Takamasa; Takashima, Shutaro; Taguchi, Yoshiharu; Dougu, Nobuhiro; Konishi, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Kortaro

2014-01-01

195

The novel toluidine sulphonamide EL102 shows pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo activity against prostate cancer and circumvents MDR1 resistance  

PubMed Central

Background: Taxanes are routinely used for the treatment of prostate cancer, however the majority of patients eventually develop resistance. We investigated the potential efficacy of EL102, a novel toluidine sulphonamide, in pre-clinical models of prostate cancer. Methods: The effect of EL102 and/or docetaxel on PC-3, DU145, 22Rv1 and CWR22 prostate cancer cells was assessed using cell viability, cell cycle analysis and PARP cleavage assays. Tubulin polymerisation and immunofluorescence assays were used to assess tubulin dynamics. CWR22 xenograft murine model was used to assess effects on tumour proliferation. Multidrug-resistant lung cancer DLKPA was used to assess EL102 in a MDR1-mediated drug resistance background. Results: EL102 has in vitro activity against prostate cancer, characterised by accumulation in G2/M, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of Hif1?, and inhibition of tubulin polymerisation and decreased microtubule stability. In vivo, a combination of EL102 and docetaxel exhibits superior tumour inhibition. The DLKP cell line and multidrug-resistant DLKPA variant (which exhibits 205 to 691-fold greater resistance to docetaxel, paclitaxel, vincristine and doxorubicin) are equally sensitive to EL102. Conclusion: EL102 shows potential as both a single agent and within combination regimens for the treatment of prostate cancer, particularly in the chemoresistance setting. PMID:24052043

Toner, A P; McLaughlin, F; Giles, F J; Sullivan, F J; O'Connell, E; Carleton, L A; Breen, L; Dunne, G; Gorman, A M; Lewis, J D; Glynn, S A

2013-01-01

196

CKR-L3, a deletion version CCR6-isoform shows coreceptor-activity for limited human and simian immunodeficiency viruses  

PubMed Central

Background The chemokine receptors (CKRs), mainly CCR5 and CXCR4 function as major coreceptors in infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Approximately 20 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified as minor coreceptors, alike CCR6 that we reported recently. Since CKR-L3 is indentified as a natural isoform of CCR6, we attempted in this study to explore the coreceptor function of CKR-L3. Methods NP-2 cells transduced with CD4-receptor (NP-2/CD4) normally remain resistant to HIV or SIV infection. However, the introduction of functional coreceptors can make these cells susceptible to these viruses. NP-2/CD4/CKR-L3 cells were produced to examine the coreceptor activity of CKR-L3. Likely, CCR6-isoform and the major coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4 were also examined in parallel. Presence of viral antigen in infected NP-2/CD4/coreceptor cells was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The results were validated by detection of syncytia, proviral DNA and by measuring reverse transcriptase (RT) activities. Results HIV-2MIR and SIVsmE660 were found to infect NP-2/CD4/CKR-L3 cells, indicative of the coreceptor function of CKR-L3. Viral antigens appeared faster in NP-2/CD4/CKR-L3 cells than in NP-2/CD4/CCR6, indicating that CKR-L3 is a more efficient coreceptor. Moreover, syncytia formation was more rapid and RT release evidenced earlier and at higher levels with CKR-L3 than with CCR6. Sequence analysis in the C2-V3 envelope region of HIV-2MIR replicated through CKR-L3 and CCR6 coreceptor showed two and three amino acid substitutions respectively, in the C2 region compared to the CCR5-variant. The SIVsmE660-CKRL3 variant showed three amino acid substitutions in the V1 region, one change in the V2 and two changes in the C2 region. The SIVsmE660-CCR6 variant produced two changes in the V1 region, and three in the C2 region. Conclusions Isoform CKR-L3 exhibited coreceptor activity for limited primary HIV and SIV isolates with better efficiency than the parent CCR6-isoform. Amino acid substitutions in the envelope region of these viruses may confer selective pressure towards CKR-L3-use. CKR-L3 with other minor coreceptors may contribute to HIV and SIV pathogenesis including dissemination, trafficking and latency especially when major coreceptors become compromised. However, further works will be required to determine its clinical significance in HIV and SIV infection. PMID:24980635

2014-01-01

197

Regeneration and genetic transformation of Atriplex canescens  

E-print Network

with GUS expression detected in an x-glue test 114. 8&6. 3 blue spots per filter paper. Repeated bombardment was used in shoot clump transformation with fifty . percent of the bombarded clumps tested showing positive GUS activity two months after.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i GUS Assay with 4-Methyl-Umbelliferyl-Glucuronide (MUG). . . . . . 16 i 16 17 18 18 GUS Assay with X-Glue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protocol for Transformation of Embryonic Suspensions via a Particle...

Mei, Beijian

1995-01-01

198

Stress Sensitive Healthy Females Show Less Left Amygdala Activation in Response to Withdrawal-Related Visual Stimuli under Passive Viewing Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amygdalae are key players in the processing of a variety of emotional stimuli. Especially aversive visual stimuli have been reported to attract attention and activate the amygdalae. However, as it has been argued that passively viewing withdrawal-related images could attenuate instead of activate amygdalae neuronal responses, its role under…

Baeken, Chris; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; De Raedt, Rudi; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Mey, Johan; Bossuyt, Axel; Luypaert, Robert

2012-01-01

199

Lacto-N-biosidase Encoded by a Novel Gene of Bifidobacterium longum Subspecies longum Shows Unique Substrate Specificity and Requires a Designated Chaperone for Its Active Expression*  

PubMed Central

Infant gut-associated bifidobacteria possess species-specific enzymatic sets to assimilate human milk oligosaccharides, and lacto-N-biosidase (LNBase) is a key enzyme that degrades lacto-N-tetraose (Gal?1–3GlcNAc?1–3Gal?1–4Glc), the main component of human milk oligosaccharides, to lacto-N-biose I (Gal?1–3GlcNAc) and lactose. We have previously identified LNBase activity in Bifidobacterium bifidum and some strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum (B. longum). Subsequently, we isolated a glycoside hydrolase family 20 (GH20) LNBase from B. bifidum; however, the genome of the LNBase+ strain of B. longum contains no GH20 LNBase homolog. Here, we reveal that locus tags BLLJ_1505 and BLLJ_1506 constitute LNBase from B. longum JCM1217. The gene products, designated LnbX and LnbY, respectively, showed no sequence similarity to previously characterized proteins. The purified enzyme, which consisted of LnbX only, hydrolyzed via a retaining mechanism the GlcNAc?1–3Gal linkage in lacto-N-tetraose, lacto-N-fucopentaose I (Fuc?1–2Gal?1–3GlcNAc?1–3Gal?1–4Glc), and sialyllacto-N-tetraose a (Neu5Ac?2–3Gal?1–3GlcNAc?1–3Gal?1–4Gal); the latter two are not hydrolyzed by GH20 LNBase. Among the chromogenic substrates examined, the enzyme acted on p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-?-lacto-N-bioside I (Gal?1–3GlcNAc?-pNP) and GalNAc?1–3GlcNAc?-pNP. GalNAc?1–3GlcNAc? linkage has been found in O-mannosyl glycans of ?-dystroglycan. Therefore, the enzyme may serve as a new tool for examining glycan structures. In vitro refolding experiments revealed that LnbY and metal ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) are required for proper folding of LnbX. The LnbX and LnbY homologs have been found only in B. bifidum, B. longum, and a few gut microbes, suggesting that the proteins have evolved in specialized niches. PMID:23843461

Sakurama, Haruko; Kiyohara, Masashi; Wada, Jun; Honda, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Masanori; Fukiya, Satoru; Yokota, Atsushi; Ashida, Hisashi; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Yamamoto, Kenji; Katayama, Takane

2013-01-01

200

Allosteric mutants show that PrfA activation is dispensable for vacuole escape but required for efficient spread and Listeria survival in vivo  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional regulator PrfA controls key virulence determinants of the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. PrfA-dependent gene expression is strongly induced within host cells. While the basis of this activation is unknown, the structural homology of PrfA with the cAMP receptor protein (Crp) and the finding of constitutively activated PrfA* mutants suggests it may involve ligand-induced allostery. Here, we report the identification of a solvent-accessible cavity within the PrfA N-terminal domain that may accommodate an activating ligand. The pocket occupies a similar position to the cAMP binding site in Crp but lacks the cyclic nucleotide-anchoring motif and has its entrance on the opposite side of the ?-barrel. Site-directed mutations in this pocket impaired intracellular PrfA-dependent gene activation without causing extensive structural/functional alterations to PrfA. Two substitutions, L48F and Y63W, almost completely abolished intracellular virulence gene induction and thus displayed the expected phenotype for allosteric activation-deficient PrfA mutations. Neither PrfAallo substitution affected vacuole escape and initial intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes in epithelial cells and macrophages but caused defective cell-to-cell spread and strong attenuation in mice. Our data support the hypothesis that PrfA is allosterically activated during intracellular infection and identify the probable binding site for the effector ligand. They also indicate that PrfA allosteric activation is not required for early intracellular survival but is essential for full Listeria virulence and colonization of host tissues. PMID:22646689

Deshayes, Caroline; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Cain, Robert J; Scortti, Mariela; de las Heras, Aitor; Pietras, Zbigniew; Luisi, Ben F; Núñez Miguel, Ricardo; Vázquez-Boland, José A

2012-01-01

201

The coelomic fluid of the sea urchin Tripneustes depressus shows antiviral activity against Suid herpesvirus type 1 (SHV-1) and rabies virus (RV).  

PubMed

Several studies have reported that molecules extracted from invertebrates have activity against different viruses, even against those that do not infect these organisms in their environment. One of the main mechanisms against pathogens in these organisms is the production of antimicrobial peptides. The objective of this study was to determine whether the coelomic fluid (CF) of the sea urchin Tripneustes depressus has activity against Suid herpesvirus type 1 (SHV-1) and/or rabies virus (RV). We tested the antiviral activity of CF in neutralizing assays and observed 50% inhibition against SHV-1 lytic plaque formation using 33 ?g of CF, whereas 21 ?g CF was sufficient to obtain more than 90% inhibition for RV. Cytotoxicity to MDBK and BHK-21 cells was found with whole CF yet was eliminated by heating at 56 or 72 °C (even when using 50 ?g of heat-inactivated CF supernatant [SN or thermostable fraction]), and SN retained the antiviral effect. In both cases, the antiviral effect was direct and thermostable (SN 56 and 72 °C), and the best inhibition was observed when CF + virus was incubated prior to the addition of the cells. Therefore, the coelomic fluid of T. depressus has antiviral activity against SHV-1 and RV that is direct and stable at 72 °C. We suggest that further assays should be performed using more accurate methods to characterize new molecules with antiviral activity that may result in new drugs. PMID:24188747

Salas-Rojas, M; Galvez-Romero, G; Anton-Palma, B; Acevedo, R; Blanco-Favela, F; Aguilar-Setién, A

2014-01-01

202

Glycinergic inhibition to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body shows prominent facilitation and can sustain high levels of ongoing activity.  

PubMed

Neurons in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) are well known for their prominent excitatory inputs, mediated by the calyx of Held. Less attention has been paid to the prominent inhibitory inputs that MNTB neurons also receive. Because of their auditory nature, both excitatory and inhibitory synapses are highly active in vivo. These high levels of activity are known to reduce excitatory synaptic currents considerably, such that in vivo synaptic currents produced by the calyx are smaller than typically measured in standard brain slice experiments. The goal of this study was to investigate the properties of the inhibitory inputs in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) under activity levels that correspond to those in the intact brain to facilitate a direct comparison between the two inputs. Our results suggest that inhibitory inputs to MNTB are largely mediated by a fast and phasic glycinergic component, and to a lesser degree by a GABAergic component. The glycinergic component can sustain prolonged high levels of activity. Even when challenged with stimulus patterns consisting of thousands of stimuli over tens of minutes, glycinergic inputs to MNTB maintain large conductances and fast decays and even facilitate substantially when the stimulation frequency is increased. The inhibition is mediated by a relatively small number of independent input fibers. The data presented here suggest that inhibitory inputs to MNTB sustain high levels of activity and need to be considered for a full understanding of mechanisms underlying processing of auditory information in MNTB. PMID:25185813

Mayer, Florian; Albrecht, Otto; Dondzillo, Anna; Klug, Achim

2014-12-01

203

Supplementation with Sodium Selenite and Selenium-Enriched Microalgae Biomass Show Varying Effects on Blood Enzymes Activities, Antioxidant Response, and Accumulation in Common Barbel (Barbus barbus)  

PubMed Central

Yearling common barbel (Barbus barbus L.) were fed four purified casein-based diets for 6 weeks in outdoor cages. Besides control diet, these were supplemented with 0.3?mg?kg?1 dw selenium (Se) from sodium selenite, or 0.3 and 1.0?mg?kg?1 from Se-enriched microalgae biomass (Chlorella), a previously untested Se source for fish. Fish mortality, growth, Se accumulation in muscle and liver, and activity of selected enzymes in blood plasma, muscle, liver, and intestine were evaluated. There was no mortality, and no differences in fish growth, among groups. Se concentrations in muscle and liver, activity of alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase in blood plasma, glutathione reductase (GR) in muscle, and GR and catalase in muscle and liver suggested that selenium from Se-enriched Chlorella is more readily accumulated and biologically active while being less toxic than sodium selenite. PMID:24772422

Kouba, Antonín; Velíšek, Josef; Stará, Alžb?ta; Masojídek, Ji?í; Kozák, Pavel

2014-01-01

204

Quantitative genome-wide enhancer activity maps for five Drosophila species show functional enhancer conservation and turnover during cis-regulatory evolution  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic differences between closely related species are thought to arise primarily from changes in gene expression due to mutations in cis-regulatory sequences (enhancers). However, it has remained unclear how frequently mutations alter enhancer activity or create functional enhancers de novo. Here we use STARR-seq, a recently developed quantitative enhancer assay, to determine genome-wide enhancer activity profiles for five Drosophila species in the constant trans-regulatory environment of Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. We find that the functions of a large fraction of D. melanogaster enhancers are conserved for their orthologous sequences owing to selection and stabilizing turnover of transcription factor motifs. Moreover, hundreds of enhancers have been gained since the D. melanogaster–Drosophila yakuba split about 11 million years ago without apparent adaptive selection and can contribute to changes in gene expression in vivo. Our finding that enhancer activity is often deeply conserved and frequently gained provides functional insights into regulatory evolution. PMID:24908250

Arnold, Cosmas D; Gerlach, Daniel; Spies, Daniel; Matts, Jessica A; Sytnikova, Yuliya A; Pagani, Michaela; Lau, Nelson C; Stark, Alexander

2014-01-01

205

Tentacles of in vitro-grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) show induction of chitinase activity upon mimicking the presence of prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of plant-derived chitinases in the leaves of a carnivorous plant was demonstrated using aseptically grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.). The presence of insect prey was mimicked by placing the chemical inducers gelatine, salicylic acid and crustacean chitin on leaves. In addition, mechanical stirring of tentacles was performed. Chitinase activity was markedly increased in leaf exudates upon application of

I. Matusikova; J. Salaj; J. Moravcikova; L. Mlynarova; J. P. H. Nap; J. Libantova

2005-01-01

206

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-? inhibitor CAL-101 shows promising preclinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by antagonizing intrinsic and extrinsic cellular survival signals.  

PubMed

Targeted therapy with imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) prompted a new treatment paradigm. Unlike CML, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) lacks an aberrant fusion protein kinase but instead displays increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. To date, PI3K inhibitor development has been limited because of the requirement of this pathway for many essential cellular functions. Identification of the hematopoietic-selective isoform PI3K-? unlocks a new therapeutic potential for B-cell malignancies. Herein, we demonstrate that PI3K has increased enzymatic activity and that PI3K-? is expressed in CLL cells. A PI3K-? selective inhibitor CAL-101 promoted apoptosis in primary CLL cells ex vivo in a dose- and time-dependent fashion that was independent of common prognostic markers. CAL-101-mediated cytotoxicity was caspase dependent and was not diminished by coculture on stromal cells. In addition, CAL-101 abrogated protection from spontaneous apoptosis induced by B cell-activating factors CD40L, TNF-?, and fibronectin. In contrast to malignant cells, CAL-101 does not promote apoptosis in normal T cells or natural killer cells, nor does it diminish antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. However, CAL-101 did decrease activated T-cell production of various inflammatory and antiapoptotic cytokines. Collectively, these studies provide rationale for the clinical development of CAL-101 as a first-in-class targeted therapy for CLL and related B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:20522708

Herman, Sarah E M; Gordon, Amber L; Wagner, Amy J; Heerema, Nyla A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Flynn, Joseph M; Jones, Jeffrey; Andritsos, Leslie; Puri, Kamal D; Lannutti, Brian J; Giese, Neill A; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wei, Lai; Byrd, John C; Johnson, Amy J

2010-09-23

207

Fibrous papule of the face, similar to tuberous sclerosis complex-associated angiofibroma, shows activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway: evidence for a novel therapeutic strategy?  

PubMed

Fibrous papules of the face are hamartomas characterized by stellate-shaped stromal cells, multinucleated giant cells, and proliferative blood vessels in the dermis. The pathogenesis of fibrous papules remains unclear. There is a striking microscopic resemblance between fibrous papules and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated angiofibromas. A germline mutation of the TSC1 or TSC2 gene, leading to activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, accounts for the pathogenesis of TSC-associated angiofibromas. Activated mTOR subsequently activates p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and ribosomal protein S6 (S6) by phosphorylation. Rapamycin, a mTOR inhibitor, is effective in treating TSC-associated angiofibromas. The aim of this study was to understand whether the mTOR pathway is activated in fibrous papules. We studied immunoexpressions of phosphorylated (p-) mTOR effectors in fibrous papules, TSC-associated angiofibromas, and normal skin controls. P-mTOR, p-p70S6K and p-S6 were highly expressed in dermal stromal cells and epidermal keratinocytes in fibrous papules and TSC-associated angiofibromas but not in fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes of normal skin controls (p<0.001). The results suggest topical rapamycin may be a novel treatment option for fibrous papules. PMID:24558502

Chan, Jung-Yi Lisa; Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Fang, Chia-Lang; Chen, Wei-Yu

2014-01-01

208

Nanocomposites of tantalum-based pyrochlore and indium hydroxide showing high and stable photocatalytic activities for overall water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction.  

PubMed

Nanocomposites of tantalum-based pyrochlore nanoparticles and indium hydroxide were prepared by a hydrothermal process for UV-driven photocatalytic reactions including overall water splitting, hydrogen production from photoreforming of methanol, and CO2 reduction with water to produce CO. The best catalyst was more than 20?times more active than sodium tantalate in overall water splitting and 3?times more active than Degussa P25 TiO2 in CO2 reduction. Moreover, the catalyst was very stable while generating stoichiometric products of H2 (or CO) and O2 throughout long-term photocatalytic reactions. After the removal of In(OH)3, the pyrochlore nanoparticles remained highly active for H2 production from pure water and aqueous methanol solution. Both experimental studies and density functional theory calculations suggest that the pyrochlore nanoparticles catalyzed the water reduction to produce H2, whereas In(OH)3 was the major active component for water oxidation to produce O2. PMID:25384922

Hsieh, Meng-Chun; Wu, Guan-Chang; Liu, Wei-Guang; Goddard, William A; Yang, Chia-Min

2014-12-15

209

Fibrous Papule of the Face, Similar to Tuberous Sclerosis Complex-Associated Angiofibroma, Shows Activation of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Pathway: Evidence for a Novel Therapeutic Strategy?  

