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Sample records for shown odd physics

  1. Electric dipole moments as probes of new CP-odd physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ritz, Adam

    2009-12-17

    We review the importance of precision probes for flavor-diagonal CP-violation, specifically searches for electric dipole moments of nucleons, atoms and molecules, in accessing new CP-odd physics at high scales. We summarize the effective field theory analysis of observable EDMs in terms of a general set of CP-odd operators at 1 GeV, and the ensuing model-independent new physics constraints, incorporating the recently improved limit on the Hg EDM. We also discuss the current status of these limits in the context of 1- and 2-loop contributions in supersymmetric models.

  2. Enceladus's subsurface sea is part of a global ocean as shown by measured physical libration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P.; Tajeddine, R.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Burns, J. A.; Joseph, J.; Loredo, T. J.; Helfenstein, P.; Porco, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Saturnian satellite Enceladus vigorously vents liquid water and vapor from fractures within a south polar depression. The source appears to be a liquid reservoir rather than active heating, but the extent and location of any subsurface liquid region is not directly observable. We use measurements of control points across the surface of Enceladus from seven years of spacecraft observations to determine the satellite's precise rotation state; we find a forced physical libration of 0.120 ± 0.014° (2σ). This value is too large to be consistent with Enceladus's core being rigidly connected to its ice shell, and thus implies the presence of a global ocean rather than a solitary polar sea. Together with other constraints, our results imply that the global ocean is thin and connected to a thicker sea under the south polar terrain. We present models of the range of shell, ocean, and core sizes consistent with the libration and other geophysical data. The maintenance of a global ocean within Enceladus is problematic according to some thermal models and so may require particular satellite properties or a surprisingly dissipative Saturn.

  3. At Odds: Concerns Raised by Using Odds Ratios for Continuous or Common Dichotomous Outcomes in Research on Physical Activity and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Gina S.; Underhill, Lindsay J.; Jack, Darby; Richards, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher; Rundle, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Research on obesity and the built environment has often featured logistic regression and the corresponding parameter, the odds ratio. Use of odds ratios for common outcomes such obesity may unnecessarily hinder the validity, interpretation, and communication of research findings. Methods We identified three key issues raised by the use of odds ratios, illustrating them with data on walkability and body mass index from a study of 13,102 New York City residents. Results First, dichotomization of continuous measures such as body mass index discards theoretically relevant information, reduces statistical power, and amplifies measurement error. Second, odds ratios are systematically higher (further from the null) than prevalence ratios; this inflation is trivial for rare outcomes, but substantial for common outcomes like obesity. Third, odds ratios can lead to incorrect conclusions during tests of interactions. The odds ratio in a particular subgroup might higher simply because the outcome is more common (and the odds ratio inflated) compared with other subgroups. Conclusion Our recommendations are to take full advantage of continuous outcome data when feasible and to use prevalence ratios in place of odds ratios for common dichotomous outcomes. When odds ratios must be used, authors should document outcome prevalence across exposure groups. PMID:23002407

  4. Anxiety and physical health problems increase the odds of women having more severe symptoms of depression.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sandra J; Simeonova, Diana I; Kimmel, Mary C; Battle, Cynthia L; Maki, Pauline M; Flynn, Heather A

    2016-06-01

    Severely depressed women incur substantial disability and suicide risk, necessitating an understanding of factors that may contribute to severe depression. The purpose of this research was to determine the degree to which age, physical morbidity, anxiety, and hormonal status predict the likelihood of severe depression among women with mood disorders (n = 298). Data arose from a standardized battery of measures in a multi-center clinical registry of patients with mood disorders. The women were being treated at 17 participating sites of the National Network of Depression Centers. Results of logistic regression analyses indicate that a woman's level of anxiety was the strongest predictor of her likelihood of having severe depression (Exp(B) = 1.33, p = .000), including thoughts of death or suicide. The number of physical health problems that a woman reported was also a significant predictor (Exp(B) = 1.09, p = .04). Neither age nor hormonal status was significant in the final model, although a trend was observed for women with surgically induced menopause to have more severe depression. Findings support the need to work closely with medical practitioners to address physical health problems as part of the treatment plan for depression and to give comorbid anxiety and depression equal priority in symptom management. PMID:26403982

  5. Content Analysis of Taiwanese 14 Year Olds' Information Processing Operations Shown in Cognitive Structures Following Physics Instruction, with Relations to Science Attainment and Scientific Epistemological Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study of Taiwanese 14-year-olds' (n=48) cognitive structures derived from the instruction of basic atomic physics. Finds that even academically above-average students tended to use relatively lower-level modes of knowledge construction, focusing on reciting or describing specific factual knowledge in physics. (Contains 27 references.)…

  6. Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus 184Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P. C.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus 184 73Ta111 is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from 184Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that 184Hf ( Q_{β}=1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β-branches to 184Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak ( 1fu β-branches populating J^{π}=2- levels in 184Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying ( Ex = 260(40) keV) high-spin ( J^{π}=10-) long-lived isomer in this nucleus.

  7. Odd perfect numbers have at least nine distinct prime factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Pace P.

    2007-12-01

    An odd perfect number, N , is shown to have at least nine distinct prime factors. If 3nmid N then N must have at least twelve distinct prime divisors. The proof ultimately avoids previous computational results for odd perfect numbers.

  8. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... Research in Bethesda. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson "Against the Odds" is a remarkable story of achievement ...

  9. Odd numbers of photons and teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Enk, S.J. van

    2003-02-01

    Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.

  10. Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2010-09-01

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.

  11. Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2010-09-15

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.

  12. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  13. Odds of observing the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, A.

    2010-03-15

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H{sub O}/H{sub I}){sup 2}, where H{sub O} is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H{sub I} is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  14. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1993-09-14

    In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of {sup 170}Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements.

  15. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1985-01-15

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earch region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  16. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1984-09-07

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-09-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Nonadiabatic effects in odd-odd deformed proton emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Patial, M.; Jain, A. K.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2011-11-30

    We present for the first time, the nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach to study proton emission from odd-odd deformed nuclei. Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wavefunctions and hence our formalism allows us to study their complete role on the decay widths. First results obtained for the nucleus {sup 112}Cs suggest a weak dependance on Coriolis effect. However, we are able to reproduce the experimental half-lives without assuming the exact Nilsson orbital from which the decay proceeds.

  19. 1. VIEW IN ROOM 125, BIOASSAY LABORATORY, SHOWN IS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW IN ROOM 125, BIOASSAY LABORATORY, SHOWN IS THE FIRST STEP IN A SIX-STEP PROCESS TO ANALYZE URINE SAMPLES FOR PLUTONIUM AND URANIUM CONTAMINATION. IN THIS STEP, NITRIC ACID IS ADDED TO SAMPLE, AND THE SAMPLE IS BOILED DOWN TO A WHITE POWDER. - Rocky Flats Plant, Health Physics Laboratory, On Central Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1993-09-01

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of {sup 224}Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides.

  1. On Quantizable Odd Lie Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, Anton; Merkulov, Sergei; Willwacher, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the obstruction to the deformation quantization of Poisson structures in infinite dimensions, we introduce the notion of a quantizable odd Lie bialgebra. The main result of the paper is a construction of the highly non-trivial minimal resolution of the properad governing such Lie bialgebras, and its link with the theory of so-called quantizable Poisson structures.

  2. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-03-01

    The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical

  3. Excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthaus, T.; Reiter, P.; Hess, H.; Kalkühler, M.; Wendt, A.; Wiens, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Morgan, T.; Thirolf, P. G.; Wirth, H.-F.; Faestermann, T.

    2013-04-01

    The completely unknown spectrum of excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa was studied employing the one-neutron transfer reaction 231Pa(d,t)230Pa at a beam energy of 22 MeV. The excitation energy and the cross section were measured for, in total, 81 states below 1.4 MeV. Level assignments of these states are based on a semiempirical model and comparison with theoretical predictions, based on distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations for the cross sections. For 12 rotational bands the band-head energy and the rotational parameter are determined. The K quantum numbers and the Nilsson configurations are established. Empirical values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and for Newby shifts are obtained.

  4. Structure of the yrast band in the odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Sai, K. Vijay; Gowrishankar, R.; Sainath, M.

    2011-05-15

    The six-level sequence deduced for the odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm in the high-spin studies following spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf is shown to constitute the K{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} yrast band having the two-quasiparticle configuration {l_brace}p:5/2[532]+ n:3/2[521]{r_brace}. Spin parities I{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} through 9{sup +} are assigned to the earlier suggested six levels. The location and the decay {gamma}'s of the 10{sup +} level of this band are indicated. It is also pointed out that there are no {gamma} rays common to these postfission high-spin spectra and those seen in the {sup 156}Nd {beta}-decay studies.

  5. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Meissner effect of odd-frequency superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Katsufumi

    2001-10-01

    We present theoretical results on the Meissner effect of odd-frequency superconductors with the order parameter of the form, sgn(ωn)φ(k,iωn), where φ(k,iωn) is even in the Matsubara frequency ωn as in the conventional case. It is shown that the spectral function of the anomalous Green's function is given in the form of the Hilbert transformation of the one for the even-frequency part, and the anomalous contribution to the paramagnetic kernel consists of the conventional term but with the opposite sign and a term expressed by the digamma function. In the static limit the latter term reduces to twice the former one with the opposite sign so that the net contribution becomes the same as the conventional one. This indicates the presence of the Meissner effect for this class of the odd-frequency superconductors. A model interaction is discussed that leads to the order parameter mentioned above.

  7. Odd-frequency superconducting states with different types of Meissner response: Problem of coexistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fominov, Ya. V.; Tanaka, Y.; Asano, Y.; Eschrig, M.

    2015-04-01

    We consider physical properties of a superconductor with a recently proposed type of odd-frequency pairing that exhibits diamagnetic Meissner response ("odd-dia state"). Such a state was suggested in order to address stability issues arising in an odd-frequency superconducting state with paramagnetic Meissner response ("odd-para state"). Assuming the existence of an odd-dia state (due to a proper retarded interaction), we study its coexistence with an odd-para state. The latter is known to be generated as an induced superconducting component in, e.g., singlet superconductor/ferromagnet proximity structures or triplet superconductor/normal metal systems. Calculating the superfluid density of the mixed odd-para/odd-dia state and the Josephson current between the odd-para and odd-dia states, we find that the expressions for the currents in both cases have nonvanishing imaginary contributions and are therefore unphysical. We show that a realization of the odd-dia state implies the absence of a Hamiltonian description of the system, and suggest that there exists no physically realizable perturbation that could give rise to the spontaneous symmetry breaking necessary for an actual realization of the odd-dia superconducting state.

  8. General parity-odd CMB bispectrum estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2014-05-01

    We develop a methodology for estimating parity-odd bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This is achieved through the extension of the original separable modal methodology to parity-odd bispectrum domains (ℓ{sub 1}+ℓ{sub 2}+ℓ{sub 3} = odd). Through numerical tests of the parity-odd modal decomposition with some theoretical bispectrum templates, we verify that the parity-odd modal methodology can successfully reproduce the CMB bispectrum, without numerical instabilities. We also present simulated non-Gaussian maps produced by modal-decomposed parity-odd bispectra, and show the consistency with the exact results. Our new methodology is applicable to all types of parity-odd temperature and polarization bispectra.

  9. Extremal charged rotating dilaton black holes in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Employing higher-order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.

  10. Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2015-01-01

    Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: ℓ{sub 1} + ℓ{sub 2} + ℓ{sub 3} = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.

  11. Effect of time-odd fields on odd-even mass differences of semi-magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kun; Zhou, XianRong; Cui, JiWei; Sagawa, H.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of time-odd fields of Skyrme interaction on neutron odd-even mass differences is studied in the framework of axially deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock (DSHF)+BCS model. To this end, we take into account both the time-even and time-odd fields to calculate the one-neutron and two-neutron separation energies and pairing gaps of semi-magic Ca, Ni, and Sn isotopic chains. In the calculations, a surface-type pairing interaction (IS pairing) and an isospin dependent contact pairing interaction (IS+IV pairing) are adopted on top of Skyrme interactions SLy4, SLy6 and SkM*, respectively. We find that the time-odd fields have in general small effects on pairing gaps, but achieve better agreement with experimental data using SLy4 and Sly6 interactions, respectively. It is also shown that the calculations with IS+IV pairing reproduce the one-neutron separation energies of Sn isotopes better than those with the IS pairing interaction when the contributions of the time-odd fields are included.

  12. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  13. Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis ... Threatening Bacterial Infection Remains Mysterious This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  14. The nuclear structure of deformed odd-odd nuclei: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Jain, A.K.; Sood, P.C.; Sheline, R.K.

    1988-06-06

    Previous surveys of experimental level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei have been updated with recent results for the lanthanide and actinide regions. The relative strengths of the effective neutron-proton interaction derived from these data are compared. The predictive power of a semi-empirical model for level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei is demonstrated. Comparison is made with recent Hartree-Fock calculations of selected nuclei.

  15. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…

  16. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, Sam

    2003-07-01

    This is an enjoyable book by a particle physicist of some distinction, who wrote several books on the theoretical aspects of his subject. He died soon after the book was finished. This book would seem a splendid tribute to his memory. The first five chapters are an excellent introduction to quantum mechanics from the viewpoint of a particle physicist. (A solid state physicist might include some other topics.) The next three chapters give some feeling for the excitement of particle physics and describe some of the zoo of curious creatures discovered in the depths of particle accelerators, and the forces between them: strong, electromagnetic and weak. The final chapter, 'Quantum Fields', is a tour de force. The author has a light touch and a pleasant sense of humour. He does not attempt to explain everything he mentions, but he makes it very clear when he does not. These points are beautifully illustrated by the following extract from the final chapter (p 245). 'It was said above that virtual particles come into play when the real collision ingredients are all close together. In fact, virtual particles are always in play. Even a single real particle, moving along in isolation, can emit and reabsorb virtual particles over and over again. This has the effect of shifting the physical mass of the particle away from the 'bare' value that entered into the Hamiltonian. That shift inevitably turns out to be slightly infinite, and there is a whole technology for isolating and redefining away this and a few other infinities that are characteristic of renormalisable quantum field theories. But we forebear to pursue these delicacies any further here.' I particularly like 'slightly infinite'. The publisher's blurb describes this book as being suitable for popular science readers. It is not. Its level of mathematics would make it very heavy going for anyone who had not taken at least one course in mathematics at university. This is a book which can be strongly recommended as a

  17. Measuring additive interaction using odds ratios

    PubMed Central

    Kalilani, Linda; Atashili, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Interaction measured on the additive scale has been argued to be better correlated with biologic interaction than when measured on the multiplicative scale. Measures of interaction on the additive scale have been developed using risk ratios. However, in studies that use odds ratios as the sole measure of effect, the calculation of these measures of additive interaction is usually performed by directly substituting odds ratios for risk ratios. Yet assessing additive interaction based on replacing risk ratios by odds ratios in formulas that were derived using the former may be erroneous. In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which three measures of additive interaction – the interaction contrast ratio (ICR), the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S), estimated using odds ratios versus using risk ratios differ as the incidence of the outcome of interest increases in the source population and/or as the magnitude of interaction increases. Our analysis shows that the difference between the two depends on the measure of interaction used, the type of interaction present, and the baseline incidence of the outcome. Substituting odds ratios for risk ratios, when calculating measures of additive interaction, may result in misleading conclusions. Of the three measures, AP appears to be the most robust to this direct substitution. Formulas that use stratum specific odds and odds ratios to accurately calculate measures of additive interaction are presented. PMID:16620385

  18. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  19. The Odd Power of Dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Peng

    2014-12-01

    In ancient China, water has been regarded as one of the five vital components of life. It has been observed that water has many fascinating properties: water is ‘soft’ yet it can penetrate a hard rock; water is ‘pure’ yet it can tolerate other beings. Because of its unique properties, water is often associated with good quality and has been given the highest praise by Laozi in his book Tao Te Ching saying: the highest/best quality that one can have is being like water. However, little did people understand why and how water possesses such fascinating properties. Modern scientific developments made people realize that the macroscopic liquid water is made of a large number of water molecules held together via a network of hydrogen bonds. And those wonderful properties of water are merely the macroscopic manifestations of the interactions between water molecules and other molecules. For example, the dissolving ability of water is due to the fact that the interaction between a water molecule and the other molecular species is stronger than the interactions among their own molecular species. In fact the interactions between any two molecules are governed by the same physics and are termed intermolecular interaction (or intermolecular forces in some literature, although technically ‘force’ is incorrect usage here). Although the very existence of the intermolecular interactions is easily proved, e.g. the mere presence of the solid phase of matter, and scientists today have recognized that the seemingly weak intermolecular interactions essentially hold the world together through a delicate and cooperative process, the theoretical understanding of various intermolecular interactions is still far from satisfactory. On the practical side, theoreticians need to balance computational cost and accuracy. Because of the relatively small magnitudes of the intermolecular interactions, errors that appear tiny compared to the usual chemical (covalent) bonding may change

  20. GT Strength in Odd-A Nuclei^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J. W.; Du, Q. Q.

    1998-04-01

    We measured the complete set of polarization-transfer observables (D_ij) for the ^13C(p,n)^13N and ^15N(p,n)^15O reactions at 135 MeV. From the D_ijs we constructed the spin-independent, spin-longitudinal, and spin-transverse responses [1] D_0, D_q, Dn and D_p. From these responses we extracted, in a model-independent way, the Δ J=0 and Δ J=1 (``F'' and ``GT'') fractions of the J^π=1/2^-arrow1/2^- g.s. to g.s. transitions for these reactions. The ``F'' fraction, f_F=D_0(0^circ); the ``GT'' fraction, f_GT=D_q(0^circ)+D_n(0^circ)+D_p(0^circ)= 1- D_0(0^circ). The extracted GT fractions, f_GT, are substantially larger than one would predict from β-decay matrix elements and the systematics of the (p,n) reaction on even-A nuclei. These results confirm earlier, model-dependent determinations of f_GT obtained from the (p,n) reaction on ^13C, ^15N and ^39K at other energies [2], [3], [4], indicating that considerable caution must be used when extracting B(GT) matrix elements from odd-A (p,n) data. * Research supported in part by the U.S. NSF. [1] M. Ichimura, K. Kawahigashi, Phys. Rev. C 45 1822 (1992). [2] T. N. Taddeucci, C. A. Goulding, T. A. Carey, R. C. Byrd, C. D. Goodman, C. Gaarde, J. Larsen, D. Horen, J. Rapaport, and E. Sugarbaker, Nucl. Phys. A469 125 (1987). [3] H. Sakai, H. Okamura, N. Matsuoka, A. Shimizu, T. Suda, M. Ieiri and H. M. Shimizu, Nuclear Physics A579 45-61 (1994). [4] W. Huang, Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana U., 1991, (unpublished).

  1. 1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts and drive shafts. This power system drove the tumblers which cleaned chain in building #7. - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  2. Interior view, anteroom of the postmaster general's reception hall; shown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, anteroom of the postmaster general's reception hall; shown here are two of the six aluminum statues of postal delivery men - New Post Office Building, Twelfth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing over dam. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  4. 1. East side of lower dam shown with water level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East side of lower dam shown with water level dropped. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  5. Odd-frequency Superconductivity in Driven Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Balatsky, Alexander

    We show that Berezinskii's classification of the symmetries of Cooper pair amplitudes in terms of parity under transformations that invert spin, space, time, and orbital degrees of freedom holds for driven systems even in the absence of translation invariance. We then discuss the conditions under which pair amplitudes which are odd in frequency can emerge in driven systems. Considering a model Hamiltonian for a superconductor coupled to an external driving potential, we investigate the influence of the drive on the anomalous Green's function, density of states, and spectral function. We find that the anomalous Green's function develops odd in frequency component in the presence of an external drive. Furthermore we investigate how these odd-frequency terms are related to satellite features in the density of states and spectral function. Supported by US DOE BES E 304.

  6. Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances.

    PubMed

    Depetri, G I; Sartorelli, J C; Marin, B; Baptista, M S

    2016-07-01

    Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case. PMID:27575118

  7. Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depetri, G. I.; Sartorelli, J. C.; Marin, B.; Baptista, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case.

  8. Experimental level-structure determination in odd-odd actinide nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1985-04-04

    The status of experimental determination of level structure in odd-odd actinide nuclei is reviewed. A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei is applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation are derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings are used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  9. Even-odd effect in short antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machens, A.; Konstantinidis, N. P.; Waldmann, O.; Schneider, I.; Eggert, S.

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on chemically synthesized magnetic molecular chains, we investigate the lowest-lying energy band of short spin-s antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains focusing on effects of open boundaries. By numerical diagonalization we find that the Landé pattern in the energy levels, i.e., E(S)∝S(S+1) for total spin S, known from, e.g., ring-shaped nanomagnets, can be recovered in odd-membered chains, while strong deviations are found for the lowest excitations in chains with an even number of sites. This particular even-odd effect in the short Heisenberg chains cannot be explained by simple effective Hamiltonians and symmetry arguments. We go beyond these approaches, taking into account quantum fluctuations by means of a path-integral description and the valence bond basis, but the resulting quantum edge-spin picture which is known to work well for long chains does not agree with the numerical results for short chains and cannot explain the even-odd effect. Instead, by analyzing also the classical chain model, we show that spatial fluctuations dominate the physical behavior in short chains, with length N≲eπs, for any spin s. Such short chains are found to display a unique behavior, which is not related to the thermodynamic limit and cannot be described well by theories developed for this regime.

  10. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930

  11. Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-03-30

    An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.

  12. Even and odd coherent states of supersymmetric harmonic oscillators and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Davood; Motamedinasab, Amin; Anbaraki, Azam; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed even and odd superpositions of supercoherent states, similar to the standard even and odd coherent states of the harmonic oscillator. Then, their nonclassical properties, that is, squeezing and entanglement have been studied. We have observed that even supercoherent states show squeezing behavior for some values of parameters involved, while odd supercoherent states do not show squeezing at all. Also sub-Poissonian statistics have been observed for some ranges of the parameters in both states. We have also shown that these states may be considered as logical qubits which reduce to the Bell states at a limit, with concurrence equal to 1.

  13. 83. WEST ELEVATION OF EAST WING. SHOWN FROM LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. WEST ELEVATION OF EAST WING. SHOWN FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: CISTERN TOWER, BOILER CHIMNEY AND LARGE CHIMNEYS FROM BISCUIT KILNS 4 & 5. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-9. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  14. 9. WEST ELEVATION OF EAST WING. SHOWN FROM LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST ELEVATION OF EAST WING. SHOWN FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: CISTERN TOWER, BOILER CHIMNEY AND LARGE CHIMNEYS FROM BISCUIT KILNS 4 & 5. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  15. 9. Tower building. Hot water tap floor shown. Mixing vat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Tower building. Hot water tap floor shown. Mixing vat at center level. Juices mix and flow and left lower level. Copper kettles are down below view level. Looking toward front of building. - Tivoli-Union Brewery, 1320-1348 Tenth Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  16. 59. DETAIL OF THIRD PAYLOAD CONTROL PANEL IN CONSOLE SHOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. DETAIL OF THIRD PAYLOAD CONTROL PANEL IN CONSOLE SHOWN IN CA-133-1-A-58. NOTE 20-CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS PANEL IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. White Matter Development during Adolescence as Shown by Diffusion MRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Yuan, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    Previous volumetric developmental MRI studies of the brain have shown white matter development continuing through adolescence and into adulthood. This review presents current findings regarding white matter development and organization from diffusion MRI studies. The general trend during adolescence (age 12-18 years) is towards increasing…

  18. Contextual view of building 271 from across the river shown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 271 from across the river shown at center between coal sheds at left and building 91 at right; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marietta, Don E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)

  20. Odd-Man-Out and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diascro, Matthew N.; Brody, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between odd-man-out reaction time tasks and intelligence was examined in 2 experiments involving 79 college students. The two experiments indicate that tasks that assess the ability to perceive relationships among stimuli rapidly are good measures of general intelligence. (SLD)

  1. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  2. 59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of two large, unused, waste water settling tanks (near the city of New Haven, at some distance from the lock site). All members have been laid up with contemporary separating ties between them to ensure complete wetting during storage. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  3. Heterogeneity in dermatosparaxis is shown by contraction of collagen gels.

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, J A; Mitrangas, K; Bateman, J F

    1991-01-01

    Dermal fibroblasts from sheep exhibiting a mild form of dermatosparaxis were able to contract reconstituted, fibrillar collagen gels at the same rate as control dermal fibroblasts, indicating a normal interaction between the cells and a collagenous matrix. An extract from dermatosparactic skin was shown, after partial purification, to have N-proteinase activity, although the level of activity was much lower than found in normal skin. These data show that dermatosparaxis is a heterogeneous disease, since in the severe forms of the disease the defect has been characterized as an absence of N-proteinase and an inability of the cells to interact with and contract collagen gels. PMID:2060304

  4. Ganymede Galileo Regio High Resolution Mosaic Shown in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Ancient impact craters shown in this image of Jupiter's moon Ganymede taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft testify to the great age of the terrain, dating back several billion years. At the margin at the left, half of a 19-kilometer-diameter (12-mile) crater is visible. The dark and bright lines running from lower right to upper left and from top to bottom are deep furrows in the ancient crust of dirty water ice. The origin of the dark material is unknown, but it may be accumulated dark fragments from many meteorites that hit Ganymede. In this view, north is to the top, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left about 58 degrees above the horizon. The area shown is part of Ganymede's Galileo Regio region at latitude 18 degrees north, longitude 147 degrees west; it is about 46 by 64 kilometers (29 by 38 miles) in extent. Resolution is about 80 meters (262 feet) per pixel. The image was taken June 27 at a range of 7.563 kilometers (4,700 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http:// www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  5. Latino High School Graduation. Defying the Odds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romo, Harriett D.; Falbo, Toni

    This book describes how "at-risk" Hispanic youth defy the odds and stay in school to earn a high school diploma. Information about success is needed because Hispanic youth drop out at about twice the rate of non-Hispanic Whites. The discussion is based on the results of a 4-year longitudinal study of 100 Hispanic youth labeled at-risk by their…

  6. Stratospheric distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional pole-to-pole chemical model of the stratosphere is developed which extends from 8 to 38 km in altitude. Atmospheric motions are simulated by mean vertical and meridional winds and eddy diffusion coefficients. Seasonally averaged distributions of important odd nitrogen (NO, NO2, and HNO3) and odd hydrogen (H, OH, HO2, H2O2) compounds are computed. Photodissociation of N2O leads to production of odd nitrogen in the stratosphere, and the odd nitrogen is ultimately removed by downward transport into the troposphere and by rain-out (modeled by a rain-out lifetime of 30 days below 8-km altitude). Results are presented for a quasi-steady state in which seasonal cycles repeat themselves. These results show significant latitudinal as well as vertical variations in the predicted species which emphasize the need for at least two dimensions in accurate stratospheric modeling. Computed concentrations are compared with observations when they exist.

  7. Odd top partners at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Collins, Jack H.; Farina, Marco; Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    LHC searches for fermionic top partners T focus on three decay topologies: T →b W , T →t Z , and T →t h . However, top partners may carry new conserved quantum numbers that forbid these decays. The simplest possibility is a conserved parity, under which the top partner is odd and all SM states are even. In this case, decays of top partners may involve new particle-odd scalars, leading to signal topologies more commonly associated with supersymmetry, either with or without R -parity conservation. We study a simplified model in which this possibility is realized, and estimate the bounds on the top partner mass in this model implied by LHC searches for supersymmetry. We find that the bounds can be significantly weaker than in the conventional top partner decay scenario. For example, if the new parity is exact, a 500 GeV top partner is allowed as long as the lightest parity-odd scalar mass is between 325 and 500 GeV. The lower allowed top partner mass reduces the need for fine-tuning in the Higgs mass parameter, compared to the conventional decay scenario. We also present an explicit model, the oddest little Higgs, which exhibits this phenomenology.

  8. Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.

    2009-08-26

    We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.

  9. Ganymede Uruk Sulcus High Resolution Mosaic Shown in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four Galileo high-resolution images of the Uruk Sulcus region of Jupiter's moon Ganymede (Latitude 11 N, Longitude: 170 W) is shown within the context of an image of the region taken by Voyager 2 in 1979, which in turn is shown within the context of a full-disk image of Ganymede. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, nearly overhead. The area shown is about 120 by 110 kilometers (75 by 68 miles) in extent and the smallest features that can be discerned are 74 meters (243 feet) in size in the Galileo images and 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) in the Voyager data. The higher resolution Galileo images unveil the details of parallel ridges and troughs that are principal features in the brighter regions of Ganymede. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,448 kilometers (4,628 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  10. Appearance of p-odd nuclear forces in photoproduction of pions on /sup 6/Li

    SciTech Connect

    Rekalo, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies P-odd effects in the photoproduction of pions on Li-6 nuclei, ..gamma.. + Li-6 ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/ + He-6. Collisions of linearly and circularly polarized photons with a polarized nuclear target are studied, and in addition both vectorial and tensorial polarization are taken into account. It is shown that in the general case P-odd effects in ..gamma.. + Li-6..--> pi../sup +/ + He-6 are characterized by 18 real structure functions, which determine different P-odd asymmetries in the angular distribution of the pions. The structure functions in their turn depend on different products of three p-even and three p-odd amplitudes of the process.

  11. Gear Durability Shown To Be Improved by Superfinishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krautz, Timothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Gears, bearings, and similar mechanical elements transmit loads through contacting surfaces. At the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, we postulated that the fatigue lives of gears could be improved by providing smoother tooth surfaces. A superfinishing process was applied to a set of conventionally ground, aerospace-quality gears. This process produced a highly polished, mirrorlike surface as shown in the preceding photograph. The surface fatigue lives of both superfinished and conventionally ground gears were measured by experiments. The superfinished gears survived about four times longer than the conventionally ground gears. These superfinished gears were produced from conventionally ground, aerospace-quality gears whose geometry had been inspected. The gears were superfinished by placing them in a vibrating bath consisting of water, detergent, abrasive powder, and small pieces of zinc. Upon removal from the bath, the surfaces were highly polished, as depicted in the preceding photograph. The gears were again inspected, and dimensional measurements made before and after the superfinishing operation were compared. Superfinishing removed the peaks of the grinding marks and left a much smoother surface. Profile and spacing checks proved that the overall gear tooth shape was not affected in any harmful way. Superfinishing uniformly removed approximately 2.5 microns from each surface.

  12. Odd-parity D states in He.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.

    1972-01-01

    The states considered lie below the n = 2 threshold of He(+) and decay radiatively to the lower states. The most general D-state wave function of odd parity of two electrons is examined. The results presented are optimized with respect to four nonlinear parameters for 112 terms. A mass-polarization correction is given for all the states listed. The positions of the D states, including the reduced mass and the mass-polarization corrections, with respect to the ground state of He are reported.

  13. Empirical residual neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zheying; Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong

    2016-03-01

    Two types of average neutron-proton interaction formulas are compared: In the first type, neutron-proton interactions for even-even and odd-A nuclei extracted from experimental binding energies show a smooth behavior as a function of mass number A and are dominated by the contribution from the symmetry energy. Whereas in the second type large systematic staggering is seen between even-A and odd-A nuclei. This deviation is understood in terms of the additional neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei relative to the neighboring even-even and odd-A systems. We explore three possible ways to extract this additional interaction from the binding energy difference of neighboring nuclei. The extracted interactions are positive in nearly all cases and show weak dependence on the mass number. The empirical interactions are also compared with theoretical values extracted from recent nuclear mass models where large unexpected fluctuations are seen in certain nuclei. The reproduction of the residual neutron-proton interaction and the correction of those irregular fluctuations can be a good criterion for the refinement of those mass models.

  14. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

    2016-04-01

    In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  15. Structure of hard-hypersphere fluids in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, René D.; Santos, Andrés

    2007-11-01

    The structural properties of single component fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd space dimensionalities d are studied with an analytical approximation method that generalizes the rational function approximation earlier introduced in the study of hard-sphere fluids [S. B. Yuste and A. Santos, Phys. Rev. A 43, 5418 (1991)]. The theory makes use of the exact form of the radial distribution function to first order in density and extends it to finite density by assuming a rational form for a function defined in Laplace space, the coefficients being determined by simple physical requirements. Fourier transform in terms of reverse Bessel polynomials constitute the mathematical framework of this approximation, from which an analytical expression for the static structure factor is obtained. In its most elementary form, the method recovers the solution of the Percus-Yevick closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equation for hyperspheres at odd dimensions. The present formalism allows one to go beyond by yielding solutions with thermodynamic consistency between the virial and compressibility routes to any desired equation of state. Excellent agreement with available computer simulation data at d=5 and d=7 is obtained.

  16. Comparison of model results transporting the odd nitrogen family with results transporting separate odd nitrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    A fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric family transport model, designed to minimize computer requirements, is developed. The model was used to calculate the ambient and perturbed atmospheres in which odd nitrogen species are transported as a family, and the results were compared with calculations in which HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HO2NO2 are transported separately. It was found that ozone distributions computed by the two models for a present-day atmosphere are nearly identical. Good agreement was also found between calculated species concentrations and the ozone response, indicating the general applicability of the odd-nitrogen family approximations.

  17. Shell Model Description of the Odd-Odd Co and Cu Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, N. H.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Oliveira, J. R. B. de; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.

    2007-10-26

    The known excited states of the odd-odd nuclei {sup 54,56,58,60}Co and 60,62,64,66Cu were interpreted in the framework of the large scale shell model (LSSM), using several effective interactions and configuration spaces. For the description of the negative parity states, we have allowed one particle excitation to the g{sub 9/2} orbital. The LSSM using the GXPF1 effective interaction reproduces well the first excited states in all of these nuclei.

  18. Proton emission from the deformed odd-odd nuclei near drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patial, M.; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Proton emission from odd-odd nuclei is studied within the two quasiparticle plus rotor model which includes the non-adiabatic effects and the residual interaction between valence proton and neutron. Justification of the formalism is discussed through corroboration of our results with the experimental spectrum of 180Ta. Exact calculations are performed to get the proton emission halflives. Our results for the proton emitter 130Eu leads to the assignment of spin and parity Jπ = 1+ for the ground state. The role of Coriolis and residual neutron-proton interactions on the proton emission halflives and their interplay are also discussed.

  19. Topological Blount's theorem of odd-parity superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayshi, Shingo; Shiozaki, Ken; Sato, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Yukio

    2014-03-01

    Nontrivial nodal structures are one of the most salient features of gap functions of the unconventional superconductors. In a system with spin-orbit coupling and crystal field, the group theory plays a key role to determine the node of the gap function. From the group theoretical ground, Blount proved that the line node is ``vanishingly improbable'' in spin-triplet superconductors. Namely, it is impossible to create a stable line node in odd-parity superconductors. Our motivation is to compare the group theoretical result with topological stability of nodes by K-theory As a result, we found that K-theory not only rebuilds the original Blount's argument but also exhibits counterexamples with the stable line node. In this talk, we will show the physical interpretation of them.

  20. W${'}$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may show up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.

  1. W$${'}$$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may showmore » up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.« less

  2. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  3. The ODD protocol: A review and first update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Polhill, J. Gary; Giske, Jarl; Railsback, Steve F.

    2010-01-01

    The 'ODD' (Overview, Design concepts, and Details) protocol was published in 2006 to standardize the published descriptions of individual-based and agent-based models (ABMs). The primary objectives of ODD are to make model descriptions more understandable and complete, thereby making ABMs less subject to criticism for being irreproducible. We have systematically evaluated existing uses of the ODD protocol and identified, as expected, parts of ODD needing improvement and clarification. Accordingly, we revise the definition of ODD to clarify aspects of the original version and thereby facilitate future standardization of ABM descriptions. We discuss frequently raised critiques in ODD but also two emerging, and unanticipated, benefits: ODD improves the rigorous formulation of models and helps make the theoretical foundations of large models more visible. Although the protocol was designed for ABMs, it can help with documenting any large, complex model, alleviating some general objections against such models.

  4. Isospin and deformation studies in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Ekman, J.; Erten, O.; Fahlander, C.; Johansson, E. K.; Andreoiu, C.; Bengtsson, R.; Ragnarsson, I.; Bentley, M. A.; Williams, S. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Seweryniak, D.; Charity, R. J.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Svensson, C. E.

    2010-11-15

    High-spin states in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co have been investigated by the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 28}Si({sup 32}S,1{alpha}1p1n){sup 54}Co. Gamma-ray information gathered with the Ge detector array Gammasphere was correlated with evaporated particles detected in the charged particle detector system Microball and a 1{pi} neutron detector array. A significantly extended excitation scheme of {sup 54}Co is presented, which includes a candidate for the isospin T=1, 6{sup +} state of the 1f{sub 7/2}{sup -2} multiplet. The results are compared to large-scale shell-model calculations in the fp shell. Effective interactions with and without isospin-breaking terms have been used to probe isospin symmetry and isospin mixing. A quest for deformed high-spin rotational cascades proved negative. This feature is discussed by means of cranking calculations.

  5. Influence of Traxiality on the Signature Inversion in Odd Odd Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ren-Rong; Zhu, Shun-Quan; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Janos, Timár; Andree, Gizon; Jean, Gizon; Sohler, D.; Nyakó M., B.; Zolnai, L.; Paul S., E.

    2004-08-01

    The nature of signature inversion in the pig9/2nuh11/2 bands of odd-odd 98,102Rh nuclei is studied. Calculations are performed by using a triaxial rotor plus two-quasiparticle model and are compared with the experimentally observed signature inversions. The calculations reproduce well the observations and suggest that, in these bands, the signature inversion can be interpreted mainly as a competition between the Coriolis and the proton-neutron residual interactions in low K space. The triaxiality applied in the Hamiltonian enlarges the amplitudes of high spin signature zigzags at small triaxial deformation and might push the signature inversion point to higher spin at large triaxial deformation.

  6. Meeting report for "OddPols" 2014: the odds invite an even.

    PubMed

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2015-02-01

    The Ninth International Biennial Conference on RNA Polymerases I and III (the "OddPols") was held on June 19-21, 2014 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. Sponsored by New England Biolabs, the Cayman Chemical Company, the Rackham Graduate School and the University of Michigan Health System, and organized by David Engelke, Craig Pikaard, Lawrence Rothblum, Andrzej Wierzbicki and Astrid Engel. This year at the conference, the "odds" were increased by expanding the usual topics on the advances in RNA polymerases I and III research to include presentations on RNA polymerase IV and V. The keynote speaker, Craig Pikaard, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "Five nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases". The meeting drew attendees from fourteen countries that shared their research discoveries through oral and poster presentations. The talks were organized into 11 sessions covering seven distinct topics. Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants. PMID:25445280

  7. Chiral Symmetry and Signature Splitting in Odd-Odd Neutron deficient Pr Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetea, Mirela; Nikolova, Veronika; Crider, Benjamin

    2004-10-01

    Over the past few years, sufficient data have been accumulated to enable a meaningful study of the systematic trends in nuclei far from stability. While general characteristics seen in experiments are understood by various mean-field nuclear models, there are key features that are not fully explained. Of particular interest are the chiral symmetry (chiral bands) and signature splitting/inversion phenomena. We report on our investigation on the association of signature inversion in an odd-odd band of two quasiparticles pointed along different axes with the formation of chiral twin bands, and understanding systematic chiral symmetry and signature splitting/inversion features within the framework of particle rotor model for neutron deficient Pr nuclei. This work was supported by the NSF Grant No. PHY 0204811 and U.S. Research Corporation Grant No. CC5494.

  8. Odd frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen; Woelfle, Peter; Balatsky, Alexandar

    Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. While the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e. non-interacting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory allowing to discuss a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing. Work supported by USDOE DE-AC52-06NA25396 E304, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and ERC DM-321031.

  9. Positronium Decay and C-Odd Bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalsey, M.; Conti, R. S.

    1996-05-01

    Triplet-state orthopositronium (o-Ps) decay rate measurements are in marked disagreement by 0.17% with QED theoretical calculations done up to, but not including order α ^2 radiative and relativistic corrections. The existence of a rare exotic decay branch o-Ps arrow 2γ + X^0 (where X^0 is a neutral, massive C-odd boson) could resolve the discrepancy. We have searched for, but have not found evidence of the X^0 in two recent experiments.(M. Skalsey and R.S. Conti, Phys. Rev. D51), 6292 (1995) and submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. Stringent limits are placed on the exotic decay branching ratio e^+ +e^- arrow X^0 +γ as a function of the X^0 mass and lifetime. The results are interpreted for two distinct models of X^0 interactions and related to o-Ps decay as well as other experiments, including singlet-state parapositronium decay rate measurements. *Supported by NSF grant PHY-9417854 and the University of Michigan.

  10. Nonminimal derivative coupling scalar-tensor theories: Odd-parity perturbations and black hole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Cruz, Miguel; Delsate, Térence; Saavedra, Joel

    2015-11-01

    We derive the odd-parity perturbation equation for the nonminimal kinetic coupling sector of the general Horndeski theory, where the kinetic term is coupled to the metric and the Einstein tensor. We derive the potential of the perturbation, by identifying a master function and switching to tortoise coordinates. We then prove the mode stability under linear odd-parity perturbations of hairy black holes in this sector of Horndeski theory, when a cosmological constant term in the action is included. Finally, we comment on the existence of slowly rotating black hole solutions in this setup and discuss their implications on the physics of compact object configurations, such as neutron stars.

  11. Transient even and odd order nonlinearity of a YBCO transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizen, Richard; Remillard, Stephen

    Second (IMD2) and third (IMD3) order intermodulation distortions were found to exhibit dependencies on temperature and magnetic field. A carrier wave at the 890 MHz resonant frequency of the type-II YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconducting resonator circuit, with TC = 89K, was introduced into the circuit via an electric coupling antenna. Two off-resonance probe signals were injected into the circuit via a separate magnetic coupling element. The combination of these three signals locally excited synchronous second and third order IMD. A static magnetic field was applied perpendicularly to the film which induced magnetic flux vortices in the sample. Upon removal of the static magnetic field, IMD2 and IMD3 exhibited distinct transient decay modes correlating to temperature. Between 85.0K and 87.5K, IMD3 decayed exponentially. Above 87.5K, IMD3 exhibited bounded exponential growth, while within a narrow temperature range around 87.5K, removal of a static magnetic field strongly suppressed IMD3. IMD2 exhibited exponential decay at all temperatures. Even and odd order microwave nonlinearities were thus shown to result from different, magnetically coupled, physical mechanisms. Funding for this project was provided by Award Number DMR-1206149 from the National Science Foundation.

  12. More Theoretical Odds and Practical Ends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Illustrates how various common objects can be used in the classroom to demonstrate physical science concepts. Describes the use of toys, ice cubes, light bulbs, meter sticks, and wine bottles as teaching aids. (MLH)

  13. Odd Viscosity in the Quantum Critical Region of a Holographic Weyl Semimetal.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Karl; Liu, Yan; Sun, Ya-Wen

    2016-08-19

    We study odd viscosity in a holographic model of a Weyl semimetal. The model is characterized by a quantum phase transition from a topological semimetal to a trivial semimetal state. Since the model is axisymmetric in three spatial dimensions there are two independent odd viscosities. Both odd viscosity coefficients are nonvanishing in the quantum critical region and nonzero only due to the mixed axial gravitational anomaly. It is therefore a novel example in which the mixed axial gravitational anomaly gives rise to a transport coefficient at first order in derivatives at finite temperature. In the quantum critical region, the physics of viscosities as well as conductivities is governed by the quantum critical point. PMID:27588846

  14. Large odd{endash}even effect in RbC{sup {minus}}{sub {ital n}} cluster size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenbosch, R.; Will, D.I.

