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Sample records for shower exposure model

  1. An in-premise model for Legionella exposure during showering events

    EPA Science Inventory

    An exposure model was constructed to predict the critical Legionella densities in an engineered water system that might result in infection from inhalation of aerosols containing the pathogen while showering. The model predicted the Legionella densities in the shower air, water ...

  2. An in-premise model for Legionella exposure during showering events.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Mary E; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2011-11-15

    An exposure model was constructed to predict the critical Legionella densities in an engineered water system that result in infection from inhalation of aerosols containing the pathogen while showering. The model predicted the Legionella densities in the shower air, water and in-premise plumbing biofilm that might result in a deposited dose of Legionella in the alveolar region of the lungs associated with infection for a routine showering event. Processes modeled included the detachment of biofilm-associated Legionella from the in-premise plumbing biofilm during a showering event, the partitioning of the pathogen from the shower water to the air, and the inhalation and deposition of particles in the lungs. The range of predicted critical Legionella densities in the air and water was compared to the available literature. The predictions were generally within the limited set of observations for air and water, with the exception of Legionella density within in-premise plumbing biofilms, for which there remains a lack of observations for comparison. Sensitivity analysis of the predicted results to possible changes in the uncertain input parameters identified the target deposited dose associated with infections, the pathogen air-water partitioning coefficient, and the quantity of detached biofilm from in-premise pluming surfaces as important parameters for additional data collection. In addition, the critical density of free-living protozoan hosts in the biofilm required to propagate the infectious Legionella was estimated. Together, this evidence can help to identify critical conditions that might lead to infection derived from pathogens within the biofilms of any plumbing system from which humans may be exposed to aerosols. PMID:21924754

  3. Estimating risk during showering exposure to VOCs of workers in a metal-degreasing facility.

    PubMed

    Franco, Amaya; Costoya, Miguel Angel; Roca, Enrique

    2007-04-01

    The incremental risk of workers in a metal-degreasing facility exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the water supply during showering was estimated. A probabilistic and worst-case approach using specific-site concentration data and a generalized multipathway exposure model was applied. Estimates of hazard index and lifetime cancer risk were analyzed for each chemical and each route of exposure (inhalation and dermal absorption). The results showed that dermal exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) represented the main contribution to total risk. Although the inhalation route did not produce significant exposure, it was mainly influenced by the liquid flow rate of the shower. Lower values of this parameter during showering resulted in a significant reduction of both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk, while decreasing water temperature produced a minimal effect on exposure by this pathway. The results obtained in the present study indicated that significant exposures of workers may be produced during showering in metal degreasing installations where releases to water of VOCs occur. A sensitivity analysis was developed for investigating the effect of scenario parameters on exposure. Although site-specific data were employed, the exposure of workers was assessed in a model scenario and thus the quantification of risk is associated with uncertainty. Considering that occupational exposure to organic solvents of workers in metal-degreasing facilities may also be significant, risk assessment must be included in the planning of this kind of industrial installation. PMID:17365617

  4. Determining human exposure and sensory detection of odorous compounds released during showering.

    PubMed

    Omür-Ozbek, Pinar; Gallagher, Daniel L; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2011-01-15

    Modeling of human exposure to aqueous algal odorants geosmin (earthy), 2-methylisoborneol (musty), and (trans,cis)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber, fishy), and the solvent trichloroethylene (sweet chemical), was investigated to improve the understanding of water-air transfer by including humans as sensors to detect contaminants. A mass-transfer model was employed to determine indoor air concentrations when water was used for showering under varying conditions (shower stall volume, water and air flow rate, temperature, aqueous odorant concentration, shower duration). Statistical application of multiple linear regression and tree regression were employed to determine critical model parameters. The model predicted that concentrations detectable to the human senses were controlled by temperature, odor threshold, and aqueous concentration for the steady-state model, whereas shower volume, air flow, and water flow are also important for the dynamic model and initial detection of the odorant immediately after the showering is started. There was excellent agreement of model predictions with literature data for human perception of algal odorants in their homes and complaints to water utilities. TCE performed differently than the algal odorants due to its higher Henry's law constant, in spite of similar gas and liquid diffusivities. The use of nontoxic odorants offers an efficient tool to calibrate indoor air/water shower models. PMID:21141853

  5. Recent meteor showers - models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koten, P.; Vaubaillon, J.

    2015-10-01

    A number of meteor shower outbursts and storms occurred in recent years starting with several Leonid storms around 2000 [1]. The methods of modeling meteoroid streams became better and more precise. An increasing number of observing systems enabled better coverage of such events. The observers provide modelers with an important feedback on precision of their models. Here we present comparison of several observational results with the model predictions.

  6. Phenomenological model of nuclear primary air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, D. R., Jr.; Saterlie, S. F.

    1976-01-01

    The development of proton primary air showers is described in terms of a model based on a hadron core plus an electromagnetic cascade. The muon component is neglected. The model uses three parameters: a rate at which hadron core energy is converted into electromagnetic cascade energy and a two-parameter sea-level shower-age function. By assuming an interaction length for the primary nucleus, the model is extended to nuclear primaries. Both models are applied over the energy range from 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 21st power eV. Both models describe the size and age structure (neglecting muons) from a depth of 342 to 2052 g/sq cm.

  7. HOUSEHOLD EXPOSURES TO BENZENE FROM SHOWERING WITH GASOLINE CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a private residence using benzene contaminated groundwater (= 300 ug/l), a series of experiments were performed to assess the benzene exposures that occur in the shower stall, bathroom, master bedroom, and living room as a result of a single 20 minute shower. Sampling methodol...

  8. Monte Carlo modeling and meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikova, N. V.

    1987-08-01

    Prediction of short lived increases in the cosmic dust influx, the concentration in lower thermosphere of atoms and ions of meteor origin and the determination of the frequency of micrometeor impacts on spacecraft are all of scientific and practical interest and all require adequate models of meteor showers at an early stage of their existence. A Monte Carlo model of meteor matter ejection from a parent body at any point of space was worked out by other researchers. This scheme is described. According to the scheme, the formation of ten well known meteor streams was simulated and the possibility of genetic affinity of each of them with the most probable parent comet was analyzed. Some of the results are presented.

  9. Monte Carlo modeling and meteor showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikova, N. V.

    1987-01-01

    Prediction of short lived increases in the cosmic dust influx, the concentration in lower thermosphere of atoms and ions of meteor origin and the determination of the frequency of micrometeor impacts on spacecraft are all of scientific and practical interest and all require adequate models of meteor showers at an early stage of their existence. A Monte Carlo model of meteor matter ejection from a parent body at any point of space was worked out by other researchers. This scheme is described. According to the scheme, the formation of ten well known meteor streams was simulated and the possibility of genetic affinity of each of them with the most probable parent comet was analyzed. Some of the results are presented.

  10. A Complex Exposure History of the Gold Basin L4-Chondrite Shower from Cosmogenic Radionuclides and Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Welten, K.C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Masarik, J.; Wieler, R.

    2001-04-30

    Gold Basin is a large L4 chondrite shower, that was recently discovered in the Mojave Desert, Arizona [1]. Based on {sup 109}Be and {sup 14}C concentrations in several fragments, the pre-atmospheric radius of this shower was estimated to be 3-4 meters [2]. Among chondrites, Gold Basin is one of the largest, thus providing a unique opportunity for comparing measured cosmogenic nuclide concentrations with model calculations for large objects. Noble gas measurements combined with {sup 10}Be data of most Gold Basin samples suggest a single-stage exposure of 15-30 Myr, although a few samples may require a complex exposure history [3]. We selected eight samples of the Gold Basin shower that were analyzed for noble gases; these samples represent a wide range of shielding depths.

  11. Household exposure models

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in tap water is often assumed to be dominated by ingestion of drinking water. This paper addresses the relative importance of inhalation and dermal exposures in a typical household. A three-compartment model is used to simulate the 24-h concentration history of VOCs in the shower, bathroom, and remaining household volumes as a result of tap water use. Mass transfers from water to air are derived from measured data for radon and used to estimate mass-transfer properties for VOCs. The model is used to calculate a range of concentrations and human exposures in US dwellings. The estimated ratio of household- inhalation uptake to ingestion uptake is in the range of 1 to 6 for VOCs. We use a dermal absorption model to assess exposure across the skin boundary during baths and showers. The ratio of dermal exposure to ingestion exposure is in the range 0.6 to 1. 24 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  12. Assessing human exposure and odor detection during showering with crude 4-(methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sain, Amanda E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2015-12-15

    In 2014, crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) spilled, contaminating the drinking water of 300,000 West Virginians and requiring "do not use" orders to protect human health. When the spill occurred, known crude MCHM physicochemical properties were insufficient to predict human inhalation and ingestion exposures. Objectives are (1) determine Henry's Law Constants (HLCs) for 4-MCHM isomers at 7, 25, 40, and 80°C using gas chromatography; (2) predict air concentrations of 4-MCHM and methyl-4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate (MMCHC) during showering using an established shower model; (3) estimate human ingestion and inhalation exposure to 4-MCHM and MMCHC; and (4) determine if predicted air 4-MCHM exceeded odor threshold concentrations. Dimensionless HLCs of crude cis- and trans-4-MCHM were measured to be 1.42×10(-4)±6% and 3.08×10(-4)±3% at 25°C, respectively, and increase exponentially with temperature as predicted by the van't Hoff equation. Shower air concentrations for cis- and trans-4-MCHM are predicted to be 0.089 and 0.390ppm-v respectively after 10min, exceeding the US EPA's 0.01ppm-v air screening level during initial spill conditions. Human exposure doses were predicted using measured drinking water and predicted shower air concentrations and found to greatly exceed available guidance levels in the days directly following the spill. Odors would be rapidly detected by 50% of individuals at aqueous concentrations below analytical gas chromatographic detection limits. MMCHC, a minor odorous component (0.935%) of crude MCHM, is also highly volatile and therefore is predicted to contribute to inhalation exposures and odors experienced by consumers. PMID:26311585

  13. The influence of physicochemical properties on the internal dose of trihalomethanes in humans following a controlled showering exposure.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lalith K; Backer, Lorraine C; Ashley, David L; Gordon, Sydney M; Brinkman, Marielle C; Nuckols, John R; Wilkes, Charles R; Blount, Benjamin C

    2013-01-01

    Although disinfection of domestic water supply is crucial for protecting public health from waterborne diseases, this process forms potentially harmful by-products, such as trihalomethanes (THMs). We evaluated the influence of physicochemical properties of four THMs (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) on the internal dose after showering. One hundred volunteers showered for 10 min in a controlled setting with fixed water flow, air flow, and temperature. We measured THMs in shower water, shower air, bathroom air, and blood samples collected at various time intervals. The geometric mean (GM) for total THM concentration in shower water was 96.2 μg/l. The GM of total THM in air increased from 5.8 μg/m(3) pre shower to 351 μg/m(3) during showering. Similarly, the GM of total-blood THM concentration increased from 16.5 ng/l pre shower to 299 ng/l at 10 min post shower. THM levels were significantly correlated between different matrices (e.g. dibromochloromethane levels) in water and air (r=0.941); blood and water (r=0.845); and blood and air (r=0.831). The slopes of best-fit lines for THM levels in water vs air and blood vs air increased with increasing partition coefficient of water/air and blood/air. The slope of the correlation plot of THM levels in water vs air decreased in a linear (r=0.995) fashion with increasing Henry's law constant. The physicochemical properties (volatility, partition coefficients, and Henry's law constant) are useful parameters for predicting THM movement between matrices and understanding THM exposure during showering. PMID:22829048

  14. Estimation of endotoxin inhalation from shower and humidifier exposure reveals potential risk to human health.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William B; George Dixon, D; Mayfield, Colin I

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigates potential exposure to endotoxin in drinking water through the inhalation of aerosols generated by showers and humidifiers. Adverse health effects attributable to the inhalation of airborne endotoxin in various occupational settings are summarized, as are controlled laboratory inhalation studies. Data from investigations estimating aerosolization of particulate matter by showers and humidifiers provide a basis for similar analyses with endotoxin, which like minerals in water, is nonvolatile. A theoretical assessment of the inhalation of aerosolized endotoxin showed that while the likelihood of an acute response while showering is minimal, the same is not true for humidifiers. Ultrasonic and impeller (cool mist) humidifiers efficiently produce large numbers of respirable particles. It is predicted that airway inflammation can occur if humidifier reservoirs are filled with tap water, sometimes even at typical drinking-water distribution-system endotoxin concentrations. Higher endotoxin levels occasionally found in drinking water (>1,000 EU/ml) are very likely to induce symptoms such as chills and fever if used as humidifier feed water. While it is unlikely that treated drinking water would contain extremely high endotoxin levels occasionally observed in cyanobacterial blooms (>35,000 EU/ml), the potential for serious acute health consequences exist if used in humidifiers. PMID:17878567

  15. Latest news on the modeling of meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaubaillon, J. J.; Neslusan, L.; Hajdukova, M.; Sekhar, A.; Asher, D.; Segon, D.; Rudawska, R.

    2015-10-01

    This talk will provide a review of the techniques used for the modeling of meteoroid streams in the Solar System. New features induced by resonances will be presented. Consequences for the forecasting of the meteor showers will be presented. Similarly, the multiplication of meteor orbit determination allows for the finding of new parent bodies. Exploration of the past allows us to better know the today Earth meteoroid environment. Special focus will be provided for the Perseid stream as well as comet C/1917 Mellish. The finding of new parent bodies is an ongoing process and latest confirmed bodies will be presented.

  16. A Complex Exposure History of the Gold Basin L4-Chondrite Shower from Cosmogenic Radionuclides and Noble Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Masarik, J.; Wieler, R.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides and noble gases in samples of the Gold Basin L-chondrite shower indicate a complex exposure history, with a first stage exposure on the parent body, followed by a second stage of approx. 19 Myr in a meteoroid 3-4 m in radius. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Gamma-rays from dark showers with twin Higgs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freytsis, Marat; Knapen, Simon; Robinson, Dean J.; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2016-05-01

    We consider a twin WIMP scenario whose twin sector contains a full dark copy of the SM hadrons, where the lightest twin particles are twin pions. By analogy to the standard WIMP paradigm, the dark matter (DM) freezes out through twin electroweak interactions, and annihilates into a dark shower of light twin hadrons. These are either stable or decay predominantly to standard model (SM) photons. We show that this `hadrosymmetric' scenario can be consistent with all applicable astrophysical, cosmological and collider constraints. In order to decay the twin hadrons before the big-bang nucleosynthesis epoch, an additional portal between the SM and twin sector is required. In most cases we find this additional mediator is within reach of either the LHC or future intensity frontier experiments. Furthermore, we conduct simulations of the dark shower and consequent photon spectra. We find that fits of these spectra to the claimed galactic center gamma-ray excess seen by Fermi -LAT non-trivially coincide with regions of parameter space that both successfully generate the observed DM abundance and exhibit minimal fine-tuning.

  18. Air shower simulation for WASAVIES: warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Kataoka, R; Yasuda, H; Yashiro, S; Kuwabara, T; Shiota, D; Kubo, Y

    2014-10-01

    WASAVIES, a warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles (SEPs), is under development by collaboration between several institutes in Japan and the USA. It is designed to deterministically forecast the SEP fluxes incident on the atmosphere within 6 h after flare onset using the latest space weather research. To immediately estimate the aircrew doses from the obtained SEP fluxes, the response functions of the particle fluxes generated by the incidence of monoenergetic protons into the atmosphere were developed by performing air shower simulations using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code system. The accuracy of the simulation was well verified by calculating the increase count rates of a neutron monitor during a ground-level enhancement, combining the response function with the SEP fluxes measured by the PAMELA spectrometer. The response function will be implemented in WASAVIES and used to protect aircrews from additional SEP exposure. PMID:24344351

  19. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects.

    PubMed

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Inceoglu, Bora; Ahn, Ki Chang; Morisseau, Christophe; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial soap additive triclocarban (TCC) is widely used in personal care products. TCC has a high environmental persistence. We developed and validated a sensitive online solid-phase extraction-LC-MS/MS method to rapidly analyze TCC and its major metabolites in urine and other biological samples to assess human exposure. We measured human urine concentrations 0-72 h after showering with a commercial bar soap containing 0.6% TCC. The major route of renal elimination was excretion as N-glucuronides. The absorption was estimated at 0.6% of the 70±15 mg of TCC in the soap used. The TCC-N-glucuronide urine concentration varied widely among the subjects, and continuous daily use of the soap led to steady state levels of excretion. In order to assess potential biological effects arising from this exposure, we screened TCC for the inhibition of human enzymes in vitro. We demonstrate that TCC is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), whereas TCC's major metabolites lack strong inhibitory activity. Topical administration of TCC at similar levels to rats in a preliminary in vivo study, however, failed to alter plasma biomarkers of sEH activity. Overall the analytical strategy described here revealed that use of TCC soap causes exposure levels that warrant further evaluation. PMID:21381656

  20. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering, and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects

    PubMed Central

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Inceoglu, Bora; Ahn, Ki Chang; Morisseau, Christophe; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial soap additive triclocarban (TCC) is widely used in personal care products. TCC has a high environmental persistence. We developed and validated a sensitive online solid phase extraction-LC-MS/MS method to rapidly analyze TCC and its major metabolites in urine and other biological samples to assess human exposure. We measured human urine concentrations 0–72 h after showering with a commercial bar soap containing 0.6% TCC. The major route of renal elimination was excretion as N-glucuronides. The absorption was estimated at 0.6% of the 70±15 mg TCC in the soap used. The TCC N-glucuronide urine concentration varied widely among the subjects and continuous daily use of the soap led to steady state levels of excretion. In order to assess potential biological effects arising from this exposure we screened TCC for the inhibition of human enzymes in vitro. We demonstrate that TCC is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), whereas TCC′s major metabolites lack strong inhibitory activity. Topical administration of TCC at similar levels to rats in a preliminary in vivo study however failed to alter plasma biomarkers of sEH activity. Overall the analytical strategy described here revealed that use of TCC soap causes exposure levels that warrant further evaluation. PMID:21381656

  1. The Complex Exposure History of a Very Large L/LL5 Chondrite Shower: Queen Alexandra Range 90201

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Leya, I.; Wieler, R.; Mararik, J.

    2004-01-01

    Compared to iron meteorites, large stony meteorites (less than 100 kg) are relatively rare. Most large stony meteoroids fragment during atmospheric entry, producing large meteorite showers. Interestingly, many of these large chondrites, such as Bur Gheluai, Gold Basin, Jilin and Tsarev appear to have a complex exposure history with a first-stage exposure on the parent body. The question is whether complex exposure histories are simply more readily detected in large objects or large objects are more likely to experience a complex exposure. Investigation of these two hypotheses is the motivation for this work in which we report on the exposure history of QUE 90201, a large L/LL5 chondrite shower found near Queen Alexandra Range, Antarctica. Previous cosmogenic nuclide studies have led to the consensus that most of the approx. 2000 L5 and LL5 chondrites from the QUE area are derived from a single object with a pre-atmospheric radius of 1-2 m. The terrestrial age of the QUE 90201 shower was determined at 125 20 kyr. Here, we present a more complete set of cosmogenic radionuclide results in the metal and stone fractions of eleven L/LL5 chondrites from the QUE stranding area, as well as noble gases in seven of these samples. The main goal of this work is to unravel the cosmic-ray exposure history of the QUE 90201 meteoroid. In addition, we will discuss the pre-atmospheric size and exposure history of QUE 93013 (H5) and 93081 (H4) with similar shielding conditions as the QUE 90201 shower and a terrestrial age of 145 +/- 25 kyr.

  2. Opportunistic Pathogens Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) and Legionella spp. Colonise Model Shower

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Giglio, Steven; Bentham, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are opportunistic pathogens of public health concern. Hot water systems, including showers, have been identified as a potential source of infection. This paper describes the colonization of Legionella and MAC on the flexible tubing within a model potable shower system, utilizing thermostatic mixing and a flexible shower head. A MAC qPCR method of enumeration was also developed. MAC and Legionella spp. were detected within the biofilm at maximum concentrations of 7.0 × 104 and 2.0 × 103 copies/cm2 PVC tubing respectively. No significant changes were observed between sample of the flexible shower tubing that dried between uses and those that remained filled with water. This suggested the “unhooking” showerheads and allowing them to dry is not an effective method to reduce the risk of Legionella or MAC colonisation. PMID:26213977

  3. Electrons, muons and hadrons in extensive air showers and how do they depend on nuclear interaction model, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrotniak, J. A.; Yodh, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers were performed using a couple of different nuclear interaction models and obtaining a variety of shower characteristics. The discussion of these shows that the sensitivity of observables to the primary mass spectrum is significantly stronger than to the interaction model, the latter being quite weak.