PubMed Central

Fibrous papules of the face are hamartomas characterized by stellate-shaped stromal cells, multinucleated giant cells, and proliferative blood vessels in the dermis. The pathogenesis of fibrous papules remains unclear. There is a striking microscopic resemblance between fibrous papules and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated angiofibromas. A germline mutation of the TSC1 or TSC2 gene, leading to activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, accounts for the pathogenesis of TSC-associated angiofibromas. Activated mTOR subsequently activates p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and ribosomal protein S6 (S6) by phosphorylation. Rapamycin, a mTOR inhibitor, is effective in treating TSC-associated angiofibromas. The aim of this study was to understand whether the mTOR pathway is activated in fibrous papules. We studied immunoexpressions of phosphorylated (p-) mTOR effectors in fibrous papules, TSC-associated angiofibromas, and normal skin controls. P-mTOR, p-p70S6K and p-S6 were highly expressed in dermal stromal cells and epidermal keratinocytes in fibrous papules and TSC-associated angiofibromas but not in fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes of normal skin controls (p<0.001). The results suggest topical rapamycin may be a novel treatment option for fibrous papules. PMID:24558502

Chan, Jung-Yi Lisa; Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Fang, Chia-Lang; Chen, Wei-Yu

2014-01-01

210

Tentacles of in vitro-grown round-leaf sundew ( Drosera rotundifolia L.) show induction of chitinase activity upon mimicking the presence of prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of plant-derived chitinases in the leaves of a carnivorous plant was demonstrated using aseptically grown round-leaf\\u000a sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.). The presence of insect prey was mimicked by placing the chemical inducers gelatine, salicylic acid and crustacean chitin\\u000a on leaves. In addition, mechanical stirring of tentacles was performed. Chitinase activity was markedly increased in leaf\\u000a exudates upon application of

Ildikó Matušíková; Ján Salaj; Jana Morav?íková; Ludmila Mlynárová; Jan-Peter Nap; Jana Libantová

2005-01-01

211

Products of Vitamin D3 or 7-Dehydrocholesterol Metabolism by Cytochrome P450scc Show Anti-Leukemia Effects, Having Low or Absent Calcemic Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Cytochrome P450scc metabolizes vitamin D3 to 20-hydroxyvitamin D3 (20(OH)D3) and 20,23(OH)2D3, as well as 1-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1?,20-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,20(OH)2D3). It also cleaves the side chain of 7-dehydrocholesterol producing 7-dehydropregnenolone (7DHP), which can be transformed to 20(OH)7DHP. UVB induces transformation of the steroidal 5,7-dienes to pregnacalciferol (pD) and a lumisterol-like compounds (pL). Methods and Findings To define the biological significance of these P450scc-initiated pathways, we tested the effects of their 5,7-diene precursors and secosteroidal products on leukemia cell differentiation and proliferation in comparison to 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). These secosteroids inhibited proliferation and induced erythroid differentiation of K562 human chronic myeloid and MEL mouse leukemia cells with 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3 being either equipotent or slightly less potent than 1,25(OH)2D3, while 1,20(OH)2D3, pD and pL compounds were slightly or moderately less potent. The compounds also inhibited proliferation and induced monocytic differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic and U937 promonocytic human leukemia cells. Among them 1,25(OH)2D3 was the most potent, 20(OH)D3, 20,23(OH)2D3 and 1,20(OH)2D3 were less active, and pD and pL compounds were the least potent. Since it had been previously proven that secosteroids without the side chain (pD) have no effect on systemic calcium levels we performed additional testing in rats and found that 20(OH)D3 had no calcemic activity at concentration as high as 1 µg/kg, whereas, 1,20(OH)2D3 was slightly to moderately calcemic and 1,25(OH)2D3 had strong calcemic activity. Conclusions We identified novel secosteroids that are excellent candidates for anti-leukemia therapy with 20(OH)D3 deserving special attention because of its relatively high potency and lack of calcemic activity. PMID:20360850

Slominski, Andrzej T.; Janjetovic, Zorica; Fuller, Brian E.; Zmijewski, Michal A.; Tuckey, Robert C.; Nguyen, Minh N.; Sweatman, Trevor; Li, Wei; Zjawiony, Jordan; Miller, Duane; Chen, Tai C.; Lozanski, Gerard; Holick, Michael F.

2010-01-01

212

The Great Cometary Show  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER

2007-01-01

213

Show Your Colors!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this family or group activity, learners conduct a chromatography experiment to reveal the colors that leaves "hide" under their green pigments. Use this experiment to predict what colors the leaves will "turn" in the fall.

Smithsonian National Zoological Park

2011-08-20

214

KSC Wildlife Show  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video highlights footage of the many forms of animal and plant life that inhabit the environs surrounding KSC. Shown are birds, alligators, butterflies, and plants as they react to shuttle launches and other activities eminating from KSC.

1994-01-01

215

Promoters for pregenomic RNA of banana streak badnavirus are active for transgene expression in monocot and dicot plants.  

PubMed

Two putative promoters from Australian banana streak badnavirus (BSV) isolates were analysed for activity in different plant species. In transient expression systems the My (2105 bp) and Cv (1322 bp) fragments were both shown to have promoter activity in a wide range of plant species including monocots (maize, barley, banana, millet, wheat, sorghum), dicots (tobacco, canola, sunflower, Nicotiana benthamiana, tipu tree), gymnosperm (Pinus radiata) and fern (Nephrolepis cordifolia). Evaluation of the My and Cv promoters in transgenic sugarcane, banana and tobacco plants demonstrated that these promoters could drive high-level expression of either the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (uidA) in vegetative plant cells. In transgenic sugarcane plants harbouring the Cv promoter, GFP expression levels were comparable or higher (up to 1.06% of total soluble leaf protein as GFP) than those of plants containing the maize ubiquitin promoter (up to 0.34% of total soluble leaf protein). GUS activities in transgenic in vitro-grown banana plants containing the My promoter were up to seven-fold stronger in leaf tissue and up to four-fold stronger in root and corm tissue than in plants harbouring the maize ubiquitin promoter. The Cv promoter showed activities that were similar to the maize ubiquitin promoter in in vitro-grown banana plants, but was significantly reduced in larger glasshouse-grown plants. In transgenic in vitro-grown tobacco plants, the My promoter reached activities close to those of the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), while the Cv promoter was about half as active as the CaMV 35S promoter. The BSV promoters for pregenomic RNA represent useful tools for the high-level expression of foreign genes in transgenic monocots. PMID:11587511

Schenk, P M; Remans, T; Sági, L; Elliott, A R; Dietzgen, R G; Swennen, R; Ebert, P R; Grof, C P; Manners, J M

2001-10-01

216

A Monoclonal Antibody to O-Acetyl-GD2 Ganglioside and Not to GD2 Shows Potent Anti-Tumor Activity without Peripheral Nervous System Cross-Reactivity  

PubMed Central

Background Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against GD2 ganglioside have been shown to be effective for the treatment of neuroblastoma. Beneficial actions are, however, associated with generalized pain due to the binding of anti- GD2 mAbs to peripheral nerve fibers followed by complement activation. Neuroblastoma cells that express GD2 also express its O-acetyl derivative, O-acetyl- GD2 ganglioside (OAcGD2). Hence, we investigated the distribution of OAcGD2 in human tissues using mAb 8B6 to study the cross-reactivity of mAb 8B6 with human tissues. Methodology/Principal Findings The distribution of OAcGD2 was performed in normal and malignant tissues using an immunoperoxydase technique. Anti-tumor properties of mAb 8B6 were studied in vitro and in vivo in a transplanted tumor model in mice. We found that OAcGD2 is not expressed by peripheral nerve fibers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mAb 8B6 was very effective in the in vitro and in vivo suppression of the growth of tumor cells. Importantly, mAb 8B6 anti-tumor efficacy was comparable to that of mAb 14G2a specific to GD2. Conclusion/Significance Development of therapeutic antibodies specific to OAcGD2 may offer treatment options with reduced adverse side effects, thereby allowing dose escalation of antibodies. PMID:21966461

Cochonneau, Denis; Chaumette, Tanguy; Clemenceau, Béatrice; Leprieur, Stéphanie; Bougras, Gwenola; Supiot, Stéphane; Mussini, Jean-Marie; Barbet, Jacques; Saba, Julie; Paris, François; Aubry, Jacques; Birklé, Stéphane

2011-01-01

217

Cytotoxic T cells deficient in both functional fas ligand and perforin show residual cytolytic activity yet lose their capacity to induce lethal acute graft-versus-host disease  

PubMed Central

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the main complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Although the tissue damage and subsequent patient mortality are clearly dependent on T lymphocytes present in the grafted inoculum, the lethal effector molecules are unknown. Here, we show that acute lethal GVHD, induced by the transfer of splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice into sensitive BALB/c recipients, is dependent on both perforin and Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated lytic pathways. When spleen cells from mutant mice lacking both effector molecules were transferred to sublethally irradiated allogeneic recipients, mice survived. Delayed mortality was observed with grafted cells deficient in only one lytic mediator. In contrast, protection from lethal acute GVHD in resistant mice was exclusively perforin dependent. Perforin-FasL-deficient T cells failed to lyse most target cells in vitro. However, they still efficiently killed tumor necrosis factor alpha-sensitive fibroblasts, demonstrating that cytotoxic T cells possess a third lytic pathway. PMID:8627178

1996-01-01

218

A rapamycin-binding protein polymer nanoparticle shows potent therapeutic activity in suppressing autoimmune dacryoadenitis in a mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed

Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized initially by lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of exocrine glands, followed by systemic organ damage and B-cell lymphoma. Conventional treatment is based on management of symptoms and there is a shortage of therapies that address the underlying causes of inflammation at source exocrine tissue. The aim of this study was to test a novel protein polymer-based platform consisting of diblock copolymers composed from Elastin-like Polypeptides (ELPs) fused with FKBP12, to deliver a potent immunosuppressant with dose-limiting toxicity, rapamycin (Rapa) also known as Sirolimus, and evaluate its effects on the inflamed lacrimal gland (LG) of non-obese diabetic mouse (NOD), a classic mouse model of SjS. Both soluble and diblock copolymer ELPs were fused to FKBP12 and characterized with respect to purity, hydrodynamic radii, drug entrapment and release. Both formulations showed successful association with Rapa; however, the nanoparticle formulation, FSI, released drug with nearly a 5 fold longer terminal half-life of 62.5h. The strong interaction of FSI nanoparticles with Rapa was confirmed in vivo by a shift in the monoexponential pharmacokinetic profile for free drug to a biexponential profile for the nanoparticle formulation. When acutely administered by injection into NOD mice via the tail vein, this FSI formulation significantly suppressed lymphocytic infiltration in the LG relative to the control group while reducing toxicity. There was also a significant effect on inflammatory and mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway genes in the LG and surprisingly, our nanoparticle formulation was significantly better at decreasing a proposed tear biomarker of SjS, cathepsin S (CATS) compared to free drug. These findings suggest that FSI is a promising tool for delivering Rapa for treatment of SjS in a murine model and may be further explored to meet the unmet medical challenge of SjS. PMID:23892265

Shah, Mihir; Edman, Maria C; Janga, Srikanth R; Shi, Pu; Dhandhukia, Jugal; Liu, Siyu; Louie, Stan G; Rodgers, Kathleen; Mackay, J Andrew; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F

2013-11-10

219

A rapamycin-binding protein polymer nanoparticle shows potent therapeutic activity in suppressing autoimmune dacryoadenitis in a mouse model of Sjögren’s syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized initially by lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of exocrine glands, followed by systemic organ damage and B-cell lymphoma. Conventional treatment is based on management of symptoms and there is a shortage of therapies that address the underlying causes of inflammation at source exocrine tissue. The aim of this study was to test a novel protein polymer-based platform consisting of diblock copolymers composed from Elastin-like Polypeptides (ELPs) fused with FKBP12, to deliver a potent immunosuppressant with dose-limiting toxicity, rapamycin (Rapa) also known as Sirolimus, and evaluate its effects on the inflamed lacrimal gland (LG) of non-obese diabetic mouse (NOD), a classic mouse model of SjS. Both soluble and diblock copolymer ELPs were fused to FKBP12 and characterized with respect to purity, hydrodynamic radii, drug entrapment and release. Both formulations showed successful association with Rapa; however, the nanoparticle formulation, FSI, released drug with nearly a 5 fold longer terminal half-life of 62.5h. The strong interaction of FSI nanoparticles with Rapa was confirmed in vivo by a shift in the monoexponential pharmacokinetic profile for free drug to a biexponential profile for the nanoparticle formulation. When acutely administered by injection into NOD mice via the tail vein, this FSI formulation significantly suppressed lymphocytic infiltration in the LG relative to the control group while reducing toxicity. There was also a significant effect on inflammatory and mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway genes in the LG and surprisingly, our nanoparticle formulation was significantly better at decreasing a proposed tear biomarker of SjS, cathepsin S (CATS) compared to free drug. These findings suggest that FSI is a promising tool for delivering Rapa for treatment of SjS in a murine model and may be further explored to meet the unmet medical challenge of SjS. PMID:23892265

Shah, Mihir; Edman, Maria C.; Janga, Srikanth R.; Shi, Pu; Dhandhukia, Jugal; Liu, Siyu; Louie, Stan G.; Rodgers, Kathleen; MacKay, J. Andrew; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

2013-01-01

220

The Diane Rehm Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.

221

Producing Turkeys for Show  

E-print Network

. Use top-quality feeds. 4. Follow recommended management practices during the entire brooding and growing period. 5. Cull birds closely and select the show entry properly. Purchasing Poults Most youth livestock shows have rules and regulations governing... with an approved worm- ing compound. a73 Check turkeys monthly for parasites. Pay particular attention to skin around the vent area. Control external para- sites (lice, mites, etc.) with applications of Sevin ? dust. a73 Fire ants can cause skin blisters and must...

Thornberry, Fredrick D.

2005-12-14

222

Differential expression of vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit c genes in tissues active in membrane trafficking and their roles in plant growth as revealed by RNAi.  

PubMed

Acidification of intracellular compartments by the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPases (VHA) is known to energize ion and metabolite transport, though cellular processes influenced by this activity are poorly understood. At least 26 VHA genes encode 12 subunits of the V(1)V(o)-ATPase complex in Arabidopsis, and how the expression, assembly, and activity of the pump are integrated into signaling networks that govern growth and adaptation are largely unknown. The role of multiple VHA-c genes encoding the 16-kD subunit of the membrane V(o) sector was investigated. Expression of VHA-c1, monitored by promoter-driven beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity was responsive to light or dark in an organ-specific manner. VHA-c1 expression in expanding cotyledons, hypocotyls of etiolated seedlings, and elongation zone of roots supported a role for V-ATPase in cell enlargement. Mutants reduced in VHA-c1 transcript using dsRNA-mediated interference showed reduction in root growth relative to wild-type seedlings. In contrast, VHA-c3 promoter::GUS expression was undetectable in most organs of seedlings, but strong in the root cap. Interestingly, dsRNA-mediated mutants of vha-c3 also showed reduced root length and decreased tolerance to moderate salt stress. The results suggest that V-ATPase functions in the root cap influenced root growth. Expression of VHA-c1 and VHA-c3 in tissues with active membrane flow, including root cap, vascular strands, and floral style would support a model for participation of the V(o) sector and V(1)V(o)-ATPase in membrane trafficking and fusion. Two VHA-c genes are thus differentially expressed to support growth in expanding cells and to supply increased demand for V-ATPase in cells with active exocytosis. PMID:15051861

Padmanaban, Senthilkumar; Lin, Xiaoying; Perera, Imara; Kawamura, Yukio; Sze, Heven

2004-04-01

223

Demonstration Road Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

Shropshire, Steven

2009-04-06

224

Hide / Show Animal Ethics  

E-print Network

the Ethics Secretariat for information on Animal Ethics Courses available at UNSW. All new added personnelHide / Show Animal Ethics Modification for Approved Application New personnel or updated role since last approval New person nominated since last approval You are here: Animal Ethics Application

New South Wales, University of

225

Stage a Water Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

Frasier, Debra

2008-01-01

226

Show Me the Way  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

Dicks, Matthew J.

2005-01-01

227

Show Me the Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners make wallets or purses and then participate in a variety of money-related activities. First, learners make their own paper money and paper wallets or purses. Next, learners identify coins while singing a money-themed song. Then, learners consider how they would spend various denominations of coins and record their thoughts in a Money Journal. Finally, learners rotate through various Money Centers, where they record coin flips (heads vs. tails), sort coins, make a money cube graph, create a book of coin rubbings, and play store.

2012-09-26

228

Show-Me Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Come along as the folks at the University of Missouri show you the history of their college days through the Show Me magazine. It's a wonderful collection of college humor published from 1946 to 1963. First-time visitors would do well to read about the magazine's colorful past, courtesy of Jerry Smith. A good place to start is the November 1920 issue (easily found when you browse by date), which contains a number of parody advertisements along with some doggerels poking good natured fun at the football team and an assortment of deans. Also, it's worth noting that visitors can scroll through issues and save them to an online "bookbag" for later use.

2008-01-01

229

Keeping Show Pigs Healthy  

E-print Network

within a well-managed farm ? Vaccinating to prevent serious diseases ? Deworming the pigs routinely ? Having sick pigs promptly diagnosed and treated ? Using prescribed drugs properly Starting with healthy PigS To prevent disease outbreaks in show... of disease problems. Antibiotics are totally ineffective in preventing common viral diseases such as transmissible gas- troenteritis and swine influenza. Also, vaccines are not available for all swine diseases and must be giv- en long before the pigs...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2006-10-13

230

Mars Slide Show  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

15 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a landslide that occurred off of a steep slope in Tithonium Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

Location near: 4.8oS, 84.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

2006-01-01

231

Activation and Repression of Transcription by Auxin-Response Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auxin-response factors (ARFs) bind with specificity to TGTCTC auxin-response elements (AuxREs), which are found in promoters of primary\\/early auxin-response genes. Nine different ARFs have been analyzed for their capacity to activate or repress transcription in transient expression assays employing auxin-responsive GUS reporter genes. One ARF appears to act as a repressor. Four ARFs function as activators and contain glutamine-rich activation

Tim Ulmasov; Gretchen Hagen; Tom J. Guilfoyle

1999-01-01

232

Air Quality and Outdoor Activity Guidance for Schools Regular physical activity --at least 60 minutes each day --promotes health and fitness. The table below shows when and how to  

E-print Network

Air Quality and Outdoor Activity Guidance for Schools Regular physical activity -- at least 60 physical activity based on the Air Quality Index. This guidance can help protect the health of all children, including teenagers, who are more sensitive than adults to air pollution. Check the air quality daily at www

233

Show Me the Genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By this point in the unit, students have learned all the necessary information and conceptualized a design for how an optical biosensor could be used to detect a target strand of DNA associated with a cancer-causing gene as their solution to the unit's challenge question. Now student groups act as engineers again, using a poster format to communicate and prove the validity of the design. Successful posters include a description of refraction, explanations of refraction in a thin film, and the factors that can alter the interference pattern of a thin film. The posters culminate with an explanation of what is expected to be seen in a biosensing device of this type if it were coupled to a target molecule, proven with a specific example and illustrated with drawings and diagrams throughout. All the poster elements combine to prove the accuracy and viability of this method of gene detection. Together with its associated lesson, this activity functions as part of the summative assessment for this unit.

VU Bioengineering RET Program,

234

American History Picture Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In class we read Katie's Picture Show, a book about a girl who discovers art first-hand one day at an art museum in London. She realizes she can climb into the paintings, explore her surroundings, and even solve problems for the subjects of the paintings. As part of our unit on American history, we are going to use art to further learn about some of the important events we have been discussing. Each of these works of art depicts an important event in American History. When you click on a picture, you will be able to see the name of the event as well as the artist who created it. You will be using all three pictures for this assignment.Use the websites ...