    1996-04-01

    RbC{sub {ital n}} cluster anions have been produced by Rb sputtering of graphite. The intensity ratio of clusters with an even number of carbon atoms to those with an odd number of carbons is much larger for RbC{sup {minus}}{sub {ital n}} clusters than for C{sup {minus}}{sub {ital n}} clusters. {ital Ab} {ital initio} quantum mechanical calculations suggest that this arises from RbC{sub {ital n}} electron affinities that are close to zero or negative for odd {ital n}, rather than from an enhanced odd{endash}even alternation in the affinities. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Flexible parametrization of generalized parton distributions: The chiral-odd sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Gary R.; Hernandez, J. Osvaldo Gonzalez; Liuti, Simonetta

    2015-06-01

    We present a physically motivated parametrization of the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions. The parametrization is an extension of our previous one in the chiral-even sector which was based on the Reggeized diquark model. While for chiral-even generalized distributions a quantitative fit with uncertainty estimation can be performed using deep inelastic scattering data, nucleon electromagnetic, axial and pseudoscalar form factors measurements, and all available deeply virtual Compton scattering data, the chiral-odd sector is far less constrained. While awaiting the analysis of measurements on pseudoscalar mesons exclusive electroproduction which are key for the extraction of chiral-odd GPDs, we worked out a connection between the chiral-even and chiral-odd reduced helicity amplitudes using parity transformations. The connection works for quark-parton models including both scalar and axial vector diquark models, and spectator models in general. This relation allows us to estimate the size of the various chiral-odd contributions and it opens the way for future quantitative fits.

  16. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  17. Singular eigenstates in the even(odd) length Heisenberg spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Giri, Pulak; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-05-01

    We study the implications of the regularization for the singular solutions on the even(odd) length spin-1/2 XXX chains in some specific down-spin sectors. In particular, the analytic expressions of the Bethe eigenstates for three down-spin sector have been obtained along with their numerical forms in some fixed length chains. For an even-length chain if the singular solutions \\{{{λ }α }\\} are invariant under the sign changes of their rapidities \\{{{λ }α }\\}=\\{-{{λ }α }\\}, then the Bethe ansatz equations are reduced to a system of (M-2)/2((M-3)/2) equations in an even (odd) down-spin sector. For an odd N length chain in the three down-spin sector, it has been analytically shown that there exist singular solutions in any finite length of the spin chain of the form N=3(2k+1) with k=1,2,3,\\cdots . It is also shown that there exist no singular solutions in the four down-spin sector for some odd-length spin-1/2 XXX chains.

  18. Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Adele; Lee, Kathleen

    2011-08-19

    To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are executive functions, including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve children's executive functions: computerized training, noncomputerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. All successful programs involve repeated practice and progressively increase the challenge to executive functions. Children with worse executive functions benefit most from these activities; thus, early executive-function training may avert widening achievement gaps later. To improve executive functions, focusing narrowly on them may not be as effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, and yoga). PMID:21852486

  19. Interventions shown to Aid Executive Function Development in Children 4–12 Years Old *

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Adele; Lee, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are ‘executive functions,’ including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve children’s executive functions – computerized training, non-computerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. Central to all these is repeated practice and constantly challenging executive functions. Children with worse executive functions initially, benefit most; thus early executive-function training may avert widening achievement gaps later. To improve executive functions, focusing narrowly on them may not be as effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, and yoga). PMID:21852486

  20. Diabatic crossing of chiral "twins" in the odd-odd 106Ag nucleus: A theoretical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Sham S.

    2016-07-01

    A systematic study of both the observed positive-parity magnetic rotation band and the negative-parity Δ I =1 doublet bands in an odd-odd 106Ag nucleus is carried out. The negative-parity doublet bands depict some unusual features that have not been observed in any isotope in the mass A =100 region. For instance, (i) the moment of inertia of the partner band is quite different from that of the yrast band, and (ii) these bands cross each other at an angular momentum of I =14 ℏ . Also, the observed significantly large but constant B (M 1 ) transitions confirm that the strong M 1 transitions are being reinforced by the contributions from collective rotation. To explain these features, a collective model has been developed whose kinetic and potential energies are extracted from the tilted-axis cranking model. Instead of the triaxial parameter γ , a second-order phase transition is found to be responsible for the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. Analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation has generated a doublet nondegenerate eigenvalue spectrum. The ensuing model results based on the two-quasiparticle configuration π g9/2⊗ν h11/2 exhibit similarities with many observed features of the negative-parity doublet bands and hence confirm their chiral character. The cranking mass parameter in kinetic energy plays an important role in diabatic crossing between these emerged chiral twin bands.

  1. Neutron-proton multiplets in the odd-odd nucleus 53 37 90Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwiński, M.; RzÄ ca-Urban, T.; Urban, W.; BÄ czyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Timár, J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Kuti, I.; Tornyi, T. G.; Atanasova, L.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Mutti, P.; Köster, U.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Medium-spin excited levels in 90Rb, populated in the fission of 235U induced by neutrons, have been observed for the first time. γ radiation from fission has been measured by using the EXILL array of Ge detectors at the cold-neutron-beam facility PF1B of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble. Low-energy levels are interpreted as members of the π p3/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , π f5/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , and π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 multiplets with the 0- ground state due to the seniority-3 coupling in the ν d5 /2 shell. Analogous anomalous coupling within the π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 configuration explains the 5+, 6+, and 7+ triplet of states, observed at medium spins, similar to the triplet seen in the N =53 isotone, 88Br. Shell-model calculations reproduce well the proposed structures in Rb,9088 and support the seniority-3 coupling in N =53 isotones and its absence in N =51 isotones. The structure of the odd-odd 88Rb and 90Rb nuclei provides an argument in favor of the collectivity building up at the neutron number N =53 .

  2. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  3. "Dealing" with Incidence, Prevalence, and Odds Concepts in Undergraduate Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senchina, David S.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts and associated statistical formulae of incidence, prevalence, and odds/odds ratios are core knowledge in epidemiology yet can be confusing for students. The purpose of this project was to develop, validate, and share one possible pedagogical technique using playing cards that could be employed to improve undergraduate understanding of…

  4. On the largest prime divisor of an odd harmonic number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishiki, Yusuke; Goto, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo

    2007-09-01

    A positive integer is called a (Ore's) harmonic number if its positive divisors have integral harmonic mean. Ore conjectured that every harmonic number greater than 1 is even. If Ore's conjecture is true, there exist no odd perfect numbers. In this paper, we prove that every odd harmonic number greater than 1 must be divisible by a prime greater than 10^5 .

  5. Checking the odd Goldbach conjecture up to 10(20)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saouter, Y.

    1998-04-01

    Vinogradov's theorem states that any sufficiently large odd integer is the sum of three prime numbers. This theorem allows us to suppose the conjecture that this is true for all odd integers. In this paper, we describe the implementation of an algorithm which allowed us to-check this conjecture up to 10(20).

  6. Massive and massless higher spinning particles in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Bonezzi, Roberto; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    We study actions for massive bosonic particles of higher spins by dimensionally reducing an action for massless particles. For the latter we take a model with a SO( N) extended local supersymmetry on the worldline, that is known to describe massless (conformal) particles of higher spins in flat spacetimes of even dimensions. Dimensional reduction produces an action for massive spinning particles in odd dimensions. The field equations that emerge in a quantization à la Dirac are shown to be equivalent to the Fierz-Pauli ones. The massless limit generates a multiplet of massless states with higher spins, whose first quantized field equations have a geometric form with fields belonging to various types of Young tableaux. These geometric equations can be partially integrated to show their equivalence with the standard Fronsdal-Labastida equations. We covariantize our model to check whether an extension to curved spacetimes can be achieved. Restricting to (A)dS spaces, we find that the worldline gauge algebra becomes nonlinear, but remains first class. This guarantees consistency on such backgrounds. A light cone analysis confirms the presence of the expected propagating degrees of freedom. A covariant analysis is worked out explicitly for the massive case, which is seen to give rise to the Fierz-Pauli equations extended to (A)dS spaces. It is worth noting that in D = 3 the massless limit of our model with N → ∞ has the same field content of the Vasiliev's theory that accommodates each spin exactly once.

  7. Middle atmosphere heating by exothermic chemical reactions involving odd-hydrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Solomon, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The rate of heating which occurs in the middle atmosphere due to four exothermic reactions involving members of the odd-hydrogen family is calculated. The following reactions are considered: O + OH yields O2 + H; H + O2 + M yields HO2 + M; H + O3 yields OH + O2; and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. It is shown that the heating rates due to these reactions rival the oxygen-related heating rates conventionally considered in middle-atmosphere models. The conversion of chemical potential energy into molecular translational energy (heat) by these odd-hydrogen reactions is shown to be a significant energy source in the middle atmosphere that has not been previously considered.

  8. Nuclear spin of odd-odd α emitters based on the behavior of α -particle preformation probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M.; Adel, A.; Botros, M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The preformation probabilities of an α cluster inside radioactive parent nuclei for both odd-even and odd-odd nuclei are investigated. The calculations cover the isotopic chains from Ir to Ac in the mass regions 166 ≤A ≤215 and 77 ≤Z ≤89 . The calculations are employed in the framework of the density-dependent cluster model. A realistic density-dependent nucleon-nucleon (N N ) interaction with a finite-range exchange part is used to calculate the microscopic α -nucleus potential in the well-established double-folding model. The main effect of antisymmetrization under exchange of nucleons between the α and daughter nuclei has been included in the folding model through the finite-range exchange part of the N N interaction. The calculated potential is then implemented to find both the assault frequency and the penetration probability of the α particle by means of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The correlation of the α -particle preformation probability and the neutron and proton level sequences of the parent nucleus as obtained in our previous work is extended to odd-even and odd-odd nuclei to determine the nuclear spin and parities. Two spin coupling rules are used, namely, strong and weak rules to determine the nuclear spin for odd-odd isotopes. This work can be a useful reference for theoretical calculation of undetermined nuclear spin of odd-odd nuclei in the future.

  9. Frictional properties of two alkanethiol self assembled monolayers in sliding contact: Odd-even effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramin, Leyla; Jabbarzadeh, Ahmad

    2012-11-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulation, we have investigated the structural effects on the frictional properties of self assembled monolayers (SAM) of n-alkanethiols [CH3(CH2)n-1SH, n = 12-15] in SAM-SAM contacts attached on Au (111) substrates. We have observed an odd-even effect where friction coefficient for SAM-SAM contacts with n = odd showed consistently higher values than those with n = even. This odd-even effect is independent of the sliding velocity and the relative tilt directions of the SAMs, and persists over a much higher pressure range than that reported before for SAM-Au contacts [L. Ramin and A. Jabbarzadeh, Langmuir 28, 4102-4112 (2012), 10.1021/la204701z]. For odd systems higher gauche defects were shown to be the possible source of high friction coefficient. Under the same load and shear rates (comparable sliding velocities), SAM-SAM contacts show mostly higher friction compared to SAM-Au contacts. For SAM-SAM contacts, a more significant increase of friction occurs at higher shear rates due to a shift in the tilt orientation angle. We show SAM-SAM contacts with misaligned relative tilt orientation angle (˜45°-90°) have considerably lower friction compared with those whose tilt orientation angles are almost aligned in the opposite directions and parallel to the shear.

  10. Properties of nano-graphite ribbons with zigzag edges - Difference between odd and even legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, H.; Higashibata, S.

    2009-02-01

    Persistent currents and transport properties are investigated for the nano-graphite ribbons with zigzag shaped edges with paying attention to system length L dependence. It is found that both the persistent current in the isolated ring and the conductance of the system connected to the perfect leads show the remarkable L dependences. In addition, the dependences for the systems with odd legs and those with even legs are different from each other. On the persistent current, the amplitude for the cases with odd legs shows power-low behavior as L-N with N being the number of legs, whereas the maximum of it decreases exponentially for the cases with even legs. The conductance per one spin normalized by e2/h behaves as follows. In the even legs cases, it decays as L-2, whereas it reaches to unity for L→∞ in the odd legs cases. Thus, the material is shown to have a remarkable property that there is the qualitative difference between the systems with odd legs and those with even legs even in the absence of the electron-electron interaction.

  11. Stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in referred preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bunte, Tessa L; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Matthys, Walter

    2014-10-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate both stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in children aged 3.5-5.5 years. For diagnosing these disorders, a semi-structured diagnostic parent interview, i.e., the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule (K-DBDS), was used at the first assessment and at follow-up assessments (9 and 18 months). Five diagnostic stability groups (chronic, partial remission, full remission, new onset, no diagnosis) were compared with regard to impairment and number of symptoms. Participants were referred preschool children with externalizing behavioral problems (N = 193; 83% male) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 58; 71% male). Follow-up assessments allowed to distinguish children belonging to the chronic group of ODD, CD or ADHD from those belonging to one of the remission groups. In addition, there was a substantial number of children with a new onset diagnosis. In conclusion, as a complement to studies showing stability of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis into school age, present findings point to changes of diagnosis in the preschool and early school period. Diagnostic reassessments therefore are needed in this age group. PMID:24781411

  12. Observation of odd toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes.

    PubMed

    Kramer, G J; Sharapov, S E; Nazikian, R; Gorelenkov, N N; Budny, R V

    2004-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented for the existence of the theoretically predicted odd toroidicity induced Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) from the simultaneous appearance of odd and even TAEs in a normal shear discharge of the joint European torus. The modes are observed in low central magnetic shear plasmas created by injecting lower hybrid current drive. A fast ion population was created by applying ion cyclotron heating at the high-field side to excite the TAEs. The odd TAEs were identified from their frequency, mode number, and timing relative to the even TAEs. PMID:14753994

  13. Odd cloud in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 28, 2002, MODIS captured this image of an interesting cloud formation in the boundary waters between Antarctica's Ross Sea and the Southern Ocean. A dragon? A snake? A fish? No, but it is an interesting example of the atmospheric physics of convection. The 'eye' of this dragon-looking cloud is likely a small spot of convection, the process by which hot moist air rises up into the atmosphere, often producing big, fluffy clouds as moisture in the air condenses as rises into the colder parts of the atmosphere. A false color analysis that shows different kinds of clouds in different colors reveals that the eye is composed of ice crystals while the 'body' is a liquid water cloud. This suggests that the eye is higher up in the atmosphere than the body. The most likely explanation for the eye feature is that the warm, rising air mass had enough buoyancy to punch through the liquid water cloud. As a convective parcel of air rises into the atmosphere, it pushes the colder air that is higher up out of its way. That cold air spills down over the sides of the convective air mass, and in this case has cleared away part of the liquid cloud layer below in the process. This spilling over of cold air from higher up in the atmosphere is the reason why thunderstorms are often accompanied by a cool breeze. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. The competition between alpha decay and spontaneous fission in odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the range 99 ≤ Z ≤ 129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Priyanka, B.

    2015-08-01

    The predictions on the mode of decay of the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z = 99- 129, in the range 228 ≤ A ≤ 336, have been done within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). A comparison of our calculated alpha half lives with the values computed using other theoretical models shows good agreement with each other. An extensive study on the spontaneous fission half lives of all the isotopes under study has been performed to identify the long-lived isotopes in the mass region. The study reveals that the alpha decay half lives and the mode of decay of the isotopes with Z = 109, 111, 113, 115 and 117, evaluated using our formalisms, agree well with the experimental observations. As our study on the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of Z = 99- 129 predicts that, the isotopes 238,240-25499, 244,246-258101, 248,250,252-260,262103, 254,256,258-262,264105, 258,260,262-264,266107, 262,264,266-274109, 266,268-279111, 270-284,286113, 272-289,291115, 274-299117, 276-307119, 281-314121, 287-320,322123, 295-325125, 302-327127 and 309-329129 survive fission and have alpha decay channel as the prominent mode of decay, these nuclei could possibly be synthesized in the laboratory and this could be of great interest to the experimentalists. The behavior of these nuclei against the proton decay has also been studied to identify the probable proton emitters in this region of nuclei.

  15. Superdeformation studies in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 192}Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.

    1995-08-01

    The study of yrast and near-yrast structures of odd-odd nuclei to high spins is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the spectra resulting from the many proton-neutron couplings near the Fermi surface. In superdeformed nuclei, the number of available protons and neutrons near the Fermi surface is somewhat limited due to the presence of large-shell gaps which stabilize the nuclear shape. A relatively small number of available neutron and proton configurations can lead to fragmentation of the SD intensity into a number of different bands. Two good examples of this phenomenon were found in {sup 192}Tl and {sup 194}Tl where the presence of six superdeformed bands were reported in both nuclei. We reexamined {sup 192}Tl at Gammasphere using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 37}Cl,5n) reaction at 178 MeV to populate states in the superdeformed well of this nucleus. While our previous study on {sup 192}Tl at ATLAS was very successful, a number of questions remained which formed the basis of our objectives in this experiment: obtain better {gamma}-ray energies for the known transitions and identify higher spin members in each band; determine how the bands feed the known yrast states in {sup 192}Tl as well as determine the complete spectrum in coincidence with the SD bands; look for M1 transitions connecting proposed signature partners; and attempt to identify other excitations in the superdeformed well. Analysis is underway and four of the six bands were confirmed. The reasons that two of the reported bands were not observed in this latest work is still under investigation. As of this time, no other superdeformed bands were identified in the data. Two of the confirmed SD bands have a constant moment of inertia and show indications of cross-talk between each other. This observation is not unexpected since the calculated M1 rates for the proposed configuration of the band, {pi}{sub 13/2} x {upsilon}j{sub 15/2}, indicate that M1 transitions linking the two SD bands should be observed.

  16. New description of the doublet bands in doubly odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.; Brant, S.; Ventura, A.

    2009-04-15

    The experimentally observed {delta}I=1 doublet bands in some odd-odd nuclei are analyzed within the orthosymplectic extension of the interacting vector boson model (IVBM). A new, purely collective interpretation of these bands is given on the basis of the obtained boson-fermion dynamical symmetry of the model. It is illustrated by its application to three odd-odd nuclei from the A{approx}130 region, namely {sup 126}Pr, {sup 134}Pr, and {sup 132}La. The theoretical predictions for the energy levels of the doublet bands as well as E2 and M1 transition probabilities between the states of the yrast band in the last two nuclei are compared with experiment and the results of other theoretical approaches. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the orthosymplectic extension of the IVBM.

  17. Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158554.html Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies Variants ... families, researchers say they've just pinpointed two genes that seem to be associated with having such ...

  18. Computing Power and Sample Size for Informational Odds Ratio †

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.

    2013-01-01

    The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (i.e., information gained after knowing exposure status). A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder. Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs, analogous to relative risks (RRs) generally are collapsible. IORs are a useful measure of disease association in case-referent studies, especially when the disease is common in the exposed and/or unexposed groups. This paper outlines how to compute power and sample size in the simple case of unadjusted IORs. PMID:24157518

  19. Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158554.html Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies Variants ... families, researchers say they've just pinpointed two genes that seem to be associated with having such ...

  20. Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use 3 of 4 who tried the illicit ... narcotic painkillers may be at high risk for heroin use, a new study cautions. The research included ...

  1. The odd-number sequence: squares and sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    Direct study of various characteristics of integers and their interactions is readily accessible to undergraduate students. Integers obviously fall in different classes of modular rings and thus have features unique to that class which can result in a variety of formations, particularly with sums of squares. The sum of the first n odd numbers is itself the square of n within the odd number sequence, from which testing for primality within the Fibonacci sequence is investigated in this note.

  2. Characterization of isomers in the neutron-rich odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R; Sai, K. Vijay; Sainath, M.

    2011-02-15

    Critical examination of the experimental data from {sup 156}Nd and {sup 156}Pm {beta} decays and the observed location of relevant neutron and proton orbitals in the neighboring odd-A isotones and isotopes, taken together with the low-lying two-quasiparticle (2qp) structures expected in {sup 156}Pm from the rotor-particle model, lead to the conclusion that a consistent description of all the available data is achieved with the I{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} spin-parity assignment to the 26.7s {sup 156}Pm ground state (g.s.) and assignment of I{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} to its 150.3-keV isomer with the 2qp configuration 4{sub g.s.}{sup +}{l_brace}p{sub o}:5/2[532{up_arrow}]{+-}n{sub o}:3/2[521{up_arrow}]{r_brace}1{sub 150}{sup +}. In the process, a two-neutron configuration is also suggested for the 1509-keV 4{sup +} level in the daughter nucleus {sup 156}Sm. The present analysis reiterates the important question of whether the {beta}-decay log ft value, by itself, can be employed to deduce the relative parity of the {beta}-connected states.

  3. Parent-adolescent conflict in teenagers with ADHD and ODD.

    PubMed

    Edwards, G; Barkley, R A; Laneri, M; Fletcher, K; Metevia, L

    2001-12-01

    Eighty-seven male teens (ages 12-18 years) with ADHD/ODD and their parents were compared to 32 male teens and their parents in a community control (CC) group on mother, father, and teen ratings of parent-teen conflict and communication quality, parental self-reports of psychological adjustment, and direct observations of parent-teen problem-solving interactions during a neutral and conflict discussion. Parents and teens in the ADHD/ODD group rated themselves as having significantly more issues involving parent-teen conflict, more anger during these conflict discussions, and more negative communication generally, and used more aggressive conflict tactics with each other than did parents and teens in the CC group. During a neutral discussion, only the ADHD/ODD teens demonstrated more negative behavior. During the conflict discussion, however, the mothers, fathers, and teens in the ADHD/ODD group displayed more negative behavior, and the mothers and teens showed less positive behavior than did participants in the CC group. Differences in conflicts related to sex of parent were evident on only a few measures. Both mother and father self-rated hostility contributed to the level of mother-teen conflict whereas father self-rated hostility and anxiety contributed to father-teen conflict beyond the contribution made by level of teen ODD and ADHD symptoms. Results replicated past studies of mother-child interactions in ADHD/ODD children, extended these results to teens with these disorders, showed that greater conflict also occurs in father-teen interactions, and found that degree of parental hostility, but not ADHD symptoms, further contributed to levels of parent-teen conflict beyond the contribution made by severity of teen ADHD and ODD symptoms. PMID:11761288

  4. An investigation of the solar cycle response of odd-nitrogen in the thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusch, David W.; Solomon, Stanley C.

    1992-01-01

    This annual report covers the first year of funding for the study of the solar cycle variations of odd-nitrogen (N((sup 2)D), N((sup 4)S), NO) in the Earth's thermosphere. The study uses the extensive data base generated by the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites, and the Solar Mesosphere Explorer Satellite. The AE data are being used, for the first time, to define the solar variability effect on the odd-nitrogen species through analysis of the emissions at 520 nano-m from N((sup 2)D) and the emission from O(+)((sup 2)P). Additional AE neutral and ion density data are used to help define and quantify the physical processes controlling the variations. The results from the airglow study will be used in the next two years of this study to explain the solar cycle changes in NO measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer.

  5. P- and T-odd two-nucleon interaction and the deuteron electric dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.-P.; Timmermans, R.G.E.

    2004-11-01

    The nuclear physics relevant to the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron is addressed. The general operator structure of the P- and T-odd nucleon-nucleon interaction is discussed and applied to the two-body contributions of the deuteron EDM, which can be calculated in terms of P- and T-odd meson-nucleon coupling constants with only small model dependence. The one-body contributions, the EDMs of the proton and the neutron, are evaluated within the same framework. Although the total theoretical uncertainties are sizable, we conclude that, compared to the neutron, the deuteron EDM is competitive in terms of sensitivity to CP violation, and complementary with respect to the microscopic sources of CP violation that can be probed.

  6. Influence of secondary decay on odd-even staggering of fragment cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelbauer, J. R.; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.

    2013-10-01

    Odd-even staggering (OES) appears in many areas of nuclear physics and is generally associated with the pairing term in the nuclear binding energy. To explore this effect, we use the improved statistical multifragmentation model to populate an ensemble of hot primary fragments, which are then de-excited using the Weisskopf-Ewing statistical emission formalism. The yields are then compared to experimental data. Our results show that, before secondary decay, OES appears only in the yields of even mass fragments and not in the yields of odd mass fragments. De-excitation of the hot fragments must be taken into account to describe the data, suggesting that the OES in fragment yields is a useful criterion for validating or adjusting theoretical de-excitation models.

  7. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds. PMID:21707977

  8. Multicomponent fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, René D.; Santos, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Mixtures of hard hyperspheres in odd-space dimensionalities are studied with an analytical approximation method. This technique is based on the so-called rational function approximation and provides a procedure for evaluating equations of state, structure factors, radial distribution functions, and direct correlation functions of additive mixtures of hard hyperspheres with any number of components and in arbitrary odd-dimension space. The method gives the exact solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation coupled with the Percus-Yevick closure, thus, extending the solution for hard-sphere mixtures [J. L. Lebowitz, Phys. Rev.PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.133.A895 133, A895 (1964)] to arbitrary odd dimensions. Explicit evaluations for binary mixtures in five dimensions are performed. The results are compared with computer simulations, and a good agreement is found.

  9. Towards easier realization of time-delayed feedback control of odd-number orbits.

    PubMed

    Flunkert, V; Schöll, E

    2011-07-01

    We develop generalized time-delayed feedback schemes for the stabilization of periodic orbits with an odd number of positive Floquet exponents, which are particularly well suited for experimental realization. We construct the parameter regimes of successful control and validate these by numerical simulations and numerical continuation methods. In particular, it is shown how periodic orbits can be stabilized with symmetric feedback matrices by introducing an additional latency time in the control loop. Finally, we show using normal form analysis and numerical simulations how our results could be implemented in a laser setup using optoelectronic feedback. PMID:21867280

  10. Hecke-Clifford Algebras and Spin Hecke Algebras IV: Odd Double Affine Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khongsap, Ta; Wang, Weiqiang

    2009-01-01

    We introduce an odd double affine Hecke algebra (DaHa) generated by a classical Weyl group W and two skew-polynomial subalgebras of anticommuting generators. This algebra is shown to be Morita equivalent to another new DaHa which are generated by W and two polynomial-Clifford subalgebras. There is yet a third algebra containing a spin Weyl group algebra which is Morita (super)equivalent to the above two algebras. We establish the PBW properties and construct Verma-type representations via Dunkl operators for these algebras.

  11. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  12. The Competition Between Collective and Single - Effects in the Odd-Odd Nuclei LANTHANUM-128,130.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Mark Jonathan

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Excited states in the odd-odd nuclei ^{128,130}La have been investigated to high-spin using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The nucleus ^{128}La was identified using the Daresbury Recoil Separator, and gamma -gamma coincidence data were taken on both nuclei with the TESSA3 array. Angular distributions were also measured for ^{128} La. Seven distinct bands have been observed, three in ^{128}La and four in ^{130}La, with four of these structures being seen for the first time. Two of the bands in each nucleus correspond to near-prolate nuclear shapes, one based on a pih _{11/2} otimes nuh _{11/2} structure and the other on a pih_{11/2 } otimes nug_{7/2 } configuration. A further band in each nucleus has similar properties to what would be expected for a collective oblate structure. In addition the first odd -proton system superdeformed band has been found in ^{130}La. The experimental evidence for these structures will be discussed in terms of the variation in energy level signature splitting, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios and mixing ratios as a function of rotational frequency and single particle configuration. The nature of the particles responsible for backbends in the near-prolate bands will be conclusively proved. The results will be interpreted in terms of the cranked shell model, an odd-odd particle-rotor model and deformation self-consistent cranking calculations. They will be compared to other odd and odd-odd systems in the A = 130 region. Long-range p-n and n-n interactions are investigated through the measurement of residual interactions. Theoretical interactions are obtained from deformation self-consistent cranking calculations, which contain no long-range interactions, to estimate the nuclear mean field. The results are discussed in terms of the variation in the spatial overlap of the various wavefunctions and changes in the mean field, as a function of particle number, configuration and rotational frequency.

  13. CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-10-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, {theta}{sub A}, induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tan{beta}, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by {theta}{sub A}. We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development.

  14. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the anti-evolutionists…

  15. Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2011-05-06

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.

  16. Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

  17. Despite the Odds: The Contentious Politics of Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindle, Merilee S.

    2004-01-01

    "Despite the Odds" poses an important question: How can we account for successful policy reform initiatives when the political cards are stacked against change? Theories of politics usually predict that reform initiatives will be unsuccessful when powerful groups are opposed to change and institutions are biased against it. This book, however,…

  18. The Differential Graded Odd NilHecke Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Alexander P.; Qi, You

    2016-05-01

    We equip the odd nilHecke algebra and its associated thick calculus category with diagrammatically local differentials. The resulting differential graded Grothendieck groups are isomorphic to two different forms of the positive part of quantum {{{sl}_2}} at a fourth root of unity.

  19. Quantum description of T-odd correlations in ternary fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G.

    2008-07-15

    A quantum version of a unified description of two T-odd effects recently observed in the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by polarized neutrons is considered. These effects are explained by the effect of the Coriolis interaction of the rotating fissile system on the angular distributions of light charged particles in the interior and exterior regions of the nucleus.

  20. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  1. Antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with odd-numbered coupled spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.; Nsofini, J.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, studies on cyclic molecular nanomagnets have captivated the attention of researchers. These magnets are finite in size and contain very large spins. They are interesting because they possess macroscopic quantum tunneling of Néel vectors. For antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with finite number of even-numbered coupled spins, tunneling involves two classical localized Néel ground states separated by a magnetic energy barrier. The question is: can such phenomena be observed in nanomagnets with odd number of magnetic ions? The answer is not directly obvious because cyclic chains with odd-numbered coupled spins are frustrated as one cannot obtain a perfect Néel order. These frustrated spins can indeed be observed experimentally, so they are of interest. In this letter, we theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling in this odd spin system with arbitrary spins s, in the presence of a magnetic field applied along the plane of the magnet. In contrast to systems with an even-numbered coupled spins, the ground state of the cyclic odd-spin system contains a topological soliton due to spin frustration. Thus, the classical ground state is 2N-fold degenerate as the soliton can be placed anywhere along the ring with total S_z=+/- s . Small quantum fluctuations delocalize the soliton with a formation of an energy band. We obtain this energy band using degenerate perturbation theory at order 2s. We show that the soliton ground state is chiral for half-odd integer spins and non-chiral for integer spins. From the structure of the energy band we infer that as the value of the spin increases the inelastic polarized neutron-scattering intensity may increase or decrease depending on the strengths of the parameters of the Hamiltonian.

  2. Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes. PMID:25773521

  3. Executive Functioning in Children: A Comparison of Hospitalised ODD and ODD/ADHD Children and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Snoek, Heddeke; Matthys, Walter; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in executive functioning are supposed to have a predisposing influence on impulsive or aggressive behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) children with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have problems in executive functioning. Method: Seventy-seven 7- to 12-year-old…

  4. Alignments, additivity, and signature inversion in odd-odd {sup 170}Ta : a comprehensive high-spin study.

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A.; Hartley, D. J.; Riley, M. A.; Teal, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Danchev, M.; Djongolov, M. K.; Hagemann, G. B.; Hecht, A. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Ma, W. C.; Mohr, W. H.; Moore, E. F.; Odegard, S. W.; Riedinger, L. L.; Sletten, G.; Tandel, S. K.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Wang, X.; Zhu, S.; Florida State Univ.; U.S. Naval Academy; Univ. of Massachusetts; Univ. of Tennessee; Niels Bohr Inst.; Mississippi State Univ.; Univ. of Oslo

    2010-01-01

    High-spin states (I?50?) of the odd-odd nucleus 170Ta have been investigated with the 124Sn(51V,5n) reaction. The resolving power of Gammasphere has allowed for the observation of eleven rotational bands (eight of which are new) and over 430 transitions ( 350 of which are new) in this nucleus. Many interband transitions have been observed such that the relative spins and excitation energies of the 11 bands have been established. This is an unusual circumstance in an odd-odd study. Configurations have been assigned to most of these bands based upon features such as alignment properties, band crossings, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, and the additivity of Routhians. A systematic study of the frequency at which normal signature ordering occurs in the ?h9/2?i13/2 band has been performed and it is found that its trend is opposite to that observed in the ?h11/2?i13/2 bands. A possible interpretation of these trends is discussed based on a proton-neutron interaction.

  5. Precision spectroscopy of the {sup 207}Pb{sup 19}F molecule: Implications for measurement of P-odd and T-odd effects

    SciTech Connect

    Alphei, Lukas D.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Petrov, A. N.; Mawhorter, Richard; Murphy, Benjamin; Baum, Alexander; Sears, Trevor J.; Yang, T. Zh.; Rupasinghe, P. M.; McRaven, C. P.; Shafer-Ray, N. E.

    2011-04-15

    Here we report precision microwave spectroscopy of pure rotational transitions of the {sup 207}Pb{sup 19}F isotopologue. We use these data to make predictions of the sensitivity of the molecule to P-odd, T-even and P-odd, T-odd effects.

  6. Does the Prevalence of CD and ODD Vary across Cultures?

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Rohde, Luis A.; Frick, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is presented in order to examine the first of four criteria used in other studies to determine the validity of psychiatric disorders across cultures. The authors searched Medline and PsycINFO from 1987 to 2008. Studies were included if they were representative of specific communities or countries and reported point prevalence of CD or ODD according to DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria for children 18 years or younger. Only methodological and not geographic factors were associated with variability of the prevalence estimates. The results are discussed in terms of their significance for the classification of disorders and the need for further research to establish the validity of these two disorders across cultures. PMID:20532864

  7. Mesospheric Odd Nitrogen Enhancements During Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Smith, H. J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The behavior of mesospheric odd nitrogen species during and following relativistic and diffuse auroral precipitation events is simulated, Below 75 km nitric oxide is enhanced in proportion to the ion pair production function associated with the electron precipitation and the length of the event. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid are also enhanced. At 65 km the percentage of odd nitrogen for N is 0.1%, HNO3 is 1.6%, NO2 is 15%, and NO is 83.3%. Between 75 and 85 km NO is depleted during particle events due to the faster destruction of NO by N relative to the production of NO by N reacting with O2. Recovery of NO depends on transport from the lower thermosphere, where NO is produced in abundant amounts during particle events.

  8. Beating the regulatory odds with new simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.B.

    1994-06-20

    Complying with environmental regulations is like a horse race. When it comes to selecting pollution control technologies, the odds against picking a winner are high. A system that`s supposedly an odds-on favorite can come up short if the track conditions are wrong. The penalty for picking a loser is steep and even the best manufacturers can be put out to pasture for poor performance. Certainly, the stakes are high: the federal government projects that environmental rules will cost industry $184 billion annually by 2000. Others say it could be four times that. {open_quotes}But unless you have a crystal ball no one knows what it will cost{close_quotes}, says Robert Sackellares, head of the Atlanta office of SBE Environmental Company, New York City. {open_quotes}The final price tag will depend on the technologies that companies choose, and how effective they are.{close_quotes}.

  9. Predator fitness increases with selectivity for odd prey.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Christian

    2012-05-01

    The fundamental currency of normative models of animal decision making is Darwinian fitness. In foraging ecology, empirical studies typically assess foraging strategies by recording energy intake rates rather than realized reproductive performance. This study provides a rare empirical link, in a vertebrate predator-prey system, between a predator's foraging behavior and direct measures of its reproductive fitness. Goshawks Accipiter gentilis selectively kill rare color variants of their principal prey, the feral pigeon Columba livia, presumably because targeting odd-looking birds in large uniform flocks helps them overcome confusion effects and enhances attack success. Reproductive performance of individual hawks increases significantly with their selectivity for odd-colored pigeons, even after controlling for confounding age effects. Older hawks exhibit more pronounced dietary preferences, suggesting that hunting performance improves with experience. Intriguingly, although negative frequency-dependent predation by hawks exerts strong selection against rare pigeon phenotypes, pigeon color polymorphism is maintained through negative assortative mating. PMID:22503502

  10. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yaqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  11. Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2008-11-11

    We investigate shape phase transitions in odd nuclei within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. Special attention is given to the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation. The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2 with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that leads to the occurrence of the SU{sup BF}(3) boson-fermion symmetry when the boson part approaches the SU(3) condition. Both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions show characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The role of the additional particle in characterizing the properties of the critical points in finite quantal systems is investigated by resorting to the formalism based on the intrinsic frame.

  12. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  13. Improved techniques for lower bounds for odd perfect numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, R. P.; Cohen, G. L.; Riele, H. J. J. Te

    1991-10-01

    If N is an odd perfect number, and {q^k}\\vert\\vert N , q prime, k even, then it is almost immediate that N > {q^{2k}} . We prove here that, subject to certain conditions verifiable in polynomial time, in fact N > {q^{5k/2}} . Using this and related results, we are able to extend the computations in an earlier paper to show that N > {10^{300}} .

  14. Wind-induced odd gravitational harmonics of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    While the rotational distortion of Jupiter makes a major contribution to its lowermost order even zonal gravitational coefficients Jn with n ≥ 2, the component of the zonal winds with equatorial antisymmetry, if sufficiently deep, produces a gravitational signature contained in the odd zonal gravitational coefficients Jn with n ≥ 3. Based on a non-spherical model of a polytropic Jupiter with index unity, we compute Jupiter's odd gravitational coefficients J3, J5, J7, …, J11 induced by the equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds that are assumed to be deep. It is found that the lowermost odd gravitational coefficients J3, J5 and J7 are of the same order of magnitude with J3 = -1.6562 × 10-6, J5 = 1.5778 × 10-6 and J7 = -0.7432 × 10-6, and are within the accuracy of high-precision gravitational measurements to be carried out by the Juno spacecraft.

  15. Fluctuation theorems and entropy production with odd-parity variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunggyu; Lee, Hyun Keun; Kwon, Chulan

    2013-03-01

    We show that the total entropy production in stochastic processes with odd-parity variables (under time reversal) is separated into three parts, only two of which satisfy the integral fluctuation theorems in general. One is the usual excess contribution, which can appear only transiently and is called non-adiabatic. Another one is attributed solely to the breakage of detailed balance. The last part not satisfying the fluctuation theorem comes from the steady-state distribution asymmetry for odd-parity variables, which is activated in a non-transient manner. The latter two parts combine together as the house-keeping (adiabatic) contribution, whose positivity is not guaranteed except when the excess contribution completely vanishes. Our finding reveals that the equilibrium requires the steady-state distribution symmetry for odd-parity variables independently, in addition to the usual detailed balance. This work was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant (No. 2010-0026627) funded by the MEST.

  16. A loop group extension of the odd Chern character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Scott O.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the universal odd Chern form, defined on the stable unitary group U, extends to the loop group LU as an equivariantly closed differential form. This provides an odd analogue to the Bismut-Chern form that appears in supersymmetric field theories. We also describe the associated transgression form, the so-called Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and explicate some properties it inherits as a differential form on the space of maps of a cylinder into the stable unitary group. As one corollary, we show that in a precise sense the spectral flow of a loop of self adjoint Fredholm operators equals the lowest degree component of the Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and the latter, when restricted to cylinders which are tori, is an equivariantly closed extension of spectral flow. As another corollary, we construct the Chern character homomorphism from odd K-theory to the periodic cohomology of the free loop space, represented geometrically on the level of differential forms.

  17. Mechanisms of excitation of T-odd correlations for prescission gamma rays and structure of these correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G.; Kadmensky, S. S.

    2009-08-01

    Conditions for the appearance and observation of prescission gamma rays emitted by a fissioning nucleus prior to its separation into fission fragments were investigated within quantum-mechanical fission theory. It is shown that these conditions are realizable in the gamma decay of isovector electric giant dipole resonances in a fissile nucleus that are excited because of nonadiabaticity of the collective deformation motion of the nucleus at the ultimate stages of its prefission evolution. Angular and energy distributions of prescission gamma rays emitted by unpolarized fissioning nuclei are analyzed. Features of T-odd correlations in angular distributions of gamma rays arising in the fission of unpolarized target nuclei that is induced by polarized cold neutrons are investigated, and it is shown that these correlations are similar in nature to T-odd ROT correlations discovered earlier for alpha particles emitted in the ternary fission of nuclei.

  18. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  19. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  20. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  1. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  2. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  3. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  4. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  5. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  6. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  7. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6402-4 - Payments in excess of amounts shown on return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... taxpayer's payments in respect of his tax liability, made before the filing of his return, may exceed the... of tax shown on the return, or where a corporation obtains an extension of time for filing its return... prescribed for payment and before the filing of the return) are in excess of the amount of tax shown on...

  9. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Josephine; Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye; Moran, Brian J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  10. Astronaut Virgil Grissom shown through window of open hatch on Gemini craft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, the command pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 three orbit mission, is shown through the window of the open hatch on Gemini spacecraft in the white room on the mornining of the launch.

  11. GENERAL: Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Odd Coherent State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Gao, Ming; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2008-07-01

    We propose a decoy state quantum key distribution scheme with odd coherent state which follows sub-Poissonian distributed photon count and has low probability of the multi-photon event and vacuum event in each pulse. The numerical calculations show that our scheme can improve efficiently the key generation rate and secure communication distance. Furthermore, only one decoy state is necessary to approach to the perfect asymptotic limit with infinite decoy states in our scheme, but at least two decoy states are needed in other scheme.

  12. Odds ratios of work related deaths in United States workers.

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J P

    1988-01-01

    A new data set on job related mortality within 347 3 digit occupations is merged with two national probability samples of United States workers to assess which groups are in hazardous and which in safe jobs. Logistic regressions are fitted to the two samples and the following covariates are assumed to explain employment in a hazardous job: age, race, gender, schooling, region, and marital status. Results from both samples are remarkably similar. Odds ratios for non-whites versus whites are roughly 1.2/1; for high school dropouts versus people with some college education roughly 2.2/1; and for men versus women roughly 5.0/1. PMID:3348992

  13. Dimension-5 C P -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Yoon, Boram

    2015-12-01

    We study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T - and P -odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. We present the renormalization matrix to one loop in the MS ¯ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the MS ¯ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and 't Hooft-Veltman prescriptions for γ5.

  14. Disaster Impacts on Human Capital Accumulation Shown in the Typhoon Haiyan Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    School children and their school environment are increasingly exposed to all kinds of hazards. Many disaster events have shown the extent of disaster impacts on the education sector which this study also highlights in the Typhoon Haiyan Case. Disasters do not only cause loss of lives or damage to educational facilities, they also entail significant economic and social consequences on human capital development in the short and long-run. While the trend of short term disaster impact can easily be analyzed in rapid post disaster assessments taking destroyed assets as proxy, usually analyses of medium and long-term effects of disasters include large inherent uncertainties and are of less tangible nature, require more time and complex methods and can often not give comprehensive results. The consequences of disasters especially in developing countries are therefore to a certain extent often left unknown. Generally, economic and social effects of disasters on human capital seem to be ambiguous and to some degree these effects are related to economic, social and institutional well-being. Thus, clear understanding is crucial to interpret its complex effects on human capital accumulation. This essential nature of medium and long-term effects has not been reflected in many analyses. Focus has mostly been given on the extent of physical damage, displacements, lives and assets lost instead of targeting resilience of social and economic characteristics of communities in terms of preventing human capital accumulation disruption. Main objective of this study is to provide a conceptual framework illustrating the impacts of disasters on schooling which might help in assessing such effects, as one of the fundamental components of human capital accumulation (Ozceylan Aubrecht, 2013). The dimensions of human capital building and its relationship to disasters under the light of past disaster events are discussed with a special focus on the recent Typhoon Haiyan that struck the

  15. [Razón de posibilidades: a proposed translation of the term odds ratio].