  4. Ice surface roughness modeling for effect on radio signals from UHE particle showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockham, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    For radio antenna detectors located in or above the Antarctic ice sheet, the reconstruction of both ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino and cosmic ray air shower events requires understanding the transmission and reflection properties of the air-ice interface. To this end, surface and volume scattering from granular materials in the microwave frequency range are measured and stereoscopic images of the ice surface, obtained by the Antarctric Geophysics Along the Vostok Expedition (AGAVE), are used to determine the 3D surface structure. This data is implemented to determine an appropriate model for use in simulation and data analysis of the shower events. ANtarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna.

  5. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model assessment of methyl t-butyl ether in groundwater for a bathing and showering determination.

    PubMed

    Rao, H V; Ginsberg, G L

    1997-10-01

    Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) is a gasoline additive that has appeared in private wells as a result of leaking underground storage tanks. Neurological symptoms (headache, dizziness) have been reported from household use of MTBE-affected water, consistent with animal studies showing acute CNS depression from MTBE exposure. The current research evaluates acute CNS effects during bathing/showering by application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) techniques to compare internal doses in animal toxicity studies to human exposure scenarios. An additional reference point was the delivered dose associated with the acute Minimum Risk Level (MRL) for MTBE established by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. A PBPK model for MTBE and its principal metabolite, t-butyl alcohol (TBA) was developed and validated against published data in rats and humans. PBPK analysis of animal studies showed that acute CNS toxicity after MTBE exposure can be attributed principally to the parent compound since the metabolite (TBA) internal dose was below that needed for CNS effects. The PBPK model was combined with an exposure model for bathing and showering which integrates inhalation and dermal exposures. This modeling indicated that bathing or showering in water containing MTBE at 1 mg/L would produce brain concentrations approximately 1000-fold below the animal effects level and twofold below brain concentrations associated with the acute MRL. These findings indicate that MTBE water concentrations of 1 mg/L or below are unlikely to trigger acute CNS effects during bathing and showering. However, MTBE's strong odor may be a secondary but deciding factor regarding the suitability of such water for domestic uses. PMID:9404048

  6. Test of the hadronic interaction model EPOS with KASCADE air shower data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörandel, J. R.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga, J. C.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Brüggemann, M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Fuhrmann, D.; Ghia, P. L.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Kickelbick, D.; Klages, H. O.; Kolotaev, Y.; Łuczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Over, S.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schröder, F.; Sima, O.; Stümpert, M.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G.; Ulrich, H.; Walkowiak, W.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Wommer, M.; Zabierowski, J.; KASCADE-Grande Collaboration

    2009-12-01

    Predictions of the hadronic interaction model EPOS 1.61 as implemented in the air shower simulation program CORSIKA are compared to observations with the KASCADE experiment. The investigations reveal that the predictions of EPOS are not compatible with KASCADE measurements. The discrepancies seen are most likely due to use of a set of inelastic hadronic cross sections that are too high.

  7. A test of the hadronic interaction model EPOS with air shower data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, W. D.; Arteaga, J. C.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Brüggemann, M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Fuhrmann, D.; Ghia, P. L.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Kickelbick, D.; Klages, H. O.; Kolotaev, Y.; Luczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Over, S.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schröder, F.; Sima, O.; Stümpert, M.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Walkowiak, W.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Wommer, M.; Zabierowski, J.

    2009-03-01

    Predictions of the hadronic interaction model EPOS 1.61 as implemented in the air shower simulation program CORSIKA are compared to observations with the KASCADE experiment. The investigations reveal that the predictions of EPOS are not compatible with KASCADE measurements. The discrepancies seen are most likely due to use of a set of inelastic hadronic cross sections that are too high.

  8. Air Shower Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Alania, Marco; Gomez, Adolfo V. Chamorro; Araya, Ignacio J.; Huerta, Humberto Martinez; Flores, Alejandra Parra; Knapp, Johannes

    2009-04-30

    Air shower simulations are a vital part of the design of air shower experiments and the analysis of their data. We describe the basic features of air showers and explain why numerical simulations are the appropriate approach to model the shower simulation. The CORSIKA program, the standard simulation program in this field, is introduced and its features, performance and limitations are discussed. The basic principles of hadronic interaction models and some gerneral simulation techniques are explained. Also a brief introduction to the installation and use of CORSIKA is given.

  9. Diphoton production in the ADD model to NLO + parton shower accuracy at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederix, R.; Mandal, Manoj K.; Mathews, Prakash; Ravindran, V.; Seth, Satyajit; Torrielli, P.; Zaro, M.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present the next-to-leading order predictions for diphoton production in the ADD model, matched to the HERWIG parton shower using the MC@NLO formalism. A selection of the results is presented for d = 2-6 extra dimensions, using generic cuts as well as analysis cuts mimicking the search strategies as pursued by the ATLAS and CMS experiments.

  10. Modeling an enhancement of the lunar sodium tail during the Leonid Meteor Shower of 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jody K.; Smith, Steven M.; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Mendillo, Michael

    A region of non-terrestrial sodium emission seen in the sky on the nights of November 18-20, 1998, has been interpreted as the Moon's distant sodium tail, possibly enhanced by micrometeor impact vaporization of the lunar regolith by the Leonid meteor shower. We show that the location and morphology of the spot can be explained by standard steady-state models of the Moon's sodium atmosphere. Moreover, using a new time-dependent simulation of the lunar atmosphere, we find that the Na escape rate from the Moon increased to 2 or 3 times its normal level during the most intense period of the 1998 Leonid meteor shower on November 16th and 17th.

  11. INTEGRATED PROBABILISTIC AND DETERMINISTIC MODELING TECHNIQUES IN ESTIMATING EXPOSURE TO WATER-BORNE CONTAMINANTS: PART 2 PHARMACOKINETIC MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Total Exposure Model (TEM) uses deterministic and stochastic methods to estimate the exposure of a person performing daily activities of eating, drinking, showering, and bathing. There were 250 time histories generated, by subject with activities, for the three exposure ro...

  12. Meteor Showers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronk, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the history, formation, and observing techniques of meteors and comets. Provided are several pictures, diagrams, meteor organizations and publications, and meteor shower observation tables. (YP)

  13. Meteor storms and showers with the IMEX model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, R. H.; Herzog, J. T.; Sommer, M.; Rodmann, J.; Vaubaillon, J.; Strub, P.; Albin, T.; Sterken, V.; Hornig, A.; Bausch, L.; Grün, E.; Srama, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Interplanetary Meteoroid Environment for Exploration (IMEX) provides a model of meteoroid streams in the inner solar system. It is primarily designed to provide hazard estimations for interplanetary spacecraft. However, such a model is also suited for studying the impact of recently created meteoroid streams at the Earth. It also allows us to study meteor storms, and to automatically determine the streams that can be observed at the Earth at any time. Here we describe the application to Leonid meteor storms of 1999-2002, and provide the results of the automatic stream determination for 2015.

  14. MODEL DEVELOPMENT - EXPOSURE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to mixtures of chemicals from multiple pathways and routes. These exposures may result from a single event or may accumulate over time if multiple exposure events occur. The traditional approach of assessing risk from a single chemical and a single route of e...

  15. Cleaning patient shower facilities: a novel approach to reducing patient exposure to aerosolized Aspergillus species and other opportunistic molds.

    PubMed

    Anaissie, Elias J; Stratton, Shawna L; Dignani, Maria Cecilia; Lee, Choon-Kee; Mahfouz, Tahsine H; Rex, John H; Summerbell, Richard C; Walsh, Thomas J

    2002-10-15

    We previously have demonstrated that the hospital water-distribution system could be a reservoir for airborne molds that leads to secondary aerosolization of these molds in patient shower facilities. In this report, we show that cleaning the floors of patient shower facilities in a bone marrow transplantation unit reduced the mean air concentrations of molds, including Aspergillus species (from 12 cfu/m3 to 4 cfu/m3; P=.0047). PMID:12355397

  16. Showering effectiveness for human hair decontamination of the nerve agent VX.

    PubMed

    Josse, Denis; Wartelle, Julien; Cruz, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    In this work, our goals were to establish whether hair decontamination by showering one hour post-exposure to the highly toxic organophosphate nerve agent VX was effective, whether it required the addition of a detergent to water and, if it could be improved by using the adsorbent Fuller's Earth (FE) or the Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) 30 min prior to showering. Hair exposure to VX and decontamination was performed by using an in vitro model. Hair showering led to 72% reduction of contamination. Addition of detergent to water slightly increased the decontamination effectiveness. Hair treatment with FE or RSDL improved the decontamination rate. Combination of FE use and showering, which yielded a decontamination factor of 41, was demonstrated to be the most effective hair decontamination procedure. Hair wiping after showering was shown to contribute to hair decontamination. Altogether, our results highlighted the importance of considering hair decontamination as an important part of body surface decontamination protocols. PMID:25791764

  17. Human respiratory uptake of chloroform and haloketones during showering.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Weisel, Clifford P

    2005-01-01

    Inhalation is an important exposure route for volatile water contaminants, including disinfection by-products (DBPs). A controlled human study was conducted on six subjects to determine the respiratory uptake of haloketones (HKs) and chloroform, a reference compound, during showering. Breath and air concentrations of the DBPs were measured using gas chromatography and electron capture detector during and following the inhalation exposures. A lower percentage of the HKs (10%) is released from shower water to air than that of chloroform (56%) under the experiment conditions due to the lower volatility of the HKs. Breath concentrations of the DBPs were elevated during the inhalation exposure, while breath concentrations decreased rapidly after the exposure. Approximately 85-90% of the inhaled HKs were absorbed, whereas only 70% of the inhaled chloroform was absorbed for the experiment conditions used. The respiratory uptake of the DBPs was estimated using a linear one-compartment model coupled with a plug flow stream model for the shower system. The internal dose of chloroform normalized to its water concentration was approximately four times that of the HKs after a 30-min inhalation exposure. Approximately 0.3-0.4% of the absorbed HKs and 2-9% of the absorbed chloroform were expired through lung excretion after the 30-min exposure. The inhalation exposure from a typical 10-15 min shower contributes significantly to the total dose for chloroform in chlorinated drinking water but only to a moderate extent for HKs. PMID:15138448

  18. Minor meteor shower activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendtel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Video meteor observations provide us with data to analyze structures in minor meteor showers or weak features in flux profiles. Samples obtained independently by other techniques allow to calibrate the data sets and to improve the confidence of results as demonstrated with a few results. Both, the confirmation of events predicted by model calculation and the input of observational data to improve the modelling results may help to better understand meteoroid stream evolution processes. Furthermore, calibrated data series can be used for studies of the long-term evolution of meteor shower activity.

  19. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals--pesti...

  20. Measuring and Modeling Cosmic Ray Showers with an MBL System: An Undergraduate Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, David P.; Welker, Matthew T.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a novel method for inducing and measuring cosmic ray showers using a low-cost, microcomputer-based laboratory system. Uses low counting-rate radiation monitors in the reproduction of Bruno Rossi's classic experiment. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  1. Electrons, muons and hadrons in extensive air showers and how do they depend on nuclear interaction model, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrotniak, J. A.; Yodh, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the results of Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers for nuclear interactions models are presented. The most significant part of scaling violation effect is generated by the inclusion of rising cross-section. Among the models considered the lowest value for Eo/N(max) is obtained when rapidly rising cross-section and charge exchange are both included (model R-F01). The value is still 1.38 GeV/electron. Except at the highest energies, the sensitivity to atomic mass of the primary is greater than to specific assumptions about multiple production.

  2. Modeling exposure to particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Moschandreas, Demetrios J; Saksena, Sumeet

    2002-12-01

    Exposure assessment, a component of risk assessment, links sources of pollution with health effects. Exposure models are scientific tools used to gain insights into the processes affecting exposure assessment. The purpose of this paper is to review the process and methodology of estimating inhalation exposure to particulate matter (PM) using various types of models. Three types of models are discussed in the paper. Indirect type of models are physical models that employ inventories of outdoor and indoor sources and their emission rates to identify major sources contributing to exposure to PM, and use fate and transport and indoor air quality models to estimate PM concentrations at receptor sites. PM concentrations and time spent by a subject at each receptor site are input variables to the conventional exposure model that estimates the desired exposure levels. Direct type models use measured exposure or exposure concentrations in conjunction with information obtained from questionnaires to formulate exposure regression models. Stochastic models use exposure measurements, estimates can also be used, to formulate exposure population distributions and investigate associated uncertainty and variability. Since models developed using databases from western countries are not necessarily applicable in developing countries, the difference in requirements among western and developing countries is highlighted in the paper. Employment of exposure modeling methods in developing countries requires development of local information. Such information includes local outdoor and indoor source inventories, local or regional meteorological conditions, adjustment of indoor models to reflect local building construction conditions, and use of questionnaires to obtain local time budget and activity patterns of the subject population. PMID:12492168

  3. AIR TOXICS HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to improve the scientific basis for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) assessments of human exposures to air toxics by developing improved human exposure models. The research integrates the major components of the exposure paradigm, i.e., sources, tr...

  4. Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Sterilization Shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhiraman, R. P.; Beeler, D.; Meyyappan, M.; Khare, B. N.

    2012-10-01

    Low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma sterilization shower to address both forward and backward biological contamination issues is presented. The molecular effects of plasma exposure required to sterilize microorganisms is also analysed.

  5. MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODEL (MULTIMED)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multimedia Exposure Assessment Model (MULTIMED) for exposure assessment simulates the movement of contaminants leaching from a waste disposal facility. The model consists of a number of modules which predict concentrations at a receptor due to transport in the subsurface, sur...

  6. Muon production in extended air shower simulations.

    PubMed

    Pierog, T; Werner, K

    2008-10-24

    Whereas air shower simulations are very valuable tools for interpreting cosmic ray data, there is a long-standing problem: it is difficult to accommodate at the same time the longitudinal development of air showers and the number of muons measured on the ground. Using a new hadronic interaction model (EPOS) in air shower simulations produces much more muons, in agreement with results from the HiRes-MIA experiment. We find that this is mainly due to a better description of (anti) baryon production in hadronic interactions. This is an aspect of air shower physics which has been neglected so far. PMID:18999734

  7. Reweighting parton showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellm, Johannes; Plätzer, Simon; Richardson, Peter; Siódmok, Andrzej; Webster, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    We report on the possibility of reweighting parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions for scale variations in the parton-shower algorithm. The method is based on a generalization of the Sudakov veto algorithm. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach using example physical distributions. Implementations are available for both of the parton-shower modules in the Herwig 7 event generator.

  8. A Bayesian population PBPK model for multiroute chloroform exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuching; Xu, Xu; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2011-01-01

    A Bayesian hierarchical model was developed to estimate the parameters in a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for chloroform using prior information and biomarker data from different exposure pathways. In particular, the model provides a quantitative description of the changes in physiological parameters associated with hot-water bath and showering scenarios. Through Bayesian inference, uncertainties in the PBPK parameters were reduced from the prior distributions. Prediction of biomarker data with the calibrated PBPK model was improved by the calibration. The posterior results indicate that blood flow rates varied under two different exposure scenarios, with a two-fold increase of the skin's blood flow rate predicted in the hot-bath scenario. This result highlights the importance of considering scenario-specific parameters in PBPK modeling. To demonstrate the application of a probability approach in toxicological assessment, results from the posterior distributions from this calibrated model were used to predict target tissue dose based on the rate of chloroform metabolized in liver. This study demonstrates the use of the Bayesian approach to optimize PBPK model parameters for typical household exposure scenarios. PMID:19471319

  9. Strong interactions in air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Dennis D.

    2015-03-02

    We study the role new gauge interactions in extensions of the standard model play in air showers initiated by ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Hadron-hadron events remain dominated by quantum chromodynamics, while projectiles and/or targets from beyond the standard model permit us to see qualitative differences arising due to the new interactions.

  10. Development and application of a human PBPK model for bromodichloromethane to investigate the impacts of multi-route exposure.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Elaina M; Eklund, Christopher; Leavens, Teresa; Pegram, Rex A

    2016-09-01

    As a result of its presence in water as a volatile disinfection byproduct, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), which is mutagenic, poses a potential health risk from exposure via oral, dermal and inhalation routes. We developed a refined human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for BDCM (including new chemical-specific human parameters) to evaluate the impact of BDCM exposure during showering and bathing on important measures of internal dose compared with oral exposure. The refined model adequately predicted data from the published literature for oral, dermal and bathing/showering exposures. A liter equivalency approach (L-eq) was used to estimate BDCM concentration in a liter of water consumed by the oral route that would be required to produce the same internal dose of BDCM resulting from a 20-min bath or a 10-min shower in water containing 10 µg l(-1) BDCM. The oral liter equivalent concentrations for the bathing scenario were 605, 803 and 5 µg l(-1) BDCM for maximum venous blood concentration (Cmax), the area under the curve (AUCv) and the amount metabolized in the liver per hour (MBDCM), respectively. For a 10-min showering exposure, the oral L-eq concentrations were 282, 312 and 2.1 µg l(-1) for Cmax, AUC and MBDCM, respectively. These results demonstrate large contributions of dermal and inhalation exposure routes to the internal dose of parent chemical reaching the systemic circulation, which could be transformed to mutagenic metabolites in extrahepatic target tissues. Thus, consideration of the contribution of multiple routes of exposure when evaluating risks from water-borne BDCM is needed, and this refined human model will facilitate improved assessment of internal doses from real-world exposures. Published 2015. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26649444

  11. MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task addresses a number of issues that arise in multimedia modeling with an emphasis on interactions among the atmosphere and multiple other environmental media. Approaches for working with multiple types of models and the data sets are being developed. Proper software tool...

  12. Dietary Exposure Potential Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Existing food consumption and contaminant residue databases, typically products of nutrition and regulatory monitoring, contain useful information to characterize dietary intake of environmental chemicals. A PC-based model with resident database system, termed the Die...

  13. Inhalation exposure model for volatile chemicals from indoor uses of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, Charles R.; Small, Mitchell J.; Andelman, Julian B.; Giardino, Nicholas J.; Marshall, Joy

    An indoor air quality model, MAVRIQ, has been developed for use with a personal computer (PC) to simulate the air concentration of organic compounds due to volatilization of chemicals originating in the domestic water supply. MAVRIQ also simulates the inhalation exposure of individuals based on their location and water use behavior. An application of MAVRIQ, presented in this paper, demonstrates the effect of various water uses on the air concentrations in a test house, and on the inhalation exposure of the inhabitants. The occupants' activities, location and water-use patterns are shown to affect their inhalation exposure. In the case of a person who spends the majority of his or her time in a home (such as the primary child-care adult) with contaminated water supply, the daily inhalation exposure is likely to exceed the exposure from ingestion of the same water. A large part of the inhalation exposure occurs during showering and post-showering activities, but other water uses also contribute. In addition, it is shown that a simple remedial action, the installation of a bathroom exhaust fan, can result in significant reductions of the inhalation exposure.

  14. Extensive Air Shower Characteristics as Functions of Shower Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giller, Maria; Stojek, Hubert; Wieczorek, Grzegorz

    We show that extensive air showers (EAS) are all very similar when described by shower age and Molière length unit. This allows to analyze fluorescence and Cherenkov light emitted by showers in a unified and simple way.

  15. Simulation of gamma-initiated showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancov, K.; Vodenicharova, T.; Stamenov, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The main average characteristics of muon, electron and hadron components of extensive air showers were calculate using a standard model of nuclear interaction. The obtained results are in good agreement with Tien Shan experimental data.

  16. Muons in gamma showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.; Vankov, C. P.; Halzen, F.

    1985-01-01

    Muon production in gamma-induced air showers, accounting for all major processes. For muon energies in the GeV region the photoproduction is by far the most important process, while the contribution of micron + micron pair creation is not negligible for TeV muons. The total rate of muons in gamma showers is, however, very low.

  17. A new study of shower age distribution in near vertical showers by EAS air shower array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhuri, N.; Goswami, G. C.; Basak, D. K.; Ghosh, B.

    1984-01-01

    The air shower array has been developed since it started operation in 1931. The array covering an area of 900 sq m now incorporates 21 particle density sampling detectors around two muon magnetic spectrographs. The air showers are detected in the size range 10 to the 4th power to 10 to the 6th power particles. A total of 11000 showers has so far been detected. Average values of shower age have been obtained in various shower size ranges to study the dependence of shower age on shower size. The core distance dependence of shower age parameter has also been analyzed for presentation.