Ms. Bennion

2009-11-23

235

Solar Light Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last few days, the Earth has been buffeted by a geomagnetic storm caused by a major solar flare. In addition to disruptions in radio, telecommunications, and electric service, the flare may also produce a dramatic light show as it peaks tonight. Weather permitting, the aurora borealis, or northern lights, may be visible as far south as Washington, D.C. The best viewing time will be local midnight. The sun is currently at the peak of its eleven-year solar cycle, spawning flares and "coronal mass ejections" (CME), violent outbursts of gas from the sun's corona that can carry up to 10 billion tons of electrified gas traveling at speeds as high as 2000 km/s. Geomagnetic storms result when solar winds compress the magnetosphere, sometimes interfering with electric power transmission and satellites, but also creating beautiful aurorae, as many stargazers hope will occur tonight.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

236

Show-Me Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Show-Me Center, located at the University of Missouri, is a math education project of the National Science Foundation. The center's Web site "provides information and resources needed to support selection and implementation of standards-based middle grades mathematic curricula." There are some sample lesson plans offered, but most of the material is solely for use by teachers. Five different middle grade math curriculums were started in 1992, and now, the implementation and results of each curriculum are presented on this site. Teachers can examine each one, view video clips, and read case studies and other reports to choose which parts of the curriculums would fit best into their own classes.

237

Public medical shows.  

PubMed

In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

Walusinski, Olivier

2014-01-01

238

Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled in bright green. Finally, the light purple lines and arrow highlight a small crater.

2006-01-01

239

than the PCR detection method. After co-culture, leaf discs were assayed for GUS activity (using 0.5 mg ml21  

E-print Network

of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid to avirulent Agrobacteria and to Rhizobium ex planta. J. Gen. Microbiol. 98 after the introduction of an Agrobacterium Ti plasmid or a Rhizobium Sym plasmid. Mol. Plant Microbe. J. Ti plasmid containing Rhizobium meliloti are non-tumorigenic on plants, despite proper virulence

Jordan, King

240

696 NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOL 17 JULY 1999 http://biotech.nature.com Since plants express endogenous b-galactosidase activity, lacZ can-  

E-print Network

of the 27 lysine residues in the E. coli protein are conserved in the other species and thus are likely. Mutated PCR products were ligated into the expression vector gusA-pBSD and transformed into E. coli. When endogenous b-galactosidase activity, lacZ can- not be employed as a reporter gene1. Instead, the Escherichia

Matsumura, Ichiro

241

Ecology- and bioassay-guided drug discovery for treatments of tropical parasitic disease: 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxycholest-6-en-3beta-ol isolated from the mollusk Dolabrifera dolabrifera shows significant activity against Leishmania donovani.  

PubMed

An ecology- and bioassay-guided search employed to discover compounds with activity against tropical parasitic diseases and cancer from the opisthobranch mollusk, Dolabrifera dolabrifera, led to the discovery of antileishmanial properties in the known compound, 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxycholest-6-en-3beta-ol (1). Compound 1 was identified through nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H, 13C) and mass spectrometry. The compound was concentrated in the digestive gland of D. dolabrifera, but was not detected in other body parts, fecal matter or mucus. Compound 1 showed an IC50 of 4.9 microM towards the amastigote form of Leishmania donovani compared with an IC50 of 281 microM towards the control Vero cell line, a 57.3-fold difference, and demonstrated no measurable activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, and the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. PMID:24427935

Clark, Kathryn E; Capper, Angela; Della Togna, Gina; Paul, Valerie J; Romero, Luz I; Johns, Timothy; Cubilla-Rios, Luis; Capson, Todd L

2013-11-01

242

13,14-bis(cis-3,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-?-elemene, a novel ?-elemene derivative, shows potent antitumor activities via inhibition of mTOR in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Elemene has been approved for the treatment of advanced cancer in China, however, it inhibits cell growth only at high concentrations and is an essential oil with poor water solubility and stability. The discovery of new ?-elemene derivatives is of increasing interest. We recently reported that the compound 13,14-bis(cis-3,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-?-elemene (IIi), a novel ?-elemene derivative with a cis-2,6-dimethylpiperazine substitution, is a potent agent for inhibiting the proliferation of SGC-7901 and HeLa cells. In the present study, we further verified that IIi is cytotoxic to a wide spectrum of human cancer cells in culture, including those of breast, ovarian, lung, gastric, hepatocellular and colon cancer, as well as leukemia cell lines, with an average IC50 of 3.44 ?mol/l. Notably, IIi showed significant cytotoxicity in two multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines, with an average resistance factor (RF) of 1.66. Moreover, in mice with S-180 sarcoma xenografts, the intraperitoneal administration of IIi inhibited tumor growth. The immunoblotting study showed that treatment with IIi decreases phosphorylated p70S6K1 and 4EBP1 levels in the human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells. In the MCF-7 cells, IIi also significantly increased the expression of cleaved LC3. This indicated that IIi inhibits mTOR activity and induces autophagy. The mTOR inhibitory function and the potent antitumor activity, taken together with the appreciable anti-multidrug resistance action, shows IIi to be a novel potential antitumor agent, which merits further research and development. PMID:23761818

Ding, Xiao-Fei; Shen, Mao; Xu, Li-Ying; Dong, Jin-Hua; Chen, Guang

2013-05-01

243

Characterization of sequence elements from Malvastrum yellow vein betasatellite regulating promoter activity and DNA replication  

PubMed Central

Background Many monopartite begomoviruses are associated with betasatellites, but only several promoters from which were isolated and studied. In this study, the ?C1 promoter from Malvastrum yellow vein betasatellite (MYVB) was characterized and important sequence elements were identified to modulate promoter activity and replication of MYVB. Results A 991 nucleotide (nt) fragment upstream of the translation start site of the ?C1 open reading frame of MYVB and a series of deletions within this fragment were constructed and fused to the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes, respectively. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assays showed that the 991 nt fragment was functional and that a 28 nt region (between ?390 nt and ?418 nt), which includes a 5?UTR Py-rich stretch motif, was important for promoter activity. Replication assays using Nicotiana benthamiana leaf discs and whole plants showed that deletion of the 5?UTR Py-rich stretch impaired viral satellite replication in the presence of the helper virus. Transgenic assays demonstrated that the 991 nt fragment conferred a constitutive expression pattern in transgenic tobacco plants and that a 214 nt fragment at the 3'-end of this sequence was sufficient to drive this expression pattern. Conclusion Our results showed that the ?C1 promoter of MYVB displayed a constitutive expression pattern and a 5?UTR Py-rich stretch motif regulated both ?C1 promoter activity and MYVB replication. PMID:23057573

2012-01-01

244

Combined inhibition of the phosphoinosityl-3-kinase (PI3Kinase) P110? subunit and mitogen-extracellular activated protein kinase (MEKinase) shows synergistic cytotoxicity against human acute myeloid leukemia progenitors.  

PubMed

Treatment of 32 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blast samples showing activation of the PI3K and RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathways with the PI3K p110? isoform and MEKinase selective inhibitors, PCN5603 and U0126 produced dose dependent progenitor kill and inhibition of p-Akt Ser473 and p-Erk Tyr204 expression. Normal marrow or blood progenitors were less sensitive to these inhibitors (median PCN5603 IC??s for AML and normal cells 1.5 and 5.8 ?M and for U0126 9.6 and 25.8 ?M, respectively). U0126 synergized with PCN5603 for killing of both AML and normal progenitors. However, the synergy was less for normal than for AML cells and the median IC?? of each drug in the combination 7- to 10-fold higher than for AML cells. PMID:23522913

Xing, Yan; Hogge, Donna E

2013-06-01

245

Optical and SPION-enhanced MR imaging shows that trans-stilbene inhibitors of NF-?B concomitantly lower Alzheimer's disease plaque formation and microglial activation in A?PP/PS-1 transgenic mouse brain.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with a microglia-dependent neuroinflammatory response against plaques containing the fibrous protein amyloid-? (A?). Activation of microglia, which closely associate with A? plaques, engenders the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the internalization of A? fibrils. Since the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-?B is one of the major regulators of A?-induced inflammation, we treated transgenic amyloid-? protein protein/presenilin-1 (A?PP/PS1) mice for one year with a low dose (0.01% by weight in the diet) of either of two trans-stilbene NF-?B inhibitors, resveratrol or a synthetic analog LD55. The 3D distribution of A? plaques was measured ex vivo in intact brains at 60 ?m resolution by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using blood-brain barrier-permeable, anti-A?PP-conjugated superparamagentic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The MRI measurements were confirmed by optical microscopy of thioflavin-stained brain tissue sections and indicated that supplementation with either of the two trans-stilbenes lowered A? plaque density in the cortex, caudoputamen, and hippocampus by 1.4 to 2-fold. The optical measurements also included the hippocampus and indicated that resveratrol and LD55 reduced average A? plaque density by 2.3-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively. Ex vivo measurements of the regional distribution of microglial activation by Iba-1 immunofluorescence of brain tissue sections showed that resveratrol and LD55 reduced average microglial activation by 4.2- fold and 3.5-fold, respectively. Since LD55 lacked hydroxyl groups but both resveratrol and LD55 concomitantly reduced both A? plaque burden and neuroinflammation to a similar extent, it appears that the antioxidant potential of resveratrol is not an important factor in plaque reduction. PMID:24413613

Solberg, Nathan O; Chamberlin, Ryan; Vigil, Jenette R; Deck, Lorraine M; Heidrich, John E; Brown, David C; Brady, Christina I; Vander Jagt, Thomas A; Garwood, Michael; Bisoffi, Marco; Severns, Virginia; Vander Jagt, David L; Sillerud, Laurel O

2014-01-01

246

Optical and SPION-Enhanced MR Imaging Shows that trans-Stilbene Inhibitors of NF-?B Concomitantly Lower Alzheimer’s Disease Plaque Formation and Microglial Activation in A?PP/PS-1 Transgenic Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with a microglia-dependent neuroinflammatory response against plaques containing the fibrous protein amyloid-? (A?). Activation of microglia, which closely associate with A? plaques, engenders the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the internalization of A? fibrils. Since the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-?B is one of the major regulators of A?-induced inflammation, we treated transgenic amyloid-? protein protein/presenilin-1 (A?PP/PS1) mice for one year with a low dose (0.01% by weight in the diet) of either of two trans-stilbene NF-?B inhibitors, resveratrol or a synthetic analog LD55. The 3D distribution of A? plaques was measured ex vivo in intact brains at 60 ?m resolution by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using blood-brain barrier-permeable, anti-A?PP-conjugated superparamagentic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The MRI measurements were confirmed by optical microscopy of thioflavin-stained brain tissue sections and indicated that supplementation with either of the two trans-stilbenes lowered A? plaque density in the cortex, caudoputamen, and hippocampus by 1.4 to 2-fold. The optical measurements also included the hippocampus and indicated that resveratrol and LD55 reduced average A? plaque density by 2.3-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively. Ex vivo measurements of the regional distribution of microglial activation by Iba-1 immunofluorescence of brain tissue sections showed that resveratrol and LD55 reduced average microglial activation by 4.2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively. Since LD55 lacked hydroxyl groups but both resveratrol and LD55 concomitantly reduced both A? plaque burden and neuroinflammation to a similar extent, it appears that the antioxidant potential of resveratrol is not an important factor in plaque reduction. PMID:24413613

Solberg, Nathan O.; Chamberlin, Ryan; Vigil, Jenette R.; Deck, Lorraine M.; Heidrich, John E.; Brown, David C.; Brady, Christina I.; Vander Jagt, Thomas A.; Garwood, Michael; Bisoffi, Marco; Severns, Virginia; Vander Jagt, David L.; Sillerud, Laurel O.

2015-01-01

247

Mutation in Cyclophilin B That Causes Hyperelastosis Cutis in American Quarter Horse Does Not Affect Peptidylprolyl cis-trans Isomerase Activity but Shows Altered Cyclophilin B-Protein Interactions and Affects Collagen Folding*  

PubMed Central

The rate-limiting step of folding of the collagen triple helix is catalyzed by cyclophilin B (CypB). The G6R mutation in cyclophilin B found in the American Quarter Horse leads to autosomal recessive hyperelastosis cutis, also known as hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia. The mutant protein shows small structural changes in the region of the mutation at the side opposite the catalytic domain of CypB. The peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of the mutant CypB is normal when analyzed in vitro. However, the biosynthesis of type I collagen in affected horse fibroblasts shows a delay in folding and secretion and a decrease in hydroxylysine and glucosyl-galactosyl hydroxylysine. This leads to changes in the structure of collagen fibrils in tendon, similar to those observed in P3H1 null mice. In contrast to cyclophilin B null mice, where little 3-hydroxylation was found in type I collagen, 3-hydroxylation of type I collagen in affected horses is normal. The mutation disrupts the interaction of cyclophilin B with the P-domain of calreticulin, with lysyl hydroxylase 1, and probably other proteins, such as the formation of the P3H1·CypB·cartilage-associated protein complex, resulting in less effective catalysis of the rate-limiting step in collagen folding in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:22556420

Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Vranka, Janice A.; Boudko, Sergei P.; Pokidysheva, Elena; Mizuno, Kazunori; Zientek, Keith; Keene, Douglas R.; Rashmir-Raven, Ann M.; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Winand, Nena J.; Bächinger, Hans Peter

2012-01-01

248

2013 Goat Shows Show Date Show Name Entries Due Eligibility Weigh In Show Time Contact Phone Extra Info  

E-print Network

2013 Goat Shows Show Date Show Name Entries Due Eligibility Weigh In Show Time Contact Phone Extra/13/2013 Cannon Co. Day of Show Youth Must 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. Carol 615-563-5260 Bring own Jr. Goat $1.00 a head Control 10 a.m. Melton Bedding Association Goat 7/20/2013 Overton Co. Day of Show Youth Before 5 p.m. 6

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

249

Human NR5A1/SF-1 Mutations Show Decreased Activity on BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor), an Important Regulator of Energy Balance: Testing Impact of Novel SF-1 Mutations Beyond Steroidogenesis  

PubMed Central

Context Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Objective To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. Patients 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. Methods SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Results Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Conclusions Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations. PMID:25122490

Malikova, Jana; Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Heath, Karen; González, Isabel; Caimarí, María; del Campo, Miguel; Albisu, Marian; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Audí, Laura; Flück, Christa E.

2014-01-01

250

A new C-type lectin (RVsnaclec) purified from venom of Daboia russelii russelii shows anticoagulant activity via inhibition of FXa and concentration-dependent differential response to platelets in a Ca²?-independent manner.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the characterization of a snaclec (RVsnaclec) purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom. The RVsnaclec is a heterodimer of two subunits, ? (15.1 kDa) and ? (9 kDa). These subunits are covalently linked to form multimeric (??)? and (??)? structures. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis of RVsnaclec via LC-MS/MS demonstrated its similarity to snaclecs purified from other viperid snake venoms. Two tryptic peptide sequences of RVsnaclec revealed the putative conserved domains of C-type lectin (CTL). RVsnaclec dose-dependently increased the Ca-clotting time and prothrombin time of platelet-poor plasma (PPP); however, it did not affect the partial thromboplastin time (APTT) or thrombin time of PPP. The in vitro and in vivo anticoagulant activity of RVsnaclec is correlated to its binding and subsequent uncompetitive inhibition of FXa (Ki = 0.52 ?mole) in a Ca(2+)-independent manner; however, supplementation with 0.25 mM Ca(2+) enhanced the Xa binding potency of RVsnaclec. Monovalent or polyvalent antivenom failed to neutralize its anticoagulant potency, and RVsnaclec did not inhibit trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin or plasmin. RVsnaclec was devoid of hemolytic activity or cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines, demonstrated concentration-dependent aggregation and deaggregation of human platelets, and inhibited the ADP-induced aggregation of platelet. RVsnaclec (5.0 mg/kg body weight) was non-lethal to mice and showed no adverse pharmacological effects, suggesting that it has potential as a lead compound for future therapeutic applications in cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25281435

Mukherjee, Ashis K; Dutta, Sumita; Mackessy, Stephen P

2014-11-01

251

Phytochrome-Mediated Photoperiod Perception, Shoot Growth, Glutamine, Calcium, and Protein Phosphorylation Influence the Activity of the Poplar Bark Storage Protein Gene Promoter (bspA)1  

PubMed Central

In poplars (Populus), bspA encodes a 32-kD bark storage protein that accumulates in the inner bark of plants exposed to either short-day (SD) photoperiods or elevated levels of nitrogen. In this study, poplars transformed with a chimeric gene consisting of the bspA promoter fused to ?-glucuronidase (uidA) were used to investigate the transcriptional regulation of the bspA promoter. Photoperiodic activation of the bspA promoter was shown to involve perception by phytochrome and likely involves both a low fluence response and a parallel very low fluence response pathway. Activity of the bspA promoter was also influenced by shoot growth. High levels of bspA expression usually occur in the bark of plants during SD but not long day or SD with a night break. When growth was inhibited under growth permissive photoperiods (SD with night break) levels of bark ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity increased. Stimulating shoot growth in plants treated with SD inhibited SD-induced increases in bark GUS activity. Because changes in photoperiod and growth also alter carbon and nitrogen partitioning, the role of carbon and nitrogen metabolites in modulating the activity of the bspA promoter were investigated by treating excised stems with amino acids or NH4NO3 with or without sucrose. Treatment with either glutamine or NH4NO3 resulted in increased stem GUS activity. The addition of sucrose with either glutamine or NH4NO3 resulted in synergistic induction of GUS, whereas sucrose alone had no effect. Glutamine plus sucrose induction of GUS activity was inhibited by EGTA, okadaic acid, or K-252A. Inhibition by EGTA was partially relieved by the addition of Ca2+. The Ca2+ ionophore, ionomycin, also induced GUS activity in excised shoots. These results indicate that transcriptional activation of bspA is complex. It is likely that SD activation of bspA involves perception by phytochrome coupled to changes in growth. These growth changes may then alter carbon and nitrogen partitioning that somehow signals bspA induction by a yet undefined mechanism that involves carbon and nitrogen metabolites, Ca2+, and protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. PMID:11351097

Zhu, Baolong; Coleman, Gary D.

2001-01-01

252

Managing Beef Cattle for Show  

E-print Network

This publication gives advice on raising beef cattle to exhibit at shows. Topics include animal selection, feeding, general health management, disease prevention, calf handling, and preparing for the show....

Herd, Dennis B.; Boleman, Chris; Boleman, Larry L.

2001-11-16

253

What Do Blood Tests Show?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Do Blood Tests Show? Blood tests show whether the levels ... changes may work best. Result Ranges for Common Blood Tests This section presents the result ranges for ...

254

Asia: Showing the Changing Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWiFS false color data showing seasonal change in the oceans and on land for Asia. The data is seasonally averaged, and shows the sequence: fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring (for the Northern Hemisphere).

Jesse Allen

1998-09-09

255

ELI Talent Show Final Exams  

E-print Network

Highlights ELI Talent Show Final Exams Scholarship Nominees Graduate Admissions Workshop Reminders from the Office Manners, Cultures, & Grammar TheELIWeekly ELI Talent Show It's going to be a blast! Come one, come all! The 2nd Annual ELI Talent Show will be on Tuesday, April 15th

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

256

International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1995 International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show in Ontario, Canada has a site of the Web. The IPM is a non-profit organization of volunteers which annually organizes Canada's largest farm machinery show. The event is commercial and educational. Thousands of school children and educators attend and participate in organized educational activities.

257

Planning a Successful Tech Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

Nikirk, Martin

2011-01-01

258

Two negative cis-regulatory regions involved in fruit-specific promoter activity from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris S.)  

