Science.gov

Sample records for shown odd physics

  1. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Description of Chiral Doublet Bands in Odd-Odd Cs Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Ding, Bin-Gang

    2010-08-01

    Properties of the chair doublet bands of the odd-odd Cs isotopes built on the πh11/2 otimesvh11/2 configuration are investigated systematically within the supersymmetry scheme including many-body interactions and possessing the SO(5)(or SU(5)) symmetry on the rotational symmetry. Quantitatively good results of the energy spectra, the energy staggering parameter as a function of the spin are obtained. The calculation shows that the stronger competition between the pairing and anti-pairing effects and the SU(3) symmetry broking more seriously exist in the stable chiral structure.

  2. Application and interpretation of simple odds ratios in physical therapy-related research.

    PubMed

    Levangie, P K

    2001-09-01

    Over the past several decades, physical therapists have demonstrated an increasing responsiveness to the profession's obligation to generate objective evidence for examination and intervention strategies employed in physical therapy practice. This trend is evident, not only in the increasing number of journals that are publishing physical therapy research, but in the growing sophistication of research design and analytic options used by investigators. At the same time, physical therapists are held increasingly accountable for adopting an evidence-based approach to practice. The result for many of us is a growing concern about our ability to interpret study findings. The ability to independently weigh the importance to our own practice of evidence reported in a study requires that we understand the strengths and potential weaknesses of the sample, design, and analyses being used. The odds ratio (OR) is one of the analytic measures that has only recently appeared in the physical therapy literature. Because the OR may be unfamiliar to physical therapists, the goal of this paper is to provide a description of the simple OR and a discussion of its uses, interpretation, and potential limitations. PMID:11570733

  3. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Some Electromagnetic Transition Properties of Odd-A Europium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resit Yazar, Harun; Uluer, Ihsan; Ünaloǧlu, Volkan; Yaşar, Sinan

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we analyze the positive parity of states of odd-A Eu isotopes within the framework of interacting boson fermion model (IBFM-1). The result of an IBFM-1 multilevel calculation with the 3s1/2, 2d3/2, 2d5/2, and 1g7/2 single particle orbits is reported for the positive parity states of the odd-A Eu isotopes. Also, an IBM-1 calculation is presented for the low-lying states in the even-even 152-154Sm core nucleus. The energy levels and B(E2) transition probabilities are calculated and compared with the experimental data. It is found that the calculated positive parity low spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  4. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Description of Properties of Triaxial Superdeformed Bands in Odd-A Lu Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Li, Jin-Bo; Cao, Hong-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Properties of the triaxial superdeformed (TSD) bands of odd-A Lu isotopes are investigated systematically within the supersymmetry scheme including many-body interactions and a perturbation possessing the SO(5) (or SU(5)) symmetry on the rotational symmetry. Quantitatively good results of the γ-ray energies, the dynamical moments of inertia and the spin of the TSD bands in odd-A Lu isotopes are obtained. The calculation shows that the competition between the pairing and anti-pairing effects exists in these TSD bands. Meanwhile, the SU(3) symmetry in TSD bands are broken more seriously than in superdeformed (SD) bands.

  5. Odd + Odd = Odd: Is It Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinitsky, Ilya; Zazkis, Rina; Leikin, Roza

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the reasons why some mathematical functions are referred to as odd, and others as even. They start by recalling the definitions of both functions. Simply stated, the value of an even function is the same for a number and its opposite, whereas the value of an odd function changes for the opposite number when the

  6. Odd and odd-odd Praseodynium nuclei in a spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davda, Vikash; Nikolova, Veronika; Fetea, Mirela

    2003-10-01

    Approximately 263 stable or near stable nuclear species occur in nature and the current understanding of both nuclear structure and nucleo-synthesis is largely based on what is known of their properties. While general characteristics are understood by various mean-field nuclear models, there are key features that are not fully explained. An unexplored landscape containing more than 90expected bound but unstable nuclear systems still needs to be explored. Of particular interest is to study the underlying physical properties responsible for the signature splitting/inversion phenomena. This project theoretically studies (particle rotor model framework) the signature splitting/inversion phenomena in the odd and odd-odd Pr isotopes.

  7. A classification of spin frustration in molecular magnets from a physical study of large odd-numbered-metal, odd electron rings

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Michael L.; Timco, Grigore A.; Piligkos, Stergios; Mathieson, Jennifer S.; Mutka, Hannu; Tuna, Floriana; Koz?owski, Piotr; Antkowiak, Micha?; Guidi, Tatiana; Gupta, Tulika; Rath, Harapriya; Woolfson, Robert J.; Kamieniarz, Grzegorz; Pritchard, Robin G.; Weihe, Hgni; Cronin, Leroy; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Collison, David; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Winpenny, Richard E. P.

    2012-01-01

    The term frustration in the context of magnetism was originally used by P. W. Anderson and quickly adopted for application to the description of spin glasses and later to very special lattice types, such as the kagom. The original use of the term was to describe systems with competing antiferromagnetic interactions and is important in current condensed matter physics in areas such as the description of emergent magnetic monopoles in spin ice. Within molecular magnetism, at least two very different definitions of frustration are used. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of unusual nine-metal rings, using magnetic measurements and inelastic neutron scattering, supported by density functional theory calculations. These compounds show different electronic/magnetic structures caused by frustration, and the findings lead us to propose a classification for frustration within molecular magnets that encompasses and clarifies all previous definitions. PMID:23132941

  8. Odd Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03549 Odd Crater

    This unusual crater is located in Sinai Planum. Not only is the shape of this crater odd, but just how the ridges on the floor formed is unknown.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.6S, Longitude 277.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Content Analysis of Taiwanese 14 Year Olds' Information Processing Operations Shown in Cognitive Structures Following Physics Instruction, with Relations to Science Attainment and Scientific Epistemological Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study of Taiwanese 14-year-olds' (n=48) cognitive structures derived from the instruction of basic atomic physics. Finds that even academically above-average students tended to use relatively lower-level modes of knowledge construction, focusing on reciting or describing specific factual knowledge in physics. (Contains 27 references.)

  10. Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus 184Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P. C.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus 184 73Ta111 is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from 184Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that 184Hf ( Q_{β}=1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β-branches to 184Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak ( 1fu β-branches populating J^{π}=2- levels in 184Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying ( Ex = 260(40) keV) high-spin ( J^{π}=10-) long-lived isomer in this nucleus.

  11. Against All Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2005-01-01

    More than a decade ago, no one held out much hope for the poor, immigrant children at Kennedy Middle School. Nobody thinks that now. This article presents how Kennedy Middle School transformed and beat all the odds to be a "school to watch." In many ways, Kennedy Middle School has become a model of middle-grades improvement. Test scores, though

  12. Covariant Energy Density Functionals: Time-Odd Channel Investigated

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2009-08-26

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) are investigated in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they always provide additional binding to the binding energies of odd-mass nuclei. As a result, time-odd mean fields affect odd-even mass differences. They also have a profound effect on the properties of odd-proton nuclei in the vicinity of proton-drip line. Their presence can modify the half-lives of proton-emitters and considerably affect the possibilities of their experimental observation.

  13. Odd numbers of photons and teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Enk, S.J. van

    2003-02-01

    Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.

  14. Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2010-09-15

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.

  15. Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2010-09-01

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.

  16. Flavor Dependence of T-odd PDFs

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard P. Gamberg; Gary R. Goldstein; Marc Schlegel

    2007-04-20

    The flavor dependence of the naive time reversal odd ("T-odd'') parton distributions for $u$- and $d$-quarks are explored in the spectator model. The flavor dependence of $h_{1}^{\\perp}$ is of significance for the analysis of the azimuthal $\\cos(2\\phi)$ asymmetries in unpolarized SIDIS and DY-processes, as well as for the overall physical understanding of the distribution of transversely polarized quarks in unpolarized nucleons. As a by-product of the formalism, we calculate the chiral-odd but ``T-even'' function $h_{1L}^{\\perp}$ which enables us to present a prediction for the single spin asymmetry $A_{UL}^{\\sin(2\\phi)}$ for a longitudinally polarized target in SIDIS.

  17. Odds of observing the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, A.

    2010-03-15

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H{sub O}/H{sub I}){sup 2}, where H{sub O} is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H{sub I} is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  18. The Wigner caustic on shell and singularities of odd functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domitrz, Wojciech; Manoel, Miriam; Rios, Pedro de M.

    2013-09-01

    We study the Wigner caustic on shell of a Lagrangian submanifold L of affine symplectic space. We present the physical motivation for studying singularities of the Wigner caustic on shell and present its mathematical definition in terms of a generating family. Because such a generating family is an odd deformation of an odd function, we study simple singularities in the category of odd functions and their odd versal deformations, applying these results to classify the singularities of the Wigner caustic on shell, interpreting these singularities in terms of the local geometry of L.

  19. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1993-09-14

    In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of {sup 170}Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements.

  20. Simultaneous Description of Even-Even, Odd-Mass and Odd-Odd Nuclear Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.

    2010-01-21

    The orthosymplectic extension of the Interacting Vector Boson Model (IVBM) is used for the simultaneous description of the spectra of different families of neighboring heavy nuclei. The structure of even-even nuclei is used as a core on which the collective excitations of the neighboring odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei are built on. Hence, the spectra of the odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei arise as a result of the consequent and self-consistent coupling of the fermion degrees of freedom of the odd particles, specified by the fermion sector SO{sup F}(2OMEGA) subset of OS{sub p}(2OMEGA/12, R), to the boson core which states belong to an Sp{sup B}(12, R) irreducible representation.The theoretical predictions for different low-lying collective bands with positive and negative parity for two sets of neighboring nuclei with distinct collective properties are compared with experiment and IBM/IBFM/IBFFM predictions. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the used dynamical symmetry of the model.

  1. Simultaneous Description of Even-Even, Odd-Mass and Odd-Odd Nuclear Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.

    2010-01-01

    The orthosymplectic extension of the Interacting Vector Boson Model (IVBM) is used for the simultaneous description of the spectra of different families of neighboring heavy nuclei. The structure of even-even nuclei is used as a core on which the collective excitations of the neighboring odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei are built on. Hence, the spectra of the odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei arise as a result of the consequent and self-consistent coupling of the fermion degrees of freedom of the odd particles, specified by the fermion sector SOF(2?)?OSp(2?/12, R), to the boson core which states belong to an SpB(12, R) irreducible representation. The theoretical predictions for different low-lying collective bands with positive and negative parity for two sets of neighboring nuclei with distinct collective properties are compared with experiment and IBM/IBFM/IBFFM predictions. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the used dynamical symmetry of the model.

  2. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-09-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Nonadiabatic effects in odd-odd deformed proton emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Patial, M.; Jain, A. K.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2011-11-30

    We present for the first time, the nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach to study proton emission from odd-odd deformed nuclei. Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wavefunctions and hence our formalism allows us to study their complete role on the decay widths. First results obtained for the nucleus {sup 112}Cs suggest a weak dependance on Coriolis effect. However, we are able to reproduce the experimental half-lives without assuming the exact Nilsson orbital from which the decay proceeds.

  4. 1. VIEW IN ROOM 125, BIOASSAY LABORATORY, SHOWN IS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW IN ROOM 125, BIOASSAY LABORATORY, SHOWN IS THE FIRST STEP IN A SIX-STEP PROCESS TO ANALYZE URINE SAMPLES FOR PLUTONIUM AND URANIUM CONTAMINATION. IN THIS STEP, NITRIC ACID IS ADDED TO SAMPLE, AND THE SAMPLE IS BOILED DOWN TO A WHITE POWDER. - Rocky Flats Plant, Health Physics Laboratory, On Central Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1993-09-01

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of {sup 224}Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-03-01

    The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical ability keeping track of the equations and their meaning. However, the text continues to be accessible and moves swiftly from `quantum classics' such as the harmonic oscillator to electrical conductivity and the collapse of stars. Reassuringly, Treiman takes time out to ask `What's going on?' where he considers the question of how probabilities get converted into `facts' when things are measured. His own fascination with the subject comes through as he considers the different interpretations of quantum mechanics. The chapter on `building blocks' starts in 1932 when ` ... it could seem that all the basic building blocks of the whole world were at last in hand'. Swiftly and succinctly it moves through to the standard model, acknowledging that a closer look would ` ... quickly carry us far afield into highly technical thickets'. The final chapter tackles the more difficult subject of quantum field theory. This is a very swift journey through quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics. It is the final summary that stands out, however. The author reminds us what to marvel about: the miracles of quantum theory that are ` ... outrageous to common sense and intuition'. This is a useful book for any science department. It will be of particular use to those of us who studied the subject some time ago and who need to refresh their memories, for example teachers of A-level physics. The asides about `what is going on' and the history that is included make it a `book' rather than a `textbook'. First-year undergraduates, or just possibly motivated and mathematically able A-level students, would also benefit. Beware, however. The mathematics is not trivial and you would arguably need to have met it before in order to cope. Although the book occasionally relapses into textbook style you are left with a sense of the wonder of the subject and an appreciation of the beauty of the mathematics that underpins it.

  7. Structure of the yrast band in the odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Sai, K. Vijay; Gowrishankar, R.; Sainath, M.

    2011-05-15

    The six-level sequence deduced for the odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm in the high-spin studies following spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf is shown to constitute the K{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} yrast band having the two-quasiparticle configuration {l_brace}p:5/2[532]+ n:3/2[521]{r_brace}. Spin parities I{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} through 9{sup +} are assigned to the earlier suggested six levels. The location and the decay {gamma}'s of the 10{sup +} level of this band are indicated. It is also pointed out that there are no {gamma} rays common to these postfission high-spin spectra and those seen in the {sup 156}Nd {beta}-decay studies.

  8. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. General parity-odd CMB bispectrum estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2014-05-01

    We develop a methodology for estimating parity-odd bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This is achieved through the extension of the original separable modal methodology to parity-odd bispectrum domains (?{sub 1}+?{sub 2}+?{sub 3} = odd). Through numerical tests of the parity-odd modal decomposition with some theoretical bispectrum templates, we verify that the parity-odd modal methodology can successfully reproduce the CMB bispectrum, without numerical instabilities. We also present simulated non-Gaussian maps produced by modal-decomposed parity-odd bispectra, and show the consistency with the exact results. Our new methodology is applicable to all types of parity-odd temperature and polarization bispectra.

  10. Boson fermion symmetries and dynamical supersymmetries for odd-odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Balantekin, A.B.; Huebsch, T.; Paar, V.

    1985-01-01

    Odd-odd nuclei are modeled by the application of symmetries and supersymmetries in IBM/IBFM. Odd-odd nuclei are described as a mixed system if bosons and fermions by a Hamiltonian consisting of three contributions: the IBM Hamiltonian, a one-fermion and fermion-fermion interaction terms, and a boson-fermion interaction term. 23 refs., 2 figs., (WRF)

  11. Extremal charged rotating dilaton black holes in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lrida, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Employing higher-order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.

  12. Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2015-01-01

    Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: ?{sub 1}+?{sub 2}+?{sub 3}=odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.

  13. Towards even and odd squeezed number states

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, M.M. |

    1998-03-01

    The time evolution of even and odd squeezed states, as well as that of squeezed number states, has been given in simple, analytic form. This follows experimental work on trapped ions which has demonstrated even and odd coherent states, number states, and squeezed (but not displaced) ground states. The authors review this situation and consider the extension to even and odd squeezed number states. Questions of uncertainty relations are also discussed.

  14. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  15. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  16. Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis ... Threatening Bacterial Infection Remains Mysterious This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  17. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother

  18. Odd-soliton solutions of the Einstein equations in a vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Das, K.C.

    1985-02-15

    Axially symmetric odd-solitonic solutions of the Einstein equations are given in determinant form and it is shown that these reduce to Weyl's static solutions with half-integral delta when the twist potential is switched off.

  19. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  20. Extremal charged rotating black holes in odd dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lerida, Francisco

    2010-07-15

    Employing higher order perturbation theory, we obtain charged rotating black holes in odd dimensions, where the Einstein-Maxwell Lagrangian may be supplemented with a Chern-Simons term. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta. For Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with arbitrary Chern-Simons coupling constant, we perform the perturbations up to 3rd order for any odd dimension. We discuss the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge. In particular, we show that the gyromagnetic ratio g of Einstein-Maxwell black holes differs from the lowest order perturbative value D-2, and that the first correction term to g/(D-2) is universal.

  1. 1. East side of lower dam shown with water level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East side of lower dam shown with water level dropped. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  2. 2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing over dam. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  3. VIEW OF NORTH FACADE OF HOUSE SHOWN IN PREVIOUS PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH FACADE OF HOUSE SHOWN IN PREVIOUS PHOTOGRAPH LOOKING SOUTH - Pennsylvania Furnace, Worker Housing, West of State Route 45, South of Centre County line, Pennsylvania Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  4. Detail of southeast corner and pipes, shown along California Avenue; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of southeast corner and pipes, shown along California Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. 27. INTERIOR VIEW, SIMILAR TO ABOVE BUT SHOWN FROM BEHIND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR VIEW, SIMILAR TO ABOVE BUT SHOWN FROM BEHIND THE FEEDER (NOTE THE CATCH BIN OF CUT NAILS ON THE FLOOR BENEATH THE MACHINE) - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  6. Interior view, anteroom of the postmaster general's reception hall; shown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, anteroom of the postmaster general's reception hall; shown here are two of the six aluminum statues of postal delivery men - New Post Office Building, Twelfth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. JIGGER STICK USED IN ERECTION. Shown on highline, direction of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    JIGGER STICK USED IN ERECTION. Shown on highline, direction of view is probably to the north - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  8. 1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts and drive shafts. This power system drove the tumblers which cleaned chain in building #7. - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  9. Non-adiabatic description of proton emission from the odd-odd nucleus 130Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patial, Monika; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2014-03-01

    We discuss the non-adiabatic quasiparticle approach for calculating the rotational spectra and decay width of odd-odd proton emitters. The Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wave functions. Results for the two probable ground states (1+ and 2+) of the proton emitter 130Eu are discussed. With our calculations, we confirm the proton emitting state to be the I? = 1+ state, irrespective of the strength of the Coriolis interaction. This study provides us with an opportunity to look into the details of wave functions of deformed odd-odd nuclei to which the proton emission halflives are quite sensitive.

  10. 4. NORTH SIDE, AND ROOF, EASTERNMOST CAMERA STAND SHOWN IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH SIDE, AND ROOF, EASTERNMOST CAMERA STAND SHOWN IN RIGHT MIDDLE DISTANCE. Looking west from top of protective berm near Air Supply building. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Contextual view of building 271 from across the river shown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 271 from across the river shown at center between coal sheds at left and building 91 at right; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. White Matter Development during Adolescence as Shown by Diffusion MRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Yuan, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    Previous volumetric developmental MRI studies of the brain have shown white matter development continuing through adolescence and into adulthood. This review presents current findings regarding white matter development and organization from diffusion MRI studies. The general trend during adolescence (age 12-18 years) is towards increasing

  13. 9. Tower building. Hot water tap floor shown. Mixing vat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Tower building. Hot water tap floor shown. Mixing vat at center level. Juices mix and flow and left lower level. Copper kettles are down below view level. Looking toward front of building. - Tivoli-Union Brewery, 1320-1348 Tenth Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  14. 59. DETAIL OF THIRD PAYLOAD CONTROL PANEL IN CONSOLE SHOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. DETAIL OF THIRD PAYLOAD CONTROL PANEL IN CONSOLE SHOWN IN CA-133-1-A-58. NOTE 20-CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS PANEL IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-03-30

    An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.

  16. JPC = ODD-- Radial Trajectories for Light Mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumanoglu, I.; Peaslee, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    Versification of the Veneziano model for light meson radial trajectories has found surprising constancy of slope for several different sequences of resonant states with JPC = even++. Efforts to extend this result to JPC = odd-- trajectories have been hampered by a comparative scarcity of data, but we present an early survey to seek similarities and differences with even++ resonances.

  17. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general

  18. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  19. 59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of two large, unused, waste water settling tanks (near the city of New Haven, at some distance from the lock site). All members have been laid up with contemporary separating ties between them to ensure complete wetting during storage. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  20. Neutron-Proton Interaction in Odd-Odd Spherical Nuclei Near 208PB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexa, Petr; Kvasil, Jan; Sheline, Raymond K.

    A total of 74 levels from 21 multiplets of the nuclei 206Tl, 208Tl, 208Bi, and 210Bi have been calculated with a Generalized Intermediate Coupling Model, with Gaussian and delta potentials with and without an interaction between octupole phonon and odd nucleons. The goodness of fit is compared with that of other calculations of Molinari et al. and Schiffer and True. It is quite clear that the calculations work well in spite of the fact that they are required to fit simultaneously odd-odd nuclei with neutron and proton shells which differ by principal harmonic oscillator quantum numbers Δ N = +1.

  1. Ganymede Uruk Sulcus High Resolution Mosaic Shown in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four Galileo high-resolution images of the Uruk Sulcus region of Jupiter's moon Ganymede (Latitude 11 N, Longitude: 170 W) is shown within the context of an image of the region taken by Voyager 2 in 1979, which in turn is shown within the context of a full-disk image of Ganymede. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, nearly overhead. The area shown is about 120 by 110 kilometers (75 by 68 miles) in extent and the smallest features that can be discerned are 74 meters (243 feet) in size in the Galileo images and 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) in the Voyager data. The higher resolution Galileo images unveil the details of parallel ridges and troughs that are principal features in the brighter regions of Ganymede. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,448 kilometers (4,628 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  2. Odd-parity cosmic microwave background bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Souradeep, Tarun

    2011-01-15

    Measurement of the CMB bispectrum, or three-point correlation function, has now become one of the principle efforts in early-Universe cosmology. Here we show that there is an odd-parity component of the CMB bispectrum that has been hitherto unexplored. We argue that odd-parity temperature-polarization bispectra can arise, in principle, through weak lensing of the CMB by chiral gravitational waves or through cosmological birefringence, although the signals will be small even in the best-case scenarios. Measurement of these bispectra requires only modest modifications to the usual data-analysis algorithms. They may be useful as a consistency test in searches for the usual bispectrum and to search for surprises in the data.

  3. Plasma Bicarbonate and Odds of Incident Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several biomarkers of metabolic acidosis, including lower plasma bicarbonate, have been associated with prevalent hypertension in cross-sectional studies. We sought to examine prospectively whether lower plasma bicarbonate is associated with incident hypertension. METHODS We conducted a prospective case–control study nested within the Nurses’ Health Study II. Plasma bicarbonate was measured in 695 nonobese women without hypertension at time of blood draw who subsequently developed hypertension during 6 years of follow-up. Control subjects were matched to case subjects according to age, race, time and day of blood draw, and day of menstrual cycle. We used unconditional logistic regression to generate odds ratios (ORs) for development of hypertension by quintile of baseline plasma bicarbonate. RESULTS After adjusting for matching factors, body mass index, family history of hypertension, plasma creatinine, and dietary and lifestyle factors, higher plasma bicarbonate was associated with lower odds of developing hypertension across quintiles (P for linear trend = 0.04). Those in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of plasma bicarbonate had 31% lower odds of developing hypertension (OR = 0.69; 95% confidence interval = 0.48–0.99). Further adjustment for diet-estimated net endogenous acid production, plasma insulin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and uric acid did not alter these findings. CONCLUSIONS Our case–control study is consistent with a modest association between higher plasma bicarbonate and reduced odds of developing hypertension among nonobese women, although our findings are of borderline statistical significance. Further research is required to confirm this finding as part of a larger prospective cohort study and to elucidate the mechanism for this relation. PMID:23942654

  4. Piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in odd-odd nylons with long alkane segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaobing; Cui, Zhe; Fu, Peng; Liu, Minying; Zhang, Yanchang; Jia, Rufeng; Zhao, Qingxiang

    2014-04-01

    Piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in odd-odd nylon 11,11 and nylon 13,13 are detected. The results indicate that the ?-phase is responsible for the high piezoelectric and ferroelectric response. The piezoelectric strain coefficient, d33, as high as -3.9 and -4.1 pC/N is obtained at room temperature for stretched nylon 11,11 and nylon 13,13 films, respectively. The coercive electric field, Ec, values of about 55 and 88 MV/m are obtained for nylon 11,11 and nylon 13,13 films, respectively. And a remanent polarization, Pr, about 40 mC/m2 has been found in both films. Compared with nylon 11,11, the lower coercive electric field (Ec) in nylon 13,13 is attributed to its longer alkyl chains. These odd-odd nylons have the potential in electroactive applications.

  5. Stratospheric distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional pole-to-pole chemical model of the stratosphere is developed which extends from 8 to 38 km in altitude. Atmospheric motions are simulated by mean vertical and meridional winds and eddy diffusion coefficients. Seasonally averaged distributions of important odd nitrogen (NO, NO2, and HNO3) and odd hydrogen (H, OH, HO2, H2O2) compounds are computed. Photodissociation of N2O leads to production of odd nitrogen in the stratosphere, and the odd nitrogen is ultimately removed by downward transport into the troposphere and by rain-out (modeled by a rain-out lifetime of 30 days below 8-km altitude). Results are presented for a quasi-steady state in which seasonal cycles repeat themselves. These results show significant latitudinal as well as vertical variations in the predicted species which emphasize the need for at least two dimensions in accurate stratospheric modeling. Computed concentrations are compared with observations when they exist.