  18. Radiation Effects Investigations Based on Atmospheric Radiation Model (ATMORAD) Considering GEANT4 Simulations of Extensive Air Showers and Solar Modulation Potential.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Guillaume; Cheminet, Adrien

    2015-07-01

    The natural radiative atmospheric environment is composed of secondary cosmic rays produced when primary cosmic rays hit the atmosphere. Understanding atmospheric radiations and their dynamics is essential for evaluating single event effects, so that radiation risks in aviation and the space environment (space weather) can be assessed. In this article, we present an atmospheric radiation model, named ATMORAD (Atmospheric Radiation), which is based on GEANT4 simulations of extensive air showers according to primary spectra that depend only on the solar modulation potential (force-field approximation). Based on neutron spectrometry, solar modulation potential can be deduced using neutron spectrometer measurements and ATMORAD. Some comparisons between our methodology and standard approaches or measurements are also discussed. This work demonstrates the potential for using simulations of extensive air showers and neutron spectroscopy to monitor solar activity. PMID:26151172

  19. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  20. Human health risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Hall, Kevin

    2010-07-01

    Lifetime exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) through ingestion, inhalation and dermal contacts may pose risks to human health. Current approaches may under predict THMs exposure by using THMs in cold water during showering and bathing. Warming of chlorinated water during showering may increase THMs formation through reactions between organics and residual chlorine, which can increase human health risks. In this study, THMs concentrations in shower water were estimated using THMs rate increase model. Using cold water THMs, exposure through ingestion was estimated, while THMs exposure during showering was estimated using THMs in warm water. Human health cancer risks and additional expenses for 20 most populated Canadian cities from exposure to THMs were estimated. Inhalation and dermal contact during showering contributed 30% to 50% of total cancer risks, while risks from inhalation and dermal contacts were comparable for all cities. Overall cancer risks were estimated between 7.2 x 10(-6) and 6.4 x 10(-5) for these cities. Cancer incidents were estimated highest for Montreal (94/year) followed by Toronto (53/year), which may require additional medical expenses of 18.8 and 10.7 million dollars/year for Montreal and Toronto respectively. Cancer risks from exposure to THMs can be controlled by reducing THMs in water supply and varying shower stall volume, shower duration and air exchange rate in shower stall. PMID:20434775

  1. Particle size distribution and inhalation dose of shower water under selected operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Benson, Janet M; Irvin, Clinton; Irshad, Hammad; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2007-04-01

    Showering produces respirable droplets that may serve to deposit pollutants such as trihalomethane decontamination products, heavy metals, inorganic salts, microbes, or cyanoacterial toxins within the respiratory tract. The extent and importance of this route of indoor exposure depend on the physical characteristics of the aerosol as well as the pollutant profile of the source water. The purpose of this study was to characterize shower-generated aerosols as a function of water flow rate, temperature, and bathroom location. Aerosols were generated within a shower stall containing a mannequin to simulate the presence of a human. Using hot water, the mass median diameter (MMD) of the droplets inside the shower and in the bathroom were 6.3-7.5 um and 5.2-6 microm, respectively. Size was independent of water flow rate. The particle concentration inside the shower ranged from 5 to 14 mg/m3. Aerosols generated using cold water were smaller (2.5-3.1 microm) and concentrations were lower (0.02-0.1 mg/m3) inside the shower stall. No aerosols were detected in the bathroom area when cold water was used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection model was used to estimate water deposition in the respiratory tract. For hot water, total deposition ranged from 11 to 14 mg, depending on water flow rate, with approximately 50% of this deposited in the extrathoracic region during assumed mouth breathing, and greater than 86% when nose breathing was assumed. Alveolar deposition was 6-10% and 0.9% assuming oral and nasal breathing, respectively. The consequences deposition of shower water droplets will depend on the nature and extent of any pollutants in the source water. PMID:17365038

  2. Particle Size Distribution and Inhalation Dose of Shower Water Under Selected Operating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Benson, Janet M.; Irvin, Clinton; Irshad, Hammad; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2010-01-01

    Showering produces respirable droplets that may serve to deposit pollutants such as trihalomethane decontamination products, heavy metals, inorganic salts, microbes, or cyanoacterial toxins within the respiratory tract. The extent and importance of this route of indoor exposure depend on the physical characteristics of the aerosol as well as the pollutant profile of the source water. The purpose of this study was to characterize shower-generated aerosols as a function of water flow rate, temperature, and bathroom location. Aerosols were generated within a shower stall containing a mannequin to simulate the presence of a human. Using hot water, the mass median diameter (MMD) of the droplets inside the shower and in the bathroom were 6.3–7.5 um and 5.2–6 µm, respectively. Size was independent of water flow rate. The particle concentration inside the shower ranged from 5 to 14 mg/m3. Aerosols generated using cold water were smaller (2.5–3.1 µm) and concentrations were lower (0.02–0.1 mg/m3) inside the shower stall. No aerosols were detected in the bathroom area when cold water was used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection model was used to estimate water deposition in the respiratory tract. For hot water, total deposition ranged from 11 to 14 mg, depending on water flow rate, with approximately 50% of this deposited in the extrathoracic region during assumed mouth breathing, and greater than 86% when nose breathing was assumed. Alveolar deposition was 6–10% and 0.9% assuming oral and nasal breathing, respectively. The consequences deposition of shower water droplets will depend on the nature and extent of any pollutants in the source water. PMID:17365038

  3. Using Joyce/Showers Teaching Models in the High School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeschl, Sue H.; Costello, Ronald W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of three teaching models in an Indianapolis high school: concept attainment, Taba (inductive thinking), and synectics. Describes each model, its use in the classroom, and the effect on the classroom climate. (MS)

  4. 75 FR 859 - Exposure Modeling Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... AGENCY Exposure Modeling Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Cancellation and Rescheduling of meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the Exposure Modeling Public... Facility telephone number is (703) 305-5805. II. Background The purpose of the Exposure Modeling...

  5. Shower counter resolution scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, T.B.W.

    1991-10-14

    The EM shower counter for the SDC detector has a resolution expression containing two stochastic terms plus a constant term. Recent measurements clarifying the sources of these terms are presented here. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  6. EPA CENTER FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODELING (CEAM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM) supports the Agency and professional community in environmental, risk-based decision-making by expanding their applications expertise for quantitatively assessing pollutant exposure via aquatic, terrestrial, and multimedia pa...

  7. Chapter three: methodology of exposure modeling.

    PubMed

    Moschandreas, Demetrios J; Watson, John; D'Abreton, Peter; Scire, Joseph; Zhu, Tan; Klein, Werner; Saksena, Sumeet

    2002-12-01

    In this chapter, the concept of exposure assessment and its evolution is introduced, and evaluated by critically appraising the pertinent literature as it applies to exposures to Particulate Matter (PM). Exposure measurement or estimation methodologies and models are reviewed. Three exposure/measurement methodologies are assessed. Estimation methods focus on source evaluation and attribution, sources include those outdoors and indoors as well as in occupational and in-transit environments. Fate and transport models and their inputs are addressed to estimate concentrations outdoors and indoors; source attribution techniques help focus on the contributing sources. Activity pattern techniques are also reviewed and their use in exposure models to estimate inhalation exposure to PM is presented. Deterministic, regression and other stochastic models of exposure to PM are reviewed and evaluated. Strengths, limitations, assumptions and affirmations of the use of exposure assessment as an integral component of risk assessment and risk management are discussed in the conclusions and discussions section of this work. PMID:12492158

  8. EXPOSURE MODELING OF ACID AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting an intensive characterization and human exposure monitoring program of acid species and related air pollutants in an urban environment. he EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) in coopera...

  9. DIETARY EXPOSURE METHODS AND MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research reported in this task description constitutes the MCEARD base dietary exposure research program and is conducted to complement the NERL aggregate and cumulative exposure program. Its purpose is to reduce the level of uncertainty in exposure assessment by improving N...

  10. Measurement of parton shower observables with OPAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, N.; Gieseke, S.; Kluth, S.; Plätzer, S.; Skands, P.

    2016-07-01

    A study of QCD coherence is presented based on a sample of about 397,000 e+e- hadronic annihilation events collected at √s = 91 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The study is based on four recently proposed observables that are sensitive to coherence effects in the perturbative regime. The measurement of these observables is presented, along with a comparison with the predictions of different parton shower models. The models include both conventional parton shower models and dipole antenna models. Different ordering variables are used to investigate their influence on the predictions.

  11. Exogenous and Endogenous Determinants of Blood Trihalomethane Levels after Showering

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Lorraine C.; Lan, Qing; Blount, Benjamin C.; Nuckols, J.R.; Branch, Robert; Lyu, Christopher W.; Kieszak, Stephanie M.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Flanders, W. Dana; Romkes, Marjorie; Cantor, Kenneth P.

    2008-01-01

    Background We previously conducted a study to assess whether household exposures to tap water increased an individual’s internal dose of trihalomethanes (THMs). Increases in blood THM levels among subjects who showered or bathed were variable, with increased levels tending to cluster in two groups. Objectives Our goal was to assess the importance of personal characteristics, previous exposures, genetic polymorphisms, and environmental exposures in determining THM concentrations in blood after showering. Methods One hundred study participants completed a health symptom questionnaire, a 48-hr food and water consumption diary, and took a 10-min shower in a controlled setting. We examined THM levels in blood samples collected at baseline and 10 and 30 min after the shower. We assessed the significance of personal characteristics, previous exposures to THMs, and specific gene polymorphisms in predicting postshower blood THM concentrations. Results We did not observe the clustering of blood THM concentrations observed in our earlier study. We found that environmental THM concentrations were important predictors of blood THM concentrations immediately after showering. For example, the chloroform concentration in the shower stall air was the most important predictor of blood chloroform levels 10 min after the shower (p < 0.001). Personal characteristics, previous exposures to THMs, and specific polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and GSTT1 genes were significant predictors of both baseline and postshowering blood THM concentrations as well as of changes in THM concentrations associated with showering. Conclusion The inclusion of information about individual physiologic characteristics and environmental measurements would be valuable in future studies to assess human health effects from exposures to THMs in tap water. PMID:18197300

  12. Hadronic multiparticle production at ultrahigh energies and extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Ralf; Engel, Ralph; Unger, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Studies of the nature of cosmic ray particles at the highest energies are based on the measurement of extensive air showers. Most cosmic ray properties can therefore be obtained only from the interpretation of air shower data and are thus dependent on predictions of hadronic interaction models at ultrahigh energies. We discuss different scenarios of model extrapolations from accelerator data to air shower energies and investigate their impact on the corresponding air shower predictions. To explore the effect of different extrapolations by hadronic interaction models we developed an ad hoc model. This model is based on the modification of the output of standard hadronic interaction event generators within the air shower simulation process and allows us to study the impact of changing interaction features on the air shower development. In a systematic study we demonstrate the resulting changes of important air shower observables and also discuss them in terms of the predictions of the Heitler model of air shower cascades. It is found that the results of our ad hoc modifications are, to a large extent, independent of the choice of the underlying hadronic interaction model.

  13. Showering on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A close up view of astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot taking a hot bath in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth Orbit. This picture was taken with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera. Astronaut Lousma, Alan Bean and Owen K. Garriott remained within the Skylab space station in orbit for 59 days conducting numerous medical, scientific and technological expierments. In deploying the shower facility the shower curtain is pulled up from the floor and attached to the ceiling. The water comes through a push-button shower head attached to a flexible hose. Water is drawn off by a vacuum system.

  14. The search for extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, D.; Chau, J.; Galindo, F.; Huaman, A.; Solano, C. J.

    2009-04-30

    This paper presents the status of the project to detect extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We report on detected anomalous signals and present a toy model to estimate at what altitudes we might expect to see air shower signals. According to this model, a significant number of high altitude horizontal air showers could be observed by radar techniques.

  15. NEXT GENERATION MULTIMEDIA/MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for pesticides (SHEDS-Pesticides) supports the efforts of EPA to better understand human exposures and doses to multimedia, multipathway pollutants. It is a physically-based, probabilistic computer model that predicts, for u...

  16. 75 FR 22401 - Exposure Modeling Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... AGENCY Exposure Modeling Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: An Exposure Modeling Public Meeting (EMPM) will be held for one day on July 27, 2010. This notice... to the meeting, to give EPA as much time as possible to process your request. ADDRESSES: The...

  17. 76 FR 365 - Exposure Modeling Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY Exposure Modeling Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: An Exposure Modeling Public Meeting (EMPM) will be held for one day on January 11, 2011. This... meeting, to give EPA as much time as possible to process your request. ] ADDRESSES: The meeting will...

  18. 78 FR 60870 - Exposure Modeling Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... AGENCY Exposure Modeling Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: An Exposure Modeling Public Meeting (EMPM) will be held for 1 day on October 8... days prior to the meeting, to give EPA as much time as possible to process your request. ADDRESSES:...

  19. PM POPULATION EXPOSURE AND DOSE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this study is the development of a refined probabilistic exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) suitable for predicting PM10 and PM2.5 population exposures. This modeling research will be conducted both in-house by EPA scientists and through...

  20. Uncertainties in energy reconstruction of cosmic rays for ANITA III caused by differences in models of radio emission in atmospheric showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaev, Viatcheslav; Rauch, Brian; Schoorlemmer, Harm; Lam, Joe; Urdaneta, David; Wissel, Stephanie; Belov, Konstantin; Romero-Wolf, Andrew; Anita Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The third flight of the high-altitude balloon-borne Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA III) was launched on a high-altitude balloon from McMurdo, Antarctica on December 17th, 2014 and flew for 22 days. It was optimized for the measurement of impulsive radio signals from the charged component of extensive air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays in the frequency range ~ 180 - 1200 MHz. In addition it is designed to detect radio impulses initiated by high-energy neutrinos interacting in the Antarctic ice, which was the primary objective of the first two ANITA flights. Based on an extensive set of Monte Carlo simulations of radio emissions from cosmic rays (CR) with the ZHAireS and CoREAS simulation packages, we estimate uncertainties in the electric fields at the payload due to different models used in the two packages. The uncertainties in the emission are then propagated through an algorithm for energy reconstruction of individual CR showers to assess uncertainties in the energy reconstruction. We also discuss optimization of this algorithm. This research is supported by NASA under Grant # NNX11AC49G.

  1. Modeling Particle Exposure in US Trucking Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Davis, ME; Smith, TJ; Laden, F; Hart, JE; Ryan, LM; Garshick, E

    2007-01-01

    Multi-tiered sampling approaches are common in environmental and occupational exposure assessment, where exposures for a given individual are often modeled based on simultaneous measurements taken at multiple indoor and outdoor sites. The monitoring data from such studies is hierarchical by design, imposing a complex covariance structure that must be accounted for in order to obtain unbiased estimates of exposure. Statistical methods such as structural equation modeling (SEM) represent a useful alternative to simple linear regression in these cases, providing simultaneous and unbiased predictions of each level of exposure based on a set of covariates specific to the exposure setting. We test the SEM approach using data from a large exposure assessment of diesel and combustion particles in the US trucking industry. The exposure assessment includes data from 36 different trucking terminals across the United States sampled between 2001 and 2005, measuring PM2.5 and its elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) components, by personal monitoring, and sampling at two indoor work locations and an outdoor “background” location. Using the SEM method, we predict: 1) personal exposures as a function of work related exposure and smoking status; 2) work related exposure as a function of terminal characteristics, indoor ventilation, job location, and background exposure conditions; and 3) background exposure conditions as a function of weather, nearby source pollution, and other regional differences across terminal sites. The primary advantage of SEMs in this setting is the ability to simultaneously predict exposures at each of the sampling locations, while accounting for the complex covariance structure among the measurements and descriptive variables. The statistically significant results and high R2 values observed from the trucking industry application supports the broader use of this approach in exposure assessment modeling. PMID:16856739

  2. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This photograph shows technicians performing a checkout of the Metabolic Analyzer (center background) and the Ergometer (foreground) in the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The shower compartment is at right. The Ergometer (Skylab Experiment M171) evaluated man's metabolic effectiveness and cost of work in space environment. Located in the experiment and work area of the OWS, the shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  3. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this photograph, the Orbital Workshop shower compartment was unfolded by technicians for inspection. The shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  4. A project to predict meteor showers from all potential parent comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdukova, M.; Neslusan, L.; Tomko, D.; Jakubik, M.; Kanuchova, Z.

    2015-10-01

    In this project, new meteor showers associated with known periodic comets have been predicted, new parent bodies associated with known meteor showers have been suggested, and new relationships among the meteor showers that belong to the same complex have been found. Here, we present an overview of our results from the modelling of diverse meteorshower complexes [1].

  5. Jet fragmentation via recombination of parton showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kyong Chol; Fries, Rainer J.; Ko, Che Ming

    2016-04-01

    We propose to model hadronization of parton showers in QCD jets through a hybrid approach involving quark recombination and string fragmentation. This is achieved by allowing gluons at the end of the perturbative shower evolution to undergo a nonperturbative splitting into quark and antiquark pairs, then applying a Monte Carlo version of instantaneous quark recombination, and finally subjecting remnant quarks (those which have not found a recombination partner) to Lund string fragmentation. When applied to parton showers from the pythia Monte Carlo event generator, the final hadron spectra from our calculation compare quite well to pythia jets that have been hadronized with the default Lund string fragmentation. Our new approach opens up the possibility to generalize hadronization to jets embedded in a quark gluon plasma.

  6. The Upsilon Pegasid Meteor Shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povenmire, H.

    1995-09-01

    ]. These events showed a confirmed shower at least 20 days in length. The radiant appears to be approximately 3 degrees in diameter. Computer modeling using the D-criterion developed by Southworth and Hawkins [8] indicate that it could be much larger [3]. It is likely an old shower that is still intact, not disrupted by planetary perturbations due to its high inclination. These meteors cross the Earth's orbit while approaching the Sun. They arrive at perihelion about September 16.0 at a perihelion distance of 0.19 AU, half that of Mercury's orbit. The Earth travels through this nearly vertically inclined stream in almost the shortest possible interval. A shower duration as noted indicates a diameter of approximately 0.6 AU. References: [1] Povenmire H. (1980) Fireballs, Meteors and Meteorites, J.S.B. Enterprises Indian Harbour Beach, Florida, 215 pp. [2] Ceplecha Z. (1982) S.E.A.N. Bulletin, 7, 13-14. [3] Kronk G. (1988) Meteor Showers; A Descriptive Catalog, Enslow, Hillside, New Jersey, 281 pp. [4] Olivier C. P. (1937) Astrophys. J., 46, 41-56. [5] Simakina E. G. (1967) Solar System Res., 1, 96-121. [6] Babadzhanov P.B. (1963) Smithson. Contrib. Astrophys., 7, 287-291. [7] McCroskey R. and Posen A. (1961) Smithson. Contrib. Astrophys., 4, 15-84. [8] Southworth R. B. and Hawkins G. S. (1963) Smithson. Contrib. Astrophys., 7, 261-285.

  7. Portable shower apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenier, Francis E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A multipurpose, collapsible, shower apparatus for use almost anywhere but especially adapted for use in places somewhat remote from civilization such as recreational vehicles, campers, the outdoors, space vehicles and the like where there may be a limited amount of water or other liquid. The collapsible shower apparatus includes a curtain assembly having an inner wall, an outer wall and a porous element for separating the inner and outer walls; a series of spaced hollow hoops connected by one or more sets of hollow tubes (manifolds); one or more nozzles connected to and in communication with at least one of the hollow hoops; a source of fluid under pressure in communication with at least one of the hollow hoops; and a suction pump for withdrawing fluid from the interior of the curtain assembly.

  8. THE RETURN OF THE ANDROMEDIDS METEOR SHOWER

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegert, Paul A.; Brown, Peter G.; Weryk, Robert J.; Wong, Daniel K.

    2013-03-15

    back five Lyapunov times (which is only 25 yr for the highly perturbed parent). As a result, the stream evolution is somewhat uncertain and some discrepancy with the observations is to be expected: the radiant is 8 Degree-Sign off, the inclination 3 Degree-Sign higher, and the peak of the shower occurs a day earlier than predicted. Predictions are made regarding other appearances of the shower in the years 2000-2047 based on our numerical model. We note that the details of the 2011 return can, in principle, be used to better constrain the orbit of 3D/Biela prior to the comets first recorded return in 1772 and we address this issue briefly as well.

  9. RECENT ENHANCEMENTS TO THE DIETARY EXPOSURE POTENTIAL MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation describes recent enhancements & new applications of the Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM), a model developed to assist in design & interpretation of dietary exposure measurements. Model is an interactive system that provides dietary exposure estimates using dat...

  10. Modeling and Predicting Pesticide Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models provide a means for representing a real system in an understandable way. They take many forms, beginning with conceptual models that explain the way a system works, such as delineation of all the factors and parameters of how a pesticide particle moves in the air after a s...

  11. HYDROCARBON SPILL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrocarbon spills impact drinking water supplies at down gradient locations. onventional finite difference and finite element models of multiphase, multicomponent flow have extreme requirements for both computer time and site data. ite data and the intent of the modeling often d...

  12. New survey of meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.

    2014-07-01

    In order to confirm the many showers listed in the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers in need of verification, a 60-camera three-station video surveillance of the night sky is being conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area in California (http://cams.seti.org), called the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) project [1]. Now, the first 2.5 years of observations were reduced and analyzed, comprised of 112,024 meteoroid trajectories from mostly +4 to -2 magnitude meteors. The trajectories were calculated with a mean precision of 0.24° in radiant direction and 2 % in speed. An interactive tool was developed to study the distribution of meteoroid radiant and speed after correction for Earth's motion around the Sun. A report was submitted for publication in Icarus [2]. Our team assigned 30,801 meteors to 320 showers (27.5 %). This included 72 established showers and 64 known but now confirmed showers. An additional 24 previously reported showers were tentatively detected, but need further study. This study adds 105 potential new showers and 23 newly identified components of established showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers. Another 32 showers previously reported based all or in part on CAMS data were detected again. The Northern and Southern Taurids, especially, are found to be composed of a series of individual streams. In this presentation, I will summarize statistical aspects of these shower detections and their relation to parent body near-Earth objects to shed light on the role of mostly dormant comets in contributing dust to the inner solar system.