PubMed Central

A 1.8?kb 5?-flanking region of the large subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, isolated from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris S.), has fruit-specific promoter activity in transgenic tomato plants. Two negative regulatory regions, from –986 to –959 and from –472 to –424, were identified in this promoter region by fine deletion analyses. Removal of both regions led to constitutive expression in epidermal cells. Gain-of-function experiments showed that these two regions were sufficient to inhibit RFP (red fluorescent protein) expression in transformed epidermal cells when fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S minimal promoter. Gel mobility shift experiments demonstrated the presence of leaf nuclear factors that interact with these two elements. A TCCAAAA motif was identified in these two regions, as well as one in the reverse orientation, which was confirmed to be a novel specific cis-element. A quantitative ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity assay of stable transgenic tomato plants showed that the activities of chimeric promoters harbouring only one of the two cis-elements, or both, were ?10-fold higher in fruits than in leaves. These data confirm that the TCCAAAA motif functions as a fruit-specific element by inhibiting gene expression in leaves. PMID:19073962

Yin, Tao; Wu, Hanying; Zhang, Shanglong; Liu, Jingmei; Lu, Hongyu; Zhang, Lingxiao; Xu, Yong; Chen, Daming

2009-01-01

259

Using Graphs to Show Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to show how graphs of GLOBE data over time show the interconnectedness of Earth's system components at the local level. Students visit a study site, where they observe and recall their existing knowledge of air, water, soil, and living things to make a list of interconnections among the four Earth system components. They make predictions about the effects of a change in a system, inferring ways these changes affect the characteristics of other related components.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

260

The Maths File Game Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Broadcasting Corporation offers this great collection of fun, educational games that help children learn basic concepts of mathematics. Twelve interactive games are available in all, illustrating principles of data handling, numbers, algebra, and measurement. Children can practice interpreting Cartesian coordinates by guiding a space ship across a grid, or compete with an animated character in a test of fractions and percentages. In addition to the online games, several other activities are presented in one-page documents for easy printing.

2007-12-12

261

National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

Dan Jimenez (NOS)Sheri Raborn, CPA (National Orange Show); Tom Baker (California Construction Authority)

2008-03-31

262

Diarrheal Disease in Show Swine  

E-print Network

D iarrhea is one of the most important problems in show pigs. It can occur at any time, from first obtaining a show pig through the last day of exhi- bition. It can become a chronic condition that persists for weeks. Diarrhea can be caused..., in itself, cause loose stools or diarrhea. If a pig is grow- ing well but has a chronically loose stool, reduce the pro- tein and/or increase fiber in the diet. If the stool does not firm up, there are probably other causes of diarrhea. Parasitic Causes...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2007-02-27

263

Midterm Picnic ELI Talent Show  

E-print Network

Highlights Midterm Picnic ELI Talent Show Notes from the Office Birthdays Manners Grammar The the new ELI students. All ELI students, staff, and friends are invited to the Midterm/Welcome picnic Where: Broward Beach (Behind Broward and Yulee Halls, across 13th Street from the ELI). What to Bring

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

264

Producing Talent and Variety Shows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

Szabo, Chuck

1995-01-01

265

A Talk Show from the Past.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony,…

Gallagher, Arlene F.

1991-01-01

266

The Arsenic Project. The activity is an authentic research experience for students at early stages in their academic programs, and is designed to give you an insight into the way science is done and will show  

E-print Network

The Arsenic Project. The activity is an authentic research experience for students at early stages are related to studies of aspects of the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic compounds i.e. the environmental and analytical chemistry of these compounds. Arsenic compounds are toxic and there are a lot of them around

Schweik, Charles M.

267

Rocks and Minerals Slide Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive slide show of common rocks and minerals allows students to choose from two sets of minerals and click on a thumbnail to see a larger photograph with a full description of the mineral including color, streak, hardness, cleavage/fracture, and chemical composition. Also included are its use and where it is found. The rocks are divided into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic and can be accessed in the same manner. They are described on the basis of crystal size and mineral composition as well as use.

268

Stable transformation of the food yam Dioscorea alata L. by particle bombardment.  

PubMed

A biolistic particle gun was used to deliver genetic material into intact yam cells. Cultured suspension cells of D. alata were bombarded with microprojectiles coated with pBI221.2 DNA and histochemical assays were carried out to show transient GUS expression in bombarded cells. Stably transformed D. alata cells were recovered from cultured cells after bombardment with microprojectiles coated with pRT99gus harbouring both the nptII and uidA genes. Bombarded cells were selected on a medium containing geneticin (G418). Two months after bombardment, calli resistant to G418 were assayed for GUS expression. There was a 100% correlation between resistance to G418 and GUS expression. From these calli, four cell lines were established and GUS activity in each line was determined fluorometrically. The use of a specific GUS inhibitor showed that the GUS activity was due to the introduced uidA gene rather than to any intrinsic GUS-like activity originating from the plant. Incorporation of the introduced DNA into the plant genomic DNA was confirmed by Southern analysis. PMID:24197354

Tör, M; Ainsworth, C; Mantell, S H

1993-05-01

269

Generation of a Stable Antioxidant Response Element-Driven Reporter Gene Cell Line and Its Use to Show Redox-Dependent Activation of Nrf2 by Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates cytoprotective genes that contain an antioxidant response element (ARE) in their promoters. To investigate whether anticancer drugs can induce ARE-driven gene expression, we have developed a stable human mammary MCF7-derived reporter cell line called AREc32, which contains a luciferase gene construct controlled by eight copies of the cis-element. In these cells, luciferase activity

Xiu Jun Wang; John D. Hayes

2006-01-01

270

Casimir experiments showing saturation effects  

SciTech Connect

We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

Sernelius, Bo E. [Division of Theory and Modeling, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

2009-10-15

271

Inhibition of tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha induced endothelial cell activation by a new class of PPAR-gamma agonists. An in vitro study showing receptor-independent effects.  

PubMed

Proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules expressed by endothelial cells (ECs) play a critical role in initiating and promoting atherosclerosis. Agents that oppose these inflammatory effects in vascular cells include peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) ligands, including 15-deoxy-delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and synthetic thiazolidinediones. Recently, a new structural class of potent PPAR-gamma agonists, 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl) methanes, has been characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of two PPAR-gamma-active members of this class, 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-t-butylphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhtBu) and 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-biphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5)), in ECs in vitro. Pretreatment of ECs with DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5), DIM-C- pPhtBu, or 15d-PGJ2 decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. At a concentration of 10 microM, DIM-C-pPhtBu and DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5) decreased ICAM-1 expression by 77.5 and 71.3%, respectively, and comparable inhibition (84.4%) was observed for 10 microM 15d-PGJ2 (p < 0.05). In contrast, 10 microM ciglitazone and DIM-C-pPhCH(3), which exhibits low PPAR-gamma agonist activity, were inactive. The two new PPAR-gamma agonists and 15d-PGJ2 also inhibited TNF-alpha-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in supernatants of TNF-alpha-stimulated ECs, whereas ciglitazone and DIM-C-pPhCH(3) did not decrease TNF-alpha-induced expression of these two proteins. This new structural class of PPAR-gamma agonists inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 and the production of IL-6 and MCP-1 in TNF-alpha-activated ECs at lower concentrations than other synthetic PPAR-gamma agonists, suggesting the potential clinical utility of 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl) methanes for decreasing endothelial inflammation. PMID:16155367

Calabrò, Paolo; Samudio, Ismael; Safe, Stephen H; Willerson, James T; Yeh, Edward T H

2005-01-01

272

Permanent prostate implant using high activity seeds and inverse planning with fast simulated annealing algorithm: A 12-year Canadian experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report outcomes and toxicity of the first Canadian permanent prostate implant program. Methods and Materials: 396 consecutive patients (Gleason {<=}6, initial prostate specific antigen (PSA) {<=}10 and stage T1-T2a disease) were implanted between June 1994 and December 2001. The median follow-up is of 60 months (maximum, 136 months). All patients were planned with fast-simulated annealing inverse planning algorithm with high activity seeds ([gt] 0.76 U). Acute and late toxicity is reported for the first 213 patients using a modified RTOG toxicity scale. The Kaplan-Meier biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) is reported according to the ASTRO and Houston definitions. Results: The bFFS at 60 months was of 88.5% (90.5%) according to the ASTRO (Houston) definition and, of 91.4% (94.6%) in the low risk group (initial PSA {<=}10 and Gleason {<=}6 and Stage {<=}T2a). Risk factors statistically associated with bFFS were: initial PSA >10, a Gleason score of 7-8, and stage T2b-T3. The mean D90 was of 151 {+-} 36.1 Gy. The mean V100 was of 85.4 {+-} 8.5% with a mean V150 of 60.1 {+-} 12.3%. Overall, the implants were well tolerated. In the first 6 months, 31.5% of the patients were free of genitourinary symptoms (GUs), 12.7% had Grade 3 GUs; 91.6% were free of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIs). After 6 months, 54.0% were GUs free, 1.4% had Grade 3 GUs; 95.8% were GIs free. Conclusion: The inverse planning with fast simulated annealing and high activity seeds gives a 5-year bFFS, which is comparable with the best published series with a low toxicity profile.

Martin, Andre-Guy [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Roy, Jean [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Centre de Recherche de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Pouliot, Jean [Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Harel, Francois [Centre de Recherche de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Vigneault, Eric [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: Eric.Vigneault@chuq.qc.ca

2007-02-01

273

The promoter of the Arabidopsis thaliana BAN gene is active in proanthocyanidin-accumulating cells of the Brassica napus seed coat  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an ongoing research program dedicated to the understanding of proanthocyanidin (PA) accumulation in Brassica napus seed coat, transgenic rapeseed plants carrying a 2.3-kb fragment of the Arabidopsis thaliana BAN promoter (ProAtBAN) fused to the uidA reporter gene (GUS) were generated. Analysis of these plants revealed that ProAtBAN was activated in B. napus seed coat, following a spatio-temporal

Nathalie Nesi; Marie-Odile Lucas; Bathilde Auger; Cécile Baron; Alain Lécureuil; Philippe Guerche; Jocelyne Kronenberger; Loïc Lepiniec; Isabelle Debeaujon; Michel Renard

2009-01-01

274

BMS-690514, a VEGFR and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, shows anti-tumoural activity on non-small-cell lung cancer xenografts and induces sequence-dependent synergistic effect with radiation  

PubMed Central

Background: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an aggressive disease in which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are implicated in tumour growth, tumour resistance to radiation and chemotherapy, and disease relapse. We have investigated the anti-tumoural effects of BMS-690514, an inhibitor of both vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling pathways, as a single agent and in combination with ionising radiation (IR) on several NSCLC cell lines. Methods: Radiosensitisation of several NSCLC cell lines by BMS-690514 was assessed in vitro using clonogenic assay and in vivo using nude mice. Results: In vitro studies showed that BMS-690514 alone decreases clonogenic survival of NSCLC cells lines but no potential enhancement of IR response was observed in the combination. In tumour-bearing mice, BMS-690514 alone inhibits the growth of NSCLC xenografts, including the T790M mutation-harbouring H1975 tumour. The concomitant combination of BMS-690514 and radiation did not increase mice survival in comparison with treatment with IR alone. In contrast, BMS-690514 markedly enhances the anti-tumour effect of radiation in a sequential manner on H1299 and H1975 xenografts. Immunohistochemistry revealed a qualitative reduction in vessel area after administrations of BMS-690514, compared with vehicle-treated controls, suggesting that revascularisation may explain the schedule dependency of the tumour-growth delay observed. Conclusion: The results of association with radiation show that BMS-690514 may be a successful adjuvant to clinical radiotherapy. These findings are of translational importance because the clinical benefits of anti-EGFR and anti-VEGFR therapy might be schedule dependent. PMID:20628392

Loriot, Y; Mordant, P; Dorvault, N; De la motte Rouge, T; Bourhis, J; Soria, J-C; Deutsch, E

2010-01-01

275

Performance on a pattern separation task by Alzheimer’s patients shows possible links between disrupted dentate gyrus activity and apolipoprotein E ?4 status and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-?42 levels  

PubMed Central

Introduction Emerging evidence suggests that decreased adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents an early critical event in the course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In mice, adult neurogenesis is reduced by knock-in alleles for human apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ?4. Decreased dentate gyrus (DG) neural progenitor cells proliferation has been observed in the triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD); this reduction being directly associated with the presence of amyloid-? (A?) plaques and an increase in the number of A?-containing neurons in the hippocampus. Cognitive tasks involving difficult pattern separations have been shown to reflect DG activity and thus potentially neurogenesis in both animals and man. This study involved the administration of a pattern separation paradigm to Alzheimer’s patients to investigate relationships between task performance and both ApoE status and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A?42 levels. Methods The CDR System pattern separation task involves the presentation of pictures that must later be discriminated from closely similar pictures. This paper presents pattern separation data from 66 mild to moderate AD patients, of which 50 were genotyped and 65 in whom CSF A?42 was measured. Results ApoE ?4 homozygotes were not compromised on the easy pattern separations compared with the other patients, but they were statistically significantly poorer at the difficult separations. In all patients CSF A?42 correlated significantly with the ability to make the difficult discriminations, but not easier discriminations. Pattern separation speed correlated negatively with CSF A?42, and thus the association was not due to increased impulsivity. Conclusions These are, to our knowledge, the first human pattern separation data to suggest a possible genetic link to poor hippocampal neurogenesis in AD, as well as a relationship to A?42. Therapies which target neurogenesis may thus be useful in preventing the early stages of AD, notably in ApoE ?4 homocygotes. PMID:24735568

2014-01-01

276

Investigation of infectivity of neonates and adults from different rat strains to Toxoplasma gondii Prugniaud shows both variation which correlates with iNOS and Arginase-1 activity and increased susceptibility of neonates to infection.  

PubMed

Mouse models differ considerably from humans with regard to clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and, by comparison, the rat model is more representative of this disease in humans. In the present study, we found that different strains of adult and newborn rats (Lewis, Wistar, Sprague Dawley, Brown Norway and Fischer 344) exhibited remarkable variation in the number of brain cysts following inoculation with the T.gondii Prugniaud strain. In adult rats, large numbers of cysts (1231?±?165.6) were observed in Fischer 344, but none in the other four. This situation was different in newborn rats aged from 5 to 20 days old. All Fischer 344 and Brown Norway newborns were cyst-positive while cyst-positive infection in Sprague Dawley neonates ranged from 54.5% to 60% depending on their age at infection. In Wistar and Lewis rat neonates, however, cyst-positivity rates of 0-42.9% and 0-25% were found respectively. To investigate whether rat strain differences in infectivity could be related to inherent strain and genetic differences in the host immune response, we correlated our data with previously reported strain differences in iNOS/Arginase ratio in adult rats and found them to be linked. These results show that interactions between host genetic background and age of rat influence T.gondii infection. PMID:25541383

Gao, Jiang-Mei; Yi, Si-Qi; Wu, Ming-Shui; Geng, Guo-Qing; Shen, Ji-Long; Lu, Fang-Li; Hide, Geoff; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong

2015-02-01

277

Rice LGD1 containing RNA binding activity affects growth and development through alternative promoters.  

PubMed

Tiller initiation and panicle development are important agronomical traits for grain production in Oryza sativa L. (rice), but their regulatory mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, T-DNA mutant and RNAi transgenic approaches were used to functionally characterize a unique rice gene, LAGGING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1 (LGD1). The lgd1 mutant showed slow growth, reduced tiller number and plant height, altered panicle architecture and reduced grain yield. The fewer unelongated internodes and cells in lgd1 led to respective reductions in tiller number and to semi-dwarfism. Several independent LGD1-RNAi lines exhibited defective phenotypes similar to those observed in lgd1. Interestingly, LGD1 encodes multiple transcripts with different transcription start sites (TSSs), which were validated by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). Additionally, GUS assays and a luciferase promoter assay confirmed the promoter activities of LGD1.1 and LGD1.5. LGD1 encoding a von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain containing protein is a single gene in rice that is seemingly specific to grasses. GFP-tagged LGD1 isoforms were predominantly detected in the nucleus, and weakly in the cytoplasm. In vitro northwestern analysis showed the RNA-binding activity of the recombinant C-terminal LGD1 protein. Our results demonstrated that LGD1 pleiotropically regulated rice vegetative growth and development through both the distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns of its multiple transcripts and RNA binding activity. Hence, the study of LGD1 will strengthen our understanding of the molecular basis of the multiple transcripts, and their corresponding polypeptides with RNA binding activity, that regulate pleiotropic effects in rice. PMID:22409537

Thangasamy, Saminathan; Chen, Pei-Wei; Lai, Ming-Hsing; Chen, Jychian; Jauh, Guang-Yuh

2012-07-01

278

STOP2 activates transcription of several genes for Al- and low pH-tolerance that are regulated by STOP1 in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The zinc-finger protein STOP1 (sensitive to proton rhizotoxicity 1) regulates transcription of multiple genes critical for tolerance to aluminum (Al) and low pH in Arabidopsis. We evaluated the contributions of genes that are suppressed in the stop1 mutant to Al- and low pH-tolerance using T-DNA-inserted disruptants, and transgenic stop1 mutants expressing each of the suppressed genes. STOP2, a STOP1 homolog, partially recovered Al- and low pH-tolerance by recovering the expression of genes regulated by STOP1. Growth and root tip viability under proton stress were partially rescued in the STOP2-complemented line. STOP2 localized in the nucleus and regulated transcription of two genes (PGIP1 and PGIP2) associated with cell wall stabilization at low pH. GUS assays revealed that STOP1 and STOP2 showed similar cellular expression in the root. However, the expression level of STOP2 was much lower than that of STOP1. In a STOP1 promoter::STOP2-complemented line, Al tolerance was slightly recovered, concomitant with the recovery of expression of ALS3 (aluminum sensitive 3) and AtMATE (Arabidopsis thaliana multidrug and toxic compound extrusion), while the expression of AtALMT1 (aluminum-activated malate transporter 1) was not recovered. These analyses indicated that STOP2 is a physiologically minor isoform of STOP1, but it can activate expression of some genes regulated by STOP1. PMID:23935008

Kobayashi, Yuriko; Ohyama, Yoshinao; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Ito, Hiroki; Iuchi, Satoshi; Fujita, Miki; Zhao, Cheng-Ri; Tanveer, Tazib; Ganesan, Markkandan; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Koyama, Hiroyuki

2014-02-01

279

Virus infection elevates transcriptional activity of miR164a promoter in plants  

PubMed Central

Background Micro RNAs (miRs) constitute a large group of endogenous small RNAs that have crucial roles in many important plant functions. Virus infection and transgenic expression of viral proteins alter accumulation and activity of miRs and so far, most of the published evidence involves post-transcriptional regulations. Results Using transgenic plants expressing a reporter gene under the promoter region of a characterized miR (P-miR164a), we monitored the reporter gene expression in different tissues and during Arabidopsis development. Strong expression was detected in both vascular tissues and hydathodes. P-miR164a activity was developmentally regulated in plants with a maximum expression at stages 1.12 to 5.1 (according to Boyes, 2001) along the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Upon quantification of P-miR164a-derived GUS activity after Tobacco mosaic virus Cg or Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) infection and after hormone treatments, we demonstrated that ORMV and gibberellic acid elevated P-miR164a activity. Accordingly, total mature miR164, precursor of miR164a and CUC1 mRNA (a miR164 target) levels increased after virus infection and interestingly the most severe virus (ORMV) produced the strongest promoter induction. Conclusion This work shows for the first time that the alteration of miR pathways produced by viral infections possesses a transcriptional component. In addition, the degree of miR alteration correlates with virus severity since a more severe virus produces a stronger P-miR164a induction. PMID:20042107

2009-01-01

280

Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a series of activities that help students discover the Pythagorean Theorem and extension activities to explore various dissection proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

Dotseth, Karen A., Ed.; And Others

1993-01-01

281

47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing...showing that: (1) The applicant has an organized plan of development leading to a specific objective; (2) The actual...

2010-10-01

282

Planetarium Shows for K-12 School Groups  

E-print Network

Planetarium Shows for K-12 School Groups TheWayne State University Planetarium offers Instructional planetarium shows typically consist of three parts: interactive demonstrations, current night sky-577-2107 planetarium.wayne.edu Explore, Discover, Be Inspired. #12;

Berdichevsky, Victor

283

New Hampshire Guide 4-H Dog Shows  

E-print Network

New Hampshire Guide to 4-H Dog Shows UNH Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development Moiles House cooperating. #12;NH Guide to 4-H Dog Shows i Table of Contents INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................2 Purpose of the 4-H Dog Project

New Hampshire, University of

284

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Epilogue #12;Inside Gun Shows What Goes on When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Garen Wintemute, MD, MPH Violence Prevention;Epilogue In February 2010, I attended a Crossroads of the West gun show at the Arizona State Fairgrounds

Leistikow, Bruce N.