  6. Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.

    2009-08-26

    We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.

  7. The effect of particle precipitation events on the neutral and ion chemistry of the middle atmosphere. II - Odd hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S.; Rusch, D. W.; Gerard, J.-C.; Reid, G. C.; Crutzen, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    A one dimensional time-dependent model of the neutral and ion chemistry of the middle atmosphere has been used to examine the production of odd hydrogen (H, OH, and HO2) during charged particle precipitation. At altitudes above about 65 km, odd hydrogen production depends on the ionization rate, and the atomic oxygen and water vapor densities. Odd hydrogen production is shown to exhibit diurnal and other time dependent variations during such an event at these altitudes, and the assumption that two odd hydrogen particles are always produced per ionization is reexamined.

  8. Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Nonrotating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2010-01-15

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) are analyzed in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT) by blocking the single-particle states with a fixed signature. It is shown that they always provide additional binding to the binding energies of odd-mass nuclei. This additional binding only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The underlying microscopic mechanism is discussed in detail. Time-odd mean fields affect odd-even mass differences. However, our analysis suggests that the modifications of the strength of pairing correlations required to compensate for their effects are modest. In contrast, time-odd mean fields have a profound effect on the properties of odd-proton nuclei in the vicinity of the proton drip line. Their presence can modify the half-lives of proton emitters (by many orders of magnitude in light nuclei) and considerably affect the possibilities of their experimental observation.

  9. Gear Durability Shown To Be Improved by Superfinishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krautz, Timothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Gears, bearings, and similar mechanical elements transmit loads through contacting surfaces. At the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, we postulated that the fatigue lives of gears could be improved by providing smoother tooth surfaces. A superfinishing process was applied to a set of conventionally ground, aerospace-quality gears. This process produced a highly polished, mirrorlike surface as shown in the preceding photograph. The surface fatigue lives of both superfinished and conventionally ground gears were measured by experiments. The superfinished gears survived about four times longer than the conventionally ground gears. These superfinished gears were produced from conventionally ground, aerospace-quality gears whose geometry had been inspected. The gears were superfinished by placing them in a vibrating bath consisting of water, detergent, abrasive powder, and small pieces of zinc. Upon removal from the bath, the surfaces were highly polished, as depicted in the preceding photograph. The gears were again inspected, and dimensional measurements made before and after the superfinishing operation were compared. Superfinishing removed the peaks of the grinding marks and left a much smoother surface. Profile and spacing checks proved that the overall gear tooth shape was not affected in any harmful way. Superfinishing uniformly removed approximately 2.5 microns from each surface.

  10. Cluster radioactivities of odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Hourani, E.; Greiner, W.

    The partial half-lives of the hypothetical even-even equivalent of an odd-mass nucleus for cluster transitions toward various excited states of the daughter, used as a reference to find the hindrance factor, can be calculated within analytical superasymmetric fission model, by taking into account the angular momentum of the emitted cluster. Detailed tables are presented for 14C radioactivity of 221Fr, 221,223Ra, 225Ac; 24Ne radioactivity of 233U, 231Pa, and 23F decay of 231Pa, showing that, except for 225Ac, the existing experimental evidences, do not exclude (moderate) hindered transitions to the ground states of the daugther nuclei.

  11. Odd CP contributions to diffractive processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueter, Michael; Dosch, H. G.; Nachtmann, O.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate contributions to diffractive scattering, which are odd under C and P parity. Comparison of p-p and p-p scattering indicates that these odderon contributions are very small and we show how a diquark clustering in the proton can explain this effect. A good probe for the odderon exchange is the photo- and electroproduction of pseudoscalar mesons. We concentrate on the ?0 and show that the quasielastic ?0 production is again strongly suppressed for a diquark structure of the proton whereas the cross sections for diffractive proton dissociation are larger by orders of magnitude and rather independent of the proton structure.

  12. ODD Modes of a New Transmission Line Based on Semi-open Dielectric Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushchenko, Alexander G.; Shibalkin, Sergey F.

    2007-08-01

    An original transmission line based on a planar waveguide splitter with central dielectric filling is considered. A rigorous electrodynamics model is presented for calculating propagation parameters of odd eigenmodes. It was determined that the physics of the wave processes of the line for odd modes is identical to the physics of closed structures, though the structure geometry is of semi-open character. Numerical experiments prove that new line is very promising for different millimeter wave applications, such as band pass filters, test fixture, antennae and three-dimensional integrated circuits (TDIC).

  13. Shell Model Description of the Odd-Odd Co and Cu Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, N. H.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Oliveira, J. R. B. de; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.

    2007-10-26

    The known excited states of the odd-odd nuclei {sup 54,56,58,60}Co and 60,62,64,66Cu were interpreted in the framework of the large scale shell model (LSSM), using several effective interactions and configuration spaces. For the description of the negative parity states, we have allowed one particle excitation to the g{sub 9/2} orbital. The LSSM using the GXPF1 effective interaction reproduces well the first excited states in all of these nuclei.

  14. Comparison of model results transporting the odd nitrogen family with results transporting separate odd nitrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    A fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric family transport model, designed to minimize computer requirements, is developed. The model was used to calculate the ambient and perturbed atmospheres in which odd nitrogen species are transported as a family, and the results were compared with calculations in which HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HO2NO2 are transported separately. It was found that ozone distributions computed by the two models for a present-day atmosphere are nearly identical. Good agreement was also found between calculated species concentrations and the ozone response, indicating the general applicability of the odd-nitrogen family approximations.

  15. Proton emission from the deformed odd-odd nuclei near drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patial, M.; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Proton emission from odd-odd nuclei is studied within the two quasiparticle plus rotor model which includes the non-adiabatic effects and the residual interaction between valence proton and neutron. Justification of the formalism is discussed through corroboration of our results with the experimental spectrum of 180Ta. Exact calculations are performed to get the proton emission halflives. Our results for the proton emitter 130Eu leads to the assignment of spin and parity J? = 1+ for the ground state. The role of Coriolis and residual neutron-proton interactions on the proton emission halflives and their interplay are also discussed.

  16. W${'}$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may show up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.

  17. W$${'}$$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may showmore » up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.« less

  18. Intrinsic structures and associated rotational bands in medium-heavy deformed odd-odd nuclei. 2: Update supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.; Sood, P.C.; Jain, A.K.

    1998-07-01

    The preceding article, Intrinsic Structures and Associated Rotational Bands in Medium-Heavy Deformed Odd-Odd Nuclei, 1, by D.M. Headly et al., presents the experimentally observed energy levels of odd-odd nuclei with 57 {le} Z {le} 81 and 87 {le} N {le} 117 with a literature cutoff date of August 1995. This supplement updates the experimental data specifically dealing with level structures of these nuclei through March 1998.

  19. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  20. The ODD protocol: A review and first update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Polhill, J. Gary; Giske, Jarl; Railsback, Steve F.

    2010-01-01

    The 'ODD' (Overview, Design concepts, and Details) protocol was published in 2006 to standardize the published descriptions of individual-based and agent-based models (ABMs). The primary objectives of ODD are to make model descriptions more understandable and complete, thereby making ABMs less subject to criticism for being irreproducible. We have systematically evaluated existing uses of the ODD protocol and identified, as expected, parts of ODD needing improvement and clarification. Accordingly, we revise the definition of ODD to clarify aspects of the original version and thereby facilitate future standardization of ABM descriptions. We discuss frequently raised critiques in ODD but also two emerging, and unanticipated, benefits: ODD improves the rigorous formulation of models and helps make the theoretical foundations of large models more visible. Although the protocol was designed for ABMs, it can help with documenting any large, complex model, alleviating some general objections against such models.

  1. New Even and ODD Coherent States Attached to the Hermite Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, A.; Mojaveri, B.; Mahdian, M.

    2015-04-01

    Following systematic strategies, which were introduced by M. M. Nieto in 1995, coherent states (CSs) may be derived from their generating functions. In the present paper we generalize the latter procedure to new types of generating functions of even and odd Hermite polynomials. In this case, new CSs are obtained, as superposition of even and Fock states, and the generating functions are proportional to the corresponding even (odd) CSs. It is shown that they realize resolution of the identity conditions and can be considered as the nonlinear CSs. In addition, in each case, one can identify some of nonclassical features, such as sub-Poissonian statistics and quadrature squeezing effects, which occur simultaneously.

  2. Spectroscopy of the ODD-ODD nucleus 76As and its supersymmetric description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyler, F.; Jolie, J.; Colvin, G. G.; Brner, H. G.; Schreckenbach, K.; Van Isacker, P.; Fettweis, P.; Gktrk, H.; Dehaes, J. C.; Casten, R. F.; Warner, D. D.; Bruce, A. M.

    1990-06-01

    Gamma rays and conversion electrons following thermal-neutron capture in 75As have been measured using the Ge pair spectrometer PN4, the bent crystal spectrometers GAMS and the ?-spectrometer BILL at the ILL. Coincident ?-rays were recorded at the CEN/SCK Mol, and average resonance capture at En = 2 and 24 keV has been studied at the HFBR of BNL. The neutron binding energy in 76As was determined to be 7328.498 0.075 keV. The resulting level scheme for 76As greatly improves the knowledge on this odd-odd nucleus. The low-lying positive-parity states are discussed in the U(5) limit of the U v(6/12)?U ?(6/12) supersymmetry using the same hamiltonian to describe the quartet 76Se- 77Se- 75As- 76As having the same total number of bosons plus fermions.

  3. Meeting report for "OddPols" 2014: the odds invite an even.

    PubMed

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2015-02-01

    The Ninth International Biennial Conference on RNA Polymerases I and III (the "OddPols") was held on June 19-21, 2014 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. Sponsored by New England Biolabs, the Cayman Chemical Company, the Rackham Graduate School and the University of Michigan Health System, and organized by David Engelke, Craig Pikaard, Lawrence Rothblum, Andrzej Wierzbicki and Astrid Engel. This year at the conference, the "odds" were increased by expanding the usual topics on the advances in RNA polymerases I and III research to include presentations on RNA polymerase IV and V. The keynote speaker, Craig Pikaard, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "Five nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases". The meeting drew attendees from fourteen countries that shared their research discoveries through oral and poster presentations. The talks were organized into 11 sessions covering seven distinct topics. Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants. PMID:25445280

  4. Isospin and deformation studies in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Ekman, J.; Erten, O.; Fahlander, C.; Johansson, E. K.; Andreoiu, C.; Bengtsson, R.; Ragnarsson, I.; Bentley, M. A.; Williams, S. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Seweryniak, D.; Charity, R. J.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Svensson, C. E.

    2010-11-15

    High-spin states in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co have been investigated by the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 28}Si({sup 32}S,1{alpha}1p1n){sup 54}Co. Gamma-ray information gathered with the Ge detector array Gammasphere was correlated with evaporated particles detected in the charged particle detector system Microball and a 1{pi} neutron detector array. A significantly extended excitation scheme of {sup 54}Co is presented, which includes a candidate for the isospin T=1, 6{sup +} state of the 1f{sub 7/2}{sup -2} multiplet. The results are compared to large-scale shell-model calculations in the fp shell. Effective interactions with and without isospin-breaking terms have been used to probe isospin symmetry and isospin mixing. A quest for deformed high-spin rotational cascades proved negative. This feature is discussed by means of cranking calculations.

  5. Cortisol and GH: odd and controversial ideas.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Martine; Guinot, Michel; Le Bouc, Yves

    2007-10-01

    Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis represents a physiological response to the energetic, metabolic, vascular, and sometimes neurophysiologic or psychological needs of exercise. Long-lasting increased and (or) decreased secretion of cortisol (the end-product of the HPA axis) or of GH is detrimental to health. This suggests that the activity of these hormonal axes is finely tuned toward homeostasia, tolerating limited prolonged homeostatic disruption. However, the relationships between exercise training and cortisol and GH secretion are full of odd and controversial ideas. In this review, the relationships between HPA axis adaptation to exercise training or disadaptation with overtraining will be discussed, with an emphasis on the limitation on the current measures used to profile hormonal activity. Knowledge of these relationships between cortisol and GH responses to exercise is an important tool to fight against doping with glucocorticoids and GH, and their health-damaging consequences. PMID:18059614

  6. Environment and energy: an odd duo

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.S.

    1989-03-01

    Some people believe that environmental policies will drive energy needs. Others believe that energy issues in the 101st US Congress will be determined by environmental concerns. But whatever may turn out to be the case, neither the demands of energy or of the environment can be met without consideration of the other. Environmental progress must be wed to energy issues such as efficiency and technology. Traditional approaches to their environmental problems always run into energy considerations, to be sure, but one way to avoid this collision of environmental and energy demands is to take an alternative, nontraditional approach. In the traditional approach, solutions to environmental problems such as global warming, acid rain, and nonattainment make energy-using demands, run into budgetary restraints, cost money, and include a command and control approach. The latter is based on the theory that by commanding acid rain control, for example, in legislation, the acid rain problem can be controlled. If and when they choose to move ahead, command control techniques certainly will be avoided; rather, the market place will sort out the conflict between this odd duo of environment-energy issues.

  7. Nonminimal derivative coupling scalar-tensor theories: Odd-parity perturbations and black hole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Cruz, Miguel; Delsate, Térence; Saavedra, Joel

    2015-11-01

    We derive the odd-parity perturbation equation for the nonminimal kinetic coupling sector of the general Horndeski theory, where the kinetic term is coupled to the metric and the Einstein tensor. We derive the potential of the perturbation, by identifying a master function and switching to tortoise coordinates. We then prove the mode stability under linear odd-parity perturbations of hairy black holes in this sector of Horndeski theory, when a cosmological constant term in the action is included. Finally, we comment on the existence of slowly rotating black hole solutions in this setup and discuss their implications on the physics of compact object configurations, such as neutron stars.

  8. Odd-parity superconductivity by competing spin-orbit coupling and orbital effect in artificial heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Yanase, Youichi

    2015-11-01

    We show that odd-parity superconductivity occurs in multilayer Rashba systems without requiring spin-triplet Cooper pairs. A pairing interaction in the spin-singlet channel stabilizes the odd-parity pair-density-wave (PDW) state in the magnetic field parallel to the two-dimensional conducting plane. It is shown that the layer-dependent Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the orbital effect play essential roles for the PDW state in binary and tricolor heterostructures. We demonstrate that the odd-parity PDW state is a symmetry-protected topological superconducting state characterized by the one-dimensional winding number in the symmetry class BDI. The superconductivity in the artificial heavy-fermion superlattice CeCoIn5/YbCoIn5 and bilayer interface SrTiO3/LaAlO3 is discussed.

  9. Band structures in doubly odd Rh98

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Sihotra, S.; Singh, K.; Singh, V.; Sandeep, Goswamy, J.; Singh, N.; Mehta, D.; Malik, S. S.; Palit, R.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2014-03-01

    Excited states in the transitional doubly odd Rh98 nucleus were populated in the As75(Si28,2p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction using the 120-MeV incident Si28 beam. The subsequent de-excitations were investigated through in-beam ?-ray spectroscopic techniques using an early implementation phase of the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) spectrometer equipped with 18 clover Ge detectors. The level structures in Rh98 have been established up to excitation energy ?10 MeV and angular momentum 23?. The previously reported level schemes are considerably modified and extended substantially. Significant expansion of the level scheme at low excitation energies stipulates that the previously reported 842-726-994-980-265 keV ?-transition cascade in Rh98 is not directly based on the ground state (T1/2 = 8.7 min). Tilted-axis cranking (TAC) shell-model calculations have been used to put the present level scheme of Rh98 in perspective. Level structures have been interpreted in terms of the rotational bands based on the ?p1/2??h11/2 [triaxiality parameter (?) = 25?], and ?f5/2??h11/2 proton-neutron configurations having moderate quadrupole deformation (?2 ? 0.13) and the admixtures. Excited band structures are based on the ?p1/2/f5/2??(g9/2)2??h11/2 configuration and the fully stretched [?p1/2??(h11/2)2??d5/2]13- configuration.

  10. Odd-even mass difference and isospin dependent pairing interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bertulani, C. A.; Lue, H. F.; Sagawa, H.

    2009-08-15

    The neutron and proton odd-even mass differences are studied with Hartree-Fock + BCS (HF+BCS) calculations with Skyrme interactions and an isospin dependent contact pairing interaction, which is recently derived from a microscopic nucleon-nucleon interaction. To this end, we perform HF+BCS calculations for even and odd semi-magic tin and lead isotopes together with even and odd Z isotones with N=50 and 82. The filling approximation is applied to the last unoccupied particle in odd nuclei. Comparisons with the experimental data show a clear manifestation of the isospin dependent pairing correlations in both proton and neutron pairing gaps.

  11. Multi-quasiparticle structures up to spin ~44{dirac_h} in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 168}Ta.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Hartley, D. J.; Riley, M. A.; Riedinger, L. L.; Aguilar, A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Darby, I.; Garg, U.; Ijaz, Q.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Lakshmi, S.; Lauritsen, T.; Ma, W. C.; McCutchan, E. A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Seyfried, E. P.; Stefanescu, I.; Tandel, S. K.; Tandel, U. S.; Teal, C.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Zhu, S.

    2010-09-15

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 168}Ta have been populated in the {sup 120}Sn({sup 51}V,3n) reaction. Two multi-quasiparticle structures have been extended significantly from spin {approx}20{h_bar} to above 40{h_bar}. As a result, the first rotational alignment has been fully delineated and a second band crossing has been observed for the first time in this nucleus. Configurations for these strongly coupled rotational bands are proposed based on signature splitting, B(M1)/B(E2) ratio information, and observed rotation-alignment behavior. Properties of the observed bands in {sup 168}Ta are compared to related structures in the neighboring odd-Z, odd-N, and odd-odd nuclei and are discussed within the framework of the cranked shell model.

  12. Interventions shown to Aid Executive Function Development in Children 412 Years Old *

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Adele; Lee, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are executive functions, including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve childrens executive functions computerized training, non-computerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. Central to all these is repeated practice and constantly challenging executive functions. Children with worse executive functions initially, benefit most; thus early executive-function training may avert widening achievement gaps later. To improve executive functions, focusing narrowly on them may not be as effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, and yoga). PMID:21852486

  13. Singular eigenstates in the even(odd) length Heisenberg spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Giri, Pulak; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-05-01

    We study the implications of the regularization for the singular solutions on the even(odd) length spin-1/2 XXX chains in some specific down-spin sectors. In particular, the analytic expressions of the Bethe eigenstates for three down-spin sector have been obtained along with their numerical forms in some fixed length chains. For an even-length chain if the singular solutions \\{{{λ }α }\\} are invariant under the sign changes of their rapidities \\{{{λ }α }\\}=\\{-{{λ }α }\\}, then the Bethe ansatz equations are reduced to a system of (M-2)/2((M-3)/2) equations in an even (odd) down-spin sector. For an odd N length chain in the three down-spin sector, it has been analytically shown that there exist singular solutions in any finite length of the spin chain of the form N=3(2k+1) with k=1,2,3,\\cdots . It is also shown that there exist no singular solutions in the four down-spin sector for some odd-length spin-1/2 XXX chains.

  14. Reinvestigation of the collective band structures in odd-odd 138Pm nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. J.; Xiao, Z. G.; Zhu, S. J.; Qi, C.; Yeoh, E. Y.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, R. S.; Yi, H.; Yan, W. H.; Xu, Q.; Wu, X. G.; He, C. Y.; Zheng, Y.; Li, G. S.; Li, C. B.; Li, H. W.; Liu, J. J.; Hu, S. P.; Wang, J. L.; Yao, S. H.

    2015-05-01

    The high-spin states in the odd-odd 138Pm nucleus have been reinvestigated via the 124Te(19F, 5 n) reaction at the beam energy of 103 MeV. Most of the known transitions and levels are confirmed. A number of bands are revised and one new band has been established. For the yrast ?h 11/2? ?h 11/2 band based on 8+ state, no evidence supporting the occurence of signature inversion is found. The experimental and theoretical B( M1)/ B( E2) ratios have been calculated for band (2), which support the ?g 7/2[413]5/2+ ? ?h 11/2[514]9/2- Nilsson configuration assignment. Four bands with ?I = 2 transitions are tentatively assigned as doubly decoupled bands. The other three bands are proposed as oblate-triaxial bands. The possible configuration assignments for these bands are also discussed under the calculations of total Routhian surface and particle-rotor model.

  15. "Dealing" with Incidence, Prevalence, and Odds Concepts in Undergraduate Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senchina, David S.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts and associated statistical formulae of incidence, prevalence, and odds/odds ratios are core knowledge in epidemiology yet can be confusing for students. The purpose of this project was to develop, validate, and share one possible pedagogical technique using playing cards that could be employed to improve undergraduate understanding of

  16. Physics.

    PubMed

    Wyard, S J

    1981-01-01

    It is tempting for a lecturer in physics to present medical students with a course which, though sound and vigorous, is more suited to a physicist or engineer. At Guy's Hospital Medical School, physics is taught at a level which the student can follow and the relevance of the subject to the practice of medicine is made clear. PMID:24476055

  17. Massive and massless higher spinning particles in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Bonezzi, Roberto; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    We study actions for massive bosonic particles of higher spins by dimensionally reducing an action for massless particles. For the latter we take a model with a SO( N) extended local supersymmetry on the worldline, that is known to describe massless (conformal) particles of higher spins in flat spacetimes of even dimensions. Dimensional reduction produces an action for massive spinning particles in odd dimensions. The field equations that emerge in a quantization la Dirac are shown to be equivalent to the Fierz-Pauli ones. The massless limit generates a multiplet of massless states with higher spins, whose first quantized field equations have a geometric form with fields belonging to various types of Young tableaux. These geometric equations can be partially integrated to show their equivalence with the standard Fronsdal-Labastida equations. We covariantize our model to check whether an extension to curved spacetimes can be achieved. Restricting to (A)dS spaces, we find that the worldline gauge algebra becomes nonlinear, but remains first class. This guarantees consistency on such backgrounds. A light cone analysis confirms the presence of the expected propagating degrees of freedom. A covariant analysis is worked out explicitly for the massive case, which is seen to give rise to the Fierz-Pauli equations extended to (A)dS spaces. It is worth noting that in D = 3 the massless limit of our model with N ? ? has the same field content of the Vasiliev's theory that accommodates each spin exactly once.

  18. Middle atmosphere heating by exothermic chemical reactions involving odd-hydrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Solomon, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The rate of heating which occurs in the middle atmosphere due to four exothermic reactions involving members of the odd-hydrogen family is calculated. The following reactions are considered: O + OH yields O2 + H; H + O2 + M yields HO2 + M; H + O3 yields OH + O2; and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. It is shown that the heating rates due to these reactions rival the oxygen-related heating rates conventionally considered in middle-atmosphere models. The conversion of chemical potential energy into molecular translational energy (heat) by these odd-hydrogen reactions is shown to be a significant energy source in the middle atmosphere that has not been previously considered.

  19. When Is an Odd Number Not Odd? Influence of Task Rule on the MARC Effect for Numeric Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yang Seok; Proctor, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    When classifying numbers as odd or even with left-right keypresses, performance is better with the mapping even-right/odd-left than with the opposite mapping. This linguistic markedness association of response codes (MARC) effect has been attributed to compatibility between the linguistic markedness of stimulus and response codes. In 2 experiments

  20. BKP and CKP revisited: the odd KP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2009-04-01

    By restricting a linear system for the KP hierarchy to those independent variables tn with odd n, its compatibility (Zakharov-Shabat conditions) leads to the 'odd KP hierarchy'. The latter consists of pairs of equations for two dependent variables, taking values in an (typically noncommutative) associative algebra. If the algebra is commutative, the odd KP hierarchy is known to admit reductions to the BKP and the CKP hierarchy. We approach the odd KP hierarchy and its relation to BKP and CKP in different ways, and address the question of whether noncommutative versions of the BKP and the CKP equation (and some of their reductions) exist. In particular, we derive a functional representation of a linear system for the odd KP hierarchy, which in the commutative case produces functional representations of the BKP and CKP hierarchies in terms of a tau function. Furthermore, we consider a functional representation of the KP hierarchy that involves a second (auxiliary) dependent variable and features the odd KP hierarchy directly as a subhierarchy. A method to generate large classes of exact solutions to the KP hierarchy from solutions to a linear matrix ODE system, via a hierarchy of matrix Riccati equations, then also applies to the odd KP hierarchy, and this in turn can be exploited, in particular, to obtain solutions to the BKP and CKP hierarchies.