  13. EPA EXPOSURE MODELS LIBRARY AND INTEGRATED MODEL EVALUATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The third edition of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) EML/IMES (Exposure Models Library and Integrated Model Evaluation System) on CD-ROM is now available. The purpose of the disc is to provide a compact and efficient means to distribute exposure models, documentat...

  14. COMET SHOWERS ARE NOT INDUCED BY INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.E.

    1985-11-01

    Encounters with interstellar clouds (IC) have been proposed by Rampino and Stothers as a cause of quasi-periodic intense comet showers leading to earth impacts, in order to explain the periodicity in marine mass extinctions found by Raup and Sepkoski. The model was described further, criticized and defended. The debate has centered on the question of whether the scale height of the clouds is small enough (in comparison to the amplitude of the oscillation of the solar system about the plane of the Galaxy) to produce a modulation in the rate of encounters. We wish to point out another serious, we believe fatal, defect in this model - the tidal fields of ICs are not strong enough to produce intense comet showers leading to earth impacts by bringing comets of the postulated inner Oort cloud into earth crossing orbits, except possibly during very rare encounters with very dense clouds. We will show that encounters with abundant clouds of low density cannot produce comet showers; cloud density N > 10{sup 3} atoms cm{sup -3} is needed to produce an intense comet shower leading to earth impacts. Furthermore, the tidal field of a dense cloud during a distant encounter is too weak to produce such showers. As a consequence, comet showers induced by ICs will be far less frequent than showers caused by passing stars. This conclusion is independent of assumptions about the radial distribution of comets in the inner Oort cloud.

  15. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  16. DEVELOPING MEANINGFUL COHORTS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes numerous statistical analyses focused on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), used by many exposure modelers as the basis for data on what people do and where they spend their time. In doing so, modelers ...

  17. The muon content of gamma-ray showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a calculation of the expected number of muons in gamma ray initiated and cosmic ray initiated air showers using a realistic model of hadronic collisions in an effort to understand the available experimental results and to assess the feasibility of using the muon content of showers as a veto to reject cosmic ray initiated showers in ultra-high energy gamma ray astronomy are reported. The possibility of observing very-high energy gamma-ray sources by detecting narrow angle anisotropies in the high energy muon background radiation are considered.

  18. POPULATION-BASED EXPOSURE MODELING FOR AIR POLLUTANTS AT EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has been developing, applying, and evaluating population-based exposure models to improve our understanding of the variability in personal exposure to air pollutants. Estimates of population variability are needed for E...

  19. Modeling Human Exposure to Indoor Contaminants: External Source to Body Tissues.

    PubMed

    Webster, Eva M; Qian, Hua; Mackay, Donald; Christensen, Rebecca D; Tietjen, Britta; Zaleski, Rosemary

    2016-08-16

    Information on human indoor exposure is necessary to assess the potential risk to individuals from many chemicals of interest. Dynamic indoor and human physicologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of the distribution of nonionizing, organic chemical concentrations in indoor environments resulting in delivered tissue doses are developed, described and tested. The Indoor model successfully reproduced independently measured, reported time-dependent air concentrations of chloroform released during showering and of 2-butyoxyethanol following use of a volatile surface cleaner. The Indoor model predictions were also comparable to those from a higher tier consumer model (ConsExpo 4.1) for the surface cleaner scenario. The PBPK model successful reproduced observed chloroform exhaled air concentrations resulting from an inhalation exposure. Fugacity based modeling provided a seamless description of the partitioning, fluxes, accumulation and release of the chemical in indoor media and tissues of the exposed subject. This has the potential to assist in health risk assessments, provided that appropriate physical/chemical property, usage characteristics, and toxicological information are available. PMID:27434742

  20. INHALATION EXPOSURE AND INTAKE DOSE MODEL IMPROVEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation highlights recent human exposure model improvements and products developed by the EMRB in coordination with scientists in the OAQPS and provides insight into how these products are used by the OAQPS in its regulatory process. Besides providing a status report of...

  1. MEXAMS (METALS EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEXAMS, the Metals Exposure Analysis Modeling System, provides an enhanced capability for assessing the impact of priority pollutant metals on aquatic systems. It allows the user to consider the complex chemistry affecting the behavior of metals in conjunction with the transport ...

  2. Various meteor scenes III: Recurrent showers and some minor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseki, Masahiro

    2015-02-01

    Meteor activities vary widely from year to year. We study here the June Bootids (JBO), τ-Herculids (TAH), and Andromedids (AND) which are basic examples for the recurrent nature of meteor showers. Half a century has passed since well-known photographic or radar meteor showers were detected. It is necessary to note that some `established' IAU showers are historical ones and we cannot always see them. We find the historical trace of AND by video and four distinct activities in the area of JBC (=JBO+TAH). Meteor showers look different by different observational techniques. Many minor showers in the IAU list have been detected only by observations stored for many days and many years; visual observations in a single night cannot perceive them naturally. We studied the φ-Piscids (PPS), χ-Taurids (CTA), γ-Ursae Minorids (GUM), η-Pegasids (ETP), and α-Sextantids (ASX) as examples and found they have not been recognized by visual observers at all. It is noteworthy that some of them have possible identifications in the IAU list and in preceding observations or reports. The difference in search methods makes the situations much more complicated. The five minor showers we studied here do not have confirmations by all observational techniques. Geobased search (radiant point, time of the observation, and possibly geocentric velocity) may overlook showers which are dispersed in radiant position. A search using the D-criterion is dependent on the presumption of a spherical distribution in the orbital space and may not represent the real distribution, or may overestimate the accuracy of the observations and lead to subdividing the showers into several parts. We must use these search methods properly.

  3. Modeling thermal protection outfits for fire exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guowen

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed that successfully predicts heat transfer through thermally protective clothing materials and garments exposed to intense heat. The model considers the effect of fire exposure to the thermophysical properties of materials as well as the air layers between the clothing material and skin surface. These experiments involved characterizing the flash fire surrounding the manikin by measuring the temperature of the flame above each thermal sensor in the manikin surface. An estimation method is used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient for each thermal sensor in a 4 second exposure to an average heat flux of 2.00cal/cm2sec. A parameter estimation method was used to estimate heat induced change in fabric thermophysical properties. The skin-clothe air gap distribution of different garments was determined using three-dimensional body scanning technology. Multi-layer skin model and a burn prediction method were used to predict second and third degree burns. The integrated generalized model developed was validated using the "Pyroman" Thermal Protective Clothing Analysis System with Kevlar/PBIRTM and NomexRTMIIIA coverall garments with different configuration and exposure time. A parametric study conducted using this numerical model indicated the influencing parameters on garment thermal protective performance in terms of skin burn damage subjected to 4 second flash fire exposure. The importance of these parameters is analyzed and distinguished. These parameters includes fabric thermophysical properties, PyromanRTM chamber flash fire characteristics, garment shrinkage and fit factors, as well as garment initial and test ambient temperature. Different skin models and their influence on burn prediction were also investigated using this model.

  4. Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    We apply a simulation model to explore the effect of a house's multicompartment character on a nonsmoker's inhalation exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). The model tracks the minute-by-minute movement of people and pollutants among multiple zones of a residence and generates SHS pollutant profiles for each room in response to room-specific smoking patterns. In applying the model, we consider SHS emissions of airborne particles, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in two hypothetical houses, one with a typical four-room layout and one dominated by a single large space. We use scripted patterns of room-to-room occupant movement and a cohort of 5000 activity patterns sampled from a US nationwide survey. The results for scripted and cohort simulation trials indicate that the multicompartment nature of homes, manifested as inter-room differences in pollutant levels and the movement of people among zones, can cause substantial variation in nonsmoker SHS exposure.

  5. Exposure Modeling of Residential Air Exchange Rates for NEXUS Participants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improv...

  6. Exposure Modeling of Residential Air Exchange Rates for NEXUS Participants.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improv...

  7. Electromagnetic Showers at High Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loos, J. S.; Dawson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the properties of electromagnetic showers observed in an experimental study are illustrated. Experimental data and results from quantum electrodynamics are discussed. Data and theory are compared using computer simulation. (BB)

  8. Particles Production in Extensive Air Showers: GEANT4 vs CORSIKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, M. S.; Watts, J. W.; Christl, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Air shower simulations are essential tools for the interpretation of the Extensive Air Shower (EAS) measurements. The reliability of these codes is evaluated by comparisons with equivalent simulation calculations, and with experimental data (when available). In this work, we present GEANT4 calculations of particles production in EAS induced by primary protons and Iron in the PeV (1015 eV) energy range. The calculations, using different hadronic models, are compared with the results from the well-known air shower simulation code CORSIKA, and the results of this comparison will be discussed. Air shower simulations are essential tools for the interpretation of the Extensive Air Shower (EAS) measurements. The reliability of these codes is evaluated by comparisons with equivalent simulation calculations, and with experimental data (when available). In this work, we present GEANT4 calculations of particles production in EAS induced by primary protons and Iron in the PeV (1015 eV) energy range. The calculations, using different hadronic models, are compared with the results from the well-known air shower simulation code CORSIKA, and the results of this comparison will be discussed. This work is supported by the NASA Postdoctoral Program administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities.

  9. Reconstructing Exposures from Biomarkers using Exposure-Pharmacokinetic Modeling - A Case Study with Carbaryl

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sources of uncertainty involved in exposure reconstruction for a short half-life chemical, carbaryl, were characterized using the Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System (CARES), an exposure model, and a human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. CARES was...

  10. Exposure Space: Integrating Exposure Data and Modeling with Toxicity Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent advances have been made in high-throughput (HTP) toxicity testing, e.g. from ToxCast, which will ultimately be combined with HTP predictions of exposure potential to support next-generation chemical safety assessment. Rapid exposure methods are essential in selecting chemi...

  11. POPULATION EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER: A COMPARISON OF EXPOSURE MODEL PREDICTIONS AND MEASUREMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is currently developing an integrated human exposure source-to-dose modeling system (HES2D). This modeling system will incorporate models that use a probabilistic approach to predict population exposures to environmental ...

  12. Precise determination of muon and electromagnetic shower contents from a shower universality property

    SciTech Connect

    Yushkov, A.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; D'Urso, D.; Valore, L.; Guarino, F.

    2010-06-15

    We consider two new aspects of extensive air shower development universality allowing to make an accurate estimation of muon and electromagnetic (EM) shower contents in two independent ways. In the first case, to get the muon (or EM) signal in water Cherenkov tanks or in scintillator detectors, it is enough to know the vertical depth of the shower maximum X{sub max}{sup v} and the total signal in the ground detector. In the second case, the EM signal can be calculated from the primary particle energy and the zenith angle. In both cases, the parametrizations of muon and EM signals are almost independent on the primary particle nature, energy and zenith angle. Implications of the considered properties for mass composition and hadronic interaction studies are briefly discussed. The present study is performed on 28 000 proton, oxygen, and iron showers, generated with CORSIKA 6.735 for the E{sup -1} spectrum in the energy range lg (E/eV)=18.5-20 and uniformly distributed in cos{sup 2{theta}} in the zenith angle interval {theta}=0 deg. - 65 deg. for QGSJET II/Fluka interaction models.

  13. The Mbale meteorite shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Betlem, Hans; Betlem, Jan; Barifaijo, Erasmus; Schluter, Thomas; Hampton, Craig; Laubenstien, Matthias; Kunz, Joachim; Heusser, Gerd

    1994-01-01

    On 1992 August 14 at 12:40 UTC, an ordinary chondrite of type L5/6 entered the atmosphere over Mbale, Uganda, broke up, and caused a strewn field of size 3 x 7 km. Shortly after the fall, an expedition gathered eye witness accounts and located the position of 48 impacts of masses between 0.19 and 27.4 kg. Short-lived radionuclide data were measured for two specimens, one of which was only 12 days after the fall. Subsequent recoveries of fragements has resulted in a total of 863 mass estimates by 1993 October. The surfaces of all fragments contain fusion crust. The meteorite shower caused some minor inconveniences. Most remarkably, a young boy was hit on the head by a small specimen. The data interpreted as to indicate that the meteorite had an initial mass between 400-1000 kg (most likely approximately 1000 kg) and approached Mbale from AZ = 185 +/- 15, H = 55 +/- 15, and V(sub infinity) = 13.5 +/- 1.5/s. Orbital elements are given. Fragmentation of the initial mass started probably above 25 km altitude, but the final catastrophic breakup occurred at an altitude of 10-14 km. An estimated 190 +/- 40 kg reached the Earth's surface minutes after the final breakup of which 150 kg of material has been recovered.

  14. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODELING: A STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state-of-the-art review of exposure assessment modeling describes currently available models that simulate the environmental fate of substances, the exposure to such substances, and the effects of such exposure. The focus is first on exposure and effects, where relatively lit...

  15. Operation of the computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure has been developed to extend atomic oxygen modeling capability to include shadowing and reflections. The model uses average exposure conditions established by the direct exposure model and extends the application of these conditions to treat surfaces of arbitrary shape and orientation.

  16. Comet C/1917 F1 (Mellish) meteor shower complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdukova, M.; Neslusan, L.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we mapped the whole meteor complex of the long-period comet C/1917 F1 (Mellish), using a procedure of proven reliability when investigating the 96P/Machholz and 2003 EH1 streams (Neslusan et al., 2013a; 2013b). For five perihelion passages of the comet C/1917 F1 in the past, we modeled associated theoretical streams, each consisting of 10000 test particles, and followed their dynamical evolution until the present. Subsequently, we analyzed the orbital characteristics of the parts of a stream that approach the Earth's orbit. These particles were used to predict the corresponding meteor showers. The predicted showers were searched for in the databases of actually observed meteors. According to our modeling, the meteoroid stream of the comet Mellish can be split into 4 filaments (F1 to F4), with 4 distinct radiant areas. The most numerous shower that originates in the comet nucleus of C/1917 F1 corresponds to theoretical filament F3. The meteoroids of this filament approach to the Earth's orbit relatively soon after their ejection from the nucleus. We identified this filament as the December Monocerotids (No. 19 in the IAU MDC list of the established showers). In the phase space of orbital elements, the shower occurs in the vicinity of another established shower, 250 November Orionids. However, shower No. 250 is obviously not related to C/1917 F1 since no single theoretical particle, in all five models, is in an orbit similar to the mean orbit of this shower. Filament F1 might be identified to 348 April rho-Cygnids, the meteoroid stream that was recently discovered by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (Brown et al., 2010). In our models, this filament is numerous and, hence, the shower is well predicted. The particles of filament F1 and, therefore, the real April rho-Cygnids originating in C/1917 F1 can approach the Earth's orbit and collide with our planet not earlier than about 20 millennia after their release from the parent-comet nucleus. Despite this

  17. DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN, PART 3: MODELLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was used to model dietary exposure of young children. Parameters included pesticide residue on food before handling, surface pesticide loading, transfer efficiencies and children's activity patterns. Three components of dietary pesticide exposure were includ...

  18. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    SHEDS-Pesticides (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Pesticides) is a physically-based stochastic model developed to quantify exposure and dose of humans to multimedia, multipathway pollutants. Probabilistic inputs are combined in physical/mechanistic algorit...

  19. MULTIMEDIA CONTAMINANT FATE, TRANSPORT, AND EXPOSURE MODEL (MMSOILS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multimedia Contaminant Fate, Transport, and Exposure Model (MMSOILS) estimates the human exposure and health risk associated with releases of contamination from hazardous waste sites. The methodology consists of a multimedia model that addresses the transport of a chemical in...

  20. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS): USER MANUAL AND SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System, first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals - pesticides, ...

  1. Shoot-the-Shower: real-time observations for astroparticle physics using the FRAM robotic telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebr, J.; Janeček, P.; Prouza, M.; Kubánek, P.; Jelínek, M.; Mašek, M.; Ebrová, I.; Černý, J.

    2014-12-01

    The FRAM telescope operates as an atmospheric monitoring device for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. In addition to regular photometric observations aimed to determine the overall aerosol content and characteristic in the atmosphere above the Observatory, FRAM is also a part of the rapid monitoring program. When a ultra-high energy shower is detected by the fluorescence telescopes of the Observatory, the FRAM telescope takes a series of images to measure atmospheric transparency along the trajectory of the shower. These observations are critical for the identification of showers with anomalous profiles. If such showers were clearly observed, they can significantly constrain the hadronic interaction models at very high energies.

  2. Modeling Impaired Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2016-03-01

    Radiation impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of several factors associated with cognitive detriments after treatment of brain cancers in children and adults with radiation therapy. Mouse models have been used to study radiation-induced changes in neurogenesis, however the models are limited in the number of doses, dose fractions, age and time after exposure conditions that have been studied. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to represent the time, age and dose-dependent changes to several cell populations participating in neurogenesis as reported in mouse experiments exposed to low-LET radiation. We considered four compartments to model hippocampal neurogenesis and, consequently, the effects of radiation treatment in altering neurogenesis: (1) neural stem cells (NSCs), (2) neuronal progenitor cells or neuroblasts (NB), (3) immature neurons (ImN) and (4) glioblasts (GB). Because neurogenesis is decreasing with increasing mouse age, a description of the age-related dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis is considered in the model, which is shown to be an important factor in comparisons to experimental data. A key feature of the model is the description of negative feedback regulation on early and late neuronal proliferation after radiation exposure. The model is augmented with parametric descriptions of the dose and time after irradiation dependences of activation of microglial cells and a possible shift of NSC proliferation from neurogenesis to gliogenesis reported at higher doses (∼10 Gy). Predictions for dose-fractionation regimes and for different mouse ages, and prospects for future work are then discussed. PMID:26943452

  3. The maximum depth of shower with E sub 0 larger than 10(17) eV on average characteristics of EAS different components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdin, M. I.; Glushkov, A. V.; Efimov, N. N.; Makarov, I. T.; Dedenko, L. G.

    1985-01-01

    The extensive air shower (EAS) development model independent method of the determination of a maximum depth of shower (X sub m) is considered. X sub m values obtained on various EAS parameters are in a good agreement.

  4. 1997 Leonid Shower From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Nugent, David; Murthy, Jayant; Tedesco, Ed; DeVincenzi, Donal L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In November 1997, the Midcourse Space Experiment satellite (MSX) was deployed to observe the Leonid shower from space. The shower lived up to expectations, with abundant bright fireballs. Twenty-nine meteors were detected by a wide-angle, visible wavelength, camera near the limb of the Earth in a 48-minute interval, and three meteors by the narrow field camera. This amounts to a meteoroid influx of 5.5 +/- 0.6 10(exp -5)/sq km hr for masses greater than 0.3 gram. The limiting magnitude for limb observations of Leonid meteors was measured at M(sub v) = -1.5 magn The Leonid shower magnitude population index was 1.6 +/- 0.2 down to M(sub v) = -7 magn., with no sign of an upper mass cut-off.

  5. 1997 Leonid Shower from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Nugent, David; Tedesco, Ed; Murthy, Jayant

    In November 1997, the Midcourse Space Experiment satellite (MSX) was deployed to observe the Leonid shower from space. The shower lived up to expectations, with abundant bright fireballs. Twenty-nine meteors were detected by a wide-angle, visible wavelength, camera near the limb of the Earth in a 48-minute interval, and three meteors by the narrow field camera. This amounts to a meteoroid influx of 5.5 +/- 0.6 10^-5 km^-2 hr^-1 for masses > 0.3 gram. The limiting magnitude for limb observations of Leonid meteors was measured at M_v = -1.5 magn. The Leonid shower magnitude population index was 1.6 +/- 0.2 down to M_v = -7 magn., with no sign of an upper mass cut-off.

  6. 49 CFR 228.321 - Showering facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and cold running potable water must be provided for showering purposes. The water supplied to a shower... provided with hot and cold water feeding a common discharge line. (3) Unless otherwise provided by...

  7. The 2014 May Camelopardalid Meteor Shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Bill; Moser, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    On May 24, 2014 Earth will encounter multiple streams of debris laid down by Comet 209P LINEAR. This will likely produce a new meteor shower, never before seen. Rates predicted to be from 100 to 1000 meteors per hour between 2 and 4 AM EDT, so we are dealing with a meteor outburst, potentially a storm. Peak rate of 200 per hour best current estimate. Difficult to calibrate models due to lack of past observations. Models indicate mm size particles in stream, so potential risk to Earth orbiting spacecraft.