285

Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated ?-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorinated dibenzeno-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium

Hideyuki Inui; Keiko Gion; Yasushi Utani; Taketo Wakai; Susumu Kodama; Heesoo Eun; Yun-Seok Kim; Hideo Ohkawa

2012-01-01

286

Solar System Odyssey - Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show. Learners go on a futuristic journey through our Solar System. They explore the inner and outer planets, then the moons: Titan, Europa, and Callisto as possible places to establish a human colony. A full-length preview of the show is available on the website, you need to scroll down about 3/4 of the page - under section on children's shows, direct link not available.

287

The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

288

The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

Stinner, Art

2014-01-01

289

Salton Sea Satellite Image Showing Fault Slip  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Landsat satellite image (LE70390372003084EDC00) showing location of surface slip triggered along faults in the greater Salton Trough area. Red bars show the generalized location of 2010 surface slip along faults in the central Salton Trough and many additional faults in the southwestern section of t...

290

Talk shows’ representations of interpersonal conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past ten years, daytime talk shows became very popular among television programmers and viewers alike. Given the large audiences to whom talk shows communicate, it is important to analyze the messages contained in the programs. Remarkably little academic attention has been paid to this phenomenon, however. The present study focuses on the presentation of interpersonal conflicts, particularly regarding

Susan L. Brinson; J. Emmett Winn

1997-01-01

291

"The Stars Tonight" LIVE Planetarium Show  

E-print Network

"The Stars Tonight" LIVE Planetarium Show Theme: The Stars Tonight Program is built around Planetarium is particularly well-suited to host The Stars Tonight. Its large dome and Zeiss Mark 6A projector. The Einstein Planetarium at NASM shows two other programs on astronomical topics: · Infinity Express · Cosmic

Mathis, Wayne N.

292

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

Systems of Gun Commerce Modern gun commerce operates under the terms of the Gun Control Act of 1968. ThoseInside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Executive Summary #12;Inside Gun Shows What Goes on When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Garen Wintemute, MD, MPH Violence

Nguyen, Danh

293

Inside Gun Shows What Goes On  

E-print Network

for that reason, are an important source of guns used in criminal violence. The intent of this reportPreface Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching #12;#12;Inside Gun Shows What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Garen Wintemute, MD, MPH #12;Violence

Leistikow, Bruce N.

294

Learning to Show You're Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good listeners generally produce back-channel feedback, that is, short utterances such as "uh-huh" which signal active listening. As the rules governing back-channeling vary from language to language, second-language learners may need help acquiring this skill. This paper is an initial exploration of how to provide this. It presents a training…

Ward, Nigel G.; Escalante, Rafael; Al Bayyari, Yaffa; Solorio, Thamar

2007-01-01

295

QS Show & Tell What I did on  

E-print Network

levels (percentage) Heart rate (BPM) #12;5 Ambulatory BP Monitor Measures Blood pressure Heart rate (BPM (CMS-50E) Blood pressure (Contec-06C) Pedometer (Actitrainer) #12;4 Pulse Oximeter Measures Oxygen) #12;6 Pedometer Measures Activity level Heart rate (BPM) #12;7 Challenges Too much data How do we

Miller, Ethan L.

296

Gyroscopic Motion: Show Me the Forces!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gyroscopes are frequently used in physics lecture demonstrations and in laboratory activities to teach students about rotational dynamics, namely, angular momentum and torque. Use of these powerful concepts makes it difficult for students to fully comprehend the mechanism that keeps the gyroscope from falling under the force of gravity. The…

Kaplan, Harvey; Hirsch, Andrew

2014-01-01

297

map showing predicted habitat potentional for tortoise  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This map shows the spatial representation of the predicted habitat potential index values for desert tortoise in the Mojave and parts of the Sonoran Deserts of California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. Map: USGS. ...

298

Incident Response Planning for Selected Livestock Shows  

E-print Network

Incidents affecting the livestock industry are unavoidable in today's society. These incidents can happen at livestock shows across the country putting thousands of exhibitors, visitors, employees and livestock in danger. The purpose of this study...

Tomascik, Chelsea Roxanne

2012-02-14

299

More Dangerous Ebola Strain Unlikely, Study Shows  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. More Dangerous Ebola Strain Unlikely, Study Shows Researchers compared virus samples ... 2015) Thursday, March 26, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Ebola THURSDAY, March 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Ebola likely ...

300

Ebola Drug Shows Promise in Monkey Trial  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ebola Drug Shows Promise in Monkey Trial Experimental medicine ... Mozes Tuesday, February 10, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Ebola TUESDAY, Feb. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- An investigational ...

301

Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

1993-01-01

302

Graphene oxide immobilized enzymes show high thermal and solvent stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal and solvent tolerance of enzymes is highly important for their industrial use. We show here that the enzyme lipase from Rhizopus oryzae exhibits exceptionally high thermal stability and high solvent tolerance and even increased activity in acetone when immobilized onto a graphene oxide (GO) nanosupport prepared by Staudenmaier and Brodie methods. We studied various forms of immobilization of the enzyme: by physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and additional crosslinking. The activity recovery was shown to be dependent on the support type, enzyme loading and immobilization procedure. Covalently immobilized lipase showed significantly better resistance to heat inactivation (the activity recovery was 65% at 70 °C) in comparison with the soluble counterpart (the activity recovery was 65% at 40 °C). Physically adsorbed lipase achieved over 100% of the initial activity in a series of organic solvents. These findings, showing enhanced thermal stability and solvent tolerance of graphene oxide immobilized enzyme, will have a profound impact on practical industrial scale uses of enzymes for the conversion of lipids into fuels.The thermal and solvent tolerance of enzymes is highly important for their industrial use. We show here that the enzyme lipase from Rhizopus oryzae exhibits exceptionally high thermal stability and high solvent tolerance and even increased activity in acetone when immobilized onto a graphene oxide (GO) nanosupport prepared by Staudenmaier and Brodie methods. We studied various forms of immobilization of the enzyme: by physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and additional crosslinking. The activity recovery was shown to be dependent on the support type, enzyme loading and immobilization procedure. Covalently immobilized lipase showed significantly better resistance to heat inactivation (the activity recovery was 65% at 70 °C) in comparison with the soluble counterpart (the activity recovery was 65% at 40 °C). Physically adsorbed lipase achieved over 100% of the initial activity in a series of organic solvents. These findings, showing enhanced thermal stability and solvent tolerance of graphene oxide immobilized enzyme, will have a profound impact on practical industrial scale uses of enzymes for the conversion of lipids into fuels. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00438a

Hermanová, So?a; Zarevúcká, Marie; Bouša, Daniel; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zden?k

2015-03-01

303

Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with community thought. The difficulty with a show this elaborate and intricate is communicating on a level understandable for teenagers, whilst not treating them like children. Professional space scientists know how easy it is to lose oneself in technical specifics. This would, of course, only confuse young people. The author would like to discuss the ideas for this show with a knowledgeable audience and hopefully get some (constructive) feedback.

Cox, N. L. J.

2002-01-01

304

Experiments showing dynamics of materials interfaces  

SciTech Connect

The discipline of materials science and engineering often involves understanding and controlling properties of interfaces. The authors address the challenge of educating students about properties of interfaces, particularly dynamic properties and effects of unstable interfaces. A series of simple, inexpensive, hands-on activities about fluid interfaces provides students with a testbed to develop intuition about interface dynamics. The experiments highlight the essential role of initial interfacial perturbations in determining the dynamic response of the interface. The experiments produce dramatic, unexpected effects when initial perturbations are controlled and inhibited. These activities help students to develop insight about unstable interfaces that can be applied to analogous problems in materials science and engineering. The lessons examine ``Rayleigh-Taylor instability,`` an interfacial instability that occurs when a higher-density fluid is above a lower-density fluid.

Benjamin, R.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Dynamic Experimentation Div.

1997-02-01

305

miR396 affects mycorrhization and root meristem activity in the legume Medicago truncatula.  

PubMed

The root system is crucial for acquisition of resources from the soil. In legumes, the efficiency of mineral and water uptake by the roots may be reinforced due to establishment of symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi and interactions with soil rhizobia. Here, we investigated the role of miR396 in regulating the architecture of the root system and in symbiotic interactions in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Analyses with promoter-GUS fusions suggested that the mtr-miR396a and miR396b genes are highly expressed in root tips, preferentially in the transition zone, and display distinct expression profiles during lateral root and nodule development. Transgenic roots of composite plants that over-express the miR396b precursor showed lower expression of six growth-regulating factor genes (MtGRF) and two bHLH79-like target genes, as well as reduced growth and mycorrhizal associations. miR396 inactivation by mimicry caused contrasting tendencies, with increased target expression, higher root biomass and more efficient colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In contrast to MtbHLH79, repression of three GRF targets by RNA interference severely impaired root growth. Early activation of mtr-miR396b, concomitant with post-transcriptional repression of MtGRF5 expression, was also observed in response to exogenous brassinosteroids. Growth limitation in miR396 over-expressing roots correlated with a reduction in cell-cycle gene expression and the number of dividing cells in the root apical meristem. These results link the miR396 network to the regulation of root growth and mycorrhizal associations in plants. PMID:23566016

Bazin, Jérémie; Khan, Ghazanfar Abbas; Combier, Jean-Philippe; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Debernardi, Juan Manuel; Rodriguez, Ramiro; Sorin, Céline; Palatnik, Javier; Hartmann, Caroline; Crespi, Martin; Lelandais-Brière, Christine

2013-06-01

306

Children's Art Show: An Educational Family Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a time of seemingly rampant budget cuts in the arts in school systems throughout the country, a children's art show reaps many rewards. It can strengthen family-school relationships and community ties and stimulate questions and comments about the benefits of art and its significance in the development of young children. In this photo essay of…

Bakerlis, Julienne

2007-01-01

307

ShowMeTheSign Accessibility App  

E-print Network

1 ShowMeTheSign Accessibility App Dimitrios Papastogiannidis Supervised by Elaine Farrow Second Farrow, for the support, the guidelines and the feedback that gave me along with her vision for the app where the app is given to the users for testing and to be compared with another similar application

Painter, Kevin

308

What Pain Asymbolia Really Shows Colin Klein  

E-print Network

What Pain Asymbolia Really Shows Colin Klein Macquarie University cvklein@gmail.com Abstract Pain asymbolics feel pain, but act as if they are indifferent to it. Nikola Grahek argues that such patients present a clear counterexample to motivationalism about pain. I argue that Grahek has mischaracterised

Klein, Colin

309

No Show Student Survey, Schoolcraft College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In winter semester 1995, Schoolcraft College, in Michigan, experienced a 7% drop in enrollment and an 8% drop in credit hours, including 461 students who applied but did not enroll. To determine the reasons that the no shows had for not enrolling and how many planned to enroll in the future, demographic data were collected from application…

Schoolcraft Coll., Livonia, MI.

310

INTRODUCTION Mitotic metaphase chromosomes show sister chromatids  

E-print Network

. Meiosis I bivalents, as mitotic chromosomes, show sister-chromatid centromere and arm cohesions cohesion during meiosis I, and then release centromere cohesion during meiosis II (for review see Moore and Orr- Weaver, 1998). Consequently, this sequential loss of cohesion during meiosis might be precisely

Villefranche sur mer

311

Show Them You Really Want the Job  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

Perlmutter, David D.

2012-01-01

312

Type VII secretion — mycobacteria show the way  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence shows that mycobacteria have developed novel and specialized secretion systems for the transport of extracellular proteins across their hydrophobic, and highly impermeable, cell wall. Strikingly, mycobacterial genomes encode up to five of these transport systems. Two of these systems, ESX-1 and ESX-5, are involved in virulence — they both affect the cell-to-cell migration of pathogenic mycobacteria. Here, we

Abdallah M. Abdallah; Nicolaas C. Gey van Pittius; Patricia A. DiGiuseppe Champion; Jeffery Cox; Joen Luirink; Christina M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; Ben J. Appelmelk; Wilbert Bitter

2007-01-01

313

George Arcement Shows Locations of USGS Streamgages  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement shows the locations of USGS' streamgage network to WAFB Meteorologist Jay Grymes.  USGS maintains more than 30 real-time streamgages throughout the area affected by the 2011 Flood. In addition, more than 50 non-real-time gages were...

314

Salt tolerance and activity of antioxidative enzymes of transgenic finger millet overexpressing a vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase gene (SbVPPase) from Sorghum bicolor.  

PubMed

A vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase cDNA clone was isolated from Sorghum bicolor (SbVPPase) using end-to-end gene-specific primer amplification. It showed 80-90% homology at the nucleotide and 85-95% homology at the amino acid level with other VPPases. The gene was introduced into expression vector pCAMBIA1301 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter and transformed into Agrobacterium tumifaciens strain LBA4404 to infect embryogenic calli of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Successful transfer of SbVPPase was confirmed by a GUS histochemical assay and PCR analysis. Both, controls and transgenic plants were subjected to 100 and 200mM NaCl and certain biochemical and physiological parameters were studied. Relative water content (RWC), plant height, leaf expansion, finger length and width and grain weight were severely reduced (50-70%), and the flowering period was delayed by 20% in control plants compared to transgenic plants under salinity stress. With increasing salt stress, the proline and chlorophyll contents as well as the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased by 25-100% in transgenics, while malondialdehyde (MDA) showed a 2-4-fold decrease. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and the reduction in the MDA content suggest efficient scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in transgenics and, as a consequence, probably alleviation of salt stress. Also, the leaf tissues of the transgenics accumulated 1.5-2.5-fold higher Na(+) and 0.4-0.8-fold higher K(+) levels. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that overexpression of SbVPPase in transgenic finger millet enhances the plant's performance under salt stress. PMID:24877670

Anjaneyulu, Ediga; Reddy, Palle Surender; Sunita, Merla Srilakshmi; Kishor, Polavarapu B Kavi; Meriga, Balaji

2014-06-15

315

Graphene oxide immobilized enzymes show high thermal and solvent stability.  

PubMed

The thermal and solvent tolerance of enzymes is highly important for their industrial use. We show here that the enzyme lipase from Rhizopus oryzae exhibits exceptionally high thermal stability and high solvent tolerance and even increased activity in acetone when immobilized onto a graphene oxide (GO) nanosupport prepared by Staudenmaier and Brodie methods. We studied various forms of immobilization of the enzyme: by physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and additional crosslinking. The activity recovery was shown to be dependent on the support type, enzyme loading and immobilization procedure. Covalently immobilized lipase showed significantly better resistance to heat inactivation (the activity recovery was 65% at 70 °C) in comparison with the soluble counterpart (the activity recovery was 65% at 40 °C). Physically adsorbed lipase achieved over 100% of the initial activity in a series of organic solvents. These findings, showing enhanced thermal stability and solvent tolerance of graphene oxide immobilized enzyme, will have a profound impact on practical industrial scale uses of enzymes for the conversion of lipids into fuels. PMID:25757536

Hermanová, So?a; Zarevúcká, Marie; Bouša, Daniel; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zden?k

2015-03-19

316

Robots at NPE 2006, the Plastics Show  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to present a review of the NPE 2006, Plastics Show held in Chicago, IL with emphasis on robots, their application in the plastics industry and end-of-arm-tooling. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In-depth interviews with suppliers of robots, injection molding machines, system integration of robots into plastic processing applications, control suppliers and end-of-arm-tooling. Findings – The plastic injection molding

Richard Bloss

2007-01-01

317

Learning helicopter control through “teaching by showing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model-free “teaching by showing” methodology is developed to train a fuzzy-neural controller for an autonomous robot helicopter. The controller is generated and tuned using training data gathered while a teacher operates the helicopter. A hierarchical behavior-based control architecture is used, with each behavior implemented as a hybrid fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and general regression neural network controller (GRNNC). The

James F. Montgomery; George A. Bekey

1998-01-01

318

Software for portable laser light show system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable laser light show system LS-3500-10M is connected to the parallel port of IBM PC\\/AT compatible computer. Computer performs output of digital control data describing images. Specially designed control device is used to convert digital data coming from parallel port to the analog signal driving scanner. Capabilities of even cost nothing 286 computer are quite enough for laser graphics control.

Dmitrey J. Buruchin; Aleksandr F. Leonov

1995-01-01

319

The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this one, but when I searched the Internet for information and looked at YouTube presentations, I could only find simplistic references to Newton's laws and the conservation of mechanical energy principle. Nowhere could I find detailed calculations. On the other hand, there were several biomechanical articles with empirical reports of the results of kinetic and dynamic investigations of show jumping using high-speed digital cameras and force plates. They summarize their results in tables that give information about the motion of a horse jumping over high fences (1.40 m) and the magnitudes of the forces encountered when landing. However, they do not describe the physics of these results.

Stinner, Art

2014-04-01

320

11. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing personnel operating rocket engine test controls and observer watching activity from observation room. May 27, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-45020. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

321

Software for portable laser light show system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portable laser light show system LS-3500-10M is connected to the parallel port of IBM PC/AT compatible computer. Computer performs output of digital control data describing images. Specially designed control device is used to convert digital data coming from parallel port to the analog signal driving scanner. Capabilities of even cost nothing 286 computer are quite enough for laser graphics control. Technology of scanning used in laser graphics system LS-3500-10M essentially differs from widely spread systems based on galvanometers with mobile core or with mobile magnet. Such devices are based on the same principle of work as electrically driven servo-mechanism. As scanner we use elastic system with hydraulic dampen oscillations and opened loop. For most of applications of laser graphics such system provides satisfactory precision and speed of scanning. LS-3500-10M software gives user ability to create on PC and play his own laser graphics demonstrations. It is possible to render recognizable text and pictures using different styles, 3D and abstract animation. All types of demonstrations can be mixed in slide-show. Time synchronization is supported. Software has the following features: (1) Different types of text output. Built-in text editor for typing and editing of textural information. Different fonts can be used to display text. User can create his own fonts using specially developed font editor. (2) Editor of 3D animation with library of predefined shapes. (3) Abstract animation provided by software routines. (4) Support of different graphics files formats (PCX or DXF). Original algorithm of raster image tracing was implemented. (5) Built-in slide-show editor.

Buruchin, Dmitrey J.; Leonov, Alexander F.

1995-04-01

322

Aerial photo shows RLV complex at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This closeup photo shows the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Support Complex at Kennedy Space Center. At right is a multi- purpose hangar and to the left is a building for related ground support equipment and administrative/ technical support. The complex is situated at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The RLV complex will be available to accommodate the Space Shuttle; the X-34 RLV technology demonstrator; the L-1011 carrier aircraft for Pegasus and X-34; and other RLV and X-vehicle programs. The complex is jointly funded by the Spaceport Florida Authority, NASA's Space Shuttle Program and KSC.