    PubMed

    Tapia, J A; Nieto, F J

    1993-01-01

    In English, odds ratio is a basic epidemiological measure approximating the relative risk. Odds ratio has been translated into Spanish in several ways, which has produced great terminological confusion. On the other hand, the English word odds is often used in epidemiology or statistics English textbooks, alone or as part of other expressions, but always keeping a definite mathematical meaning, which calls for a similarly definite term in Spanish. We discuss several translations of odds ratio found in the literature and propose the Spanish word "posibilidades" as a translation of odds and "razón de posibilidades" as a translation of odds ratio. PMID:8342087

  16. An Odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme Finite State Machine.

    PubMed

    Eshra, Abeer; El-Sayed, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    A finite-state machine (FSM) is an abstract mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs and sequential logic circuits. Considered as an abstract model of computation, FSM is weak; it has less computational power than some other models of computation such as the Turing machine. This paper discusses the finite-state automata based on Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and different implementations of DNA FSMs. Moreover, a comparison was made to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of presented DNA FSMS. Since it is a major goal for nanoscince, nanotechnology and super molecular chemistry is to design synthetic molecular devices that are programmable and run autonomously. Programmable means that the behavior of the device can be modified without redesigning the whole structure. Autonomous means that it runs without externally mediated change to the work cycle. In this paper we present an odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme FSM. Our paper makes use of a known design for a DNA nanorobotic device due to Reif and Sahu for executing FSM computations using DNAzymes. The main contribution of our paper is a description of how to program that device to do a FSM computation known as odd parity checking. We describe in detail finite state automaton built on 10-23 DNAzyme, and give its procedure of design and computation. The design procedure has two major phases: designing the language potential alphabet DNA strands, and depending on the first phase to design the DNAzyme possible transitions. PMID:26355779

  17. Odd-even staggering in neutron drip line nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong

    2016-07-01

    We have done systematic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations in coordinate space on the one-quasi-particle energies and binding energy odd-even staggering (OES) in semi-magic nuclei with the zero-range volume, mixed and surface pairing forces in order to explore the influence of their density dependence. The odd-N isotopes are calculated within the blocking scheme. The strengths for the pairing forces are determined in two schemes by fitting locally to reproduce pairing gap in 120Sn and globally to all available data on the OES of semi-magic nuclei with Z ≥ 8. In the former calculations, there is a noticeable difference between the neutron mean gaps in neutron-rich O, Ca, Ni and Sn isotopes calculated with the surface pairing and those with the mixed and volume pairing. The difference gets much smaller if the globally optimized pairing strengths are employed. The heavier Pb isotopes show the opposite trend. Moreover, large differences between the mean gap and the OES may be expected in both calculations when one goes towards the neutron drip line.

  18. Beyond mean-field calculations for odd-mass nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bally, B; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P-H

    2014-10-17

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to ^{25}Mg illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. PMID:25361253

  19. Beyond Mean-Field Calculations for Odd-Mass Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, B.; Avez, B.; Bender, M.; Heenen, P.-H.

    2014-10-01

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to Mg25 illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart.

  20. The odds of wrong-way crashes and resulting fatalities: A comprehensive analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponnaluri, Raj V

    2016-03-01

    The United States of America and other nations are grappling with the incidence of wrong-way driving (WWD). The issue is as important today (NTSB, 2012) as it was a half-century ago (Hulbert and Beers, 1966). In the absence of a comprehensive analysis, any effort to implement WWD countermeasures can be counterproductive. Hence, this effort began with the express intent to identify the factors that cause WWD crashes and fatalities. This work is sizeable in that it evaluated one million complete crash records from Florida. The methodology comprised (a) administering a survey on the perceptions about WWD; (b) developing binomial logistic models for computing the odds of WWD crashes, and of fatal crashes within the WWD space; (c) analyzing the contributing variables; and (d) comparing perceptions with crash analysis results. The study parameters included driver's age, gender, licensing state, physical defect, blood alcohol concentration, vehicle use, seatbelt compliance, day and time of crash, roadway lighting, facility type, weather conditions, road geometrics, and traffic volumes. Individual variable analysis of 23 parameters and the model development process included the determination of odds ratios and statistical tests for the predictive power and goodness-of-fit. The results of this work are generally consistent with expectation, yet surprising at times. This work concludes with decision-making inputs to the scientist, policy-maker and practitioner on the need for effectively engineering the roads, actively educating people about wrong-way driving, and strictly enforcing traffic laws, rules and regulations. PMID:26745273

  1. Predicting Mild and Severe Husband-to-Wife Physical Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Helen S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Estimated odds of mild and severe husband-to-wife physical aggression in 11,870 white men. Being younger, having lower income, and having alcohol problem significantly increased odds of either mild or severe physical aggression. Drug problem uniquely increased risk of severe physical aggression. Marital discord and depression further increased…

  2. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633,...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633,...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633,...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633,...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633,...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6151-1 - Time and place for paying tax shown on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to any extension of time for paying the tax). (d) Use of Government depositaries. (1) For provisions... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and place for paying tax shown on returns. 1.6151-1 Section 1.6151-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  8. INVOLVEMENT OF MICRORNAS IN EMBRYONIC GENOME ACTIVATION AS SHOWN BY DICER EXPRESSION IN RAINBOW TROUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most maternal transcripts including many housekeeping genes are degraded at or around embryonic genome activation as evidenced by our initial studies. This degradation appears to be global but highly regulated. MicroRNAs are naturally occurring small (19-24bp) RNAs that are shown to be involved in m...

  9. 27 CFR 46.8 - Data to be shown in claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Application of 26 U.S.C. 6423, as Amended, to Refund or Credit of Tax on Tobacco Products, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claim Procedure § 46.8 Data to be shown in claim. Claims to which... any manner whatsoever, the burden of the tax to any other person. (e) If the claim is for refund of...

  10. 27 CFR 46.8 - Data to be shown in claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Application of 26 U.S.C. 6423, as Amended, to Refund or Credit of Tax on Tobacco Products, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claim Procedure § 46.8 Data to be shown in claim. Claims to which... any manner whatsoever, the burden of the tax to any other person. (e) If the claim is for refund of...

  11. 27 CFR 46.8 - Data to be shown in claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Application of 26 U.S.C. 6423, as Amended, to Refund or Credit of Tax on Tobacco Products, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claim Procedure § 46.8 Data to be shown in claim. Claims to which... any manner whatsoever, the burden of the tax to any other person. (e) If the claim is for refund of...

  12. 27 CFR 46.8 - Data to be shown in claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Application of 26 U.S.C. 6423, as Amended, to Refund or Credit of Tax on Tobacco Products, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claim Procedure § 46.8 Data to be shown in claim. Claims to which... any manner whatsoever, the burden of the tax to any other person. (e) If the claim is for refund of...

  13. 27 CFR 46.8 - Data to be shown in claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Application of 26 U.S.C. 6423, as Amended, to Refund or Credit of Tax on Tobacco Products, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claim Procedure § 46.8 Data to be shown in claim. Claims to which... any manner whatsoever, the burden of the tax to any other person. (e) If the claim is for refund of...

  14. 32. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWN IN SD231. BEHIND WALL FRAMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWN IN SD-2-31. BEHIND WALL FRAMING IS SAMPLING ROOM WITH WOOD SAMPLING ELEVATOR. CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ON LEFT (SOUTH). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  15. The Euler current and relativistic parity odd transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkar, Siavash; Roberts, Matthew M.; Son, Dam T.

    2015-04-01

    For a spacetime of odd dimensions endowed with a unit vector field, we introduce a new topological current that is identically conserved and whose charge is equal to the Euler character of the even dimensional spacelike foliations. The existence of this current allows us to introduce new Chern-Simons-type terms in the effective field theories describing relativistic quantum Hall states and (2 + 1) dimensional superfluids. Using effective field theory, we calculate various correlation functions and identify transport coefficients. In the quantum Hall case, this current provides the natural relativistic generalization of the Wen-Zee term, required to characterize the shift and Hall viscosity in quantum Hall systems. For the superfluid case this term is required to have nonzero Hall viscosity and to describe superfluids with non s-wave pairing.

  16. Effect of odd hydrogen on ozone depletion by chlorine reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Cicerone, R. J.; Liu, S. C.; Chameides, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper discusses how the shape of the ozone layer changes under the influence of injected ClX for several choices of two key HOx reaction rates. The two HOx reactions are: OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. Results of calculations are presented which show that the two reaction rates determine the stratospheric concentrations of OH and HO2, and that these concentrations regulate the amount by which the stratospheric ozone column can be reduced due to injections of odd chlorine. It is concluded that the amount of ozone reduction by a given mixing ratio of ClX will remain very uncertain until the significance of several possible feedback effects involving HOx in a chlorine-polluted atmosphere are determined and measurements of the reaction rates and HOx concentrations are made at the relevant temperatures.

  17. Phase transition in odd-N Pd-isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hou-Bing; Dong, Guo-Xiang; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Fu-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Phase transition in odd-N isotopes 99,101,103Pd are investigated via the E-GOS (E-Gamma Over Spin) curves, which strongly suggest a structure evolution from vibration to rotation along the yrast lines with increasing spin. Theoretical calculations have been performed for the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd in the framework of the cranked shell model (CSM) and the alignment properties observed experimentally are analyzed employing this model. The results show that the phase transition in the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd can be interpreted as the valence nucleons start to occupy the g9/2 proton orbitals with increasing spin which would polarize the core to a small, but rigid quadrupole deformation. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi (2014jjBA10016, 2014jjDA10012) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11465005)

  18. Near yrast states in doubly odd [sup 214]Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Ozafran, M.; Romo, A.; Somacal, H.; Vazquez, M.E. ); Davidson, J.; Davidson, M. ); Ahn, K.; Fossan, D.B.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Piel, W.F. Jr.; Xu, N. )

    1993-11-01

    High spin states of doubly odd [sup 214]Fr[sub 127] have been investigated using in-beam [gamma]-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy techniques through the [sup 206]Pb([sup 11]B, 3[ital n]) and [sup 208]Pb([sup 11]B, 5[ital n]) fusion-evaporation reactions. Completely new spectrocopic information has been obtained. The yrast level structure is established up to spin (19[sup +]) and some information on [gamma] transitions from higher-lying levels is also obtained. Two new isomers [ital T][sub 1/2]=174(20) ns and [ital T][sub 1/2]=11(2) ns were found. Configuration assignments for the low-lying levels are discussed. Information on residual proton-neutron interactions is extracted.

  19. Cotunneling into a Kondo lattice with odd hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruselli, Pier Paolo; Vojta, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Cotunneling into Kondo systems, where an electron enters an f -electron material via a cotunneling process through the local-moment orbital, has been proposed to explain the characteristic line shapes observed in scanning-tunneling-spectroscopy (STS) experiments. Here we extend the theory of electron cotunneling to Kondo-lattice systems in which the bulk hybridization between conduction and f electrons is odd under inversion, being particularly relevant to Kondo insulators. Compared to the case of even hybridization, we show that the interference between normal tunneling and cotunneling processes is fundamentally altered: it is entirely absent for layered, i.e., quasi-two-dimensional materials, while its energy dependence is strongly modified for three-dimensional materials. We discuss implications for STS experiments.

  20. Multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nathan A; Block, Stephen B; Yurs, Lena A; Kornau, Kathryn M; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Wright, John C

    2009-12-01

    Extending current coherent multidimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) methods to higher order multiwave mixing requires excitation intensities where dynamic Stark effects become important. This paper examines the dynamic Stark effects that occur in mixed frequency/time domain CMDS methods at high excitation intensities in a model system with an isolated vibrational state. The phase-matching restrictions in CMDS define the excitation beams that interact by nonlinear mixing while the dynamic Stark effects create vibrational ladders of increasingly more energetic overtone and combination band states. The excited quantum states form coherences that reemit the output beams. This paper uses the phase-matching conditions k(out) = k(1) - k(2) + k(2') and k(out) =- k(1) + k(2) + k(2'), where the subscripts denote the excitation frequencies of each excitation pulse and the output pulse. The phase-matching condition constrains each pulse to have an odd number of interactions so the overall mixing process that creates the output coherence must also involve an odd number of interactions. Tuning the excitation frequencies and spectrally resolving the output intensity creates three-dimensional spectra that resolve the individual overtone states. Changing the excitation pulse time delays measures the dynamics of the coherences and populations created by the multiple excitations. The multidimensional spectra probe the highly excited states of a molecular potential energy surface. This paper uses tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO)(6)) as a model for observing how dynamic Stark effects change the multidimensional spectra of a simple system. The simplicity of the W(CO)(6) system provides the experimental data required to develop the nonperturbative theoretical methods that will be necessary to model this new approach to CMDS. PMID:19860444

  1. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Ewa; Pięta, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. Aim of the study The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. Material and methods The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. Results The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. Conclusions A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated. PMID:27095953

  2. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  3. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID33G101, ANOTHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID-33-G-101, ANOTHER VIEW. PERSONNEL DOORWAY INTO CHAMBER IDENTIFIES SODIUM HAZARD AND POSSIBILITY OF INERT GAS. LIQUID SODIUM COOLANT WAS USED IN A SPECIAL ETR LOOP ADAPTED FOR IT IN 1972. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. The Interplay Among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later ODD symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Method Participants were 258 3-year-old children (138 boys and 120 girls) and their parents from diverse backgrounds who participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Results Early child behavior, parenting, and family adversity did not significantly interact in the predicted direction. Reciprocal relations between ODD symptoms and parent functioning were observed for maternal and paternal depression, and maternal warmth. Paternal laxness at age 4 predicted ODD symptoms at age 5 and paternal laxness at age 5 predicted ODD symptoms at age 6, but child ODD did not significantly predict paternal laxness. Conclusion Results suggest that ODD symptoms may develop through a transactional process between parent and child functioning across the preschool years. PMID:22530755

  5. Production of proinflammatory and regulatory monokines in hemodialysis patients shown at a single-cell level.

    PubMed

    Girndt, M; Sester, U; Kaul, H; Köhler, H

    1998-09-01

    Immunologic complications of chronic renal failure are associated with the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes. This is partly due to renal failure itself but is further enhanced by hemodialysis treatment with frequent contact between blood and dialyzer membranes. Previous studies have shown an imbalance of proinflammatory and regulatory monokines in these patients. This study examines monokine production in hemodialysis patients using for the first time a very sensitive method of cytokine detection at a single-cell level by flow cytometry ("cytoflow technique"). Monocytes were stained intracellularly for the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 after 20 h of culture with lipopolysaccharide. It was shown that high levels of proinflammatory IL-6 in hemodialysis patients are due to an increased number of monocytes producing this cytokine, while IL-6 synthesis per cell remains unchanged. In contrast, elevated levels of regulatory IL-10 are due to an increased synthesis per cell. This study demonstrates that in healthy subjects there is a population of monocytes producing exclusively IL-10 after 20 h of stimulation by lipopolysaccharide. This distinct population of regulatory monocytes is infrequent in dialysis patients, in whom most of the IL-10-positive monocytes also produce IL-6. These findings indicate that overproduction of proinflammatory factors in dialysis patients is at least in part due to a loss of cytokine-specific differentiation in monocytes. PMID:9727378

  6. At Odds: Reconciling Experimental and Theoretical Results in High School Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    For this experiment, students are divided into 2 groups and presented with a static equilibrium force-balance problem to solve. One group works entirely experimentally and the other group theoretically, using Newton's laws. The groups present their seemingly dissimilar results and must reconcile them through discussion. (Contains 3 figures.)

  7. The development of hurricane Inez, 1966, as shown by satellite nighttime radiometric and daytime television coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A complete documentation of Numbus 2 High Resolution infrared Radiometer data and ESSA-1 and 3 television photographs is presented for the life-time of Hurricane Inez, 1966. Ten computer produced radiation charts were analyzed in order to delineate the three dimensional cloud structure during the formative, mature and dissipating stages of this tropical cyclone. Time sections were drawn throughout the storm's life cycle to relate the warm core development and upper level outflow of the storm with their respective cloud canopies, as shown by the radiation data. Aerial reconnaissance weather reports, radar photographs and conventional weather analyses were used to complement the satellite data. A computer program was utilized to accept Nimbus 2 HRIR equivalent blackbody temperatures within historical maximum and minimum sea surface temperature limits over the tropical Atlantic Ocean.

  8. The influence on perceptions of truthfulness of the emotional expressions shown when talking about failure

    PubMed Central

    David, Shlomo; Hareli, Shlomo; Hess, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to assess whether showing emotion in an organizational inquiry into failure affects perceptions of truthfulness as a function of the match between the explanation of what caused the failure and the emotion expressed. Two web-based studies were conducted. Participants with work experience saw videos of an inquiry and rated the protagonist’s truthfulness. In both studies protagonists who expressed an emotion (anger or shame) were rated as less truthful than protagonists who expressed no emotion, regardless of what the failure was attributed to. In order to not confound effects of emotions with occupational stereotype effects only male protagonists were shown. Showing emotions when questioned is normal. Managers have to be aware of a tendency to count this against the employee. This is the only research focusing on the effects of showing emotions on perceptions of truthfulness in an organizational context. PMID:27247646

  9. The influence on perceptions of truthfulness of the emotional expressions shown when talking about failure.

    PubMed

    David, Shlomo; Hareli, Shlomo; Hess, Ursula

    2015-02-01

    The study aimed to assess whether showing emotion in an organizational inquiry into failure affects perceptions of truthfulness as a function of the match between the explanation of what caused the failure and the emotion expressed. Two web-based studies were conducted. Participants with work experience saw videos of an inquiry and rated the protagonist's truthfulness. In both studies protagonists who expressed an emotion (anger or shame) were rated as less truthful than protagonists who expressed no emotion, regardless of what the failure was attributed to. In order to not confound effects of emotions with occupational stereotype effects only male protagonists were shown. Showing emotions when questioned is normal. Managers have to be aware of a tendency to count this against the employee. This is the only research focusing on the effects of showing emotions on perceptions of truthfulness in an organizational context. PMID:27247646

  10. Organic solute changes with acidification in Lake Skjervatjern as shown by 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malcolm, R.L.; Hayes, T.

    1994-01-01

    1H-NMR spectroscopy has been found to be a useful tool to establish possible real differences and trends between all natural organic solute fractions (fulvic acids, humic acids, and XAD-4 acids) after acid-rain additions to the Lake Skjervatjern watershed. The proton NMR technique used in this study determined the spectral distribution of nonexchangeable protons among four peaks (aliphatic protons; aliphatic protons on carbon ?? or attached to electronegative groups; protons on carbons attached to O or N heteroatoms; and aromatic protons). Differences of 10% or more in the respective peak areas were considered to represent a real difference. After one year of acidification, fulvic acids decreased 13% (relative) in Peak 3 protons on carbon attached to N and O heteratoms and exhibited a decrease in aromatic protons between 27% and 31%. Humic acids also exhibited an 11% relative decrease in aromatic protons as a result of acidification. After one year of acidification, real changes were shown in three of the four proton assignments in XAD-4 acids. Peak 1 aliphatic protons increased by 14% (relative), Peak 3 protons on carbons attached to O and N heteroatoms decreased by 13% (relative), and aromatic protons (Peak 4) decreased by 35% (relative). Upon acidification, there was a trend in all solutes for aromatic protons to decrease and aliphatic protons to increase. The natural variation in organic solutes as shown in the Control Side B of the lake from 1990 to 1991 is perhaps a small limitation to the same data interpretations of acid rain changes at the Lake Skjervatjern site, but the proton NMR technique shows great promise as an independent scientific tool to detect and support other chemical techniques in establishing organic solute changes with different treatments (i.e., additions of acid rain).

  11. Odd-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kim Jye Lee; Mansour, Maged P; Dunstan, Graeme A; Blackburn, Susan I; Koutoulis, Anthony; Nichols, Peter D

    2011-08-01

    A series of unusual odd-chain fatty acids (OC-FA) were identified in two thraustochytrid strains, TC 01 and TC 04, isolated from waters off the south east coast of Tasmania, Australia. FA compositions were determined by capillary GC and GC-MS, with confirmation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) structure performed by analysis of 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. PUFA constituted 68-74% of the total FA, with the essential PUFA; eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3, EPA), arachidonic acid (20:4ω6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3, DHA), accounting for 42-44% of the total FA. High proportions of the saturated OC-FA 15:0 (7.1% in TC 01) and 17:0 (6.2% in TC 04) were detected. The OC-FA 17:1ω8 was present at 2.8% in TC 01. Of particular interest, the C₂₁ PUFA 21:5ω5 and 21:4ω7 were detected at 3.5% and 4.1%, respectively, in TC 04. A proposed biosynthesis pathway for these OC-PUFA is presented. It is possible that the unsaturated OC-PUFA found previously in a number of marine animals were derived from dietary thraustochytrids and they could be useful biomarkers in environmental and food web studies. PMID:21546043

  12. Decay Properties of N = 77 odd-Z Isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelder, J. C.; Tantawy, M. N.; Danchev, M.; Hartley, D. J.; Mazzocchi, C.; Bingham, C. R.; Grzywacz, R.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Gross, C. J.; Shapira, D.; Yu, C.-H.; Krolas, W.; Fong, D.; Hamilton, J. H.; Li, K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Ginter, T. N.; Stolz, A.; Hagino, K.; Karny, M.

    2007-11-30

    The systematics of the {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}h{sub 11/2} and {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}s{sub 1/2} isomeric configurations were studied for the odd-Z N = 77 isotones near the proton dripline. The spin and parity of I{sup {pi}} = 8{sup +} and 5{sup -} were deduced for the isomers in {sup 140}Eu and {sup 142}Tb. No evidence for the expected 1{sup +} ground-state was found in the {sup 144}Ho decay data. The proton emission from {sup 146}Tm was restudied and the spin and parity values of I{sup {pi}} = 10{sup +} and 5{sup -} were established for {sup 146m}Tm and {sup 146gs}Tm, respectively. The interpretation of the observed decay properties and structure of the proton-emitting states was made by accounting for deformation and proton and neutron coupling to the core excitations.

  13. Explicit energy expansion for general odd-degree polynomial potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanayakkara, Asiri; Mathanaranjan, Thilagarajah

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we derive an almost explicit analytic formula for asymptotic eigenenergy expansion of arbitrary odd-degree polynomial potentials of the form V (x) = (ix)2N+1 + β1x2N + β2x2N-1 + ··· + β2Nx, where β‧k are real or complex for 1 ⩽ k ⩽ 2N. The formula can be used to find semiclassical analytic expressions for eigenenergies up to any order, very efficiently. Each term of the expansion is given explicitly as a multinomial of the parameters β1,β2… and β2N of the potential. Unlike in the even-degree polynomial case, the highest-order term in the potential is pure imaginary and hence the system is non-Hermitian. Therefore all the integrations have been carried out along a contour enclosing two complex branch points, which lies within a wedge in the complex plane. With the help of some examples we demonstrate the accuracy of the method for both real and complex eigenspectra.

  14. Redistribution of reactive odd nitrogen in the lower arctic stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebler, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Montzka, D. D.; Carroll, M. A.; Tuck, A. F.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gregory, G. L.; Vedder, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    In-situ measurements of total reactive odd nitrogen NO(y), were made from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in the lower arctic stratosphere during the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. Throughout January and February, NO(y) mixing ratios were typically between 0.5 and 3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at altitudes between 10 and 12.5 km. During several flights late in the mission, events of unusually light NO(y) occurred with mixing ratios up to 12 ppbv at these altitudes. Simultaneous measurements of N2O, O3, and H2O during these events suggest that large changes in NO(y) are not expected. The elevated NO(y) values are interpreted as a vertical redistribution of NO(y) in the lower stratosphere resulting from gravitational sedimentation of aerosol particles containing HNO3. No evidence of the redistribution of H2O is noted, consistent with observations of denitrification without dehydration higher in the stratosphere.

  15. Strain-induced time-reversal odd superconductivity in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juricic, Vladimir; Roy, Bitan

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss the possibility of realizing a time-reversal-symmetry breaking superconducting state that exhibits an f + is pairing symmetry in strained graphene. Although the underlying attractive interactions need to be sufficiently strong and comparable in pristine graphene to support such pairing state, I will argue that strain can be conducive for its formation even for weak interactions. I will show that quantum-critical behavior near the transition is controlled by a fermionic multicritical point, characterized by various critical exponents computed in the framework of an ɛ-expansion near four spacetime dimensions. I will then discuss the scaling of the superconducting gap with the strain-induced axial pseudo-magnetic field. Furthermore, a vortex in this mixed superconducting state hosts a pair of Majorana fermions supporting a quartet of insulating and superconducting orders, among which quantum spin Hall topological insulator. Finally, I will mention some experimental signatures of this f + is time-reversal odd superconductor. These findings suggest that strained graphene could provide a platform for the realization of exotic superconducting states of Dirac fermions. VJ is supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).

  16. Succinate esters: odd-even effects in melting points.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sumy; Sathishkumar, Ranganathan

    2014-10-01

    Dialkyl succinates show a pattern of alternating behavior in their melting points, as the number of C atoms in the alkane side chain increases, unlike in the dialkyl oxalates [Joseph et al. (2011). Acta Cryst. B67, 525-534]. Dialkyl succinates with odd numbers of C atoms in the alkyl side chain show higher melting points than the immediately adjacent analogues with even numbers. The crystal structures and their molecular packing have been analyzed for a series of dialkyl succinates with 1-4 C atoms in the alkyl side chain. The energy difference (ΔE) between the optimized and observed molecular conformations, density, Kitaigorodskii packing index (KPI) and C-H...O interactions are considered to rationalize this behavior. In contrast to the dialkyl oxalates where a larger number of moderately strong C-H...O interactions were characteristic of oxalates with elevated melting points, here the molecular packing and the density play a major role in raising the melting point. On moving from oxalate to succinate esters the introduction of the C2 spacer adds two activated H atoms to the asymmetric unit, resulting in the formation of stronger C-H...O hydrogen bonds in all succinates. As a result the crystallinity of long-chain alkyl substituted esters improves enormously in the presence of hydrogen bonds from activated donors. PMID:25274517

  17. First Evidence for the Existence of Odd Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs) from the Simultaneous Observation of Even and Odd TAEs on the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Kramer; S.E. Sharapov; R. Nazikian; N.N. Gorelenkov; R. Budny; JET-EFDA contributors

    2003-01-15

    Experimental evidence is presented for the existence of the theoretically predicted odd Torodicity-induced Alfven Eigenmode (TAEs) from the simultaneous appearance of odd and even TAEs in a normal shear discharge. The modes are observed in low central magnetic shear plasmas created by injecting lower hybrid current drive. A fast ion population was created by applying ion cyclotron heating at the high field side to excite the TAEs in the weak magnetic shear region. The odd TAEs were identified from their frequency, mode number, and timing relative to the even TAEs.

  18. [The features of adults' coronary artery anomalies shown by 64-multi-detector rows CT].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhentuan; Yu, Jianqun; Zhang, Youyi; Yuan, Hongmei

    2009-06-01

    To analyze the adults' coronary artery anomalies revealed by 64-MDCT, we retrospectively analyzed 34 cases of coronary artery anomalies (26 males and 8 females, averagely aged 53. 4 years with a range from 30 to 72 years). Multi-plannar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), surface shadow display (SSD) and volume rendering (VR) were used to demonstrate the anomalous coronary artery. We found 4 cases of RCA from the left coronary sinus, 8 cases with secondary RCA, 1 case with high locations of left main (LM) segments from left sinus of valves, 1 case with LAD originated from main pulmonary artery, 3 cases with separate origin of LAD and LCX. Ten cases with myocardial bridge were shown (9 cases in LAD, 1 case in LCX); coronary fistula was seen in 2 cases (one was RCA-RA fistula, another was LAD-RV fistula), coronary aneurysm was found in 2 cases. Three cases in RCA were short and small. In conclusion, 64-MDCT is a good choice for diagnosing the anomalous coronary artery. PMID:19634659

  19. Importance of UVA photoprotection as shown by genotoxic related endpoints: DNA damage and p53 status.

    PubMed

    Marrot, Laurent; Belaïdi, Jean-Philippe; Meunier, Jean-Roch

    2005-04-01

    In order to demonstrate the importance of photoprotection in the UVA range (320-400 nm), an in vitro approach where sun formulations are spread on a quartz slide, and placed over human keratinocytes in culture is proposed as a convenient test for photoprotection assessment at the DNA level. Using the comet assay, DNA strand breaks, oxidative DNA damage or drug-induced DNA breaks were assessed. Accumulation of p53 protein was also studied as a marker for UV-induced genotoxic stress. Such a method was used to compare two formulations with different photostability. Spectroradiometry showed that a photounstable formulation lost its effectiveness in UVA screening when pre-irradiated by simulated sunlight (UVB+UVA). As a consequence, it was also shown that this formulation was not as protective as the photostable one at the genomic level. These data demonstrate that the loss of absorbing efficiency within UVA wavelengths due to photounstability may have detrimental consequences leading to impairments implicated in genotoxic events. PMID:15748646

  20. Physiologic mechanisms effecting circulatory and body fluid losses in weightlessness as shown by mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Simanonok, K E; Srinivasan, R S; Charles, J B

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms causing large body water losses in weightlessness are not clear. It has long been considered that a central volume expansion drives the physiologic adaptation to a reduced total blood volume, with normal blood composition eventually regained. However, inflight venous pressure measures suggest that central volume expansion in weightlessness may be very transient, or that considerable cardiovascular adaptation to fluid shifts occurs on the ground while astronauts wait in the semi-supine pre-launch position. If a central volume stimulus does not persist, other mechanisms must drive the adaptation of circulation to a reduced blood volume and account for body fluid losses. Recent results from the SLS-1 mission suggest that body fluid volumes do not simply decline to new equilibria but that they decrease to a low point, then undergo some recovery. Similar "under-shoots" of body fluid volumes have also been shown in computer simulations, providing confidence in the validity of the model. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms which could explain the loss of body fluids in weightlessness and how a cardiovascular preadaptation countermeasure we previously tested ameliorated body fluid losses. It is assumed that the physiology of head down tilt (HDT) provides a reasonably accurate analog of weightless exposure. PMID:11537415

  1. Prospective candidates for the EDM experiments of new type: calculations of enhancement of P,T-odd effects in HI+ and liquid Xe

    SciTech Connect

    Isaev, Timur A.; Petrov, Aleksander N.; Mosyagin, Nikolay S.; Titov, Anatoly V.

    2006-07-11

    The search for the P,T-parity non-conservation (PNC) effects is of fundamental importance in physics. Experiments are performed on T1F and YbF, and are prepared on PbO and HgH molecules. Recently some new approaches were suggested, such as the search for P,T-odd effects in liquid xenon and on HI+ molecular ion. For preparation and interpretation of these experiments high-precision calculations of the electronic structure are required. Recently developed theoretical methods allow one to analyze the atomic-molecular systems from the point of enhancement of P,T-odd effects and recommend such or another system as a prospective candidate. We calculated enhancement factor for electron EDM in the ground state of HI+ molecular ion, required for experiment of new type on electron EDM search. The results of calculations of P,T-odd effects in liquid xenon are also discussed.

  2. Mutational robustness of 16S ribosomal RNA, shown by experimental horizontal gene transfer in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Kei; Yasutake, Yoshiaki; Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial ribosome consists of three rRNA molecules and 57 proteins and plays a crucial role in translating mRNA-encoded information into proteins. Because of the ribosome’s structural and mechanistic complexity, it is believed that each ribosomal component coevolves to maintain its function. Unlike 5S rRNA, 16S and 23S rRNAs appear to lack mutational robustness, because they form the structural core of the ribosome. However, using Escherichia coli Δ7 (null mutant of operons) as a host, we have recently shown that an active hybrid ribosome whose 16S rRNA has been specifically substituted with that from non–E. coli bacteria can be reconstituted in vivo. To investigate the mutational robustness of 16S rRNA and the structural basis for its functionality, we used a metagenomic approach to screen for 16S rRNA genes that complement the growth of E. coli Δ7. Various functional genes were obtained from the Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria lineages. Despite the large sequence diversity (80.9–99.0% identity with E. coli 16S rRNA) of the functional 16S rRNA molecules, the doubling times (DTs) of each mutant increased only modestly with decreasing sequence identity (average increase in DT, 4.6 s per mutation). The three-dimensional structure of the 30S ribosome showed that at least 40.7% (628/1,542) of the nucleotides were variable, even at ribosomal protein-binding sites, provided that the secondary structures were properly conserved. Our results clearly demonstrate that 16S rRNA functionality largely depends on the secondary structure but not on the sequence itself. PMID:23112186

  3. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  4. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, A.; Fukushima, K.; Kharzeev, D.; Warringa, H.; Voloshin, S.

    2010-04-26

    This volume contains the proceedings of the RBRC/CATHIE workshop on 'P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter' held at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center on April 26-30, 2010. The workshop was triggered by the experimental observation of charge correlations in heavy ion collisions at RHIC, which were predicted to occur due to local parity violation (P- and CP-odd fluctuations) in hot and dense QCD matter. This experimental result excited a significant interest in the broad physics community, inspired a few alternative interpretations, and emphasized the need for a deeper understanding of the role of topology in QCD vacuum and in hot and dense quark-gluon matter. Topological effects in QCD are also closely related to a number of intriguing problems in condensed matter physics, cosmology and astrophysics. We therefore felt that a broad cross-disciplinary discussion of topological P- and CP-odd effects in various kinds of matter was urgently needed. Such a discussion became the subject of the workshop. Specific topics discussed at the workshop include the following: (1) The current experimental results on charge asymmetries at RHIC and the physical interpretations of the data; (2) Quantitative characterization of topological effects in QCD matter including both analytical (perturbative and non-perturbative using gauge/gravity duality) and numerical (lattice-QCD) calculations; (3) Topological effects in cosmology of the Early Universe (including baryogenesis and dark energy); (4) Topological effects in condensed matter physics (including graphene and superfiuids); and (5) Directions for the future experimental studies of P- and CP-odd effects at RHIC and elsewhere. We feel that the talks and intense discussions during the workshop were extremely useful, and resulted in new ideas in both theory and experiment. We hope that the workshop has contributed to the progress in understanding the role of topology in QCD and related fields. We thank all the speakers and

  5. Experimental Identification of Intruder Bandheads in Odd-Mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    A.N. Andreyev; J.F.C. Cocks; O. Dorvaux; K. Eskola; P. Greenlees; P. Jones; R. Julin; S. Juutinen; K. Helariutta; M. Huyse; H. Kettunen; P. Kuusiniemi; M. Leino; M. Muikku; W.H. Trzaska; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; R. Wyss

    1999-12-31

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  6. Experimental identification of intruder bandheads in odd-mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Greenlees, P.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Helariutta, K.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Eskola, K.; Wyss, R.

    1999-11-16

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  7. Against All Odds: A Socioeconomic Analysis of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote Sykes, Darold E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that the adolescent African American male, in comparison to his peers of other races, is challenged by a diversity of destructive factors that significantly affect his future. This study examined the disparity in academic achievement that exists between African American male students and other student populations in the United…

  8. Seismic subduction of the Nazca Ridge as shown by the 1996-97 Peru earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spence, W.; Mendoza, C.; Engdahl, E.R.; Choy, G.L.; Norabuena, E.

    1999-01-01

    By rupturing more than half of the shallow subduction interface of the Nazca Ridge, the great November 12, 1996 Peruvian earthquake contradicts the hypothesis that oceanic ridges subduct aseismically. The mainshock's rupture has a length of about 200 km and has an average slip of about 1.4 m. Its moment is 1.5 x 1028 dyne-cm and the corresponding M(w) is 8.0. The mainshock registered three major episodes of moment release as shown by a finite fault inversion of teleseismically recorded broadband body waves. About 55% of the mainshock's total moment release occurred south of the Nazca Ridge, and the remaining moment release occurred at the southern half of the subduction interface of the Nazca Ridge. The rupture south of the Nazca Ridge was elongated parallel to the ridge axis and extended from a shallow depth to about 65 km depth. Because the axis of the Nazca Ridge is at a high angle to the plate convergence direction, the subducting Nazca Ridge has a large southwards component of motion, 5 cm/yr parallel to the coast. The 900-1200 m relief of the southwards sweeping Nazca Ridge is interpreted to act as a 'rigid indenter,' causing the greatest coupling south of the ridge's leading edge and leading to the large observed slip. The mainshock and aftershock hypocenters were relocated using a new procedure that simultaneously inverts local and teleseismic data. Most aftershocks were within the outline of the Nazca Ridge. A three-month delayed aftershock cluster' occurred at the northern part of the subducting Nazca Ridge. Aftershocks were notably lacking at the zone of greatest moment release, to the south of the Nazca Ridge. However, a lone foreshock at the southern end of this zone, some 140 km downstrike of the mainshock's epicenter, implies that conditions existed for rupture into that zone. The 1996 earthquake ruptured much of the inferred source zone of the M(w) 7.9-8.2 earthquake of 1942, although the latter was a slightly larger earthquake. The rupture zone of

  9. Reduced visual surround suppression in schizophrenia shown by measuring contrast detection thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica; Read, Jenny C. A.; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Bagney, Alexandra; Caballero-González, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Torresano, Javier; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception in schizophrenia is attracting a broad interest given the deep knowledge that we have about the visual system in healthy populations. One example is the class of effects known collectively as visual surround suppression. For example, the visibility of a grating located in the visual periphery is impaired by the presence of a surrounding grating of the same spatial frequency and orientation. Previous studies have suggested abnormal visual surround suppression in patients with schizophrenia. Given that schizophrenia patients have cortical alterations including hypofunction of NMDA receptors and reduced concentration of GABA neurotransmitter, which affect lateral inhibitory connections, then they should be relatively better than controls at detecting visual stimuli that are usually suppressed. We tested this hypothesis by measuring contrast detection thresholds using a new stimulus configuration. We tested two groups: 21 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy subjects. Thresholds were obtained using Bayesian staircases in a four-alternative forced-choice detection task where the target was a grating within a 3∘ Butterworth window that appeared in one of four possible positions at 5∘ eccentricity. We compared three conditions, (a) target with no-surround, (b) target embedded within a surrounding grating of 20∘ diameter and 25% contrast with same spatial frequency and orthogonal orientation, and (c) target embedded within a surrounding grating with parallel (same) orientation. Previous results with healthy populations have shown that contrast thresholds are lower for orthogonal and no-surround (NS) conditions than for parallel surround (PS). The log-ratios between parallel and NS thresholds are used as an index quantifying visual surround suppression. Patients performed poorly compared to controls in the NS and orthogonal-surround conditions. However, they performed as well as controls when the surround was parallel, resulting in significantly

  10. Informational Odds Ratio: A Useful Measure of Epidemiologic Association in Environment Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.; Lea, Suzanne; Toland, Amanda; Phillips, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (ie, information gained after knowing exposure status). A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility (ie, the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder). Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs generally are collapsible. IORs are a useful measure of disease association in environmental case-referent studies, especially when the disease is common in the exposed and/or unexposed groups. PMID:22518087

  11. Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveticanin, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics

  12. Interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors on the presence of neck/shoulder symptoms and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the interaction between physical and psychosocial factors on the presence of neck/shoulder symptoms (NSS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism) among 1294 coal mining workers in Indonesia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on current workplace exposure and NSS and its consequences. Participants were grouped into one of four combination exposure groups: low physical and low psychosocial (as the reference group); low physical and high psychosocial; high physical and low psychosocial, and high physical and high psychosocial (HPhyHPsy). The attributable proportion (AP) due to interaction between both factors was examined. Individuals in the HPhyHPsy group were most likely to report NSS [odds ratio (OR) 4.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.43-9.58], reduced activities (OR 3.90, 95% CI 2.36-6.43), and absenteeism (OR 3.91, 95% CI 2.11-7.25). This study has shown an interaction between physical and psychosocial factors that increases the OR of NSS (AP 0.49, 95% CI 0.08-0.89). Practitioner Summary: Although physical and psychosocial factors are known to be predictors for NSS, little is known about their interaction. Self-reported questionnaire was used to obtain information about physical and psychosocial factors at work. This study found an interaction between the physical and psychosocial risk factors that increases the odds ratio of NSS. PMID:25815974

  13. T invariance and T-odd asymmetries for the cold-polarized-neutron-induced fission of nonoriented nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bunakov, V. E.; Titova, L. V.

    2014-12-15

    It is shown that the coefficients D{sup exp} for all T-odd asymmetries observed experimentally in the cross sections for the reactions of cold-polarized-neutron-induced fission of nonoriented target nuclei (which involves the emission of prescission and evaporated particles) comply in shape and scale with the coefficients D{sup theor} calculated for the analogous asymmetries on the basis of quantum-mechanical nuclear-fission theory for T-invariant Hamiltonians of fissile systems. It is also shown that the asymmetries in question arise upon taking into account the effect of (i) the interference between the fission amplitudes of s- and p-wave resonances of a polarized fissile compound nucleus formed in the aforementioned reactions; (ii) the collective rotation of the compound nucleus in question (this rotation entails a change in the angular distributions of fission fragments and third particles); and (iii) the wriggling vibrations of this compound nucleus in the vicinity of its scission point, which lead to the appearance of high aligned spins of fission fragments, with the result that the emission of neutrons and photons evaporated from these fragments becomes anisotropic. The possible contribution of T-noninvariant interactions to the formation of the T-odd asymmetries under analysis is estimated by using the results obtained in experimentally testing the detailed-balance principle, (P-A) theorem, and T invariance of cross sections for elastic proton-proton and proton-neutron scattering.

  14. Comparative study of Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 50}V and its impact on electron capture rates in astrophysical environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Sajjad, Muhammad

    2007-11-15

    Gamow-Teller (GT) strength transitions are an ideal probe for testing nuclear structure models. In addition to nuclear structure, GT transitions in nuclei directly affect the early phases of Type Ia and Type-II supernovae core collapse since the electron capture rates are partly determined by these GT transitions. In astrophysics, GT transitions provide an important input for model calculations and element formation during the explosive phase of a massive star at the end of its life-time. Recent nucleosynthesis calculations show that odd-odd and odd-A nuclei cause the largest contribution in the rate of change of lepton-to-baryon ratio. In the present manuscript, we have calculated the GT strength distributions and electron capture rates for odd-odd nucleus {sup 50}V by using the pn-QRPA theory. At present {sup 50}V is the first experimentally available odd-odd nucleus in fp-shell nuclei. We also compare our GT strength distribution with the recently measured results of a {sup 50}V(d, {sup 2}He){sup 50}Ti experiment, with the earlier work of Fuller, Fowler, and Newman (referred to as FFN) and subsequently with the large-scale shell model calculations. One curious finding of the paper is that the Brink's hypothesis, usually employed in large-scale shell model calculations, is not a good approximation to use at least in the case of {sup 50}V. SNe Ia model calculations performed using FFN rates result in overproduction of {sup 50}Ti, and were brought to a much acceptable value by employing shell model results. It might be interesting to study how the composition of the ejecta using presently reported QRPA rates compare with the observed abundances.

  15. The Correlation of Secondary Organic Aerosol with Odd Oxygen in Mexico City

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from a mountain location intercepting the Mexico City emission plume demonstrate a strong correlation between secondary organic aerosol and odd-oxygen (O3 + NO2). The measured oxygenated-organic aerosol correlates with odd-oxygen measurements with an a...

  16. Into the Cuckoo's Nest: "Silver Linings Playbook" and Movies about Odd People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Odd people have always been identified and often treated differently in human societies. In modern times, they have been described as being afflicted with a psychological condition to be treated by specialists and assigned to a "crazy" category by general society. Movies about such odd people have a long history. A recent movie,…

  17. Role of T-odd Functions in High Energy Hadronic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Salvo, E.

    2003-07-01

    I propose a simple model for predicting the enegy behavior of T-odd, chiral odd function h1⊥. Furthermore I illustrate a method for extracting h1⊥ and the transversity function from Drell-Yan. The method may be applied also to other reactions.