  8. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  13. A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

  14. Summary of the 2006 Hadronic Shower Simulation Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Laurie S.

    2007-03-19

    The 2006 Hadronic Shower Simulation Workshop, held September 6-8, 2006 at Fermi National Laboratory brought together an international assembly of experts in the field of hadronic shower development. The overall goal was to present the current understanding of the physics of hadronic showers, and to study examples of how this is measured in particle-physics calorimetry. The modeling of such events is critical, and the major Monte Carlo codes, FLUKA, GEANT, MARS, MCNPX, and PHTS were represented at the workshop. A wide range of physics, much of which is used by the simulation codes was also discussed, ranging from the hadronic CEM, LAQGSM, and DTUJET models, down to low energy neutronics capabilities. Special purpose codes and methodologies used for specific applications such as muon and neutrino physics were also shown. The results of a code benchmarking exercises were presented and extensively discussed. This paper summarizes the key topics presented in the workshop.

  15. SUMMARY OF THE 2006 HADRONIC SHOWER SIMULATION WORKSHOP

    SciTech Connect

    WATERS, LAURIE S.

    2007-01-19

    The 2006 Hadronic Shower Simulation Workshop, held September 6-8, 2006 at Fermi National Laboratory brought together an international assembly of experts in the field of hadronic shower development. The overall goal was to present the current understanding of the physics of hadronic showers, and to study examples of how this is measured in particle-physics calorimetry. The modeling of such events is critical, and the major Monte Carlo codes, FLUKA, GEANT, MARS, MCNPX, and PHTS were represented at the workshop. A wide range of physics, much of which is used by the simulation codes was also discussed, ranging from the hadronic CEM, LAQGSM, and DTUJET models, down to low energy neutronics capabilities. Special purpose codes and methodologies used for specific applications such as muon and neutrino physics were also shown. The results of a code benchmarking exercises were presented and extensively discussed. This paper summarizes the key topics presented in the workshop.

  16. A NEW METHOD OF LONGITUDINAL DIARY ASSEMBLY FOR EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many stochastic human exposure models require the construction of longitudinal time-activity diaries to evaluate the time sequence of concentrations encountered, and hence, the pollutant exposure for the simulated individuals. However, most of the available data on human activiti...

  17. A PROBABILISTIC MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR PREDICTING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO BENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is modifying their probabilistic Stochastic Human Exposure Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model to assess aggregate exposures to air toxics. Air toxics include urban Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) such as benzene from mobile sources, part...

  18. Evaluating Rapid Models for High-Throughput Exposure Forecasting (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High throughput exposure screening models can provide quantitative predictions for thousands of chemicals; however these predictions must be systematically evaluated for predictive ability. Without the capability to make quantitative, albeit uncertain, forecasts of exposure, the ...

  19. Results on reuse of reclaimed shower water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Pierson, Duane L.; Reysa, Richard P.; Irbe, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Water Recovery System that has been used in conjunction with a microgravity whole body shower to test a closed loop shower water reclamation system applicable to the NASA Space Station employs a Thermoelectric Integrated Hollow Fiber Membrane Evaporation Subsystem. Attention is given to the suitability of a Space Shuttle soap for such crew showers, the effects of shower water on the entire system, and the purification qualities of the recovered water. The chemical pretreatment of the shower water for microorganism control involved activated carbon, mixed ion exchange resin beds, and iodine bactericide dispensing units. The water was recycled five times, demonstrating the feasibility of reuse.

  20. HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING: CONCEPTS, METHODS, AND TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding human exposure is critical when estimating the occurrence of deleterious effects that could follow contact with environmental contaminants. For many pollutants, the intensity, duration, frequency, route, and timing of exposure is highly variable, particularly whe...

  1. CAMS confirmation of previously reported meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Holman, D.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteor shower survey. They manifest as meteoroids arriving at Earth from a similar direction and orbit, after removing the daily radiant drift due to Earth's motion around the Sun. These showers do exist and, therefore, can be moved to the IAU List of Established Meteor Showers. This adds to 31 previously confirmed showers from CAMS data. For each shower, finding charts are presented based on 230,000 meteors observed up to March of 2015, calculated by re-projecting the drift-corrected Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates into more familiar equatorial coordinates. Showers that are not detected, but should have, and duplicate showers that project to the same Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates, are recommended for removal from the Working List.

  2. Electromagnetic Shower Reconstruction in Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. S.

    2006-04-01

    Atmospheric neutrino data from the MACRO, Soudan II and Super-Kamiokande experiments are consistent with the hypothesis of νμ → ντ oscillations. The OPERA experiment aims to prove definitively this hypothesis with the direct observation of ντ neutrinos in the νμ beam produced at CERN (CNGS). The apparatus, in construction at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, is equipped with electronic detectors and a sensitive target. The target is highly segmented in units, bricks, composed of alternate nuclear emulsion plates and lead sheets. An algorithm to reconstruct electromagnetic showers in a brick was developed. The algorithm was optimized using experimental data from 1, 3 and 6 GeV electron exposures and cross-checked with detailed Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, a neural network was used as electron/pion separator.

  3. Atmospheric effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna García, R.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, A.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-09-01

    Atmospheric parameters, such as pressure (P), temperature (T) and density (ρ∝P/T), affect the development of extensive air showers initiated by energetic cosmic rays. We have studied the impact of atmospheric variations on extensive air showers by means of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The rate of events shows a ˜10% seasonal modulation and ˜2% diurnal one. We find that the observed behaviour is explained by a model including the effects associated with the variations of P and ρ. The former affects the longitudinal development of air showers while the latter influences the Molière radius and hence the lateral distribution of the shower particles. The model is validated with full simulations of extensive air showers using atmospheric profiles measured at the site of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A DIETARY EXPOSURE POTENTIAL MODEL FOR EVALUATING DIETARY EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM) is a computer-based model developed for estimating dietary exposure to chemical residues in food. The DEPM is based on food consumption data from the 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) administered by the United States ...

  5. Extraction of exposure modeling parameters of thick resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chi; Du, Jinglei; Liu, Shijie; Duan, Xi; Luo, Boliang; Zhu, Jianhua; Guo, Yongkang; Du, Chunlei

    2004-12-01

    Experimental and theoretical analysis indicates that many nonlinear factors existing in the exposure process of thick resist can remarkably affect the PAC concentration distribution in the resist. So the effects should be fully considered in the exposure model of thick resist, and exposure parameters should not be treated as constants because there exists certain relationship between the parameters and resist thickness. In this paper, an enhanced Dill model for the exposure process of thick resist is presented, and the experimental setup for measuring exposure parameters of thick resist is developed. We measure the intensity transmittance curve of thick resist AZ4562 under different processing conditions, and extract the corresponding exposure parameters based on the experiment results and the calculations from the beam propagation matrix of the resist films. With these modified modeling parameters and enhanced Dill model, simulation of thick-resist exposure process can be effectively developed in the future.

  6. Meteor Shower Forecast Improvements from a Survey of All-Sky Network Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, Althea V.; Sugar, Glenn; Brown, Peter G.; Cooke, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroid impacts are capable of damaging spacecraft and potentially ending missions. In order to help spacecraft programs mitigate these risks, NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) monitors and predicts meteoroid activity. Temporal variations in near-Earth space are described by the MEO's annual meteor shower forecast, which is based on both past shower activity and model predictions. The MEO and the University of Western Ontario operate sister networks of all-sky meteor cameras. These networks have been in operation for more than 7 years and have computed more than 20,000 meteor orbits. Using these data, we conduct a survey of meteor shower activity in the "fireball" size regime using DBSCAN. For each shower detected in our survey, we compute the date of peak activity and characterize the growth and decay of the shower's activity before and after the peak. These parameters are then incorporated into the annual forecast for an improved treatment of annual activity.

  7. Exposure-Based Cat Modeling, Available data, Advantages, & Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Gero; Hosoe, Taro; Schrah, Mike; Saito, Keiko

    2010-05-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of exposure data for cat-modeling and considers concepts of scale as well as the completeness of data and data scoring using field/model examples. Catastrophe modeling based on exposure data has been considered the panacea for insurance-related cat modeling since the late 1980's. Reasons for this include: • The ability to extend risk modeling to consider data beyond historical losses, • Usability across many relevant scales, • Flexibility in addressing complex structures and policy conditions, and • Ability to assess dependence of risk results on exposure-attributes and exposure-modifiers, such as lines of business, occupancy types, and mitigation features, at any given scale. In order to calculate related risk, monetary exposure is correlated to vulnerabilities that have been calibrated with historical results, plausibility concepts, and/or physical modeling. While exposure based modeling is widely adopted, we also need to be aware of its limitations which include: • Boundaries in our understanding of the distribution of exposure, • Spatial interdependence of exposure patterns and the time-dependence of exposure, • Incomplete availability of loss information to calibrate relevant exposure attributes/structure with related vulnerabilities and losses, • The scale-dependence of vulnerability, • Potential for missing or incomplete communication of assumptions made during model calibration, • Inefficiencies in the aggregation or disaggregation of vulnerabilities, and • Factors which can influence losses other than exposure, vulnerability, and hazard. Although we might assume that the higher the resolution the better, regional model calibration is often limited to lower than street level resolution with higher resolution being achieved by disaggregating results using topographic/roughness features with often loosely constrained and/or varying effects on losses. This suggests that higher accuracy

  8. Composition of primary cosmic rays near the bend from a study of hadrons in air showers at sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mincer, A. I.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Goodman, J. A.; Tonwar, S. C.; Yodh, G. B.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Berley, D.

    1985-01-01

    Data on hadrons in air showers arriving at sea level were studied to find sensitivity to primary cosmic ray composition. The rate of showers which satisfy minimum shower density and hadron energy requirements as well as the rate of showers containing hadrons delayed with respect to the electron shower front are compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The data on the rate of total triggers and delayed hadrons are compared to predicted rates for two models of primary composition. The data are consistent with models which require an increasing heavy nuclei fraction near 10 to the 15th power eV. The spectra which are consistent with the observed rate are also compared to the observed shower size spectrum at sea level and mountain level.

  9. Monte Carlo Shower Counter Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, H. David

    1991-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments related to the Monte Carlo shower counter studies are summarized. A tape of the VMS version of the GEANT software was obtained and installed on the central computer at Gallaudet University. Due to difficulties encountered in updating this VMS version, a decision was made to switch to the UNIX version of the package. This version was installed and used to generate the set of data files currently accessed by various analysis programs. The GEANT software was used to write files of data for positron and proton showers. Showers were simulated for a detector consisting of 50 alternating layers of lead and scintillator. Each file consisted of 1000 events at each of the following energies: 0.1, 0.5, 2.0, 10, 44, and 200 GeV. Data analysis activities related to clustering, chi square, and likelihood analyses are summarized. Source code for the GEANT user subprograms and data analysis programs are provided along with example data plots.

  10. A possible new shower on Eridanus-Orion border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šegon, Damir; Gural, Peter; Andreić, Željko; Vida, Denis; Skokić, Ivica; Novoselnik, Filip; Gržinić, Luciano

    2014-02-01

    Three showers on the border between constellations of Eridanus and Orion were found during extensive search for new showers in SonotaCo and CMN video meteor orbit databases. Our results suggest that two of these three showers represent  Eridanids shower (337 NUE), while third one represents separate possible new shower which has been named 6 Orionids (552 PSO).

  11. Modelling anxiety disorders following chemical exposures.

    PubMed

    Adamec, R

    1994-01-01

    The effects of kindling and inverse benzodiazepine receptor agonist beta-carbolines on animal models of anxiety are briefly reviewed in relation to affective disorder associated with chemical exposure. Recent experimental results are described. In the present study, cats were given the inverse benzodiazepine receptor agonist, FG-7142, a powerful anxiogenic compound in humans and animals. Neural transmission in pathways involved in defensive behavior in the cat was monitored using evoked potential techniques. Change in these pathways was related to behavioral changes induced by the drug. It was found that a single dose of FG-7142 lastingly increased defensive response to rodents for at least 40 days after drug administration. Behavioral change was specific to defensive response, since approach-attack behavior remained unchanged, replicating previous studies. The benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, Flumazenil, reversed the increase in defensiveness in a drug-dependent manner, replicating previous findings. Increased defensiveness was paralleled by a delayed onset potentiation of neural transmission between the amygdala and the medial hypothalamus of the left hemisphere. Potentiation in the left hemisphere was transient, decaying between 6 and 12 days after the drug. There was a longer lasting potentiation (LTP) of activity evoked in the left and right amygdalo-periacqueductal gray pathways and in the right amygdalo-medial hypothalamic pathway. Potentiation in these pathways appeared at the time of behavioral change. Potentiation of the right amygdalo-periacqueductal gray and right amygdalo-medial hypothalamic pathways persisted until the end of the experiment. In contrast, potentiation of the left amygdalo-periacqueductal gray pathway faded by 40 days after the drug. Flumazenil decreased potentiation ony in the right amygdalo-periacqueductal gray pathway. These data strongly suggest that lasting affective change is mediated by lasting changes in particular efferents

  12. Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas. When conducting a total gut rehab of a structure or constructing a new home, best practice installation and detailing for effective waterproofing are critically important at bathtub and shower assemblies. Water management issues in a structure may go unrecognized for long periods, so that when they are finally observed, the damage from long-term water exposure is extensive. A gut rehab is often undertaken when a home has experienced a natural disaster or when the homeowners are interested in converting an old, high-energy-use building into a high-quality, efficient structure that meets or exceeds one of the national energy standards, such as ENERGY STAR or LEED for homes. During a gut rehab, bath areas need to be replaced with diligent attention to detail. Employing effective water management practices in the installation and detailing of tub and shower assemblies will minimize or eliminate water issues within the building cavities and on the finished surfaces. A residential tub-and-shower surround or shower-stall assembly is designed to handle a high volume of water - 2.5 gallons per minute, with multiple baths occurring during a typical day. Transitions between dissimilar materials and connections between multiple planes must be installed with care to avoid creating a pathway for water to enter the building assemblies. Due to the high volume of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure, a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. At each stage of construction

  13. An overview of human exposure modeling activities at the USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Furtaw, E J

    2001-06-01

    The computational modeling of human exposure to environmental pollutants is one of the primary activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). Assessment of human exposures is a critical part of the overall risk assessment paradigm. In exposure assessment, we analyze the source-to-dose sequence of processes, in which pollutants are released from sources into the environment, where they may move through multiple environmental media, and to human receptors via multiple pathways. Exposure occurs at the environment-human interface, where pollutants are contacted in the course of human activities. Exposure may result in a dose, by which chemicals enter the body through multiple portals of entry, primarily inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Within the body, absorbed pollutants are distributed to, metabolized within, and eliminated from various organs and tissues, where they may cause toxicologic responses or adverse health effects. The NERL's modeling efforts are directed at improving our understanding of this sequence of processes, by characterizing the various factors influencing exposures and dose, and their associated variabilities and uncertainties. Modeling at the NERL is one of three essential programmatic elements, along with measurements and methods development. These are pursued interactively to advance our understanding of exposure-related processes. Exposure models are developed and run using the best currently available measurement data to simulate and predict population exposure and dose distributions, and to identify the most important factors and their variabilities and uncertainties. This knowledge is then used to guide the development of improved methods and measurements needed to obtain better data to improve the assessment and reduce critical uncertainties. These models and measurement results are tools that can be used in risk assessments and in risk management decisions in order

  14. MODELING CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) EXPOSURES WITHIN MICROENVIRONMENTS GIVEN PERSONAL EXPOSURE MONITORING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collected at ambient fixed sites may not adequately reflect personal CO exposures, as they most often miss exposures resulting from CO emissions from sources in the immediate physical surroundings of individuals, such as within automobiles. he SHAPE model was proposed to acc...

  15. EVALUATION OF OZONE EXPOSURE INDICES IN EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELING (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In exposure-response modeling, a major concern is the numerical definition of exposure in relating crop loss to O3, yet few indices have been considered. The paper addresses research in which plant growth was regressed for soybean, wheat, cotton, corn, and sorghum against 613 num...

  16. The IAU Meteor Shower Nomenclature Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The International Astronomical Union at its 2006 General Assembly in Prague has adopted a set of rules for meteor shower nomenclature, a working list with designated names (with IAU numbers and three-letter codes), and established a Task Group for Meteor Shower Nomenclature in Commission 22 (Meteors and Interplanetary Dust) to help define which meteor showers exist from well defined groups of meteoroids from a single parent body.

  17. Fast Shower Simulation in the ATLAS Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Barberio, E.; Boudreau, J.; Butler, B.; Cheung, S.L.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Di Simone, A.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Gallas, M.V.; Glazov, A.; Marshall, Z.; Mueller, J.; Placakyte, R.; Rimoldi, A.; Savard, P.; Tsulaia, V.; Waugh, A.; Young, C.C.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime. In the fast shower parameterisation technique, a parameterization is tuned to single electrons and used later by simulation. In the frozen shower technique, actual showers from low-energy particles are used in the simulation. Full Geant 4 simulation is used to develop showers down to {approx} 1 GeV, at which point the shower is terminated by substituting a frozen shower. Judicious use of both techniques over the entire electromagnetic portion of the ATLAS calorimeter produces an important improvement of CPU time. We discuss the algorithms and their performance in this paper.

  18. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Wood Preservatives

    EPA Science Inventory

    SHEDS-Wood (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Wood Preservatives) is a physically-based stochastic model that was developed to quantify exposure and dose of children to wood preservatives on treated playsets and residential decks. Probabilistic inputs are co...

  19. Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

  20. MODELING MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN AND ADULTS TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabilistic model of individual exposure to chlorpyrifos has been developed in support of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) and the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) program. The model examines a v...

  1. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  2. Operation of the computer model for microenvironment solar exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. R.; Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computer model for microenvironmental solar exposure was developed to predict solar exposure to satellite surfaces which may shadow or reflect on one another. This document describes the technical features of the model as well as instructions for the installation and use of the program.

  3. USEPA SHEDS MODEL: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...

  4. Advanced REACH Tool: A Bayesian Model for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W.; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

  5. Advanced REACH Tool: a Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

  6. A statistical framework for the validation of a population exposure model based on personal exposure data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Delphy; Valari, Myrto; Markakis, Konstantinos; Payan, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    Currently, ambient pollutant concentrations at monitoring sites are routinely measured by local networks, such as AIRPARIF in Paris, France. Pollutant concentration fields are also simulated with regional-scale chemistry transport models such as CHIMERE (http://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere) under air-quality forecasting platforms (e.g. Prev'Air http://www.prevair.org) or research projects. These data may be combined with more or less sophisticated techniques to provide a fairly good representation of pollutant concentration spatial gradients over urban areas. Here we focus on human exposure to atmospheric contaminants. Based on census data on population dynamics and demographics, modeled outdoor concentrations and infiltration of outdoor air-pollution indoors we have developed a population exposure model for ozone and PM2.5. A critical challenge in the field of population exposure modeling is model validation since personal exposure data are expensive and therefore, rare. However, recent research has made low cost mobile sensors fairly common and therefore personal exposure data should become more and more accessible. In view of planned cohort field-campaigns where such data will be available over the Paris region, we propose in the present study a statistical framework that makes the comparison between modeled and measured exposures meaningful. Our ultimate goal is to evaluate the exposure model by comparing modeled exposures to monitor data. The scientific question we address here is how to downscale modeled data that are estimated on the county population scale at the individual scale which is appropriate to the available measurements. To assess this question we developed a Bayesian hierarchical framework that assimilates actual individual data into population statistics and updates the probability estimate.

  7. Comparing prediction models for radiographic exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, W.; Robinson, J.; McEntee, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    During radiographic exposures the milliampere-seconds (mAs), kilovoltage peak (kVp) and source-to-image distance can be adjusted for variations in patient thicknesses. Several exposure adjustment systems have been developed to assist with this selection. This study compares the accuracy of four systems to predict the required mAs for pelvic radiographs taken on a direct digital radiography system (DDR). Sixty radiographs were obtained by adjusting mAs to compensate for varying combinations of source-to-image distance (SID), kVp and patient thicknesses. The 25% rule, the DuPont Bit System and the DigiBit system were compared to determine which of these three most accurately predicted the mAs required for an increase in patient thickness. Similarly, the 15% rule, the DuPont Bit System and the DigiBit system were compared for an increase in kVp. The exposure index (EI) was used as an indication of exposure to the DDR. For each exposure combination the mAs was adjusted until an EI of 1500+/-2% was achieved. The 25% rule was the most accurate at predicting the mAs required for an increase in patient thickness, with 53% of the mAs predictions correct. The DigiBit system was the most accurate at predicting mAs needed for changes in kVp, with 33% of predictions correct. This study demonstrated that the 25% rule and DigiBit system were the most accurate predictors of mAs required for an increase in patient thickness and kVp respectively. The DigiBit system worked well in both scenarios as it is a single exposure adjustment system that considers a variety of exposure factors.