2000-01-01

323

VLA Shows "Boiling" in Atmosphere of Betelgeuse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A team of astronomers says that observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show that a neighboring bloated star has giant convective plumes propelling gas from its surface (photosphere) up into the star's atmosphere. This new information contradicts long-held ideas that such stellar atmospheres are more uniform, and may resolve questions about how the star's atmosphere attains its enormous size as well as how dust and gas is driven away from the star. Jeremy Lim of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics in Taiwan; Chris Carilli, Anthony Beasley, and Ralph Marson of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM; and Stephen White of the University of Maryland studied the red-supergiant star Betelgeuse, about 430 light-years away in the constellation Orion. They reported their findings in the April 9 issue of the scientific journal Nature. "These radio-telescope images confirm that Betelgeuse -- already more than 600 times larger than our Sun -- has a dense atmosphere that extends to many times larger still than the star itself," said Lim. "The highest-resolution image shows the star's atmosphere to have a remarkably complex structure." "To our surprise," added White, "the images also show that most of the gas in the atmosphere is only about as hot as that on the surface. Previously, all of it was thought to be very much hotter." The astronomers used the VLA to make images of Betelgeuse at a variety of radio frequencies. The series of radio observations measured the temperature of the star's atmosphere at different heights. Previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at ultraviolet wavelengths showed that the star's atmosphere contains very hot gas at about twice the surface temperature. The VLA images showed that there also is lower-temperature gas throughout the atmosphere. This gas is near the surface temperature at low heights and decreases in temperature progressively outwards. Although its existence was not previously suspected, this lower-temperature gas turns out to be the most abundant constituent of Betelgeuse's atmosphere. "This alters our basic understanding of red-supergiant star atmospheres," explains Lim. "Instead of the star's atmosphere expanding uniformly because of gas heated to very high temperatures near its surface, it now appears that several giant convection cells propel gas from the star's surface into its atmosphere. This creates the complex structure we observe for Betelgeuse's atmosphere." Betelgeuse can be likened to an enormous "boiling" ball of gas heated by the release of energy from nuclear fusion in its core. The circulating boiling pattern -- convection -- appears as large regions of hot upwelling gas on the star's surface. "The idea that red-supergiant stars have enormous convection cells is not new," noted Marson. "This was suggested by Martin Schwarzschild more than 20 years ago, and was seen in optical images of Betelgeuse's surface in 1990." The new picture of Betelgeuse's atmosphere also helps resolve the mystery of how massive amounts of dust and gas are expelled from red supergiant stars, an important source of enrichment for the interstellar medium. If their atmospheres were entirely very hot at lower levels, dust grains would not be able to condense there. Dust grains could possibly condense at higher levels, but there they would not get enough "push" from the star's radiation to explain their outward movement. In the new picture, the relatively cool environment at lower levels allows dust grains to condense effectively; here they can be strongly propelled by the more-intense starlight, carrying gas with them. Indeed, dust has previously been inferred to form sporadically near Betelgeuse's surface, but its presence there was difficult to reconcile with the old picture. "This method for propelling the mass outflows of red giant and supergiant stars was proposed by Sun Kwok i

1998-04-01

324

Agrobacterium T-DNA integration into the plant genome can occur without the activity of key non-homologous end-joining proteins.  

PubMed

Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major model proposed for Agrobacterium T-DNA integration into the plant genome. In animal cells, several proteins, including KU70, KU80, ARTEMIS, DNA-PKcs, DNA ligase IV (LIG4), Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), play an important role in 'classical' (c)NHEJ. Other proteins, including histone H1 (HON1), XRCC1, and PARP1, participate in a 'backup' (b)NHEJ process. We examined transient and stable transformation frequencies of Arabidopsis thaliana roots mutant for numerous NHEJ and other related genes. Mutants of KU70, KU80, and the plant-specific DNA LIGASE VI (LIG6) showed increased stable transformation susceptibility. However, these mutants showed transient transformation susceptibility similar to that of wild-type plants, suggesting enhanced T-DNA integration in these mutants. These results were confirmed using a promoter-trap transformation vector that requires T-DNA integration into the plant genome to activate a promoterless gusA (uidA) gene, by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of Nicotiana benthamiana NHEJ genes, and by biochemical assays for T-DNA integration. No alteration in transient or stable transformation frequencies was detected with atm, atr, lig4, xrcc1, or parp1 mutants. However, mutation of parp1 caused high levels of T-DNA integration and transgene methylation. A double mutant (ku80/parp1), knocking out components of both NHEJ pathways, did not show any decrease in stable transformation or T-DNA integration. Thus, T-DNA integration does not require known NHEJ proteins, suggesting an alternative route for integration. PMID:25641249

Park, So-Yon; Vaghchhipawala, Zarir; Vasudevan, Balaji; Lee, Lan-Ying; Shen, Yunjia; Singer, Kamy; Waterworth, Wanda M; Zhang, Zhanyuan J; West, Christopher E; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Gelvin, Stanton B

2015-03-01

325

ArtBots: The Robot Talent Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the Columbia University Computer Music Center and the Digital Media Center of Columbia University's School of the Arts, ArtBots is "an international art exhibition for robotic art and art-making robots." The annual event invites artists from around the world to enter their robots based on the broad guidelines: "if you think it's a robot and you think it's art, we encourage you to submit." The Participants section includes a photo, description (including some interpretive analysis) and website link for each of the ArtBot 2004 participants. Some sample entries include a robot that draws, one that picks up balls and a "robotic sculpture built around a section of tree trunk." The website even offers a sample of the Theme Song from the show.

326

Prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma showing Bcl-2 expression.  

PubMed

Prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma represents a rare histological variant of prostatic carcinoma with features of a papillary lesion at cystoscopy. There are conflicts regarding the existence, origin, staging, grading, treatment and clinical behavior of this tumor. The aim of the present study is to examine the expression of Bcl-2 and p53 in prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma and to evaluate its origin by analyzing prostate specific antigen, prostate specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen expressions. The results confirmed the expression of prostate specific antigen and prostate specific acid phosphatase in prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The demonstrated expression of Bcl-2 was predominant in the better-differentiated tumor. Bcl-2 expression appears not to be associated with neuroendocrine differentiation as assessed by chromogranin A reactivity. Thus, the first case of a prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma showing Bcl-2 expression is presented. The tumor was negative for p53. PMID:15379952

Tulunay, Ozden; Orhan, Diclehan; Baltaci, Sümer; Gögü?, Cagatay; Müftüoglu, Yusuf Z

2004-09-01

327

Lemurs and macaques show similar numerical sensitivity.  

PubMed

We investigated the precision of the approximate number system (ANS) in three lemur species (Lemur catta, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur macaco flavifrons), one Old World monkey species (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens). In Experiment 1, four individuals of each nonhuman primate species were trained to select the numerically larger of two visual arrays on a touchscreen. We estimated numerical acuity by modeling Weber fractions (w) and found quantitatively equivalent performance among all four nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 2, we tested adult humans in a similar procedure, and they outperformed the four nonhuman species but showed qualitatively similar performance. These results indicate that the ANS is conserved over the primate order. PMID:24068469

Jones, Sarah M; Pearson, John; DeWind, Nicholas K; Paulsen, David; Tenekedjieva, Ana-Maria; Brannon, Elizabeth M

2014-05-01

328

Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.  

PubMed

Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings. PMID:22806150

Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

2012-07-01

329

Color Voyager 2 Image Showing Crescent Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows a crescent Uranus, a view that Earthlings never witnessed until Voyager 2 flew near and then beyond Uranus on January 24, 1986. This planet's natural blue-green color is due to the absorption of redder wavelengths in the atmosphere by traces of methane gas. Uranus' diameter is 32,500 miles, a little over four times that of Earth. The hazy blue-green atmosphere probably extends to a depth of around 5,400 miles, where it rests above what is believed to be an icy or liquid mixture (an 'ocean') of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, which in turn surrounds a rocky core perhaps a little smaller than Earth.

1990-01-01

330

Survey shows successes, failures of horizontal wells  

SciTech Connect

Industry`s experience now shows that horizontal well technology must be applied thoughtfully and be site-specific to attain technical and economic success. This article, based on a comprehensive study done by Maurer Engineering for the US Department of Energy (DOE), addresses the success of horizontal wells in less-publicized formations, that is, other than the Austin chalk. Early excitement within the industry about the new technology reached a fever pitch at times, leaving some with the impression that horizontal drilling is a panacea for all drilling environments. This work gauges the overall success of horizontal technology in US and Canadian oil and gas fields, defines the applications where horizontal technology is most appropriate, and assesses its impact on oil recovery and reserves.

Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J. [Maurer Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Reid, T.B. [Dept. of Energy, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

1995-06-19

331

Mesenchymal stem cells show radioresistance in vivo  

PubMed Central

Abstract Irradiation impacts on the viability and differentiation capacity of tissue-borne mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which play a pivotal role in bone regeneration. As a consequence of radiotherapy, bones may develop osteoradionecrosis. When irradiating human bone-derived MSC in vitro with increasing doses, the cells’ self-renewal capabilities were greatly reduced. Mitotically stalled cells were still capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and pre-adipocytes. As a large animal model comparable to the clinical situation, pig mandibles were subjected to fractionized radiation of 2 ? 9 Gy within 1 week. This treatment mimics that of a standardized clinical treatment regimen of head and neck cancer patients irradiated 30 ? 2 Gy. In the pig model, fractures which had been irradiated, showed delayed osseous healing. When isolating MSC at different time points post-irradiation, no significant changes regarding proliferation capacity and osteogenic differentiation potential became apparent. Therefore, pig mandibles were irradiated with a single dose of either 9 or 18 Gy in vivo, and MSC were isolated immediately afterwards. No significant differences between the untreated and 9 Gy irradiated bone with respect to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were unveiled. Yet, cells isolated from 18 Gy irradiated specimens exhibited a reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity, and during the first 2 weeks proliferation rates were greatly diminished. Thereafter, cells recovered and showed normal proliferation behaviour. These findings imply that MSC can effectively cope with irradiation up to high doses in vivo. This finding should thus be implemented in future therapeutic concepts to protect regenerating tissue from radiation consequences. PMID:21762375

Singh, Sarvpreet; Kloss, Frank R; Brunauer, Regina; Schimke, Magdalena; Jamnig, Angelika; Greiderer-Kleinlercher, Brigitte; Klima, Günter; Rentenberger, Julia; Auberger, Thomas; Hächl, Oliver; Rasse, Michael; Gassner, Robert; Lepperdinger, Günter

2012-01-01

332

Heat-inducible production of beta-glucuronidase in tobacco hairy root cultures.  

PubMed

The production of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) driven by the Arabidopsis small heat shock protein 18.2 promoter in liquid cultures of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) hairy roots is reported. Clone GD-3, showing high GUS heat induction and a moderate growth rate, was selected from 436 clones for study. Treatment of GD-3 with heat shock at 36-42 degrees C for 2 h then recovery at 27 degrees C resulted in an increase in GUS specific activity, while higher heat-shock temperatures led to a decline. These results were in accordance with the change in esterase activity, a measure of tissue viability. Using 2 h of 42 degrees C heat shock and a recovery phase at 27 degrees C, GUS specific activity increased rapidly and reached a maximum of 267.6 nmol 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-glucuronic acid (MU) min-1 mg-1 protein at 24 h of recovery. When tissues were continuously heated at 42 degrees C and tested without a recovery period, GUS mRNA was detectable at 2 h and peaked at 5 h, but GUS activity was not seen until 10 h and did not peak until 28 h; in addition, the maximum activity was lower than that seen after heat shock for only 30 min or 2 h, followed by recovery. This shows that recovery at normal temperature is crucial for the heat-inducible heterogeneous expression system of transgenic hairy roots. Multiple heat-shock treatments showed that this system was heat reinducible, although a gradual decline in GUS specific activity was seen in the second and third cycles. PMID:16957892

Lee, Kung-Ta; Chen, Shih-Cheng; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Yamakawa, Takashi

2007-01-01

333

Effect of external and internal factors on the expression of reporter genes driven by the N resistance gene promoter  

PubMed Central

The role of resistance (R) genes in plant pathogen interaction has been studied extensively due to its economical impact on agriculture. Interaction between tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the N protein from tobacco is one of the most widely used models to understand various aspects of pathogen resistance. The transcription activity governed by N gene promoter is one of the least understood elements of the model. In this study, the N gene promoter was cloned and fused with two different reporter genes, one encoding ?-glucuronidase (N::GUS) and another, luciferase (N::LUC). Tobacco plants transformed with the N::GUS or N::LUC reporter constructs were screened for homozygosity and stable expression. Histochemical analysis of N::GUS tobacco plants revealed that the expression is organ specific and developmentally regulated. Whereas two week old plants expressed GUS in midveins only, 6-wk-old plants also expressed GUS in leaf lamella. Roots did not show GUS expression at any time during development. Experiments to address effects of external stress were performed using N::LUC tobacco plants. These experiments showed that N gene promoter expression was suppressed when plants were exposed to high but not low temperatures. Expression was also upregulated in response to TMV, but no changes were observed in plants treated with SA. PMID:23656874

Kathiria, Palak; Sidler, Corinne; Woycicki, Rafal; Yao, Youli; Kovalchuk, Igor

2013-01-01

334

Proline accumulation and AtP5CS2 gene activation are induced by plant-pathogen incompatible interactions in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Accumulation of free L-proline (Pro) is a typical stress response incited by osmotic injuries in plants and microorganisms. Although the protective role of Pro in osmotic stress is not well understood, it is thought to function as compatible osmolyte or as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we show that, in Arabidopsis thaliana, Pro biosynthesis can be activated by incompatible plant-pathogen interactions triggering a hypersensitive response (HR). Pro accumulates in leaf tissues treated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato avirulent strains (avrRpt2 and avrRpm1) but remains unchanged in leaves infected with isogenic virulent bacteria. Incompatible interactions lead to transcriptional activation of AtP5CS2, but not AtP5CS1, encoding the rate limiting enzyme in Pro biosynthesis pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS). AtP5CS2:GUS and AtP5CS2:LUC transgenes were induced inside and around the HR lesions produced by avirulent Pseudomonas spp. in transgenic plants. Pro accumulation was faster and stronger when stimulated by avrRpm1 than by avrRpt2, and was compromised in the low-salicylic acid plants NahG and eds5 when signaled through the RPS2-dependent pathway. In addition, Pro content and AtP5CS2 expression were enhanced by ROS in wild-type plants, suggesting that ROS may function as an intermediate signal in AtP5CS2-mediated Pro accumulation. PMID:15077666

Fabro, Georgina; Kovács, Izabella; Pavet, Valeria; Szabados, László; Alvarez, María E

2004-04-01

335

SUMOylated IRF-1 shows oncogenic potential by mimicking IRF-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is an interferon-induced transcriptional activator that suppresses tumors by impeding cell proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that the level of SUMOylated IRF-1 is elevated in tumor cells, and that SUMOylation of IRF-1 attenuates its tumor-suppressive function. Here we report that SUMOylated IRF-1 mimics IRF-2, an antagonistic repressor, and shows oncogenic potential. To demonstrate the role of SUMOylated

Sun-Mi Park; Myounghee Chae; Bo-Kyoung Kim; Taegun Seo; Ik-Soon Jang; Jong-Soon Choi; Il-Chul Kim; Je-Ho Lee

2010-01-01

336

Mercury's Core Molten, Radar Study Shows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists using a high-precision planetary radar technique for the first time have discovered that the innermost planet Mercury probably has a molten core, resolving a mystery of more than three decades. The discovery, which used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia and Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, and NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory antennas in California, is an important step toward a better understanding of how planets form and evolve. Planetary Radar High-precision planetary radar technique sent signal to Mercury, received reflection. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file (447 KB) "For a long time it was thought we'd have to land spacecraft on Mercury to learn if its core is solid or molten. Now we've answered that question using ground-based telescopes," said Jean-Luc Margot, of Cornell University, leader of the research team, which published its results in the May 4 issue of the journal Science. Mercury is one of the least-understood of the planets in our Solar System. Its distance from the Sun is just over one-third that of the Earth, and it contains a mass just 5½ percent that of Earth. Only about half of Mercury's surface has been photographed by a spacecraft, Mariner 10, back in 1974. Mariner 10 also discovered that Mercury has a weak magnetic field, about one percent as strong as Earth's. That discovery spurred a scientific debate about the planet's core. Scientists normally expect a rocky planet's magnetic field to be caused by an electromagnetic dynamo in a molten core. However, Mercury is so small that most scientists expected its core to have cooled and solidified long ago. Those scientists speculated that the magnetic field seen today may have been "frozen" into the planet when the core cooled. "Whether the core is molten or solid today depends greatly on the chemical composition of the core. That chemical composition can provide important clues about the processes involved in planet formation," Margot said. To answer the question, the scientists implemented an ingenious, high-precision technique in which they sent a powerful beam of radio waves to bounce off Mercury, then received and analyzed the reflected signal using pairs of ground-based radio telescopes. While similar radar systems have been used in the past to map planetary surfaces, this technique instead measured the rate at which Mercury spins on its axis, and did so with an unprecedented precision of one part in 100,000. By making 21 separate observations, the research team was able to measure minute variations in the planet's spin rate. This was the key to learning whether Mercury's core is solid or molten. Using an understanding of the Sun's gravitational effect on the planet, they realized that the tiny variations in its spin rate would be twice as large if the core is liquid than they would be if Mercury has a solid core. "The variations in Mercury's spin rate that we measured are best explained by a core that is at least partially molten. We have a 95 percent confidence level in this conclusion," Margot said. For most of their observations, carried out from 2002-2006, the scientists transmitted a powerful radar beam from the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna at Goldstone, California, and received the reflected signal with the Green Bank Telescope and the Goldstone antenna. For some observations, they transmitted from the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico and received at Arecibo and two Goldstone antennas. They used radar signals at frequencies of 8.5 and 2.4 GHz. To make the precision measurements of Mercury's spin rate, the geometry between the planet and the receiving antennas had to match a specific alignment. Such an alignment only occurs for about 20 seconds a day. In addition to measuring Mercury's spin rate, their technique also made the best measurement ever of the alignment of the planet's axis of rotation. "We improved the accuracy of this measurement by 100 times, and showed that Mercury's spin axis

2007-05-01

337

The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

2011-06-01

338

Electricity show and related educational programming. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The on-site version of Balance of Power reached a total audience of 21,331 between November 10, 1994 and January 31, 1996; in addition, the Physics on Wheels van offered exhibits and programs to an additional 30,000 students in the 1995-1996 school year. The program provided a groundbreaking new approach to informal science education, combining a dynamic demonstration with an intensely interactive game show. Between the on-site programming and the Physics on Wheels van programs, 51,331 students were impacted by the activities, exhibits and energy-conservation message of Balance of Power.

NONE

1997-03-19

339

Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants  

PubMed Central

This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it. PMID:25610413

Ma, Lili

2015-01-01

340

Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated ?-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.  

PubMed

The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorinated dibenzeno-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of residential and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g(-1) of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples. PMID:22022789

Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

2012-01-01

341

Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated ?-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.  

PubMed

The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of life and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g(-1) of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples. PMID:22428884

Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

2012-01-01

342

SUMOylated IRF-1 shows oncogenic potential by mimicking IRF-2  

SciTech Connect

Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is an interferon-induced transcriptional activator that suppresses tumors by impeding cell proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that the level of SUMOylated IRF-1 is elevated in tumor cells, and that SUMOylation of IRF-1 attenuates its tumor-suppressive function. Here we report that SUMOylated IRF-1 mimics IRF-2, an antagonistic repressor, and shows oncogenic potential. To demonstrate the role of SUMOylated IRF-1 in tumorigenesis, we used SUMO-IRF-1 recombinant protein. Stable expression of SUMO-IRF-1 in NIH3T3 cells resulted in focus formation and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Inoculation of SUMO-IRF-1-transfected cells into athymic nude mice resulted in tumor formation and infiltration of adipose tissues. Finally, we demonstrated that SUMO-IRF-1 transforms NIH3T3 cells in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that SUMOylated IRF-1 may act as an oncogenic protein in tumor cells.

Park, Sun-Mi [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of) [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of); School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Myounghee [Clinical Trial Center for Functional Foods, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of)] [Clinical Trial Center for Functional Foods, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo-Kyoung [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of)] [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Taegun [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon [Proteome Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)] [Proteome Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Chul [School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Ho [Molecular Therapy Research Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)] [Molecular Therapy Research Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Junsoo, E-mail: junsoo@yonsei.ac.kr [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of)] [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-01-01

343

Algorithm for generating derivative structures Gus L. W. Hart1  

E-print Network

to lattice points of the parent lattice. Many structures of intermetallic compounds can be classified as fcc on a lattice to determine ground state properties of intermetallic systems. The approach is not limited

Hart, Gus

344

The geology of the Gus area, Burleson county, Texas  

E-print Network

. ' is a perennial, couse&!ueut stre 1L'& a1(! f or:. 8 t?&e soLlt, i&, :ester&l Boa, ?!urg of tile thesis are. i. Eloping fro. . & sort ~ t? so&it ~ ace' ~r&~i&li:!, ? into Ye@us Creek are tar cc intern&ittc;!, streu~?s; Co;;pars Creek, !!ookers Creek...