  1. Even-odd spatial nonequivalence for atomic quantum gases with isotropic spin-orbit couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G. S.; Gupta, Reena

    2014-05-01

    A general expression for the density of states (DOS) of power-law trapped d-dimensional ideal quantum gases with isotropic spin-orbit couplings (SOCs) is derived and is found to bifurcate into even- dand odd- d classes. The expressions for the grand potential and hence for several thermodynamic quantities are then shown to be amenable to exact analytical forms provided d is an odd integer. Also, a condition γ < 2 d is obtained in case of odd- d for appearance of the Bose-Einstein condensation with γ as the power-law exponent. It is thus established that isotropic SOCs render even and odd dimensional spaces nonequivalent for uniform as well as trapped gases, and that the DOS of one-dimensional (1D) ideal gases, uniform or trapped, remains unaffected by the SOC. Furthermore, the analytical study of the transition temperature and the condensate fraction in a 3D Bose gas under combined presence of the harmonic trapping and the Weyl coupling shows that the condensation is favored by the former but disfavored by the latter. This countering behavior is discussed to be in conformity with the exchange-symmetry-induced statistical interactions resulting from these two entities as enunciated recently [Phys. Rev. A 88, 053607 (2013)].

  2. Topological Blount's theorem of odd-parity superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Shiozaki, Ken; Tanaka, Yukio; Sato, Masatoshi

    2014-07-01

    Blount's theorem prohibits the existence of line nodes for odd-parity superconductors (SCs) in the presence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We studied the topological stability conditions of line nodes under inversion symmetry by generalizing the original statement and establishing a relation to surface zero-energy states. The topological instability of line nodes in odd-parity SCs implies the disappearance of corresponding flat zero-energy surface dispersions due to surface Rashba SOC, which provides an experimental means to distinguish line nodes in odd-parity SCs from those in other SCs.

  3. The competition between alpha decay and spontaneous fission in odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the range 99 ≤ Z ≤ 129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Priyanka, B.

    2015-08-01

    The predictions on the mode of decay of the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z = 99- 129, in the range 228 ≤ A ≤ 336, have been done within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). A comparison of our calculated alpha half lives with the values computed using other theoretical models shows good agreement with each other. An extensive study on the spontaneous fission half lives of all the isotopes under study has been performed to identify the long-lived isotopes in the mass region. The study reveals that the alpha decay half lives and the mode of decay of the isotopes with Z = 109, 111, 113, 115 and 117, evaluated using our formalisms, agree well with the experimental observations. As our study on the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of Z = 99- 129 predicts that, the isotopes 238,240-25499, 244,246-258101, 248,250,252-260,262103, 254,256,258-262,264105, 258,260,262-264,266107, 262,264,266-274109, 266,268-279111, 270-284,286113, 272-289,291115, 274-299117, 276-307119, 281-314121, 287-320,322123, 295-325125, 302-327127 and 309-329129 survive fission and have alpha decay channel as the prominent mode of decay, these nuclei could possibly be synthesized in the laboratory and this could be of great interest to the experimentalists. The behavior of these nuclei against the proton decay has also been studied to identify the probable proton emitters in this region of nuclei.

  4. Odd cloud in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 28, 2002, MODIS captured this image of an interesting cloud formation in the boundary waters between Antarctica's Ross Sea and the Southern Ocean. A dragon? A snake? A fish? No, but it is an interesting example of the atmospheric physics of convection. The 'eye' of this dragon-looking cloud is likely a small spot of convection, the process by which hot moist air rises up into the atmosphere, often producing big, fluffy clouds as moisture in the air condenses as rises into the colder parts of the atmosphere. A false color analysis that shows different kinds of clouds in different colors reveals that the eye is composed of ice crystals while the 'body' is a liquid water cloud. This suggests that the eye is higher up in the atmosphere than the body. The most likely explanation for the eye feature is that the warm, rising air mass had enough buoyancy to punch through the liquid water cloud. As a convective parcel of air rises into the atmosphere, it pushes the colder air that is higher up out of its way. That cold air spills down over the sides of the convective air mass, and in this case has cleared away part of the liquid cloud layer below in the process. This spilling over of cold air from higher up in the atmosphere is the reason why thunderstorms are often accompanied by a cool breeze. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  5. LOFT advanced control room operator diagnostic and display system (ODDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, D.G.; Robb, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Reactor Facility in Idaho includes a highly instrumented nuclear reactor operated by the Department of Energy for the purpose of establishing nuclear safety requirements. The results of the development and installation into LOFT of an Operator Diagnostic and Display System (ODDS) are presented. The ODDS is a computer-based graphics display system centered around a PRIME 550 computer with several RAMTEK color graphic display units located within the control room and available to the reactor operators. Use of computer-based color graphics to aid the reactor operator is discussed. A detailed hardware description of the LOFT data system and the ODDS is presented. Methods and problems of backfitting the ODDS equipment into the LOFT plant are discussed.

  6. More IVF Tries Improve Odds of Having a Baby

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156347.html More IVF Tries Improve Odds of Having a Baby Some ... three-to-four cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF), a new British study suggests. Among more than ...

  7. Ebola Blood Level May Predict Odds of Death, Study Says

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155991.html Ebola Blood Level May Predict Odds of Death, Study ... Dec. 1, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The levels of Ebola virus in a patient's blood can strongly predict ...

  8. Male Infertility Might Signal Higher Odds of Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155748.html Male Infertility Might Signal Higher Odds of Testicular Cancer ... 16, 2015 MONDAY, Nov. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Men with reduced fertility could be at increased risk ...

  9. Military Deployment Tied to Greater Odds of Child Abuse, Neglect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Military Deployment Tied to Greater Odds of Child Abuse, Neglect Periods during and just after deployment ... said Dr. Bob Sege, a pediatrician specializing in child abuse and vice president of Health Resources in ...

  10. Dogs in The Home May Lower Kids' Odds for Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the Home May Lower Kids' Odds for Asthma Study findings support notion that early life exposure ... appears to reduce a child's risk of developing asthma, a new study shows. Researchers looked at more ...

  11. Characterization of isomers in the neutron-rich odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R; Sai, K. Vijay; Sainath, M.

    2011-02-15

    Critical examination of the experimental data from {sup 156}Nd and {sup 156}Pm {beta} decays and the observed location of relevant neutron and proton orbitals in the neighboring odd-A isotones and isotopes, taken together with the low-lying two-quasiparticle (2qp) structures expected in {sup 156}Pm from the rotor-particle model, lead to the conclusion that a consistent description of all the available data is achieved with the I{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} spin-parity assignment to the 26.7s {sup 156}Pm ground state (g.s.) and assignment of I{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} to its 150.3-keV isomer with the 2qp configuration 4{sub g.s.}{sup +}{l_brace}p{sub o}:5/2[532{up_arrow}]{+-}n{sub o}:3/2[521{up_arrow}]{r_brace}1{sub 150}{sup +}. In the process, a two-neutron configuration is also suggested for the 1509-keV 4{sup +} level in the daughter nucleus {sup 156}Sm. The present analysis reiterates the important question of whether the {beta}-decay log ft value, by itself, can be employed to deduce the relative parity of the {beta}-connected states.

  12. Both the Twin Paradox and GPS Data Show the Need for Additional Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percival, J. N.

    2013-09-01

    An analysis of the net proper time difference for a Twin Paradox scenario is shown to require an asymmetric construct such as a special physics frame and also shows that Special Relativity's time dilation equation does not describe proper time. An analysis of GPS confirms the need for a special physics frame and is sharply at odds with Special Relativity despite claims that GPS uses it.

  13. P-odd, P-even, and T-odd asymmetries in true quaternary fission of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G. Titova, L. V.

    2013-04-15

    The coefficients of P-odd, P-even, and T -odd asymmetries for a third and a fourth prescission particle emitted in the true quaternary fission of nuclei that was induced by polarized cold neutrons were studied on the basis of quantum-mechanical fission theory. By using non-evaporation (nonadiabatic) mechanisms of light-particle emission, these coefficients were compared with the analogous coefficients for prescission third particles emitted in the ternary fission of nuclei.

  14. Executive functions in preschoolers with ADHD, ODD, and comorbid ADHD-ODD: Evidence from ecological and performance-based measures.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser

    2015-09-01

    Executive functioning in 3-year-old preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), comorbid ADHD+ODD, and children without any of these conditions (control group) was examined. A community sample including 622 children was diagnosed using a diagnostic interview following DSM-IV criteria, and assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool version (BRIEF-P) and the Kiddie-Conners' Continuous Performance Test. The children diagnosed with ADHD showed the poorest executive function (EF) profile in comparison with controls, and were closely followed up in this respect by the comorbid ADHD+ODD children. The ADHD and comorbid groups presented similar executive difficulties. The ODD group obtained mean scores statistically equal to those of controls in EF. These findings suggest that, in preschoolers, executive functioning deficits assessed with a performance-based measure or with behavioural descriptions are specific to children with ADHD, in comparison with those with ODD. This study contributes knowledge about EFs in two prevalent and comorbid disorders in preschool children, ADHD and ODD, knowledge that can help our understanding of specific deficits and the design of specific early intervention initiatives. PMID:24966035

  15. An investigation of the solar cycle response of odd-nitrogen in the thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusch, David W.; Solomon, Stanley C.

    1992-01-01

    This annual report covers the first year of funding for the study of the solar cycle variations of odd-nitrogen (N((sup 2)D), N((sup 4)S), NO) in the Earth's thermosphere. The study uses the extensive data base generated by the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites, and the Solar Mesosphere Explorer Satellite. The AE data are being used, for the first time, to define the solar variability effect on the odd-nitrogen species through analysis of the emissions at 520 nano-m from N((sup 2)D) and the emission from O(+)((sup 2)P). Additional AE neutral and ion density data are used to help define and quantify the physical processes controlling the variations. The results from the airglow study will be used in the next two years of this study to explain the solar cycle changes in NO measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer.

  16. ? -decay spectra of odd nuclei using the effective Skyrme interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. E.; Carlsson, B. G.; berg, S.

    2015-07-01

    Background: For nuclei heavier than 208Pb ? decay is a dominating decay mode. ? decay of odd nuclei can give spectroscopic information because different states in the daughter nucleus can be populated in the decay. Purpose: To explore and test microscopic descriptions of ? decay of odd nuclei based on self-consistent models with effective nuclear interactions. To predict the hindrance of ? decay of odd-A superheavy nuclei. Methods: We apply the method of our previous work [15e D. E. Ward, B. G. Carlsson, and S. berg, Phys. Rev. C 88, 064316 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevC.88.064316] to the case of odd-A near-spherical nuclei. The Skyrme effective interaction SLy4 is used. Starting from the obtained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov vacuum and quasiparticle excitations, the ? -particle formation amplitude is calculated giving the decay rates and hindrance of different ? -decay channels. Result: The calculated relative decay rates show good agreement with available data. The hindrance of decay channels where the odd nucleon changes orbital is reasonably described by the microscopic calculation. Several hindered ground-state decays of superheavy nuclei are predicted, implying possible ? -? coincidences. Conclusions: The approach offers a practical method of making quantitative predictions for the relative hindrance of different ? -decay channels.

  17. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds. PMID:21707977

  18. Even and odd Wigner negative binomial states: Nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A.

    2015-10-01

    By using Wigner-Heisenberg algebra (WHA) and its Fock representation, even and odd Wigner negative binomial states (WNBSs) |M,?,?>W (? = 0 corresponds to the ordinary even and odd negative binomial states (NBSs)) are introduced. These states can be reduced to the Wigner cat states in special limit. We establish the resolution of identity property for them through a positive definite measure on the unit disc. Some of their nonclassical properties, such as Mandels parameter and quadrature squeezing have been investigated numerically. We show that in contrast with the even NBSs, even WNBSs may exhibit sub-Poissonian statistics. Also squeezing in the field quadratures appears for both even and odd WNBSs. It is found that the deformation parameter ? plays an essential role in displaying highly nonclassical behaviors.

  19. Even and Odd Deformed Photon Added Nonlinear Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A.; Ali-Mohammadzadeh, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce even and odd deformed photon added nonlinear coherent states which in a special case lead to the even and odd photon-added coherent states | z, m>. After choosing a particular nonlinearity function corresponding to the Pschl-Teller potential, we show that they satisfy the over-completeness relation and thus are coherent states in actual concept. Meanwhile, by investigating their non-classical features, we find that in the superposing process the quadrature squeezing disappears. Based on the interaction of a trapped ion with traveling wave light fields, we give a scheme for how to prepare even and odd deformed excited nonlinear coherent states. Finally, we compare their non-classicality aspects with | z, m>.

  20. Fluctuation theorems and entropy production with odd-parity variables.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Keun; Kwon, Chulan; Park, Hyunggyu

    2013-02-01

    We show that the total entropy production in stochastic processes with odd-parity variables (under time reversal) is separated into three parts, only two of which satisfy the integral fluctuation theorems in general. One is the usual excess contribution that can appear only transiently and is called nonadiabatic. Another one is attributed solely to the breakage of detailed balance. The last part that does not satisfy the fluctuation theorem comes from the steady-state distribution asymmetry for odd-parity variables that is activated in a nontransient manner. The latter two parts combine together as the housekeeping (adiabatic) contribution, whose positivity is not guaranteed except when the excess contribution completely vanishes. Our finding reveals that the equilibrium requires the steady-state distribution symmetry for odd-parity variables independently, in addition to the usual detailed balance. PMID:23414010

  1. Estimating Regression Parameters in an Extended Proportional Odds Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying Qing; Hu, Nan; Cheng, Su-Chun; Musoke, Philippa; Zhao, Lue Ping

    2012-01-01

    The proportional odds model may serve as a useful alternative to the Cox proportional hazards model to study association between covariates and their survival functions in medical studies. In this article, we study an extended proportional odds model that incorporates the so-called external time-varying covariates. In the extended model, regression parameters have a direct interpretation of comparing survival functions, without specifying the baseline survival odds function. Semiparametric and maximum likelihood estimation procedures are proposed to estimate the extended model. Our methods are demonstrated by Monte-Carlo simulations, and applied to a landmark randomized clinical trial of a short course Nevirapine (NVP) for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Additional application includes analysis of the well-known Veterans Administration (VA) Lung Cancer Trial. PMID:22904583

  2. 17 CFR 240.16a-5 - Odd-lot dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Odd-lot dealers. 240.16a-5....16a-5 Odd-lot dealers. Transactions by an odd-lot dealer (a) in odd-lots as reasonably necessary to carry on odd-lot transactions, or (b) in round lots to offset odd-lot transactions previously...

  3. 17 CFR 240.16a-5 - Odd-lot dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Odd-lot dealers. 240.16a-5....16a-5 Odd-lot dealers. Transactions by an odd-lot dealer (a) in odd-lots as reasonably necessary to carry on odd-lot transactions, or (b) in round lots to offset odd-lot transactions previously...

  4. 17 CFR 240.16a-5 - Odd-lot dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Odd-lot dealers. 240.16a-5....16a-5 Odd-lot dealers. Transactions by an odd-lot dealer (a) in odd-lots as reasonably necessary to carry on odd-lot transactions, or (b) in round lots to offset odd-lot transactions previously...

  5. 17 CFR 240.16a-5 - Odd-lot dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Odd-lot dealers. 240.16a-5....16a-5 Odd-lot dealers. Transactions by an odd-lot dealer (a) in odd-lots as reasonably necessary to carry on odd-lot transactions, or (b) in round lots to offset odd-lot transactions previously...

  6. 17 CFR 240.16a-5 - Odd-lot dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Odd-lot dealers. 240.16a-5....16a-5 Odd-lot dealers. Transactions by an odd-lot dealer (a) in odd-lots as reasonably necessary to carry on odd-lot transactions, or (b) in round lots to offset odd-lot transactions previously...

  7. Time-resolved dynamics of odd and even harmonic emission from oriented asymmetric molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Yu, Shujuan; Chen, Yanjun; Jiang, Xiangqian; Sun, Xiudong

    2015-11-01

    We study the time-resolved dynamics of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from oriented asymmetric molecules in intense laser fields theoretically. Previous studies have shown that the odd-even HHG spectra of asymmetric molecules don't show the striking two-center-interference-induced minimum, as the symmetric molecules do, due to the symmetry breaking. Surprisingly, with considering only the short-trajectory contribution, an apparent groove with small amplitudes is observed in the HHG time-frequency distribution, which implies that the harmonic emission is strongly suppressed in a specific time-frequency region. The position of this groove is sensitive to the molecular parameters and the orientation. Our analyses on this origin of the groove reveal different time-frequency properties of odd versus even signals, where the interplay of intramolecular interference and the permanent-dipole effect plays an important role. We show that the even-odd ratio often used in high-harmonic spectroscopy can be influenced significantly by the interference effect.

  8. Particle-number conservation in odd mass proton-rich nuclei in the isovector pairing case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    An expression of a wave function which describes odd-even systems in the isovector pairing case is proposed within the BCS approach. It is shown that it correctly generalizes the one used in the pairing between like-particles case. It is then projected on the good proton and neutron numbers using the Sharp-BCS (SBCS) method. The expressions of the expectation values of the particle-number operator and its square, as well as the energy, are deduced in both approaches. The formalism is applied to study the isovector pairing effect and the number projection one on the ground state energy of odd mass N ? Z nuclei using the single-particle energies of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. It is shown that both effects on energy do not exceed 2%, however, the absolute deviations may reach several MeV. Moreover, the np pairing effect rapidly diminishes as a function of (N - Z). The deformation effect is also studied. It is shown that the np pairing effect, either before or after the projection, as well as the projection effect, when including or not the isovector pairing, depends upon the deformation. However, it seems that the predicted ground state deformation will remain the same in the four approaches.

  9. Rare decay ?0 ?e+e- constraints on the light CP-odd Higgs in NMSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Qin; Yang, Ya-Dong

    2009-06-01

    We constrain the light CP-odd Higgs A10 in NMSSM via the rare decay ?0 ?e+e-. It is shown that the possible 3? discrepancy between theoretical predictions and the recent KTeV measurement of B (?0 ?e+e-) cannot be resolved when the constraints from ? ? ?A10, a? and ?0 ? ?? are combined. Furthermore, the combined constraints also exclude the scenario involving mA10 = 214.3 MeV, which is invoked to explain the anomaly in the ?+ ? p?+?- decay found by the HyperCP Collaboration.

  10. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  11. Chiral Odd Generalized Parton Distributions in Position Space

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, A.; Manohar, R.; Chakrabarti, D.

    2009-08-04

    We report on a calculation of the chiral odd generalized parton distributions (GPDs) for non-zero skewness {zeta} in transverse and longitudinal position spaces by taking Fourier transforms with respect to the transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers respectively using overlaps of light-front wave functions (LFWFs)

  12. Fission fragment angular momentum in ODD-Z fissioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, H.; Dange, S. P.; Singh, R. J.

    Independent isomeric yield ratios of 128Sb, 130Sb, 132, 131Te, 133Te, 132I, 134I, 136I, 135Xe and 138Cs have been determined in the fast neutron induced fission of 237Np and 241Am using radiochemical and gamma spectrometric technique. From the independent isomeric yield ratios, fragment angular momenta (Jrms) have been deduced using spin-dependent statistical model analysis. Comparison of these data with the literature data for even-Z fissioning systems shows the following important features: (i) Angular momenta for fragments with spherical 82n shell and even-Z products are lower compared to the fragments with out the 82n shell and odd-Z products indicating the effect of nuclear structure. (ii) Angular momentum of even-Z products in all the fissioning systems are comparable where as for odd-Z products it is slightly higher in the odd-Z fissioning systems than in the adjacent even-Z fissioning systems. This indicates the role of single particle on fragment angular momentum in odd-Z fissioning systems.

  13. Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2011-05-06

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.

  14. The Differential Graded Odd NilHecke Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Alexander P.; Qi, You

    2016-01-01

    We equip the odd nilHecke algebra and its associated thick calculus category with diagrammatically local differentials. The resulting differential graded Grothendieck groups are isomorphic to two different forms of the positive part of quantum sl_2 at a fourth root of unity.

  15. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the anti-evolutionists

  16. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek

  17. CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-10-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, {theta}{sub A}, induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tan{beta}, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by {theta}{sub A}. We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development.

  18. Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating ?-dioxygenase (?DOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli ?DOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining ?DOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), ?DOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes. PMID:25773521

  19. Antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with odd-numbered coupled spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.; Nsofini, J.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, studies on cyclic molecular nanomagnets have captivated the attention of researchers. These magnets are finite in size and contain very large spins. They are interesting because they possess macroscopic quantum tunneling of Nel vectors. For antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with finite number of even-numbered coupled spins, tunneling involves two classical localized Nel ground states separated by a magnetic energy barrier. The question is: can such phenomena be observed in nanomagnets with odd number of magnetic ions? The answer is not directly obvious because cyclic chains with odd-numbered coupled spins are frustrated as one cannot obtain a perfect Nel order. These frustrated spins can indeed be observed experimentally, so they are of interest. In this letter, we theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling in this odd spin system with arbitrary spins s, in the presence of a magnetic field applied along the plane of the magnet. In contrast to systems with an even-numbered coupled spins, the ground state of the cyclic odd-spin system contains a topological soliton due to spin frustration. Thus, the classical ground state is 2N-fold degenerate as the soliton can be placed anywhere along the ring with total S_z=+/- s . Small quantum fluctuations delocalize the soliton with a formation of an energy band. We obtain this energy band using degenerate perturbation theory at order 2s. We show that the soliton ground state is chiral for half-odd integer spins and non-chiral for integer spins. From the structure of the energy band we infer that as the value of the spin increases the inelastic polarized neutron-scattering intensity may increase or decrease depending on the strengths of the parameters of the Hamiltonian.

  20. Octupole correlations in neutron rich, odd-{ital A} lanthanum nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, W.; Phillips, W.R.; Durell, J.L.; Jones, M.A.; Leddy, M.; Pearson, C.J.; Smith, A.G.; Varley, B.J.; Ahmad, I.; Morss, L.R.; Bentaleb, M.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Schulz, N.

    1996-08-01

    Neutron-rich, odd-{ital Z} nuclei {sup 145}La and {sup 147}La populated in spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm were studied using the EUROGAM array. The experiment indicates the presence of similar octupole correlations in the studied La isotopes as found in the barium core nuclei. Alternating-parity structures were found in {sup 145}La, indicating enhanced octupole correlations, as observed in {sup 144}Ba, while in {sup 147}La octupole effects are weakened by alignment phenomena, as seen in the core nucleus {sup 146}Ba. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. Electromagnetic and thermal responses of Z topological insulators and superconductors in odd spatial dimensions.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Ken; Fujimoto, Satoshi

    2013-02-15

    The relation between bulk topological invariants and experimentally observable physical quantities is a fundamental property of topological insulators and superconductors. In the case of chiral symmetric systems in odd spatial dimensions such as time-reversal invariant topological superconductors and topological insulators with sublattice symmetry, this relation has not been well understood. We clarify that the winding number which characterizes the bulk Z nontriviality of these systems can appear in electromagnetic and thermal responses in a certain class of heterostructure systems. It is also found that the Z nontriviality can be detected in the bulk "chiral polarization," which is induced by magnetoelectric effects. PMID:25166392

  2. Level density and ?-ray strength function in the odd-odd Np238 nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornyi, T. G.; Guttormsen, M.; Eriksen, T. K.; Grgen, A.; Giacoppo, F.; Hagen, T. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Larsen, A. C.; Renstrm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.

    2014-04-01

    The level density and ?-ray strength function in the quasicontinuum of Np238 have been measured using the Oslo method. The level-density function follows closely the constant-temperature level-density formula and reaches 43106 levels per MeV at Sn=5.488 MeV of excitation energy. The ?-ray strength function displays a two-humped resonance at low-energy as also seen in previous investigations of Th, Pa, and U isotopes. The structure is interpreted as the scissors resonance and has an average centroid of ?SR=2.26(5) MeV and a total strength of BSR=10.8(12)?N2, which is in excellent agreement with sum-rule estimates. The scissors resonance is shown to have an impact on the Np237(n ,?)238Np cross section.

  3. Existence of intrinsic reflection asymmetry at low spin in odd and odd-odd mass nuclei in the Pm/Eu region

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, A.V.; Ragnarsson, I. )

    1995-03-01

    The low-spin features of odd-mass nuclei in the [ital Z][similar to]62, [ital N][similar to]90 region, for which stable octupole deformations has been previously suggested, are studied without introducing the static intrinsic reflection asymmetry (SIRA). Calculations using a Woods-Saxon potential and taking into account the Coriolis mixing show that most properties can be described in this approximation. Furthermore, the calculated polarization energies of octupole-driving orbitals are not large enough to support the existence of SIRA at low spin in this region.