  8. EFFECTS OF CORRELATED PROBABILISTIC EXPOSURE MODEL INPUTS ON SIMULATED RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, more probabilistic models have been developed to quantify aggregate human exposures to environmental pollutants. The impact of correlation among inputs in these models is an important issue, which has not been resolved. Obtaining correlated data and implementi...

  9. ASSESSING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE USING THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION (SHEDS) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a workshop sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development and Office of Pesticide Programs, the Aggregate Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) Model was used to assess potential aggregate residential pesticide e...

  10. Exposures from indoor powder releases: models and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.W.; Horowitz, M.

    1986-04-01

    Two models of the dispersion of a solid contaminant in a room were compared. The first model was the perfect mixing model. widely used in room air modeling to predict concentration, thus exposure (the integral of concentration over time). The second model was the turbulent puff diffusion model, sometimes used in atmospheric dispersion modeling. The models predicted different consequences from a solid contaminant release in a room, such as from a bulk-loading operation or a spill. The predicted exposures from a release were evaluated for both models. The models also were compared against data from an illustrative set of experimental measurements with the use of powder spill as a source. In the room, the exposures decreased almost inversely with distance, behavior more in accord with the turbulent puff model than with the perfect mixing model.

  11. Air-shower spectroscopy at horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, D.

    2006-07-01

    Downward cosmic rays are mostly revealed on the ground by their air-showers diluted and filtered secondary μμ traces and/or by their (Cerenkov - Fluorescent) light because of the high altitude numerous and luminous electromagnetic ee,γ shower component. Horizontal and upward air-showers are even more suppressed by deeper atmosphere opacity and by the Earth shadows. In such noise-free horizontal and upward directions rare Ultra High Cosmic rays and rarer neutrino induced air-showers may shine, mostly mediated by resonant PeV ν¯+e→W interactions in air or by higher energy tau air-showers originated by ν skimming the Earth. At high altitude (mountains, planes, balloons) the air density is so rarefied that nearly all common air-showers might be observed at their maximal growth at a tuned altitude and direction. The arrival angle samples different distances and the corresponding most probable primary cosmic ray energy. The larger and larger distances (between observer and C.R. interaction) make wider and wider the shower area and it enlarges the probability of being observed (up to three orders of magnitude more than vertical showers); the observation of a maximal electromagnetic shower development may amplify the signal by two three orders of magnitude (with respect to a suppressed shower at sea level); the peculiar altitude angle range (ten twenty km height and ≃80 90 zenith angle) may disentangle at best the primary cosmic ray energy and composition. Even from existing mountain observatories the up-going air-showers may trace, above the horizons, PeV EeV high energy cosmic rays and, below the horizons, PeV EeV neutrino astronomy: their early signals may be captured in already existing gamma telescopes such as Magic at Canarie, while facing the Earth edges during (useless) cloudy nights.

  12. A dermatotoxicokinetic model of human exposures to jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Kim, David; Andersen, Melvin E; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2006-09-01

    Workers, both in the military and the commercial airline industry, are exposed to jet fuel by inhalation and dermal contact. We present a dermatotoxicokinetic (DTK) model that quantifies the absorption, distribution, and elimination of aromatic and aliphatic components of jet fuel following dermal exposures in humans. Kinetic data were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers following a single dose of JP-8 to the forearm over a surface area of 20 cm2. Blood samples were taken before exposure (t = 0 h), after exposure (t = 0.5 h), and every 0.5 h for up to 3.5 h postexposure. The DTK model that best fit the data included five compartments: (1) surface, (2) stratum corneum (SC), (3) viable epidermis, (4) blood, and (5) storage. The DTK model was used to predict blood concentrations of the components of JP-8 based on dermal-exposure measurements made in occupational-exposure settings in order to better understand the toxicokinetic behavior of these compounds. Monte Carlo simulations of dermal exposure and cumulative internal dose demonstrated no overlap among the low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups. The DTK model provides a quantitative understanding of the relationship between the mass of JP-8 components in the SC and the concentrations of each component in the systemic circulation. The model may be used for the development of a toxicokinetic modeling strategy for multiroute exposure to jet fuel. PMID:16801332

  13. Radiation exposure modeling and project schedule visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Jaquish, W.R.; Enderlin, V.R.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses two applications using IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) to assist environmental remediation efforts at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. In the first application, IGRIP is used to calculate the estimated radiation exposure to workers conducting tasks in radiation environments. In the second, IGRIP is used as a configuration management tool to detect interferences between equipment and personnel work areas for multiple projects occurring simultaneously in one area. Both of these applications have the capability to reduce environmental remediation costs by reducing personnel radiation exposure and by providing a method to effectively manage multiple projects in a single facility.

  14. IMPACT OF EMISSION REDUCTIONS ON EXPOSURES AND EXPOSURE DISTRIBUTIONS: APPLICATION OF A GEOGRAPHIC EXPOSURE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anticipated results include the following. (1) We will estimate intake fraction (i.e., the fraction of emissions that are inhaled) for major source categories, over time, and by spatial location. Higher intake fraction indicates a greater exposure reduction per emission reduct...

  15. Assessment of relative potential for Legionella species or surrogates inhalation exposure from common water uses.

    PubMed

    Hines, Stephanie A; Chappie, Daniel J; Lordo, Robert A; Miller, Brian D; Janke, Robert J; Lindquist, H Alan; Fox, Kim R; Ernst, Hiba S; Taft, Sarah C

    2014-06-01

    The Legionella species have been identified as important waterborne pathogens in terms of disease morbidity and mortality. Microbial exposure assessment is a tool that can be utilized to assess the potential of Legionella species inhalation exposure from common water uses. The screening-level exposure assessment presented in this paper developed emission factors to model aerosolization, quantitatively assessed inhalation exposures of aerosolized Legionella species or Legionella species surrogates while evaluating two generalized levels of assumed water concentrations, and developed a relative ranking of six common in-home uses of water for potential Legionella species inhalation exposure. Considerable variability in the calculated exposure dose was identified between the six identified exposure pathways, with the doses differing by over five orders of magnitude in each of the evaluated exposure scenarios. The assessment of exposure pathways that have been epidemiologically associated with legionellosis transmission (ultrasonic and cool mist humidifiers) produced higher estimated inhalation exposure doses than pathways where epidemiological evidence of transmission has been less strong (faucet and shower) or absent (toilets and therapy pool). With consideration of the large uncertainties inherent in the exposure assessment process used, a relative ranking of exposure pathways from highest to lowest exposure doses was produced using culture-based measurement data and the assumption of constant water concentration across exposure pathways. In this ranking, the ultrasonic and cool mist humidifier exposure pathways were estimated to produce the highest exposure doses, followed by the shower and faucet exposure pathways, and then the toilet and therapy pool exposure pathways. PMID:24681377

  16. Don Quixote --- a possible parent body of a meteor shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudawska, R.; Vaubaillon, J.

    2014-07-01

    This talk addresses the topic of meteoroid stream parent body in relation to meteor showers observed on the Earth. We carry out a further search to investigate the possibility of meteor shower observations caused by particles ejected from (3552) Don Quixote. The (3552) Don Quixote asteroid was discovered in 1983 as an Amor asteroid. The Tisserand parameter for the orbit has a value of 2.315 with respect to Jupiter, which indicates a comet-like orbit. The diameter of the object calculated from the absolute magnitude, is in the range of 12.3--24.5 km. It all makes Don Quixote a good candidate for a short-period comet among known near-Earth objects, which the recently observed cometary activity confirms [1]. We have investigated the orbital evolution of the meteoroid stream originated from Don Quixote. If the object was active in the past, it might be a parent body for a meteor shower observed on the Earth. The model for the generation and evolution of the meteoroid stream in the Solar System is taken from [2]. The asteroid's orbital elements and physical properties are taken from the JPL horizons website. The ejections of meteoroids from the asteroid surface took place when the asteroid was passing its perihelion between 5000 B.C. and 2013 A.D. Next, the orbits of ejected meteoroids were integrated to the year 2050. If a meteoroid is sufficiently close to the Earth, its orbital parameters are saved and compared with known showers.

  17. MULTIMEDIA HUMAN EXPOSURE AND RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures and health risk comparisons from different sites may be used for allocating limited resources available for remedial action. It is important that comparisons between different sites use similar levels of site-specific data and/or screening level data. Risk assessment c...

  18. Introduction to Parton-Shower Event Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höche, Stefan

    This lecture discusses the physics implemented by Monte Carlo event generators for hadron colliders. It details the construction of parton showers and the matching of parton showers to fixed-order calculations at higher orders in perturbative QCD. It also discusses approaches to merge calculations for a varying number of jets, the interface to the underlying event and hadronization.

  19. 49 CFR 228.321 - Showering facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... remove waste water and facilitate cleaning; (3) All junctions of the curbing and the floor must be sealed... shower room must be smooth and impervious to the height of splash. (d) Water. An adequate supply of hot and cold running potable water must be provided for showering purposes. The water supplied to a...

  20. Search for excess showers from Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirov, I. N.; Stamenov, J. N.; Ushev, S. Z.; Janminchev, V. D.; Aseikin, V. S.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Nikolskaja, N. M.; Yakovlev, V. I.; Morozov, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival directions of muon poor showers registrated in the Tien Shan experiment during an effective running time about I,8.IO(4)h were analyzed. It is shown that there is a significant excess of these showers coming the direction of Crab Nebula.

  1. Extensive Air Showers in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badala, A.; Blanco, F.; La Rocca, P.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pulvirenti, A.; Riggi, F.

    2007-01-01

    The basic properties of extensive air showers of particles produced in the interaction of a high-energy primary cosmic ray in the Earth's atmosphere are discussed in the context of educational cosmic ray projects involving undergraduate students and high-school teams. Simulation results produced by an air shower development code were made…

  2. Searching for mini black holes signatures in cosmic rays air shower

    SciTech Connect

    Lamri, S.; Kalli, S.; Mimouni, J.

    2012-06-27

    Theories with extra dimensions at low Planck scale, offer the exciting possibility of mini black holes production in ultra high-energy particles interactions. In particular, cosmic neutrinos interaction can produce black holes deep in the Earth's atmosphere. These mini black holes then decay and produce 'characteristic' air showers. In this paper, we examine the properties of the mini black holes (mBH) air showers and compare them to the standard model (mSM) ones. We point out to some possible criteria that help distinguishing mBH air showers.

  3. Don Quixote-A possible parent body of a meteor shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudawska, Regina; Vaubaillon, Jeremie

    2015-12-01

    Asteroid 3552 Don Quixote (1983 SA) orbits the Sun on an orbit that resembles that of a short-period comet. This, together with its recently observed cometary activity, makes it a good candidate for a parent body of a meteor shower. Model calculations show that the particles originated from Don Quixote pass close enough to Earth orbit to search for a meteor shower activity. Corresponding meteor showers were found in CAMS (Rudawska and Jenniskens, 2014) and EDMOND (Kornoš et al., 2014) video observations. The κ Lyrids and August μ Draconids (IAU#464 and IAU#470, respectively), a similarly inclined stream active in the summer, are associated with 3552 Don Quixote.

  4. Theory of fluctuations of extended air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedenko, L. G.

    1975-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method was used to calculate the probability distribution functions of shower characteristics for primary protons at sea level. The calculation was based on the following model of the elementary event: the interaction paths are 90 g/sq cm for nucleons and 120 g/sq cm for pions. The nonelasticity coefficient for nucleons is uniformly distributed between 0.1 and 0.9, and for pions it is equal to 1. Isobaric pions are taken into account. The spectra of secondary particles were determined using Cocconi's approximation formula. The calculation for the nuclei was carried out on the assumption of a breakup of the nucleus into component nucleons. The mean number of particles and the variances of the distributions for electrons when the number of muons was fixed, and for muons when the number of electrons was fixed, were calculated.

  5. Meteor showers associated with 2003EH1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadzhanov, P. B.; Williams, I. P.; Kokhirova, G. I.

    2008-06-01

    Using the Everhart RADAU19 numerical integration method, the orbital evolution of the near-Earth asteroid 2003EH1 is investigated. This asteroid belongs to the Amor group and is moving on a comet-like orbit. The integrations are performed over one cycle of variation of the perihelion argument ω. Over such a cycle, the orbit intersect that of the Earth at eight different values of ω. The orbital parameters are different at each of these intersections and so a meteoroid stream surrounding such an orbit can produce eight different meteor showers, one at each crossing. The geocentric radiants and velocities of the eight theoretical meteor showers associated with these crossing points are determined. Using published data, observed meteor showers are identified with each of the theoretically predicted showers. The character of the orbit and the existence of observed meteor showers associated with 2003EH1 confirm the supposition that this object is an extinct comet.

  6. Meteor Shower Identification and Characterization with Python

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, Althea

    2015-01-01

    The short development time associated with Python and the number of astronomical packages available have led to increased usage within NASA. The Meteoroid Environment Office in particular uses the Python language for a number of applications, including daily meteor shower activity reporting, searches for potential parent bodies of meteor showers, and short dynamical simulations. We present our development of a meteor shower identification code that identifies statistically significant groups of meteors on similar orbits. This code overcomes several challenging characteristics of meteor showers such as drastic differences in uncertainties between meteors and between the orbital elements of a single meteor, and the variation of shower characteristics such as duration with age or planetary perturbations. This code has been proven to successfully and quickly identify unusual meteor activity such as the 2014 kappa Cygnid outburst. We present our algorithm along with these successes and discuss our plans for further code development.

  7. MODELING AGGREGATE CHLORPYRIFOS EXPOSURE AND DOSE TO CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help address the aggregate exposure assessment needs of the Food Quality Protection Act, a physically-based probabilistic model (SHEDS-Pesticides, version 3) has been applied to estimate aggregate chlorpyrifos exposure and dose to children. Two age groups (0-4, 5-9 years) a...

  8. Development of a standard documentation protocol for communicating exposure models.

    PubMed

    Ciffroy, P; Altenpohl, A; Fait, G; Fransman, W; Paini, A; Radovnikovic, A; Simon-Cornu, M; Suciu, N; Verdonck, F

    2016-10-15

    An important step in building a computational model is its documentation; a comprehensive and structured documentation can improve the model applicability and transparency in science/research and for regulatory purposes. This is particularly crucial and challenging for environmental and/or human exposure models that aim to establish quantitative relationships between personal exposure levels and their determinants. Exposure models simulate the transport and fate of a contaminant from the source to the receptor and may involve a large set of entities (e.g. all the media the contaminants may pass though). Such complex models are difficult to be described in a comprehensive, unambiguous and accessible way. Bad communication of assumptions, theory, structure and/or parameterization can lead to lack of confidence by the user and it may be source of errors. The goal of this paper is to propose a standard documentation protocol (SDP) for exposure models, i.e. a generic format and a standard structure by which all exposure models could be documented. For this purpose, a CEN (European Committee for Standardisation) workshop was set up with objective to agree on minimum requirements for the amount and type of information to be provided on exposure models documentation along with guidelines for the structure and presentation of the information. The resulting CEN workshop agreement (CWA) was expected to facilitate a more rigorous formulation of exposure models description and the understanding by users. This paper intends to describe the process followed for defining the SDP, the standardisation approach, as well as the main components of the SDP resulting from a wide consultation of interested stakeholders. The main outcome is a CEN CWA which establishes terms and definitions for exposure models and their elements, specifies minimum requirements for the amount and type of information to be documented, and proposes a structure for communicating the documentation to different

  9. Reconstructing exposures from biomarkers using exposure-pharmacokinetic modeling--A case study with carbaryl.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathleen; Phillips, Martin; Grulke, Christopher; Yoon, Miyoung; Young, Bruce; McDougall, Robin; Leonard, Jeremy; Lu, Jingtao; Lefew, William; Tan, Yu-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Sources of uncertainty involved in exposure reconstruction for short half-life chemicals were characterized using computational models that link external exposures to biomarkers. Using carbaryl as an example, an exposure model, the Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System (CARES), was used to generate time-concentration profiles for 500 virtual individuals exposed to carbaryl. These exposure profiles were used as inputs into a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict urinary biomarker concentrations. These matching dietary intake levels and biomarker concentrations were used to (1) compare three reverse dosimetry approaches based on their ability to predict the central tendency of the intake dose distribution; and (2) identify parameters necessary for a more accurate exposure reconstruction. This study illustrates the trade-offs between using non-iterative reverse dosimetry methods that are fast, less precise and iterative methods that are slow, more precise. This study also intimates the necessity of including urine flow rate and elapsed time between last dose and urine sampling as part of the biomarker sampling collection for better interpretation of urinary biomarker data of short biological half-life chemicals. Resolution of these critical data gaps can allow exposure reconstruction methods to better predict population-level intake doses from large biomonitoring studies. PMID:26545325

  10. Modeling of In-vehicle PM2.5 Exposure Using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Frey, H. Christopher; Cao, Ye; Deshpande, Bela

    2010-01-01

    Factors that influence in-vehicle PM2.5 exposure are indentified and assessed. The methodology used in the current version of Stochastic Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) for in-vehicle PM2.5 concentration is reviewed, and alternative modeling approaches are identified and evaluated. SHEDS-PM uses a linear regression model to estimate in-vehicle PM2.5 concentration based on ambient PM2.5 concentration, such as from a fixed site monitor (FSM) or a grid cell average concentration estimate from an air quality model. The ratio of in-vehicle to FSM concentration varies substantially with respect to location, vehicle type and other factors. SHEDS-PM was used to estimate PM2.5 exposure for 1% of people living in Wake County, NC in order to assess the importance of in-vehicle exposures. In-vehicle PM2.5 exposure can be as much as half of the total exposure for some individuals, depending on employment status and the time spent in-vehicle during commuting. An alternative modeling approach is explored based on the use of a dispersion model to estimate near-road PM2.5 concentration based on FSM data and a mass balance model for estimating in-vehicle concentration. Recommendations for updating the input data to the existing model, and implementation of the alternative modeling approach are made. PMID:21209848

  11. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL FOR EXAMS 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides rapid evaluations of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. EXAMS combines laboratory data describing reactivity and thermodynamic properties of chemicals wit...

  12. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the average depth of shower maximum and its fluctuations with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Study of the nuclear mass composition of UHECR with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Comparison of data from the Pierre Auger Observatory with predictions from air shower simulations: testing models of hadronic interactions; (4) A Monte Carlo exploration of methods to determine the UHECR composition with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) The delay of the start-time measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory for inclined showers and a comparison of its variance with models; (6) UHE neutrino signatures in the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory; and (7) The electromagnetic component of inclined air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  13. Comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) for food additives.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R

    2016-05-01

    European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database. PMID:26987377

  14. Modeling of exposure to carbon monoxide in fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in regions of the body for short exposures to carbon monoxide levels expected during escape from aircraft fires. The model includes the respiratory and circulatory dynamics of absorption and distribution of carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin. Predictions of carboxyhemoglobin concentrations are compared to experimental values obtained for human exposures to constant high carbon monoxide levels. Predictions are within 20% of experimental values. For short exposure times, transient concentration effects are predicted. The effect of stress is studied and found to increase carboxyhemoglobin levels substantially compared to a rest state.

  15. Assessing total exposures to gasoline vapor using the source exposure model.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, S A; Shah, J J

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in source apportionment modeling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) include receptor modeling (RM) applications to "total" (indoor and outdoor) exposure assessment for source of VOC. Source fingerprints are available for major VOC sources such as gasoline vapor, automobile exhaust, refinery emissions, cleaning solvent vapors, printing inks, and waste-water treatment facilities. The relative proportion of each VOC species in the source fingerprint enables the RM method, through a least squares analysis, to identify each source's presence and quantify its contribution to ambient air concentrations. Sampling periods and locations may be selected to represent microenvironmental exposures. Receptor modeling has direct applicability to determining the relative contribution of gasoline vapors to VOC exposures in the general population. PMID:1504631

  16. Stoffenmanager exposure model: company-specific exposure assessments using a Bayesian methodology.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Peter; Fransman, Wouter; Schinkel, Jody; Rubingh, Carina; Warren, Nicholas; Tielemans, Erik

    2010-04-01

    The web-based tool "Stoffenmanager" was initially developed to assist small- and medium-sized enterprises in the Netherlands to make qualitative risk assessments and to provide advice on control at the workplace. The tool uses a mechanistic model to arrive at a "Stoffenmanager score" for exposure. In a recent study it was shown that variability in exposure measurements given a certain Stoffenmanager score is still substantial. This article discusses an extension to the tool that uses a Bayesian methodology for quantitative workplace/scenario-specific exposure assessment. This methodology allows for real exposure data observed in the company of interest to be combined with the prior estimate (based on the Stoffenmanager model). The output of the tool is a company-specific assessment of exposure levels for a scenario for which data is available. The Bayesian approach provides a transparent way of synthesizing different types of information and is especially preferred in situations where available data is sparse, as is often the case in small- and medium sized-enterprises. Real-world examples as well as simulation studies were used to assess how different parameters such as sample size, difference between prior and data, uncertainty in prior, and variance in the data affect the eventual posterior distribution of a Bayesian exposure assessment. PMID:20146134

  17. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  18. Modeling exposure to persistent chemicals in hazard and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E; McLachlan, Michael S; Arnot, Jon A; Macleod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E; Wania, Frank

    2009-10-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not, thus far, been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared for evaluating the significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals in the environment. The goal of this publication is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include 1) benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk; 2) directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota, and humans to provide information to complement measurements or where measurements are not available or are limited; 3) to identify the key processes and chemical or environmental parameters that determine the exposure, thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile; and 4) forecasting future time trends, including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and

  19. Hadronic Shower Validation Experience for the ATLAS End-Cap Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kiryunin, A. E.; Salihagic, D.