  18. The Short Supply of Saints: Limits on Replication of Models that "Beat the Odds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Tamara; Jacobsen, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have identified effective practices that allow schools to "beat the odds" and close the reading achievement gap. Although identifying these practices is important, researchers have paid little attention to the work it takes to implement them. Through interviews with teachers who work at schools identified as beating the odds, this…

  19. Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…

  20. The Interplay among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Participants were 258 three-year-old children (138 boys, 120…

  1. Fitting Proportional Odds Models to Educational Data in Ordinal Logistic Regression Using Stata, SAS and SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xing

    2008-01-01

    The proportional odds (PO) model, which is also called cumulative odds model (Agresti, 1996, 2002 ; Armstrong & Sloan, 1989; Long, 1997, Long & Freese, 2006; McCullagh, 1980; McCullagh & Nelder, 1989; Powers & Xie, 2000; O'Connell, 2006), is one of the most commonly used models for the analysis of ordinal categorical data and comes from the class…

  2. Focusing on the Basics in Beat-the-Odds Schools. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowits, Laura; Woempner, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Researchers at Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) recently completed a study of "beat-the-odds" schools--high-needs schools that demonstrated atypically high student achievement. This policy brief draws from the report of the study's findings, "High-Needs Schools--What Does It Take to Beat the Odds?"…

  3. Quadrupole moments of odd-A 53-63Mn: Onset of collectivity towards N = 40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, C.; Heylen, H.; Bissell, M. L.; Blaum, K.; Campbell, P.; Cheal, B.; Fedorov, D.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Geithner, W.; Gins, W.; Day Goodacre, T.; Grob, L. K.; Kowalska, M.; Lenzi, S. M.; Maass, B.; Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S.; Marsh, B.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Otsuka, T.; Rossel, R.; Rothe, S.; Sánchez, R.; Tsunoda, Y.; Wraith, C.; Xie, L.; Yang, X. F.

    2016-09-01

    The spectroscopic quadrupole moments of the odd-even Mn isotopes between N = 28 and N = 38 have been measured using bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN. In order to increase sensitivity to the quadrupole interaction, the measurements have been done using a transition in the ion rather than in the atom, with the additional advantage of better spectroscopic efficiency. Since the chosen transition is from a metastable state, optical pumping in ISOLDE's cooler and buncher (ISCOOL) was used to populate this state. The extracted quadrupole moments are compared to large-scale shell model predictions using three effective interactions, GXPF1A, LNPS and modified A3DA. The inclusion of both the 1 νg9/2 and 2 νd5/2 orbitals in the model space is shown to be necessary to reproduce the observed increase in the quadrupole deformation from N = 36 onwards. Specifically, the inclusion of the 2 νd5/2 orbital induces an increase in neutron and proton excitations across the reduced gaps at N = 40 and Z = 28, leading to an increase in deformation above N = 36.

  4. Decoherence of odd compass states in the phase-sensitive amplifying/dissipating environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodonov, V. V.; Valverde, C.; Souza, L. S.; Baseia, B.

    2016-08-01

    We study the evolution of odd compass states (specific superpositions of four coherent states), governed by the standard master equation with phase-sensitive amplifying/attenuating terms, in the presence of a Hamiltonian describing a parametric degenerate linear amplifier. Explicit expressions for the time-dependent Wigner function are obtained. The time of disappearance of the so called "sub-Planck structures" is calculated using the negative value of the Wigner function at the origin of phase space. It is shown that this value rapidly decreases during a short "conventional interference degradation time" (CIDT), which is inversely proportional to the size of quantum superposition, provided the anti-Hermitian terms in the master equation are of the same order (or stronger) as the Hermitian ones (governing the parametric amplification). The CIDT is compared with the final positivization time (FPT), when the Wigner function becomes positive. It appears that the FPT does not depend on the size of superpositions, moreover, it can be much bigger in the amplifying media than in the attenuating ones. Paradoxically, strengthening the Hamiltonian part results in decreasing the CIDT, so that the CIDT almost does not depend on the size of superpositions in the asymptotical case of very weak reservoir coupling. We also analyze the evolution of the Mandel factor, showing that for some sets of parameters this factor remains significantly negative, even when the Wigner function becomes positive.

  5. Odd-Mode Surface Plasmon Polaritons Supported by Complementary Plasmonic Metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xi; Zhou, Liang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), either on metal-dielectric interfaces in optical frequencies or on structured metal surfaces in the lower frequencies, are dominantly even modes. Here we discover dominant odd-mode SPPs on a complementary plasmonic metamaterial, which is constructed by complementary symmetric grooves. We show that the fundamental SPP mode on such a plasmonic metamaterial is a tightly confined odd mode, whose dispersion curve can be tuned by the shape of groove. According to the electric field distributions of odd-mode SPPs, we propose a high-efficiency transducer using asymmetric coplanar waveguide and slot line to excite the odd-mode SPPs. Numerical simulations and experimental results validate the high-efficiency excitation and excellent propagation performance of odd-mode SPPs on the complementary plasmonic waveguides in the microwave frequencies. PMID:25783166

  6. Even-odd staggering of the spectroscopic factor as new evidence for α clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delion, D. S.; Dumitrescu, A.; Baran, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We evidence a staggering effect of the experimental spectroscopic factors corresponding to even-even and odd-mass (odd-mass and odd-odd) α emitters. The comparison to the theoretical estimate within the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) approach reveals a similar staggering, but with a different behavior. It turns out that the ratio between corresponding experimental and theoretical spectroscopic factors is proportional to the experimental reduced decay width. A similar dependence was found in a previous work between the strength of the quadrupole-quadrupole α -core interaction, describing the α -decay fine structure and the reduced width. Thus, the even-odd staggering effect in the spectroscopic factor is a new evidence of the α -clustering phenomenon in medium and heavy nuclei.

  7. Deformed ODD-ODD nuclei: Matrix elements for the residual n-p interaction and patterns of alternating perturbations in level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Jain, A.K.; Kvasil, J.; Sood, P.C.; Sheline, R.K.; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL )

    1989-09-01

    The application of a simple semi-empirical model is discussed in terms of interpreting experimental nuclear structure data for twelve of the best characterized odd-odd deformed nuclei. An essential part of this modeling is to calculate values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and Newby shifts, the observables that arise from the n-p residual interaction in odd-odd nuclei. Assumptions regarding the form for this n-p force are traced historically. The predictive power of a favored form of the n-p force, one that includes a central force with short and long-range components, a tensor force, and some effects of core polarization, is examined in light of experimental data obtained since its formulation. A data set of 42 experimentally determined Newby shifts has been reviewed as to the reliability of each entry. Exceptions to a recently proposed rule for the a priori determination of the sign of Newby shift are discussed. Evidence is presented for the existence of an odd-even staggering or signature effect in the rotational spacings of many K{sup {minus}} bands (with K > 0). By use of Coriolis-coupling calculations, it has been possible to reproduce the staggering observed in some of the K{sup {minus}} rotational bands of {sup 156}Tb, {sup 168}Tm, {sup 176}Lu, {sup 182}Ta, and {sup 182}Re. 27 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds.

    PubMed

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Among the country's 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  9. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    PubMed Central

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  10. The Double Red Giant Binary With Odd Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawls, Meredith L.; Gaulme, Patrick; McKeever, Jean; Orosz, Jerome A.; Latham, David W.; Jackiewicz, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Red giants in eclipsing binaries are excellent tools for studying the interplay among stellar evolution, binarity, and solar-like oscillations. We present a detailed look at one unique system composed of two red giants, KIC 9246715. One of the stars exhibits solar-like oscillations that are weaker than expected, and the other shows none at all. To address this oddity, we combine four years of Kepler light curves, radial velocity curves for both stars, and stellar atmosphere models for each star's extracted spectrum. Our final, well-constrained photodynamic model yields new physical insights for both stars in the binary, puts asteroseismology to the test, and paves the way for detailed studies of other red giant eclipsing binaries with main-sequence companions. This work summarizes the main results of a new paper by Rawls et al.

  11. Even-odd effects in the prompt fission emission of even Z actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, Anabella; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Giubega, Georgiana; Visan, Iuliana

    2016-03-01

    The investigation of even-odd effects in the prompt emission of even Z actinides showed a sawtooth shape of ν(Z) with staggering in the asymmetric fission region. Average prompt emission quantities as a function of A, e.g. ν(A), of even Z fragmentations are higher than those of odd Z fragmentations and they exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units in the asymmetric fission region. This periodicity is not due to the Z even-odd effect in fragment distributions. The even-odd effect in <ν>(TKE) is increasing with increasing TKE and it decreases with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. The global even-odd effect in total average prompt emission quantities is decreasing with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. In the case of an even-odd fissioning nucleus, 234U(n,f), the global even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities exhibits a very slow variation with the incident neutron energy.

  12. Odds and ends in psychopharmacology from the past 10 years.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Seven topics previously described in this column are revisited. The use of quantitative electroencephalography has been shown in a prospective study to be effective for predicting antidepressant treatment response. A novel antidepressant drug, agomelatine, has generated much controversy, and its development for the U.S. market was discontinued. A long awaited revised system for categorizing the safety of medications during pregnancy and lactation has finally been published by the Food and Drug Administration. Dextromethorphan/quinidine, eslicarbazepine acetate, levomilnacipran, and esketamine are recent examples of drugs that were developed based on the complex concepts of chirality and stereochemistry. Lisdexamfetamine, a stimulant drug, failed to show benefit as an augmentation therapy for the treatment of depression. The combination drug naltrexone/bupropion was finally approved as a therapy for obesity, after its cardiovascular safety was confirmed in a prospective premarketing study. Further development of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist drug mifepristone as a treatment for psychotic depression was stopped based on a large negative trial, but the drug continues to be investigated for other potential psychiatric indications. These examples illustrate how the field of psychopharmacology continues to evolve. PMID:25622272

  13. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems.

    PubMed

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E

    2016-06-24

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present. PMID:27391743

  14. Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yazar, Harun Resit

    2013-06-15

    The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  15. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M.; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Rossi, E.

    2016-06-01

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s -wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present.

  16. Understanding relative risk, odds ratio, and related terms: as simple as it can get.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-07-01

    Risk, and related measures of effect size (for categorical outcomes) such as relative risks and odds ratios, are frequently presented in research articles. Not all readers know how these statistics are derived and interpreted, nor are all readers aware of their strengths and limitations. This article examines several measures, including absolute risk, attributable risk, attributable risk percent, population attributable risk percent, relative risk, odds, odds ratio, and others. The concept and method of calculation are explained for each of these in simple terms and with the help of examples. The interpretation of each is presented in plain English rather than in technical language. Clinically useful notes are provided, wherever necessary. PMID:26231012

  17. Sustainable Odds: Towards Quantitative Decision Support when Relevant Probabilities are not Available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    There is, at present, no attractive foundation for quantitative probabilistic decision support in the face of model inadequacy, or given ambiguity (deep uncertainty) regarding the relative likelihood of various outcomes, known or unknown. True model error arguably precludes the extraction of objective probabilities from an ensemble of model runs drawn from an available (inadequate) model class, while the acknowledgement of incomplete understanding precludes the justified use of (if not the very formation of) an individual's subjective probabilities. An alternative approach based on Sustainable Odds is proposed and investigated. Sustainable Odds differ from "fair odds" (and are easily distinguished any claim which implying well defined probabilities) as the probabilities implied by sustainable odds summed over all outcomes is expected to exceed one. Traditionally, a person's fair odds are found by identifying the probability level at which one would happily accept either side of a bet, thus the probabilities implied by fair odds always sum to one. Knowing that one has incomplete information and perhaps even erroneous beliefs, there is no compelling reason a rational agent should accept the constraint implied by "fair odds" in any bet. Rather, a rational agent might insist on longer odds both on the event and against the event in order to account for acknowledged ignorance. Let probabilistic odds imply any set of odds for which the implied probabilities sum to one; once model error is acknowledged can one rationally demand non-probabilistic odds? The danger of using fair odds (or probabilities) in decision making is illustrated by considering the risk of ruin a cooperative insurance scheme using probabilistic odds is exposed to. Cases where knowing merely that the insurer's model is imperfect, and nothing else, is sufficient to place bets which drive the insurer to an unexpectedly early ruin are presented. Methodologies which allow the insurer to avoid this early

  18. 3D Viewing: Odd Perception - Illusion? reality? or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisimoto, K.; Iizasa, K.

    2008-12-01

    We live in the three dimensional space, don't we? It could be at least four dimensions, but that is another story. In either way our perceptual capability of 3D-Viewing is constrained by our 2D-perception (our intrinsic tools of perception). I carried out a few visual experiments using topographic data to show our intrinsic (or biological) disability (or shortcoming) in 3D-recognition of our world. Results of the experiments suggest: (1) 3D-surface model displayed on a 2D-computer screen (or paper) always has two interpretations of the 3D- surface geometry, if we choose one of the interpretation (in other word, if we are hooked by one perception of the two), we maintain its perception even if the 3D-model changes its viewing perspective in time shown on the screen, (2) more interesting is that 3D-real solid object (e.g.,made of clay) also gives above mentioned two interpretations of the geometry of the object, if we observe the object with one-eye. Most famous example of this viewing illusion is exemplified by a magician, who died in 2007, Jerry Andrus who made a super-cool paper crafted dragon which causes visual illusion to one-eyed viewer. I, by the experiments, confirmed this phenomenon in another perceptually persuasive (deceptive?) way. My conclusion is that this illusion is intrinsic, i.e. reality for human, because, even if we live in 3D-space, our perceptional tool (eyes) is composed of 2D sensors whose information is reconstructed or processed to 3D by our experience-based brain. So, (3) when we observe the 3D-surface-model on the computer screen, we are always one eye short even if we use both eyes. One last suggestion from my experiments is that recent highly sophisticated 3D- models might include too many information that human perceptions cannot handle properly, i.e. we might not be understanding the 3D world (geospace) at all, just illusioned.

  19. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the ‘rules’ of plating

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1–6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  20. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W A

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  1. Changing the Odds: A North Carolina Family's Search to Help Those with TBI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI Past Issues / ... with traumatic brain injury (TBI)—and changed his family's life forever. "Back then there were no roadmaps ...

  2. Odd-even dependence of rectifying behavior in carbon chains modified diphenyl-dimethyl molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiu-Hua; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Hai-Ying; Liu, De-Sheng; Chen, Gang

    2014-06-01

    Using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of asymmetric nonequi-length carbon chains on the electron transport properties of diphenyl-dimethyl molecule. The results show significant odd-even dependence: the rectification appears only in the hybrid nanostructure with odd carbon chain on one side and even carbon chain on the other side, while it is negligible in those with odd/even carbon chain on both sides. The mechanism for the odd-even dependence of rectification is analyzed by the bias-dependent transmission spectra, evolution of molecular orbital levels, their spatial distributions, and projected density of states with the applied bias.

  3. Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI Past Issues / ... with traumatic brain injury (TBI)—and changed his family's life forever. "Back then there were no roadmaps ...

  4. Testing Lorentz invariance using an odd-parity asymmetric optical resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Baynes, Fred N.; Luiten, Andre N.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2011-10-15

    We present the first experimental test of Lorentz invariance using the frequency difference between counter-propagating modes in an asymmetric odd-parity optical resonator. This type of test is {approx}10{sup 4} more sensitive to odd-parity and isotropic (scalar) violations of Lorentz invariance than equivalent conventional even-parity experiments due to the asymmetry of the optical resonator. The disadvantages of odd-parity resonators have been negated by the use of counter-propagating modes, delivering a high level of immunity to environmental fluctuations. With a nonrotating experiment our result limits the isotropic Lorentz violating parameter {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} to 3.4{+-}6.2x10{sup -9}, the best reported constraint from direct measurements. Using this technique the bounds on odd-parity and scalar violations of Lorentz invariance can be improved by many orders of magnitude.

  5. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  6. A set of exactly solvable Ising models with half-odd-integer spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Onofre; de Souza, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    We present a set of exactly solvable Ising models, with half-odd-integer spin- S on a square-type lattice including a quartic interaction term in the Hamiltonian. The particular properties of the mixed lattice, associated with mixed half-odd-integer spin- (S,1/2) and only nearest-neighbor interaction, allow us to map this system either onto a purely spin-1/2 lattice or onto a purely spin- S lattice. By imposing the condition that the mixed half-odd-integer spin- (S,1/2) lattice must have an exact solution, we found a set of exact solutions that satisfy the free fermion condition of the eight vertex model. The number of solutions for a general half-odd-integer spin- S is given by S+1/2. Therefore we conclude that this transformation is equivalent to a simple spin transformation which is independent of the coordination number.

  7. A model study of the effects of intermittent loss on odd nitrogen concentrations in the lower troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. W.; Hameed, S.; Matloff, G.

    1983-01-01

    A time-dependent box model of the lower troposphere which includes a description of photochemical and physical processes has been developed. This model has been applied to the calculation of nitric acid and NO(x)(NO + NO2) concentrations over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Nitric acid concentrations and the HNO3/NO(x) ratio are found to be highly variable under the assumptions regarding the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation employed in this model. The chemistry of odd nitrogen compounds during the night is potentially important in establishing the level of nitric acid in the lower troposphere. These calculations also indicate that relatively large errors may occur when the continuity equation describing nitric acid variations is averaged over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Interpretation of simultaneous measurements of HNO3 and NO(x) will require some knowledge of the history of the observed air mass and may require an improved understanding of nighttime odd nitrogen chemistry.

  8. Map of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    Based on bibliometric data from information-services provider Thomson Reuters, this map reveals "core areas" of physics, shown as coloured circular nodes, and the relationship between these subdisciplines, shown as lines.

  9. Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Teryaev, O.V.

    2015-04-10

    Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.

  10. Testing the odds of inherent vs. observed overdispersion in neural spike counts.

    PubMed

    Taouali, Wahiba; Benvenuti, Giacomo; Wallisch, Pascal; Chavane, Frédéric; Perrinet, Laurent U

    2016-01-01

    The repeated presentation of an identical visual stimulus in the receptive field of a neuron may evoke different spiking patterns at each trial. Probabilistic methods are essential to understand the functional role of this variance within the neural activity. In that case, a Poisson process is the most common model of trial-to-trial variability. For a Poisson process, the variance of the spike count is constrained to be equal to the mean, irrespective of the duration of measurements. Numerous studies have shown that this relationship does not generally hold. Specifically, a majority of electrophysiological recordings show an "overdispersion" effect: responses that exhibit more intertrial variability than expected from a Poisson process alone. A model that is particularly well suited to quantify overdispersion is the Negative-Binomial distribution model. This model is well-studied and widely used but has only recently been applied to neuroscience. In this article, we address three main issues. First, we describe how the Negative-Binomial distribution provides a model apt to account for overdispersed spike counts. Second, we quantify the significance of this model for any neurophysiological data by proposing a statistical test, which quantifies the odds that overdispersion could be due to the limited number of repetitions (trials). We apply this test to three neurophysiological data sets along the visual pathway. Finally, we compare the performance of this model to the Poisson model on a population decoding task. We show that the decoding accuracy is improved when accounting for overdispersion, especially under the hypothesis of tuned overdispersion. PMID:26445864

  11. Shape-changing particle decays of 185 Bi and structure of the lightest odd-mass Bi isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreyev, A. N.; Ackermann, D.; Heßberger, F. P.; Heyde, K.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.; Karlgren, D.; Kojouharov, I.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Münzenberg, G.; Page, R. D.; van de Vel, K.; van Duppen, P.; Walters, W. B.; Wyss, R.

    2004-05-01

    Proton and α decay of the proton-rich nuclide 185 Bi has been restudied in more detail in the complete fusion reaction 93 Nb ( 95 Mo ,3n ) 185 Bi at the velocity filter SHIP. The observed decay pattern of 185 Bi and of the heavier odd-mass isotopes 187,189,191,193 Bi are interpreted based on potential-energy surface calculations. It is shown that the experimental systematics of the particle decays and of the excited states in these nuclei (where known) can be explained by the prolate-oblate shape co-existence at low excitation energy. The observed state in 185 Bi is proposed to be of prolate nature, which is in contrast with the previously proposed oblate interpretation.

  12. Analytical description of odd-A nuclei near the critical point of the spherical to axially deformed shape transition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yu; Pan Feng; Liu Yuxin; Hou Zhanfeng; Draayer, J. P.

    2010-09-15

    A coupling scheme for even-even nuclei with the X(5) critical point symmetry coupled to a single valence nucleon in a j orbit is proposed to approximately describe the critical point phenomena of spherical to axially deformed shape (phase) transition in odd-A nuclear systems. The corresponding scheme, which can be solved analytically, is called the X(5/(2j+1)) model. A special case with j=1/2 is analyzed in detail to show its level structure and transition patterns. It is further shown that {sup 189}Au and {sup 155}Tb may be possible X(5/(2j+1)) symmetry candidates with j=1/2 and j=3/2, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of a catalytic reduction technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Eubank, C. S.; Hubler, C. S.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of a technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy-containing species in the atmosphere has been examined. In the technique, an NOy component species, which may include NO, NO2, NO3, HNO3, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and particulate nitrate, are catalytically reduced by CO to form NO molecules on the surface of a metal converter tube, and the NO product is detected by chemiluminescence produced in reaction with O3. Among the catalysts tested in the temperature range of 25-500 C, Au was the preferred catalyst. The results of laboratory tests investigating the effects of pressure, O3, and H2O on NOy conversion, and the possible sources of interference, have shown that the technique is suitable for atmospheric analyses. The results of a test in ambient air at a remote ground-based field site are included.

  14. Interference of fission amplitudes of neutron resonances and T-odd asymmetry for various prescission third particles in the ternary fission of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. S.

    2011-12-15

    Differential cross sections for reactions of the true ternary fission of nuclei that was induced by cold polarized neutrons were constructed with allowance of the effect that Coriolis interaction and the interference between fission amplitudes of neutron resonances excited in fissile nuclei upon incidentneutron capture by target nuclei exerted on angular distributions of prescission third particles (alpha particles, neutrons, or photons). It is shown that T -odd TRI- and ROT-type asymmetries for prescission alpha particles are associated with, respectively, the odd and even components of the Coriolis interaction-perturbed amplitude of angular distributions of particles belonging to the types indicated above. These asymmetries have angular distributions differing from each other and stemming from a nontrivial dependence of these components on the neutron-resonance spins J{sub s} and their projections K{sub s} onto the symmetry axis of the nucleus involved. It is shown that angular distributions of prescission photons and neutrons from reactions of the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by cold polarized neutrons are determined by the effect of Coriolis forces exclusively. Therefore, the emerging T-odd asymmetries have a character of a ROT-type asymmetry and are universal for all target nuclei.

  15. Analysis of familial aggregation of atopic eczema and other atopic diseases by ODDS RATIO regression models.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Blettner, M

    1996-05-01

    In order to determine the relative importance of genetics and the environment on the occurrence of atopic diseases, we investigated the familial aggregation of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis, and allergic asthma in the relatives of 426 patients with atopic eczema and 628 subjects with no history of eczema (5,136 family members in total). Analyses were performed by regression models for odds ratios (OR) allowing us to estimate OR for the familial aggregation and simultaneously to adjust for other covariates. Three models were analyzed assuming that the OR i) is the same among any two members of a family, ii) depends on different familial constellations, i.e., whether the pairs are siblings, parents, or parent/sibling pairs, and iii) is not the same between the father and the children and between the mother and the children. The OR of familial aggregation for atopic eczema was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.58-2.96) if no distinction was made between the degree of relationship. Further analyses within the members of the family showed a high OR among siblings (OR = 3.86; 95%-CI 2.10-7.09), while the OR between parents and siblings was only 1.90 (95%-CI 1.31-2.97). Only for atopic eczema was the familial aggregation between fathers and siblings (ms: OR = 2.66; fs: OR = 1.29). This can be explained by stronger maternal heritability, shared physical environment of mother and child, or environmental events that affect the fetus in utero. Since for all atopic diseases a stronger correlation was found between siblings than between siblings and parents, our study indicates that environmental factors, especially during childhood, seem to explain the recently observed increased frequencies of atopic diseases. PMID:8618061

  16. Stimulant Use, Religiosity, and the Odds of Developing or Maintaining an Alcohol Use Disorder Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about whether cocaine or methamphetamine use, particularly among stimulant users residing in rural areas, is associated with increased odds of developing or maintaining an alcohol use disorder (AUD) over time. One factor that may help to protect some users against the development of an AUD is religiosity. This study examined how stimulant use and religiosity are associated longitudinally with the odds of an AUD among a rural population-based cohort of stimulant users. Method: Recent stimulant users (N = 710) were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and were interviewed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Concurrent and lagged generalized estimating equations analyses were conducted to estimate how past-30-day crack cocaine, powder cocaine, and methamphetamine use; religiosity; and other covariates were associated with the odds of an AUD. Results: At baseline, 56% of the participants met AUD criteria. The odds of an AUD declined significantly over time in the concurrent, but not the lagged, model. Crack cocaine use was associated with increased odds of an AUD in both models, although the strength of the concurrent association between an AUD and crack cocaine use declined over time. Powder cocaine use and more frequent church attendance also were concurrently associated with decreased odds of an AUD. Conclusions: Rural stimulant users, especially those using cocaine, could potentially benefit from treatment for both alcohol use and stimulant use. In addition, our findings suggest that greater frequency of church attendance may be related to lower odds of the development or maintenance of an AUD. PMID:23490565

  17. Studies of a Large Odd-Numbered Odd-Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8 Mn.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-26

    The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities. PMID:26748964

  18. Properties of the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in odd-odd {sup 184}Au

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.H.; Fang, Y.D.; Wang, H.L.; Zhou, X.H.; Guo, W.T.; Liu, M.L.; Guo, Y.X.; Lei, X.G.; De Angelis, G.; Marginean, N.; Gadea, A.; Napoli, D.R.; Axiotis, M.; Rusu, C.; Martinez, T.; Oshima, M.; Toh, Y.

    2004-11-01

    High-spin level structure in {sup 184}Au has been reinvestigated using the multidetector array of GASP via the {sup 159}Tb({sup 29}Si,4n{gamma}){sup 184}Au reaction at a beam energy of 140 MeV. The ground-state band and the excited {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} 2-qp band have been extended up to lower and higher spin states. An upbend has been observed in the excited band at ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}{approx}0.25 MeV and is interpreted as resulting from a pair of {pi}h{sub 9/2} alignment. This low-frequency ({pi}h{sub 9/2}){sup 2} alignment is supported by the measured B(M1)/B(E2) ratios and alignment properties in neighboring odd-A nuclei. The linking transitions between the two bands and to the ground state have been established leading to a firm spin-and-parity assignment for the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in {sup 184}Au. This result provides strong evidence for the low-spin signature inversion in the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} bands of odd-odd nuclei in the A{approx}180 mass region.

  19. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and likelihood of breast cancer among black and white women: a report from the Southern Community Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Matthews, Charles E.; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Lipworth, Loren; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Increased physical activity has been shown to be protective for breast cancer although few studies have examined this association in black women. In addition, limited evidence to date indicates that sedentary behavior may be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. We examined sedentary behavior and physical activity in relation to subsequent incident breast cancer in a nested case-control study within 546 cases (374 among black women) and 2,184 matched controls enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were assessed via self-report at study baseline (2002–2009) using a validated physical activity questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate mutually adjusted odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for quartiles of sedentary and physical activity measures in relation to breast cancer risk. Being in the highest versus lowest quartile of total sedentary behavior (≥12 hours/day versus <5.5 hours/day) was associated with increased odds of breast cancer among white women (OR=1.94 [95% CI 1.01–3.70], p for trend=0.1) but not black women (OR=1.23 [95% CI 0.82–1.83], p for trend=0.6) after adjustment for physical activity. After adjustment for sedentary activity, greater physical activity was associated with reduced odds for breast cancer among white women (p for trend=0.03) only. In conclusion, independent of one another, sedentary behavior and physical activity are risk factors for breast cancer among white women. Differences in these associations between black and white women require further investigation. Reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity are potentially independent targets for breast cancer prevention interventions. PMID:23576427

  20. Odd-frequency Cooper pairs in two-band superconductors and their magnetic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Akihiro

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the appearance of odd-frequency Cooper pairs in two-band superconductors by solving the Gor'kov equation analytically. We introduce the equal-time s -wave pair potentials as realized in MgB2 and iron pnictides. Although the order parameter symmetry is conventional, the band degree of freedom enriches the symmetry variety of pairing correlations. The hybridization and the asymmetry between the two conduction bands induce odd-frequency pairs as a subdominant pairing correlation in the uniform ground state. To study the magnetic response of odd-frequency Cooper pairs, we analyze the Meissner kernel represented by the Gor'kov Green function. In contrast to the even-frequency pairs linked to the pair potential, the induced odd-frequency Cooper pairs indicate a paramagnetic property. We also discuss the relation between the amplitude of the odd-frequency pairing correlation and the stability of superconducting states in terms of the self-consistent equation for the pair potential.

  1. Enhancement of odd nitrogen modifies mesospheric ozone chemistry during polar winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verronen, P. T.; Lehmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) enhances odd nitrogen (NOx) in the polar upper atmosphere. Model studies have reported a solar cycle response in mesospheric ozone (O3) caused by EPP-related NOx enhancements which are included by applying a vertical NOx flux at around 80 km. However, it is not clear how O3 can be affected when the main chemical catalyst of odd oxygen (Ox = O + O(1D) + O3) loss in the mesosphere is odd hydrogen (HOx). Here we use a 1-D atmospheric model and show how enhanced NOx affects mesospheric chemistry and changes HOx partitioning, which subsequently leads to increase in Ox loss through standard HOx-driven catalytic cycles. Another, smaller increase of Ox loss results from HOx storage in HNO3 during night and its release by daytime photodissociation. Our results suggest that EPP, through NOx enhancements, could have a longer-term effect on mesospheric HOx and Ox in polar winter.

  2. Odd-frequency superconductivity in a nanowire coupled to Majorana zero modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Maciejko, Joseph

    Odd-frequency superconductivity, originally proposed by Berezinskii in 1974, is an exotic phase of matter in which pairing is entirely dynamical in nature. The pair potential is an odd function of frequency, leading to a vanishing static superconducting order parameter and exotic types of pairing seemingly inconsistent with Fermi statistics, such as spin triplet (singlet) pairing in an s-wave (p-wave) superconductor. Motivated by recent experimental progress in the realization of Majorana zero modes in semiconducting nanowires, we show that a spin-polarized nanowire coupled to a one-dimensional array of Majorana zero modes becomes an odd-frequency superconductor. This work was supported by NSERC, CRC, CIFAR, and the University of Alberta.

  3. Atmospheric odd oxygen production due to the photodissociation of ordinary and isotopic molecular oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.; Frederick, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations are performed to determine the contributions of the Schumann-Runge bands of ordinary and isotopic oxygen to the photodissociation of these molecules at different altitudes. The contributions to the dissociation rates of the satellite lines and of the first and higher vibrational states of the initial molecular states are found to be insignificant. At 70 km, (O-16)(O-18) is found to produce 10 times as much odd oxygen as would be produced if the isotope did not have selective absorption, and 6 percent of the odd oxygen produced is due to this isotope. It is noted that the excess odd oxygen produced is not enough to explain the excess quantity of ozone observed in the atmosphere, which cannot be accounted for in photochemical models. Comparison with previous results is made.

  4. Innovative Bimolecular-Based Advanced Logic Operations: A Prime Discriminator and An Odd Parity Checker.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-08-17

    Herein, a novel logic operation of prime discriminator is first performed for the function of identifying the prime numbers from natural numbers less than 10. The prime discriminator logic operation is developed by DNA hybridizations and the conjugation of graphene oxide and single-stranded DNA as a reacting platform. On the basis of the similar reaction principle, an odd parity checker is also developed. The odd parity checker logic operation can identify the even numbers and odd numbers from natural numbers less than 10. Such advanced logic operations with digital recognition ability can provide a new field of vision toward prototypical DNA-based logic operations and promote the development of advanced logic circuits. PMID:27459592

  5. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, “vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck” was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of “vehicle type” variable, further investigation of vehicle “stiffness” and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244

  6. Beyond-mean-field boson-fermion model for odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2016-05-01

    A novel method for calculating spectroscopic properties of medium-mass and heavy atomic nuclei with an odd number of nucleons is introduced, based on the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-core coupling scheme. The deformation energy surface of the even-even core, as well as the spherical single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the odd particle(s), are obtained in a self-consistent mean-field calculation determined by the choice of the energy density functional and pairing interaction. This method uniquely determines the parameters of the Hamiltonian of the boson core, and only the strength of the particle-core coupling is specifically adjusted to selected data for a particular nucleus. The approach is illustrated in a systematic study of low-energy excitation spectra and transition rates of axially deformed odd-mass Eu isotopes.

  7. Collective states of odd nuclei in a model with quadrupole-octupole degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Minkov, N. Drenska, S. B.; Yotov, P.; Bonatsos, D. Scheid, W.

    2007-08-15

    We apply the collective axial quadrupole-octupole Hamiltonian to describe the rotation-vibration motion of odd nuclei with Coriolis coupling between the even-even core and the unpaired nucleon.We consider that the core oscillates coherently with respect to the quadrupole and octupole axialdeformation variables. The coupling between the core and the unpaired nucleon provides a split paritydoublet structure of the spectrum. The formalism successfully reproduces the parity-doublet splitting in a wide range of odd-A nuclei. It provides model estimations for the third angular-momentum projection K on the intrinsic symmetry axis and the related intrinsic nuclear structure.

  8. Valley-valve effect and even-odd chain parity in p-n graphene junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresti, Alessandro; Grosso, Giuseppe; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori

    2008-06-01

    We address the current blocking by a p-n junction in a zigzag graphene ribbon by means of numerical and analytic investigations. Ribbons with superimposed gate potentials perfectly block the current in the energy range, where a single energy band is active in both the n and the p regions, if the number of carbon chains is even. In the same conditions, an odd number of chains allows current transmission. We interpret this even-odd valley-valve effect in terms of the underlying honeycomb topology and crystal structure symmetry.

  9. Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of fragments emitted at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, I.; Lanzalone, G.; Agodi, C.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Han, J.; Maiolino, C.; Auditore, L.; Loria, D.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Cavallaro, S.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.

    2011-08-15

    Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of light fragments emitted at forward angles in nuclear collisions {sup 40}Ca + {sup 40}Ca, {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon and identified in charge and mass with the Chimera multidetector have been analyzed. The amplitude of even-odd staggering effects seems to be related to the neutron to proton ratio N/Z of the entrance channels. A qualitative explanation of this effect, taking into account the deexcitation phase of primary excited fragments, is discussed.

  10. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia versus stimulus-dichotomy synaesthesia: Odd, even or something else?

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebekah C.; Plassart, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli—for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers)—elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent). This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been “rediscovered.” Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth. PMID:26034572

  11. The Effect of the Wings of Single Engine Airplanes on Propulsive Efficiency as Shown by Full Scale Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E; Wood, Donald H

    1929-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of the wings on propulsive efficiency. The wings are shown to cause a reduction of 1 percent to 3 percent in propulsive efficiency, which is about the same for monoplane as well as biplane wings.

  12. Role of dynamical effects in the formation of T-Odd asymmetries for products of polarized-neutron-induced ternary fission of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bunakov, V. E.; Titova, L. V.

    2015-07-15

    Basic dynamical effects that accompany the cold-polarized-neutron-induced binary and ternary fission of actinide nuclei and which determine the properties of T -odd asymmetries in angular distributions of various prescission and evaporated light third particles emitted in true and delayed ternary fission are analyzed on the basis of quantum-mechanical fission theory. It is emphasized that effects associated with the conservation of axial symmetry of the fissioning system under study at all stages of its evolution from the formation of neutron resonance states of the fissile compound nucleus to the separation of its fission fragments, including the appearance of zero wriggling vibrations of the cold compound nucleus in the vicinity of its scission point, are of particular importance, the influence of quantum collective rotation of the polarized fissile system on the asymmetry of the angular distribution of both fission fragments and third particles being taken into account. It is shown that the difference in the behavior of the coefficients characterizing the T -odd asymmetries under analysis for the target nuclei being studied can be explained, upon taking into account the interference between the fission amplitudes for the neutron resonance states of fissile compound nuclei, by the difference in the contributions of even and odd components of the amplitudes of angular distributions of third particles to the coefficients in question.

  13. Executive Functioning Deficits in Relation to Symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Wahlstedt, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between executive functioning and symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children aged 4-6. A population-based sample (n = 201) was used and laboratory measures of inhibition, working memory and verbal fluency and teacher ratings of…

  14. Anger and Irritability Symptoms among Youth with ODD: Cross-Informant versus Source-Exclusive Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2012-01-01

    We examined differences in co-occurring psychological symptoms and background characteristics among clinically referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with and without anger/irritability symptoms (AIS) according to either parent or teacher (source-exclusive) and both informants (cross-informant), youth with noncompliant symptoms…

  15. Learning in the Home and at School: How Working Class Children "Succeed against the Odds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents data collected in individual case studies that aimed to investigate children and their families who succeeded against the usual "odds" of disadvantage. Funded as an extension of EPPE 3-11 by the Cabinet Office for the Equalities Review, the study focused particularly closely upon the performance of disadvantaged children from…

  16. High precision elastic α scattering on the even-odd 115In nucleus at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Mohr, P.; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Halász, Z.; Soha, R. F.; Somorjai, E.; Ornelas, A.; Galaviz, D.; Yalçın, C.; Güray, R. T.; Özkan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Elastic alpha scattering cross sections on the even-odd 115In nucleus have been measured at energies Elab. = 16.15 MeV and 19.50 MeV. The high precision experimental data are used to derive the parameters of a local a nucleus optical potential.

  17. Constant Latent Odds-Ratios Models and the Mantel-Haenszel Null Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessen, David J.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, a new family of item response theory (IRT) models for dichotomous item scores is proposed. Two basic assumptions define the most general model of this family. The first assumption is local independence of the item scores given a unidimensional latent trait. The second assumption is that the odds-ratios for all item-pairs are…

  18. Teenage Parenthood among Child Welfare Clients: A Swedish National Cohort Study of Prevalence and Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Franzen, Eva; Danielsson, Maria

    2007-01-01

    To assess prevalence and odds for teenage parenthood among former child welfare clients, we used national register data for all children born in Sweden 1972-1983 (n = 1,178,207), including 49,582 former child welfare clients with varying intervention experiences. Logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and familial…

  19. Observation of the naive-T-odd Sivers effect in deep-inelastic scattering.

    PubMed

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, N; Akopov, Z; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avetissian, A; Avetisyan, E; Bacchetta, A; Ball, B; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, H; Bonomo, C; Borissov, A; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Gabbert, D; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Gliske, S; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hill, G; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Imazu, Y; Ivanilov, A; Jackson, H E; Jo, H S; Joosten, S; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Kravchenko, P; Lagamba, L; Lamb, R; Lapikás, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Linden-Levy, L A; López Ruiz, A; Lorenzon, W; Lu, X-G; Lu, X-R; Ma, B-Q; Mahon, D; Makins, N C R; Manaenkov, S I; Manfré, L; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Martinez de la Ossa, A; Marukyan, H; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Movsisyan, A; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W-D; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Reimer, P E; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanftl, F; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seitz, B; Shibata, T-A; Shutov, V; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Taroian, S; Terkulov, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; van der Nat, P B; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Varanda, M; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vilardi, I; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Yaschenko, S; Ye, H; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Yu, W; Zeiler, D; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2009-10-01

    Azimuthal single-spin asymmetries of leptoproduced pions and charged kaons were measured on a transversely polarized hydrogen target. Evidence for a naive-T-odd, transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution function is deduced from nonvanishing Sivers effects for pi(+), pi(0), and K(+/-), as well as in the difference of the pi(+) and pi(-) cross sections. PMID:19905623

  20. Odd perfect numbers have a prime factor exceeding 10^8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo

    2008-09-01

    Jenkins in 2003 showed that every odd perfect number is divisible by a prime exceeding 10^7 . Using the properties of cyclotomic polynomials, we improve this result to show that every perfect number is divisible by a prime exceeding 10^8 .

  1. Delaware Middle Schools Beating the Odds. Technical Report Number T2010.4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grusenmeyer, Linda; Fifield, Steve; Murphy, Aideen; Nian, Qinghua; Qian, Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    The investigation identified Delaware public and charter middle schools across the state which outperformed other Delaware middle schools with similar student demographic profiles. Teachers and administrators at six of these "Beating the Odds" schools and at six comparison middle schools were surveyed regarding their schools characteristics and…

  2. Mother-Teacher Agreement on Preschoolers' Symptoms of ODD and CD: Does Context Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female…

  3. Probing a light CP-odd scalar in di-top-associated production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Farooque, Trisha; Juste, Aurelio; Liu, Tao; Spannowsky, Michael

    2015-10-01

    CP-odd scalars are an integral part of many extensions of the Standard Model. Recently, electroweak-scale pseudoscalars have received increased attention in explaining the diffuse gamma-ray excess from the Galactic Centre. Elusive due to absence of direct couplings to gauge bosons, these particles receive only weak constraints from direct searches at LEP or searches performed during the first LHC runs. We investigate the LHC's sensitivity in probing a CP-odd scalar in the mass range 20 ≤ m_A ≤ 100 GeV via di-top-associated production using jet-substructure-based reconstruction techniques. We parameterise the scalar's interactions using a simplified model approach and relate the obtained upper limits to couplings within type-I and type-II 2HDMs as well as the NMSSM. We find that in di-top-associated production, experiments at the LHC can set tight limits on CP-odd scalars that fit the Galactic Centre excess. However, direct sensitivity to light CP-odd scalars from the NMSSM remains challenging.

  4. High Schools in California That Are Beating the Odds and How They Are Doing It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viloria, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to determine the common programs and practices that Beating the Odds (BTO) high schools in California are using to achieve high graduation rates. More specifically, this study identifies specific programs and practices that the high schools are using to address at-risk student behaviors as well as…

  5. Building and Solving Odd-One-Out Classification Problems: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Philippe E.

    2011-01-01

    Classification problems ("find the odd-one-out") are frequently used as tests of inductive reasoning to evaluate human or animal intelligence. This paper introduces a systematic method for building the set of all possible classification problems, followed by a simple algorithm for solving the problems of the R-ASCM, a psychometric test derived…

  6. Community Opportunity, Perceptions of Opportunity, and the Odds of an Adolescent Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Anne; Sugland, Barbara; Manlove, Jennifer; Papillo, Angela

    2005-01-01

    The ability of the opportunity cost framework to predict the risk of a teen birth is tested by analyzing the relationship between adolescents perceptions of opportunity and the odds of a teen birth across levels of community opportunity. Patterns of this relationship are compared across African American, Latina, and White teens and across…

  7. Improving the Odds for Adolescents: State Policies That Support Adolescent Health and Well-Being. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Susan Wile; Aratani, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    For policymakers, adolescence presents an invaluable opportunity to ensure that all young people can access the high-quality services and supports they need to improve their odds of becoming successful, healthy, productive adults. At an historic moment when the provisions and breadth of health care reform are under vigorous debate, it is important…

  8. Neutron drip line in odd and even mass calcium and nickel nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Madhubrata; Gangopadhyay, G.

    2005-10-01

    Neutron-rich Ca and Ni nuclei have been studied in a spherical relativistic mean-field formalism in coordinate space. A δ interaction has been adopted to treat the pairing correlations for the neutrons. Odd nuclei have been treated in the blocking approximation. The effect of the positive-energy continuum and the role of pairing in the stability of nuclei have been investigated by use of the resonant-BCS approach. In Ca isotopes, N=50 is no longer a magic number, whereas in Ni nuclei, a new magic number emerges at N=70. There is a remarkable difference in the relative positions of the drip lines for odd and even isotopes. In Ca isotopes, the last bound even and odd nuclei are found to be 72Ca and 59Ca, respectively. In Ni isotopes, the corresponding nuclei are 98Ni and 97Ni, respectively. The origin of this difference in relative positions of the drip line in even and odd isotopes in the two chains is traced to the difference in the single-particle level structures and consequent modification in the magic numbers in the two elements. Pairing interaction is seen to play a major role. The effect of the width of the resonance states on pairing has also been investigated.