Napp, Donald Edward

1956-01-01

345

[How children show positive and negative relationships on their drawings].  

PubMed

This study analyses, whether pictures of children showing a positive relationship are significantly different from those showing a negative one with respect to several criteria. The study involved a random selection of 45 children aged 4;6 to 11;6 years. The children painted a picture with themselves and a person they liked and a picture of themselves with someone they disliked. For the most part, the children drew pictures of themselves with peers both with respect to positive as well as negative images. In an interview afterwards, the children specified the criteria in their drawings by which the quality of the particular relationship can be identified. Positive and negative relationship paintings differ in the character of activity described. The sun as an element in children's paintings is painted not more frequent on positive compared to negative pictures. The colour black is used more often in the drawings signifying negative relationships. While girls used more colour in negative relationship drawings, boys used more colour in the positive ones. There was no significant difference in the use of favourite colours and decorative elements between the two groups. Only in negative relationship drawings people were looking away from each other. Smiling individuals were more common in the positive relationship pictures and in pictures painted by the 6 to 8 year olds. A greater distance between the individuals emerged on negative relationship drawings of the girls. PMID:15730148

Gramel, Sabine

2005-01-01

346

Mixtures of thermostable enzymes show high performance in biomass saccharification.  

PubMed

Optimal enzyme mixtures of six Trichoderma reesei enzymes and five thermostable enzyme components were developed for the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw, alkaline oxidised sugar cane bagasse and steam-exploded bagasse by statistically designed experiments. Preliminary studies to narrow down the optimization parameters showed that a cellobiohydrolase/endoglucanase (CBH/EG) ratio of 4:1 or higher of thermostable enzymes gave the maximal CBH-EG synergy in the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. The composition of optimal enzyme mixtures depended clearly on the substrate and on the enzyme system studied. The optimal enzyme mixture of thermostable enzymes was dominated by Cel7A and required a relatively high amount of xylanase, whereas with T. reesei enzymes, the high proportion of Cel7B appeared to provide the required xylanase activity. The main effect of the pretreatment method was that the required proportion of xylanase was higher and the proportion of Cel7A lower in the optimized mixture for hydrolysis of alkaline oxidised bagasse than steam-exploded bagasse. In prolonged hydrolyses, less Cel7A was generally required in the optimal mixture. Five-component mixtures of thermostable enzymes showed comparable hydrolysis yields to those of commercial enzyme mixtures. PMID:24752938

Kallioinen, Anne; Puranen, Terhi; Siika-aho, Matti

2014-07-01

347

New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo, 400 years ago, to the world of modern astronomy, moving from the visible wavelength domain to explore the millimetre-wave view of the Universe, and leaving light-polluted cities for unique settings in some of the highest and driest places on Earth. "The fascinating topic, the breathtaking ESO astronomical images, the amazing 3D computer animations, and the very clever use of the music, all make this a really inspiring show," says Agnès Acker, President of the APLF. In search of our Cosmic Origins is available in three different formats: fulldome video, classical with video windows, and classical with slides. Fulldome video shows immerse the audience in a true 360-degree projected computer-generated virtual environment. The ALMA planetarium show is currently available in French and English. Several other language versions are in preparation: German, Italian, Spanish and Chilean Spanish, while further languages are planned: Danish, Dutch, Greek, Japanese, Portuguese and Brazilian Portuguese. The show will be available to all planetariums worldwide for a small fee, depending on the type and the size of the planetarium, to cover basic costs. The media are invited to attend, and see firsthand, the official screening during the European Film Festival, between 24 and 26 April 2009 in Espinho, Portugal. For media accreditation, please go to http://iff.multimeios.pt/index.php?option=com_wrapper&Itemid=45 A set of educational materials is also being prepared and will be finished in late April. To learn more about the show, please go to www.cosmicorigins.org

2009-03-01

348

Functional Characterization of a Strong Bi-directional Constitutive Plant Promoter Isolated from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus  

PubMed Central

Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), belonging to the genus Begomovirus, possesses single-stranded monopartite DNA genome. The bidirectional promoters representing Rep and coat protein (CP) genes of CLCuBuV were characterized and their efficacy was assayed. Rep and CP promoters of CLCuBuV and 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) were fused with ?-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes. GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by Rep, CP and 35S promoters was estimated using real-time PCR and fluorometric GUS assay. Histochemical staining of GUS in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) leaves showed highest expression driven by Rep promoter followed by 35S promoter and CP promoter. The expression level of GUS driven by Rep promoter in transformed tobacco plants was shown to be two to four-fold higher than that of 35S promoter, while the expression by CP promoter was slightly lower. Further, the expression of GFP was monitored in agroinfiltrated leaves of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rep promoter showed strong consistent transient expression in tobacco and cotton leaves as compared to 35S promoter. The strong constitutive CLCuBuV Rep promoter developed in this study could be very useful for high level expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells. PMID:25799504

Khan, Zainul A.; Abdin, Malik Z.; Khan, Jawaid A.

2015-01-01

349

Human DNA methylomes at base resolution show widespread epigenomic differences  

PubMed Central

Summary DNA cytosine methylation is a central epigenetic modification that plays essential roles in cellular processes including genome regulation, development and disease. Here we present the first genome-wide, single-base resolution maps of methylated cytosines in a mammalian genome, from both human embryonic stem cells and fetal fibroblasts, along with comparative analysis of mRNA and small RNA components of the transcriptome, several histone modifications, and sites of DNA-protein interaction for several key regulatory factors. Widespread differences were identified in the composition and patterning of cytosine methylation between the two genomes. Nearly one-quarter of all methylation identified in embryonic stem cells was in a non-CG context, suggesting that they may utilize different methylation mechanisms to affect gene regulation. Methylation in non-CG contexts showed enrichment in gene bodies and depletion in protein binding sites and enhancers. Non-CG methylation disappeared upon induced differentiation of the embryonic stem cells, and was restored in induced pluripotent stem cells. We identified hundreds of differentially methylated regions proximal to genes involved in pluripotency and differentiation, and widespread reduced methylation levels in fibroblasts associated with lower transcriptional activity. These reference epigenomes provide a foundation for future studies exploring this key epigenetic modification in human disease and development. PMID:19829295

Lister, Ryan; Pelizzola, Mattia; Dowen, Robert H.; Hawkins, R. David; Hon, Gary; Tonti-Filippini, Julian; Nery, Joseph R.; Lee, Leonard; Ye, Zhen; Ngo, Que-Minh; Edsall, Lee; Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jessica; Stewart, Ron; Ruotti, Victor; Millar, A. Harvey; Thomson, James A.; Ren, Bing; Ecker, Joseph R.

2010-01-01

350

SUMOylated IRF-1 shows oncogenic potential by mimicking IRF-2.  

PubMed

Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is an interferon-induced transcriptional activator that suppresses tumors by impeding cell proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that the level of SUMOylated IRF-1 is elevated in tumor cells, and that SUMOylation of IRF-1 attenuates its tumor-suppressive function. Here we report that SUMOylated IRF-1 mimics IRF-2, an antagonistic repressor, and shows oncogenic potential. To demonstrate the role of SUMOylated IRF-1 in tumorigenesis, we used SUMO-IRF-1 recombinant protein. Stable expression of SUMO-IRF-1 in NIH3T3 cells resulted in focus formation and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Inoculation of SUMO-IRF-1-transfected cells into athymic nude mice resulted in tumor formation and infiltration of adipose tissues. Finally, we demonstrated that SUMO-IRF-1 transforms NIH3T3 cells in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that SUMOylated IRF-1 may act as an oncogenic protein in tumor cells. PMID:19962964

Park, Sun-Mi; Chae, Myounghee; Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Seo, Taegun; Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Il-Chul; Lee, Je-Ho; Park, Junsoo

2010-01-01

351

Map showing lava-flow hazard zones, Island of Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map shows lava-flow hazard zones for the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii. Volcano boundaries are shown as heavy, dark bands, reflecting the overlapping of lava flows from adjacent volcanoes along their common boundary. Hazard-zone boundaries are drawn as double lines because of the geologic uncertainty in their placement. Most boundaries are gradational, and the change In the degree of hazard can be found over a distance of a mile or more. The general principles used to place hazard-zone boundaries are discussed by Mullineaux and others (1987) and Heliker (1990). The differences between the boundaries presented here and in Heliker (1990) reflect new data used in the compilation of a geologic map for the Island of Hawaii (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). The primary source of information for volcano boundaries and generalized ages of lava flows for all five volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii is the geologic map of Hawaii (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). More detailed information is available for the three active volcanoes. For Hualalai, see Moore and others (1987) and Moore and Clague (1991); for Mauna Loa, see Lockwood and Lipman (1987); and for Kilauea, see Holcomb (1987) and Moore and Trusdell (1991).

Wright, Thomas L.; Chun, Jon Y.F.; Exposo, Jean; Heliker, Christina; Hodge, Jon; Lockwood, John P.; Vogt, Susan M.

1992-01-01

352

What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal  

E-print Network

guns in America. San Francisco, CA: Legal Community Against Violence; 2008. 56 #12;How Gun Shows Work2 How Gun Shows Work What Is a Gun Show, Exactly? Gun shows are defined in the U.S. Code of Federal. But other states have enacted more specific definitions as they acted to regulate gun shows themselves

Leistikow, Bruce N.

353

Daytime television talk shows: Guests, content and interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strident controversy over the often?bizarre subject matter of daytime television talk shows motivated this content analysis of 11 shows with the highest Nielsen ratings in 1994–95. A sample of 10 episodes of each of the shows was videotaped and subjected to a systematic analysis of the shows’ guests, topics of discussion and interactions. Results indicate that this genre of program

Bradley S. Greenberg; John L. Sherry; Rick W. Busselle; Lynn Rampoldi Hnilo; Sandi W. Smith

1997-01-01

354

BET protein inhibition shows efficacy against JAK2V617F driven neoplasms  

E-print Network

-BET151 was LMO2, an important oncogenic regulator of ematopoietic stem cell development and erythropoiesis. We previously reported that LMO2 transcription is dependent upon JAK2 kinase activity in HEL cells. Here, we show that the transcriptional changes...

Wyspia?ska, B. S.; Bannister, A. J.; Barbieri, I.; Nangalia, J.; Godfrey, A.; Calero-Nieto, F. J.; Robson, S.; Rioja, I.; Li, J.; Wiese, M.; Cannizzaro, E.; Dawson, M. A.; Huntly, B.; Prinjha, R. K.; Green, A. R.; Gottgens, B.; Kouzarides, T.

2013-09-06

355

The Post-transcriptional Regulator rsmA/csrA Activates T3SS by Stabilizing the 5? UTR of hrpG, the Master Regulator of hrp/hrc Genes, in Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

The RsmA/CsrA family of the post-transcriptional regulators of bacteria is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including pathogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that rsmA not only is required for the full virulence of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC) but also contributes to triggering the hypersensitive response (HR) in non-host plants. Deletion of rsmA resulted in significantly reduced virulence in the host plant sweet orange and a delayed and weakened HR in the non-host plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Microarray, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, western-blotting, and GUS assays indicated that RsmA regulates the expression of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The regulation of T3SS by RsmA is a universal phenomenon in T3SS-containing bacteria, but the specific mechanism seems to depend on the interaction between a particular bacterium and its hosts. For Xanthomonads, the mechanism by which RsmA activates T3SS remains unknown. Here, we show that RsmA activates the expression of T3SS-encoding hrp/hrc genes by directly binding to the 5? untranslated region (UTR) of hrpG, the master regulator of the hrp/hrc genes in XCC. RsmA stabilizes hrpG mRNA, leading to increased accumulation of HrpG proteins and subsequently, the activation of hrp/hrc genes. The activation of the hrp/hrc genes by RsmA via HrpG was further supported by the observation that ectopic overexpression of hrpG in an rsmA mutant restored its ability to cause disease in host plants and trigger HR in non-host plants. RsmA also stabilizes the transcripts of another T3SS-associated hrpD operon by directly binding to the 5? UTR region. Taken together, these data revealed that RsmA primarily activates T3SS by acting as a positive regulator of hrpG and that this regulation is critical to the pathogenicity of XCC. PMID:24586158

Andrade, Maxuel O.; Farah, Chuck S.; Wang, Nian

2014-01-01

356

LDL from obese patients with the metabolic syndrome show increased lipid peroxidation and activate platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  This study assessed oxidative stress in LDL from obese patients with the metabolic syndrome and compared it with that in LDL\\u000a from type 2 diabetic patients or control volunteers. It also determined the effect on platelets of LDL from the three groups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The profiles of lipids, fatty acids and fatty acid oxidation products were determined in LDL isolated from plasma

R. Colas; A. Sassolas; M. Guichardant; C. Cugnet-Anceau; M. Moret; P. Moulin; M. Lagarde; C. Calzada

357

addition, some functional brain imaging studies show differences in brain activation in frontal regions in dys-  

E-print Network

on age (t [142] 5.62, p .0001) and family history (first- Table 1. Characteristics of the Subjects Group history of reading problema No 61 34 Yes 13 36b WISC-III Full-Scale IQ 116 12.2 99.5b 15.1 WoodcockBIOL PSYCHIATRY 2002;

358

LDL from obese patients with metabolic syndrome show increased lipid peroxidation and activate platelets  

E-print Network

platelets R. Colas 1 , A. Sassolas 1,2 , M. Guichardant 1 , C. Cugnet-Anceau 2 , M. Moret 2 , P. Moulin 1 or control volunteers, and determining their effects on platelets. Methods The profiles of lipids, fatty these participants on platelet arachidonic acid signaling cascade and aggregation were investigated. Results Compared

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

359

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...formed to promote the construction industry. Its membership is...manufacturers of heavy construction machinery many of...In addition, new construction machinery developed for use in the industry is on display...

2010-04-01

360

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...formed to promote the construction industry. Its membership is...manufacturers of heavy construction machinery many of...In addition, new construction machinery developed for use in the industry is on display...

2014-04-01

361

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...formed to promote the construction industry. Its membership is...manufacturers of heavy construction machinery many of...In addition, new construction machinery developed for use in the industry is on display...

2012-04-01

362

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...formed to promote the construction industry. Its membership is...manufacturers of heavy construction machinery many of...In addition, new construction machinery developed for use in the industry is on display...

2011-04-01

363

26 CFR 1.513-3 - Qualified convention and trade show activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...formed to promote the construction industry. Its membership is...manufacturers of heavy construction machinery many of...In addition, new construction machinery developed for use in the industry is on display...

2013-04-01

364

Southern Brazilian autumnal propolis shows anti-angiogenic activity: an in vitro and in vivo study.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on the effects of a hydro-alcoholic propolis extract collected in autumn (2010) in Santa Catarina State (Southern Brazil), on the angiogenesis, using in vitro and in vivo models. Cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used to assess the effects of propolis on viability, proliferation, and cell migration, as well as capillary tube formation. The propolis autumnal extracts significantly decreased the cell viability, based on CC50 values, which decreased (56%) from 297 to 130 ?g/ml in 24 h and 72 h of treatment, respectively (cytotoxicity assay). The process of cell proliferation was decreased by 81.7 to 48.4% due to exposure (72 h) to 130-180 ?g/ml of propolis extract, as compared with control (vehicle). In these same concentrations, the cell migration was also reduced by 39.6 to 12.6%, respectively (versus control). Furthermore, autumnal propolis extract (100-200 ?g/ml) inhibited the tube-like structure formation (tubulogenesis) of endothelial cells on Matrigel™ (16.2-69.9% inhibition). The treatments performed in vivo with administration of 450 mg propolis.kg(-1) inhibited both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis by 82.3 and 66.5% in the chorioallantoic and yolk-sac membranes of chick embryos. Furthermore, by means of UV-vis-spectrophotometry, reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography analysis and 1D and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance experiments reveal higher contents of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds with predominance of the flavonol quercetin and the phenolic acids, e.g., gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and chlorogenic acid in the propolis hydro-alcoholic extract. Our findings related to the anti-proliferative, anti-migration, and anti-tubulogenic actions on human umbilical vein endothelial cell line agree with the inhibitory effects in the in vivo vessel formation exerted by propolis extract under study. The results also suggest that autumnal propolis extract might be potentially instrumental in providing alternative tools for angiogenic disease therapeutics. PMID:23538317

Meneghelli, Cristiane; Joaquim, Lisiê Silva Dalsasso; Félix, Giovanni Loos Queiroz; Somensi, Amélia; Tomazzoli, Maíra; da Silva, Diego Adílio; Berti, Fernanda Vieira; Veleirinho, Maria Beatriz Rocha; Recouvreux, Derce de Oliveira Souza; de Mattos Zeri, Ana Carolina; Dias, Paulo Fernando; Maraschin, Marcelo

2013-07-01

365

Primary nasal epithelium exposed to house dust mite extract shows activated expression in allergic individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nasal epithelial cells form the outermost protective layer against environmental factors. However, this defense is not just physical; it has been shown that epithelial cells respond by the production of inflammatory mediators that may affect local immune responses. In this research we set out to characterize potential differences between the responses of nasal epithelium from healthy and allergic individuals to

Aram B. Vroling; Martijs J. Jonker; Silvia Luiten; T. M. Breit; W. J. Fokkens; Drunen van C. M

2008-01-01

366

IMPLICATIONS OF RESEARCH SHOWING HARMFUL EFFECTS OF GROUP ACTIVITIES WITH ANTI-SOCIAL ADOLESCENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a classic and often-cited research article, Dishion, McCord, and Poulin (1999) present experimental evidence that delinquent adolescents who associate with anti-social peers are at increased risk of continuing and escalating delinquent behavior (American Psychologist 1999, 54, 755-764). These findings, and much prior and subsequent research, have led to a radical change in thinking about the organization and structure of

Michael B. Greene

367

Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. RESULTS: We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a

Sakihito Kitajima; Kaeko Kamei; Shigeru Taketani; Masamitsu Yamaguchi; Fumiko Kawai; Aino Komatsu; Yoshihiro Inukai

2010-01-01

368

Antimicrobial peptides of the Cecropin-family show potent antitumor activity against bladder cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated the cytotoxic and antiproliferative efficacy of two well-characterized members of the Cecropin-family of antimicrobial peptides against bladder tumor cells and benign fibroblasts. Methods The antiproliferative and cytotoxic potential of the Cecropins A and B was quantified by colorimetric WST-1-, BrdU- and LDH-assays in four bladder cancer cell lines as well as in murine and human fibroblast cell lines. IC50 values were assessed by logarithmic extrapolation, representing the concentration at which cell viability was reduced by 50%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to visualize the morphological changes induced by Cecropin A and B in bladder tumor cells and fibroblasts. Results Cecropin A and B inhibit bladder cancer cell proliferation and viability in a dose-dependent fashion. The average IC50 values of Cecropin A and B against all bladder cancer cell lines ranged between 73.29 ?g/ml and 220.05 ?g/ml. In contrast, benign fibroblasts were significantly less or not at all susceptible to Cecropin A and B. Both Cecropins induced an increase in LDH release from bladder tumor cells whereas benign fibroblasts were not affected. SEM demonstrated lethal membrane disruption in bladder cancer cells as opposed to fibroblasts. Conclusion Cecropin A and B exert selective cytotoxic and antiproliferative efficacy in bladder cancer cells while sparing targets of benign murine or human fibroblast origin. Both peptides may offer novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of bladder cancer with limited cytotoxic effects on benign cells. PMID:18315881

Suttmann, Henrik; Retz, Margitta; Paulsen, Friedrich; Harder, Jürgen; Zwergel, Ulrike; Kamradt, Jörn; Wullich, Bernd; Unteregger, Gerhard; Stöckle, Michael; Lehmann, Jan

2008-01-01

369

Using Analogy Role-Play Activity in an Undergraduate Biology Classroom to Show Central Dogma Revision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego®…

Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

2014-01-01

370

Glyco-and Peptidomimetics from Three-Component Joullie-Ugi Coupling Show Selective Antiviral Activity  

E-print Network

- tection has allowed access to one of the most wide-ranging aza- sugar/dihydroxyprolyl libraries,12 which of reaction with N-acetyl glycine v and benzyl isocyanide D (Scheme 1), giving reasonable yields of elaborated-processing enzymes.8,14 Test arrays probed efficiency. Reaction of 1 with N-acetyl glycine v and isocyanides A-H gave

Davis, Ben G.