  4. Executive Functioning in Children: A Comparison of Hospitalised ODD and ODD/ADHD Children and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Snoek, Heddeke; Matthys, Walter; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in executive functioning are supposed to have a predisposing influence on impulsive or aggressive behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) children with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have problems in executive functioning. Method: Seventy-seven 7- to 12-year-old…

  5. When is an odd number not odd? Influence of task rule on the MARC effect for numeric classification.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yang Seok; Proctor, Robert W

    2007-09-01

    When classifying numbers as odd or even with left-right keypresses, performance is better with the mapping even-right/odd-left than with the opposite mapping. This linguistic markedness association of response codes (MARC) effect has been attributed to compatibility between the linguistic markedness of stimulus and response codes. In 2 experiments participants made keypresses to the Arabic numerals or number words 3, 4, 8, and 9 using the odd-even parity rule or a multiple-of-3 rule, which yield the same keypress response for each stimulus. For both stimulus modes, the MARC effect was obtained with the odd-even rule, but tended to reverse with the multiple-of-3 rule. The reversal was complete for the right response, but task rule had little influence on the left response. The results are consistent with the view that the MARC effect and its reversal are caused by correspondence of the stimulus code designated as positive by the task rule with the positive-polarity right response code. PMID:17723063

  6. Alignments, additivity, and signature inversion in odd-odd {sup 170}Ta: A comprehensive high-spin study

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A.; Riley, M. A.; Teal, C.; Wang, X.; Hartley, D. J.; Mohr, W. H.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Carpenter, M. P.; Hecht, A. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Moore, E. F.; Zhu, S.; Chowdhury, P.; Tandel, S. K.; Danchev, M.; Djongolov, M. K.; Riedinger, L. L.; Hagemann, G. B.; Sletten, G.

    2010-06-15

    High-spin states (I < or approx. 50(Planck constant/2pi)) of the odd-odd nucleus {sup 170}Ta have been investigated with the {sup 124}Sn({sup 51}V,5n) reaction. The resolving power of Gammasphere has allowed for the observation of eleven rotational bands (eight of which are new) and over 430 transitions (approx350 of which are new) in this nucleus. Many interband transitions have been observed such that the relative spins and excitation energies of the 11 bands have been established. This is an unusual circumstance in an odd-odd study. Configurations have been assigned to most of these bands based upon features such as alignment properties, band crossings, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, and the additivity of Routhians. A systematic study of the frequency at which normal signature ordering occurs in the pih{sub 9/2}nui{sub 13/2} band has been performed and it is found that its trend is opposite to that observed in the pih{sub 11/2}nui{sub 13/2} bands. A possible interpretation of these trends is discussed based on a proton-neutron interaction.

  7. Executive Functioning in Children: A Comparison of Hospitalised ODD and ODD/ADHD Children and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Snoek, Heddeke; Matthys, Walter; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in executive functioning are supposed to have a predisposing influence on impulsive or aggressive behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) children with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have problems in executive functioning. Method: Seventy-seven 7- to 12-year-old

  8. Precision spectroscopy of the {sup 207}Pb{sup 19}F molecule: Implications for measurement of P-odd and T-odd effects

    SciTech Connect

    Alphei, Lukas D.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Petrov, A. N.; Mawhorter, Richard; Murphy, Benjamin; Baum, Alexander; Sears, Trevor J.; Yang, T. Zh.; Rupasinghe, P. M.; McRaven, C. P.; Shafer-Ray, N. E.

    2011-04-15

    Here we report precision microwave spectroscopy of pure rotational transitions of the {sup 207}Pb{sup 19}F isotopologue. We use these data to make predictions of the sensitivity of the molecule to P-odd, T-even and P-odd, T-odd effects.

  9. Precision Spectroscopy of the 207Pb19F molecule: Implications for Measurement of P-odd and T-odd Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, T.J.; Alphei, L.D.; Grabow, J.-U.; Petrov, A.N.; Mawhorter, R.; Murphy, B.; Baum, A.; Yang, T. Zh.; Rupasinghe, P.M.; McRaven, C.P.; Shafer-Ray, N.E.

    2011-04-21

    Here we report precision microwave spectroscopy of pure rotational transitions of the {sup 207}Pb{sup 19}F isotopologue. We use these data to make predictions of the sensitivity of the molecule to P-odd, T-even and P-odd, T-odd effects.

  10. Mesospheric Odd Nitrogen Enhancements During Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Smith, H. J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The behavior of mesospheric odd nitrogen species during and following relativistic and diffuse auroral precipitation events is simulated, Below 75 km nitric oxide is enhanced in proportion to the ion pair production function associated with the electron precipitation and the length of the event. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid are also enhanced. At 65 km the percentage of odd nitrogen for N is 0.1%, HNO3 is 1.6%, NO2 is 15%, and NO is 83.3%. Between 75 and 85 km NO is depleted during particle events due to the faster destruction of NO by N relative to the production of NO by N reacting with O2. Recovery of NO depends on transport from the lower thermosphere, where NO is produced in abundant amounts during particle events.

  11. Triplet proximity effect and odd-frequency pairing in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Jacob; Black-Schaffer, Annica M.; Sudb, Asle

    2010-07-01

    We study the interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and ferromagnetism in graphene by self-consistently solving the Bogoliubov de Gennes equations on the honeycomb lattice. We find that a strong triplet proximity effect is generated in graphene, leading to odd-frequency pairing correlations. These odd-frequency correlations are clearly manifested in the local density of states of the graphene sheet, which can be probed via scanning tunnel microscope measurements. Motivated by recent experiments on S|N|S graphene Josephson junctions, we also study the spectrum of Andreev bound states formed in the normal region due to the proximity effect. Our results may be useful for interpreting spectroscopic data and can also serve as a guideline for future experiments.

  12. Beating the regulatory odds with new simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.B.

    1994-06-20

    Complying with environmental regulations is like a horse race. When it comes to selecting pollution control technologies, the odds against picking a winner are high. A system that`s supposedly an odds-on favorite can come up short if the track conditions are wrong. The penalty for picking a loser is steep and even the best manufacturers can be put out to pasture for poor performance. Certainly, the stakes are high: the federal government projects that environmental rules will cost industry $184 billion annually by 2000. Others say it could be four times that. {open_quotes}But unless you have a crystal ball no one knows what it will cost{close_quotes}, says Robert Sackellares, head of the Atlanta office of SBE Environmental Company, New York City. {open_quotes}The final price tag will depend on the technologies that companies choose, and how effective they are.{close_quotes}.

  13. [Translation of the English term odds ratio as oportunidad relativa].

    PubMed

    Martn-Moreno, J M; Banegas, J R

    1997-01-01

    In the present work we argue for the translation of the English term odds ratio, a term of formal anti-natural esthetics for the Spanish-speaking and with added phonetic difficulties, for oportunidad relativa. These words respect the English abbreviation OR facilitating the expression of consistent formulations which may be directly translated, as well as communication between users, since the linguistic confusion due to the present abundance of terms used in Spanish, is reduced to one. Our justifications are mainly syntactic and semantic and reflect reasonable comparability between the terms odds ratio and oportunidad relativa. Reviews of some of the most prestigious dictionaries of the English and the Spanish languages lend additional support to our proposition. PMID:9092101

  14. Predator fitness increases with selectivity for odd prey.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Christian

    2012-05-01

    The fundamental currency of normative models of animal decision making is Darwinian fitness. In foraging ecology, empirical studies typically assess foraging strategies by recording energy intake rates rather than realized reproductive performance. This study provides a rare empirical link, in a vertebrate predator-prey system, between a predator's foraging behavior and direct measures of its reproductive fitness. Goshawks Accipiter gentilis selectively kill rare color variants of their principal prey, the feral pigeon Columba livia, presumably because targeting odd-looking birds in large uniform flocks helps them overcome confusion effects and enhances attack success. Reproductive performance of individual hawks increases significantly with their selectivity for odd-colored pigeons, even after controlling for confounding age effects. Older hawks exhibit more pronounced dietary preferences, suggesting that hunting performance improves with experience. Intriguingly, although negative frequency-dependent predation by hawks exerts strong selection against rare pigeon phenotypes, pigeon color polymorphism is maintained through negative assortative mating. PMID:22503502

  15. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yaqi; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049; Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 ; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 ; Zhang, Yanpeng; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  16. Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2008-11-11

    We investigate shape phase transitions in odd nuclei within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. Special attention is given to the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation. The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2 with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that leads to the occurrence of the SU{sup BF}(3) boson-fermion symmetry when the boson part approaches the SU(3) condition. Both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions show characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The role of the additional particle in characterizing the properties of the critical points in finite quantal systems is investigated by resorting to the formalism based on the intrinsic frame.

  17. (abstract) Odd Hydrogen in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, Hari; Allen, Mark; Yung, Yuk L.

    1994-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere has many features in common with the terrestrial mesosphere. Both share similar pressure and temperature ranges, and much of the same chemistry operates in each. For example, the radical species H, OH, and H(sub 2)O, which comprise the odd hydrogen family, are of central importance in the catalytic destruction of CO and O(sub 3) in both atmospheres. The inclusion of recent chemical kinetics data, specifically temperature dependent CO(sub 2) absorption cross-sections, into our one dimensional photochemical model of the Martial atmosphere shows that oxidation of CO by odd hydrogen is too efficient. The incorporation of smaller cross sections for CO(sub 2) leads to an enhanced photolysis rate of water vapor, increasing odd hydrogen to the point where the predicted mixing ratio of CO in our model is substantially less than the observed value of 6.5 x 10(sup -4). Interestingly, most photochemical models of the terrestrial mesosphere underestimate the CO and O(sub 3) densities using currently accepted photodissociation and kinetic rate coefficients. This has also been attributed to an overabundance of odd hydrogen in the models. We shall show that agreement between models and observations of CO in the Martian atmosphere as well as of CO and O(sub 3) in the terrestrial mesosphere can be achieved by revising the rate constants for the reactions OH + HO(sub 2) and CO + OH within their published uncertainties. The fact that similar revisions alleviate discrepancies in both the terrestrial and Martian atmospheres warrants a re-evaluation of these key rate constants at the appropriate temperatures and pressures.

  18. Yrast band in doubly-odd /sup 138/Eu

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Y.; Ahn, K.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Xu, N.; Fossan, D.B.

    1988-11-01

    A rotational band, showing both signature components with a small energy splitting, has been identified in the doubly-odd /sup 138/Eu nucleus via the /sup 92/Mo(/sup 50/Cr,3pn..gamma..) reaction. Both ..gamma..-..gamma.. and ..gamma..-n coincidence studies were employed. Comparisons with the lighter /sup 136/Pm, /sup 134/Pr, and /sup 132/La isotones suggest a ..pi..h/sub 11/2/x..nu..h/sub 11/2/ structure.

  19. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  20. Combining universal and odd RR axions for aligned natural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xin; Li, Tianjun; Shukla, Pramod E-mail: tli@itp.ac.cn

    2014-10-01

    We successfully embed the Kim-Nilles-Peloso (KNP) alignment mechanism for enhancing the axion decay constant in the context of large volume type IIB orientifolds. The flat direction is generated in the plane of (C{sub 0}-C{sub 2}) axions corresponding to the involutively even universal axion C{sub 0} and odd axion C{sub 2}, respectively. The moduli stabilization with large volume scheme has been established as well.

  1. Distinction between even and odd steps in the magnetization of a Mn_12-acetate crystal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoko; Mertes, K. M.; Sarachik, M. P.; Paltiel, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Rumberger, E. M.; Hendrickson, D. N.; Christou, G.

    2002-03-01

    Data for the magnetization of a Mn_12-acetate crystal obtained for different sweep rates of a magnetic field applied along the anisotropy axis have been shown(K. M. Mertes, Y. Suzuki, M. P. Sarachik, Y. Paltiel, H. Shtrikman, E . Zeldov, E. M. Rumberger, D. N. Hendrickson, and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87), 227205 (2001). to collapse onto the single scaled curve predicted by Chudnovsky and Garanin(E. M. Chudnovsky and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 187203 (2001).) for the case when the dominant symmetry-breaking term that drives tunneling is a second order transverse anisotropy. A detailed analysis of the data indicates there is a clear distinction between even resonances, driven by transverse anisotropy, and odd resonances which require a contribution due to a transverse internal magnetic field. It will also be shown that scaling is not obtained if one assumes that the tunneling is driven solely by transverse fields.

  2. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633—Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) ER15MR06.000...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633—Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) ER15MR06.000...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633—Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) ER15MR06.000...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633—Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) ER15MR06.000...

  6. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  7. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  8. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  9. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  10. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  11. 26 CFR 601.901 - Missing children shown on penalty mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Missing children shown on penalty mail. 601.901... REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Use of Penalty Mail in the Location and Recovery of Missing Children § 601.901 Missing children shown on penalty mail. (a) Purpose. To support the national effort...

  12. 26 CFR 601.901 - Missing children shown on penalty mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Missing children shown on penalty mail. 601.901... REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Use of Penalty Mail in the Location and Recovery of Missing Children § 601.901 Missing children shown on penalty mail. (a) Purpose. To support the national effort...

  13. 26 CFR 601.901 - Missing children shown on penalty mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Missing children shown on penalty mail. 601.901... REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Use of Penalty Mail in the Location and Recovery of Missing Children § 601.901 Missing children shown on penalty mail. (a) Purpose. To support the national effort...

  14. 26 CFR 601.901 - Missing children shown on penalty mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Missing children shown on penalty mail. 601.901... REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Use of Penalty Mail in the Location and Recovery of Missing Children § 601.901 Missing children shown on penalty mail. (a) Purpose. To support the national effort...

  15. 26 CFR 601.901 - Missing children shown on penalty mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Missing children shown on penalty mail. 601.901... REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Use of Penalty Mail in the Location and Recovery of Missing Children § 601.901 Missing children shown on penalty mail. (a) Purpose. To support the national effort...

  16. Astronaut Virgil Grissom shown through window of open hatch on Gemini craft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, the command pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 three orbit mission, is shown through the window of the open hatch on Gemini spacecraft in the white room on the mornining of the launch.

  17. Disaster Impacts on Human Capital Accumulation Shown in the Typhoon Haiyan Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    School children and their school environment are increasingly exposed to all kinds of hazards. Many disaster events have shown the extent of disaster impacts on the education sector which this study also highlights in the Typhoon Haiyan Case. Disasters do not only cause loss of lives or damage to educational facilities, they also entail significant economic and social consequences on human capital development in the short and long-run. While the trend of short term disaster impact can easily be analyzed in rapid post disaster assessments taking destroyed assets as proxy, usually analyses of medium and long-term effects of disasters include large inherent uncertainties and are of less tangible nature, require more time and complex methods and can often not give comprehensive results. The consequences of disasters especially in developing countries are therefore to a certain extent often left unknown. Generally, economic and social effects of disasters on human capital seem to be ambiguous and to some degree these effects are related to economic, social and institutional well-being. Thus, clear understanding is crucial to interpret its complex effects on human capital accumulation. This essential nature of medium and long-term effects has not been reflected in many analyses. Focus has mostly been given on the extent of physical damage, displacements, lives and assets lost instead of targeting resilience of social and economic characteristics of communities in terms of preventing human capital accumulation disruption. Main objective of this study is to provide a conceptual framework illustrating the impacts of disasters on schooling which might help in assessing such effects, as one of the fundamental components of human capital accumulation (Ozceylan Aubrecht, 2013). The dimensions of human capital building and its relationship to disasters under the light of past disaster events are discussed with a special focus on the recent Typhoon Haiyan that struck the Philippines in November 2013. Natural disasters adversely affect human capital accumulation in several ways including loss of life, damage to the educational system, decreased educational quality, increased child labor, and associated high dropout rates. Another dimension closely related to the human capital is the reduced economic strength of families that can limit the expenditures on well-being, including education, health and food (child malnutrition) (Baez et al., 2010; Cuaresma, 2010). According to information provided by UN and international media approximately 6 million children were affected by Typhoon Haiyan with 1.4 million homes of children and their families destroyed and 1.8 million children displaced. About 90% of the school buildings in the affected region were damaged and schools therefore stayed closed for up to 2 months causing disruption for more than a million pupils and 34,000 teachers. In some areas, when school returned to operation, only half of the school kids reported back. Also for the other pupils the situation was still challenging with many of the prior basic educational resources affected (destroyed textbooks and learning material, damaged classrooms) and no own equipment available (books, pens, etc.). Those reported impacts have already interrupted the educational continuity and it is expected to further continue by adversely affecting human capital accumulation in the longer term. Part of this work has been done under the Global Program for Safer Schools (GPSS) carried out at the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). References: Baez, J., A. de la Fuente, and I. Carlos, 2010. Do Natural Disasters Affect Human Capital? An Assessment Based on Existing Empirical Evidence. IZA Discussion Paper Series: 5164. Cuaresma, J., 2010. Natural Disasters and Human Capital Accumulation. World Bank Economic Review 24(2): 280-302. Ozceylan Aubrecht, D., 2013. Economic Impact of Disasters on the Education Sector. Global Program for Safer Schools (GPSS), GFDRR & The World Bank, Working Paper, Washington DC, August 2013, 30 pp.

  18. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Josephine; Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye; Moran, Brian J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  19. Non-classical Properties of State Generated by the Superposition of Photon-Added Even/Odd Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Gang; Du, Jian-ming; Yu, Hai-jun; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Xu, Ye-jun

    2013-10-01

    Non-classical state, which is a production of the superposition of photon-added even/odd coherent states (SPAEOCS), is introduced. We discussed the mathematical and physical character of such state. It is found that the normalization constant of SPAEOCS is a laguerre polynomial. The quasi-probability distributions and the distribution of the quadrature are studied. We find the negative values of the Wigner function of the SPAEOCS, which shows the SPAEOCS is a non-Gaussian state.

  20. Gamma bands in doubly odd rhenium and iridium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balodis, M.; B?rzin, J.; Krasta, T.; Simonova, L.

    2015-05-01

    Structure of the |K 2| bands in doubly-odd nuclei belonging to the transitional deformation region at A190 is discussed. Relation of these quasi gamma-bands with the non-axial deformation of the parent two-quasiparticle configurations is studied. Using available experimental information, new tentative |K 2| bands are proposed in 188Re, and 192,194Ir nuclei. Coexistence of two-quasiparticle states with different deformation modes is considered in the case of 188Re and 194Ir.

  1. Radiative lifetimes of odd-parity levels in Nb I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund, Sheo; Bhattacharyya, Soumen; Yarlagadda, Suresh; Nakhate, S. G.

    2015-11-01

    Radiative lifetimes are reported for 37 odd-parity energy levels of neutral niobium (Nb I), out of which 33 have been measured for the first time. The levels belong to electronic configurations 4d35s5p and 4d45p between 18,790 and 35,730 cm-1. The time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique was employed. The Nb atoms were generated in a free-jet by laser vaporization of niobium metal. Lifetime values reported in this work fall in the range 12-340 ns and are accurate to ±10%.

  2. Behavior of odd-even mass staggering around 132Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coraggio, L.; Covello, A.; Gargano, A.; Itaco, N.

    2013-10-01

    We have performed shell-model calculations of binding energies of nuclei around 132Sn. The main aim of our study has been to find out if the behavior of odd-even staggering across N=82 is explainable in terms of the shell model. In our calculations, we have employed realistic low-momentum two-body effective interactions derived from the charge-dependent Bonn nucleon-nucleon potential that have already proved quite successful in describing the spectroscopic properties of nuclei in the 132Sn region. Comparison shows that our results fully explain the trend of the experimental staggering.

  3. Dimension-5 C P -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Yoon, Boram

    2015-12-01

    We study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T - and P -odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. We present the renormalization matrix to one loop in the MS ¯ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the MS ¯ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and 't Hooft-Veltman prescriptions for γ5.

  4. Signatures of odd-frequency correlations in the Josephson current of superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Caroline; Buzdin, Alexandre; Houzet, Manuel; Meyer, Julia S.

    2015-09-01

    Contacting a bilayer ferromagnet with a singlet even-frequency superconductor allows for the realization of an effective triplet odd-frequency superconductor. In this work, we investigate the Josephson effect between superconductors with different symmetries (e.g., odd versus even frequency). In particular, we study the supercurrent flowing between two triplet odd-frequency superconducting leads through a weak singlet even-frequency superconductor. We show that the peculiar temperature dependence of the critical current below the superconducting transition of the weak superconductor is a signature of the competition between odd/odd-frequency and odd/even-frequency Josephson couplings.

  5. Inelastic neutron scattering studies on the odd-membered antiferromagnetic wheel Cr8Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Michael L.; Waldmann, Oliver; Piligkos, Stergios; Bircher, Roland; Cador, Olivier; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Fernandez-Alonso, Felix; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Mutka, Hannu; Podlesnyak, Andrew; Tuna, Floriana; Ochsenbein, Stefan; Sessoli, Roberta; Sieber, Andreas; Timco, Grigore A.; Weihe, Hgni; Gdel, Hans U.; Winpenny, Richard E. P.

    2012-08-01

    [(iC3H7)2NH2][Cr8NiF9(O2CCMe)18], or Cr8Ni, is a prominent example of an odd-membered antiferromagnetic wheel. A detailed characterization of the magnetic properties of Cr8Ni has been conducted. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) is used to investigate the energy and momentum transfer dependence of the low-lying spin excitations, including excited states inaccessible by other experimental techniques. The richness of the INS data, in conjunction with microscopic spin Hamiltonian simulations, enables an accurate characterization of the magnetic properties of Cr8Ni. Nearest-neighbor exchange constants of JCrCr = 1.31 meV and JCrNi = 3.22 meV are determined, and clear evidence of axial single-ion anisotropy is found. The parameters determined by INS are shown to fit magnetic susceptibility. The spectroscopic identification of several successive S=1 excited total spin states and lowest spin band excitations show that the rotational band picture, valid for bipartite AFM wheels, breaks down for this odd-numbered wheel. The exchange constants determined here differ from previous efforts based on bulk measurements, and possible reasons are discussed. The large JCrNi/JCrCr ratio in Cr8Ni puts this wheel into a regime with strong quantum fluctuations in which the ground state can be described with a valence bond solid state picture.

  6. An Odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme Finite State Machine.

    PubMed

    Eshra, Abeer; El-Sayed, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    A finite-state machine (FSM) is an abstract mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs and sequential logic circuits. Considered as an abstract model of computation, FSM is weak; it has less computational power than some other models of computation such as the Turing machine. This paper discusses the finite-state automata based on Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and different implementations of DNA FSMs. Moreover, a comparison was made to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of presented DNA FSMS. Since it is a major goal for nanoscince, nanotechnology and super molecular chemistry is to design synthetic molecular devices that are programmable and run autonomously. Programmable means that the behavior of the device can be modified without redesigning the whole structure. Autonomous means that it runs without externally mediated change to the work cycle. In this paper we present an odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme FSM. Our paper makes use of a known design for a DNA nanorobotic device due to Reif and Sahu for executing FSM computations using DNAzymes. The main contribution of our paper is a description of how to program that device to do a FSM computation known as odd parity checking. We describe in detail finite state automaton built on 10-23 DNAzyme, and give its procedure of design and computation. The design procedure has two major phases: designing the language potential alphabet DNA strands, and depending on the first phase to design the DNAzyme possible transitions. PMID:26355779

  7. Beyond Mean-Field Calculations for Odd-Mass Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, B.; Avez, B.; Bender, M.; Heenen, P.-H.

    2014-10-01

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to Mg25 illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart.

  8. Beyond mean-field calculations for odd-mass nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bally, B; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P-H

    2014-10-17

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to ^{25}Mg illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. PMID:25361253

  9. Odds ratios for mediation analysis for a dichotomous outcome.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, Tyler J; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2010-12-15

    For dichotomous outcomes, the authors discuss when the standard approaches to mediation analysis used in epidemiology and the social sciences are valid, and they provide alternative mediation analysis techniques when the standard approaches will not work. They extend definitions of controlled direct effects and natural direct and indirect effects from the risk difference scale to the odds ratio scale. A simple technique to estimate direct and indirect effect odds ratios by combining logistic and linear regressions is described that applies when the outcome is rare and the mediator continuous. Further discussion is given as to how this mediation analysis technique can be extended to settings in which data come from a case-control study design. For the standard mediation analysis techniques used in the epidemiologic and social science literatures to be valid, an assumption of no interaction between the effects of the exposure and the mediator on the outcome is needed. The approach presented here, however, will apply even when there are interactions between the effect of the exposure and the mediator on the outcome. PMID:21036955

  10. Higher dimensional geometries related to fuzzy odd-dimensional spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2002-10-01

    We study SO(m) covariant matrix realizations of ∑i = 1mXi2 = 1 for even m as candidate fuzzy odd spheres following \\cite{guram}. As for the fuzzy four sphere, these matrix algebras contain more degrees of freedom than the sphere itself and the full set of variables has a geometrical description in terms of a higher dimensional coset. The fuzzy S2k-1 is related to a higher dimensional coset SO(2k)/U(1) × U(k-1). These cosets are bundles where base and fibre are hermitean symmetric spaces. The detailed form of the generators and relations for the matrix algebras related to the fuzzy three-spheres suggests matrix actions which admit the fuzzy spheres as solutions. These matrix actions are compared with the BFSS, IKKT and BMN matrix models as well as some others. The geometry and combinatorics of fuzzy odd spheres lead to some remarks on the transverse five-brane problem of matrix theories and the exotic scaling of the entropy of 5-branes with the brane number.