  9. An Odds Ratio Approach for Detecting DDF under the Nested Logit Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Ragip; Suh, Youngsuk

    2015-01-01

    An odds ratio approach (ORA) under the framework of a nested logit model was proposed for evaluating differential distractor functioning (DDF) in multiple-choice items and was compared with an existing ORA developed under the nominal response model. The performances of the two ORAs for detecting DDF were investigated through an extensive…

  10. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839

  11. Odd-even staggering of binding energy for nuclei in the s d shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, G. J.; Cheng, Y. Y.; Jiang, H.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study odd-even staggering phenomena of binding energy in the framework of the nuclear shell model for nuclei in the s d shell. We decompose the USDB effective interaction into the monopole interaction and multipole (residual) interactions. We extract the empirical proton-neutron interaction, the Wigner energy, and the one-neutron separation energy using calculated binding energies. The monopole interaction, which represents the spherical mean field, provides contributions to the empirical proton-neutron interaction, the symmetry energy, and the Wigner energy. It does not induce odd-even staggering of the empirical proton-neutron interaction or the one-neutron separation energy. Isovector monopole and quadrupole pairing interactions and isoscalar spin-1 pairing interactions play a key role in reproducing an additional binding energy in both even-even and odd-odd nuclei. The Wigner energy coefficients are sensitive to residual two-body interactions. The nuclear shell structure has a strong influence on the evolution of the one-neutron separation energy, but not on empirical proton-neutron interactions. The so-called three-point formula is a good probe of the shell structure.

  12. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, James E B; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839

  13. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  14. New spin assignments in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus Sc42 and the breaking of the Ca40 core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, C.; Petkov, P.; Werner, V.; Linnemann, A.; Adachi, T.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Fujita, Y.; Jolie, J.; Langanke, K.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Mücher, D.; Orce, J. N.; Pietralla, N.; Warr, N.; Zell, K. O.; Brentano, P. Von

    2007-06-01

    Using the Ca40(He3,p) reaction at E3He=9 MeV and the multidetector array HORUS, angular correlations of coincident pairs of γ transitions in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus Sc42 have been measured at the FN tandem Van de Graaff accelerator of the University of Cologne. The analysis of the data allowed nine new spin assignments and the determination of a series of new multipole mixing ratios. In particular, the spin and parity of the 5+ and 7+ levels belonging to the lowest T=0πf7/2νf7/2 multiplet have been determined and the (6+) level from the T=1 multiplet has been tentatively assigned. In this way, all T=1 states up to an excitation energy of 3.2 MeV now have known spins as well as the lowest T=0 quadruplet (Jπ=1+,3+,5+,7+) and many other T=0 states of unknown structure. The comparison with shell-model calculations reveals that a breaking of the Ca40 core has to be invoked to describe the level structure of Sc42.

  15. New spin assignments in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 42}Sc and the breaking of the {sup 40}Ca core

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, C.; Linnemann, A.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Jolie, J.; Muecher, D.; Warr, N.; Zell, K. O.; Brentano, P. von; Petkov, P.; Werner, V.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Langanke, K.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Orce, J. N.; Pietralla, N.

    2007-06-15

    Using the {sup 40}Ca({sup 3}He,p) reaction at E{sub {sup 3}He}=9 MeV and the multidetector array HORUS, angular correlations of coincident pairs of {gamma} transitions in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 42}Sc have been measured at the FN tandem Van de Graaff accelerator of the University of Cologne. The analysis of the data allowed nine new spin assignments and the determination of a series of new multipole mixing ratios. In particular, the spin and parity of the 5{sup +} and 7{sup +} levels belonging to the lowest T=0{pi}f{sub 7/2}{nu}f{sub 7/2} multiplet have been determined and the (6{sup +}) level from the T=1 multiplet has been tentatively assigned. In this way, all T=1 states up to an excitation energy of 3.2 MeV now have known spins as well as the lowest T=0 quadruplet (J{sup {pi}}=1{sup +},3{sup +},5{sup +},7{sup +}) and many other T=0 states of unknown structure. The comparison with shell-model calculations reveals that a breaking of the {sup 40}Ca core has to be invoked to describe the level structure of {sup 42}Sc.

  16. Critical-Point Symmetries in Boson-Fermion Systems: The Case of Shape Transitions in Odd Nuclei in a Multiorbit Model

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Vitturi, A.

    2007-02-02

    We investigate phase transitions in boson-fermion systems. We propose an analytically solvable model [E(5/12)] to describe odd nuclei at the critical point in the transition from the spherical to {gamma}-unstable behavior. In the model, a boson core described within the Bohr Hamiltonian interacts with an unpaired particle assumed to be moving in the three single-particle orbitals j=1/2, 3/2, 5/2. Energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions at the critical point compare well with the results obtained within the interacting boson-fermion model, with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that describes the same physical situation.

  17. [CrF(O2 C(t) Bu)2 ]9 : Synthesis and Characterization of a Regular Homometallic Ring with an Odd Number of Metal Centers and Electrons.

    PubMed

    Woolfson, Robert J; Timco, Grigore A; Chiesa, Alessandro; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Inigo J; Tuna, Floriana; Guidi, Tatiana; Pavarini, Eva; Santini, Paolo; Carretta, Stefano; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-07-25

    The first regular homometallic ring containing an odd number of metal centers is reported. The ring was synthesized by means of amine-templated self-assembly. Extensive physical characterization studies, including magnetic measurements, powder inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and DFT calculations, show that the molecule has a near perfect match to the expected behavior for a frustrated system with the lowest energy pair of S=1/2 spin states separated by only 0.1 meV (0.8 cm(-1) ). PMID:27294807

  18. Critical-point symmetries in boson-fermion systems: the case of shape transitions in odd nuclei in a multiorbit model.

    PubMed

    Alonso, C E; Arias, J M; Vitturi, A

    2007-02-01

    We investigate phase transitions in boson-fermion systems. We propose an analytically solvable model [E(5/12)] to describe odd nuclei at the critical point in the transition from the spherical to gamma-unstable behavior. In the model, a boson core described within the Bohr Hamiltonian interacts with an unpaired particle assumed to be moving in the three single-particle orbitals j=1/2, 3/2, 5/2. Energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions at the critical point compare well with the results obtained within the interacting boson-fermion model, with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that describes the same physical situation. PMID:17358851

  19. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…

  20. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W

    1997-04-01

    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation. PMID:24897608

  1. Faces of Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Rudolf

    We review conceptual structures met in quantum physics and note changes of basic concepts and language partly due to a maturing process in the 80 odd years since their first evocation by the founding fathers in Copenhagen, partly demanded or suggested by the passage from quantum mechanics to relativistic quantum field theory, local quantum physics and high energy experiments. It is in particular the concept of "observable" which lost its central role as a description of the measurement of some hypothetical property of a "physical system" under investigation and shifted to an auxiliary position as referring to a detector whose signals serve for the reconstruction of a history described in equations like (9.6), (9.7). The primary role is taken over by the notion of a (microscopic) event constituting the bridge to reality and to finer features of space-time.

  2. The global distribution of thermospheric odd nitrogen for solstice conditions during solar cycle minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, J.-C.; Roble, R. G.; Rusch, D. W.; Stewart, A. I.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of odd nitrogen in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere is described. The global distributions of nitric oxide and atomic nitrogen are calculated for the solstice period for quiet and moderate magnetic activity during the solar minimum period. The effect of thermospheric transport by winds is investigated along with the importance of particle-induced ionization in the auroral zones. The results are compared with rocket and satellite measurements, and the sensitivity of the model to eddy diffusion and neutral winds is investigated. Downward fluxes of NO into the mesosphere are given, and their importance for stratospheric ozone is discussed. The results show that the summer-to-winter pole meridional circulation transports both NO and N(S-4) across the solar terminator into the polar night region where there is a downward vertical transport toward the mesosphere. The model shows that odd nitrogen densities at high winter latitudes are entirely controlled by particle precipitation and transport processes.

  3. Parity-odd and CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M. Jr.; Silva, Madson R. O.

    2010-05-15

    This work examines the finite temperature properties of the CPT-even and parity-odd electrodynamics of the standard model extension. The starting point is the partition function computed for an arbitrary and sufficiently small tensor (k{sub F}){sub {alpha}{nu}{rho}{phi}} [see R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira, Jr., J. S. Rodrigues, and M. R. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. D 80, 085026 (2009).]. After specializing the Lorentz-violating tensor (k{sub F}){sub {alpha}{nu}{rho}{phi}}for the leading-order-nonbirefringent and parity-odd coefficients, the partition function is explicitly carried out, showing that it is a power of the Maxwell partition function. Also, it is observed that the Lorentz invariance violation coefficients induce an anisotropy in the black-body angular energy density distribution. Planck's radiation law retains its usual frequency dependence and the Stefan-Boltzmann law keeps the same form, except for a global proportionality constant.

  4. Odd tensor electric transitions in high-spin Sn-isomers and generalized seniority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The similar behavior of the B (E 1) values of the recently observed 13- odd tensor E1 isomers and the B (E 2) values of the 10+ and 15- even tensor E2 isomers in the Sn-isotopes has been understood in terms of the generalized seniority for multi-j orbits by using the quasi-spin scheme. This simple approach proves to be quite successful in explaining the measured transition probabilities and the corresponding half-lives in the high-spin isomers of the semi-magic Sn-isotopes. Hence, we show for the first time the occurrence of seniority isomers in the 13- Sn-isomers, which decay by odd-tensor E1 transitions to the same seniority states.

  5. Location-scale cumulative odds models for ordinal data: a generalized non-linear model approach.

    PubMed

    Cox, C

    1995-06-15

    Proportional odds regression models for multinomial probabilities based on ordered categories have been generalized in two somewhat different directions. Models having scale as well as location parameters for adjustment of boundaries (on an unobservable, underlying continuum) between categories have been employed in the context of ROC analysis. Partial proportional odds models, having different regression adjustments for different multinomial categories, have also been proposed. This paper considers a synthesis and further generalization of these two families. With use of a number of examples, I discuss and illustrate properties of this extended family of models. Emphasis is on the computation of maximum likelihood estimates of parameters, asymptotic standard deviations, and goodness-of-fit statistics with use of non-linear regression programs in standard statistical software such as SAS. PMID:7667560

  6. Time reversal odd fragmentation functions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mulders, P.J.; Levelt, J.

    1994-04-01

    In semi-inclusive scattering of polarized leptons from unpolarized hadrons, one can measure a time reversal odd structure function. It shows up as a sin({phi}) asymmetry of the produced hadrons. This asymmetry can be expressed as the product of a twist-three {open_quotes}hadron {r_arrow} quark{close_quotes} profile function and a time reversal odd twist-two {open_quotes}quark {r_arrow} hadron{close_quotes} fragmentation function. This fragmentation function can only be measured for nonzero transverse momenta of the produced hadron. Its appearance is a consequence of final state interactions between the produced hadron and the rest of the final state.

  7. Even and Odd Charge Coherent States: Higher-Order Nonclassical Properties and Generation Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Truong Minh; Dinh, Dang Huu; Dat, Tran Quang

    2016-06-01

    We examine the higher-order nonclassical properties of the even and odd charge coherent states as well as proposing a scheme to generate these states whose modes can freely travel in open space. We show that the even and odd charge coherent states exhibit both higher-order antibunching and higher-order squeezing. While the two-mode higher-order antibunching occurs in any order and essentially depends on the charge number, the two-mode higher-order squeezing appears only in the even orders. We also prove that these states are genuinely entangled, and they can be generated by means of cross-Kerr media, beam splitters, phase shifts and threshold detectors. We find that the fidelity and the corresponding success probability to generate these states are dependent on the correlative parameters.

  8. Signature of magnetic-dependent gapless odd frequency states at superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardo, A; Diesch, S; Gu, Y; Linder, J; Divitini, G; Ducati, C; Scheer, E; Blamire, M G; Robinson, J W A

    2015-01-01

    The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces. PMID:26329811

  9. Signature of magnetic-dependent gapless odd frequency states at superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Di Bernardo, A.; Diesch, S.; Gu, Y.; Linder, J.; Divitini, G.; Ducati, C.; Scheer, E.; Blamire, M.G.; Robinson, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces. PMID:26329811

  10. Chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in transverse and longitudinal impact parameter spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, D.; Manohar, R.; Mukherjee, A.

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions for nonzero skewness {zeta} in transverse and longitudinal position spaces by taking Fourier transform with respect to the transverse and longitudinal momentum transfer, respectively. We present overlap formulas for the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in terms of light-front wave functions (LFWFs) of the proton both in the Efremov-Radyushkin-Brodsky-Lepage and Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi regions. We calculate them in a field theory inspired model of a relativistic spin-1/2 composite state with the correct correlation between the different LFWFs in Fock space, namely, that of the quantum fluctuations of an electron in a generalized form of QED. We show the spin-orbit correlation effect of the two-particle LFWF as well as the correlation between the constituent spin and the transverse spin of the target.

  11. Chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in transverse and longitudinal impact parameter spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, D.; Manohar, R.; Mukherjee, A.

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions for nonzero skewness ζ in transverse and longitudinal position spaces by taking Fourier transform with respect to the transverse and longitudinal momentum transfer, respectively. We present overlap formulas for the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in terms of light-front wave functions (LFWFs) of the proton both in the Efremov-Radyushkin-Brodsky-Lepage and Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi regions. We calculate them in a field theory inspired model of a relativistic spin-1/2 composite state with the correct correlation between the different LFWFs in Fock space, namely, that of the quantum fluctuations of an electron in a generalized form of QED. We show the spin-orbit correlation effect of the two-particle LFWF as well as the correlation between the constituent spin and the transverse spin of the target.

  12. Sensitivity of odd-harmonic amplitudes to open quotient and skewing quotient in glottal airflow

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a half-sinusoid has no odd harmonics other than the fundamental. If glottal flow in phonation were to approximate this exact waveshape, which is generally unlikely, some misperception of pitch and loss of vowel intelligibility would occur. The sensitivity of the glottal waveshape to this special shape is explored by systematically varying two parameters, open quotient and skewing quotient. Mild asymmetry (open quotient below 0.45 or above 0.55 and/or skewing quotient greater than 2.0) equalizes the odd-even harmonic series. Singers and speakers avoid the exact symmetry by skewing the flow pulse with source-filter interaction. PMID:25618080

  13. Double Brillouin frequency shift through circulation of odd-order Stokes signal.

    PubMed

    Shee, Yu Gang; Al-Mansoori, Mohammed Hayder; Ismail, Alyani; Hitam, Salasiah; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

    2010-07-10

    We demonstrate a simple configuration for generating a double Brillouin frequency shift through the circulation of an odd-order Brillouin Stokes signal. It is operated based on cascaded Brillouin scattering in single-mode optical fibers that behave as the Brillouin gain media. A four-port circulator is incorporated into the setup to circulate the odd-order Brillouin Stokes signal in the fiber. It thus initiates a higher order Brillouin Stokes signal, which is double Brillouin frequency downshifted from the input signal. For the 5 km long fiber, the Brillouin pump power at 23 mW gives a clean output spectrum with 30 dB sideband suppression ratio. The output signal is 0.174 nm or approximately 21.7 GHz downshifted from the input signal. PMID:20648173

  14. P ,T -odd electron-nucleus interaction in atomic systems as an exchange by Higgs bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubukov, D. V.; Labzowsky, L. N.

    2016-06-01

    Scalar-pseudoscalar P ,T -odd interaction between the electron and the nucleus in atomic systems is constructed within the standard model as an exchange by Higgs boson. The necessary P - and T -violating contribution is obtained at the three-loop level on the basis of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. This contribution, unlike the corresponding contribution to the electron electric dipole moment (EDM), does not vanish since the "Higgs charges" of quarks, contrary to their electric charges, are flavor dependent. Order-of-magnitude estimates of the effect expressed as an "equivalent" electron EDM give the values within the range deeqv˜10-40-10-45e cm , depending on the known different estimates for the electron EDM. This can be compared with the known "benchmark" two-photon P ,T -odd electron-nucleus interaction effect, which provides deeqv˜10-38e cm .

  15. 750 GeV dark pion: Cousin of a dark G -parity odd WIMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Berger, Joshua; Lu, Ran

    2016-04-01

    We point out a potential common origin of the recently observed 750 GeV diphoton resonance and a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) candidate. In a dark QCD sector with an unbroken dark G parity, the diphoton resonance could be a dark G -even pion, while the WIMP could be the lightest dark G -odd pion. Both particles are Standard Model gauge singlets and have the same decay constant. For the dark pion decay constant of around 500 GeV, both the diphoton excess at the LHC and the dark matter thermal abundance can be accommodated in our model. Our model predicts additional dark G -even and dark G -odd color-octet pions within reach of the 13 TeV LHC runs. For the 5 +5 ¯ model, compatible with the grand unified theories, the WIMP mass is predicted to be within (613,750) GeV.

  16. Microscopic calculations of Qp-values in well-deformed odd-Z proton emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneau, L.; Le Bloas, J.; Quentin, P.

    2011-11-30

    Within the Hartree-Fock-BCS and Highly Truncated Diagonalization microscopic approaches we have calculated the ground-state binding energies of axially-deformed odd-Z, even-N nuclei in the A {approx} 130 region and of the even-even daughter nuclei resulting from one-proton emission. The deduced Q{sub p} values are in fair agreement with available experimental data.

  17. Entrance-channel effects in odd-Z tranactinide compound nucleus reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.L.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dragojevic, I.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Eichler, R.; Folden III, C.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H.

    2007-09-01

    Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' description [1] of transactinide (TAN) compound nucleus (CN) formation utilizes a three-step model. The first step is the 'sticking', or capture, which can be calculated relatively accurately. The second step is the probability for the formation of a CN by 'diffusion' analogous to that of Brownian motion. Lastly, there exists the probability of the CN 'surviving' deexcitation by neutron emission, which competes with fission and other de-excitation modes. This model predicts and reproduces cross sections typically within a factor of two. Producing the same CN with different projectile-target pairs is a very sensitive way to test entrance channel effects on heavy element production cross sections. If the same CN is produced at or near the same excitation energy the survival portion of the theory is nearly identical for the two reactions. This method can be used as a critical test of the novel 'diffusion' portion of the model. The reactions producing odd-Z TAN CN such as Db, Bh, Mt, and Rg (Z = 105, 107, 109, and 111, respectively) were first studied using even-Z projectiles on {sup 209}Bi targets (as opposed to odd-Z projectiles on {sup 208}Pb targets) because lower effective fissility [2] was expected to lead to larger cross sections. Many odd-Z projectile reactions producing odd-Z CN had not been studied in-depth until very recently. We have completed studies of these reaction pairs with the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator (BGS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), see Figure 1. Cross section ratios for several pairs of reactions will be presented and compared with theory.

  18. Computer search for binary cyclic UEP codes of odd length up to 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Mao-Chao; Lin, Chi-Chang; Lin, Shu

    1990-01-01

    Using an exhaustive computation, the unequal error protection capabilities of all binary cyclic codes of odd length up to 65 that have minimum distances at least 3 are found. For those codes that can only have upper bounds on their unequal error protection capabilities computed, an analytic method developed by Dynkin and Togonidze (1976) is used to show that the upper bounds meet the exact unequal error protection capabilities.

  19. Cluster interpretation of parity doublet rotational bands in odd-mass nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Jolos, R.V.; Shneidman, T.M.

    2004-12-01

    The structure of parity doublet rotational bands in odd actinides and medium mass nuclei is described in a cluster model. The model is based on the assumption that cluster-type shapes are produced by the motion of the nuclear system in the mass-asymmetry coordinate. The calculated rotational bands and the electric dipole transitions between the members of the parity doublet are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Behavior of one-quasiparticle levels in odd isotonic chains of heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kuklin, S. N.; Malov, L. A.; Lu, B. N.; Zhou, S. G.

    2011-08-15

    The low-lying one-quasiparticle states are studied in the isotonic chains with N=147, 149, 151, 153, and 155 within the microscopic-macroscopic and self-consistent approaches. The energies of one-quasiparticle states change rather smoothly in the isotonic chains if there is no cross of the proton subshell. The {alpha}-decay schemes of several nuclei are suggested. The isomeric states in the odd isotopes of Fm and No are discussed.

  1. Shape phase transition in odd-even nuclei: From spherical to deformed gamma-unstable shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Boeyuekata, M.; Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2010-07-15

    Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The case of a single j=9/2 fermion coupled to an even-even boson core is considered. This boson core transits from spherical to gamma-unstable shapes depending on the value of a control parameter in the boson Hamiltonian. The effect of the coupling of the odd particle to this core along the shape transition and, in particular, at the critical point is discussed. For that purpose, the ground-state energy surface in terms of the beta and gamma shape variables for the even core and odd-even energy surfaces for the different K states coming from j=9/2 are constructed. The evolution of each individual coupled state along the transition from the spherical [U(5)] to the gamma-unstable [O(6)] situation is investigated. One finds that the core-fermion coupling gives rise to a smoother transition than in the even-core case.

  2. Coherent quadrupole-octupole modes and split parity-doublet spectra in odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Minkov, N.; Drenska, S.; Yotov, P.; Lalkovski, S.; Bonatsos, D.; Scheid, W.

    2007-09-15

    A collective model describing coherent quadrupole-octupole oscillations and rotations with a Coriolis coupling between the even-even core and the unpaired nucleon is applied to odd nuclei. The particle-core coupling provides a parity-doublet structure of the spectrum, whereas the quadrupole-octupole motion leads to a splitting of the doublet energy levels. The formalism successfully reproduces the split parity-doublet spectra and the attendant B(E1) and B(E2) transition probabilities in a wide range of odd-A nuclei. It provides estimations for the influence of the Coriolis interaction on the collective motion and subsequently for the value of angular momentum projection K on which the spectrum is built. The analysis of the energy splitting and B(E1) transition probabilities between opposite parity counterparts suggests degenerate doublet structures at high angular momenta. The study provides information about the evolution of quadrupole-octupole collectivity in odd-mass nuclei.

  3. Intrinsic Paramagnetic Meissner Effect Due to s -Wave Odd-Frequency Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bernardo, A.; Salman, Z.; Wang, X. L.; Amado, M.; Egilmez, M.; Flokstra, M. G.; Suter, A.; Lee, S. L.; Zhao, J. H.; Prokscha, T.; Morenzoni, E.; Blamire, M. G.; Linder, J.; Robinson, J. W. A.

    2015-10-01

    In 1933, Meissner and Ochsenfeld reported the expulsion of magnetic flux—the diamagnetic Meissner effect—from the interior of superconducting lead. This discovery was crucial in formulating the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity. In exotic superconducting systems BCS theory does not strictly apply. A classical example is a superconductor-magnet hybrid system where magnetic ordering breaks time-reversal symmetry of the superconducting condensate and results in the stabilization of an odd-frequency superconducting state. It has been predicted that under appropriate conditions, odd-frequency superconductivity should manifest in the Meissner state as fluctuations in the sign of the magnetic susceptibility, meaning that the superconductivity can either repel (diamagnetic) or attract (paramagnetic) external magnetic flux. Here, we report local probe measurements of faint magnetic fields in a Au /Ho /Nb trilayer system using low-energy muons, where antiferromagnetic Ho (4.5 nm) breaks time-reversal symmetry of the proximity-induced pair correlations in Au. From depth-resolved measurements below the superconducting transition of Nb, we observe a local enhancement of the magnetic field in Au that exceeds the externally applied field, thus proving the existence of an intrinsic paramagnetic Meissner effect arising from an odd-frequency superconducting state.

  4. Mean-field description of odd-frequency superconductivity with staggered ordering vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Shintaro

    2014-09-01

    A low-energy fixed-point Hamiltonian is constructed for the s-wave odd-frequency pairing state with staggered ordering vector in the two-channel Kondo lattice. The effective model is justified because it reproduces low-energy behaviors of self-energy obtained by the dynamical mean-field theory. The retardation effect is essential for the odd-frequency pairing, which comes from the hybridization process between conduction electrons and pseudofermions originating from localized spins at low energies. Using the effective Hamiltonian, the electromagnetic response functions are microscopically calculated. The present system shows a "weak" Meissner effect, where both paramagnetic and diamagnetic parts contribute to the Meissner kernel to give a small total diamagnetic response in the superconducting state. This feature is in contrast to the ordinary s-wave BCS pairing where only the diamagnetic kernel is finite in the ground state. The staggered nature of the odd-frequency order parameter plays an important role for the sign of the Meissner kernel.

  5. Structure of the doublet bands in doubly odd nuclei: The case of {sup 128}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, H. G.; Brant, S.

    2010-09-15

    The structure of the {Delta}J=1 doublet bands in {sup 128}Cs is investigated within the framework of the interacting vector boson-fermion model. A new, purely collective interpretation of these bands is given on the basis of the used boson-fermion dynamical symmetry of the model. The energy levels of the doublet bands as well as the absolute B(E2) and B(M1) transition probabilities between the states of both yrast and yrare bands are described quite well. The observed odd-even staggering of both B(M1) and B(E2) values is reproduced by the introduction of an appropriate interaction term of quadrupole type, which produces such a staggering effect in the transition strengths. The calculations show that the appearance of doublet bands in certain odd-odd nuclei could be a consequence of the realization of a larger dynamical symmetry based on the noncompact supersymmetry group OSp(2{Omega}/12,R).

  6. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce odd chain-length fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhu; Wong, Adison; Foo, Jee Loon; Ng, Joey; Cao, Ying-Xiu; Chang, Matthew Wook; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Fatty aldehydes and alcohols are valuable precursors used in the industrial manufacturing of a myriad of specialty products. Herein, we demonstrate the de novo production of odd chain-length fatty aldehydes and fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expressing a novel biosynthetic pathway involving cytosolic thioesterase, rice α-dioxygenase and endogenous aldehyde reductases. We attained production titers of ∼20 mg/l fatty aldehydes and ∼20 mg/l fatty alcohols in shake flask cultures after 48 and 60 h respectively without extensive fine-tuning of metabolic fluxes. In contrast to prior studies which relied on bi-functional fatty acyl-CoA reductase to produce even chain-length fatty alcohols, our biosynthetic route exploits α-oxidation reaction to produce odd chain-length fatty aldehyde intermediates without using NAD(P)H cofactor, thereby conserving cellular resource during the overall synthesis of odd chain-length fatty alcohols. The biosynthetic pathway presented in this study has the potential to enable sustainable and efficient synthesis of fatty acid-derived chemicals from processed biomass. PMID:26461930

  7. Evening chronotypes have the increased odds for bronchial asthma and nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Merikanto, Ilona; Englund, Ani; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo

    2014-02-01

    Earlier studies have found associations of chronotypes with a range of health-related factors. In the light of these findings, the behavioral trait of eveningness in particular associates with determinants that might have a negative impact on health. In this study, based on a random sample of population aged 25-74 years living in five large geographical areas in Finland (N = 6089), we tested whether the evening chronotypes have the increased odds for respiratory symptoms and diseases. As a result, after controlling for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, evening-types had wheezy breathing without respiratory infection, a diagnosed or treated bronchial asthma, awoken in shortness of breath, awoken in heavy to breath, wheezy breathing with dyspnea, wheezy breathing as such and medication for asthma more often than morning-types (odds ratios (ORs) of 1.5-1.9) and intermediate-types (ORs of 1.3-1.6). In addition, evening-types had current medication for asthma, and awoken in coughing more often (OR = 1.5 and OR = 1.4, respectively) than morning-types. Evening-types did not have a diagnosed or treated chronic bronchitis more frequently than others. Our results suggest that the behavioral trait of eveningness associates with the increased odds for the bronchial asthma and nocturnal asthma in particular. PMID:24131153

  8. odd-skipped related 2 is required for fin chondrogenesis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Pui-ying; Kamei, Caramai N.; Mangos, Steve; Mudumana, Sudha; Liu, Yan; Drummond, Iain A.

    2014-01-01

    Background odd-skipped related 2 (osr2) encodes a vertebrate ortholog of the Drosophila odd-skipped zinc-finger transcription factor. Osr2 in mouse is required for proper palate, eyelid, and bone development. Zebrafish knock down experiments have also suggested a role for osr2, along with its paralog osr1, in early pectoral fin specification and pronephric development. Results We show here that osr2 has a specific function later in development, independent of osr1, in the regulation of sox9a expression and promoting fin chondrogenesis. mRNA in situ hybridization demonstrated osr2 expression in the developing floorplate and later during organogenesis in the pronephros and gut epithelium. In the pectoral fin buds, osr2 was specifically expressed in fin mesenchyme. osr2 knock down in zebrafish embryos disrupted both three and five zinc finger alternatively spliced osr2 isoforms and eliminated wild-type osr2 mRNA. osr2 morphants exhibited normal pectoral fin bud specification but exhibited defective fin chondrogenesis, with loss of differentiated chondrocytes. Defects in chondrogenesis were paralleled by loss of sox9a as well as subsequent col2a1 expression, linking osr2 function to essential regulators of chondrogenesis. Conclusions The zebrafish odd-skipped related 2 gene regulates sox9a and col2a1 expression in chondrocyte development and is specifically required for zebrafish fin morphogenesis. PMID:23913342

  9. Charge radii of odd-A191-211Po isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstov, M. D.; Cocolios, T. E.; Dexters, W.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A. E.; Bastin, B.; Büscher, J.; Darby, I. G.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Fritzsche, S.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Keupers, M.; Köster, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Page, R. D.; Sjødin, A. M.; Stefan, I.; Van de Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Zemlyanoy, S. G.

    2013-02-01

    Isotope shifts have been measured for the odd-A polonium isotopes 191-211Po and changes in the nuclear mean square charge radii δ have been deduced. The measurements were performed at CERN-ISOLDE using the in-source resonance-ionization spectroscopy technique. The combined analysis of these data and our recent results for even-A polonium isotopes indicates an onset of deformation already at 197,198Po, when going away from stability. This is significantly earlier than was suggested by previous theoretical and experimental studies of the polonium isotopes. Moreover and in contrast to the mercury isotopes, where a strong odd-even staggering of the charge radii of the ground states was observed by approaching the neutron mid-shell at N = 104, no such effect is present in polonium down to 191Po. Consequently the charge radii of both isomeric and ground states of the odd-A polonium isotopes follow the same trend as the even-A isotopes.

  10. LACK OF ANGULAR CORRELATION AND ODD-PARITY PREFERENCE IN COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated the angular correlation in the recent cosmic microwave background data. In addition to the known large-angle correlation anomaly, we find the lack of correlation at small angles with high statistical significance. We have investigated various non-cosmological contamination as well as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team's simulated data. However, we have not found a definite cause. In the angular power spectrum of WMAP data, there exists anomalous odd-parity preference at low multipoles. Noting the equivalence between the power spectrum and the correlation, we have investigated the association between the lack of large-angle correlation and the odd-parity preference. From our investigation, we find that the odd-parity preference at low multipoles is, in fact, a phenomenological origin of the lack of large-angle correlation. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of the anomaly is cosmological or due to unaccounted systematics. The data from the Planck surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will greatly help us to resolve its origin.

  11. Multilevel built environment features and individual odds of overweight and obesity in Utah

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanqing; Wen, Ming; Wang, Fahui

    2015-01-01

    Based on the data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2007, 2009 and 2011 in Utah, this research uses multilevel modeling (MLM) to examine the associations between neighborhood built environments and individual odds of overweight and obesity after controlling for individual risk factors. The BRFSS data include information on 21,961 individuals geocoded to zip code areas. Individual variables include BMI (body mass index) and socio-demographic attributes such as age, gender, race, marital status, education attainment, employment status, and whether an individual smokes. Neighborhood built environment factors measured at both zip code and county levels include street connectivity, walk score, distance to parks, and food environment. Two additional neighborhood variables, namely the poverty rate and urbanicity, are also included as control variables. MLM results show that at the zip code level, poverty rate and distance to parks are significant and negative covariates of the odds of overweight and obesity; and at the county level, food environment is the sole significant factor with stronger fast food presence linked to higher odds of overweight and obesity. These findings suggest that obesity risk factors lie in multiple neighborhood levels and built environment features need to be defined at a neighborhood size relevant to residents' activity space. PMID:26251559

  12. Effects of Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and Cognitive Functioning on Social Acceptance and the Positive Illusory Bias in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtens, Sara; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Tillman, Carin M.; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of symptoms of ADHD and ODD and cognitive functioning on social acceptance and positive bias in children. Method: The sample consisted of 86 children (49 girls) between 7 and 13 years old, recruited to reflect a wide range of ADHD symptoms. Parents and teachers reported on ADHD and ODD symptoms and social…

  13. Further Evidence of the Reliability and Validity of DSM-IV ODD and CD in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Danis, Barbara; Hill, Carri; Humphries, Marisha; Duax, Jeanne; Donald, Radiah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the reliability and validity of DSM-IV oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) and symptoms using the Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorders Schedule and generate data on the manifestation of symptoms of ODD and CD in 3- to 5-year-old children. Method: One hundred twenty-three consecutive referrals to a child and…

  14. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Superintegrability of the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz quantum Hamiltonians on a plane for odd k

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesne, C.

    2010-02-01

    In a recent communication paper by Tremblay et al (2009 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 205206), it has been conjectured that for any integer value of k, some novel exactly solvable and integrable quantum Hamiltonian Hk on a plane is superintegrable and that the additional integral of motion is a 2kth-order differential operator Y2k. Here we demonstrate the conjecture for the infinite family of Hamiltonians Hk with odd k >= 3, whose first member corresponds to the three-body Calogero-Marchioro-Wolfes model after elimination of the centre-of-mass motion. Our approach is based on the construction of some D2k-extended and invariant Hamiltonian {\\cal H}_k, which can be interpreted as a modified boson oscillator Hamiltonian. The latter is then shown to possess a D2k-invariant integral of motion {\\cal Y}_{2k}, from which Y2k can be obtained by projection in the D2k identity representation space.

  15. Do Personal Factors or Types of Physical Tasks Predict Workplace Injury?

    PubMed

    Oranye, Nelson Ositadimma; Wallis, Bernadine; Roer, Kim; Archer-Heese, Gail; Aguilar, Zaklina

    2016-04-01

    Occupational health research has shown that certain worker and job characteristics are risk factors for workplace injuries. Workers who engage in physically demanding jobs, especially those jobs that involve repetitive motion, are at greater risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD). These risks are particularly prevalent in the health care sector. It is often reported that nurses are at higher risk of workplace musculoskeletal injury than other health care workers due to frequent lifting and transfer of patients and the prevalence of workplace violence. However, many analyses of the physical requirements of jobs do not consider the modifying effect of time spent on a physical task and the risk of WMSD. This study compared the risks of WMSD among workers in health care facilities based on the type of physical tasks and amount of time workers spent on such tasks. Workers who worked longer on a physical task reported more WMSD than those who spent less time on the same physical task. The risk of WMSD was twice as high (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3) among workers who sit less than 2 hours each day compared with those who sit longer. This study found that physical tasks associated with health care jobs and the amount of time spent on these tasks constitutes serious risk factors for WMSD. PMID:27056936

  16. Fission studies of secondary beams from relativistic uranium projectiles: The proton even-odd effect in fission fragment charge yields

    SciTech Connect

    Junghans, A. R.; Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Voss, B.; Boeckstiegel, C.; Clerc, H.-G.; Grewe, A.; Heinz, A.; Jong, M. de; Mueller, J.; Steinhaeuser, S.; Pfuetzner, M.

    1999-09-02

    Nuclear-charge yields of fragments produced by fission of neutron-deficient isotopes of uranium, protactinium, actinium, and radium have been measured. These radioactive isotopes were produced as secondary beams, and electromagnetic fission was induced in a lead target with an average excitation energy around 11 MeV. The local even-odd effect in symmetric and in asymmetric fission of thorium isotopes is found to be independent of Z{sup 2}/A. The charge yields of the fission fragments of the odd-Z fissioning protactinium and actinium show a pronounced even-odd effect. In asymmetric fission the unpaired proton predominantly sticks to the heavy fragment. A statistical model based on the single-particle level density at the Fermi energy is able to reproduce the overall trend of the local even-odd effects both in even-Z and odd-Z fissioning systems.

  17. Co-Occurring ODD and GAD Symptom Groups: Source-Specific Syndromes and Cross-Informant Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Loney, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Despite important clinical and nosological implications, the comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has received little attention. A clinic-based sample of 243 boys (ages 6–10 years), their parents, and teachers participated in an evaluation that involved assessments of behavioral, academic, and family functioning. ODD and GAD symptom groups were defined using various combinations of mother and teacher reports. ODD symptom groups were associated with conduct disorder symptoms, and GAD symptom groups with major depressive disorder symptoms, regardless of rater. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms were associated with ODD and GAD symptom groups; however, covarying ADHD symptoms altered few findings. The ODD+GAD symptom groups were associated with higher rates of co-occurring symptoms and risk factors within (source-specific syndromes) and across (cross-informant comorbidity) informants. PMID:18470769

  18. Heredity characteristics of schizophrenia shown by dynamic functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional MRI scans of unaffected siblings.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianpo; Shen, Hui; Zeng, Ling-Li; Qin, Jian; Liu, Zhening; Hu, Dewen

    2016-08-01

    Previous static resting-state functional connectivity (FC) MRI (rs-fcMRI) studies have suggested certain heredity characteristics of schizophrenia. Recently, dynamic rs-fcMRI analysis, which can better characterize the time-varying nature of intrinsic activity and connectivity and may therefore unveil the special connectivity patterns that are always lost in static FC analysis, has shown a potential neuroendophenotype of schizophrenia. In this study, we have extended previous static rs-fcMRI studies to a dynamic study by exploring whether healthy siblings share aberrant dynamic FC patterns with schizophrenic patients, which may imply a potential risk for siblings to develop schizophrenia. We utilized the dynamic rs-fcMRI method using a sliding window approach to evaluate FC discrepancies within transient states across schizophrenic patients, unaffected siblings, and matched healthy controls. Statistical analysis showed five trait-related connections that are related to cingulo-opercular, occipital, and default mode networks, reflecting the shared connectivity alterations between schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings. The findings suggested that schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings shared common transient functional disconnectivity, implying a potential risk for the healthy siblings of developing schizophrenia. PMID:27295028

  19. The second X-15 rocket plane (56-6671) is shown with two external fuel tanks which were added during

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The second X-15 rocket plane (56-6671) is shown with two external fuel tanks which were added during its conversion to the X-15A-2 configuration in the mid-1960's. After receiving an ablative coating to protect the craft from the high temperatures associated with high-Mach-number supersonic flight, the X-15A-2 was then covered with a white sealant coat. This ablative coating and sealant and the additional fuel would help Air Force Col. William J. 'Pete' Knight fly the #2 X-15 to a world record speed of 4,520 mph (Mach 6.7). The famed X-15 rocket planes were flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from 1959 through 1968. The X-15 was developed to provide data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls and the physiological aspects of high speed, high altitude flight. The joint NASA/U.S. Air Force/North American Aviation X-15 hypersonic flight research program is still considered to be one of the most successful NASA aeronautical research programs ever flown. One of the most advanced aeronautical tools of its day, the X-15 carried almost 600 instruments and sensors to record flight data. A wide range of experiments flown by the three X-15s during the 199-flight program helped advance the development of vital aeronautic and space flight systems.

  20. The second X-43A hypersonic research aircraft, shown here in its protective shipping jig, arrives at

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The second of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft, shown here in its protective shipping jig, arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on January 31, 2001. The arrival of the second X-43A from its manufacturer, MicroCraft, Inc., of Tullahoma, Tenn., followed by only a few days the mating of the first X-43A and its specially-designed adapter to the first stage of a modified Pegasus booster rocket. The booster, built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va., will accelerate the 12-foot-long, unpiloted research aircraft to a predetermined altitude and speed after the X-43A/booster 'stack' is air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it impacts into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10 (seven and 10 times the speed of sound respectively) with the first tentatively scheduled for early summer, 2001. The X-43A is powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine, and will use the underbody of the aircraft to form critical elements of the engine. The forebody shape helps compress the intake airflow, while the aft section acts as a nozzle to direct thrust. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by an air-breathing scramjet engine.

  1. Emotional and rational product appeals in televised food advertisements for children: analysis of commercials shown on US broadcast networks.

    PubMed

    Page, Randy M; Brewster, Aaron

    2007-12-01

    The aggressive advertising and marketing of high caloric food products to children is implicated as a potential causative factor in the childhood obesity epidemic. This study analyzed 147 commercials appearing during children's programming on U.S. broadcast networks for a wide range of potential emotional and rational advertising appeals. The most prominent emotional appeals were fun/happiness and play followed by fantasy/ imagination, social enhancement/peer acceptance, and coolness/hipness. Many of the products used the term ;super-charged' or a similar adjective to describe the powerful taste or other physical properties of the product. More than one-third of all the commercials used a fruit appeal or association. Statements or depictions that a product was healthy or nutritious were quite rare among the commercials. This seems to imply that health and nutrition claims are understood by food marketers to not be salient concerns among children and as such are not a selling point to children. Commercials for high sugar cereal products and fast food restaurants differed in several respects. This study can serve to guide child health care professionals and other child advocates in designing measures that counter food advertising messages directed at children. PMID:18039734

  2. Transport through single-channel atomic wires: Effects of connected sites on scattering phase and odd-even parity oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Feng; Xu, H. Q.

    2005-11-01

    Theoretical studies of scattering phase and odd-even parity oscillations of the conductance are presented for a finite atomic wire system, which is either connected with two single-channel leads or side-coupled to a single-channel perfect wire. The effects of connected sites on the scattering properties are examined. For a uniform atomic wire connected with two single-channel leads, it is found that when the number of atoms in the wire, n , and the two sequence numbers of the connected atomic sites, n1 and n2 (1⩽n1⩽n2⩽n) , satisfy the condition that (n+1)/gcd(n1,n+1-n2) is not an integer, the transmission coefficient, as a function of the incident electron energy, has zeros of second order. At these zeros the transmission phase is continuous. The zeros of the reflection coefficient, however, are always of first order, and the reflection phase has a lapse precisely by π at each of these zeros. For an atomic wire system side coupled to a perfect lead, the conclusions are reversed: the transmission zeros are always of first order, while the reflection zeros can be of high order. It is also shown that in this side-coupled configuration, both the transmission zeros and the reflection zeros are related to the generic properties of the isolated atomic wire system. The odd-even oscillations of the conductance have also been investigated for finite atomic wire systems in both configurations. It is found that the transmission of a finite atomic wire system depends not only on the parity of the number of atomic sites in the system, but also on the parity of the sequence numbers of the atomic sites through which the atomic wire system is connected with the leads. Finally, by taking a simple one-dimensional quantum wire system with several attached side branches as an example, we show that the transmission zeros of higher order can be found in a quantum system built from one-dimensional wires.

  3. Against all odds: Tales of survival and growth of the Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Karen Kina

    This study examines the dynamics of survival and growth of curricular and instructional innovations. It focuses on the Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) project, a long-term survivor of reform in science education. Key questions guiding this study include: (1) How did the FAST project survive over the past 30 years? (2) What elements are essential for long-term survival and growth of an innovative science program? (3) Why did the project continue to survive amidst several waves of educational reform? The core of my conceptual framework is that the odds of survival and growth of curricular and instructional innovations are increased by the extent to which resources, theory-based curriculum development processes, and professional development strategies are not only incorporated into but also interdependent within a project. With this framework as a guide, the main methods of data collection were document analysis, interviews, and observations. FAST, developed by the University of Hawaii's Curriculum Research and Development Group (CRDG), consists of a sequential and interdisciplinary middle and high school science program for students in grades 6-10. According to the results of this study, the project was able to survive by receiving constant organizational support from CRDG and a steady source of State funding through the university since 1966; it also retained a relatively small but stable staff of highly qualified project personnel. Formulated on a discipline-based theory that values development of students' intellectual capacities as the platform for curriculum research, design, and development, the FAST project translated this vision of science education into key elements of an innovative program that survived and thrived: (1) an interdisciplinary program consisting of physical, biological, and earth sciences; inquiry as content and process; history and philosophy of science; and links between and among sciences, technology, and society; and (2

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in the southern ecological zones of Cameroon, as shown by genetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    , previously described as the “Cameroon family. Further analysis based on MIRU-VNTR profiles had greater resolving power than spoligotyping and defined additional genotypes in the same spoligotype cluster. Conclusion The molecular characterization of MTBC strains from humans in two ecological regions of Cameroon has shown that M. tuberculosis sensu stricto is the predominant agent of TB cases in the zones. Three decades ago, TB was reported to be caused by M. africanum in 56.0% of cases. The present findings are consistent with a major shift in the prevalence of M. tuberculosis in Cameroon. PMID:24028382

  5. How might Model-based Probabilities Extracted from Imperfect Models Guide Rational Decisions: The Case for non-probabilistic odds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Leonard A.