    2007-03-19

    Validation of GEANT4 hadronic physics models is carried out by comparing experimental data from beam tests of modules of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters with GEANT4 based simulations. Two physics lists (LHEP and QGSP) for the simulation of hadronic showers are evaluated. Calorimeter performance parameters like the energy resolution and response for charged pions and shapes of showers are studied. Comparison with GEANT3 predictions is done as well.

  20. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields in Thunderstorms through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers.

    PubMed

    Schellart, P; Trinh, T N G; Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Scholten, O; Ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Ebert, U; Koehn, C; Rutjes, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J M; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Holties, H A; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Moldon, J; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D J; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P

    2015-04-24

    We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunderstorms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the atmospheric electric field, these patterns can be well reproduced by state-of-the-art simulation codes. This in turn provides a novel way to study atmospheric electric fields. PMID:25955053

  1. Neutrons in extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Stenkin, Yu. V.; Djappuev, D. D.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.

    2007-06-15

    The main properties of the so-called neutron bursts produced by the passage of extensive air showers (EASs) through a detector array and the properties of these EASs are considered using the experiments that are being or have been carried out previously with the Carpet-2 array at Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, and at Cosmic-Ray Station of UNAM in Mexico as examples. We show that no exotic processes are required to explain the nature of neutron bursts. Based on a working prototype of the previously proposed MULTICOM array, we also show that this phenomenon can be successfully used in studying the EAS hadronic component and that adding special thermal neutron detectors can improve significantly the capabilities of the array for EAS study.

  2. The angular resolution of air shower gamma ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Periale, L.; Vallania, P.

    1985-01-01

    A crucial charactristic of air shower arrays in the field of high energy gamma-ray astronomy is their angular resolving power, the arrival directions being obtained by the time of flight measurements. A small air shower array-telescope is used to study the resolution in the definition of the shower front as a function of the shower size.

  3. TOTAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MODEL (THEM) FOR RESPIRABLE SUSPENDED PARTICLES (RSP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Total Human Exposure Model (THEM) has been developed that calculates 24-hour profiles using real human activity patterns and indoor air models derived from actual measurements of pollutants. HEM was designed for implementation on personal computers. urrently, the model uses the...

  4. Conceptual model for assessment of inhalation exposure: defining modifying factors.

    PubMed

    Tielemans, Erik; Schneider, Thomas; Goede, Henk; Tischer, Martin; Warren, Nick; Kromhout, Hans; Van Tongeren, Martie; Van Hemmen, Joop; Cherrie, John W

    2008-10-01

    The present paper proposes a source-receptor model to schematically describe inhalation exposure to help understand the complex processes leading to inhalation of hazardous substances. The model considers a stepwise transfer of a contaminant from the source to the receptor. The conceptual model is constructed using three components, i.e. (i) the source, (ii) various transmission compartments and (iii) the receptor, and describes the contaminant's emission and its pattern of transport. Based on this conceptual model, a list of nine mutually independent principal modifying factors (MFs) is proposed: activity emission potential, substance emission potential, localized control, separation, segregation, dilution, worker behavior, surface contamination and respiratory protection. These MFs describe the exposure process at a high level of abstraction so that the model can be generically applicable. A list of exposure determinants underlying each of these principal MFs is proposed to describe the exposure process at a more detailed level. The presented conceptual model is developed in conjunction with an activity taxonomy as described in a separate paper. The proposed conceptual model and MFs should be seen as 'building blocks' for development of higher tier exposure models. PMID:18787181

  5. Modelling survival: exposure pattern, species sensitivity and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight; Cedergreen, Nina; Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Focks, Andreas; Gabsi, Faten; Gergs, André; Goussen, Benoit; Jager, Tjalling; Kramer, Nynke I; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Poulsen, Veronique; Reichenberger, Stefan; Schäfer, Ralf B; Van den Brink, Paul J; Veltman, Karin; Vogel, Sören; Zimmer, Elke I; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates to build species sensitivity distributions for different exposure patterns. We find that GUTS adequately predicts survival across exposure patterns that vary over time. When toxicity is assessed for time-variable concentrations species may differ in their responses depending on the exposure profile. This can result in different species sensitivity rankings and safe levels. The interplay of exposure pattern and species sensitivity deserves systematic investigation in order to better understand how organisms respond to stress, including humans. PMID:27381500

  6. Modelling survival: exposure pattern, species sensitivity and uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight; Cedergreen, Nina; Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Focks, Andreas; Gabsi, Faten; Gergs, André; Goussen, Benoit; Jager, Tjalling; Kramer, Nynke I.; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Poulsen, Veronique; Reichenberger, Stefan; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Van den Brink, Paul J.; Veltman, Karin; Vogel, Sören; Zimmer, Elke I.; Preuss, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates to build species sensitivity distributions for different exposure patterns. We find that GUTS adequately predicts survival across exposure patterns that vary over time. When toxicity is assessed for time-variable concentrations species may differ in their responses depending on the exposure profile. This can result in different species sensitivity rankings and safe levels. The interplay of exposure pattern and species sensitivity deserves systematic investigation in order to better understand how organisms respond to stress, including humans. PMID:27381500

  7. Modelling survival: exposure pattern, species sensitivity and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight; Cedergreen, Nina; Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Focks, Andreas; Gabsi, Faten; Gergs, André; Goussen, Benoit; Jager, Tjalling; Kramer, Nynke I.; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Poulsen, Veronique; Reichenberger, Stefan; Schäfer, Ralf B.; van den Brink, Paul J.; Veltman, Karin; Vogel, Sören; Zimmer, Elke I.; Preuss, Thomas G.

    2016-07-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates to build species sensitivity distributions for different exposure patterns. We find that GUTS adequately predicts survival across exposure patterns that vary over time. When toxicity is assessed for time-variable concentrations species may differ in their responses depending on the exposure profile. This can result in different species sensitivity rankings and safe levels. The interplay of exposure pattern and species sensitivity deserves systematic investigation in order to better understand how organisms respond to stress, including humans.

  8. High energy hadrons in extensive air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonwar, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data on the high energy hadronic component in extensive air showers of energies approx. 10 to the 14 to 10 to the 16 eV when compared with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations have shown the observed showers to be deficient in high energy hadrons relative to simulated showers. An attempt is made to understand these anomalous features with more accurate comparison of observations with expectations, taking into account the details of the experimental system. Results obtained from this analysis and their implications for the high energy physics of particle interactions at energy approx. 10 to the 15 eV are presented.

  9. Simplified pregnant woman models for the fetus exposure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jala, Marjorie; Conil, Emmanuelle; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Moulines, Éric; Lévy-Leduc, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a study that we carried out in order to validate the use of a simplified pregnant woman model for the assessment of the fetus exposure to radio frequency waves. This simplified model, based on the use of a homogeneous tissue to replace most of the inner organs of the virtual mother, would allow us to deal with many issues that are raised because of the lack of pregnant woman models for numerical dosimetry. Using specific absorption rate comparisons, we show that this model could be used to estimate the fetus exposure to plane waves.

  10. Underwater Sound Propagation Modeling Methods for Predicting Marine Animal Exposure.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Craig A; McCammon, Diana F; Taillefer, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    The offshore exploration and production (E&P) industry requires comprehensive and accurate ocean acoustic models for determining the exposure of marine life to the high levels of sound used in seismic surveys and other E&P activities. This paper reviews the types of acoustic models most useful for predicting the propagation of undersea noise sources and describes current exposure models. The severe problems caused by model sensitivity to the uncertainty in the environment are highlighted to support the conclusion that it is vital that risk assessments include transmission loss estimates with statistical measures of confidence. PMID:26610982

  11. Exposure assessment for trihalomethanes in municipal drinking water and risk reduction strategy.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat

    2013-10-01

    Lifetime exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in municipal water may pose risks to human health. Current approaches of exposure assessments use DBPs in cold water during showering, while warming of chlorinated water during showering may increase trihalomethane (THM) formation in the presence of free residual chlorine. Further, DBP exposure through dermal contact during showering is estimated using steady-state condition between the DBPs in shower water impacting on human skin and skin exposed to shower water. The lag times to achieve steady-state condition between DBPs in shower water and human skin can vary in the range of 9.8-391.2 min, while shower duration is often less than the lag times. Assessment of exposure without incorporating these factors might have misinterpreted DBP exposure in some previous studies. In this study, exposure to THMs through ingestion was estimated using cold water THMs, while THM exposure through inhalation and dermal contact during showering was estimated using THMs in warm water. Inhalation of THMs was estimated using THM partition into the shower air, while dermal uptake was estimated by incorporating lag times (e.g., unsteady and steady-state phases of exposure) during showering. Probabilistic approach was followed to incorporate uncertainty in the assessment. Inhalation and dermal contact during showering contributed 25-60% of total exposure. Exposure to THMs during showering can be controlled by varying shower stall volume, shower duration and air exchange rate following power law equations. The findings might be useful in understanding exposure to THMs, which can be extended to other volatile compounds in municipal water. PMID:23872246

  12. Modeling tribal exposures to methyl mercury from fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianping; Zartarian, Valerie; Mintz, Bruce; Weber, Marc; Bailey, Ken; Geller, Andrew

    2015-11-15

    Exposure assessment and risk management considerations for tribal fish consumption are different than for the general U.S. population because of higher fish intake from subsistence fishing and/or from unique cultural practices. This research summarizes analyses of available data and methodologies for estimating tribal fish consumption exposures to methyl mercury (MeHg). Large MeHg fish tissue data sets from the Environmental Protections Agency's (EPA's) Office of Water, USGS's EMMMA program, and other data sources, were integrated, analyzed, and combined with fish intake (consumption) data for exposure analyses using EPA's SHEDS-Dietary model. Results were mapped with GIS tools to depict spatial distributions of the MeHg in fish tissues and fish consumption exposure patterns. Contribution analyses indicates the major sources for those exposures, such as type and length of fish, geographical distribution (water bodies), and dietary exposure patterns. Sensitivity analyses identify the key variables and exposure pathways. Our results show that MeHg exposure of tribal populations from fish are about 3 to 10 times higher than the US general population and that exposure poses potential health risks. The estimated risks would be reduced as much as 50%, especially for high percentiles, just by avoiding consumption of fish species with higher MeHg concentrations such as walleye and bowfin, even without changing total fish intake. These exposure assessment methods and tools can help inform decisions regarding meal sizes and frequency, types of fish and water bodies to avoid, and other factors to minimize exposures and potential health risks from contaminated fish on tribal lands. PMID:26151654

  13. EXPOSURE RELATED DOSE ESTIMATING MODEL (ERDEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ERDEM is a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model with a graphical user interface (GUI) front end. Such a mathematical model was needed to make reliable estimates of the chemical dose to organs of animals or humans because of uncertainties of making route-to route, lo...

  14. New method to measure the attenuation of hadrons in extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, W. D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Gils, H. J.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Klages, H. O.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschlaeger, J.

    2009-07-15

    Extensive air showers are generated through interactions of high-energy cosmic rays impinging the Earth's atmosphere. A new method is described to infer the attenuation of hadrons in air showers. The numbers of electrons and muons, registered with the scintillator array of the KASCADE experiment, are used to estimate the energy of the shower inducing primary particle. A large hadron calorimeter is used to measure the hadronic energy reaching observation level. The ratio of energy reaching ground level to the energy of the primary particle is used to derive an attenuation length of hadrons in air showers. In the energy range from 10{sup 6} to 3x10{sup 7} GeV the attenuation length obtained increases from 170 to 210 g/cm{sup 2}. The experimental results are compared to predictions of simulations based on contemporary high-energy interaction models.

  15. New method to measure the attenuation of hadrons in extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, W. D.; Arteaga, J. C.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Brüggemann, M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Fuhrmann, D.; Ghia, P. L.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hildebrand, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Kickelbick, D.; Klages, H. O.; Kolotaev, Y.; Łuczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Over, S.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schröder, F.; Sima, O.; Stümpert, M.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Walkowiak, W.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Wommer, M.; Zabierowski, J.

    2009-07-01

    Extensive air showers are generated through interactions of high-energy cosmic rays impinging the Earth’s atmosphere. A new method is described to infer the attenuation of hadrons in air showers. The numbers of electrons and muons, registered with the scintillator array of the KASCADE experiment, are used to estimate the energy of the shower inducing primary particle. A large hadron calorimeter is used to measure the hadronic energy reaching observation level. The ratio of energy reaching ground level to the energy of the primary particle is used to derive an attenuation length of hadrons in air showers. In the energy range from 106 to 3×107GeV the attenuation length obtained increases from 170 to 210g/cm2. The experimental results are compared to predictions of simulations based on contemporary high-energy interaction models.

  16. The center of lateral iso-density contours for inclined cosmic air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanus, J. M. C.

    2016-02-01

    The horizontal lateral density of a cosmic air shower with a non-zero zenith angle is asymmetric. The asymmetry consist of a stretching of the iso-density contours to ellipses and to a shift of the center of the elliptic contours with respect to the core of the shower. The shift is caused by atmospheric attenuation. The modeling of the attenuation results in an equation for the shift as a function of zenith angle and the size of the iso-density contours. A more accurate equation is obtained by investigating the shift in lateral densities of simulated showers. It is shown how the shift can be incorporated in an elliptic lateral density function. A linear approximation for the shift allows for an analytical solution for the shifted elliptic density. Its predictions for the polar variations of the density are compared with data of simulated showers.

  17. Inhalational model of cocaine exposure in mice: neuroteratological effects.

    PubMed

    He, Fang; Lidow, Irina A; Lidow, Michael S

    2006-01-01

    We developed a novel inhalation-based mouse model of prenatal cocaine exposure. This model approximates cocaine abuse via smoking, the preferred route of cocaine administration by heavy drug users. The model is also characterized by (i) absence of procedural stress from drug administration, (ii) long-term drug exposure starting weeks before pregnancy and continuing throughout the entire gestation, and (iii) self-administration of cocaine in multi-hour daily sessions reminiscent of drug binges, which allows animals to set up the levels of their own drug consumption. The offspring of female mice inhaling cocaine in our model displayed no gross alterations in their cortical cytoarchitecture. These offspring, however, showed significant impairments in sustained attention and spatial working memory. We hope that the introduction of the present model will lead to a significant increase in our understanding of outcomes of prenatal cocaine exposure. PMID:16414242

  18. Exposure to traffic related air pollutants: self reported traffic intensity versus GIS modelled exposure

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, J; Gehring, U; Cyrys, J; Brauer, M; Hoek, G; Fischer, P; Bellander, T; Brunekreef, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: In epidemiological studies of the potential health effects of traffic related air pollution, self reported traffic intensity is a commonly used, but rarely validated, exposure variable. Methods: As part of a study on the impact of Traffic Related Air Pollution on Childhood Asthma (TRAPCA), data from 2633 and 673 infants from the Dutch and the German-Munich cohorts, respectively, were available. Parents subjectively assessed traffic intensity at the home address. Objective exposures were estimated by a combination of spatial air pollution measurements and geographic information system (GIS) based modelling using an identical method for both cohorts. Results: The agreement rates between self reported and GIS modelled exposure—accumulated over the three strata of self assessed traffic intensity—were 55–58% for PM2.5, filter absorbance (PM2.5 abs), and nitrogen dioxide in Munich and 39–40% in the Netherlands. Of the self reported low traffic exposed group, 71–73% in Munich and 45–47% in the Netherlands had low modelled exposure to these three air pollutants. Of the self assessed high exposed subgroups in Munich (15% of the total population) and the Netherlands (22% of the total population), only 22–33% and 30–32% respectively had high modelled exposure to the three air pollutants. The subjective assessments tend to overestimate the modelled estimates for PM2.5 and NO2 in both study areas. When analysis was restricted to the portion of the Dutch cohort living in non-urban areas, the agreement rates were even lower. Conclusions: Self reported and modelled assessment of exposure to air pollutants are only weakly associated. PMID:16046603

  19. Development of physiologically based toxicokinetic models for improving the human indoor exposure assessment to water contaminants: trichloroethylene and trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Sami; Tardif, Ginette-Charest; Tardif, Robert

    2006-12-01

    Generally, ingestion is the only route of exposure that is considered in the risk assessment of drinking water contaminants. However, it is well known that a number of these contaminants are volatile and lipophilic and therefore highly susceptible to being absorbed through other routes, mainly inhalation and dermal. The objective of this study was to develop physiologically based human toxicokinetic (PBTK) models for trihalomethanes (THM) and trichloroethylene (TCE) that will facilitate (1) the estimation of internal exposure to these chemicals for various multimedia indoor exposure scenarios, and (2) consideration of the impact of biological variability in the estimation of internal doses. Five PBTK models describing absorption through ingestion, inhalation and skin were developed for these contaminants. Their concentrations in ambient air were estimated from their respective tap water concentrations and their physicochemical characteristics. Algebraic descriptions of the physiological parameters, varying as a function of age, gender and diverse anthropometric parameters, allow the prediction of the influence of interindividual variations on absorbed dose and internal dosimetry. Simulations for various scenarios were done for a typical human (i.e., 70 kg, 1.7 m) as well as for humans of both genders varying in age from 1 to 90 years. Simulations show that ingestion contributes to less than 50% of the total absorbed dose or metabolized dose for all chemicals. This contribution to internal dosimetry, such as maximal venous blood concentrations (Cmax) and the area under the venous blood concentration time curve (AUC), decreases markedly (e.g., as low as 0.9% of Cmax for bromodichloromethane). The importance of this contribution varies mainly as a function of shower duration. Moreover, model simulations indicate that multimedia exposure is more elevated in children than adults (i.e., up to 200% of the adult internal dose). The models developed in this study allow

  20. A Meteor Shower Origin for Martian Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, M.; Christou, A.; Archer, D.; Conrad, P.; Cooke, W.; Eigenbrode, J.; ten Kate, I. L.; Matney, M.; Niles, P.; Sykes, M.; Steele, A.; Treiman, A.

    2015-07-01

    We present and discuss the hypothesis that martian methane arises from a meteor shower source. Infall material produces methane by UV photolysis, generating localized plumes that occur after Mars/comet orbit interactions. This hypothesis is testable.

  1. 49 CFR 228.321 - Showering facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provided with hot and cold water feeding a common discharge line. (3) Unless otherwise provided by a... and cold running potable water must be provided for showering purposes. The water supplied to a...

  2. Modeling Population Exposures to Silver Nanoparticles Present in Consumer Products

    PubMed Central

    Royce, Steven G.; Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Cai, Ting; Xu, Shu S.; Alexander, Jocelyn A.; Mi, Zhongyuan; Calderon, Leonardo; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lee, KiBum; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-01-01

    Exposures of the general population to manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are expected to keep rising due to increasing use of MNPs in common consumer products (PEN 2014). The present study focuses on characterizing ambient and indoor population exposures to silver MNPs (nAg). For situations where detailed, case-specific exposure-related data are not available, as in the present study, a novel tiered modeling system, Prioritization/Ranking of Toxic Exposures with GIS (Geographic Information System) Extension (PRoTEGE), has been developed: it employs a product Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach coupled with basic human Life Stage Analysis (LSA) to characterize potential exposures to chemicals of current and emerging concern. The PRoTEGE system has been implemented for ambient and indoor environments, utilizing available MNP production, usage, and properties databases, along with laboratory measurements of potential personal exposures from consumer spray products containing nAg. Modeling of environmental and microenvironmental levels of MNPs employs Probabilistic Material Flow Analysis combined with product LCA to account for releases during manufacturing, transport, usage, disposal, etc. Human exposure and dose characterization further employs screening Microenvironmental Modeling and Intake Fraction methods combined with LSA for potentially exposed populations, to assess differences associated with gender, age, and demographics. Population distributions of intakes, estimated using the PRoTEGE framework, are consistent with published individual-based intake estimates, demonstrating that PRoTEGE is capable of capturing realistic exposure scenarios for the US population. Distributions of intakes are also used to calculate biologically-relevant population distributions of uptakes and target tissue doses through human airway dosimetry modeling that takes into account product MNP size distributions and age-relevant physiological parameters. PMID:25745354

  3. RECEPTOR MODELING OF AMBIENT AND PERSONAL EXPOSURE SAMPLES: 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sources of particulate matter exposure for an elderly population in a city north of Baltimore, MD were evaluated using advanced factor analysis models. Data collected with Versatile Air Pollutant Samplers (VAPS) positioned at a community site, outside and inside of an elderly ...