  11. Fitting stratified proportional odds models by amalgamating conditional likelihoods

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Bhramar; Ahn, Jaeil; Liu, Ivy; Rathouz, Paul J.; Snchez, Brisa N.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Classical methods for fitting a varying intercept logistic regression model to stratified data are based on the conditional likelihood principle to eliminate the stratum-specific nuisance parameters. When the outcome variable has multiple ordered categories, a natural choice for the outcome model is a stratified proportional odds or cumulative logit model. However, classical conditioning techniques do not apply to the general K-category cumulative logit model (K > 2) with varying stratum-specific intercepts as there is no reduction due to suffciency; the nuisance parameters remain in the conditional likelihood. We propose a methodology to fit stratified proportional odds model by amalgamating conditional likelihoods obtained from all possible binary collapsing of the ordinal scale. The method allows for categorical and continuous covariates in a general regression framework. We provide a robust sandwich estimate of the variance of the proposed estimator. For binary exposures, we show equivalence of our approach to the estimators already proposed in the literature. The proposed recipe can be implemented very easily in standard software. We illustrate the methods via three real data examples related to biomedical research. Simulation results comparing the proposed method with a random effects model on the stratification parameters are also furnished. PMID:18618428

  12. Signature inversion in doubly odd {sup124}La.

    SciTech Connect

    Chantler, H. J.; Paul, E. S.; Boston, A. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Charity, R.; Chiara, C. J.; Choy, P. T. W.; Davids, C. N.; Devlin, M.; Fletcher, A. M.; Fossan, D. B.; Jenkins, D. G.; Kelsall, N. S.; Koike, T.; LaFosse, D. R.; Nolan, P. J.; Sarantites, D. G.; Seweryniak, D.; Smith, J. F.; Starosta, K.; Wadsworth, R.; Wilson, A. N.; Physics; Univ. of Liverpool; Washington Univ.; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook; Univ. of Manchester; Univ. of York

    2002-07-01

    High-spin states have been studied in neutron-deficient {sup 124}{sub 57}La{sub 67}, populated through the {sup 64}Zn({sup 64}Zn,3pn) reaction at 260 MeV. The Gammasphere {gamma}-ray spectrometer has been used in conjunction with the Microball charged-particle detector, the Neutron Shell, and the Argonne Fragment Mass Analyzer, in order to select evaporation residues of interest. The known band structures have been extended and new bands found. Most of the bands are linked together, allowing more consistent spin and parity assignments. Comparison of band properties to cranking calculations has allowed configuration assignments to be made and includes the first identification of the g{sub 9/2} proton-hole in an odd-odd lanthanum isotope. Two bands have been assigned a {pi}h{sub 11/2}{circle_times}{nu}h{sub 11/2} structure; the yrast one exhibits a signature inversion in its level energies below I=18.5{Dirac_h}, while the excited one exhibits a signature inversion above I=18.5{Dirac_h}.

  13. Multi-quasiparticle structures up to spin {approx}44({h_bar}/2{pi}) in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 168}Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Riley, M. A.; Aguilar, A.; Teal, C.; Hartley, D. J.; Seyfried, E. P.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Riedinger, L. L.; Darby, I.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; McCutchan, E. A.; Zhu, S.; Chiara, C. J.; Kondev, F. G.; Chowdhury, P.; Lakshmi, S.; Tandel, S. K.; Tandel, U. S.

    2010-09-15

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 168}Ta have been populated in the {sup 120}Sn({sup 51}V,3n) reaction. Two multi-quasiparticle structures have been extended significantly from spin {approx}20({h_bar}/2{pi}) to above 40({h_bar}/2{pi}). As a result, the first rotational alignment has been fully delineated and a second band crossing has been observed for the first time in this nucleus. Configurations for these strongly coupled rotational bands are proposed based on signature splitting, B(M1)/B(E2) ratio information, and observed rotation-alignment behavior. Properties of the observed bands in {sup 168}Ta are compared to related structures in the neighboring odd-Z, odd-N, and odd-odd nuclei and are discussed within the framework of the cranked shell model.

  14. The odds of wrong-way crashes and resulting fatalities: A comprehensive analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponnaluri, Raj V

    2016-03-01

    The United States of America and other nations are grappling with the incidence of wrong-way driving (WWD). The issue is as important today (NTSB, 2012) as it was a half-century ago (Hulbert and Beers, 1966). In the absence of a comprehensive analysis, any effort to implement WWD countermeasures can be counterproductive. Hence, this effort began with the express intent to identify the factors that cause WWD crashes and fatalities. This work is sizeable in that it evaluated one million complete crash records from Florida. The methodology comprised (a) administering a survey on the perceptions about WWD; (b) developing binomial logistic models for computing the odds of WWD crashes, and of fatal crashes within the WWD space; (c) analyzing the contributing variables; and (d) comparing perceptions with crash analysis results. The study parameters included driver's age, gender, licensing state, physical defect, blood alcohol concentration, vehicle use, seatbelt compliance, day and time of crash, roadway lighting, facility type, weather conditions, road geometrics, and traffic volumes. Individual variable analysis of 23 parameters and the model development process included the determination of odds ratios and statistical tests for the predictive power and goodness-of-fit. The results of this work are generally consistent with expectation, yet surprising at times. This work concludes with decision-making inputs to the scientist, policy-maker and practitioner on the need for effectively engineering the roads, actively educating people about wrong-way driving, and strictly enforcing traffic laws, rules and regulations. PMID:26745273

  15. Controlled biosynthesis of odd-chain fuels and chemicals via engineered modular metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Hsien-Chung; Prather, Kristala L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial systems are being increasingly developed as production hosts for a wide variety of chemical compounds. Broader adoption of microbial synthesis is hampered by a limited number of high-yielding natural pathways for molecules with the desired physical properties, as well as the difficulty in functionally assembling complex biosynthetic pathways in heterologous hosts. Here, we address both of these challenges by reporting the adaptation of the butanol biosynthetic pathway for the synthesis of odd-chain molecules and the development of a complementary modular toolkit to facilitate pathway construction, characterization, and optimization in engineered Escherichia coli. The modular feature of our pathway enables multientry and multiexit biosynthesis of various odd-chain compounds at high efficiency. By varying combinations of the pathway and toolkit enzymes, we demonstrate controlled production of propionate, trans-2-pentenoate, valerate, and pentanol, compounds with applications that include biofuels, antibiotics, biopolymers, and aroma chemicals. Importantly, and in contrast to a previously used method to identify limitations in heterologous amorphadiene production, our bypass strategy was effective even without the presence of freely membrane-diffusible substrates. This approach should prove useful for optimization of other pathways that use CoA-derivatized intermediates, including fatty acid ?-oxidation and the mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid synthesis. PMID:23071297

  16. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in... connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under consideration, all available service department films...

  17. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in... connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under consideration, all available service department films...

  18. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in... connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under consideration, all available service department films...

  19. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in... connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under consideration, all available service department films...

  20. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in... connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under consideration, all available service department films...

  1. INVOLVEMENT OF MICRORNAS IN EMBRYONIC GENOME ACTIVATION AS SHOWN BY DICER EXPRESSION IN RAINBOW TROUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most maternal transcripts including many housekeeping genes are degraded at or around embryonic genome activation as evidenced by our initial studies. This degradation appears to be global but highly regulated. MicroRNAs are naturally occurring small (19-24bp) RNAs that are shown to be involved in m...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633—Test...

  3. 27 CFR 46.8 - Data to be shown in claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Application of 26 U.S.C. 6423, as Amended, to Refund or Credit of Tax on Tobacco Products, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claim Procedure 46.8 Data to be shown in claim. Claims to which... any manner whatsoever, the burden of the tax to any other person. (e) If the claim is for refund of...

  4. 2. SOUTH SIDE (REMAINDER NOT SHOWN IN HH1), OBLIQUE VIEW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH SIDE (REMAINDER NOT SHOWN IN HH-1), OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTH OF CENTER OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHEAST. LOADING DOOR AT FAR LEFT IS SAME LOADING DOOR AS AT RIGHT IN HH-1. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Coffee Roasting Plant, East of Fourth Street, between J & K, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 27 CFR 46.8 - Data to be shown in claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Application of 26 U.S.C. 6423, as Amended, to Refund or Credit of Tax on Tobacco Products, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claim Procedure 46.8 Data to be shown in claim. Claims to which... any manner whatsoever, the burden of the tax to any other person. (e) If the claim is for refund of...

  6. 27 CFR 46.8 - Data to be shown in claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Application of 26 U.S.C. 6423, as Amended, to Refund or Credit of Tax on Tobacco Products, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claim Procedure 46.8 Data to be shown in claim. Claims to which... any manner whatsoever, the burden of the tax to any other person. (e) If the claim is for refund of...

  7. 27 CFR 46.8 - Data to be shown in claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Application of 26 U.S.C. 6423, as Amended, to Refund or Credit of Tax on Tobacco Products, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claim Procedure 46.8 Data to be shown in claim. Claims to which... any manner whatsoever, the burden of the tax to any other person. (e) If the claim is for refund of...

  8. 27 CFR 46.8 - Data to be shown in claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Application of 26 U.S.C. 6423, as Amended, to Refund or Credit of Tax on Tobacco Products, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claim Procedure 46.8 Data to be shown in claim. Claims to which... any manner whatsoever, the burden of the tax to any other person. (e) If the claim is for refund of...

  9. 32. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWN IN SD231. BEHIND WALL FRAMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWN IN SD-2-31. BEHIND WALL FRAMING IS SAMPLING ROOM WITH WOOD SAMPLING ELEVATOR. CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ON LEFT (SOUTH). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. Level structure of odd-odd 134Sb populated in the ?- decays of 134,135Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shergur, J.; Whr, A.; Walters, W. B.; Kratz, K.-L.; Arndt, O.; Brown, B. A.; Cederkall, J.; Dillmann, I.; Fraile, L. M.; Hoff, P.; Joinet, A.; Kster, U.; Pfeiffer, B.

    2005-06-01

    The level structure of odd-odd 134Sb has been studied at CERN/ISOLDE following the ?- decay of 134Sn and the ?-delayed neutron decay of 135Sn. Elemental and isobaric separation were accomplished by use of a resonance ionization laser ion source and an on-line mass separator, respectively. Both ?-ray singles and ?-? coincidence data were taken as a function of time. New levels at 279, 441, 555, 617, and 1385 keV have been identified and given proposed spin and parity assignments of 7-, 5-, 6-, 4-, and 5-, respectively, following ?-delayed neutron decay of 7/2- 135Sn. New 1- levels have been identified at 1900, 2170, and 2430 keV following the ?- decay of 0+ 134Sn. The resulting level structures are compared to shell-model calculations using the CD Bonn interaction and scaled and unscaled Kuo-Herling interactions developed for the 208Pb region. Remarkably enough, the unscaled Kuo-Herling interaction provides the best fit for the levels below 1 MeV.

  11. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID33G101, ANOTHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID-33-G-101, ANOTHER VIEW. PERSONNEL DOORWAY INTO CHAMBER IDENTIFIES SODIUM HAZARD AND POSSIBILITY OF INERT GAS. LIQUID SODIUM COOLANT WAS USED IN A SPECIAL ETR LOOP ADAPTED FOR IT IN 1972. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. The Helios Prototype flying wing is shown moments after takeoff, beginning its first test flight on

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The solar-electric Helios Prototype flying wing is shown moments after takeoff, beginning its first test flight on solar power from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii, July 14, 2001. The 18-hour flight was a functional checkout of the aircraft's systems and performance in preparation for an attempt to reach sustained flight at 100,000 feet altitude later this summer.

  13. The odd origin of Gerstenhaber brackets, Batalin-Vilkovisky operators, and master equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Ralph M.; Ward, Benjamin C.; Zúñiga, J. Javier

    2015-10-01

    Using five basic principles, we treat Gerstenhaber/Lie brackets, Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) operators, and master equations appearing in mathematical and physical contexts in a unified way. The different contexts for this are given by the different types of (Feynman) graphs that underlie the particular situation. Two of the maxims we bring forth are (1) that extending to the non-connected graphs gives a commutative multiplication forming a part of the BV structure and (2) that there is a universal odd twist that unifies and explains seemingly ad hoc choices of signs and is responsible for the BV operator being a differential. Our treatment results in uniform, general theorems. These allow us to prove new results and recover and connect many constructions that have appeared independently throughout the literature. The more general point of view also allows us to disentangle the necessary from the circumstantial.

  14. Effect of odd hydrogen on ozone depletion by chlorine reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Cicerone, R. J.; Liu, S. C.; Chameides, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper discusses how the shape of the ozone layer changes under the influence of injected ClX for several choices of two key HOx reaction rates. The two HOx reactions are: OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. Results of calculations are presented which show that the two reaction rates determine the stratospheric concentrations of OH and HO2, and that these concentrations regulate the amount by which the stratospheric ozone column can be reduced due to injections of odd chlorine. It is concluded that the amount of ozone reduction by a given mixing ratio of ClX will remain very uncertain until the significance of several possible feedback effects involving HOx in a chlorine-polluted atmosphere are determined and measurements of the reaction rates and HOx concentrations are made at the relevant temperatures.

  15. Can one measure C-odd asymmetry in ee??? ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layssac, J.; Narison, S.

    2009-01-01

    C-odd asymmetry can be studied from an accurate measurement of the angular distribution due to the interference between the S- and P-waves in ee??? at order ?3. Though the integrated total cross-section is zero as expected from the Furry's theorem, the asymmetry is dominated by the pion rescattering diagram which is enhanced by the presence of the lns/me2, and is quite large (?11% at ?=30 and ?{s}

  16. Ground State Magnetic Properties of Odd Neutron DY Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakut, Hakan; Tabar, Emre; Kuliev, Ali Akbar; Zenginerler, Zemine; Kaplan, Pinar

    2013-10-01

    Using the quasiparticle phonon nuclear model (QPNM) and taking into account the spin-spin interaction, the effects of the spin polarization on spin gyromagnetic factors (gs) as well as the intrinsic magnetic moments (gK) of the deformed odd neutron 155-165Dy isotopes were studied. The calculated values of gs and gK are in fair agreement with the experiment as well as with other microscopic calculations. Our calculations indicated that because of the core polarization, the gs factors of the nucleons in the nucleus reduce noticeably from its free nucleon value and the spin-spin interactions play an important role in the explanation of the quenching of the gs factors. A very good reproduction of the phenomenological quenching of gs factor from its free values (gs eff = 0.6-0.7gs free) is obtained for 155-165Dy.

  17. Phase transition in odd-N Pd-isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hou-Bing; Dong, Guo-Xiang; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Fu-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Phase transition in odd-N isotopes 99,101,103Pd are investigated via the E-GOS (E-Gamma Over Spin) curves, which strongly suggest a structure evolution from vibration to rotation along the yrast lines with increasing spin. Theoretical calculations have been performed for the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd in the framework of the cranked shell model (CSM) and the alignment properties observed experimentally are analyzed employing this model. The results show that the phase transition in the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd can be interpreted as the valence nucleons start to occupy the g9/2 proton orbitals with increasing spin which would polarize the core to a small, but rigid quadrupole deformation. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi (2014jjBA10016, 2014jjDA10012) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11465005)

  18. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  19. Odd-even staggering in the neutron-proton interaction and nuclear mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. Y.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we study odd-even staggering of the empirical neutron-proton interaction between the last neutron and the last proton, denoted as ? V1 n -1 p , and its consequence in the Garvey-Kelson mass relations (GKs) and nuclear mass models. The root-mean-squared deviations of predicted masses respectively for even-A and odd-A nuclei by using two combinatorial GKs suggest a large odd-even staggering of ? V1 n -1 p between even-odd and odd-even nuclei, while the odd-even difference of ? V1 n -1 p between even-even and odd-odd nuclei is much smaller. The contribution of the odd-even staggering of ? V1 n -1 p between even-A and odd-A nuclei in deviations of theoretical ? V1 n -1 p values of the Duflo-Zuker model and the improved Weizs a ?cker -Skyrme model are well represented by an isospin-dependent term. The consideration of this odd-even staggering improves our description of binding energies and one-neutron separation energies in both the Duflo-Zuker model and the improved Weizs a ?cker -Skyrme model.

  20. ODD irritability is associated with obsessive-compulsive behavior and not ADHD in chronic tic disorders.

    PubMed

    Thriault, Marie-Claude G; Lesprance, Paul; Achim, Andr; Tellier, Genevive; Diab, Sabrina; Rouleau, Guy A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Richer, Francois

    2014-12-15

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are often associated with a variety of behavioral comorbidities including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and temper outbursts. ODD is often associated with ADHD but its links to other symptoms of TS/CT is not as clear. This study examined whether the various symptoms of ODD were differentially linked to the various comorbidities in TS. A clinical sample of 135 children diagnosed with TS was evaluated through parent questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Regressions and structural equation modeling confirmed that ODD is multidimensional in a TS/CT sample and showed that OCB was associated with the irritability symptoms of ODD whereas ADHD was associated with the Headstrong symptoms of ODD. Results suggest that increased attention to the different facets of ODD may help improve our understanding of emotional symptoms in TS/CT. PMID:25108592

  1. The development of hurricane Inez, 1966, as shown by satellite nighttime radiometric and daytime television coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A complete documentation of Numbus 2 High Resolution infrared Radiometer data and ESSA-1 and 3 television photographs is presented for the life-time of Hurricane Inez, 1966. Ten computer produced radiation charts were analyzed in order to delineate the three dimensional cloud structure during the formative, mature and dissipating stages of this tropical cyclone. Time sections were drawn throughout the storm's life cycle to relate the warm core development and upper level outflow of the storm with their respective cloud canopies, as shown by the radiation data. Aerial reconnaissance weather reports, radar photographs and conventional weather analyses were used to complement the satellite data. A computer program was utilized to accept Nimbus 2 HRIR equivalent blackbody temperatures within historical maximum and minimum sea surface temperature limits over the tropical Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Organic solute changes with acidification in Lake Skjervatjern as shown by 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malcolm, R.L.; Hayes, T.

    1994-01-01

    1H-NMR spectroscopy has been found to be a useful tool to establish possible real differences and trends between all natural organic solute fractions (fulvic acids, humic acids, and XAD-4 acids) after acid-rain additions to the Lake Skjervatjern watershed. The proton NMR technique used in this study determined the spectral distribution of nonexchangeable protons among four peaks (aliphatic protons; aliphatic protons on carbon ?? or attached to electronegative groups; protons on carbons attached to O or N heteroatoms; and aromatic protons). Differences of 10% or more in the respective peak areas were considered to represent a real difference. After one year of acidification, fulvic acids decreased 13% (relative) in Peak 3 protons on carbon attached to N and O heteratoms and exhibited a decrease in aromatic protons between 27% and 31%. Humic acids also exhibited an 11% relative decrease in aromatic protons as a result of acidification. After one year of acidification, real changes were shown in three of the four proton assignments in XAD-4 acids. Peak 1 aliphatic protons increased by 14% (relative), Peak 3 protons on carbons attached to O and N heteroatoms decreased by 13% (relative), and aromatic protons (Peak 4) decreased by 35% (relative). Upon acidification, there was a trend in all solutes for aromatic protons to decrease and aliphatic protons to increase. The natural variation in organic solutes as shown in the Control Side B of the lake from 1990 to 1991 is perhaps a small limitation to the same data interpretations of acid rain changes at the Lake Skjervatjern site, but the proton NMR technique shows great promise as an independent scientific tool to detect and support other chemical techniques in establishing organic solute changes with different treatments (i.e., additions of acid rain).

  3. Odd-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kim Jye Lee; Mansour, Maged P; Dunstan, Graeme A; Blackburn, Susan I; Koutoulis, Anthony; Nichols, Peter D

    2011-08-01

    A series of unusual odd-chain fatty acids (OC-FA) were identified in two thraustochytrid strains, TC 01 and TC 04, isolated from waters off the south east coast of Tasmania, Australia. FA compositions were determined by capillary GC and GC-MS, with confirmation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) structure performed by analysis of 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. PUFA constituted 68-74% of the total FA, with the essential PUFA; eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5?3, EPA), arachidonic acid (20:4?6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6?3, DHA), accounting for 42-44% of the total FA. High proportions of the saturated OC-FA 15:0 (7.1% in TC 01) and 17:0 (6.2% in TC 04) were detected. The OC-FA 17:1?8 was present at 2.8% in TC 01. Of particular interest, the C?? PUFA 21:5?5 and 21:4?7 were detected at 3.5% and 4.1%, respectively, in TC 04. A proposed biosynthesis pathway for these OC-PUFA is presented. It is possible that the unsaturated OC-PUFA found previously in a number of marine animals were derived from dietary thraustochytrids and they could be useful biomarkers in environmental and food web studies. PMID:21546043

  4. Airborne measurements of total reactive odd nitrogen (NO(y))

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebler, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Ridley, B. A.; Gregory, G. L.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne total reactive odd nitrogen measurements were made during August and September 1986 over the continental United States and off the west coast over the Pacific Ocean during NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 program. Measurements were made in the marine and continental boundary layer and the free troposphere up to 6.1 km altitude. NO(y) mixing ratios between 24 pptv and more than 1 ppbv were found, with median values of 101 pptv in the marine boundary layer, 298 pptv in the marine free troposphere, and 288 pptv in the continental free troposphere, respectively. The marine troposphere exhibited layered structure which was also seen in the simultaneously measured ozone mixing ratio and dew point temperature. The averaged vertical NO(y) profile over the ocean does not show a distinct gradient. The NO(y) mixing ratio over the continent decreases with increasing altitude. The latter is consistent with our understanding that the continents are the major source region for these gases.

  5. Redistribution of reactive odd nitrogen in the lower arctic stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebler, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Montzka, D. D.; Carroll, M. A.; Tuck, A. F.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gregory, G. L.; Vedder, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    In-situ measurements of total reactive odd nitrogen NO(y), were made from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in the lower arctic stratosphere during the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. Throughout January and February, NO(y) mixing ratios were typically between 0.5 and 3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at altitudes between 10 and 12.5 km. During several flights late in the mission, events of unusually light NO(y) occurred with mixing ratios up to 12 ppbv at these altitudes. Simultaneous measurements of N2O, O3, and H2O during these events suggest that large changes in NO(y) are not expected. The elevated NO(y) values are interpreted as a vertical redistribution of NO(y) in the lower stratosphere resulting from gravitational sedimentation of aerosol particles containing HNO3. No evidence of the redistribution of H2O is noted, consistent with observations of denitrification without dehydration higher in the stratosphere.

  6. Succinate esters: odd-even effects in melting points.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sumy; Sathishkumar, Ranganathan

    2014-10-01

    Dialkyl succinates show a pattern of alternating behavior in their melting points, as the number of C atoms in the alkane side chain increases, unlike in the dialkyl oxalates [Joseph et al. (2011). Acta Cryst. B67, 525-534]. Dialkyl succinates with odd numbers of C atoms in the alkyl side chain show higher melting points than the immediately adjacent analogues with even numbers. The crystal structures and their molecular packing have been analyzed for a series of dialkyl succinates with 1-4 C atoms in the alkyl side chain. The energy difference (?E) between the optimized and observed molecular conformations, density, Kitaigorodskii packing index (KPI) and C-H...O interactions are considered to rationalize this behavior. In contrast to the dialkyl oxalates where a larger number of moderately strong C-H...O interactions were characteristic of oxalates with elevated melting points, here the molecular packing and the density play a major role in raising the melting point. On moving from oxalate to succinate esters the introduction of the C2 spacer adds two activated H atoms to the asymmetric unit, resulting in the formation of stronger C-H...O hydrogen bonds in all succinates. As a result the crystallinity of long-chain alkyl substituted esters improves enormously in the presence of hydrogen bonds from activated donors. PMID:25274517

  7. Compositeness of the strange, charm, and beauty odd parity ? states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Recio, C.; Hidalgo-Duque, C.; Nieves, J.; Salcedo, L. L.; Tolos, L.

    2015-08-01

    We study the dependence on the quark mass of the compositeness of the lowest-lying odd parity hyperon states. Thus, we pay attention to ? -like states in the strange, charm, and beauty sectors which are dynamically generated using a unitarized meson-baryon model. In the strange sector we use a SU(6) extension of the Weinberg-Tomozawa meson-baryon interaction, and we further implement the heavy-quark spin symmetry to construct the meson-baryon interaction when charmed or beauty hadrons are involved. In the three examined flavor sectors, we obtain two JP=1 /2- and one JP=3 /2- ? states. We find that the ? states which are bound states (the three ?b) or narrow resonances [one ? (1405 ) and one ?c(2595 )] are well described as molecular states composed of s -wave meson-baryon pairs. The 1/2- wide ? (1405 ) and ?c(2595 ) as well as the 3/2- ? (1520 ) and ?c(2625 ) states display smaller compositeness so they would require new mechanisms, such as d -wave interactions.