    2010-05-01

    This contribution concerns "deep" or "second-order" uncertainty, such as the uncertainty in our probability forecasts themselves. It asks the question: "Is it rational to take (or offer) bets using model-based probabilities as if they were objective probabilities?" If not, what alternative approaches for determining odds, perhaps non-probabilistic odds, might prove useful in practice, given the fact we know our models are imperfect? We consider the case where the aim is to provide sustainable odds: not to produce a profit but merely to rationally expect to break even in the long run. In other words, to run a quantified risk of ruin that is relatively small. Thus the cooperative insurance schemes of coastal villages provide a more appropriate parallel than a casino. A "better" probability forecast would lead to lower premiums charged and less volatile fluctuations in the cash reserves of the village. Note that the Bayesian paradigm does not constrain one to interpret model distributions as subjective probabilities, unless one believes the model to be empirically adequate for the task at hand. In geophysics, this is rarely the case. When a probability forecast is interpreted as the objective probability of an event, the odds on that event can be easily computed as one divided by the probability of the event, and one need not favour taking either side of the wager. (Here we are using "odds-for" not "odds-to", the difference being whether of not the stake is returned; odds of one to one are equivalent to odds of two for one.) The critical question is how to compute sustainable odds based on information from imperfect models. We suggest that this breaks the symmetry between the odds-on an event and the odds-against it. While a probability distribution can always be translated into odds, interpreting the odds on a set of events might result in "implied-probabilities" that sum to more than one. And/or the set of odds may be incomplete, not covering all events. We ask

  6. Closely Spaced Pregnancies Are Associated With Increased Odds of Autism in California Sibling Births

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the interpregnancy interval (IPI) is associated with the risk of autism in subsequent births. METHODS: Pairs of first- and second-born singleton full siblings were identified from all California births that occurred from 1992 to 2002 using birth records, and autism diagnoses were identified by using linked records of the California Department of Developmental Services. IPI was calculated as the time interval between birth dates minus the gestational age of the second sibling. In the primary analysis, logistic regression models were used to determine whether odds of autism in second-born children varied according to IPI. To address potential confounding by unmeasured family-level factors, a case-sibling control analysis determined whether affected sibling (first versus second) varied with IPI. RESULTS: An inverse association between IPI and odds of autism among 662 730 second-born children was observed. In particular, IPIs of <12, 12 to 23, and 24 to 35 months were associated with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for autism of 3.39 (3.00–3.82), 1.86 (1.65–2.10), and 1.26 (1.10–1.45) relative to IPIs of ≥36 months. The association was not mediated by preterm birth or low birth weight and persisted across categories of sociodemographic characteristics, with some attenuation in the oldest and youngest parents. Second-born children were at increased risk of autism relative to their firstborn siblings only in pairs with short IPIs. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that children born after shorter intervals between pregnancies are at increased risk of developing autism; the highest risk was associated with pregnancies spaced <1 year apart. PMID:21220394

  7. Behavioral and electrophysiological indicators of auditory distractibility in children with ADHD and comorbid ODD.

    PubMed

    Oja, L; Huotilainen, M; Nikkanen, E; Oksanen-Hennah, H; Laasonen, M; Voutilainen, A; von Wendt, L; Alho, K

    2016-02-01

    Involuntary switching of attention to distracting sounds was studied by measuring effects of these events on auditory discrimination performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in 6-11-year-old boys with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and in age-matched controls. The children were instructed to differentiate between two animal calls by pressing one response button, for example, to a dog bark and another button to a cat mew. These task-relevant sounds were presented from one of two loudspeakers in front of the child, and there were occasional task-irrelevant changes in the sound location, that is, the loudspeaker. In addition, novel sounds (e.g., a sound of hammer, rain, or car horn) unrelated to the task were presented from a loudspeaker behind the child. The percentage of correct responses was lower for target sounds preceded by a novel sound than for targets not preceded by such sound in the ADHD group, but not in the control group. In both groups, a biphasic positive P3a response was observed in ERPs to the novel sounds. The later part of the P3a appeared to continue longer over the frontal scalp areas in the ADHD group than in the controls presumably because a reorienting negativity (RON) ERP response following the P3a was smaller in the ADHD group than in the control group. This suggests that the children with ADHD had problems in reorienting their attention to the current task after a distracting novel sound leading to deterioration of performance in this task. The present study also indicates that children with ADHD and comorbid ODD show same kind of distractibility as found in previous studies for children with ADHD without systematic comorbid ODD. PMID:26688114

  8. Odds Ratio Product of Sleep EEG as a Continuous Measure of Sleep State

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Soiferman, Marc; Younes, Henry; Younes, Mark; Raneri, Jill; Hanly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Design: Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 0–2.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 ± 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 ± 0.05). ORP < 1.0 predicted sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch. Conclusions: Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth. Citation: Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, Hanly P. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state. SLEEP 2015;38(4):641–654. PMID:25348125

  9. Trap-assisted studies of odd, neutron-rich isotopes from Tc to Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurpeta, J.; Jokinen, A.; Penttilä, H.; Płochocki, A.; Rissanen, J.; Urban, W.; Äystö, J.

    2014-01-01

    We review the present and future of trap-assisted structure studies of odd, neutron-rich Tc, Ru, Rh and Pd isotopes at the limits of present experimental techniques. These nuclei of refractory elements are produced in light-particle induced fission and filtered by their mass number with the IGISOL mass separator. Further mass separation with the JYFLTRAP Penning trap system provides a clean, monoisotopic beam perfectly suited for precise nuclear spectroscopy. Connecting the IGISOL and the JYFLTRAP facilities to the recently installed MCC30/15 cyclotron opens new prospects for post-trap spectroscopy of very exotic, neutron-rich nuclei.

  10. [Identification of high-lying odd energy levels of uranium by resonant ionization mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Du, H; Shi, G; Huang, M; Jin, C

    2000-06-01

    Single-colour and two-colour multiphoton resonant ionization spectra of uranium atom were studied extensively with a Nd:YAG laser-pumped dye laser atomic beam apparatus time-of-flight mass spectrometer in our laboratory. The energy locations of high-lying odd-parity levels in the region 33,003-34,264 cm-1, measured by a two-colour three-step ionization technique, were reported here. The angular momentum quantum number J was uniquely assigned for these levels by using angular momentum selection rules. PMID:12958925

  11. Energy levels of odd-even nuclei using broken pair model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamammu, I. M.; Haq, S.; Eldahomi, J. M.

    2012-09-06

    A method to calculate energy levels and wave functions of odd-even nuclei, in the frame work of the broken pair model have been developed. The accuracy of the model has been tested by comparing the shell model results of limiting cases in which the broken pair model exactly coincides with the shell model, where there are two-proton/neutron + one-neutron/proton in the valence levels. The model is then applied to calculate the energy levels of some nuclei in the Zirconium region. The model results compare reasonably well with the shell model as well as with the experimental data.

  12. Search for a very light CP-odd neutral Higgs boson of the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Mours, B.; Alemany, R.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Pacheco, A.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Gao, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Lou, J.; Qiao, C.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Atwood, W. B.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boudreau, J.; Burnett, T. H.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Haywood, S.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lançon, E.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Lusiani, A.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Mattison, T.; Meinhard, H.; Menary, S.; Meyer, T.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Nash, J.; Palazzi, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Roth, A.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Bencheikh, A. M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Stimpfl, G.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Gamess, A.; Orteu, S.; Rosowsky, A.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Wasserbaech, S.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Altoon, B.; Boyle, O.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Patton, S. J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Barczewski, T.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Roehn, S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wolf, B.; Aubert, J.-J.; Benchouk, C.; Bernard, V.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Qian, Z.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cowan, G.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Takashima, M.; Thomas, J.; Wolf, G.; Bertin, V.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, X.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Abbaneo, D.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Ligabue, F.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Kozanecki, W.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Loucatos, S.; Monnier, E.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R. E.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hatfield, F.; Reeves, P.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Mirabito, L.; Schäfer, U.; Ganis, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Jared, R. C.; Leclaire, B. W.; Lishka, C.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Saadi, Y.; Sharma, V.; Schmitt, M.; Shi, Z. H.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Whitney, M. H.; Sau Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1992-07-01

    The reactions e+e- → hZ∗ande+e- → hA have been used to search for the neutral Higgs bosons h and A of the MSSM in the case where the CP-odd A is lighter than 2 mμ, taking into account the large h → AA decay branching ratio. No signal was found in the data sample collected until the end of 1991 by the ALEPH experiment at LEP. For tan β ⩾, mA < 2 mμ is excluded at 95% CL for any mh.

  13. Parallel FE Approximation of the Even/Odd Parity Form of the Linear Boltzmann Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Drumm, Clifton R.; Lorenz, Jens

    1999-07-21

    A novel solution method has been developed to solve the linear Boltzmann equation on an unstructured triangular mesh. Instead of tackling the first-order form of the equation, this approach is based on the even/odd-parity form in conjunction with the conventional mdtigroup discrete-ordinates approximation. The finite element method is used to treat the spatial dependence. The solution method is unique in that the space-direction dependence is solved simultaneously, eliminating the need for the conventional inner iterations, and the method is well suited for massively parallel computers.

  14. Study of nuclear structure of odd mass 119-127I nuclei in a phenomenological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dhanvir; Gupta, Anuradha; Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Chetan; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun; Khosa, S. K.; Bhat, G. H.; Sheikh, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    By using the phenomenological approach of Projected Shell Model (PSM), the positive and negative-parity band structures of odd mass neutron-rich 119-127I nuclei have been studied with the deformed single-particle states generated by the standard Nilsson potential. For these isotopes, the band structures have been analyzed in terms of quasi-particles configurations. The phenomenon of backbending in moment of inertia is also studied in the present work. Besides this, the reduced transition probabilities, i.e. B (E 2) and B (M 1), are obtained from the PSM wavefunction for the first time for yrast bands of these isotopes.

  15. Precision mass measurements beyond 132Sn: anomalous behavior of odd-even staggering of binding energies.

    PubMed

    Hakala, J; Dobaczewski, J; Gorelov, D; Eronen, T; Jokinen, A; Kankainen, A; Kolhinen, V S; Kortelainen, M; Moore, I D; Penttilä, H; Rinta-Antila, S; Rissanen, J; Saastamoinen, A; Sonnenschein, V; Äystö, J

    2012-07-20

    Atomic masses of the neutron-rich isotopes (121-128)Cd, (129,131)In, (130-135)Sn, (131-136)Sb, and (132-140)Te have been measured with high precision (10 ppb) using the Penning-trap mass spectrometer JYFLTRAP. Among these, the masses of four r-process nuclei (135)Sn, (136)Sb, and (139,140)Te were measured for the first time. An empirical neutron pairing gap expressed as the odd-even staggering of isotopic masses shows a strong quenching across N = 82 for Sn, with a Z dependence that is unexplainable by the current theoretical models. PMID:22861839

  16. Projected quasiparticle calculations for the N =82 odd-proton isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Losano, L. ); Dias, H. )

    1991-12-01

    The structure of low-lying states in odd-mass {ital N}=82 isotones (135{le}{ital A}{le}145) is investigated in terms of a number-projected one- and three-quasiparticles Tamm-Dancoff approximation. A surface-delta interaction is taken as the residual nucleon-nucleon interaction. Excitation energies, dipole and quadrupole moments, and {ital B}({ital M}1) and {ital B}({ital E}2) values are calculated and compared with the experimental data.

  17. The early history of the integrable chiral Potts model and the odd-even problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perk, Jacques H. H.

    2016-04-01

    In the first part of this paper I shall discuss the round-about way of how the integrable chiral Potts model was discovered about 30 years ago. As there should be more higher-genus models to be discovered, this might be of interest. In the second part I shall discuss some quantum group aspects, especially issues of odd versus even N related to the Serre relations conjecture in our quantum loop subalgebra paper of 5 years ago and how we can make good use of coproducts, also borrowing ideas of Drinfeld, Jimbo, Deguchi, Fabricius, McCoy and Nishino.

  18. Energy levels of odd-even nuclei using broken pair model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamammu, I. M.; Haq, S.; Eldahomi, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    A method to calculate energy levels and wave functions of odd-even nuclei, in the frame work of the broken pair model have been developed. The accuracy of the model has been tested by comparing the shell model results of limiting cases in which the broken pair model exactly coincides with the shell model, where there are two-proton/neutron + one-neutron/proton in the valence levels. The model is then applied to calculate the energy levels of some nuclei in the Zirconium region. The model results compare reasonably well with the shell model as well as with the experimental data.

  19. Development of odd-Z-projectile reactions for transactinide element synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Folden III, Charles Marvin

    2004-11-04

    The development of new odd-Z-projectile reactions leading to the production of transactinide elements is described. The cross section of the even-Z-projectile 208Pb(64Ni, n)271Ds reaction was measured at two new energies using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. In total, seven decay chains attributable to 271Ds were observed. These data, combined with previous results, establish an excitation function for the production of 271Ds. The maximum cross section was 20 +15 -11 pb at a center-of-target energy of 311.5 MeV in the laboratory frame.The data from the 271Ds experiments were used to estimate the optimum beam energy for the new odd-Z-projectile 208Pb(65Cu, n)272-111 reaction using the Fusion by Diffusion theory proposed by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski. A cross section for this reaction was measured for the first time, at a center-of-target energy of 321.1 MeV in the laboratory frame. The excitation energy f or compound nuclei formed at the target center was 13.2 MeV. One decay chain was observed, resulting in a measured cross section of 1.7 +3.9 -1.4 pb. This decay chain is in good agreement with previously published data on the decay of 272-111.The new odd-Z-projectile 208Pb(55Mn, n)262Bh reaction was studied at three different projectile energies, and 33 decay chains of 262Bh were observed. The existence of a previously reported alpha-decaying isomeric state in this nuclide was confirmed. Production of the ground state was preferred at all three beam energies. The maximum cross section was 540 +180 -150 pb at a projectile center-of-target energy of 264.0 MeV. This cross section is much larger than that previously reported for the even-Z-projectile 209Bi(54Cr, n)262Bh reaction, which may be because the 54Cr projectile energies in the latter reaction were too high for optimum production of the 1n product. At the highest projectile energy of 268.0 MeV in the target center, two decay

  20. Relationship of peroxyacetyl nitrate to active and total odd nitrogen at northern high latitudes - Influence of reservoir species on NO(x) and O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Herlth, D.; O'Hara, D.; Zahnle, K.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Talbot, R.; Crutzen, P. J.; Kanakidou, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The partitioning of relative nitrogen in the Arctic and the sub-Arctic troposphere based on measurements conducted during the 1988 Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) is described. The first set of comprehensive odd nitrogen and O3 measurements from the Arctic/sub-Arctic free troposphere shows that a highly aged air mass that has persisted under very cold conditions is present. A large fraction of the odd nitrogen appears to be present in the form of reservoir species such as PAN. Significant quantities of as yet unknown reactive nitrogen species, such as complex alkyl nitrates and pernitrates, are expected to be present. Together with PAN, these nitrate and pernitrate reservoir species could control the entire NO(x) availability of the high-latitude troposphere and in turn influence the O3 photochemistry of the region. The role of PAN in influencing the O3 reservoir is shown to be important and may be responsible for the increasing O3 temporal trend observed at high latitudes.

  1. Nine out of 10 food advertisements shown during Saturday morning children's television programming are for foods high in fat, sodium, or added sugars, or low in nutrients.

    PubMed

    Batada, Ameena; Seitz, Maia Dock; Wootan, Margo G; Story, Mary

    2008-04-01

    A 2005 review by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies concluded that food marketing influences children's food preferences, consumption, and health. Given the powerful influence of marketing on children's diets, this cross-sectional study examined the types of foods, the nutritional quality of those foods, and the marketing techniques and messages used in food advertising during Saturday morning children's television programming. During 27.5 hours of programming in May 2005, 49% of advertisements shown were for food (281 food advertisements out of 572 total advertisements). The most commonly advertised food categories were ready-to-eat breakfast cereal and cereal bars (27% of all food advertisements), restaurants (19% of food advertisements), and snack foods (18% of food advertisements). Ninety-one percent of food advertisements were for foods or beverages high in fat, sodium, or added sugars or were low in nutrients. Cartoon characters were used in 74% of food advertisements, and toy or other giveaways were used in 26% of food advertisements. About half of food advertisements contained health/nutrition or physical activity messages and 86% of food advertisements contained emotional appeals. This study provides food and nutrition professionals with information about the amount and types of food children are encouraged to eat during Saturday morning television programming. The findings can help food and nutrition professionals counsel children about healthful eating and/or develop programs or policies to balance those advertisements with healthful eating messages. PMID:18375225

  2. New techniques for bounds on the total number of prime factors of an odd perfect number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, Kevin G.

    2007-12-01

    Let sigma(n) denote the sum of the positive divisors of n . We say that n is perfect if sigma(n) = 2 n . Currently there are no known odd perfect numbers. It is known that if an odd perfect number exists, then it must be of the form N = p^alpha prod_{jD1}^k q_j^{2 beta_j} , where p, q_1, \\cdots, q_k are distinct primes and p equiv alphaequiv 1 pmod{4} . Define the total number of prime factors of N as Omega(N) :D alpha + 2 sum_{jD1}^k beta_j . Sayers showed that Omega(N) geq 29 . This was later extended by Iannucci and Sorli to show that Omega(N) geq 37 . This was extended by the author to show that Omega(N) geq 47 . Using an idea of Carl Pomerance this paper extends these results. The current new bound is Omega(N) geq 75 .

  3. Technology diffusion in hospitals: a log odds random effects regression model.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jos L T; Valdmanis, Vivian G

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the factors that affect the diffusion of hospital innovations. We apply a log odds random effects regression model on hospital micro data. We introduce the concept of clustering innovations and the application of a log odds random effects regression model to describe the diffusion of technologies. We distinguish a number of determinants, such as service, physician, and environmental, financial and organizational characteristics of the 60 Dutch hospitals in our sample. On the basis of this data set on Dutch general hospitals over the period 1995-2002, we conclude that there is a relation between a number of determinants and the diffusion of innovations underlining conclusions from earlier research. Positive effects were found on the basis of the size of the hospitals, competition and a hospital's commitment to innovation. It appears that if a policy is developed to further diffuse innovations, the external effects of demand and market competition need to be examined, which would de facto lead to an efficient use of technology. For the individual hospital, instituting an innovations office appears to be the most prudent course of action. PMID:24323484

  4. Observations of odd-half cyclotron harmonic emissions in a shell-Maxwellian laboratory plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    During the last 14 years, the subject of odd-half electron cyclotron harmonic emission from plasma has been given considerable attention. It was apparently first reported to occur in a beam plasma machine. The existence of the emission in space has been well documented through observations made with satellites. Because wavelengths are difficult to observe in space, no wave number spectrum has ever been obtained for the half-odd harmonic emission. Such a spectrum together with a frequency spectrum might provide the basis for a successful modeling of the instability. The present investigation is concerned with the design of a laboratory experiment in which a plasma with an anisotropic velocity distribution is produced and measured. In addition, the dispersion relation is directly measured, and a noise analysis is conducted. The obtained plasma, a mixture of shell and Maxwellian distributions, is found to emit waves within the Bernstein wave branches. By correlation measurements, a mode is found which is essentially an absolute instability in a narrow frequency band.

  5. E2 transition probabilities for decays of isomers observed in neutron-rich odd Sn isotopes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Iskra, Ł. W.; Broda, R.; Janssens, R. V.F.; Wrzesiński, J.; Chiara, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fornal, B.; Hoteling, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Królas, W.; et al

    2015-01-01

    High-spin states were investigated with gamma coincidence techniques in neutron-rich Sn isotopes produced in fission processes following ⁴⁸Ca + ²⁰⁸Pb, ⁴⁸Ca + ²³⁸U, and ⁶⁴Ni + ²³⁸U reactions. By exploiting delayed and cross-coincidence techniques, level schemes have been delineated in odd ¹¹⁹⁻¹²⁵Sn isotopes. Particular attention was paid to the occurrence of 19/2⁺ and 23/2⁺ isomeric states for which the available information has now been significantly extended. Reduced transition probabilities, B(E2), extracted from the measured half-lives and the established details of the isomeric decays exhibit a striking regularity. This behavior was compared with the previously observed regularity of the B(E2) amplitudesmore » for the seniority ν = 2 and 3, 10⁺ and 27/2⁻ isomers in even- and odd-Sn isotopes, respectively.« less

  6. Large area and deep sub-wavelength interference lithography employing odd surface plasmon modes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liqin; Luo, Yunfei; Zhao, Zeyu; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Guohan; Zeng, Bo; Wang, Changtao; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, large area and deep sub-wavelength interference patterns are realized experimentally by using odd surface plasmon modes in the metal/insulator/metal structure. Theoretical investigation shows that the odd modes possesses much higher transversal wave vector and great inhibition of tangential electric field components, facilitating surface plasmon interference fringes with high resolution and contrast in the measure of electric field intensity. Interference resist patterns with 45 nm (∼λ/8) half-pitch, 50 nm depth, and area size up to 20 mm × 20 mm were obtained by using 20 nm Al/50 nm photo resist/50 nm Al films with greatly reduced surface roughness and 180 nm pitch exciting grating fabricated with conventional laser interference lithography. Much deeper resolution down to 19.5 nm is also feasible by decreasing the thickness of PR. Considering that no requirement of expensive EBL or FIB tools are employed, it provides a cost-effective way for large area and nano-scale fabrication. PMID:27466010

  7. Food Insecurity Increases the Odds of Obesity Among Young Hispanic Children.

    PubMed

    Papas, Mia A; Trabulsi, Jillian C; Dahl, Alicia; Dominick, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a growing public health concern and is more prevalent among low-income and minority populations. Food insecurity may increase the odds of obesity in children. We investigated the association between food insecurity and obesity among low-income, Hispanic, mother-child dyads (n = 74). The United States Department of Agriculture 18-item Household Food Security Survey was used to determine food security status. The majority of households were food insecure (74 %) and one-third (30 %) of children were obese. Food insecurity increased the odds of childhood obesity (OR 10.2; 95 % CI 1.2, 85.5) with stronger associations found within households where mothers were also overweight/obese compared to normal weight (p-for interaction < 0.05). Rates of household food insecurity and childhood obesity were high among this low-income Hispanic sample. Future studies should elucidate the mechanisms through which food insecurity impacts childhood obesity. PMID:26377352

  8. Unusual fractionation of both odd and even mercury isotopes in precipitation from Peterborough, ON, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, JiuBin; Hintelmann, Holger; Feng, XinBin; Dimock, Brian

    2012-08-01

    Once released into the atmosphere, mercury (Hg) is subject to long-range transport and a series of physico-chemical reactions before reentering terrestrial ecosystems. Though impressive progress has been made in understanding all aspects of Hg behavior in the atmosphere, many processes involved in the transformation and deposition of atmospheric Hg remain unidentified and source attribution is still an enormous challenge. Here, we examine the isotopic composition of Hg in precipitation collected during 2010 in Peterborough, ON, Canada and combine data on seasonal variations of mass-dependent (MDF) and mass-independent (MIF) fractionation with meteorological back-trajectory calculations to identify the Hg sources and to decipher Hg atmospheric transformation reactions. All precipitation samples displayed significant MDF (δ202Hg between -0.02‰ and -1.48‰) and MIF of odd isotopes (Δ199Hg varying from -0.29‰ to 1.13‰). We also report for the first time a seasonal variation of MIF of even Hg isotopes (Δ200Hg) in wet precipitation. Our results may suggest that photoreduction in droplets or on the surface layer of snow crystals induces odd Hg isotope anomalies, while mass independent fractionation of 200Hg is probably triggered by photo-initiated oxidation occurring on aerosol or solid surfaces in the tropopause. The observed seasonal variation of even Hg isotope MIF (Δ200Hg decrease with ambient temperature) is possibly a powerful tool for meteorological research and may aid in monitoring related climate changes.

  9. The Construction and Use of Log-Odds Substitution Scores for Multiple Sequence Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Altschul, Stephen F.; Wootton, John C.; Zaslavsky, Elena; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Most pairwise and multiple sequence alignment programs seek alignments with optimal scores. Central to defining such scores is selecting a set of substitution scores for aligned amino acids or nucleotides. For local pairwise alignment, substitution scores are implicitly of log-odds form. We now extend the log-odds formalism to multiple alignments, using Bayesian methods to construct “BILD” (“Bayesian Integral Log-odds”) substitution scores from prior distributions describing columns of related letters. This approach has been used previously only to define scores for aligning individual sequences to sequence profiles, but it has much broader applicability. We describe how to calculate BILD scores efficiently, and illustrate their uses in Gibbs sampling optimization procedures, gapped alignment, and the construction of hidden Markov model profiles. BILD scores enable automated selection of optimal motif and domain model widths, and can inform the decision of whether to include a sequence in a multiple alignment, and the selection of insertion and deletion locations. Other applications include the classification of related sequences into subfamilies, and the definition of profile-profile alignment scores. Although a fully realized multiple alignment program must rely upon more than substitution scores, many existing multiple alignment programs can be modified to employ BILD scores. We illustrate how simple BILD score based strategies can enhance the recognition of DNA binding domains, including the Api-AP2 domain in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:20657661

  10. Large area and deep sub-wavelength interference lithography employing odd surface plasmon modes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liqin; Luo, Yunfei; Zhao, Zeyu; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Guohan; Zeng, Bo; Wang, Changtao; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, large area and deep sub-wavelength interference patterns are realized experimentally by using odd surface plasmon modes in the metal/insulator/metal structure. Theoretical investigation shows that the odd modes possesses much higher transversal wave vector and great inhibition of tangential electric field components, facilitating surface plasmon interference fringes with high resolution and contrast in the measure of electric field intensity. Interference resist patterns with 45 nm (∼λ/8) half-pitch, 50 nm depth, and area size up to 20 mm × 20 mm were obtained by using 20 nm Al/50 nm photo resist/50 nm Al films with greatly reduced surface roughness and 180 nm pitch exciting grating fabricated with conventional laser interference lithography. Much deeper resolution down to 19.5 nm is also feasible by decreasing the thickness of PR. Considering that no requirement of expensive EBL or FIB tools are employed, it provides a cost-effective way for large area and nano-scale fabrication. PMID:27466010

  11. Deformed rotational bands in the doubly odd nuclei [sup 134]Pr and [sup 132]Pr

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, K.; Wadsworth, R.; Clark, R.M.; Hibbert, I.M. ); Beausang, C.W.; Forbes, S.A.; Nolan, P.J.; Paul, E.S.; Semple, A.T.; Wilson, J.N. ); Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Santos, D. ); Simpson, J. )

    1994-08-01

    The nuclei [sup 132,134]Pr have been investigated using the [sup 100]Mo([sup 37]Cl,[ital xn]) reactions at a beam energy of 155 MeV. Gamma rays were detected with the Eurogam array. Analysis of the data has revealed the presence of two new weakly populated decoupled bands in [sup 134]Pr. One of these bands has been linked into the normal-deformed states and is thought to be built on a [pi]([ital h][sub 11/2])[sup 2][direct product][nu]([ital f][sub 7/2],[ital h][sub 9/2]) configuration. The second band has been interpreted as being based on a [pi]([ital h][sub 11/2])[sup 3][direct product][nu][ital i][sub 13/2] intruder configuration within the second [beta][sub 2][congruent]0.3 prolate minimum. The known decoupled band in [sup 132]Pr (5[ital n] reaction channel) and the highly deformed band in [sup 130]La A([alpha]3[ital n]) have also been extended. The structure of all of these bands is discussed together with similar bands in nieghboring odd-odd nuclei.

  12. A test for correction made to spin systematics for coupled band in doubly-odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Vinod

    2015-12-15

    Systematic Spin Assignments were generally made by using the argument that the energy of levels is a function of neutron number. In the present systematics, the excitation energy of the levels incorporated the effect of nuclear deformation and signature splitting. The nuclear deformation changes toward the mid-shell, therefore a smooth variation in the excitation energy of the levels is observed towards the mid-shell, that intended to make systematics as a function of neutron number towards the mid-shell. Another term “signature splitting” that push the energy of levels for odd- and even-spin sequences up and down, caused the different energy variation pattern for odd- and even-spin sequences. The corrections made in the spin systematics were tested for the known spins of various isotopic chain. In addition, the inconsistency in spin assignments made by the spin systematics and other methods of the configuration πh{sub 11/2} ⊗ νh{sub 11/2} band belonging to {sup 112,114,116}Cs, {sup 126}Pr, and {sup 138}Pr, as an example, was resolved by the correctionmade in the present spin systematics.

  13. Benford's law and number selection in fixed-odds numbers game.

    PubMed

    Chou, Mabel C; Kong, Qingxia; Teo, Chung-Piaw; Wang, Zuozheng; Zheng, Huan

    2009-12-01

    In fixed-odds numbers games, the prizes and the odds of winning are known at the time of placement of the wager. Both players and operators are subject to the vagaries of luck in such games. Most game operators limit their liability exposure by imposing a sales limit on the bets received for each bet type, at the risk of losing the rejected bets to the underground operators. This raises a question--how should the game operator set the appropriate sales limit? We argue that the choice of the sales limit is intimately related to the ways players select numbers to bet on in the games. There are ample empirical evidences suggesting that players do not choose all numbers with equal probability, but have a tendency to bet on (small) numbers that are closely related to events around them (e.g., birth dates, addresses, etc.). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to quantify this phenomenon and examine its relation to the classical Benford's law. We use this connection to develop a choice model, and propose a method to set the appropriate sales limit in these games. PMID:19641983

  14. E2 transition probabilities for decays of isomers observed in neutron-rich odd Sn isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Iskra, Ł. W.; Broda, R.; Janssens, R. V.F.; Wrzesiński, J.; Chiara, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fornal, B.; Hoteling, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Królas, W.; Lauritsen, T.; Pawłat, T.; Seweryniak, D.; Stefanescu, I.; Walters, W. B.; Zhu, S.

    2015-01-01

    High-spin states were investigated with gamma coincidence techniques in neutron-rich Sn isotopes produced in fission processes following ⁴⁸Ca + ²⁰⁸Pb, ⁴⁸Ca + ²³⁸U, and ⁶⁴Ni + ²³⁸U reactions. By exploiting delayed and cross-coincidence techniques, level schemes have been delineated in odd ¹¹⁹⁻¹²⁵Sn isotopes. Particular attention was paid to the occurrence of 19/2⁺ and 23/2⁺ isomeric states for which the available information has now been significantly extended. Reduced transition probabilities, B(E2), extracted from the measured half-lives and the established details of the isomeric decays exhibit a striking regularity. This behavior was compared with the previously observed regularity of the B(E2) amplitudes for the seniority ν = 2 and 3, 10⁺ and 27/2⁻ isomers in even- and odd-Sn isotopes, respectively.

  15. PARAMETRIC TENSION BETWEEN EVEN AND ODD MULTIPOLE DATA OF THE WMAP POWER SPECTRUM: UNACCOUNTED CONTAMINATION OR MISSING PARAMETERS?

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-12-01

    There exists power contrast in even and odd multipoles of the WMAP power spectrum at low and intermediate multipole ranges. This anomaly is explicitly associated with the angular power spectrum, which is heavily used for cosmological model fitting. Having noted this, we have investigated whether even (odd) multipole data set is individually consistent with the WMAP concordance model. Our investigation shows that the WMAP concordance model does not make a good fit for even (odd) multipole data set, which indicates parametric tension between even and odd multipole data set. Noting that tension is highest in primordial power spectrum parameters, we have additionally considered a running spectral index, but found that tension increases to even a higher level. We believe these parametric tensions may be indications of unaccounted contamination or imperfection of the model.

  16. Body mass index and anxiety/depression as mediators of the effects of child sexual and physical abuse on physical health disorders in women.

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; McCarthy-Jones, Roseline

    2014-12-01

    The relation between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and physical health disorders in adulthood, and what factors may serve as mediators, remains poorly understood. Using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N=3,486), we tested whether CSA was associated with physical health disorders in adult women and if mediated effects via body mass index (BMI), anxiety/depression, alcohol dependence, and smoking were present. Compared to women with no CSA, women who had experienced CSA involving intercourse had more than twice the odds of being obese, more than 3 times the odds of experiencing mental health disorders, more than 4 times the odds of being alcohol dependent, more than 5 times the odds of being drug dependent, and more than 6 times the odds of attempting suicide. Those experiencing both CSA and child physical abuse (CPA) were on average over 11kg heavier than those with neither CSA nor CPA. After controlling for demographics, CPA, and childhood bullying, CSA was associated with the majority of physical health disorders studied (typically 50-100% increases in odds). Evidence was found consistent with mediation by BMI (typically accounting for 5-20% increases in odds) and anxiety/depression (typically accounting for 8-40% increases in odds), in a dose-response manner, for the majority of physical health disorders. Bidirectional relations among these mediators and physical health disorders, and residual confounding, may have led to overestimation of mediation through BMI and anxiety/depression and underestimation of mediation through alcohol/smoking. Relations between both CPA and childhood bullying and physical health disorders in adulthood were also found. Longitudinal studies employing more sensitive measures of potential mediators are now required. PMID:25459987

  17. An Annotated Catalog of Inverted Repeats of Caenorhabditis elegans Chromosomes III and X, with Observations Concerning Odd/Even Biases and Conserved Motifs

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Mark D.; Aspeslagh, Glen; Buggia, Nathan P.; Dyer, Betsey D.

    2000-01-01

    We have taken a computational approach to the problem of discovering and deciphering the grammar and syntax of gene regulation in eukaryotes. A logical first step is to produce an annotated catalog of all regulatory sites in a given genome. Likely candidates for such sites are direct and indirect repeats, including three subcategories of indirect repeats: inverted (palindromic), everted, and mirror-image repeats. To that end we have produced a searchable database of inverted repeats of chromosomes III and X of Caenorhabditis elegans, the first completely sequenced multicellular eukaryote. Initial results from the use of this catalog are observations concerning odd/even biases in perfect IRs. The potential usefulness of the catalog as a discovery tool for promoters was shown for some of the genes involved with G-protein functions and for heat shock protein 104 (hsp104). PMID:10984456

  18. Fully and partially coherent pathways in multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nathan A; Yurs, Lena A; Block, Stephen B; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Kornau, Kathryn M; Sibert, Edwin L; Wright, John C

    2010-01-21

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy relies on using multiple excitation pulses to create multiple quantum coherences that provide great specificity for chemical measurements. Coherent multidimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) is the optical analogue of NMR. Current CMDS methods use three excitation pulses and phase matching to create zero, single, and double quantum coherences. In order to create higher order multiple quantum coherences, the number of interactions must be increased by raising the excitation intensities high enough to create Rabi frequencies that are comparable to the dephasing rates of vibrational coherences. The higher Rabi frequencies create multiple, odd-order coherence pathways. The coherence pathways that involve intermediate populations are partially coherent and are sensitive to population relaxation effects. Pathways that are fully coherent involve only coherences and measure the direct coupling between excited quantum states. The fully coherent pathways are related to the multiple quantum coherences created in multiple pulse NMR methods such as heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) spectroscopy with the important difference that HMQC NMR methods have a defined number of interactions and avoid dynamic Stark effects whereas the multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing pathways do not. The difference arises because CMDS methods use phase matching to define the interactions and at high intensities, multiple pathways obey the same phase matching conditions. The multiple pathways correspond to the pathways created by dynamic Stark effects. This paper uses rhodium dicarbonyl chelate (RDC) as a model to demonstrate the characteristics of multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing (MEOW) methods. Dynamic Stark effects excite vibrational ladders on the symmetric and asymmetric CO stretch modes and create a series of multiple quantum coherences and populations using partially and fully coherent pathways. Vibrational quantum states up to v = 6

  19. Systematics of isomeric configurations in N=77 odd-Z isotones near the proton drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawy, M.N.; Danchev, M.; Hartley, D.J.; Mazzocchi, C.; Bingham, C.R.; Grzywacz, R.; Rykaczewski, K.P.; Gross, C.J.; Shapira, D.; Yu, C.-H.; Batchelder, J.C.; Krolas, W.; Fong, D.; Hamilton, J. H.; Li, K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Ginter, T.N.; Stolz, A.; Hagino, K.; Karny, M.

    2006-02-15

    The systematics of the {pi}h{sub 11/2}x{nu}h{sub 11/2} and {pi}h{sub 11/2}x{nu}s{sub 1/2} isomeric configurations was studied for the odd-Z N=77 isotones near the proton drip line. The isomeric decays in {sup 140}Eu, {sup 142}Tb, {sup 144}Ho, and {sup 146}Tm were measured by means of x-ray, {gamma}-ray, and charged particle spectroscopy at the Recoil Mass Spectrometer at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (ORNL). The spin and parity of I{sup {pi}}=8{sup +} and 5{sup -} were deduced for the isomers in {sup 140}Eu and {sup 142}Tb. New decay schemes were established, and the half-lives of the 8{sup +} isomers were measured to be 302(4) ns for {sup 140m2}Eu and 25(1) {mu}s for {sup 142m2}Tb. No evidence for the expected 1{sup +} ground-state was found in the {sup 144}Ho decay data. The proton-emission from {sup 146}Tm was restudied. Five proton transitions were assigned to two proton-emitting states. The half-lives of 198(3) ms and 68(3) ms and the spin and parity values of I{sup {pi}}=10{sup +} and 5{sup -} were established for {sup 146m}Tm and {sup 146gs}Tm, respectively. For the first time for an odd-odd nucleus, the interpretation of the observed decay properties and structure of the proton-emitting states was made by accounting for deformation and proton and neutron coupling to the core excitations. A complex wave-function structure was obtained, with dominating components of {pi}h{sub 11/2}x{nu}h{sub 11/2} for the 10{sup +} isomer and {pi}h{sub 11/2}x{nu}s{sub 1/2} for the 5{sup -} ground state.

  20. Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should

  1. Development of the quantum theory of T-odd asymmetries for prescission and evaporated third particles in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bunakov, V. E.; Titova, L. V.; Kadmensky, S. S.

    2011-10-15

    A comparative analysis of the results obtained by experimentally and theoretically studying T-odd asymmetries for various third particles in the true and delayed ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons was performed. It was confirmed that the appearance of these asymmetries was associated with the effect of rotation of a polarized system undergoing fission on the angular distributions of prescission and evaporated third particles with respect to the direction along which the emerging fission fragments flew apart, this effect being determined by the Coriolis interaction of the rotational and the internalmotion of the fissioning system. A quantum-mechanical description of particle motion in a rotating coordinate system was generalized to the case where gamma-ray emission was present. It was shown that the separation of the motions of an axially symmetric fissile system into a rotational and an internal motion was valid in the external region as well, where ternary-fission products had already been formed, if it was considered that the motion of fission fragments was tightly connected with the system symmetry axis, which rotated in the laboratory frame. It was found that the dependence of the fissile-system moment of inertia appearing in the Coriolis interaction Hamiltonian on the distance between the fission fragments flying apart generated an additional phase in the amplitude of the radial distribution of fission fragments. It was shown that this phase might change sizably the contribution of the interference between fission amplitudes of neutron resonances excited in a fissile compound nucleus to the absolute values of T -odd asymmetries, especially for third particles such as neutrons and photons, which interacted only slightly with fission fragments.

  2. First Measurement of the T-Odd Correlation between the Z0 Spin and the Three-Jet Plane Orientation in Polarized Z0 Decays into Three Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C. J.; Akagi, T.; Allen, N. J.; Ash, W. W.; Aston, D.; Baird, K. G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H. R.; Barakat, M. B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A. O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G. M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J. R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G. R.; Brau, J. E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W. M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T. H.; Burrows, P. N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coller, J. A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R. F.; Coyne, D. G.; D'oliveira, A.; Damerell, C. J.; Daoudi, M.; de Sangro, R.; de Simone, P.; dell'orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P. Y.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Elia, R.; Falciai, D.; Fero, M. J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hart, E. L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Hildreth, M. D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M. E.; Hughes, E. W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jackson, D. J.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, J. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Kang, H. J.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H. W.; Kim, Y.; King, M. E.; King, R.; Kofler, R. R.; Krishna, N. M.; Kroeger, R. S.; Labs, J. F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J. A.; Leith, D. W.; Liu, M. X.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H. L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T. W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mattison, T. S.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A. K.; Meadows, B. T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P. M.; Moffeit, K. C.; Mours, B.; Müller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L. S.; Panvini, R. S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T. J.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K. T.; Plano, R. J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C. Y.; Punkar, G. D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Reeves, T. W.; Reidy, J.; Rensing, P. E.; Rochester, L. S.; Rothberg, J. E.; Rowson, P. C.; Russell, J. J.; Saxton, O. H.; Schaffner, S. F.; Schalk, T.; Schindler, R. H.; Schneekloth, U.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Sen, S.; Serbo, V. V.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, G.; Shapiro, S. L.; Sherden, D. J.; Shmakov, K. D.; Simopoulos, C.; Sinev, N. B.; Smith, S. R.; Snyder, J. A.; Stamer, P.; Steiner, H.; Steiner, R.; Strauss, M. G.; Su, D.; Suekane, F.; Sugiyama, A.; Suzuki, S.; Swartz, M.; Szumilo, A.; Takahashi, T.; Taylor, F. E.; Torrence, E.; Turk, J. D.; Usher, T.; Va'vra, J.; Vannini, C.; Vella, E.; Venuti, J. P.; Verdier, R.; Verdini, P. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Waite, A. P.; Watts, S. J.; Weidemann, A. W.; Weiss, E. R.; Whitaker, J. S.; White, S. L.; Wickens, F. J.; Williams, D. A.; Williams, D. C.; Williams, S. H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, R. J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Woods, M.; Word, G. B.; Wyss, J.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yamartino, J. M.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S. J.; Young, C. C.; Yuta, H.; Zapalac, G.; Zdarko, R. W.; Zeitlin, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhou, J.

    1995-12-01

    We present the first measurement of the correlation between the Z0 spin and the event-plane orientation in polarized Z0 decays into three jets in the SLAC Linear Collider Large Detector experiment at SLAC utilizing a longitudinally polarized electron beam. The CP-even and T-odd triple product S-->Z.(k-->1×k-->2), formed from the two fastest jet momenta k-->1 and k-->2 and the Z0 polarization vector S-->Z, is sensitive to physics beyond the standard model. We measure the expectation value of this quantity to be consistent with zero and set 95% C.L. limits of -0.022<β<0.039 on the correlation.

  3. Mixed symmetry states and {beta} decays of odd-A Xe to I isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khudair, Falih H.

    2009-07-15

    The energy spectra of the parent and daughter nuclei in the {beta} decays ({sup 121-127}Xe,{beta}{sup +121-127}I) are considered in the interacting boson fermion model (IBFM-2) with the g{sub 7/2},d{sub 5/2},d{sub 3/2},s{sub 1/2}, and h{sub 11/2} single-particle orbitals. Electromagnetic transition probabilities and branching ratios in odd {sup 121-127}I isotopes are investigated. Special attention is given to the occurrence of mixed symmetry states, and the F-spin structures of the wave functions are analyzed. The log{sub 10}ft values of the allowed {beta} decay transitions are calculated. It is found that the IBFM-2 results agree with the experimental data quite well.