  4. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facal San Luis, P.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Genat, J. F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I. C.; Rouille D'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2012-01-01

    MIDAS (MIcrowave Detector of Air Showers) is a prototype of a microwave telescope to detect extensive air showers: it images a 20°×10° region of the sky with a 4.5 m parabolic reflector and 53 feeds in the focal plane. It has been commissioned in March 2010 and is currently taking data. We present the design, performance and first results of MIDAS.

  5. Note on the 1972 Giacobinid meteor shower.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the 1972 Giacobinid meteor shower was extremely weak with a peak activity of two to three visual meteors per hour. Only two meteor spectra were obtained from the 17 slitless spectrograph systems operated by the Langley Research Center. The largely unexpected, essentially null results of the 1972 Giacobinid meteor shower observations are indicative of the present limited understanding and predictability of cosmic dust storms.

  6. Structural peculiarities of the Quadrantid meteor shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isamutdinov, Sh. O.; Chebotarev, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    Systematic radio observations to investigate the Quadrantid meteor shower structure are regularly carried out. They have now been conducted annually in the period of its maximum activity, January 1 to 6, since 1966. The latest results of these investigations are presented, on the basis of 1981 to 1984 data obtained using new equipment with a limiting sensitivity of +7.7 sup m which make it possible to draw some conclusions on the Quadrantids shower structure both for transverse and lengthwise directions.

  7. Lateral distribution of electrons of air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakimori, K.; Maeda, T.; Kameda, T.; Mizushima, K.; Misaki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The lateral distribution of electrons (LDE) of the air showers of size 10 to the 5th power to 10 to the 6th power was studied within one MU. It was found that the LDE of the air showers observed is well represented by NKG function except for vicinity of the core. It was also found that LDE measured by thin scintillators does not differ from that measured by thick ones of 50mm thickness.

  8. Continuous monitoring of particle emissions during showering.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Kenneth A; Ollison, Will M

    2006-12-01

    Particle formation from showering may be attributed to dissolved mineral aerosols remaining after evaporation of micron-sized satellite droplets produced by the showerhead or from splashing of larger shower water droplets on surfaces. Duplicate continuous particle monitors measured particle size distributions in a ventilated residential bathroom under various showering conditions, using a full-size mannequin in the shower to simulate splashing effects during showering. Particle mass concentrations were estimated from measured shower particle number densities and used to develop emission factors for inhalable particles. Emission source strengths of 2.7-41.3 microg/ m3/min were estimated under the various test conditions using residential tap water in Columbus, OH. Calculated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in the bathroom reached several hundred micrograms per cubic meter; calculated coarse particulate matter (PM10) levels approached 1000 microg/m3. Rates of particle formation tended to be highest for coarse shower spray settings with direct impact on the mannequin. No consistent effects of water temperature, water pressure, or spray setting on overall emission rates were apparent, although water temperature and spray setting did have an effect when varied within a single shower sampling run. Salt solutions were injected into the source water during some tests to assess the effects of total dissolved solids on particle emission rates. Injection of salts was shown to increase the PM2.5 particle formation rate by approximately one third, on average, for a doubling in tap water-dissolved solids content; PM10 source strengths approximately doubled under these conditions, because very few particles >10 microm were formed. PMID:17195485

  9. Montecarlo simulation of photon induced air showers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; di Sciascio, G.

    The EPAS code (Electron Photon induced Air Showers) is a three dimensional Montecarlo simulation developed to study the properties of extensive air showers generated by the interaction of high energy photons (or electrons) in the atmosphere. Results of the present simulation concern the longitudinal, lateral, temporal and angular distributions of electrons in atmospheric cascades initiated by photons of energies up to 100 TeV.

  10. Radio signals from very large showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suga, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Nishi, K.

    1985-01-01

    Radio signals from air showers with electron sizes in the range 1 x 10 to the 7th power to 2 x 10 to the 9th power were detected at 50kHz, 170kHz, and 1,647kHz at large core distances in the Akeno square kilometers air-shower array. The field strength is higher than that expected from any mechanisms hitherto proposed.

  11. Frequency and intensity of comet showers from the Oort cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Heisler, J.; Alcock, C.; Tremaine, S.

    1987-05-01

    The nature of new comets and the frequency and intensity of comet showers are presently studied by means of a simulation in which an ensemble of one million comets is perturbed at random times by the Bahcall-Soneira (1980) Galaxy model's population of main sequence stars and white dwarfs. The time-integrated flux is dominated by the showers for comets whose semimajor axes are less than about 30,000 AU. The inclusion of tidal effects increases the loss rate of comets with semimajor axes between 10,000 and 20,000 AU by a factor of about 4, so that the Galactic tide, rather than individual stellar perturbations, is the dominant Oort cloud evolution-driving mechanism. 44 references.

  12. Exploiting the geomagnetic distortion of inclined atmospheric showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billoir, Pierre; Settimo, Mariangela; Blanco, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    We propose a novel approach to the determination of the nature of ultra-high energy cosmic rays by exploiting the geomagnetic deviation of muons in nearly horizontal showers. The distribution of muons at ground level is well described by a simple parameterization providing a few shape parameters tightly correlated to Xmaxμ, the depth of maximal muon production, which is a mass indicator tightly correlated to the usual parameter Xmax, the depth of maximal development of the shower. We show that some constraints can be set on the predictions of hadronic models, especially by combining the geomagnetic distortion with standard measurements of the longitudinal profile. We discuss the precision needed to obtain significant results, and we propose a schematic layout of a detector.

  13. User's manual for the Human Exposure Model (HEM). Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    This document describes the Human Exposure Model, furnishes contact personnel to establish access to the UNIVAC System, and provides step-by-step instructions for operating both the SHED and SHEAR portions of the model. The manual also lists caveats that should be considered when using the HEM and criteria to distinguish situations that are appropriately modeled by each portion of HEM. The intended audience ranges from someone with limited knowledge of modeling to someone well acquainted with the UNIVAC.

  14. Source-to-Outcome Microbial Exposure and Risk Modeling Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) is a computer-based data-delivery and modeling approach that integrates interdisciplinary fate/transport, exposure, and impact models and databases to characterize potential health impacts/risks due to pathogens. As such, a QMRA ex...

  15. OZONE SUB-CANOPY EXPOSURE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A long term goal of multimedia environmental management is to achieve sustainable ecological resources. Progress towards this goal rests on a foundation of science-based methods and data integrated into predictive multimedia, multi-stressor open architecture modeling systems. The...

  16. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODELING FOR ALDICARB IN FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study was performed to assess aldicarb concentrations in drinking water wells in the vicinity of citrus groves in Florida. Areas in the citrus growing region were identified, with respect to the unsaturated and saturated zones, in which transport and transformation of ...

  17. The average longitudinal air shower profile: exploring the shape information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, R.; Andringa, S.; Diogo, F.; Pimenta, M.

    2015-08-01

    The shape of the extensive air shower (EAS) longitudinal profile contains information about the nature of the primary cosmic ray. However, with the current detection capabilities, the assessment of this quantity in an event-by-event basis is still very challenging. In this work we show that the average longitudinal profile can be used to characterise the average behaviour of high energy cosmic rays. Using the concept of universal shower profile it is possible to describe the shape of the average profile in terms of two variables, which can be already measured by the current experiments. These variables present sensitivity to both average primary mass composition and to hadronic interaction properties in shower development. We demonstrate that the shape of the average muon production depth profile can be explored in the same way as the electromagnetic profile having a higher power of discrimination for the state of the art hadronic interaction models. The combination of the shape variables of both profiles provides a new powerful test to the existing hadronic interaction models, and may also provide important hints about multi-particle production at the highest energies.

  18. Modelling of occupational respirable crystalline silica exposure for quantitative exposure assessment in community-based case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel; Portengen, Lützen; Olsson, Ann; Kendzia, Benjamin; Vincent, Raymond; Savary, Barbara; Lavoué, Jérôme; Cavallo, Domenico; Cattaneo, Andrea; Mirabelli, Dario; Plato, Nils; Fevotte, Joelle; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans

    2011-11-01

    We describe an empirical model for exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) to create a quantitative job-exposure matrix (JEM) for community-based studies. Personal measurements of exposure to RCS from Europe and Canada were obtained for exposure modelling. A mixed-effects model was elaborated, with region/country and job titles as random effect terms. The fixed effect terms included year of measurement, measurement strategy (representative or worst-case), sampling duration (minutes) and a priori exposure intensity rating for each job from an independently developed JEM (none, low, high). 23,640 personal RCS exposure measurements, covering a time period from 1976 to 2009, were available for modelling. The model indicated an overall downward time trend in RCS exposure levels of -6% per year. Exposure levels were higher in the UK and Canada, and lower in Northern Europe and Germany. Worst-case sampling was associated with higher reported exposure levels and an increase in sampling duration was associated with lower reported exposure levels. Highest predicted RCS exposure levels in the reference year (1998) were for chimney bricklayers (geometric mean 0.11 mg m(-3)), monument carvers and other stone cutters and carvers (0.10 mg m(-3)). The resulting model enables us to predict time-, job-, and region/country-specific exposure levels of RCS. These predictions will be used in the SYNERGY study, an ongoing pooled multinational community-based case-control study on lung cancer. PMID:22001827

  19. Consumer exposure modelling under REACH: Assessing the defaults.

    PubMed

    Oltmanns, J; Neisel, F; Heinemeyer, G; Kaiser, E; Schneider, K

    2015-07-01

    Consumer exposure to chemicals from products and articles is rarely monitored. Since an assessment of consumer exposure has become particularly important under the European REACH Regulation, dedicated modelling approaches with exposure assessment tools are applied. The results of these tools are critically dependent on the default input values embedded in the tools. These inputs were therefore compiled for three lower tier tools (ECETOC TRA (version 3.0), EGRET and REACT)) and benchmarked against a higher tier tool (ConsExpo (version 4.1)). Mostly, conservative input values are used in the lower tier tools. Some cases were identified where the lower tier tools used less conservative values than ConsExpo. However, these deviations only rarely resulted in less conservative exposure estimates compared to ConsExpo, when tested in reference scenarios. This finding is mainly due to the conservatism of (a) the default value for the thickness of the product layer (with complete release of the substance) used for the prediction of dermal exposure and (b) the complete release assumed for volatile substances (i.e. substances with a vapour pressure ⩾10Pa) for inhalation exposure estimates. The examples demonstrate that care must be taken when changing critical defaults in order to retain conservative estimates of consumer exposure to chemicals. PMID:25908511

  20. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models in human exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, K.

    1995-12-31

    The potential dose received by an individual during defined exposure situations can be determined using personal dosimeters or estimated by combining information on exposure scenarios with the environmental concentration (C.) of chemicals. With the latter approach, not only the potential dose but also the internal dose (i.e., amount of chemical that has been absorbed and available for interaction with receptors) and biologically-effective dose (i.e., amount of chemical that actually reaches the cellular sites where interaction with macromolecules occur) can be estimated if C. is provided as an input to PBPK models. These models are mathematical representations of the interrelationships among the critical determinants of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of chemicals in biota. Since the compartments in this model correspond to biologically relevant tissues or tissue groups, the amount of chemical reaching specific target organ(s) can be estimated. Further, the PBPK models permit the use of biological monitoring data such as urinary levels of metabolites, hemoglobin adduct levels, and alveolar air concentrations, to reconstruct the exposure levels and scenarios for specific subgroups of populations. These models are also useful in providing estimates of target tissue dose in humans simultaneously exposed to chemicals in various media (air, water, soil, food) by different routes (oral, dermal, inhalation). Several examples of exposure assessment for volatile organic chemicals using PBPK models for mammals will be presented, and the strategies for development of these models for other classes of chemicals highlighted.

  1. Spatial aspects of building and population exposure data and their implications for global earthquake exposure modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dell’Acqua, F.; Gamba, P.; Jaiswal, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses spatial aspects of the global exposure dataset and mapping needs for earthquake risk assessment. We discuss this in the context of development of a Global Exposure Database for the Global Earthquake Model (GED4GEM), which requires compilation of a multi-scale inventory of assets at risk, for example, buildings, populations, and economic exposure. After defining the relevant spatial and geographic scales of interest, different procedures are proposed to disaggregate coarse-resolution data, to map them, and if necessary to infer missing data by using proxies. We discuss the advantages and limitations of these methodologies and detail the potentials of utilizing remote-sensing data. The latter is used especially to homogenize an existing coarser dataset and, where possible, replace it with detailed information extracted from remote sensing using the built-up indicators for different environments. Present research shows that the spatial aspects of earthquake risk computation are tightly connected with the availability of datasets of the resolution necessary for producing sufficiently detailed exposure. The global exposure database designed by the GED4GEM project is able to manage datasets and queries of multiple spatial scales.

  2. Global Exposure Modelling of Semivolatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmo, F.; Lammel, G.; Maier-Reimer, E.

    2008-12-01

    Organic compounds which are persistent and toxic as the agrochemicals γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, lindane) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) pose a hazard for the ecosystems. These compounds are semivolatile, hence multicompartmental substances and subject to long-range transport (LRT) in atmosphere and ocean. Being lipophilic, they accumulate in exposed organism tissues and biomagnify along food chains. The multicompartmental global fate and LRT of DDT and lindane in the atmosphere and ocean have been studied using application data for 1980, on a decadal scale using a model based on the coupling of atmosphere and (for the first time for these compounds) ocean General Circulation Models (ECHAM5 and MPI-OM). The model system encompasses furthermore 2D terrestrial compartments (soil and vegetation) and sea ice, a fully dynamic atmospheric aerosol (HAM) module and an ocean biogeochemistry module (HAMOCC5). Large mass fractions of the compounds are found in soil. Lindane is also found in comparable amount in ocean. DDT has the longest residence time in almost all compartments. The sea ice compartment locally almost inhibits volatilization from the sea. The air/sea exchange is also affected , up to a reduction of 35 % for DDT by partitioning to the organic phases (suspended and dissolved particulate matter) in the global oceans. Partitioning enhances vertical transport in the sea. Ocean dynamics are found to be more significant for vertical transport than sinking associated with particulate matter. LRT in the global environment is determined by the fast atmospheric circulation. Net meridional transport taking place in the ocean is locally effective mostly via western boundary currents, upon applications at mid- latitudes. The pathways of the long-lived semivolatile organic compounds studied include a sequence of several cycles of volatilisation, transport in the atmosphere, deposition and transport in the ocean (multihopping substances). Multihopping is

  3. AVAILABLE MICRO-ACTIVITY DATA AND THEIR APPLICABILITY TO AGGREGATE EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several human exposure models have been developed in recent years to address children's aggregate and cumulative exposures to pesticides under the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. These models estimate children's exposures via all significant routes and pathways including ...

  4. High sensitive X-ray films to detect electron showers in 100 GeV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taira, T.; Kazuno, M.; Shirai, T.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Nishimura, J.; Fujii, M.; Yoshida, A.; Aizu, H.; Nomura, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Nonscreen type X-ray films were used in emulsion chamber experiments to detect high energy showers in cosmic rays. Ranges of the detection threshold is from about 1 to 2 TeV depending on the exposure conditions. Different types of X-ray films and sheets i.e. high sensitive screen type X-ray films and luminescence sheets were tested. The threshold of the shower detection is found to be about 200 GeV, which is much lower than that of nonscreen type X-ray films. These films are useful to detect showers in the medium energy range, a few hundred GeV, of the cosmic ray electrons.

  5. The primary composition beyond 10 to the 5th power GeV as deduced from high energy hadrons and muons in air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    1985-01-01

    Data obtained from a large set of air shower simulation calculations with use of highly refined hadronic interaction and shower simulation model are presented, in an attempt to solve the problem of primary chemical composition beyond 100,000 GeV total energy. It is rated that high energy hadrons in air showers offer a rather unique primary mass signature and show that the interpretation of high energy muon data is much more ambiguous. Predictions are compared with experimental data.

  6. Model of spacecraft atomic oxygen and solar exposure microenvironments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Pippin, H. G.

    1993-01-01

    Computer models of environmental conditions in Earth orbit are needed for the following reasons: (1) derivation of material performance parameters from orbital test data, (2) evaluation of spacecraft hardware designs, (3) prediction of material service life, and (4) scheduling spacecraft maintenance. To meet these needs, Boeing has developed programs for modeling atomic oxygen (AO) and solar radiation exposures. The model allows determination of AO and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposures for spacecraft surfaces (1) in arbitrary orientations with respect to the direction of spacecraft motion, (2) overall ranges of solar conditions, and (3) for any mission duration. The models have been successfully applied to prediction of experiment environments on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and for analysis of selected hardware designs for deployment on other spacecraft. The work on these models has been reported at previous LDEF conferences. Since publication of these reports, a revision has been made to the AO calculation for LDEF, and further work has been done on the microenvironments model for solar exposure.

  7. Assessing exposure metrics for PM and birth weight models.

    PubMed

    Gray, Simone C; Edwards, Sharon E; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2010-07-01

    The link between air pollution exposure and adverse birth outcomes is of public health concern due to the relationship between poor pregnancy outcomes and the onset of childhood and adult diseases. As personal exposure measurements are difficult and expensive to obtain, proximate measures of air pollution exposure are traditionally used. We explored how different air pollution exposure metrics affect birth weight regression models. We examined the effect of maternal exposure to ambient levels of particulate matter <10, <2.5 mum in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10), PM(2.5)) on birth weight among infants in North Carolina. We linked maternal residence to the closest monitor during pregnancy for 2000-2002 (n=350,754). County-level averages of air pollution concentrations were estimated for the entire pregnancy and each trimester. For a finer spatially resolved metric, we calculated exposure averages for women living within 20, 10, and 5 km of a monitor. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the association between exposure and birth weight, adjusting for standard covariates. In the county-level model, an interquartile increase in PM(10) and PM(2.5) during the entire gestational period reduced the birth weight by 5.3 g (95% CI: 3.3-7.4) and 4.6 g (95% CI: 2.3-6.8), respectively. This model also showed a reduction in birth weight for PM(10) (7.1 g, 95% CI: 1.0-13.2) and PM(2.5) (10.4 g, 95% CI: 6.4-14.4) during the third trimester. Proximity models for 20, 10, and 5 km distances showed results similar to the county-level models. County-level models assume that exposure is spatially homogeneous over a larger surface area than proximity models. Sensitivity analysis showed that at varying spatial resolutions, there is still a stable and negative association between air pollution and birth weight, despite North Carolina's consistent attainment of federal air quality standards. PMID:19773814

  8. AN OVERVIEW OF HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING ACTIVITIES AT THE U.S. EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The computational modeling of human exposure to environmental pollutants is one of the primary activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)'s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). Assessment of human exposures is a critical part of the overall risk assessm...

  9. Probabilistic modeling of financial exposure to flood in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncoulon, David; Quantin, Antoine; Leblois, Etienne

    2014-05-01

    CCR is a French reinsurance company which offers natural catastrophe covers with the State guarantee. Within this framework, CCR develops its own models to assess its financial exposure to floods, droughts, earthquakes and other perils, and thus the exposure of insurers and the French State. A probabilistic flood model has been developed in order to estimate the financial exposure of the Nat Cat insurance market to flood events, depending on their annual occurrence probability. This presentation is organized in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the development of a flood hazard and damage model (ARTEMIS). The model calibration and validation on historical events are then described. In the second part, the coupling of ARTEMIS with two generators of probabilistic events is achieved: a stochastic flow generator and a stochastic spatialized precipitation generator, adapted from the SAMPO model developed by IRSTEA. The analysis of the complementary nature of these two generators is proposed: the first one allows generating floods on the French hydrological station network; the second allows simulating surface water runoff and Small River floods, even on ungauged rivers. Thus, the simulation of thousands of non-occured, but possible events allows us to provide for the first time an estimate of the financial exposure to flooding in France at different scales (commune, department, country) and from different points of view (hazard, vulnerability and damages).

  10. Multimedia transport of organic contaminants and exposure modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; McKone, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Human exposures to organic contaminants in the environment are a complex function of human factors, physicochemical properties of the contaminants, and characteristics of the environmental media in which the contaminants reside. One subject of interest in the screening of organic chemicals for the purpose of identifying exposure pathways of potential concern is the relationship between exposures and contaminant properties. To study such relationships, a multimedia environmental model termed GEOTOX is used to predict the equilibrium partitioning and transport of ''reference'' organic chemicals between compartments representing different media (i.e., soil layers, ground water, air, biota, etc.) of a contaminated landscape. Reference chemicals, which are added to the surface soil of a landscape, are defined by properties consisting of the Henry's law constant, soil water-soil organic carbon partition coefficient, and bioconcentration factors. The steady-state concentrations of the chemical in the GEOTOX compartments are then used to estimate lifetime exposures (in mg/kg-d) to the compartments for individuals living in the contaminated landscape. Exposure pathways addressed include ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Local sensitivity analyses are performed to determine which chemical and landscape properties have the greatest effect on the exposure estimates. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.