  8. Increasing the Odds: Applying Emergentist Theory in Language Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Poll, Gerard H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This review introduces a leading theory of language development, emergentism, the view that language ability is the product of interactions between the language environment and the learning capabilities of the child. It suggests ways in which emergentism provides a theoretical rationale for interventions designed to address developmental language delays in young children. Method A review of selected literature on emergentist theory and research is presented, with a focus on the acquisition of early morphology and syntax. A significant method for developing and testing emergentist theory, connectionist modeling, is described. Key themes from both connectionist and behavioral studies are summarized and applied with specific examples to language intervention techniques. A case study is presented to integrate elements of emergentism with language intervention. Conclusions Evaluating the theoretical foundation for language interventions is an important step in evidence-based practice. This article introduces three themes in the emergentist literature that have implications for language intervention: sufficiency of language input, active engagement of the child with the input, and the introduction of factors that increase the odds for correctly mapping language form to meaning. Evidence supporting the importance of these factors in effective language intervention is presented, along with limitations in that evidence. PMID:21616988

  9. Odd-Frequency Triplet Josephson Current Through an Exchange Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, Andreas; Baker, Thomas E.; Richie-Halford, Adam; Moke, Adam K.

    2013-03-01

    The existence of an odd-frequency long range triplet component in the order parameter of a proximity system with singlet superconductors is a recent prediction that has garnered great interest. The experimental fingerprint of this phenomenon is difficult to establish. We investigate a hybrid structure in which the emergence of the long range triplet component may be measured and identified. We consider a superconductor - exchange spring - superconductor Josephson junction as a function of increasing twist of the magnetic domain wall in the exchange spring. We show that as the domain wall is generated the long range triplet component emerges and modifies the current flowing through the Josephson junction. The critical temperature is also affected by the increased twist of the domain wall. The calculations lead us to propose an experiment where the long range triplet component can unequivocally be identified. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation (DMR-0907242), the Army Research Laboratory, the Research Corporation, the Graduate Research Fellowship and RSCA at CSU Long Beach.

  10. Nonparametric Risk and Nonparametric Odds in Quantitative Genetic Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Qizhai

    2015-01-01

    The coefficient in a linear regression model is commonly employed to evaluate the genetic effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with a quantitative trait under the assumption that the trait value follows a normal distribution or is appropriately normally distributed after a certain transformation. When this assumption is violated, the distribution-free tests are preferred. In this work, we propose the nonparametric risk (NR) and nonparametric odds (NO), obtain the asymptotic normal distribution of estimated NR and then construct the confidence intervals. We also define the genetic models using NR, construct the test statistic under a given genetic model and a robust test, which are free of the genetic uncertainty. Simulation studies show that the proposed confidence intervals have satisfactory cover probabilities and the proposed test can control the type I error rates and is more powerful than the exiting ones under most of the considered scenarios. Application to gene of PTPN22 and genomic region of 6p21.33 from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 for association with the anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody further show their performances. PMID:26174851

  11. Ancient Grandeur of the Vertebrate Neuropeptide Y System Shown by the Coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae

    PubMed Central

    Larhammar, Dan; Bergqvist, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide Y (NPY) family receptors and peptides have previously been characterized in several tetrapods, teleost fishes, and in a holocephalan cartilaginous fish. This has shown that the ancestral NPY system in the jawed vertebrates consisted of the peptides NPY and peptide YY (PYY) and seven G-protein-coupled receptors named Y1–Y8 (Y3 does not exist). The different vertebrate lineages have subsequently lost or gained a few receptor genes. For instance, the human genome has lost three of the seven receptors while the zebrafish has lost two and gained two receptor genes. Here we describe the NPY system of a representative of an early diverging lineage among the sarcopterygians, the West Indian Ocean coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae. The coelacanth was found to have retained all seven receptors from the ancestral jawed vertebrate. The receptors display the typical characteristics found in other vertebrates. Interestingly, the coelacanth was found to have the local duplicate of the PYY gene, called pancreatic polypeptide, previously only identified in tetrapods. Thus, this duplication took place very early in the sarcopterygian lineage, before the origin of tetrapods. These findings confirm the ancient complexity of the NPY system and show that mammals have lost more NPY receptors than any other vertebrate lineage. The coelacanth has all three peptides found in tetrapods and has retained the ancestral jawed vertebrate receptor repertoire with neither gains or losses. PMID:23483106

  12. At Odds: Reconciling Experimental and Theoretical Results in High School Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    For this experiment, students are divided into 2 groups and presented with a static equilibrium force-balance problem to solve. One group works entirely experimentally and the other group theoretically, using Newton's laws. The groups present their seemingly dissimilar results and must reconcile them through discussion. (Contains 3 figures.)

  13. Odd and even Kondo effects from emergent localization in quantum point contacts.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M J; Levy, Roi; Koop, E J; Dekker, J B; de Jong, J P; van der Velde, J H M; Reuter, D; Wieck, A D; Aguado, Ramn; Meir, Yigal; van der Wal, C H

    2013-09-01

    A quantum point contact (QPC) is a basic nanometre-scale electronic device: a short and narrow transport channel between two electron reservoirs. In clean channels, electron transport is ballistic and the conductance is then quantized as a function of channel width with plateaux at integer multiples of 2e(2)/h (where e is the electron charge and h is Planck's constant). This can be understood in a picture where the electron states are propagating waves, without the need to account for electron-electron interactions. Quantized conductance could thus be the signature of ultimate control over nanoscale electron transport. However, even studies with the cleanest QPCs generically show significant anomalies in the quantized conductance traces, and there is consensus that these result from electron many-body effects. Despite extensive experimental and theoretical studies, understanding these anomalies is an open problem. Here we report that the many-body effects have their origin in one or more spontaneously localized states that emerge from Friedel oscillations in the electron charge density within the QPC channel. These localized states will have electron spins associated with them, and the Kondo effect--related to electron transport through such localized electron spins--contributes to the formation of the many-body state. We present evidence for such localization, with Kondo effects of odd or even character, directly reflecting the parity of the number of localized states; the evidence is obtained from experiments with length-tunable QPCs that show a periodic modulation of the many-body properties with Kondo signatures that alternate between odd and even Kondo effects. Our results are of importance for assessing the role of QPCs in more complex hybrid devices and for proposals for spintronic and quantum information applications. In addition, our results show that tunable QPCs offer a versatile platform for investigating many-body effects in nanoscale systems, with the ability to probe such physics at the level of a single site. PMID:23995683

  14. Atmospheric changes through 2012 as shown by iteratively homogenized radiosonde temperature and wind data (IUKv2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Steven C.; Nishant, Nidhi

    2015-05-01

    We present an updated version of the radiosonde dataset homogenized by Iterative Universal Kriging (IUKv2), now extended through February 2013, following the method used in the original version (Sherwood et al 2008 Robust tropospheric warming revealed by iteratively homogenized radiosonde data J. Clim. 21 5336-52). This method, in effect, performs a multiple linear regression of the data onto a structural model that includes both natural variability, trends, and time-changing instrument biases, thereby avoiding estimation biases inherent in traditional homogenization methods. One modification now enables homogenized winds to be provided for the first time. This, and several other small modifications made to the original method sometimes affect results at individual stations, but do not strongly affect broad-scale temperature trends. Temperature trends in the updated data show three noteworthy features. First, tropical warming is equally strong over both the 1959-2012 and 1979-2012 periods, increasing smoothly and almost moist-adiabatically from the surface (where it is roughly 0.14 K/decade) to 300 hPa (where it is about 0.25 K/decade over both periods), a pattern very close to that in climate model predictions. This contradicts suggestions that atmospheric warming has slowed in recent decades or that it has not kept up with that at the surface. Second, as shown in previous studies, tropospheric warming does not reach quite as high in the tropics and subtropics as predicted in typical models. Third, cooling has slackened in the stratosphere such that linear trends since 1979 are about half as strong as reported earlier for shorter periods. Wind trends over the period 1979-2012 confirm a strengthening, lifting and poleward shift of both subtropical westerly jets; the Northern one shows more displacement and the southern more intensification, but these details appear sensitive to the time period analysed. There is also a trend toward more easterly winds in the middle and upper troposphere of the deep tropics.

  15. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness predicts descending thoracic aorta atherosclerosis shown by multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yorgun, Hikmet; Canpolat, U?ur; Haz?rolan, Tuncay; Sunman, Hamza; Ate?, Ahmet Hakan; Grses, Kadri Murat; Ertu?rul, Ozgr; Kaya, Ergn Bar??; Aytemir, Kudret; Tokgzo?lu, Lale; Kabak?, Giray; Oto, Ali

    2012-04-01

    Human epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a type of visceral adipose tissue functioning as an endocrine organ by secreting hormones and adipocytokines which have an important role in the atherosclerotic process. In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between EAT measured by dual source multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and descending thoracic aorta (DTA) atherosclerosis. A total of 148 patients who underwent MDCT for the evaluation of coronary artery disease were enrolled in this study. Thickness of the EAT was measured on contrast enhanced multiplanar reformat images with parasternal short axis view at basal, mid-ventricular and apical levels and horizontal long axis view. The atherosclerotic plaque was scored from 0 to 4 points by the percentage of the luminal surface at the cross sectional area of proximal, mid and distal segments of descending aorta. Among the study population, 84 (56.8%) were male and age was (mean standart deviation) 56.9 11.7 years. In patients with critical coronary atherosclerosis, DTA atherosclerosis had a significant relationship with EAT (P = 0.012). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that in addition to critical coronary stenosis, age and total epicardial fat thickness were associated with aortic atherosclerosis (? value, 0.058 and 0.035; t value, 4.74 and 2.28, respectively; P < 0.05) after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In this study we demonstrated that atherosclerotic plaque burden of DTA was associated with the amount of EAT thickness among patients with suspected CAD shown by MDCT. Further large scale prospective studies are needed to address the interaction of EAT as well as the mediators of inflammation and adipocytokines with the development of atherosclerotic plaques in aorta and effects on cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:21637979

  16. Reduced visual surround suppression in schizophrenia shown by measuring contrast detection thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Romero-Ferreiro, Vernica; Read, Jenny C. A.; Diguez-Risco, Teresa; Bagney, Alexandra; Caballero-Gonzlez, Montserrat; Rodrguez-Torresano, Javier; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception in schizophrenia is attracting a broad interest given the deep knowledge that we have about the visual system in healthy populations. One example is the class of effects known collectively as visual surround suppression. For example, the visibility of a grating located in the visual periphery is impaired by the presence of a surrounding grating of the same spatial frequency and orientation. Previous studies have suggested abnormal visual surround suppression in patients with schizophrenia. Given that schizophrenia patients have cortical alterations including hypofunction of NMDA receptors and reduced concentration of GABA neurotransmitter, which affect lateral inhibitory connections, then they should be relatively better than controls at detecting visual stimuli that are usually suppressed. We tested this hypothesis by measuring contrast detection thresholds using a new stimulus configuration. We tested two groups: 21 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy subjects. Thresholds were obtained using Bayesian staircases in a four-alternative forced-choice detection task where the target was a grating within a 3? Butterworth window that appeared in one of four possible positions at 5? eccentricity. We compared three conditions, (a) target with no-surround, (b) target embedded within a surrounding grating of 20? diameter and 25% contrast with same spatial frequency and orthogonal orientation, and (c) target embedded within a surrounding grating with parallel (same) orientation. Previous results with healthy populations have shown that contrast thresholds are lower for orthogonal and no-surround (NS) conditions than for parallel surround (PS). The log-ratios between parallel and NS thresholds are used as an index quantifying visual surround suppression. Patients performed poorly compared to controls in the NS and orthogonal-surround conditions. However, they performed as well as controls when the surround was parallel, resulting in significantly lower suppression indices in patients. To examine whether the difference in suppression was driven by the lower NS thresholds for controls, we examined a matched subgroup of controls and patients, selected to have similar thresholds in the NS condition. Patients performed significantly better in the PS condition than controls. This analysis therefore indicates that a PS raised contrast thresholds less in patients than in controls. Our results support the hypothesis that inhibitory connections in early visual cortex are impaired in schizophrenia patients. PMID:25540631

  17. Seismic subduction of the Nazca Ridge as shown by the 1996-97 Peru earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spence, W.; Mendoza, C.; Engdahl, E.R.; Choy, G.L.; Norabuena, E.

    1999-01-01

    By rupturing more than half of the shallow subduction interface of the Nazca Ridge, the great November 12, 1996 Peruvian earthquake contradicts the hypothesis that oceanic ridges subduct aseismically. The mainshock's rupture has a length of about 200 km and has an average slip of about 1.4 m. Its moment is 1.5 x 1028 dyne-cm and the corresponding M(w) is 8.0. The mainshock registered three major episodes of moment release as shown by a finite fault inversion of teleseismically recorded broadband body waves. About 55% of the mainshock's total moment release occurred south of the Nazca Ridge, and the remaining moment release occurred at the southern half of the subduction interface of the Nazca Ridge. The rupture south of the Nazca Ridge was elongated parallel to the ridge axis and extended from a shallow depth to about 65 km depth. Because the axis of the Nazca Ridge is at a high angle to the plate convergence direction, the subducting Nazca Ridge has a large southwards component of motion, 5 cm/yr parallel to the coast. The 900-1200 m relief of the southwards sweeping Nazca Ridge is interpreted to act as a 'rigid indenter,' causing the greatest coupling south of the ridge's leading edge and leading to the large observed slip. The mainshock and aftershock hypocenters were relocated using a new procedure that simultaneously inverts local and teleseismic data. Most aftershocks were within the outline of the Nazca Ridge. A three-month delayed aftershock cluster' occurred at the northern part of the subducting Nazca Ridge. Aftershocks were notably lacking at the zone of greatest moment release, to the south of the Nazca Ridge. However, a lone foreshock at the southern end of this zone, some 140 km downstrike of the mainshock's epicenter, implies that conditions existed for rupture into that zone. The 1996 earthquake ruptured much of the inferred source zone of the M(w) 7.9-8.2 earthquake of 1942, although the latter was a slightly larger earthquake. The rupture zone of the 1996 earthquake is immediately north of the seismic gap left by the great earthquakes (M(w) ~8.8-9.1) of 1868 and 1877. The M(w) 8.0 Antofagasta earthquake of 1995 occurred at the southern end of this great seismic gap. The M(w) 8.2 deep-focus Bolivian earthquake of 1994 occurred directly downdip of the 1868 portion of that gap. The recent occurrence of three significant earthquakes on the periphery of the great seismic gap of the 1868 and 1877 events, among other factors, may signal an increased seismic potential for that zone.

  18. Direct {T}-VIOLATION Measurements and {T}-ODD Effects in Decay Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Gaum, L.; Kounnas, C.; Lola, S.; Pavlopoulos, P.

    2003-09-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental announcements for direct measurements of time-reversal non-invariance in the neutral kaon system, we make a comparative discussion of the CPLEAR and KTeV measurements. The most suitable way to consistently incorporate the mixing, the time evolution and the decays of kaons, is to describe the neutral kaon system as a system with a non-Hermitean Hamiltonian. In this framework, the physical (decaying) incoming and outgoing states are distinct and belong to dual spaces. Moreover, since they are eigenstates of the full Hamiltonian, they never oscillate. This is directly manifest in the orthogonality conditions of the physical states, which entirely determine the evolution of the kaon system. Along these lines we conclude: CPLEAR studies K0-bar {K}0 oscillations, a process where initial and final states can be reversed, the CPLEAR asymmetry being an effect directly related to the definition of time-reversal. Conclusively, CPLEAR provides a direct measurement of {T}-violation without any assumption either on unitarity or on {CPT}-invariance. The KTeV experiment studies in particular the process KL ? ?+?-e+e-, where they measure a {T}-odd effect. However, using unitarity together with estimates of the final state interactions, it should be possible to determine whether this effect can be identified with a genuine {T}-reversal violation.

  19. E-GOS plots for Odd-A Medium Mass Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova, Veronika; Fetea, Mirela; Regan, Paddy; Zamfir, Victor; Casten, Rick; Beausang, Cornelius

    2004-10-01

    Neutron rich nuclei are difficult to populate experimentally. One of the best mechanisms currently available is to use heavy-ion binary reactions to populate the medium-to-high spin states of the near-stable nuclei to investigate the role of specific orbitals in determining how the nuclear structure properties evolve as a function of angular momentum. A recently reported `E-Gamma Over Spin' (E-GOS) prescription [1,2] provides an intuitive graphical mechanism for viewing potential phase changes in the mechanism for angular momentum generation in transitional nuclei. Flat curves are associated with rotors, while hyperbolic loci are associated with vibrational structures - quite distinct from plots of excitation energy against the spin, where the trajectories for both a vibrator and a rotor gradually increase as a function of spin. The present work extends the previous EGOS analysis for even-even nuclei to odd-A medium mass nuclei. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. PHY 0204811, Research Corporation Grant No. CC5494, US-DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-91ER-40609 and by the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council UK. PHR acknowledges support from the Yale University Flint and Science Development Funds. [1] Regan, P.H. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 152502 (2003) [2] Regan, P.H. et al., AIP Conferences Proceedings 656, New York, American Institute of Physics, 2003, pp 422-428.

  20. Quantum transport in a normal metal/odd-frequency superconductor junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Jacob; Yokoyama, Takehito; Tanaka, Yukio; Asano, Yasuhiro; Sudb, Asle

    2008-05-01

    Recent experimental results indicate the possible realization of a bulk odd-frequency superconducting state in the compounds CeCu2Si2 and CeRhIn5 . Motivated by this, we present a study of the quantum transport properties of a normal metal/odd-frequency superconductor junction in a search for probes to unveil the odd-frequency symmetry. From the Eliashberg equations, we perform a quasiclassical approximation to account for the transport formalism of an odd-frequency superconductor with the Keldysh formalism. Specifically, we consider the tunneling charge conductance and the tunneling thermal conductance. We qualitatively find distinct behavior in the odd-frequency case compared to the conventional even-frequency case in both the electrical and thermal current. This serves as a useful tool to identify the possible existence of a bulk odd-frequency superconducting state.

  1. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  2. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, A.; Fukushima, K.; Kharzeev, D.; Warringa, H.; Voloshin, S.

    2010-04-26

    This volume contains the proceedings of the RBRC/CATHIE workshop on 'P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter' held at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center on April 26-30, 2010. The workshop was triggered by the experimental observation of charge correlations in heavy ion collisions at RHIC, which were predicted to occur due to local parity violation (P- and CP-odd fluctuations) in hot and dense QCD matter. This experimental result excited a significant interest in the broad physics community, inspired a few alternative interpretations, and emphasized the need for a deeper understanding of the role of topology in QCD vacuum and in hot and dense quark-gluon matter. Topological effects in QCD are also closely related to a number of intriguing problems in condensed matter physics, cosmology and astrophysics. We therefore felt that a broad cross-disciplinary discussion of topological P- and CP-odd effects in various kinds of matter was urgently needed. Such a discussion became the subject of the workshop. Specific topics discussed at the workshop include the following: (1) The current experimental results on charge asymmetries at RHIC and the physical interpretations of the data; (2) Quantitative characterization of topological effects in QCD matter including both analytical (perturbative and non-perturbative using gauge/gravity duality) and numerical (lattice-QCD) calculations; (3) Topological effects in cosmology of the Early Universe (including baryogenesis and dark energy); (4) Topological effects in condensed matter physics (including graphene and superfiuids); and (5) Directions for the future experimental studies of P- and CP-odd effects at RHIC and elsewhere. We feel that the talks and intense discussions during the workshop were extremely useful, and resulted in new ideas in both theory and experiment. We hope that the workshop has contributed to the progress in understanding the role of topology in QCD and related fields. We thank all the speakers and participants, and express our gratitude to the event coordinator Pam Esposito for her hard work.

  3. Experimental Identification of Intruder Bandheads in Odd-Mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    A.N. Andreyev; J.F.C. Cocks; O. Dorvaux; K. Eskola; P. Greenlees; P. Jones; R. Julin; S. Juutinen; K. Helariutta; M. Huyse; H. Kettunen; P. Kuusiniemi; M. Leino; M. Muikku; W.H. Trzaska; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; R. Wyss

    1999-12-31

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  4. Experimental identification of intruder bandheads in odd-mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Greenlees, P.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Helariutta, K.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Eskola, K.; Wyss, R.

    1999-11-16

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  5. Odd-even effect in the elastic modulii of ?,?-alkanedicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Manish Kumar; Varughese, Sunil; Ramamurty, Upadrasta; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-06-01

    Nanoindentation studies on ?,?-alkanedicarboxylic acids reveal that the elastic modulus, E, shows an odd-even alternation in exactly the same manner as the melting temperature, Tm. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the strained molecular conformations in the odd diacids are the reasons for these alternations in Tm. The same packing features that lower Tm in the odd acids lead to easy accommodation of the deformation during nanoindentation and hence their low E. PMID:23688149

  6. Measurements of odd nitrogen compounds in the stratosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. M., III; Rinsland, C. P.; Farmer, C. B.; Froidevaux, L.; Toon, G. C.; Zander, R.

    1988-01-01

    Spacelab 3's Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment has obtained 30 deg N and 48 deg S vertical profiles of reservoir gases, source gases, and other trace molecules that are important in the middle atmosphere's odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, and odd hydrogen chemical families. The abundances of individual gases and total odd nitrogen levels measured by ATMOS have been compared with prior results obtained from balloon and satellite platforms. The lower-limit profile agrees with ATMOS data to within 16 percent up to 42 km altitude.

  7. Informational Odds Ratio: A Useful Measure of Epidemiologic Association in Environment Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.; Lea, Suzanne; Toland, Amanda; Phillips, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (ie, information gained after knowing exposure status). A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility (ie, the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder). Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs generally are collapsible. IORs are a useful measure of disease association in environmental case-referent studies, especially when the disease is common in the exposed and/or unexposed groups. PMID:22518087

  8. Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveticanin, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics (electromechanical devices like micro-actuators and micro oscillators), in music instruments (hammers in piano), in human voice producing folds (voice cords), etc.

  9. T invariance and T-odd asymmetries for the cold-polarized-neutron-induced fission of nonoriented nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bunakov, V. E.; Titova, L. V.

    2014-12-15

    It is shown that the coefficients D{sup exp} for all T-odd asymmetries observed experimentally in the cross sections for the reactions of cold-polarized-neutron-induced fission of nonoriented target nuclei (which involves the emission of prescission and evaporated particles) comply in shape and scale with the coefficients D{sup theor} calculated for the analogous asymmetries on the basis of quantum-mechanical nuclear-fission theory for T-invariant Hamiltonians of fissile systems. It is also shown that the asymmetries in question arise upon taking into account the effect of (i) the interference between the fission amplitudes of s- and p-wave resonances of a polarized fissile compound nucleus formed in the aforementioned reactions; (ii) the collective rotation of the compound nucleus in question (this rotation entails a change in the angular distributions of fission fragments and third particles); and (iii) the wriggling vibrations of this compound nucleus in the vicinity of its scission point, which lead to the appearance of high aligned spins of fission fragments, with the result that the emission of neutrons and photons evaporated from these fragments becomes anisotropic. The possible contribution of T-noninvariant interactions to the formation of the T-odd asymmetries under analysis is estimated by using the results obtained in experimentally testing the detailed-balance principle, (P-A) theorem, and T invariance of cross sections for elastic proton-proton and proton-neutron scattering.

  10. Role of T-odd Functions in High Energy Hadronic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Salvo, E.

    2003-07-01

    I propose a simple model for predicting the enegy behavior of T-odd, chiral odd function h1?. Furthermore I illustrate a method for extracting h1? and the transversity function from Drell-Yan. The method may be applied also to other reactions.

  11. Into the Cuckoo's Nest: "Silver Linings Playbook" and Movies about Odd People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Odd people have always been identified and often treated differently in human societies. In modern times, they have been described as being afflicted with a psychological condition to be treated by specialists and assigned to a "crazy" category by general society. Movies about such odd people have a long history. A recent movie,

  12. The Interplay among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Participants were 258 three-year-old children (138 boys, 120

  13. Beating the Odds: Individual District Profiles. Results from the 2008-09 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This edition of "Beating the Odds" presents student achievement from 2008 to 2009. Individual district profiles of student achievement are presented. [For a related report, "Beating the Odds: Analysis of Student Performance on State Assessments and NAEP. Results from the 2008-09 School Year," see ED508975.

  14. The Correlation of Secondary Organic Aerosol with Odd Oxygen in Mexico City

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from a mountain location intercepting the Mexico City emission plume demonstrate a strong correlation between secondary organic aerosol and odd-oxygen (O3 + NO2). The measured oxygenated-organic aerosol correlates with odd-oxygen measurements with an a...

  15. Parallel solution of pentadiagonal systems using generalized odd-even elimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levit, Creon

    1989-01-01

    A method for the solution of pentadiagonal systems of linear equations is presented. The method is a generalization of ordinary odd-even elimination used for tridiagonal systems. Using n processors, an n x n pentadiagonal system can be solved using the new method (generalized odd-even elimination) in time proportional to log(2) n.