  4. Contribution of excited states to stellar weak-interaction rates in odd-A nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarriguren, P.

    2016-05-01

    Weak-interaction rates, including β decay and electron capture, are studied in several odd-A nuclei in the p f -shell region at various densities and temperatures of astrophysical interest. Special attention is paid to the relative contribution to these rates of thermally populated excited states in the decaying nucleus. The nuclear structure involved in the weak processes is studied within a quasiparticle random-phase approximation with residual interactions in both particle-hole and particle-particle channels on top of a deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations. In the range of densities and temperatures considered, it is found that the total rates do not differ much from the rates of the ground state fully populated. In any case, the changes are not larger than the uncertainties due to the nuclear-model dependence of the rates.

  5. Odd-parity topological superconductor with nematic order: Application to CuxBi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Liang

    2014-09-01

    CuxBi2Se3 was recently proposed as a promising candidate for time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors. In this work, we argue that the unusual anisotropy of the Knight shift observed by Zheng and co-workers (unpublished), taken together with specific heat measurements, provides strong support for an unconventional odd-parity pairing in the two-dimensional Eu representation of the D3d crystal point group, which spontaneously breaks the threefold rotational symmetry of the crystal, leading to a subsidiary nematic order. We predict that the spin-orbit interaction associated with hexagonal warping plays a crucial role in pinning the two-component order parameter and makes the superconducting state generically fully gapped, leading to a topological superconductor. Experimental signatures of the Eu pairing related to the nematic order are discussed.

  6. Generation of a Superposition of Odd Photon Number States for Quantum Information Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neergaard-Nielsen, J. S.; Nielsen, B. Melholt; Hettich, C.; Mølmer, K.; Polzik, E. S.

    2006-08-01

    We report on the experimental observation of quantum-network-compatible light described by a nonpositive Wigner function. The state is generated by photon subtraction from a squeezed vacuum state produced by a continuous wave optical parametric amplifier. Ideally, the state is a coherent superposition of odd photon number states, closely resembling a superposition of weak coherent states |α⟩-|-α⟩. In the limit of low squeezing the state is basically a single photon state. Light is generated with about 10 000 and more events per second in a nearly perfect spatial mode with a Fourier-limited frequency bandwidth which matches well atomic quantum memory requirements. The generated state of light is an excellent input state for testing quantum memories, quantum repeaters, and linear optics quantum computers.

  7. Dissociation of metastable O2 as a potential source of atmospheric odd oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, J. E.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the possible dissociation of metastable oxygen molecules subject ot constraints imposed by selection rules for molecular transitions, airglow observations, and atmospheric chemistry leads to the following conclusions. Dissociation of O2(b1Sigma g +) must produce a negligible number of oxygen atoms at all altitudes in the earth's atmosphere. However, if the dissociation cross section of O2(a1Delta g) has a maximum value in the range 10 to the -20th to 10 to the -19th/sq cm, then the process O2(a1Delta g) + h(nu) yields O2(C3Delta u) yields O(3P) + O(3P) will constitute a significant, and potentially the major, source of odd oxygen in the uppermost stratosphere and mesosphere.

  8. Can the new resonance at LHC be a CP-odd Higgs boson?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bečirević, D.; Bertuzzo, E.; Sumensari, O.; Zukanovich Funchal, R.

    2016-06-01

    A plausible explanation of the recent experimental indication of a resonance in the two-photon spectrum at LHC is that it corresponds to the CP-odd Higgs boson. We explore such a possibility in a generic framework of the two Higgs doublet models (2HDM), and combine mA ≈ 750 GeV with the known mh = 125.7 (4) GeV to show that the charged Higgs boson and the other CP-even scalar masses become bounded from bellow and from above. We show that this possibility is also consistent with the electroweak precision data and the low energy observables, which we test in a few leptonic and semileptonic decay modes.

  9. Tunneling and Josephson effects in odd-frequency superconductor junctions: A study on multichannel Kondo chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Shintaro; Yada, Keiji; Tanaka, Yukio

    2016-06-01

    Junction systems of odd-frequency (OF) superconductors are investigated based on a mean-field Hamiltonian formalism. One-dimensional two-channel Kondo lattice (TCKL) is taken as a concrete example of OF superconductors. Properties of normal and Andreev reflections are examined in a normal metal/superconductor junction. Unlike conventional superconductors, normal reflection is always present due to the normal self energy that necessarily appears in the present OF pairing state. The conductance reflects the difference between repulsive and attractive potentials located at the interface, which is in contrast with the preexisting superconducting junctions. Josephson junction is also constructed by connecting TCKL with the other types of superconductors. The results can be understood from symmetry of the induced Cooper pairs at the edge in the presence of spin/orbital symmetry breaking. It has also been demonstrated that the symmetry argument for Cooper pairs is useful in explaining Meissner response in bulk.

  10. Nonexistence of sharply covariant mutually unbiased bases in odd prime dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2015-09-01

    Mutually unbiased bases (MUB) are useful in a number of research areas. The symmetry of MUB is an elusive and interesting subject. A (complete set of) MUB in dimension d is sharply covariant if it can be generated by a group of order d (d +1 ) from a basis state. Such MUB, if they exist, would be most appealing to theoretical studies and practical applications. Unfortunately, they seem to be quite rare. Here we prove that no MUB in odd prime dimensions is sharply covariant, by virtue of clever applications of Mersenne primes, Galois fields, and Frobenius groups. This conclusion provides valuable insight about the symmetry of MUB and the geometry of quantum state space. It complements and strengthens the earlier result of the author that only two stabilizer MUB are sharply covariant. Our study leads to the conjecture that no MUB other than those in dimensions 2 and 4 is sharply covariant.

  11. Odd-skipped related 2 is epigenetically regulated in cellular quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Shinji; Amano, Atsuo

    2010-06-11

    Cellular behavior and development are extensively altered during the transition from cell cycle into quiescence, though the mechanism involved in establishing and maintaining quiescence is largely unknown. We found that Odd-skipped related 2 (Osr2) was up-regulated during cellular quiescence by serum starvation as well as culturing to confluence. To investigate the regulatory mechanism of Osr2 under these conditions, we characterized the mouse Osr2 promoter. CpG islands in the flanking region of the transcription start site were predominantly methylated in exponentially growing cells, resulting in silencing of Osr2 expression. In addition, CpG demethylation in quiescence caused activation of Osr2 expression, while acetylation of the H3 and H4 histones during quiescence also led to an increase in Osr2 expression. These results suggest that epigenetically regulated Osr2 plays an important role in cellular quiescence and proliferation.

  12. The even-odd systematics in R-process nuclide abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, K.; Suess, H. E.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reports and discusses solar system N(R) abundances for nuclides A greater than 70, obtained as differences between measured solar system abundances and calculated S-process contributions. The abundance peak at A of about 163 in the rare earth element region reveals properties which are similar to those of the R-process peaks corresponding to magic neutron numbers N = 82 and N = 126. Systematic differences in the N(R) abundances of even-A and odd-A nuclides are restricted to specific mass regions. It is concluded that these differences are most probably related to the properties of nuclear species during beta(-) decay to the stability valley.

  13. Gamow-Teller response in deformed even and odd neutron-rich Zr and Mo isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarriguren, P.; Algora, A.; Pereira, J.

    2014-03-01

    β-decay properties of neutron-rich Zr and Mo isotopes are investigated within a microscopic theoretical approach based on the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The underlying mean field is described self-consistently from deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock calculations with pairing correlations. Residual separable particle-hole and particle-particle forces are also included in the formalism. The structural evolution in these isotopic chains including both even and odd isotopes is analyzed in terms of the equilibrium deformed shapes. Gamow-Teller strength distributions, β-decay half-lives, and β-delayed neutron-emission probabilities are studied, stressing their relevance to describe the path of the nucleosynthesis rapid neutron capture process.

  14. Isospin Dependence in the Odd-Even Staggering of Nuclear Binding Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinov, Yu.A.; Geissel, H.; Buervenich, T.J.; Novikov, Yu.N.; Patyk, Z.; Scheidenberger, C.; Attallah, F.; Beckert, K.; Bosch, F.; Franzke, B.; Klepper, O.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nolden, F.; Radon, T.; Steck, M.; Typel, S.; Audi, G.; Falch, M.

    2005-07-22

    The FRS-ESR facility at GSI provides unique conditions for precision measurements of large areas on the nuclear mass surface in a single experiment. Values for masses of 604 neutron-deficient nuclides (30{<=}Z{<=}92) were obtained with a typical uncertainty of 30 {mu}u. The masses of 114 nuclides were determined for the first time. The odd-even staggering (OES) of nuclear masses was systematically investigated for isotopic chains between the proton shell closures at Z=50 and Z=82. The results were compared with predictions of modern nuclear models. The comparison revealed that the measured trend of OES is not reproduced by the theories fitted to masses only. The spectral pairing gaps extracted from models adjusted to both masses, and density related observables of nuclei agree better with the experimental data.

  15. Gertrude Scharff-Goldhaber, 1911-1998: Nuclear Physicist Against the Odds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhaber, Michael H.

    2016-07-01

    The author's mother, Gertrude Scharff-Goldhaber, was a prominent nuclear physicist who had to overcome steep odds to pursue her work. She lived and worked at a time when it was very uncommon for any woman to be a scientist and even more uncommon for a mother of young children. She also faced Nazi persecution and a series of other challenges in growing up in Germany. Drawing on personal conversations and testimony of her friends, this brief account includes a number of intimate details to illustrate some of the difficulties she faced and the zest for life and for understanding the world that pushed her forward anyway. Details of her work and a bibliography are included.

  16. Gertrude Scharff-Goldhaber, 1911-1998: Nuclear Physicist Against the Odds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhaber, Michael H.

    2016-08-01

    The author's mother, Gertrude Scharff-Goldhaber, was a prominent nuclear physicist who had to overcome steep odds to pursue her work. She lived and worked at a time when it was very uncommon for any woman to be a scientist and even more uncommon for a mother of young children. She also faced Nazi persecution and a series of other challenges in growing up in Germany. Drawing on personal conversations and testimony of her friends, this brief account includes a number of intimate details to illustrate some of the difficulties she faced and the zest for life and for understanding the world that pushed her forward anyway. Details of her work and a bibliography are included.

  17. Multi-channel quantum dragons from rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inkoom, Godfred; Novotny, Mark

    Recently, a large class of nanostructures called quantum dragons have been discovered theoretically. Quantum dragons are nanostuctures with correlated disorder but have an electron transmission probability  (E) =1 for all energies E when connected to idealized leads. Hence for a single channel, the electrical conductance for a two-probe measurement should give the quantum of conductance Go =2e2/h . The time independent Schrödinger equation for the single band tight binding model is solved exactly to obtain  (E) . We have generalized the matrix method and the mapping methods of in order to study multi-channel quantum dragons for rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure. The studies may be relevant for experimental rectangular nanotubes, such as MgO, copper phthalocyanine or some types of graphyne.. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.

  18. On strontium isotopic anomalies and odd-A p-process abundances. [in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects of the nucleosynthesis of Sr isotopes are considered in an attempt to shed light on the problem of the Sr isotopic anomalies discovered in an inclusion of the Allende meteorite. Decomposition of the Sr isotopes into average r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynthetic classes is performed. It is suggested that the Allende inclusion most likely has an excess of s-process Sr and that the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 isotopic ratio is probably slightly more primitive than basaltic achondrites. The results also show that Sn-115 is mostly due to the r-process and that odd-A yields are very small. It is concluded that if the Sr anomaly in the inclusion is an average s enhancement, it argues somewhat in favor of a model of gas/dust fractionation of s and r isotopes during accumulation of the inclusion parent in the protosolar cloud.

  19. Multiple Imputation for Missing Values Through Conditional Semiparametric Odds Ratio Models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua Yun; Xie, Hui; Qian, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multiple imputation is a practically useful approach to handling incompletely observed data in statistical analysis. Parameter estimation and inference based on imputed full data have been made easy by Rubin's rule for result combination. However, creating proper imputation that accommodates flexible models for statistical analysis in practice can be very challenging. We propose an imputation framework that uses conditional semiparametric odds ratio models to impute the missing values. The proposed imputation framework is more flexible and robust than the imputation approach based on the normal model. It is a compatible framework in comparison to the approach based on fully conditionally specified models. The proposed algorithms for multiple imputation through the Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampling approach can be straightforwardly carried out. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed approach performs better than existing, commonly used imputation approaches. The proposed approach is applied to imputing missing values in bone fracture data. PMID:21210771

  20. Revised and extended level scheme of the doubly-odd nucleus {sup 188}Ir

    SciTech Connect

    Jungclaus, A.; Modamio, V.; Egido, J. L.; Fernandez, M. A.; Schwengner, R.; Algora, A.; Bazzacco, D.; Lenzi, S.; Marginean, N.; Ur, C. A.; Escrig, D.; Fraile, L. M.; Martinez, T.; Napoli, D. R.

    2008-02-15

    High-spin states in the doubly odd Z=77 nucleus {sup 188}Ir were studied using the reaction {sup 186}W({sup 7}Li, 5n) at 59 MeV and the GASP spectrometer for {gamma}-ray detection. The level structures recently suggested to be built on the known 4.1(3) ms isomeric state of this nucleus have been considerably revised and extended and an isomer with a lifetime of 17.7(2) ns has been identified within the main decay sequence. In addition two rotational bands built on low spin states below the ms isomer have been observed for the first time. The basic features of the excitation scheme of {sup 188}Ir are discussed within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory within the Lipkin-Nogami approach with the finite-range density-dependent Gogny force.

  1. Odd-frequency triplet superconductivity at the helical edge of a topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crépin, François; Burset, Pablo; Trauzettel, Björn

    2015-09-01

    Nonlocal pairing processes at the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator in proximity to an s -wave superconductor are usually suppressed by helicity. However, the additional proximity of a ferromagnetic insulator can substantially influence the helical constraint and therefore open a new conduction channel by allowing for crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) processes. We show a one-to-one correspondence between CAR and the emergence of odd-frequency triplet superconductivity. Hence, nonlocal transport experiments that identify CAR in helical liquids yield smoking-gun evidence for unconventional superconductivity. Interestingly, we identify a setup—composed of a superconductor flanked by two ferromagnetic insulators—that allows us to favor CAR over electron cotunneling, which is known to be a difficult but essential task to be able to measure CAR.

  2. Study of weakly-bound odd-A nuclei with quasiparticle blocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue-Yu, Xiong; Jun-Chen, Pei; Yi-Nu, Zhang; Yi, Zhu

    2016-02-01

    The coordinate-space Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) approach with quasiparticle blocking has been applied to study the odd-A weakly bound nuclei 17,19B and 37Mg, in which halo structures have been reported in experiments. The Skyrme nuclear forces SLy4 and UNEDF1 have been adopted in our calculations. The results with and without blocking have been compared to demonstrate the emergence of deformed halo structures due to blocking effects. In our calculations, 19B and 37Mg have remarkable features of deformed halos. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB83440), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375016, 11235001, 11320101004) and Research Fund for Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20130001110001)

  3. Excitation of the Yb II transitions terminating on the low-lying odd levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Yu. M.

    2007-10-01

    Excitation of the transitions from the even levels of a singly charged ytterbium ion that terminate on the low-lying odd levels 4 f 13(2 F °)6 s 2 2 F °, 4 f 14(1 S)6 p 2 P °, and 4 f 13(2 F °7/2) 5 d6 p(3 D)3[3/2]° is experimentally studied by measuring 51 excitation cross sections at an electron energy of 50 eV, and 16 optical excitation functions are determined within the electron energy range 0 200 eV. The largest magnitudes of the measured cross sections exceed 3 × 10-17 cm2.

  4. High spin states and isomeric decays in doubly-odd 208Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjilal, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Goswami, A.; Kshetri, R.; Raut, R.; Saha, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Gehlot, J.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Jnaneswari, G.; Mukherjee, G.; Mukherjee, B.

    2010-10-01

    Neutron deficient isotopes of francium ( Z=87, N˜121-123) as excited nuclei were produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction: 197Au( 16O, xn) 213 - xFr at 100 MeV. The γ rays from the residues were observed through the high sensitivity Germanium Clover detector array INGA. The decay of the high spin states and the isomeric states of the doubly-odd 208Fr nuclei, identified from the known sequence of ground state transitions, were observed. The half-lives of the E=194(2) keV isomeric transition, known from earlier observations, was measured to be T=233(18) ns. A second isomeric transition at E=383(2) keV and T=33(7) ns was also found. The measured half-lives were compared with the corresponding single particle estimates, based on the level scheme obtained from the experiment.

  5. Reflection-asymmetric rotor model of odd Aapprox. 219--229 nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Leander, G.A.; Chen, Y.S.

    1988-06-01

    The low-energy spectroscopy of odd-A nuclei in the mass region Aapprox.219--229 is modeled by coupling states of a deformed shell model including octupole deformation to a reflection-asymmetric rotor core. Theory and experiment are compared for the nuclei in which data are available: /sup 219,221,223,225/Rn, /sup 221,223,225,227/Fr, /sup 219,221,223,225,227/Ra, /sup 219,223,225,227,229/Ac /sup 221,223,225,227,229/Th, and /sup 229/Pa. Overall agreement requires an octupole deformation ..beta../sub 3/approx.0.1. The results throughout the region are synthesized to evaluate the model.

  6. Sensitivity of calculated odd nitrogen distributions to the diabatic wind fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boughner, R. E.; Callis, L. B., Jr.; Natarajan, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper compares atmospheric total odd nitrogen and ozone computed with two different advective wind fields, one using climatological averages of ozone and temperature to obtain monthly averaged horizontal and vertical winds and the other using measurements from the LIMS instrument. Calculations using the former data show stronger poleward and downward motion in the winter season compared to those using the LIMS data. This leads to NO(y) mixing ratios in the lower stratosphere that are about 20 percent larger in the polar regions of both hemispheres and about 40 percent higher in the equatorial region for climatological transport fields compared to those derived from LIMS data. Consequently, the NO(y) distributions calculated with the LIMS advective field show worse agreement with the NO(y) values inferred from the LIMS measurements than similar results obtained with the climatological wind field.

  7. Pair production of the T-odd leptons at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Chong-Xing; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Lui, Wei; Ma, Wei

    2009-05-01

    The T-odd leptons predicted by the littlest Higgs model with T-parity can be pair produced via the subprocesses gg→ell+Hell-H, qbar q→ell+Hell-H, γγ→ell+Hell-H, and VV→ell+Hell-H (V=W or Z) at the CERN large hadron collider (LHC). We estimate the hadronic production cross-sections for all of these processes and give a simple phenomenology analysis. We find that the cross-sections for most of the above processes are very small. However, the value of the cross-section for the Drell-Yan process, qbar q→ell+Hell-H, can reach 270 fb.

  8. Odd-Even Mass Staggering Described by Relativistic Hartree-Fock Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long Jun; Long, Wen Hui

    2013-11-01

    The neutron and proton odd-even mass staggering (OES) are systematically studied within the density-dependent relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (DDRHFB) theory and the density-dependent relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (DDRHB) theory. In terms of the finite-range Gogny D1S as the pairing force, both DDRHFB and DDRHB theories can well reproduce the experimental OES, including C, O, Ca, Ni, Zr, Sn, Ce, Gd and Pb isotopes, and N = 50 and 82 isotones. In addition, the optimizations on the pairing force with the prefix factors bring systematical improvements on the OES for the light and heavy nuclei. It is also found that the pairing effects are essentially related with the appropriate description of the nuclear structures, in which the ρ-tensor correlations play an important role.

  9. Odd-skipped related 2 regulates genes related to proliferation and development

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Shinji; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Amano, Atsuo

    2010-07-23

    Cell proliferation is a biological process in which chromosomes replicate in one cell and equally divide into two daughter cells. Our previous findings suggested that Odd-skipped related 2 (Osr2) plays an important role in cellular quiescence and proliferation under epigenetic regulation. However, the mechanism used by Osr2 to establish and maintain proliferation is unknown. To examine the functional role of Osr2 in cell proliferation, we analyzed its downstream target genes using microarray analysis following adenovirus-induced overexpression of Osr2 as well as knockdown with Osr2 siRNA, which showed that Osr2 regulates a multitude of genes involved in proliferation and the cell cycle, as well as development. Additional proliferation assays also indicated that Osr2 likely functions to elicit cell proliferation. Together, these results suggest that Osr2 plays important roles in proliferation and development.

  10. Electromagnetic moments of odd-A Po193-203,211 isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstov, M. D.; Cocolios, T. E.; Dexters, W.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A. E.; Bastin, B.; Büscher, J.; Darby, I. G.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Keupers, M.; Köster, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Page, R. D.; Sjödin, A. M.; Stefan, I.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Zemlyanoy, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    Hyperfine splitting parameters have been measured for the neutron-deficient odd-mass polonium isotopes and isomers Po193-203g,m, Po209,211. The measurement was performed at the ISOLDE (CERN) online mass separator using the in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy technique. The magnetic dipole moments μ and spectroscopic electric quadrupole moments QS have been deduced. Their implication for the understanding of nuclear structure in the vicinity of the closed proton shell at Z =82 and the neutron mid-shell at N =104 is discussed. For the most neutron-deficient nuclei (A =193,195,197), a deviation of μ and QS from the nearly constant values for heavier polonium nuclei was observed. Particle-plus-rotor calculations with static oblate deformation describe the electromagnetic moments for these nuclei well, provided a gradual increase of a mean deformation when going to lighter masses is assumed for the polonium nuclei with A <198.

  11. Signatures of shape transitions in odd-A neutron-rich rubidium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Guzman, R.; Sarriguren, P.; Robledo, L. M.

    2010-12-15

    The isotopic evolution of the ground-state nuclear shapes and the systematics of one-quasiproton configurations are studied in odd-A Rubidium isotopes. We use a self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism based on the Gogny energy density functional with two parametrizations, D1S and D1M, and implemented with the equal-filling approximation. We find clear signatures of a sharp shape transition at N=60 in both the charge radii and spin parity of the ground states, which are robust, consistent with each other, and in agreement with experiment. We point out that the combined analysis of these two observables could be used to predict unambiguously new regions where shape transitions might develop.

  12. Constructing Rotation Symmetric Boolean Functions with Maximum Algebraic Immunity on an Odd Number of Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jie; Kan, Haibin

    It is well known that Boolean functions used in stream and block ciphers should have high algebraic immunity to resist algebraic attacks. Up to now, there have been many constructions of Boolean functions achieving the maximum algebraic immunity. In this paper, we present several constructions of rotation symmetric Boolean functions with maximum algebraic immunity on an odd number of variables which are not symmetric, via a study of invertible cyclic matrices over the binary field. In particular, we generalize the existing results and introduce a new method to construct all the rotation symmetric Boolean functions that differ from the majority function on two orbits. Moreover, we prove that their nonlinearities are upper bounded by 2^{n-1}-\\binom{n-1}{\\lfloor\\frac{n}{2}\\rfloor}+2(n-6).

  13. Description of electromagnetic and favored α transitions in heavy odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, A.; Delion, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    We describe electromagnetic and favored α transitions to rotational bands in odd-mass nuclei built upon a single particle state with angular momentum projection Ω ≠1/2 in the region 88 ≤Z ≤98 . We use the particle coupled to an even-even core approach described by the coherent state model and the coupled channels method to estimate partial α -decay widths. We reproduce the energy levels of the rotational band where favored α transitions occur for 26 nuclei and predict B (" close=")E 2 )">E 2 values for electromagnetic transitions to the band head using a deformation parameter and a Hamiltonian strength parameter for each nucleus, together with an effective collective charge depending linearly on the deformation parameter. Where experimental data are available, the contribution of the single particle effective charge to the total B value is calculated. The Hamiltonian describing the α -nucleus interaction contains two terms, a spherically symmetric potential given by the double-folding of the M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction plus a repulsive core simulating the Pauli principle and a quadrupole-quadrupole (QQ) interaction. The α -decaying state is identified as a narrow outgoing resonance in this potential. The intensity of the transition to the first excited state is reproduced by the QQ coupling strength. It depends linearly both on the nuclear deformation and the square of the reduced width for the decay to the band head, respectively. Predicted intensities for transitions to higher excited states are in a reasonable agreement with experimental data. This formalism offers a unified description of energy levels, electromagnetic and favored α transitions for known heavy odd-mass α emitters.

  14. Outbreeding depression in hybrids between odd-and even-broodyear pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gharrett, A.J.; Smoker, W.W.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Taylor, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    Fewer F2 hybrids between even- and odd-broodline pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), which are lines that are genetically isolated by their strict two-year life cycle, survived than did F2 controls, indicating outbreeding depression. Cryopreserved sperm of 40 broodyear 1990 males and of 40 broodyear 1991 males fertilized equal subsamples of eggs from 40 broodyear 1992 females. Return rates of F1 hybrids (1.73%) and controls (1.63%) in 1994 did not differ significantly (P=0.30). F2 hybrid and control crosses were made from 40 males and 40 females selected at random from each return group. Offspring were differentially marked and released. In 1996, returns differed significantly (P=0.011) between hybrids (n=34, 0.34%) and controls (n=44, 0.42%). The low rate of return of the control fish was similar to the measured return of a much larger group of tagged Auke Creek pink salmon, and probably not an artifact of the experiment. Although no increase in fluctuating asymmetry of paired meristic counts was observed in either F1or F2 hybrids, size and some meristic counts of hybrids exceed measurements of controls, suggesting heterosis for those traits. The observations of decreased survival in F2 hybrids confirm previous work [Gharrett, A.J., Smoker, W.W., 1991. Two generations of hybrids between even- and odd-year pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 48(9) 1744–1749]. Although genetic divergence between pink salmon broodlines is large and outbreeding depression might be expected in such unlikely hybrids, the results document the occurrence of outbreeding depression in salmon and signal caution in making management and aquacultural decisions that may create the possibility of outbreeding depression in self-sustaining or cultured populations.

  15. Exposure to childhood traumas ups the odds of giving birth to daughters.

    PubMed

    Kaitz, Marsha; Rokem, Ann Marie; Mankuta, David; Davidov, Maayan; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the likelihood of giving birth to a daughter as a function of women's exposure to four categories of stressors: childhood trauma, adult trauma, chronic stressors, and recent (adverse) life events. Hypothesis 1 stated that exposure to recent life events (near conception) and to childhood traumas would increase women's chances of having a girl baby. Hypothesis 2 stated that the relationship between stress and gender outcome is mediated by persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The final sample was comprised of 225 women. The design was prospective observational. At first contact, women were retained if they were <27 weeks pregnant and met initial inclusion criteria. In interview 2, at 27-30 weeks, women were excluded for positive diagnoses of anxiety disorders besides PTSD with or without depression (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders). In interview 3 (30-34 weeks), reports on stress categories (Social Stress Indicator Questionnaire) and PTSD symptoms (Post-Traumatic Checklist) were obtained. Infant gender was obtained from medical records. The relationship between stress categories and the distribution of girl/boy infants was examined with Chi Squares and logistic regression analyses. Mediation was tested with the macro PROCESS (Hayes 2012). Childhood trauma was the only stress category that increased the odds of having a girl, with an odds ratio of >3.0 for women who had been exposed to more than two such events. PTSD symptoms (partially) mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and infant gender. Findings suggest that women's exposure to childhood trauma contributes to the determination of the sex ratio at birth and that PTSD symptoms are part of the cause. PMID:24221408

  16. Isomers in three doubly odd Fr-At-Bi. alpha. -decay chains

    SciTech Connect

    Huyse, M.; Decrock, P.; Dendooven, P.; Reusen, G.; Van Duppen, P.; Wauters, J. )

    1992-10-01

    The {sup 206}Fr{r arrow}{sup 202}At{r arrow}{sup 198}Bi, {sup 204}Fr{r arrow}{sup 200}At{r arrow}{sup 196}Bi, and {sup 202}Fr{r arrow}{sup 198}At{r arrow}{sup 194}Bi {ital a}-decay chains have been studied by standard spectroscopic techniques using an on-line isotope separator. All the studied doubly odd isotopes have at least two isomers, which decay by a combination of the following decay modes: {ital a} emission, {beta}{sup +}/EC (electron capture) decay, and internal transition (IT). The internal transition, a highly retarded {ital E}3, is the {ital j}-forbidden transition between the ({pi}{ital h}{sub 9/2}{direct product}{nu}{ital i}{sub 13/2}){sub 10}{sup {minus}} and the ({pi}{ital h}{sub 9/2}{direct product}{nu}{ital f}{sub 5/2}){sub 7}{sup +} states. The {ital B}({ital E}3) values of these IT's together with their energy behavior as a function of the neutron and proton number, compared to the energy difference between the 13/2{sup +}({nu}{ital i}{sub 13/2}) and 5/2{sup {minus}}({nu}{ital f}{sub 5/2}) states in the odd-mass Pb isotones, indicate that these proton-neutron-coupled states have a rather pure shell-model character.

  17. Recreational Physical Activity and the Risk of Preeclampsia: A Prospective Cohort of Norwegian Women

    PubMed Central

    Trogstad, Lill; Owe, Katrine M.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Nystad, Wenche

    2008-01-01

    Previous case-control studies suggest that recreational physical activity protects against preeclampsia. Using a prospective design, the authors estimated the risk of preeclampsia for pregnant women according to level of physical activity, taking other variables that influence risk into consideration. The data set comprised 59,573 pregnancies from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999–2006). Information on physical activity and other exposures was extracted from questionnaire responses given in pregnancy weeks 14–22, whereas diagnosis of preeclampsia was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Estimation and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. About 24% of pregnant women reported no physical activity, and 7% reported more than 25 such activities per month. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.96) for preeclampsia when comparing women who exercised 25 times or more per month with inactive women. The association appeared strongest among women whose body mass index was less than 25 kg/m2 and was absent among women whose body mass index was higher than 30 kg/m2. These results suggest that the preventive effect of recreational physical activity during pregnancy may be more limited than has been shown in case-control studies and may apply to nonobese women only. PMID:18701444

  18. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  19. LIMS data - Inferred stratospheric distribution of NOx and HOx trace constituents and the calculated odd nitrogen budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Russell, J. M.; Boughner, R. E.; Natarajan, M.

    1985-01-01

    LIMS, SAMS, SBUV and in-situ data have been used to infer species not measured but which are of photochemical interest, e.g., O(3P), O(1D), NO, N2O5, OH, HO2, ClO and HCl. (LIMS = limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere; SAMS = stratospheric and mesospheric sounder; and SBUV = solar backscattered ultraviolet instrument.) Production and loss of odd nitrogen have been calculated and estimates have been made of the odd nitrogen transport due to adiabatically driven circulation derived from LIMS data. Data used from LIMS include O3, NO2, HNO3, H2O and T. CH4 and N2O were taken from SAMS and the UV solar flux from the SBUV instrument. Species were inferred for periods in October, December, March and May. Results for December are discussed. Results indicate: (1) maximum stratospheric odd nitrogen levels of 25 ppbv; (2) evidence of odd nitrogen transport from the mesosphere appearing at 25 km in the wintertime polar latitudes; (3) the polar night build-up of high levels of N2O5 beginning after the autumnal equinox; and (4) the possibility of large downward fluxes of odd nitrogen into the troposphere during the winter at latitudes poleward of 60 degrees.

  20. Low back pain in physical education teachers.

    PubMed

    Stergioulas, Apostolos; Filippou, Dimitrios K; Triga, Argiro; Grigoriadis, Emilios; Shipkov, Christo D

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors related to occupational low back pain (LBP) occurring in male physical education teachers (PET). The location was set in Athens and we used questionnaires to collect information. Analysis revealed that the prevalence of LBP during the survey was 63%. The correlation of personal factors and LBP showed that the prevalence of LBP was significantly higher in those PET (odds ratio, 2.5) who answered yes to the item "no personal training" than in the PET who did not. Moreover, many occupational factors are related to LBP. These were the items "lifting gym instruments" (odds ratio, 2.6) and "helping students into flexing posture" (odds ratio, 3.0). From the working conditions it was confirmed that the PET (odds ratio, 2.5) who "spent more than 35 hours per week in teaching physical education" were correlated with LBP. Our results suggest that PET, under the current working condition, are vulnerable to low back pain. An improvement of these conditions must be taken into account in order to prevent LBP. PMID:15819458

  1. An Inquiry-Based Course Using "Physics?" in Cartoons and Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Books, cartoons, movies, and video games provide engaging opportunities to get both science and nonscience students excited about physics. An easy way to use these media in one's classroom is to have students view clips and identify unusual events, odd physics, or list things that violate our understanding of the physics that governs our universe.…

  2. Physical activity level and its sociodemographic correlates in a peri-urban Nepalese population: a cross-sectional study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot health demographic surveillance site

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains—work, travel and leisure—in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. Methods Adult participants (n = 640) from six randomly selected wards of the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) near Kathmandu responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. To determine total physical activity, we calculated the metabolic equivalent of task in minutes/week for each domain and combined the results. Respondents were categorized into high, moderate or low physical activity. We also calculated the odds ratio for low physical activity in various sociodemographic variables and self-reported cardiometabolic states. Results The urbanizing JD-HDSS community showed a high prevalence of low physical activity (43.3%; 95% CI 39.4–47.1). Work-related activity contributed most to total physical activity. Furthermore, women and housewives and older, more educated and self-or government-employed respondents showed a greater prevalence of physical inactivity. Respondents with hypertension, diabetes or overweight/obesity reported less physical activity than individuals without those conditions. Only 5% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cardiovascular risk factor. Conclusions Our findings reveal a high burden of physical inactivity in a peri-urban community of Nepal. Improving the level of physical activity involves sensitizing people to its importance through appropriate multi-sector strategies that provide

  3. Ab initio theory of magnetic-field-induced odd-frequency two-band superconductivity in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aperis, Alex; Maldonado, Pablo; Oppeneer, Peter M.

    2015-08-01

    We develop the anisotropic Eliashberg framework for superconductivity in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Using as input the ab initio calculated electron and phonon band structures and electron-phonon coupling, we solve self-consistently the anisotropic Eliashberg equations for the archetypal superconductor MgB2. We find two self-consistent solutions, time-even two-band superconductivity, as well as unconventional time-odd s -wave spin triplet two-band superconductivity emerging with applied field. We provide the full momentum, frequency, and spin-resolved dependence and magnetic field-temperature phase diagrams of the time-even and time-odd superconducting pair amplitudes and predict fingerprints of this novel odd-frequency state in tunneling experiments.

  4. α -decay half-lives of odd-mass nuclei with differences between neutron and proton distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Dongdong; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2016-05-01

    Effects of differences between neutron and proton distributions on α decay are investigated for odd-mass nuclei within the generalized density-dependent cluster model. The neutron skin thickness is employed to gauge the differences and it is considered in numerically computing the double-folding α -nucleus potentials. In terms of the characteristic of odd-mass α emitters, special attention is paid to the α decays from ground or isomeric states which end in the ground states of daughter nuclei and furthermore belong to favored α decays. The calculations with the neutron skin thickness yield shorter half-lives, suggesting a smaller preformation factor. This is quite consistent with the conclusions for even-even α emitters. Moreover, α -decay calculations are extended for odd-mass isomers and superheavy nuclei. The calculated α -decay half-lives are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Obesity increases the odds of acquiring and incarcerating noninguinal abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Lau, Briana; Kim, Hanjoo; Haigh, Philip I; Tejirian, Talar

    2012-10-01

    The current data available describing the relationship of obesity and abdominal wall hernias is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate the current prevalence of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias and their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and other demographic risk factors. Patients with umbilical, incisional, ventral, epigastric, or Spigelian hernias with or without incarceration were identified using the regional database for 14 hospitals over a 3-year period. Patients were stratified based on their BMI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish other significant risk factors associated with the hernias. Of 2,807,414 patients, 26,268 (0.9%) had one of the specified diagnoses. Average age of the patients was 52 years and 61 per cent were male. The majority of patients had nonincarcerated umbilical hernias (74%). Average BMI was 32 kg/m2. Compared with patients with a normal BMI, the odds of having a hernia increased with BMI: BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 odds ratio (OR) 1.63, BMI of 30 to 39.9 kg/m2 OR 2.62, BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m2 OR 3.91, BMI 50 to 59.9 kg/m2 OR 4.85, and BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 OR 5.17 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years was associated with a higher risk for having a hernia (OR, 2.12; 95% [CI], 2.07 to 2.17), whereas female gender was associated with a lower risk (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.55). Those with incarcerated hernias had a higher average BMI (32 kg/m2 vs 35 kg/m2; P<0.0001). Overall, BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 showed an increased chance of incarceration, and a BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 had the highest chance of incarceration, OR 12.7 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years and female gender were also associated with a higher risk of incarceration (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59 and OR, 1.80; CI, 1.45 to 2.24). Increasing BMI and increasing age are associated with a higher prevalence and an increased risk of incarceration of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias. PMID:23025954

  6. Interpretation of Genetic Association Studies: Markers with Replicated Highly Significant Odds Ratios May Be Poor Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Gorin, Michael B.; Conley, Yvette P.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Weeks, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent successful discoveries of potentially causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for complex diseases hold great promise, and commercialization of genomics in personalized medicine has already begun. The hope is that genetic testing will benefit patients and their families, and encourage positive lifestyle changes and guide clinical decisions. However, for many complex diseases, it is arguable whether the era of genomics in personalized medicine is here yet. We focus on the clinical validity of genetic testing with an emphasis on two popular statistical methods for evaluating markers. The two methods, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, are applied to our age-related macular degeneration dataset. By using an additive model of the CFH, LOC387715, and C2 variants, the odds ratios are 2.9, 3.4, and 0.4, with p-values of 10−13, 10−13, and 10−3, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is 0.79, but assuming prevalences of 15%, 5.5%, and 1.5% (which are realistic for age groups 80 y, 65 y, and 40 y and older, respectively), only 30%, 12%, and 3% of the group classified as high risk are cases. Additionally, we present examples for four other diseases for which strongly associated variants have been discovered. In type 2 diabetes, our classification model of 12 SNPs has an AUC of only 0.64, and two SNPs achieve an AUC of only 0.56 for prostate cancer. Nine SNPs were not sufficient to improve the discrimination power over that of nongenetic predictors for risk of cardiovascular events. Finally, in Crohn's disease, a model of five SNPs, one with a quite low odds ratio of 0.26, has an AUC of only 0.66. Our analyses and examples show that strong association, although very valuable for establishing etiological hypotheses, does not guarantee effective discrimination between cases and controls. The scientific community should be cautious to avoid overstating the value of association findings in terms of

  7. Identifying the Irritability Dimension of ODD: Application of a Modified Bifactor Model Across Five Large Community Samples of Children

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Boylan, Khrista; Rowe, Richard; Duku, Eric; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of irritability as measured among the symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has dramatically come to the fore in recent years. New diagnostic categories rely on the distinct clinical utility of irritability, and models of psychopathology suggest it plays a key role in explaining developmental pathways within and between disorders into adulthood. However, only a few studies have tested multidimensional models of ODD, and the results have been conflicting. Further, consensus has not been reached regarding which symptoms best identify irritability. The present analyses use data from five large community data sets with five different measures of parent-reported ODD, comprising 16,280 youth in total, to help resolve these questions. Across the samples, ages ranged from 5 to 18, and included both boys and girls. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a modified bifactor model showed the best fit in each of the five data sets. The structure of the model included two correlated specific factors (irritability and oppositional behavior) in addition to a general ODD factor. In four of the five models, the best fit was obtained using the items of being touchy, angry and often losing temper as indicators of irritability. Given the structure of the models and the generally high correlation between the specific dimensions, the results suggest that irritability may not be sufficiently distinct from oppositional behavior to support an entirely independent diagnosis. Rather, irritability may be better understood as a dimension of psychopathology that can be distinguished within ODD, and which may be related to particular forms of psychopathology apart from ODD. PMID:25314267

  8. Longitudinal changes in physical self-perceptions and associations with physical activity during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Inchley, Jo; Kirby, Jo; Currie, Candace

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine adolescents' physical self-perceptions and their associations with physical activity using a longitudinal perspective. Utilizing data from the Physical Activity in Scottish Schoolchildren (PASS) study, changes in exercise self-efficacy, perceived competence, global self-esteem and physical self-worth were assessed among a sample of 641 Scottish adolescents from age 11-15 years. Girls reported lower levels of perceived competence, self-esteem and physical self-worth than boys at each age. Furthermore, girls' physical self-perceptions decreased markedly over time. Among boys, only perceived competence decreased, while global self-esteem increased. Baseline physical activity was a significant predictor of later activity levels for both genders. Findings demonstrate the importance of physical self-perceptions in relation to physical activity behavior among adolescents. Among older boys, high perceived competence increased the odds of being active by 3.8 times. Among older girls, high exercise self-efficacy increased the odds of being active by 5.2 times. There is a need for early interventions which promote increased physical literacy and confidence, particularly among girls. PMID:21633136

  9. Dipole strength distributions of the stable odd-mass N=82 isotones {sup 139}La and {sup 141}Pr

    SciTech Connect

    Scheck, M.; Brentano, P. von; Fransen, C.; Linnemann, A.; Muecher, D.; Pietralla, N.; Scholl, C.; Werner, V.; Kneissl, U.; Kohstall, C.; Pitz, H. H.; Stedile, F.; Walter, S.; Yates, S. W.

    2007-04-15

    The low-lying dipole strength distributions of the odd-mass isotopes {sup 139}La and {sup 141}Pr were studied in nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments using bremsstrahlung beams. Excited states were observed at excitation energies up to 4 MeV. Spectroscopic information was obtained on excitation energies, decay widths, decay branching ratios, and transition probabilities. The states belonging to the [[2{sup +}(multiply-in-circle sign)3{sup -}](multiply-in-circle sign)particle/hole] coupling were a special focus, and the results are compared with other stable odd-mass nuclei at or near the N=82 shell closure.

  10. Nuclear-physics characteristics of short-lived odd-odd {sup 232}Pa, {sup 238}Np and {sup 242g}Am nuclides (measurement results and prospects for further researches)

    SciTech Connect

    Fomushkin, Eduard F.; Abramovich, Sergei N.; Andreev, Mikhail F.

    1998-10-26

    In VNIIEF there were measured cross-sections of {sup 232}Pa and {sup 238}Np fission caused by thermal neutrons. The obtained data do not agree with the results of measurements carried out in Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA). Possible reasons of the result divergence are discussed. There are considered the measurement prospects for fission and radiation capture cross-sections of thermal neutrons by the nuclei of {sup 232}Pa, {sup 238}Np and {sup 242g}Am, including the measurements performed with the aid of ILL (Grenoble, France) reactor and some devices for neutron researches.

  11. Odd electron diffraction patterns in silicon nanowires and silicon thin films explained by microtwins and nanotwins

    PubMed Central

    Cayron, Cyril; Den Hertog, Martien; Latu-Romain, Laurence; Mouchet, Céline; Secouard, Christopher; Rouviere, Jean-Luc; Rouviere, Emmanuelle; Simonato, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Odd electron diffraction patterns (EDPs) have been obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on silicon nanowires grown via the vapour–liquid–solid method and on silicon thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation. Many explanations have been given in the past, without consensus among the scientific community: size artifacts, twinning artifacts or, more widely accepted, the existence of new hexagonal Si phases. In order to resolve this issue, the microstructures of Si nanowires and Si thin films have been characterized by TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Despite the differences in the geometries and elaboration processes, the EDPs of the materials show great similarities. The different hypotheses reported in the literature have been investigated. It was found that the positions of the diffraction spots in the EDPs could be reproduced by simulating a hexagonal structure with c/a = 12(2/3)1/2, but the intensities in many EDPs remained unexplained. Finally, it was established that all the experimental data, i.e. EDPs and HRTEM images, agree with a classical cubic silicon structure containing two microstructural defects: (i) overlapping Σ3 microtwins which induce extra spots by double diffraction, and (ii) nanotwins which induce extra spots as a result of streaking effects. It is concluded that there is no hexagonal phase in the Si nanowires and the Si thin films presented in this work. PMID:22477767

  12. Checking for odd-triplet pairing using novel superconducting spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapa, Pavel N.; Khaire, Trupti; Ding, Junjia; Pearson, John E.; Novosad, Valentyn; Hoffmann, Axel; Jiang, J. S.