371

Neuraminidase Is Essential for Fowl Plague Virus Hemagglutinin to Show Hemagglutinating Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When hemagglutinin (HA) of fowl plague virus (FPV) was expressed in CV-1 cells by a simian virus 40 vector, hemadsorption was barely detectable, although HA was exposed at the cell surface. However, treatment of HA-expressing cells with Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCNA) resulted in extensive hemadsorption. VCNA treatment enhanced the electrophoretic mobility of the HA1 subunit of HA, indicating the removal

Masanobu Ohuchi; Anke Feldmann; Reiko Ohuchi; Hans-Dieter Klenk

1995-01-01

372

Why DA and DB white dwarfs do not show coronal activity and p-mode oscillations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems of nonradiative heating of outer atmospheric layers and p-mode oscillations in white dwarfs caused by acoustic waves generated in convective zones are discussed. These effects have been studied by calculating the cutoff periods for adiabatic and isothermal waves propagating in atmospheres of DA and DB stars with Teff greater than or equal 20,000 K and log g = 6-9. The obtained cutoff periods are approximately bounded by 0.01 and 40 sec for high- and low-gravity white dwarfs, respectively. Expected amplitudes of p-mode oscillations corresponding to trapped acoustic waves with small angular wave numbers are estimated, indicating that the amplitudes could be observed as Doppler shifts of spectral lines which might be detectable if adequate spectral resolution were available. The luminosity variations corresponding to these amplitudes are unlikely to be observable when all damping processes are accounted for. Results also indicate that the present theory of convection predicts some irregularities in the behavior of physical parameters.

Musielak, Z. E.; Fontenla, J. M.

1989-01-01

373

Why DA and DB white dwarfs do not show coronal activity and p-mode oscillations  

SciTech Connect

The problems of nonradiative heating of outer atmospheric layers and p-mode oscillations in white dwarfs caused by acoustic waves generated in convective zones are discussed. These effects have been studied by calculating the cutoff periods for adiabatic and isothermal waves propagating in atmospheres of DA and DB stars with Teff greater than or equal 20,000 K and log g = 6-9. The obtained cutoff periods are approximately bounded by 0.01 and 40 sec for high- and low-gravity white dwarfs, respectively. Expected amplitudes of p-mode oscillations corresponding to trapped acoustic waves with small angular wave numbers are estimated, indicating that the amplitudes could be observed as Doppler shifts of spectral lines which might be detectable if adequate spectral resolution were available. The luminosity variations corresponding to these amplitudes are unlikely to be observable when all damping processes are accounted for. Results also indicate that the present theory of convection predicts some irregularities in the behavior of physical parameters. 34 refs.

Musielak, Z.E.; Fontenla, J.M. (NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (USA))

1989-11-01

374

Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century  

E-print Network

of global warming on tropical cyclones. climate change | natural hazards Some 90 tropical cyclones develop of these additional factors to global climate change generally results in a reduction of the global frequency of tropical cyclones as the climate warms, seen in many explicit and downscaled simulations using global

Rothman, Daniel

375

A NEW ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA MUTANT DEFICIENT IN THE EXPRESSION OF OMETHYLTRANSFERASE 1: IMPACT ON LIGNINS AND ON SINAPOYL ESTERI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A promoter-trap screen allowed us to identify an Arabidopsis line expressing GUS in the root vascular tissues. T-DNA border sequencing showed that the line was mutated in the COMT 1 gene (AtOMT1) and therefore deficient in OMT1 activity. In this knockout mutant and relative to the wild type, lignins...

376

Foreword: Show Me the Money: Making Markets in Forbidden Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

As your parents doubtless told you, money can't buy everything. Nearly all cultures reserve certain items, activities, and entitlements as inalienable for profit. It would be incorrect to assume, however, that the individual mental accounting, social norms, and laws regarding the proper scope of commercial activity are universal, preordained, or inflexible. In fact, researchers across disciplines have demonstrated both the

Kimberly D. Krawiec

2009-01-01

377

Show Me the Money: Making Markets in Forbidden Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

As your parents doubtless told you, money can't buy everything. Nearly all cultures reserve certain items, activities, and entitlements as inalienable for profit. It would be incorrect to assume, however, that the individual mental accounting, social norms, and laws regarding the proper scope of commercial activity are universal, preordained, or inflexible. In fact, researchers across disciplines have demonstrated both the

Kimberly D Krawiec

2009-01-01

378

Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

1985-01-01

379

Journey to the Stars Educator's Guide: Teaching with the Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an educators guide to accompany the Journey to the Stars planetarium show. The materials include a section, titled Teaching With the Show, containing guiding questions to encourage class discussions about the life cycle of stars.

2012-08-03

380

North Pacific and North America: Showing the Changing Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWiFS false color data showing seasonal change in the oceans and on land for North America and the North Pacific. The data is seasonally averaged, and shows fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring, and summer.

Jesse Allen

1998-09-09

381

94. View looking south showing foundation equipment at work on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

94. View looking south showing foundation equipment at work on two of the piers. The view also shows the two completed cylinders in the midstream cluster of four. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

382

10. Close of the east elevation to show change in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Close of the east elevation to show change in building fabric from ceramic tile facing to brick masonry and to show the stone window sills - Arlington Realty Building, 2300 North Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

383

Research Shows Cataract Surgery Can Reduce Hip Fracture Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... sponsored Research Shows Cataract Surgery Can Reduce Hip Fracture Risk 08/01/2012 09:00:00 AM ... Medicare beneficiaries shows that the risk of hip fractures was significantly reduced in patients who had had ...

384

22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; VIEW SHOWS SECTION OF FISH LADDER NEAR WHERE IT ENTERS THE COLUMBIA RIVER. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

385

ELI Talent Show End-of-Semester Barbecue  

E-print Network

Highlights ELI Talent Show End-of-Semester Barbecue Scholarship Winners Questions from the Office Manners Grammar TheELIWeekly ELI Talent Show Join us for a fun night! Its finally here!! Tuesday, November 27th is the ELI Talent Show. If youre one of the acts, thanks for participating. If youre not one

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

386

Demographic Characteristics and Motives of Individuals Viewing Reality Dating Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, the number of television dating shows has increased exponentially from 2 to over 28 during the period of 2000 to 2002. The purpose of this study was to examine demographic variables, personality characteristics, and attachment styles of individuals who view television dating shows. Furthermore, motives for viewing television dating shows and viewers' responses to the

Jonathan W. Roberti

2007-01-01

387

Anatomy of a Shows the 9 components of  

E-print Network

;Anatomy of a Hillslope Dominated by soil creep processes Shows the 9 components of hillslopes and pathways Handout #12;Anatomy of a Hillslope Dominated by vertical soil formation processes Shows the 9 processes (flows, slides, slumps, creep) by surface and subsurface water flows. Shows the 9 components

Venditti, Jeremy G.

388

Promoter of the AlSAP gene from the halophyte grass Aeluropus littoralis directs developmental-regulated, stress-inducible, and organ-specific gene expression in transgenic tobacco.  

PubMed

In our recent published work it has been demonstrated that AlSAP, a gene encoding an A20/AN1 zinc-finger protein (stress-associated protein) of the C4 halophyte grass Aeluropus littoralis, is inducible by various abiotic stresses and by hormonal stimuli. To further investigate the regulation of the gene, a 586-bp genomic fragment upstream of the AlSAP translated sequence has been isolated, cloned, and designated as the "Pr ( AlSAP )" promoter. Sequence analysis of "Pr ( AlSAP )" revealed the presence of cis-regulatory elements which could be required for abiotic stress, abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA) responsiveness and for tissue-specific and vascular expression. The Pr ( AlSAP ) promoter was fused to the ?-glucuronidase (gusA) gene and the resulting construct transferred into tobacco. Histochemical assays of stably transformed tobacco plants showed that Pr ( AlSAP ) is active in this heterologous C3 system. While full-length gusA transcripts accumulated in whole 15, 30, and 45-day-old plants, GUS histochemical staining was only observed in leaves and stems of 45-day-old, or older, transgenic seedlings. Histological sections prepared at this stage revealed activity localized in leaf veins (phloem and bundle sheath) and stems (phloem and cortex) but not in roots. Furthermore, gusA transcripts accumulated in an age-dependent manner with a basipetal pattern in leaf and stem tissues throughout the plant. In flowers, GUS expression was detected in sepals only. The accumulation of gusA transcripts was up-regulated by salt, dehydration, ABA, and SA treatment. Altogether, these results show that, when used in a heterologous dicot system, Pr ( AlSAP ) is an age-dependent, abiotic-stress-inducible, organ-specific and tissue-specific promoter. PMID:21188636

Saad, Rania Ben; Romdhan, Walid Ben; Zouari, Nabil; Azaza, Jalel; Mieulet, Delphine; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Hassairi, Afif

2011-10-01

389

Survey Shows Britons Have Trouble Identifying Art Masterpieces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While Americans seem lacking in geographical knowledge at times (such as the fact that some high school graduates do not think that New Mexico is part of the United States), a recent survey by the Encyclopedia Britannica indicates that Britons are unfamiliar with the masterpieces of art. The survey asked 500 adults aged 18 and over to identify the artists responsible for well-known paintings, and in the process, elicited some rather unusual responses. For example, one in 10 of those surveyed stated that Vincent van Gogh painted the Mona Lisa, and only 49 percent overall were able to correctly state that Leonardo da Vinci was in fact the creator of that work. Stranger still was the statistic that 7 per cent of those surveyed identified the creator of Water Lilies (painted many different times by Claude Monet) was in fact Rolf Harris, an Australian entertainer who plays the wobble board, and who recently recreated the famous Monet painting on a television show in Britain.The first link is to an online news article from the Guardian about the results of this intriguing poll on art literacy around Britain. The second link will take visitors to a news story from the Sydney Morning Herald that talks about the survey, along with a section about perceptions of how Australians view art. The third link leads to an online exhibit of Monet's works (including some renditions of Water Lilies), provided by the Museum of Fine Art in Boston. The fourth link leads to a nice site dedicated to Edvard Munch (another misidentified painter in the recent survey), which includes a fine online gallery of his works, some background material, and links to other online resources. The fifth link leads to a site provided by the Museum of Science in Boston on Leonardo Da Vinci that features some virtual tours of the exhibit, learning activities for young people, and suggestions for incorporating da Vinci into the classroom. The final link leads to the Web site of the multitalented Rolf Harris (also known as The Wizard of Aussi), who is a musician, painter, and live performer.

Grinnell, Max

390

URC makes strong showing in new report Michigan's University Research  

E-print Network

music. Favorite winter activity: Hibernating. Celebrity you've met: Many. I used to be an entertainment manager. Childhood ambition: To be an obstetrician/gynecologist. Favorite places to shop: Caché and Simply

Baskaran, Mark

391

Using lake core data to show human environmental impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed during the workshop, Teaching Climate Change: Insight from Large Lakes, held in June 2012.by Ester Sztein, Board on International Scientific Organizations, National Academy of ...

392

52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch with open port door in radar scanner building 105 showing emanating waveguides from lower switch in vertical run; photograph also shows catwalk to upper scanner switch in upper left side of photograph and structural supports. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

393

“Fair and Balanced?” Justice Issues on Political Talk Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like their news program predecessors, many political talk shows focus a considerable amount of their coverage on justice issues.\\u000a Although numerous past studies have examined justice issue presentation in news programs, infotainment, and crime drama, to\\u000a date only one forthcoming study has examined crime and justice coverage on political talk shows. Political talk shows often\\u000a present issues in a debate

Sarah Britto; Dean A. Dabney

2010-01-01

394

INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

395

29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's room, west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

396

10. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF MAIN LOBBY, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF MAIN LOBBY, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING PORTALS TO NEW LOBBY - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

397

246. View showing the curvilinear alignment of the parkway on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

246. View showing the curvilinear alignment of the parkway on a ridge. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

398

26. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING OIL FILLED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING OIL- FILLED TRANSFORMER POTS - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

399

25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND KNIFE SWITCHES - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

400

Contextual view showing west elevation; camera facing southeast. Mare ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing west elevation; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

401

North elevation, showing watergate and bridge plaza at left. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North elevation, showing watergate and bridge plaza at left. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

402

General view, showing eastern view from atop hemi circle. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view, showing eastern view from atop hemi circle. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

403

Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

404

New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

405

4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit & Produce Building, and Merchants' Cold Storage Warehouse. - Provisions Warehouse Historic District, Kinsley & Harris Avenues, Providence, Providence County, RI

406

11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Fort David A. Russell, Gymnasium, Randall Avenue between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

407

12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL william E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

408

2. VIEW SHOWING FRONT (WEST) OF BURLEY SUBSTATION AND ADJACENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SHOWING FRONT (WEST) OF BURLEY SUBSTATION AND ADJACENT DRYCLEANERS, WITH ALBION AVENUE IN FOREGROUND - Bonneville Power Administration Burley Substation, 1221 Albion Avenue, Burley, Cassia County, ID

409

INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HANDHAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HAND-HAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS AND MARBLE. NOTE ALUMINUM LIGHT FIXTURE - Alcoa Research Laboratory, Freeport Road, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

410

Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished aluminum and brass balustrade - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

411

6. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND SAWN REPLACEMENT EYEBROW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND SAWN REPLACEMENT EYEBROW RAFTERS - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

412

4. Photocopy of photograph, circa 1930 VIEW NORTH SHOWING SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photocopy of photograph, circa 1930 VIEW NORTH SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Administration Building, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

413

PERSPECTIVE VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING, LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST DOWN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PERSPECTIVE VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST DOWN HARRISON AVENUE - Pearce Manufacturing Company, Factory A, Harrison Avenue West at Wilkens, Latrobe, Westmoreland County, PA

414

Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

415

23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING REHABILITATION AND BETTERMENT PROGRAM Photographer: unknown. April 1968 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

416

42. PHOTOCOPY OF DECEMBER 1903 AND JUNE 1904 PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. PHOTOCOPY OF DECEMBER 1903 AND JUNE 1904 PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING OLD AND NEW STRUCTURES. ADDISON HUTTON COLLECTION - Chalfonte Hotel, Pacific & North Carolina Avenues, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

417

41. PHOTOCOPY OF DECEMBER 1903 AND JUNE 1904 PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. PHOTOCOPY OF DECEMBER 1903 AND JUNE 1904 PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING OLD AND NEW STRUCTURES. ADDISON HUTTON COLLECTION - Chalfonte Hotel, Pacific & North Carolina Avenues, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

418

10. INTERIOR, MAIN BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING TWO TURBINE GENERATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. INTERIOR, MAIN BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING TWO TURBINE GENERATOR SETS (FOREGROUND) AND AN AIR COMPRESSOR (BACKGROUND) - Central Power Station, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

419

8. INTERIOR VIEW OF QUARTERS SHOWING FIREPLACE, NORTHWEST ROOM, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR VIEW OF QUARTERS SHOWING FIREPLACE, NORTHWEST ROOM, AND DOOR INTO SOUTHWEST ROOM - U. S. Lighthouse Reservation, Quarters & Lighthouse, South Manitou Island, Glen Arbor, Leelanau County, MI

420

8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION TANKS. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

421

6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL RELIEF OF TRANSPORTATION BY AUTOMOBILE - Calvert Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

422

UF Bee College Honey Show Entry Registration Form  

E-print Network

UF Bee College Honey Show Entry Registration Form Please select the class and mark number of entries you will be submitting. Please send the entry form to: Glinda Burnett C/O Bee College Honey Show: six 1lb jars of honey of any type (extracted, chunk, creamed) displayed with your own labels H2. Three

Jawitz, James W.

423

11. SHOWS NORTH WALL OF ELL (interior part of ell), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SHOWS NORTH WALL OF ELL (interior part of ell), CONTINUING THRU SOUTH ENTRY (left-hand side barn entrance). ALSO SHOWS DETAILS OF PENS #2 AND #3, AND PLATE CONSTRUCTION OF MAIN LOFT. VIEW FROM NORTH. Date: July 10, 1937; negative #10625 - Witt Shields Barn, Townsend, Blount County, TN

424

14. SHOWS KEEPERS WHICH HELD THE SLIDING BOLT TO LOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. SHOWS KEEPERS WHICH HELD THE SLIDING BOLT TO LOCK DOOR; ALSO SHOWS FEED TROUGH AND HAY RACK (see HABS No. TN-160-13) IN BACKGROUND. SPIKES USED TO NAIL DOOR JAMBS TO WALL LOGS MADE FROM OLD HORSESHOES Date: July 1941; negative #10653 - Witt Shields Barn, Townsend, Blount County, TN

425

15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, c. 1934. SHOWS PRECIPITATION TANK No. 1 (NOTE LOCKS), ZINC FEEDER WITH MIXING CONE, VACUUM RECEIVER AND PIPING. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

426

47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a...application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and...

2012-10-01

427

47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a...application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and...

2010-10-01

428

47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a...application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and...

2013-10-01

429

47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a...application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and...

2011-10-01

430

47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a...application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and...

2014-10-01

431

‘Country life’? Rurality, folk music and ‘Show of Hands’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the contribution of folk music to understanding the dynamic, fluid and multi-experiential nature of the countryside. Drawing from literature on the geographies of music, it examines the work of ‘Show of Hands’, a contemporary folk band from Devon in England. Three areas are studied. First, the paper examines the musical style of Show of Hands in order

Richard Yarwood; Clive Charlton

2009-01-01

432

TV talk show therapy as a distinct genre of discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using therapeutic conversations from a televised talk show as the source data, this article investigates how people solve emotional problems in an institutional setting within a specific social cultural context. In light of the genre framework and the Systemic Functional Linguistics, the investigation considers the TV talk show therapy under examination a distinct genre. The claim is based on the

Xiaoping Yan

2008-01-01

433

Those with Autism May Have Unique Brain Connections, Study Shows  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Those With Autism May Have Unique Brain Connections, Study Shows Brains of people without the disorder show similar patterns, ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People with autism may have brain connections that are uniquely their own, a new ...

434

Survey Shows Blacks Not Concerned Enough about Kidney Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health officials may have an uphill battle in educating Blacks about a disease that's being called a "silent killer," a recent survey shows. Kidney disease is an illness that's become more prevalent, especially in the nation's Black population, but a survey conducted in Jackson, Atlanta, Baltimore and Cleveland shows only 15 percent of those…

Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

2004-01-01

435

Showing and Telling: The Difference That Makes a Difference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to clarify an essential difference between the ways in which pictures and words convey meaning. Examines one attempt to differentiate and characterize various types of picture books and concludes by showing how Anthony Browne exploits the distinction between showing and telling to create the atmosphere of uncertainty and mystery in his…

Lewis, David

2001-01-01

436

2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST (View is middle of the perimeter showing in MT-88-A-1 above.) - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

437

13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX TO END OF EAST DAM. FOREGROUND VIEW SHOWS TRIPLE WALL CONSTRUCTION OF TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING USED IN CRIBBING - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

438

Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad tea