  16. Association of Anxiety and ODD/CD in Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Aguirre, Vincent P.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if

  17. Into the Cuckoo's Nest: "Silver Linings Playbook" and Movies about Odd People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Odd people have always been identified and often treated differently in human societies. In modern times, they have been described as being afflicted with a psychological condition to be treated by specialists and assigned to a "crazy" category by general society. Movies about such odd people have a long history. A recent movie,…

  18. Why Some Schools with Latino Children Beat the Odds...and Others Don't

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Campbell, Heather E.; Gau, Rebecca; Jacobs, Ellen; Rex, Tom; Hess, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout Arizona and the Southwest, the odds are against high achievement in schools with a mostly Latino, mostly poor student enrollment. Some schools, however, "beat the odds" and achieve consistently high results or show steady gains. Why do these schools succeed where others fail? Using the methodology of business guru Jim Collins from his

  19. The odd-even effect in Sudoku puzzles: effects of working memory, aging, and experience.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hye-Sang; Gibson, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    The odd-even effect in numerical processing has been explained as the easier processing of even numbers compared with odd numbers. We investigated this effect in Sudoku puzzles, a reasoning problem that uses numbers but does not require arithmetic operations. Specifically, we asked whether the odd-even effect occurred with Sudoku puzzles and whether individual differences in working memory (WM), aging, and experience with Sudoku modulated this effect. We manipulated the presence of odd and even numbers in Sudoku puzzles, measured WM with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and backward digit span task, tested older and younger adults, and collected Sudoku experience frequency. Performance on Sudoku was more accurate for even puzzles than odd ones. Younger, experienced, and higher-WM participants were more accurate on Sudoku, but these individual difference variables did not interact with the odd-even effect. Odd numbers may impose more cognitive load than even numbers, but future research is needed to examine how age, experience, or WM may influence the odd-even effect. PMID:21977693

  20. Fitting Proportional Odds Models to Educational Data in Ordinal Logistic Regression Using Stata, SAS and SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xing

    2008-01-01

    The proportional odds (PO) model, which is also called cumulative odds model (Agresti, 1996, 2002 ; Armstrong & Sloan, 1989; Long, 1997, Long & Freese, 2006; McCullagh, 1980; McCullagh & Nelder, 1989; Powers & Xie, 2000; O'Connell, 2006), is one of the most commonly used models for the analysis of ordinal categorical data and comes from the class…

  1. Clinically Referred ODD Children with or without CD and Healthy Controls: Comparisons across Contextual Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Bukstein, Oscar; Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 6-11-year-old, clinically referred boys and girls diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, either with (ODD + CD, n = 40) or without Conduct Disorder (ODD only; n = 136), to a matched sample of healthy control children (HC; n = 69). Multiple informants completed intake diagnostic interviews and self-reports to evaluate

  2. Molecular dynamics in lipid bilayers. Anisotropic diffusion in an odd restoring potential.

    PubMed Central

    Alam, T M

    1993-01-01

    Recent 2H nuclear magnetic resonance spin relaxation studies have questioned the influence of restoring potential parity on the description of lipid or molecular reorientational dynamics. In biomembranes the polar head groups of lipid and sterol constituents are expected to associate with the aqueous interface; therefore, realistic descriptions of molecular reorientation in bilayer systems should use an odd restoring potential. The multiexponential correlation functions and related spectral density functions for small-step anisotropic diffusion in a pseudo-restoring potential of the form U(beta) = -lambda cos beta are evaluated as a function of molecular ordering . From analysis of these results the single exponential approximation used in previous investigations is found to overestimate the decay rate at lower order, but is reliable for > 0.6. The exception to this trend is the decay constant for the G11 (omega; t) correlation function, which is not accurately portrayed by the first-order approximations. A second-order single exponential approximation is presented, and is shown to be equivalent to the weighted sum of the multidecay constants. In general, the potential parity is found to have only minor effects on the spin relaxation rates obtained to describe molecular reorientation in lipid bilayers. PMID:8369401

  3. Low-lying excited states of the odd-proton nuclei with Z ?100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirikova, N. Yu.; Sushkov, A. V.; Jolos, R. V.

    2013-12-01

    Background: Theoretical investigations of the structure of the low-lying states of nuclei with Z ?100 play an important role in understanding the properties of nuclei belonging to the new region of the nuclide chart which is available now for experimental study. Purpose: We perform the calculations of the excitation energies and wave functions of the low-lying states of nuclei with Z ?100. Methods: The quasiparticle-phonon model, which takes into account an interaction of the quasiparticles and phonons of different multipolarities, is used as a basis for the calculations. Results: The excitation energies and the quasiparticle-phonon structure of the low-lying states with excitation energies up to 1200 keV of the odd-proton nuclei 239-251Bk, 243-255Es, 247-257Md, 253,255Lr, and 261,263Db are calculated. Conclusions: It is shown that starting from 600 keV the excitation of the phonons and the quasiparticle-phonon interaction play an important role in the description of the properties of the excited states of nuclei with Z ?100.

  4. Data mining in bone marrow transplant records to identify patients with high odds of survival.

    PubMed

    Taati, Babak; Snoek, Jasper; Aleman, Dionne; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing a bone marrow stem cell transplant (BMT) face various risk factors. Analyzing data from past transplants could enhance the understanding of the factors influencing success. Records up to 120 measurements per transplant procedure from 1751 patients undergoing BMT were collected (Shariati Hospital). Collaborative filtering techniques allowed the processing of highly sparse records with 22.3% missing values. Ten-fold cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of various classification algorithms trained on predicting the survival status. Modest accuracy levels were obtained in predicting the survival status (AUC = 0.69). More importantly, however, operations that had the highest chances of success were shown to be identifiable with high accuracy, e.g., 92% or 97% when identifying 74 or 31 recipients, respectively. Identifying the patients with the highest chances of survival has direct application in the prioritization of resources and in donor matching. For patients where high-confidence prediction is not achieved, assigning a probability to their survival odds has potential applications in probabilistic decision support systems and in combination with other sources of information. PMID:24403400

  5. Odd-even effect in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Su Jun; Zhang Fengshou; Bian Baoan

    2011-01-15

    Heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies are studied by the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in the company of the GEMINI model. The isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model is applied to describe the violent stage of the collisions, while the GEMINI model is applied to simulate the decays of the prefragments. The present study mainly focuses on the odd-even effect in the yields of the final fragments. We find that the odd-even effect appears in the deexcitation process of the excited prefragments, and is affected by the excitation energies and the isotope distributions of the prefragments. Both the projectile-isospin-dependent odd-even effect in the region of -4{<=}T{sub Z}{<=}1 and the role of the symmetry energy on the odd-even effect are studied. We find that the odd-even effect depends sensitively on the symmetry energy.

  6. An apparent 'even-odd' cycle distribution in Mt. Wilson 'numbers of spots' data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    Mt. Wilson 'numbers of spots' data (Howard et al., 1984) appear to be distributed according to 'even-odd' cycle numbering. Linear fits of annual 'numbers of spots' versus annual sunspot number for even- and odd-numbered cycles have slopes which are statistically different at the 5 percent level of significance. The existence of an 'even-odd' split in Mt. Wilson 'numbers of spots' data may be due either to a real difference in even- and odd-numbered cycles on the sun or to a difference in weather at Mt. Wilson during even- and odd-numbered cycles, or both. For cycle 22, an even-numbered cycle, the peak 'numbers of spots' is estimated to be near 2600.

  7. Odd-mode surface plasmon polaritons supported by complementary plasmonic metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xi; Zhou, Liang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), either on metal-dielectric interfaces in optical frequencies or on structured metal surfaces in the lower frequencies, are dominantly even modes. Here we discover dominant odd-mode SPPs on a complementary plasmonic metamaterial, which is constructed by complementary symmetric grooves. We show that the fundamental SPP mode on such a plasmonic metamaterial is a tightly confined odd mode, whose dispersion curve can be tuned by the shape of groove. According to the electric field distributions of odd-mode SPPs, we propose a high-efficiency transducer using asymmetric coplanar waveguide and slot line to excite the odd-mode SPPs. Numerical simulations and experimental results validate the high-efficiency excitation and excellent propagation performance of odd-mode SPPs on the complementary plasmonic waveguides in the microwave frequencies. PMID:25783166

  8. Construct validity of ADHD/ODD rating scales: recommendations for the evaluation of forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD scales.

    PubMed

    Burns, G Leonard; Walsh, James A; Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodrguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872 Thai adolescents and the ADHD Rating Scale-IV and ODD scale of the Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 1,749 Spanish children. Most of the individual ADHD/ODD symptoms showed convergent and discriminant validity with the loadings and thresholds being invariant over mothers, fathers and teachers in both samples (the three latent factor means were higher for parents than teachers). The ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD latent factors demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity between mothers and fathers within the two samples. Convergent and discriminant validity between parents and teachers for the three factors was either absent (Thai sample) or only partial (Spanish sample). The application of exploratory SEM to a multiple indicator by multitrait by multisource model should prove useful for the evaluation of the construct validity of the forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD rating scales. PMID:22773361

  9. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds.

    PubMed

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country's 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  10. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    PubMed Central

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  11. An electron-spin resonance study of Rh 2(O 2CCH 3) 4(H 2O) 2+: evidence of ? RhRh ODD electron orbital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Takashi; Katayama, Hiroaki; Yamabe, Tokio

    1986-09-01

    Rh 2(O 2CCH 3) 4(H 2O) +2 dissolved in 1 mol/dm 3 HC1O 4 aqueous solution gives a broad axially symmetric ESR spectrum at 4.2 K with g ?, = 3.76 and g ? = 1.2. The analysis of this g-tensor has shown that the odd electron is accommodated in the degenerate ? *RhRh orbital.

  12. Structure of low-energy collective 0 --states in doubly magic nuclei and matrix elements of the P-odd and P- and T-odd weak interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorov, O. K.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V. V.

    1996-02-01

    The structure of the collective low-energy J? = 0 - ( T = 0 and T = 1) modes is studied for a doubly magic nucleus in a simplified analytic model of RPA. The 0 - phonon states ( T = 0, 1) lie at energies ET=0 (0 -) ? ? and ET=1 (0 -) > ?, where ? is the oscillator frequency. The matrix elements of P-odd and P- and T-odd weak one-body potentials connecting the ground state to these 0 --states, Wcoll, are enhanced by the factor ? 2( {?}/{E}) {1}/{2}A {1}/{3} ? 10 as compared to the single-particle value wsp what can result in values | Wcoll| ? 20-30 eV if standard values of DDH parameters are used for wsp. Similar enhancement arises in the P- and T-odd case.

  13. Spectroscopy of neutron-rich odd-A Ce isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoellinger, F.; Schulz, N.; Bentaleb, M.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Ahmad, I.; Morss, L.R.; Lubkiewicz, E.

    1997-09-01

    Neutron-rich nuclei {sup 147,149,151}Ce have been studied via the prompt {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of {sup 248}Cm fission fragments. A partial level scheme for {sup 151}Ce is presented for the first time, along with the high-spin structure in {sup 147,149}Ce. A rapidly changing yrast structure with neutron number is observed and it is suggested that bands in {sup 147}Ce and {sup 151}Ce are built on the {nu}i{sub 13/2} Nilsson state. The level scheme of {sup 149}Ce displays two bands with quite similar transition energies. There is no experimental evidence for octupole deformation in any of the three nuclei. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Electron-capture branching ratio measurements of odd-odd intermediate nuclei in double-beta decay at the TITAN facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennarz, A.; Brunner, T.; Andreoiu, C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Delheij, P.; Dilling, J.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Jang, F.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Ma, T.; Man, E.; Pearson, M. R.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    A novel technique to measure electron-capture branching ratios is being introduced, where the TITAN ion traps and the ISAC radioactive beam facility at TRIUMF are the central components. The technique will be applied to the intermediate odd-odd nuclei in double-beta decay. The decay properties of these nuclei will constrain theoretical models dealing with the evaluation of the nuclear matrix elements for both the 2 ? and the 0 ? mode. The present setup and its potential for measuring extremely low branching ratios at low instrumental backgrounds is described.

  15. Simulation of the present-day atmospheric ozone, odd nitrogen, chlorine and other species using a coupled 2-D model in isentropic coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H.; Olaguer, E.; Tung, K. K.

    1991-01-01

    A zonally averaged two-dimensional model for chemical species in the atmosphere (Olaguer et al., 1990), with coupled dynamics, radiation transfer, and chemistry, is used to study the present-day atmospheric ozone, odd nitrogen, chlorine, other species. The model utilizes all zonally averaged physical equations of momentum, energy, and mass and determines self-consistently the advective and diffusive tranasport parameters from the temperature specific to the period of observation. A comparison of the model results with observations showed good agreement.

  16. Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yazar, Harun Resit

    2013-06-15

    The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  17. ADHD, ODD, and CD: Do They Belong to a Common Psychopathological Spectrum? A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sayanti; Sinha, Mausumi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Research. Numerous studies have reported comorbidities, overlapping symptoms, and shared risk factors among cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). We present three adolescent males aged 13–16 years with conduct disorder having past history of ADHD and ODD. Principal Result. The symptom profile especially in domains of aggression, hostility, and emotionality as well as the manner of progression from ADHD to ODD and CD in the above cases shows a similar pattern. Conclusion. These common developmental pathways and overlapping symptoms suggest the possibility of a common psychopathological spectrum encompassing the three externalizing disorders. PMID:23097736

  18. Odds and ends in psychopharmacology from the past 10 years.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Seven topics previously described in this column are revisited. The use of quantitative electroencephalography has been shown in a prospective study to be effective for predicting antidepressant treatment response. A novel antidepressant drug, agomelatine, has generated much controversy, and its development for the U.S. market was discontinued. A long awaited revised system for categorizing the safety of medications during pregnancy and lactation has finally been published by the Food and Drug Administration. Dextromethorphan/quinidine, eslicarbazepine acetate, levomilnacipran, and esketamine are recent examples of drugs that were developed based on the complex concepts of chirality and stereochemistry. Lisdexamfetamine, a stimulant drug, failed to show benefit as an augmentation therapy for the treatment of depression. The combination drug naltrexone/bupropion was finally approved as a therapy for obesity, after its cardiovascular safety was confirmed in a prospective premarketing study. Further development of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist drug mifepristone as a treatment for psychotic depression was stopped based on a large negative trial, but the drug continues to be investigated for other potential psychiatric indications. These examples illustrate how the field of psychopharmacology continues to evolve. PMID:25622272

  19. Sustainable Odds: Towards Quantitative Decision Support when Relevant Probabilities are not Available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    There is, at present, no attractive foundation for quantitative probabilistic decision support in the face of model inadequacy, or given ambiguity (deep uncertainty) regarding the relative likelihood of various outcomes, known or unknown. True model error arguably precludes the extraction of objective probabilities from an ensemble of model runs drawn from an available (inadequate) model class, while the acknowledgement of incomplete understanding precludes the justified use of (if not the very formation of) an individual's subjective probabilities. An alternative approach based on Sustainable Odds is proposed and investigated. Sustainable Odds differ from "fair odds" (and are easily distinguished any claim which implying well defined probabilities) as the probabilities implied by sustainable odds summed over all outcomes is expected to exceed one. Traditionally, a person's fair odds are found by identifying the probability level at which one would happily accept either side of a bet, thus the probabilities implied by fair odds always sum to one. Knowing that one has incomplete information and perhaps even erroneous beliefs, there is no compelling reason a rational agent should accept the constraint implied by "fair odds" in any bet. Rather, a rational agent might insist on longer odds both on the event and against the event in order to account for acknowledged ignorance. Let probabilistic odds imply any set of odds for which the implied probabilities sum to one; once model error is acknowledged can one rationally demand non-probabilistic odds? The danger of using fair odds (or probabilities) in decision making is illustrated by considering the risk of ruin a cooperative insurance scheme using probabilistic odds is exposed to. Cases where knowing merely that the insurer's model is imperfect, and nothing else, is sufficient to place bets which drive the insurer to an unexpectedly early ruin are presented. Methodologies which allow the insurer to avoid this early ruin are explored; those which prevent early ruin are said to provide "sustainable odds", and it is suggested that these must be non-probabilistic. The aim here is not for the insurance cooperative to make a profit in the long run (or to form a book in any one round) but rather to increase the chance that the cooperative will not go bust, merely breaking even in the long run and thereby continuing to provide a service. In the perfect model scenario, with complete knowledge of all uncertainties and unlimited computational resources, fair odds may prove to be sustainable. The implications these results hold in the case of games against nature, which is perhaps a more relevant context for decision makers concerned with geophysical systems, are discussed. The claim that acknowledged model error makes fair (probabilistic) odds an irrational aim is considered, as are the challenges of working within the framework of sustainable (but non-probabilistic) odds.

  20. Construct Validity of ADHD/ODD Rating Scales: Recommendations for the Evaluation of Forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872

  1. Construct Validity of ADHD/ODD Rating Scales: Recommendations for the Evaluation of Forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872…

  2. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W. A.

    2015-10-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field.

  3. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the 'rules' of plating.

    PubMed

    Woods, Andy T; Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1-6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  4. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W A

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  5. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  6. A model for phonon coupling contributions to electromagnetic moments of odd spherical nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saperstein, E. E.; Kamerdzhiev, S.; Krewald, S.; Speth, J.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.

    2013-08-01

    Within the Theory of Finite Fermi Systems (TFFS), a model is developed to describe Phonon Coupling (PC) effects in odd magic and semi-magic nuclei. It is based on the perturbation theory in g^2_L , where gL is the vertex of the L-phonon creation. Among all g^2_L diagrams the set is separated which depends significantly on the nucleus under consideration and the state ? of the odd nucleon. An ansatz is proposed to take into account the phonon tadpole diagram which ensures the total angular-momentum conservation. Calculations are carried out for three odd-proton chains, the odd Tl, In and Sb ones. Different PC corrections strongly cancel each other. In the result, the total PC correction to magnetic moments in magic nuclei is, as a rule, negligible. In the non-magic nuclei considered it is noticeable and improves the agreement with data.

  7. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the ‘rules’ of plating

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1–6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  8. Odd-even dependence of rectifying behavior in carbon chains modified diphenyl-dimethyl molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiu-Hua; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Hai-Ying; Liu, De-Sheng; Chen, Gang

    2014-06-01

    Using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of asymmetric nonequi-length carbon chains on the electron transport properties of diphenyl-dimethyl molecule. The results show significant odd-even dependence: the rectification appears only in the hybrid nanostructure with odd carbon chain on one side and even carbon chain on the other side, while it is negligible in those with odd/even carbon chain on both sides. The mechanism for the odd-even dependence of rectification is analyzed by the bias-dependent transmission spectra, evolution of molecular orbital levels, their spatial distributions, and projected density of states with the applied bias.

  9. Colds, Flu Up Odds for Stroke in Kids, Though Risk Is Low

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Colds, Flu Up Odds for Stroke in Kids, Though Risk Is Low: Study Researchers also found ... but when lightning strikes, and that previously healthy kid has a stroke, we're still trying to ...

  10. High 'Resting' Heart Rate Tied to Higher Odds of Early Death

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Heart Rate Tied to Higher Odds of Early Death But more research is needed before this can ... an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular death," said lead researcher Dr. Dongfeng Zhang, of the ...

  11. Testing Lorentz invariance using an odd-parity asymmetric optical resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Baynes, Fred N.; Luiten, Andre N.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2011-10-15

    We present the first experimental test of Lorentz invariance using the frequency difference between counter-propagating modes in an asymmetric odd-parity optical resonator. This type of test is {approx}10{sup 4} more sensitive to odd-parity and isotropic (scalar) violations of Lorentz invariance than equivalent conventional even-parity experiments due to the asymmetry of the optical resonator. The disadvantages of odd-parity resonators have been negated by the use of counter-propagating modes, delivering a high level of immunity to environmental fluctuations. With a nonrotating experiment our result limits the isotropic Lorentz violating parameter {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} to 3.4{+-}6.2x10{sup -9}, the best reported constraint from direct measurements. Using this technique the bounds on odd-parity and scalar violations of Lorentz invariance can be improved by many orders of magnitude.

  12. A model study of the effects of intermittent loss on odd nitrogen concentrations in the lower troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. W.; Hameed, S.; Matloff, G.

    1983-01-01

    A time-dependent box model of the lower troposphere which includes a description of photochemical and physical processes has been developed. This model has been applied to the calculation of nitric acid and NO(x)(NO + NO2) concentrations over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Nitric acid concentrations and the HNO3/NO(x) ratio are found to be highly variable under the assumptions regarding the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation employed in this model. The chemistry of odd nitrogen compounds during the night is potentially important in establishing the level of nitric acid in the lower troposphere. These calculations also indicate that relatively large errors may occur when the continuity equation describing nitric acid variations is averaged over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Interpretation of simultaneous measurements of HNO3 and NO(x) will require some knowledge of the history of the observed air mass and may require an improved understanding of nighttime odd nitrogen chemistry.

  13. 3D Viewing: Odd Perception - Illusion? reality? or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisimoto, K.; Iizasa, K.

    2008-12-01

    We live in the three dimensional space, don't we? It could be at least four dimensions, but that is another story. In either way our perceptual capability of 3D-Viewing is constrained by our 2D-perception (our intrinsic tools of perception). I carried out a few visual experiments using topographic data to show our intrinsic (or biological) disability (or shortcoming) in 3D-recognition of our world. Results of the experiments suggest: (1) 3D-surface model displayed on a 2D-computer screen (or paper) always has two interpretations of the 3D- surface geometry, if we choose one of the interpretation (in other word, if we are hooked by one perception of the two), we maintain its perception even if the 3D-model changes its viewing perspective in time shown on the screen, (2) more interesting is that 3D-real solid object (e.g.,made of clay) also gives above mentioned two interpretations of the geometry of the object, if we observe the object with one-eye. Most famous example of this viewing illusion is exemplified by a magician, who died in 2007, Jerry Andrus who made a super-cool paper crafted dragon which causes visual illusion to one-eyed viewer. I, by the experiments, confirmed this phenomenon in another perceptually persuasive (deceptive?) way. My conclusion is that this illusion is intrinsic, i.e. reality for human, because, even if we live in 3D-space, our perceptional tool (eyes) is composed of 2D sensors whose information is reconstructed or processed to 3D by our experience-based brain. So, (3) when we observe the 3D-surface-model on the computer screen, we are always one eye short even if we use both eyes. One last suggestion from my experiments is that recent highly sophisticated 3D- models might include too many information that human perceptions cannot handle properly, i.e. we might not be understanding the 3D world (geospace) at all, just illusioned.

  14. "T-ODD" Effects in Transverse Spin and Azimuthal Asymmetries in Sidis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberg, Leonard P.; Goldstein, Gary R.

    We consider gluon rescattering as a mechanism to calculate a leading twist T-odd pion fragmentation function, a favored candidate for filtering the transversity properties of the nucleon. We evaluate the single spin azimuthal asymmetry for a transversely polarized target in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (for HERMES kinematics). Additionally, we calculate the double T-odd cos 2?> asymmetry in this framework.

  15. Using the Logarithm of Odds to Define a Vector Space on Probabilistic Atlases

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Kilian M.; Fisher, John; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha; McCarley, Robert W.; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Kikinis, Ron; Wells, William M.

    2007-01-01

    The Logarithm of the Odds ratio (LogOdds) is frequently used in areas such as artificial neural networks, economics, and biology, as an alternative representation of probabilities. Here, we use LogOdds to place probabilistic atlases in a linear vector space. This representation has several useful properties for medical imaging. For example, it not only encodes the shape of multiple anatomical structures but also captures some information concerning uncertainty. We demonstrate that the resulting vector space operations of addition and scalar multiplication have natural probabilistic interpretations. We discuss several examples for placing label maps into the space of LogOdds. First, we relate signed distance maps, a widely used implicit shape representation, to LogOdds and compare it to an alternative that is based on smoothing by spatial Gaussians. We find that the LogOdds approach better preserves shapes in a complex multiple object setting. In the second example, we capture the uncertainty of boundary locations by mapping multiple label maps of the same object into the LogOdds space. Third, we define a framework for non-convex interpolations among atlases that capture different time points in the aging process of a population. We evaluate the accuracy of our representation by generating a deformable shape atlas that captures the variations of anatomical shapes across a population. The deformable atlas is the result of a principal component analysis within the LogOdds space. This atlas is integrated into an existing segmentation approach for MR images. We compare the performance of the resulting implementation in segmenting 20 test cases to a similar approach that uses a more standard shape model that is based on signed distance maps. On this data set, the Bayesian classification model with our new representation outperformed the other approaches in segmenting subcortical structures. PMID:17698403

  16. Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teryaev, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.

  17. Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Teryaev, O.V.

    2015-04-10

    Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.