    An excitation of odd-triplet pairing in a superconducting spin valve can be revealed by measuring the dependence of the superconducting critical temperature Tc with increasing non-collinearity of the magnetizations in adjacent ferromagnetic layers. A standard approach to create such a non-collinear magnetization configuration is to pin one ferromagnetic layers and control the magnetization in another layer by rotating the multilayer in a small magnetic field. Unfortunately, the rotation can modify the vortex current which also strongly affects the critical temperature. To exclude such spurious effects, we designed and fabricated a novel superconducting spin valve which allows us to create non-collinear magnetization configurations without using a sample rotator. The valve's operational principle is based on pinning of a synthetic antiferromagnet (SAF) by exchange coupling it to FeMn layer. The ability to imprint non-collinear magnetization configurations in the spin valve was confirmed using giant magneto resistance (GMR) measurements. The response of the magnetizations on an external magnetic field was simulated based on a coherent rotation model. The dependence of the Nb layer Tc on imprinted magnetization configuration will be presented. Work was supported by The Department of Energy Office of Science, Material Science and Engineering Division.

  13. Nuclear Data Evaluation for Mass Chain A=217:Odd-Proton Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Nafee, Sherif S.; Shaheen, Salem A.; Al-Ramady, Amir M.

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (Tl81217), Bismuth (Bi83217), Astatine (At85217), Francium (Fr87217), Actinium (Ac89217) and Protactinium (Pa91217) are of odd-proton numbers among the mass chain A = 217. In the present work, the half-lives and gamma transitions for the six nuclei have been studied and adopted based on the recently published interactions or unevaluated nuclear data sets XUNDL. The Q (α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012 as well. Moreover, the total conversion electrons as well as the K-Shell to L-Shell, L-Shell to M-Shell and L-Shell to N-Shell Conversion Electron Ratios have been calculated using BrIcc code v2.3. An updated skeleton decay scheme for each of the above nuclei has been presented here. The decay hindrance factors (HF) calculated using the ALPHAD program, which is available from Brookhaven National Laboratory’s website, have been calculated for the α- decay data sets for 221Fr-, 221Ac- and 221Pa- α-decays. PMID:26761207

  14. Exotic decay modes of odd-Z (105-119) superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswari, N. S.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2014-06-01

    Half-lives of proton emission for proton emitters with Z = 51 to 83 are calculated, in the frame-work of unified fission model with the penetrability calculated using the WKB approximation. For all the ground and isomeric state of the proton, the deformation degree of freedom is included. Calculated half-lives are in good agreement with the experimental ones. Experimentally for a few isotopes, proton and alpha branches are reported. Hence we have calculated the half-lives of alpha decay for these elements. For parent nuclei 157Ta, 166Ir, 167Ir, 176Tl and 177Tl, the alpha decay mode is preferred over the proton emission. Further, the calculations are extended to find half-lives of superheavy element with odd proton number in the range Z = 105 to 119, for both proton, alpha and for a few cluster decays. Calculations on superheavy elements reveal that cluster radioactivity has half-lives comparable with proton emissions. It is found that proton emission is the primary competing decay mode with respect to alpha decay for superheavy elements. Among considered clusters, 12C, 20Ne and 24Mg are found to have lowest half-lives among other N = Z clusters and for a few clusters the half-lives are found to be comparable with that of proton emission.

  15. Spatial properties of odd and even low order harmonics generated in gas

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, G.; Andreev, A.; Gautier, J.; Giannessi, L.; Malka, V.; Petralia, A.; Sebban, S.; Stremoukhov, S.; Tissandier, F.; Vodungbo, B.; Zeitoun, Ph.

    2015-01-01

    High harmonic generation in gases is developing rapidly as a soft X-ray femtosecond light-source for applications. This requires control over all the harmonics characteristics and in particular, spatial properties have to be kept very good. In previous literature, measurements have always included several harmonics contrary to applications, especially spectroscopic applications, which usually require a single harmonic. To fill this gap, we present here for the first time a detailed study of completely isolated harmonics. The contribution of the surrounding harmonics has been totally suppressed using interferential filtering which is available for low harmonic orders. In addition, this allows to clearly identify behaviors of standard odd orders from even orders obtained by frequency-mixing of a fundamental laser and of its second harmonic. Comparisons of the spatial intensity profiles, of the spatial coherence and of the wavefront aberration level of 5ω at 160 nm and 6ω at 135 nm have then been performed. We have established that the fundamental laser beam aberrations can cause the appearance of a non-homogenous donut-shape in the 6ω spatial intensity distribution. This undesirable effect can be easily controlled. We finally conclude that the spatial quality of an even harmonic can be as excellent as in standard generation. PMID:25585715

  16. Identification of the phytosphingosine metabolic pathway leading to odd-numbered fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Natsuki; Ohno, Yusuke; Yamagata, Maki; Obara, Takashi; Seki, Naoya; Kitamura, Takuya; Naganuma, Tatsuro; Kihara, Akio

    2014-01-01

    The long-chain base phytosphingosine is a component of sphingolipids and exists in yeast, plants and some mammalian tissues. Phytosphingosine is unique in that it possesses an additional hydroxyl group compared with other long-chain bases. However, its metabolism is unknown. Here we show that phytosphingosine is metabolized to odd-numbered fatty acids and is incorporated into glycerophospholipids both in yeast and mammalian cells. Disruption of the yeast gene encoding long-chain base 1-phosphate lyase, which catalyzes the committed step in the metabolism of phytosphingosine to glycerophospholipids, causes an ~40% reduction in the level of phosphatidylcholines that contain a C15 fatty acid. We also find that 2-hydroxypalmitic acid is an intermediate of the phytosphingosine metabolic pathway. Furthermore, we show that the yeast MPO1 gene, whose product belongs to a large, conserved protein family of unknown function, is involved in phytosphingosine metabolism. Our findings provide insights into fatty acid diversity and identify a pathway by which hydroxyl group-containing lipids are metabolized. PMID:25345524

  17. Insulating state in tetralayers reveals an even–odd interaction effect in multilayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Grushina, Anya L.; Ki, Dong-Keun; Koshino, Mikito; Nicolet, Aurelien A. L.; Faugeras, Clément; McCann, Edward; Potemski, Marek; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2015-01-01

    Close to charge neutrality, the electronic properties of graphene and its multilayers are sensitive to electron–electron interactions. In bilayers, for instance, interactions are predicted to open a gap between valence and conduction bands, turning the system into an insulator. In mono and (Bernal-stacked) trilayers, which remain conducting at low temperature, interactions do not have equally drastic consequences. It is expected that interaction effects become weaker for thicker multilayers, whose behaviour should converge to that of graphite. Here we show that this expectation does not correspond to reality by revealing the occurrence of an insulating state close to charge neutrality in Bernal-stacked tetralayer graphene. The phenomenology—incompatible with the behaviour expected from the single-particle band structure—resembles that observed in bilayers, but the insulating state in tetralayers is visible at higher temperature. We explain our findings, and the systematic even–odd effect of interactions in Bernal-stacked layers of different thickness that emerges from experiments, in terms of a generalization of the interaction-driven, symmetry-broken states proposed for bilayers. PMID:25732058

  18. Odd complaints and doubtful conditions: norms of hypochondria in Jane Austen and Catherine Belling.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James Lindemann

    2014-06-01

    In her final fragmentary novel Sanditon, Jane Austen develops a theme that pervades her work from her juvenilia onward: illness, and in particular, illness imagined, invented, or self-inflicted. While the "invention of odd complaints" is characteristically a token of folly or weakness throughout her writing, in this last work imagined illness is also both a symbol and a cause of how selves and societies degenerate. In the shifting world of Sanditon, hypochondria is the lubricant for a society bent on turning health into a commodity. As a result, people's rationality and their moral character come under attack. Catherine Belling's recent subtle study, A Condition of Doubt: The Meanings of Hypochondria, unveils hypochondria's discursive and cultural character. Running sharply against the tenor of Austen's treatment, however, she argues in defense of the rationality of hypochondriacs; the notion that the condition may involve morally significant defects is not entertained; any connection to the commercialization of health care is muted. Here, I contrast Austen's morally and epistemically negative rendering of her hypochondriacal characters in Sanditon with Belling's efforts to create a sympathetic understanding of people with hypochondria. I will argue that, despite time gaps and genre differences, joint consideration of these texts can help bioethicists better appreciate how medicine can intensify, pathologize, and exploit anxieties about illness and death, thus adding to the challenges of living well in the face of mortality and morbidity. PMID:24796425

  19. A test of odd-oxygen photochemistry using Spacelab 3 atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark; Delitsky, Mona L.

    1991-01-01

    The ozone profile calculated using a 1D time-dependent photochemical model, with recommended absorption cross sections and reaction rate constants, is systematically less than Spacelab 3 (May 1985) atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) observations at sunset, 30 deg N latitude, throughout the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. Model results are about 9 percent smaller than the nominal ATMOS O3 value at 40 km and 50 percent less at 76 km. Given the uncertainties associated with the ATMOS profile, the model 'deficit' may be as large as 15 percent at 36 km, increasing to about 70 percent at 76 km. A similar model O3 deficit exists at sunrise, 47 deg S latitude, in the stratosphere: nominal differences of not more than 25 percent, increasing to not more than 45 percent when the ATMOS uncertainties are considered. Model results closely approximate ATMOS observations in both the upper stratosphere and mesosphere upon enhancing odd-oxygen production by increasing the O2 Schumann-Runge band and Herzberg-continuum cross section values used in the calculations.

  20. Compositeness of the strange, charm, and beauty odd parity Λ states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Recio, C.; Hidalgo-Duque, C.; Nieves, J.; Salcedo, L. L.; Tolos, L.

    2015-08-01

    We study the dependence on the quark mass of the compositeness of the lowest-lying odd parity hyperon states. Thus, we pay attention to Λ -like states in the strange, charm, and beauty sectors which are dynamically generated using a unitarized meson-baryon model. In the strange sector we use a SU(6) extension of the Weinberg-Tomozawa meson-baryon interaction, and we further implement the heavy-quark spin symmetry to construct the meson-baryon interaction when charmed or beauty hadrons are involved. In the three examined flavor sectors, we obtain two JP=1 /2- and one JP=3 /2- Λ states. We find that the Λ states which are bound states (the three Λb) or narrow resonances [one Λ (1405 ) and one Λc(2595 )] are well described as molecular states composed of s -wave meson-baryon pairs. The 1/2- wide Λ (1405 ) and Λc(2595 ) as well as the 3/2- Λ (1520 ) and Λc(2625 ) states display smaller compositeness so they would require new mechanisms, such as d -wave interactions.

  1. Search for a light C P -odd Higgs boson in radiative decays of J /ψ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. Y.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We search for a light Higgs boson A0 in the fully reconstructed decay chain of J /ψ →γ A0 , A0→μ+μ- using (225.0 ±2.8 )×106 J /ψ events collected by the BESIII experiment. The A0 is a hypothetical C P -odd light Higgs boson predicted by many extensions of the Standard Model including two spin-0 doublets plus an extra singlet. We find no evidence for A0 production and set 90% confidence-level upper limits on the product branching fraction B (J /ψ →γ A0)×B (A0→μ+μ-) in the range of (2.8 - 495.3 )×10-8 for 0.212 ≤mA0≤3.0 GeV /c2 . The new limits are five times below our previous results, and the nature of the A0 is constrained to be mostly singlet.

  2. Nuclear Data Evaluation for Mass Chain A=217:Odd-Proton Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Nafee, Sherif S; Shaheen, Salem A; Al-Ramady, Amir M

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (81(217)Tl, Bismuth (83(217)Bi), Astatine (85(217)At), Francium (87(217)Fr), Actinium (89(217)Ac) and Protactinium (91(217)Pa) are of odd-proton numbers among the mass chain A = 217. In the present work, the half-lives and gamma transitions for the six nuclei have been studied and adopted based on the recently published interactions or unevaluated nuclear data sets XUNDL. The Q (α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012 as well. Moreover, the total conversion electrons as well as the K-Shell to L-Shell, L-Shell to M-Shell and L-Shell to N-Shell Conversion Electron Ratios have been calculated using BrIcc code v2.3. An updated skeleton decay scheme for each of the above nuclei has been presented here. The decay hindrance factors (HF) calculated using the ALPHAD program, which is available from Brookhaven National Laboratory's website, have been calculated for the α- decay data sets for (221)Fr-, (221)Ac- and (221)Pa-α-decays. PMID:26761207

  3. 20 {mu}s isomeric state in doubly odd {sub 61}{sup 134}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. M.; Mason, P. J. R; Rigby, S. V.; Kishada, A. M.; Varley, B. J.; Scholey, C.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Leppaenen, A.-P.; Maentyniemi, K.; Nieminen, P.; Nyman, M.; Pakarinen, J.

    2009-08-15

    Recoil-isomer tagging at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae has been used to establish the isomeric nature of a known (7{sup -}) excited state in the doubly odd nucleus {sup 134}Pm. The isomeric state was determined to have a half-life of 20(1) {mu}s and was populated from the decay of a {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}h{sub 11/2} band using the {sup 92}Mo({sup 54}Fe,2{alpha}3pn) reaction at 305 and 315 MeV. The isomer decays by a 71-keV transition that provides an intermediate step in linking the established {sup 134}Pm high-spin level scheme to the lower-spin states observed from the {beta} decay of {sup 134}Sm. Electron-conversion analysis for the 71-keV {gamma}-ray transition reveals that it is of E1 character and its small reduced-transition probability suggests that {sup 134}Pm may have a nuclear shape more rigid than that of the neighboring nuclei.

  4. A mid-latitude balloon-borne observation of total odd nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Aimedieu, P.; Matthews, W. A.; Sheldon, W. R.; Benbrook, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    A balloon-borne instrument to measure total odd nitrogen NO(y) has been developed. A converter which enables catalytic conversion of NO(y) into nitric oxide on a heated gold surface is combined with a chemiluminescence detector. The conversion efficiency for NO2 was measured to be close to 100 percent at pressures between 60 and 7 mb. The major source of errors in the balloon-borne measurements are the uncertainties in the estimates of the sample flow rate and the zero level of the instrument. The NO(y) concentration was measured at altitudes between 12 and 28 km with a precision of about 25 percent on a balloon experiment conducted at latitude 44 deg N in June 1989. The NO(y) concentration has been measured to be 1.5 + or - 0.4, 3 + or - 0.7, 10 + or - 3, and 14 + or - 4 ppbv at altitudes of 17, 20, 25, and 28 km, respectively.

  5. [Gene-environment-interaction of ODD and Conduct Disorder Versus "Anethic Psychopathy"].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate; Schmeck, Klaus; Kölch, Michael; Schepker, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment-interaction of ODD and Conduct Disorder Versus »Anethic Psychopathy«. In 1934, Kramer and von der Leyen demonstrated in a sophisticated longitudinal study with eleven conduct disordered and neglected children labelled as »anethic psychopaths« that »anethic traits« subsided in a favourable educational setting. Sound prognoses, due to the diversity of environmental factors, were found to be impossible. On the contrary they stated that negative labelling led to an affirmation of a negative prognosis. In theory, they supposed a genetic predisposition resulting in a heightened sensitivity to the environment. This early theory of epigenetics radically contradicted the Nazi dogma of hereditability and ostracism and the selection procedures in mainstream psychiatry at that time. The debate ended with von der Leyen's suicide and the prohibition of medical work and publication towards Kramer. Even after the end of the Nazi policy of »eradication of the socially debased«, this early theory was not taken on again, nor dignified. PMID:25968413

  6. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  7. Sports physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...

  8. Sexual victimization of youth with a physical disability: an examination of prevalence rates, and risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Eisner, Manuel P; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Children with disabilities have been shown to be at greater risk of victimization than those without. Although much of the research combines disability of any type into a single disability category, recent evidence suggests that not all types of disabilities are equally associated with victimization. To date, little knowledge exists about the victimization of youth with physical disabilities. This study used data from a national school-based survey of adolescents (n = 6,749, mean age = 15.41, SD = .66) in Switzerland to investigate sexual victimization (SV) among physically disabled youth. Two subtypes of SV were differentiated: contact SV, including penetration or touching/kissing, and non-contact SV, such as exhibitionism, verbal harassment, exposure to sexual acts, or cyber SV. A total of 360 (5.1%) youth self-identified as having a physical disability. Lifetime prevalence rates for contact SV were 25.95% for girls with a physical disability (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29 compared with able-bodied girls), 18.50% for boys with physical disability (OR = 2.78 compared with able-bodied boys), and 22.35% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.74 compared with able-bodied youth). For non-contact SV, the lifetime prevalence was 48.11% for girls with a physical disability (OR = 1.44 compared with able-bodied girls), 31.76% for boys with physical disability (OR = 1.95 compared with able-bodied boys), and 40.28% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.67 compared with able-bodied youth). After controlling for other risk factors, physical disability was a significant predictor of contact and non-contact SV for boys, but not for girls. PMID:24870960

  9. Physical Dating Violence Victimization Among Sexual Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Feijun; Stone, Deborah M.; Tharp, Andra T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined (1) whether sexual minority youths (SMYs) are at increased risk for physical dating violence victimization (PDVV) compared with non-SMYs, (2) whether bisexual youths have greater risk of PDVV than lesbian or gay youths, (3) whether youths who have had sexual contact with both sexes are more susceptible to PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact, and (4) patterns of PDVV among SMYs across demographic groups. Methods Using 2 measures of sexual orientation, sexual identity and sexual behavior, and compiling data from 9 urban areas that administered the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2011, we conducted logistic regression analyses to calculate odds of PDVV among SMYs across demographic sub-samples. Results SMYs have significantly increased odds of PDVV compared with non-SMYs. Bisexual youths do not have significantly higher odds of PDVV than gay or lesbian youths, but youths who had sexual contact with both-sexes possess significantly higher odds of PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact. These patterns hold for most gender, grade, and racial/ethnic subgroups. Conclusions Overall, SMYs have greater odds of PDVV versus non-SMYs. Among SMYs, youths who had sexual contact with both sexes have greater odds of PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact. Prevention programs that consider sexual orientation, support tolerance, and teach coping and conflict resolution skills could reduce PDVV among SMYs. PMID:25121813

  10. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  11. How Methodology Decisions Affect the Variability of Schools Identified as Beating the Odds. REL 2015-071.rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Yasuyo; Weinstock, Phyllis; Chan, Vincent; Meyers, Coby; Gerdeman, R. Dean; Brandt, W. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A number of states and school districts have identified schools that perform better than expected, given the populations they serve, in order to recognize school performance or to learn from local school practices and policies. These schools have been labeled "beating the odds," "high-performing/high-poverty,"…

  12. Co-Occurring ODD and GAD Symptom Groups: Source-Specific Syndromes and Cross-Informant Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Loney, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Despite important clinical and nosological implications, the comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has received little attention. A clinic-based sample of 243 boys (ages 6-10 years), their parents, and teachers participated in an evaluation that involved assessments of behavioral, academic, and…

  13. ADHD Preschoolers with and without ODD: Do They Act Differently Depending on Degree of Task Engagement/Reward?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopin, Chaya B.; Berwid, Olga; Marks, David J.; Mlodnicka, Agnieska; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of reinforcement on reaction time (RT) and RT variability (RT standard deviation [RTSD]) in preschoolers with ADHD with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and a typically developing (TD) comparison group. Method: Participants were administered a computerized task consisting of two conditions: simple…

  14. odd-skipped genes and lines organize the notum anterior-posterior axis using autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Del Signore, Steven J; Hayashi, Teru; Hatini, Victor

    2012-07-01

    The growth and patterning of Drosophila wing and notum primordia depend on their subdivision into progressively smaller domains by secreted signals that emanate from localized sources termed organizers. While the mechanisms that organize the wing primordium have been studied extensively, those that organize the notum are incompletely understood. The genes odd-skipped (odd), drumstick (drm), sob, and bowl comprise the odd-skipped family of C(2)H(2) zinc finger genes, which has been implicated in notum growth and patterning. Here we show that drm, Bowl, and eyegone (eyg), a gene required for notum patterning, accumulate in nested domains in the anterior notum. Ectopic drm organized the nested expression of these anterior notum genes and downregulated the expression of posterior notum genes. The cell-autonomous induction of Bowl and Eyg required bowl, while the non-autonomous effects were independent of bowl. The homeodomain protein Bar is expressed along the anterior border of the notum adjacent to cells expressing the Notch (N) ligand Delta (Dl). bowl was required to promote Bar and repress Dl expression to pattern the anterior notum in a cell-autonomous manner, while lines acted antagonistically to bowl posterior to the Bowl domain. Our data suggest that the odd-skipped genes act at the anterior notum border to organize the notum anterior-posterior (AP) axis using both autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. PMID:22613630

  15. How Methodology Decisions Affect the Variability of Schools Identified as Beating the Odds. REL 2015-071

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Yasuyo; Weinstock, Phyllis; Chan, Vincent; Meyers, Coby; Gerdeman, R. Dean; Brandt, W. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Schools that show better academic performance than would be expected given characteristics of the school and student populations are often described as "beating the odds" (BTO). State and local education agencies often attempt to identify such schools as a means of identifying strategies or practices that might be contributing to the…

  16. Beating the Odds: Analysis of Student Performance on State Assessments. Results from 2012-2013 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzzell, Renata; Fernandez, Jeannette; Palacios, Moses; Hart, Ray; Casserly, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Council of the Great City Schools prepared this thirteenth edition of "Beating the Odds" to give the nation an in-depth look at how big-city schools are performing on the academic goals and standards set by the states. This analysis examines student achievement in mathematics and reading from spring 2010 through spring 2013; measures…

  17. Beating the Odds: Finding Schools Exceeding Achievement Expectations with High-Risk Students. REL 2014-032

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    State education leaders are often interested in identifying schools that have demonstrated success with improving the literacy of students who are at the highest level of risk for reading difficulties. The identification of these schools that are "beating the odds" is typically accomplished by comparing a school's observed…

  18. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance. PMID:26854502

  19. TAT-ODD-p53 enhances the radiosensitivity of hypoxic breast cancer cells by inhibiting Parkin-mediated mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shasha; Ren, Chen; Wang, Yuxia; Yuan, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. Dysfunction p53 and hypoxia are typical biological characteristics of breast cancer that constitute barriers to the efficacy of radiotherapy. Mitophagy plays a protective role in cellular homeostasis under hypoxic conditions, while mitophagy is inhibited by p53 in normal cells. We explored the effects of a p53 fusion protein, TAT-ODD-p53, on the radiosensitivity of hypoxic breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, as well as investigating the related molecular mechanisms. We found that selective accumulation of TAT-ODD-p53 occurred under hypoxic conditions and significantly increased tumor cell radiosensitivity both in vitro and in vivo. Mitophagy had an important role in maintaining hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Mitophagy was inhibited by TAT-ODD-p53 and this inhibition was suppressed by over-expression of Parkin in hypoxic irradiated breast cancer cells. In addition, mitophagy was induced by deletion of p53, with this effect being weakened by Parkin knockdown at a low oxygen tension. By interacting with Parkin, p53 inhibited the translocation of Parkin to the mitochondria, disrupting the protective mitophagy process. These results suggest that TAT-ODD-p53 has a significant and preferential radiosensitizing effect on hypoxic breast cancer cells by inhibition of Parkin-mediated mitophagy. PMID:26025927

  20. Evaluation of the odd-even effect in limits of detection for electron microprobe analysis of natural minerals.

    PubMed

    Verma, Surendra P; Pandarinath, Kailasa; Velasco-Tapia, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ríos, Rodolfo

    2009-04-13

    Limit of detection (LOD), being a fundamental quality parameter for analytical techniques, has been recently investigated and a systematic behavior has been observed for most odd-even element pairs for many techniques. However, to the best of our knowledge very few LOD data are available in published literature for electron microprobe analysis; these consist of three papers, two being on rare-earth elements and the third covering a large number of elements of atomic number between 21 and 92. These data confirm the systematic behavior of LODs for many odd-even pairs. To initiate to full this gap, we determined LODs for several major rock-forming chemical elements from Na to Fe with atomic numbers between 11 and 26, during the microprobe analysis of common minerals (olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, quartz, and opaques) in volcanic rocks. The odd-even effect of nuclear stability seems to be present in LOD data for most odd-even pairs investigated. Nevertheless, the experimental strategy concerning the reference materials, calibration procedure, and blank measurements, should be substantially modified to better evaluate the systematic behavior of LOD values in microprobe analysis. PMID:19327450

  1. Cyclic single-molecule magnets: from the odd-numbered heptanuclear to a dimer of heptanuclear dysprosium clusters.

    PubMed

    Tian, Haiquan; Bao, Song-Song; Zheng, Li-Min

    2016-02-01

    A heptanuclear and a dimer of heptanuclear dysprosium clusters (Dy7 and Dy14) have been successfully synthesized by ingenious coalescence of the single and double pyrazinyl hydrazone as well as phosphonate ligands. The complexes feature the largest odd-numbered cyclic lanthanide clusters reported thus far. Both exhibit single molecule magnet behaviors at low temperature. PMID:26728975

  2. Fast-track attribution assessments based on pre-computed estimates of changes in the odds of warm extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.; Zwiers, Francis W.

    2015-09-01

    Regional warming due to anthropogenic influence on the climate is expected to increase the frequency of very warm years and seasons. The growing research area of extreme event attribution has provided pertinent scientific evidence for a number of such warm events for which the forced climate response rises above internal climatic variability. Although the demand for attribution assessments is higher shortly after an event occurs, most scientific studies become available several months later. A formal attribution methodology is employed here to pre-compute the changing odds of very warm years and seasons in regions across the world. Events are defined based on the exceedence of temperature thresholds and their changing odds are measured over a range of pre-specified thresholds, which means assessments can be made as soon as a new event happens. Optimal fingerprinting provides observationally constrained estimates of the global temperature response to external forcings from which regional information is extracted. This information is combined with estimates of internal variability to construct temperature distributions with and without the effect of anthropogenic influence. The likelihood of an event is computed for each distribution and the change in the odds estimated. Analyses are conducted with seven climate models to explore the model dependency of the results. Apart from colder regions and seasons, characterised by greater internal climate variability, the odds of warm events are found to have significantly increased and temperatures above the threshold of 1-in-10 year events during 1961-1990 have become at least twice as likely to occur.

  3. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…

  4. Beating the Odds: Finding Schools Exceeding Achievement Expectations with High-Risk Students. Summary. REL 2014-032

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    State education leaders are often interested in identifying schools that have demonstrated success with improving the literacy of students who are at the highest level of risk for reading difficulties. The identification of these schools that are "beating the odds" is typically accomplished by comparing a school's observed…

  5. Beating the Odds: Finding Schools Exceeding Achievement Expectations with High-Risk Students. REL 2014-032

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    State education leaders are often interested in identifying schools that have demonstrated success with improving the literacy of students who are at the highest level of risk for reading difficulties. The identification of these schools that are "beating the odds" is typically accomplished by comparing a school's observed performance on…

  6. Beating the Odds: The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Kathy; Griffin, Susan

    2013-01-01

    When the College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards project began, there really was nowhere else to go but up. The project was up against great odds--a dearth of funding, a history of incivility amongst the disciplines within social studies, a knack for ending up in media battles over what should be taught in…

  7. Physical Abuse Among Depressed Women

    PubMed Central

    Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Rost, Kathryn M; Golding, Jacqueline M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide estimates of physical abuse and use of health services among depressed women in order to inform efforts to increase detection and treatment of physical abuse. DESIGN Retrospective assessment of abuse and health services use over 1 year in a cohort of depressed women. SETTING Statewide community sample from Arkansas. PARTICIPANTS We recruited 303 depressed women through random-digit-dial screening. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Exposure to physical abuse based on the Conflict Tactics Scale, multi-informant estimate of health and mental health services. Over half of the depressed women (55.2%) reported experiencing physical abuse as adults, with 14.5% reporting abuse during the study year. Women abused as adults had significantly more severe depressive symptoms, more psychiatric comorbidity, and more physical illnesses than nonabused women. After controlling for sociodemographic and severity-of-illness factors, recently abused, depressed women were much less likely to receive outpatient care for mental health problems as compared to other depressed women (odds ratio [OR] 0.3;p = .013), though they were more likely to receive health care for physical problems (OR 5.7, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS Because nearly all depressed women experiencing abuse sought general medical rather than mental health care during the year of the study, primary care screening for physical abuse appears to be a critical link to professional help for abused, depressed women. Research is needed to inform primary care guidelines about methods for detecting abuse in depressed women. PMID:9754516

  8. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  9. The Evolution of Bony Vertebrate Enhancers at Odds with Their Coding Sequence Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Aisha; Sohail Raza, Muhammad; Ali Abbasi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Enhancers lie at the heart of transcriptional and developmental gene regulation. Therefore, changes in enhancer sequences usually disrupt the target gene expression and result in disease phenotypes. Despite the well-established role of enhancers in development and disease, evolutionary sequence studies are lacking. The current study attempts to unravel the puzzle of bony vertebrates’ conserved noncoding elements (CNE) enhancer evolution. Bayesian phylogenetics of enhancer sequences spotlights promising interordinal relationships among placental mammals, proposing a closer relationship between humans and laurasiatherians while placing rodents at the basal position. Clock-based estimates of enhancer evolution provided a dynamic picture of interspecific rate changes across the bony vertebrate lineage. Moreover, coelacanth in the study augmented our appreciation of the vertebrate cis-regulatory evolution during water–land transition. Intriguingly, we observed a pronounced upsurge in enhancer evolution in land-dwelling vertebrates. These novel findings triggered us to further investigate the evolutionary trend of coding as well as CNE nonenhancer repertoires, to highlight the relative evolutionary dynamics of diverse genomic landscapes. Surprisingly, the evolutionary rates of enhancer sequences were clearly at odds with those of the coding and the CNE nonenhancer sequences during vertebrate adaptation to land, with land vertebrates exhibiting significantly reduced rates of coding sequence evolution in comparison to their fast evolving regulatory landscape. The observed variation in tetrapod cis-regulatory elements caused the fine-tuning of associated gene regulatory networks. Therefore, the increased evolutionary rate of tetrapods’ enhancer sequences might be responsible for the variation in developmental regulatory circuits during the process of vertebrate adaptation to land. PMID:26253316

  10. Against All Odds: Genocidal Trauma Is Associated with Longer Life-Expectancy of the Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Linn, Shai; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220), 4–20 years old when the World War II started (1939), immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group) or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust). Hazard of death – a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma – was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95%) = 0.910–0.960), suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10–15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95%) = 0.842–0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months) or 16–20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95%) = 0.782–0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months). We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and “Posttraumatic Growth” associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II. PMID:23894427

  11. Odd E. Hanssen and the Hanssen method for measurement of single-nephron glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Aukland, K

    2001-09-01

    In the middle of the twentieth century, the suspicion that deep and superficial nephrons might serve different functions created a demand for measurement of single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR). Rather unexpectedly, the answer came from Odd E. Hanssen (1917-1964), a Norwegian physician working on his own in the Department of Pathological Anatomy, University of Oslo, with minimal support and no interaction with renal physiologists. In 1963, after nearly 10 years of work, he presented the ferrocyanide method, allowing simultaneous estimates of SNGFR in a large number of nephrons in all layers of the kidney. This review first describes his early visions of the method and the elaborate and extremely time-consuming studies in mice to verify the technique. As a byproduct came valuable information on the relationship between nephron size and SNGFR, glomerular intermittency, and the emptying of the tubules on filtration stop. Hanssen died from a cerebral hemorrhage in 1964, and for several years the method seemed entirely forgotten. Fortunately, Andrew Baines took up the use of ferrocyanide in 1963-1964 while working on his thesis in Toronto, but his first publication came in 1969 from Saclay, France, in collaboration with Christian de Rouffignac. Modifications allowing determination of absolute SNGFR were worked out by de Rouffignac and by Jaime Coehlo in New York. Thereafter, the "Hanssen method" spread rapidly, and in the early 1980s about 50 reports had been published from 17 laboratories in 9 countries. The distribution of SNGFR in mammals, birds, and fish was described, as well as the response to water and salt loads, vasoactive substances, hormones, varying perfusion pressure, blood loss, etc. Finally, after mentioning two recent methods inspired by the Hanssen technique but using other filtration markers, the review concludes that most of our present knowledge on SNGFR distribution and regulation has been obtained by the method developed by Hanssen 40

  12. Electron capture strength on odd- A nucleus 59Co in explosive astrophysical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Muneeb-Ur; Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2014-05-01

    The Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions within massive stars play sumptuous role in the dynamics of core collapse supernovae. GT strength distributions and electron capture rates have been calculated for odd- A nucleus 59Co within the proton-neutron quasiparticles random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) formalism. The pn-QRPA results are compared with other model calculations and ( n, p) reaction experiment carried out at TRIUMF charge-exchange facility. The pn-QRPA calculated a total B( GT +) strength of 3.3 for 59Co to be compared with the shell model value of 2.5 and the 1.9±0.1 in the ( n, p) charge-exchange reaction. Aufderheide et al. (1993) extracted total strength equaling 2.4±0.3. The placement of GT centroid at 5.6 MeV by the pn-QRPA model is in reasonable agreement with the shell model centroid at 5.1 MeV whereas the measured GT centroid was placed at 4.4±0.3 MeV in the ( n, p) experiment. Fuller, Fowler and Newman (FFN) (1980, 1982a, 1982b), placed the GT centroid at too low excitation energy of 2.0 MeV in the daughter nucleus 59Fe, and this misplacement led to the enhancement of FFN rates. The suppressed pn-QRPA and shell model electron capture rates are in good agreement with each other. The rates are suggestive of higher value of Y e (electron-to-baryon ratio) and may contribute to a more massive homologously collapsing core resulting in a more energetic shock. It might be interesting for the simulators to check the effect of these suppressed rates on the fine-tuning of the time rate of Y e , the concomitant heavy element nucleosynthesis, and, on the energetics of the subsequent shock wave.

  13. Maternal complement C1q and increased odds for psychosis in adult offspring

    PubMed Central

    Severance, Emily G.; Gressitt, Kristin L.; Buka, Stephen L.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maternal antibodies to food and infectious antigens may confer an increased risk of developing schizophrenia and psychosis in adult offspring. Complement factor C1q is an immune molecule with multiple functions including clearance of antigen-antibody complexes from circulation and mediation of synaptic pruning during fetal brain development. To determine if maternal C1q was associated with offspring schizophrenia and psychosis, we evaluated 55 matched case-control maternal serum pairs from the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Sample pairs were composed of mothers whose offspring developed psychoses as adults and those whose offspring were free from psychiatric disease. Matching criteria for offspring included birth date, delivery hospital, race and gender, with further matching based on mother’s age. IgG markers of C1q, bovine milk casein, egg ovalbumin and wheat gluten were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. C1q levels were compared to food antigen IgG and to previously generated data for C-reactive protein, adenovirus, herpes simplex viruses, influenza viruses, measles virus and Toxoplasma gondii. C1q was significantly elevated in case mothers with odds ratios of 2.66–6.31 (conditional logistic regressions, p≤0.008–0.05). In case mothers only, C1q was significantly correlated with antibodies to both food and infectious antigens: gluten (R2=0.26, p≤0.004), herpes simplex virus type 2 (R2=0.21, p≤0.02), adenovirus (R2=0.25, p≤0.006). In conclusion, exposure to maternal C1q activity during pregnancy may be a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and psychosis in offspring. Prenatal measurement of maternal C1q may be an important and convergent screening tool to identify potentially deleterious immune activation from multiple sources. PMID:25195065

  14. The Evolution of Bony Vertebrate Enhancers at Odds with Their Coding Sequence Landscape.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Aisha; Sohail Raza, Muhammad; Ali Abbasi, Amir

    2015-08-01

    Enhancers lie at the heart of transcriptional and developmental gene regulation. Therefore, changes in enhancer sequences usually disrupt the target gene expression and result in disease phenotypes. Despite the well-established role of enhancers in development and disease, evolutionary sequence studies are lacking. The current study attempts to unravel the puzzle of bony vertebrates' conserved noncoding elements (CNE) enhancer evolution. Bayesian phylogenetics of enhancer sequences spotlights promising interordinal relationships among placental mammals, proposing a closer relationship between humans and laurasiatherians while placing rodents at the basal position. Clock-based estimates of enhancer evolution provided a dynamic picture of interspecific rate changes across the bony vertebrate lineage. Moreover, coelacanth in the study augmented our appreciation of the vertebrate cis-regulatory evolution during water-land transition. Intriguingly, we observed a pronounced upsurge in enhancer evolution in land-dwelling vertebrates. These novel findings triggered us to further investigate the evolutionary trend of coding as well as CNE nonenhancer repertoires, to highlight the relative evolutionary dynamics of diverse genomic landscapes. Surprisingly, the evolutionary rates of enhancer sequences were clearly at odds with those of the coding and the CNE nonenhancer sequences during vertebrate adaptation to land, with land vertebrates exhibiting significantly reduced rates of coding sequence evolution in comparison to their fast evolving regulatory landscape. The observed variation in tetrapod cis-regulatory elements caused the fine-tuning of associated gene regulatory networks. Therefore, the increased evolutionary rate of tetrapods' enhancer sequences might be responsible for the variation in developmental regulatory circuits during the process of vertebrate adaptation to land. PMID:26253316

  15. Pseudoscalar top-Higgs coupling: exploration of CP-odd observables to resolve the sign ambiguity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mileo, Nicolas; Kiers, Ken; Szynkman, Alejandro; Crane, Daniel; Gegner, Ethan

    2016-07-01

    We present a collection of CP-odd observables for the process ppto t(to b{ℓ}+{ν}_{ℓ})overline{t}(to overline{b}{ℓ}-{overline{ν}}_{ℓ}) H that are linearly dependent on the scalar ( k t ) and pseudoscalar ({tilde{k}}_t) top-Higgs coupling and hence sensitive to the corresponding relative sign. The proposed observables are based on triple product (TP) correlations that we extract from the expression for the differential cross section in terms of the spin vectors of the top and antitop quarks. In order to explore other possibilities, we progressively modify these TPs, first by combining them, and then by replacing the spin vectors by the lepton momenta or the t and overline{t} momenta by their visible parts. We generate Monte Carlo data sets for several benchmark scenarios, including the Standard Model ({k}_t = 1, {tilde{k}}_t = 0) and two scenarios with mixed CP properties ({k}_t = 1, {tilde{k}}_t=± 1) . Assuming an integrated luminosity that is consistent with that envisioned for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, using Monte Carlo-truth and taking into account only statistical uncertainties, we find that the most promising observable can disentangle the "CP-mixed" scenarios with an effective separation of ˜ 19 σ. In the case of observables that do not require the reconstruction of the t and t momenta, the power of discrimination is up to ˜ 13σ for the same number of events. We also show that the most promising observables can still disentangle the CP-mixed scenarios when the number of events is reduced to values consistent with expectations for the Large Hadron Collider in the near term.

  16. Odd-skipped related-1 controls neural crest chondrogenesis during tongue development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Lan, Yu; Xu, Jingyue; Chang, Ching-Fang; Brugmann, Samantha A.; Jiang, Rulang

    2013-01-01

    The tongue is a critical element of the feeding system in tetrapod animals for their successful adaptation to terrestrial life. Whereas the oral part of the mammalian tongue contains soft tissues only, the avian tongue has an internal skeleton extending to the anterior tip. The mechanisms underlying the evolutionary divergence in tongue skeleton formation are completely unknown. We show here that the odd-skipped related-1 (Osr1) transcription factor is expressed throughout the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme in mouse, but not in chick, embryos during early tongue morphogenesis. Neural crest-specific inactivation of Osr1 resulted in formation of an ectopic cartilage in the mouse tongue, reminiscent in shape and developmental ontogeny of the anterior tongue cartilage in chick. SRY-box containing gene-9 (Sox9), the master regulator of chondrogenesis, is widely expressed in the nascent tongue mesenchyme at the onset of tongue morphogenesis but its expression is dramatically down-regulated concomitant with activation of Osr1 expression in the developing mouse tongue. In Osr1 mutant mouse embryos, expression of Sox9 persisted in the developing tongue mesenchyme where chondrogenesis is subsequently activated to form the ectopic cartilage. Furthermore, we show that Osr1 binds to the Sox9 gene promoter and that overexpression of Osr1 suppressed expression of endogenous Sox9 mRNAs and Sox9 promoter-driven reporter. These data indicate that Osr1 normally prevents chondrogenesis in the mammalian tongue through repression of Sox9 expression and suggest that changes in regulation of Osr1 expression in the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme underlie the evolutionary divergence of birds from other vertebrates in tongue morphogenesis. PMID:24167250

  17. Odd-skipped related-1 controls neural crest chondrogenesis during tongue development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Lan, Yu; Xu, Jingyue; Chang, Ching-Fang; Brugmann, Samantha A; Jiang, Rulang

    2013-11-12

    The tongue is a critical element of the feeding system in tetrapod animals for their successful adaptation to terrestrial life. Whereas the oral part of the mammalian tongue contains soft tissues only, the avian tongue has an internal skeleton extending to the anterior tip. The mechanisms underlying the evolutionary divergence in tongue skeleton formation are completely unknown. We show here that the odd-skipped related-1 (Osr1) transcription factor is expressed throughout the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme in mouse, but not in chick, embryos during early tongue morphogenesis. Neural crest-specific inactivation of Osr1 resulted in formation of an ectopic cartilage in the mouse tongue, reminiscent in shape and developmental ontogeny of the anterior tongue cartilage in chick. SRY-box containing gene-9 (Sox9), the master regulator of chondrogenesis, is widely expressed in the nascent tongue mesenchyme at the onset of tongue morphogenesis but its expression is dramatically down-regulated concomitant with activation of Osr1 expression in the developing mouse tongue. In Osr1 mutant mouse embryos, expression of Sox9 persisted in the developing tongue mesenchyme where chondrogenesis is subsequently activated to form the ectopic cartilage. Furthermore, we show that Osr1 binds to the Sox9 gene promoter and that overexpression of Osr1 suppressed expression of endogenous Sox9 mRNAs and Sox9 promoter-driven reporter. These data indicate that Osr1 normally prevents chondrogenesis in the mammalian tongue through repression of Sox9 expression and suggest that changes in regulation of Osr1 expression in the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme underlie the evolutionary divergence of birds from other vertebrates in tongue morphogenesis. PMID:24167250

  18. The Shapes of Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    I have used many ploys to start a course in introductory physics, but one of the more interesting ones was to spend 20 minutes describing some of the curves and shapes that we would encounter in our year together. The students saw parabolas, catenaries, hyperbolas, cycloids, circles, ellipses, and helices, and were shown examples, either live or…

  19. Physics of sprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Igor; Lucht, Philip

    1981-03-01

    Sprinting is described by a simple physical model. The model is used to predict the differences between the recorded times for races on a straight track and on a curve. It is shown that the choice of the running lane makes a non-negligible difference.

  20. Physics of Sprinting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrov, Igor; Lucht, Phillip

    1981-01-01

    Sprinting is described by a simple physical model. The model is used to predict the differences between the recorded times for races on a straight track and on a curve. It is shown that the choice of the running lane makes a nonnegligible difference. (Author/SK)