  18. Increases in weight and body size increase the odds for hypertension during 7 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T

    2008-11-01

    Changes in BMI and body size were compared to incident hypertension in 24,550 men and 10,111 women followed prospectively as part of the National Runners' Health Study to test whether long-term weight change affects hypertension risk. Incident hypertensions were reported by 2,143 men and 430 women during (mean +/- s.d.) 7.8 +/- 1.8 and 7.5 +/- 2.0 years of follow-up, respectively. Despite being active, men's and women's BMI increased 1.15 +/- 1.70 and 0.95 +/- 1.89 kg/m(2), respectively, and their waist circumferences increased 2.97 +/- 5.02 and 3.29 +/- 6.67 cm, respectively. Compared to those whose BMI declined, those who gained >or=2.4 kg/m(2) had an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.68 (1.45, 1.94) for becoming hypertensive if male and 1.42 (1.05, 1.92) if female. Men whose waist circumference increased >or=6 cm had an odds ratio of 1.22 (1.01, 1.47) for becoming hypertensive compared to those whose waists decreased. In both sexes, the odds for hypertension were significantly related to BMI at follow-up when adjusted for baseline BMI, but generally not to baseline BMI when adjusted for follow-up BMI. In the subset whose weights remained relatively unchanged during follow-up (+/-0.4 kg/m(2)), each kg/m(2) increment in BMI was associated with an odds ratio for becoming hypertensive of 1.19 (1.14, 1.24) in men and 1.11 (1.02, 1.20) in women. Thus, even among lean, physically active individuals: (i) weight gain increases hypertension risk; (ii) higher body weight increases the hypertension risk in a dose-dependent manner in the absence of any weight change; and (iii) there is no advantage carried forward to having been previously lean. PMID:18756262

  19. Testing the odds of inherent vs. observed overdispersion in neural spike counts.

    PubMed

    Taouali, Wahiba; Benvenuti, Giacomo; Wallisch, Pascal; Chavane, Frédéric; Perrinet, Laurent U

    2016-01-01

    The repeated presentation of an identical visual stimulus in the receptive field of a neuron may evoke different spiking patterns at each trial. Probabilistic methods are essential to understand the functional role of this variance within the neural activity. In that case, a Poisson process is the most common model of trial-to-trial variability. For a Poisson process, the variance of the spike count is constrained to be equal to the mean, irrespective of the duration of measurements. Numerous studies have shown that this relationship does not generally hold. Specifically, a majority of electrophysiological recordings show an "overdispersion" effect: responses that exhibit more intertrial variability than expected from a Poisson process alone. A model that is particularly well suited to quantify overdispersion is the Negative-Binomial distribution model. This model is well-studied and widely used but has only recently been applied to neuroscience. In this article, we address three main issues. First, we describe how the Negative-Binomial distribution provides a model apt to account for overdispersed spike counts. Second, we quantify the significance of this model for any neurophysiological data by proposing a statistical test, which quantifies the odds that overdispersion could be due to the limited number of repetitions (trials). We apply this test to three neurophysiological data sets along the visual pathway. Finally, we compare the performance of this model to the Poisson model on a population decoding task. We show that the decoding accuracy is improved when accounting for overdispersion, especially under the hypothesis of tuned overdispersion. PMID:26445864

  20. Interference of fission amplitudes of neutron resonances and T-odd asymmetry for various prescission third particles in the ternary fission of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. S.

    2011-12-15

    Differential cross sections for reactions of the true ternary fission of nuclei that was induced by cold polarized neutrons were constructed with allowance of the effect that Coriolis interaction and the interference between fission amplitudes of neutron resonances excited in fissile nuclei upon incidentneutron capture by target nuclei exerted on angular distributions of prescission third particles (alpha particles, neutrons, or photons). It is shown that T -odd TRI- and ROT-type asymmetries for prescission alpha particles are associated with, respectively, the odd and even components of the Coriolis interaction-perturbed amplitude of angular distributions of particles belonging to the types indicated above. These asymmetries have angular distributions differing from each other and stemming from a nontrivial dependence of these components on the neutron-resonance spins J{sub s} and their projections K{sub s} onto the symmetry axis of the nucleus involved. It is shown that angular distributions of prescission photons and neutrons from reactions of the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by cold polarized neutrons are determined by the effect of Coriolis forces exclusively. Therefore, the emerging T-odd asymmetries have a character of a ROT-type asymmetry and are universal for all target nuclei.

  1. Difference between even- and odd-numbered cycles in the predictability of solar activity and prediction of the amplitude of cycle 25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, A.

    2014-08-01

    It was shown previously that the sunspot number (SSN) at a point 3 years before the minimum is well correlated with the maximum SSN of the succeeding cycle, and a better correlation is obtained when the maximum SSN is replaced by the average SSN over a cycle for which the average SSN is calculated by dividing cycles at a point 3 years before the minimum (Yoshida and Yamagishi, 2010; Yoshida and Sayre, 2012). Following these findings, we demonstrate in this paper that the correlation between the SSN 3 years before the minimum and the amplitude of the coming cycle differs significantly between even-numbered and odd-numbered cycles: the correlation is much better for even-numbered cycles. Further, it is shown that the amplitude of even-numbered cycles is strongly correlated with that of the succeeding odd-numbered cycles, while the correlation between amplitudes of odd-numbered cycles and those of succeeding even-numbered cycles is very poor. Using the excellent correlations, we estimate the maximum SSN of the current cycle 24 at 81.3 and predict the maximum SSN of cycle 25 to be 115.4 11.9. It is of note, however, that a peak of the SSN has been observed in February 2012 and the peak value 66.9 is considerably smaller than the estimated maximum SSN of cycle 24. We conjecture that the second higher peak of the SSN may appear.

  2. Evaluation of a catalytic reduction technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Eubank, C. S.; Hubler, C. S.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of a technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy-containing species in the atmosphere has been examined. In the technique, an NOy component species, which may include NO, NO2, NO3, HNO3, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and particulate nitrate, are catalytically reduced by CO to form NO molecules on the surface of a metal converter tube, and the NO product is detected by chemiluminescence produced in reaction with O3. Among the catalysts tested in the temperature range of 25-500 C, Au was the preferred catalyst. The results of laboratory tests investigating the effects of pressure, O3, and H2O on NOy conversion, and the possible sources of interference, have shown that the technique is suitable for atmospheric analyses. The results of a test in ambient air at a remote ground-based field site are included.

  3. Analytical description of odd-A nuclei near the critical point of the spherical to axially deformed shape transition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yu; Pan Feng; Liu Yuxin; Hou Zhanfeng; Draayer, J. P.

    2010-09-15

    A coupling scheme for even-even nuclei with the X(5) critical point symmetry coupled to a single valence nucleon in a j orbit is proposed to approximately describe the critical point phenomena of spherical to axially deformed shape (phase) transition in odd-A nuclear systems. The corresponding scheme, which can be solved analytically, is called the X(5/(2j+1)) model. A special case with j=1/2 is analyzed in detail to show its level structure and transition patterns. It is further shown that {sup 189}Au and {sup 155}Tb may be possible X(5/(2j+1)) symmetry candidates with j=1/2 and j=3/2, respectively.

  4. Systematics of Rotational Bands in Odd-Mass Nuclei on the Basis of the Variable Moment of Inertia Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mitropolsky, I.

    2005-05-24

    On the grounds of a file of the evaluated nuclear data ENSDF, the most complete compilation of rotational bands in odd-A nuclei with mass numbers 43{<=}A{<=}253 is presented. The processing of experimental data has been carried out on the basis of generalization of the variable moment of inertia model for axial strong deformed nuclei, which is taking into account the decoupling effect for bands with K=1/2. The good description of rotational energies for the majority of rotational bands is obtained and the systematic behavior of the model parameters in all areas of the deformed nuclei is shown. The theoretical description was used for association of fragments of rotational bands, exclusion of 'superfluous' levels and prediction of a placement of 'missed' levels.

  5. Q{sup 2} evolution of chiral-odd twist-3 distribution e(x,Q{sup 2})

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Y.; Nishiyama, N.

    1997-03-01

    We study the Q{sup 2} dependence of the chiral-odd twist-3 distribution e(x,Q{sup 2}). The anomalous dimension matrix for the corresponding twist-3 operators is calculated in the one-loop level. This study completes the calculation of the anomalous dimension matrices for all the twist-3 distributions together with the known results for the other twist-3 distributions g{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) and h{sub L}(x,Q{sup 2}). We also have confirmed that in the large N{sub c} limit the Q{sup 2} evolution of e(x,Q{sup 2}) is wholly governed by the lowest eigenvalue of the anomalous dimension matrix which takes a very simple analytic form as in the case of g{sub 2} and h{sub L}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Even-odd effects in prompt emission of spontaneously fissioning even-even Pu isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Giubega, G.; Visan, I.

    2015-01-01

    The available experimental Y (A, TKE) data for 236,238,240,242,244Pu(SF) together with the Zp model prescription with appropriate parameters allows the investigation of even-odd effects in fragment distributions. The size of the global even-odd effect in Y (Z) is decreasing from 244Pu(SF) to 236Pu(SF) confirming the general observation of a decrease of the even-odd effect with the fissility parameter. Charge polarizations (?Z) and root-mean squares (rms) as a function of A of 236-244Pu(SF) were obtained for the first time. In the asymmetric fission region both ?Z (A) and rms (A) exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units due to the even-odd effects. The total average charge deviations < ?Z > (obtained by averaging ?Z (A) over the experimental Y (A) distribution) are of about |0.5| for all studied Pu(SF) systems. The comparison of the calculated ?Z (A) and rms (A) of 240Pu(SF) with those of 239Pu (nth, f) reported by Wahl shows an in-phase oscillation with a higher amplitude in the case of 240Pu(SF), confirming the higher even-odd effect in the case of SF. As in the previously studied cases (233,235U (nth, f), 239Pu (nth, f), 252Cf(SF)) the even-odd effects in the prompt emission of 236-244Pu(SF) are mainly due to the Z even-odd effects in fragment distributions and charge polarizations and the N even-odd effects in the average neutron separation energies from fragments < Sn >. The size of the global N even-odd effect in < Sn > is decreasing with the fissility parameter, being higher for the Pu(SF) systems compared to the previously studied systems. The prompt neutron multiplicities as a function of Z, ? (Z), exhibit sawtooth shapes with a visible staggering for asymmetric fragmentations. The size of the global Z even-odd effect in ? (Z) exhibits a decreasing trend with increasing fissility. The average prompt neutron multiplicities as a function of TKE show an increase of the even-odd effect with increasing TKE, with global effect sizes close to each other (a decrease of the effect for heavier fissioning nuclei is not observed here). The amounts of the global even-odd effect in Y (Z) and of the N even-odd effect in < Sn > of 240Pu(SF) are larger compared to 239Pu (nth, f). This fact affects the prompt emission leading to a lower Z even-odd effect in the prompt neutron multiplicity of 240Pu(SF) compared to 239Pu (nth, f).

  7. Map of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    Based on bibliometric data from information-services provider Thomson Reuters, this map reveals "core areas" of physics, shown as coloured circular nodes, and the relationship between these subdisciplines, shown as lines.

  8. Consistency and universality in odd and even dimensional space-time QFT perturbative calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistel, O. A.; Dallabona, G.

    2014-05-01

    The questions related to the consistent interpretation of QFT perturbative amplitudes are considered in light of a novel procedure, alternative to the traditional ones based on regularization prescriptions. A detailed discussion about the aspects associated to the space-time dimension is performed. For this purpose, it is considered a simple model having a fermionic vector current, coupled to a vector field, as well as a fermionic scalar current, coupled to a scalar field, both of them composed by different species of massive fermions. The referred currents are related in a precise way, which is reflected in the Ward identities for the perturbative physical amplitudes. The double vector two-point fermionic function, related to the vacuum polarization tensor of QED, as well as the amplitudes related to such quantity through relations among Green functions are explicit evaluated in space-time dimensions d = 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. In the adopted procedure the perturbative amplitudes are not modified in intermediary steps of the calculations, as occurs in regularization procedures. Divergent Feynman integrals are not really solved. They appear only in standard objects, conveniently defined, where no physical parameter is present. Only very general properties for such quantities are assumed. For the finite parts, a set of functions is introduced which allows universal forms for the results. We show that scale independent, ambiguity free amplitudes are automatically obtained in a regularization independent way. As a consequence, interesting and, in certain way, surprising aspects are revealed in a clear and transparent way when the Ward identities and low-energy limits are verified for the simple amplitudes considered in the presently reported investigation. The obtained results suggest that the procedure can be considered as an advantageous tool to handle with the problem of divergences in perturbative solutions of QFT's, relative to the traditional regularization techniques, since the obtained results are so consistent as desirable and there are no limitations of applicability. In particular, the method can be applied in odd and even space-time dimensions having extra dimensions, which is not possible within the context of traditional regularization.

  9. Studies of a Large Odd-Numbered Odd-Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8 Mn.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-01

    The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities. PMID:26748964

  10. [Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat--characteristic and health properties].

    PubMed

    Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Jarosława

    2014-01-01

    This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat). For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment. PMID:25228507

  11. Variables associated with odds of finishing and finish time in a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Wegelin, Jacob A; Hoffman, Martin D

    2011-01-01

    We sought to determine the degree to which age, sex, calendar year, previous event experience and ambient race day temperature were associated with finishing a 100-mile (161-km) trail running race and with finish time in that race. We computed separate generalized linear mixed-effects regression models for (1) odds of finishing and (2) finish times of finishers. Every starter from 1986 to 2007 was used in computing the models for odds of finishing (8,282 starts by 3,956 individuals) and every finisher in the same period was included in the models for finish time (5,276 finishes). Factors associated with improved odds of finishing included being a first-time starter and advancing calendar year. Factors associated with reduced odds of finishing included advancing age above 38years and warmer weather. Beyond 38years of age, women had worse odds of finishing than men. Warmer weather had a similar effect on finish rates for men and women. Finish times were slower with advancing age, slower for women than men, and less affected by warm weather for women than for men. Calendar year was not associated with finish time after adjustment for other variables. PMID:20835714

  12. Odd-frequency Cooper pairs in two-band superconductors and their magnetic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Akihiro

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the appearance of odd-frequency Cooper pairs in two-band superconductors by solving the Gor'kov equation analytically. We introduce the equal-time s -wave pair potentials as realized in MgB2 and iron pnictides. Although the order parameter symmetry is conventional, the band degree of freedom enriches the symmetry variety of pairing correlations. The hybridization and the asymmetry between the two conduction bands induce odd-frequency pairs as a subdominant pairing correlation in the uniform ground state. To study the magnetic response of odd-frequency Cooper pairs, we analyze the Meissner kernel represented by the Gor'kov Green function. In contrast to the even-frequency pairs linked to the pair potential, the induced odd-frequency Cooper pairs indicate a paramagnetic property. We also discuss the relation between the amplitude of the odd-frequency pairing correlation and the stability of superconducting states in terms of the self-consistent equation for the pair potential.

  13. Nuclear state densities of odd-mass heavy nuclei in the shell model Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zen, C.; Alhassid, Y.; Nakada, H.

    2015-03-01

    The shell model Monte Carlo (SMMC) approach enables the microscopic calculation of nuclear state densities in model spaces that are many orders of magnitude larger than those that can be treated by conventional diagonalization techniques. However, it has been difficult to calculate accurate state densities of odd-mass heavy nuclei as a function of excitation energy. This is because of a sign problem that arises from the projection on an odd number of particles at low temperatures, making it difficult to calculate accurate ground-state energies of odd-mass nuclei in direct Monte Carlo calculations. Here we extract the ground-state energy from a one-parameter fit of the SMMC thermal energy to the thermal energy that is determined from experimental data. This enables us to calculate the state densities of the odd-even isotopes Sm-155149 and Nd-149143 as a function of excitation energy. We find close agreement with state densities extracted from experimental data. Our results demonstrate that the state densities of the odd-mass samarium and neodymium isotopes can be consistently reproduced using the same family of Hamiltonians that describe the neighboring even-mass isotopes within the configuration-interaction shell model approach.

  14. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and likelihood of breast cancer among black and white women: a report from the Southern Community Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Matthews, Charles E.; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Lipworth, Loren; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Increased physical activity has been shown to be protective for breast cancer although few studies have examined this association in black women. In addition, limited evidence to date indicates that sedentary behavior may be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. We examined sedentary behavior and physical activity in relation to subsequent incident breast cancer in a nested case-control study within 546 cases (374 among black women) and 2,184 matched controls enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were assessed via self-report at study baseline (20022009) using a validated physical activity questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate mutually adjusted odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for quartiles of sedentary and physical activity measures in relation to breast cancer risk. Being in the highest versus lowest quartile of total sedentary behavior (?12 hours/day versus <5.5 hours/day) was associated with increased odds of breast cancer among white women (OR=1.94 [95% CI 1.013.70], p for trend=0.1) but not black women (OR=1.23 [95% CI 0.821.83], p for trend=0.6) after adjustment for physical activity. After adjustment for sedentary activity, greater physical activity was associated with reduced odds for breast cancer among white women (p for trend=0.03) only. In conclusion, independent of one another, sedentary behavior and physical activity are risk factors for breast cancer among white women. Differences in these associations between black and white women require further investigation. Reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity are potentially independent targets for breast cancer prevention interventions. PMID:23576427

  15. Exact solutions for Ising model odd-number correlations on the honeycomb and triangular lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, J. H.; Mnera, C. H.; Tanaka, T.

    1982-07-01

    Investigating honeycomb and triangular simple spin- {1}/{2} Ising model ferromagnets, exact algebraic systems of linear identities are developed containing the spontaneous magnetization and other odd-number correlations where the coefficients depend upon the interaction parameters. Aided by star-triangle-type relationships and making supplemental use of only the spontaneous magnetization from the literature, it is found that these identity systems are exactly solvable for the odd-number multisite correlations. The method therefore satisfies closure (non-hierarchal) and linear independence requirements, is relatively transparent, and approximately eighty odd- number localized correlations are obtained containing up to and including nine (seven) sites for the honeycomb (triangular) lattice, and a simple prescription is given and demonstrated for extracting their critical amplitudes. The results also offer examples of correlation degeneracies (both essential and accidental types) and reveal the existence of linear correlation identities which do not depend explicitly upon the interaction parameters.

  16. Diverging scaling with converging multisite entanglement in odd and even quantum Heisenberg ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha Roy, Sudipto; Shekhar Dhar, Himadri; Rakshit, Debraj; Sen(De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-02-01

    We investigate finite-size scaling of genuine multisite entanglement in the ground state of quantum spin-1/2 Heisenberg ladders. We obtain the ground states of odd- and even-legged Heisenberg ladder Hamiltonians and compute genuine multisite entanglement, the generalized geometric measure (GGM), which shows that for even rungs, GGM increases for odd-legged ladder while it decreases for even ones. Interestingly, the ground state obtained by short-range dimer coverings, under the resonating valence bond ansatz, encapsulates the qualitative features of GGM for both the ladders. We find that while the quantity converges to a single value for higher legged odd- and even-ladders, in the asymptotic limit of a large number of rungs, the finite-size scaling exponents of the same tend to diverge. The scaling exponent of GGM is therefore capable to distinguish the odd–even dichotomy in Heisenberg ladders, even when the corresponding multisite entanglements merge.

  17. Non-proportional odds multivariate logistic regression of ordinal family data.

    PubMed

    Zaloumis, Sophie G; Scurrah, Katrina J; Harrap, Stephen B; Ellis, Justine A; Gurrin, Lyle C

    2015-03-01

    Methods to examine whether genetic and/or environmental sources can account for the residual variation in ordinal family data usually assume proportional odds. However, standard software to fit the non-proportional odds model to ordinal family data is limited because the correlation structure of family data is more complex than for other types of clustered data. To perform these analyses we propose the non-proportional odds multivariate logistic regression model and take a simulation-based approach to model fitting using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, such as partially collapsed Gibbs sampling and the Metropolis algorithm. We applied the proposed methodology to male pattern baldness data from the Victorian Family Heart Study. PMID:25287055

  18. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of vehicle type variable, further investigation of vehicle stiffness and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244

  19. Atmospheric odd oxygen production due to the photodissociation of ordinary and isotopic molecular oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.; Frederick, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations are performed to determine the contributions of the Schumann-Runge bands of ordinary and isotopic oxygen to the photodissociation of these molecules at different altitudes. The contributions to the dissociation rates of the satellite lines and of the first and higher vibrational states of the initial molecular states are found to be insignificant. At 70 km, (O-16)(O-18) is found to produce 10 times as much odd oxygen as would be produced if the isotope did not have selective absorption, and 6 percent of the odd oxygen produced is due to this isotope. It is noted that the excess odd oxygen produced is not enough to explain the excess quantity of ozone observed in the atmosphere, which cannot be accounted for in photochemical models. Comparison with previous results is made.

  20. Influences of vehicle size and mass and selected driver factors on odds of driver fatality.

    PubMed

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, "vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck" was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of "vehicle type" variable, further investigation of vehicle "stiffness" and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244

  1. Odd-Even Pattern Observed in Polyaniline/(Au0 Au8) Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jonke, Alex P.; Josowicz, Mira A.; Janata, Jiri

    2012-01-12

    Theoretically predicted effect of odd-even pattern of electron pairing on behavior of gold clusters in polyaniline/AuN (N = 0 to 8) has been confirmed experimentally. In these composites the atomic Au clusters with even number of atoms exhibit higher catalytic activity for electrochemical oxidation of n-propanol in 1 M NaOH than the odd-number atoms clusters. Also, infrared spectroscopy shows that even numbered PANI/AuN composites affect the N-H stretching vibration more strongly than the corresponding odd numbered ones. This behavior matches the theoretically predicted variations of HOMO-LUMO gap energy and the stability of the atomic Au clusters. It also agrees with the earlier experimental work in which the UPS spectra of isolated, mass-selected Au clusters have been reported.

  2. Enhancement of odd nitrogen modifies mesospheric ozone chemistry during polar winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verronen, P. T.; Lehmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) enhances odd nitrogen (NOx) in the polar upper atmosphere. Model studies have reported a solar cycle response in mesospheric ozone (O3) caused by EPP-related NOx enhancements which are included by applying a vertical NOx flux at around 80 km. However, it is not clear how O3 can be affected when the main chemical catalyst of odd oxygen (Ox = O + O(1D) + O3) loss in the mesosphere is odd hydrogen (HOx). Here we use a 1-D atmospheric model and show how enhanced NOx affects mesospheric chemistry and changes HOx partitioning, which subsequently leads to increase in Ox loss through standard HOx-driven catalytic cycles. Another, smaller increase of Ox loss results from HOx storage in HNO3 during night and its release by daytime photodissociation. Our results suggest that EPP, through NOx enhancements, could have a longer-term effect on mesospheric HOx and Ox in polar winter.

  3. Prevalence rates and odds ratios of shoulder-neck diseases in different occupational groups.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, M; Wegman, D H

    1987-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association and impact of occupational exposure and diseases of the shoulder and neck. Prevalence rates, odds ratios, aetiological fractions, and their confidence intervals were computed for pooled and non-pooled data of previous published reports. By comparison with office workers and farmers, dentists had an increased odds ratio for cervical spondylosis (two studies) and for shoulder joint osteoarthrosis. Meat carriers, miners, and "heavy workers" also had significantly higher rates of cervical spondylosis compared with referents. Compared with iron foundry workers, civil servants had a significant odds ratio (4.8) of cervical disc disease and a 0.79 aetiological fraction. Whether this was due to exposure or healthy worker effect was not clear. In four occupational groups with high shoulder-neck load an odds ratio of 4.0 was found for thoracic outlet syndrome with an aetiological fraction of 0.75. Rotator cuff tendinitis in occupational groups with work at shoulder level (two studies) showed an odds ratio of 11 and an aetiological fraction of 0.91. Keyboard operators had an odds ratio of 3.0 for tension neck syndrome (five studies). Unfortunately, owing to the scanty description of the work task, the exposure could be analysed only by job title. Examination of published reports shows clearly that certain job titles are associated with shoulder-neck disorders. High rates and aetiological fractions for rotator cuff tendinitis and tension neck syndrome suggest that preventive measures could be effective. Although job descriptions are brief, the associations noted suggest that highly repetitive shoulder muscle contractions, static contractions, and work at shoulder level are hazardous exposure factors. In reports of cross sectional studies of occupational shoulder-neck disorders presentation of age, exposure, and effect distribution may help for future meta-analysis. PMID:3311128

  4. Effects of Orthographic and Phonological Word Length on Memory for Lists Shown at RSVP and STM Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltheart, Veronika; Mondy, Stephen; Dux, Paul E.; Stephenson, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This article reports 3 experiments in which effects of orthographic and phonological word length on memory were examined for short lists shown at rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) and short-term memory (STM) rates. Only visual-orthographic length reduced RSVP serial recall, whereas both orthographic and phonological length lowered recall for

  5. Next-to-leading order NMSSM decays with CP-odd Higgs bosons and stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglio, J.; Krauss, C. O.; Mhlleitner, M.; Walz, K.

    2015-10-01

    We compute the full next-to-leading order supersymmetric (SUSY) electroweak (EW) and SUSY-QCD corrections to the decays of CP-odd NMSSM Higgs bosons into stop pairs. In our numerical analysis we also present the decay of the heavier stop into the lighter stop and an NMSSM CP-odd Higgs boson. Both the EW and the SUSY-QCD corrections are found to be significant and have to be taken into account for a proper prediction of the decay widths.

  6. Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of fragments emitted at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, I.; Lanzalone, G.; Agodi, C.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Han, J.; Maiolino, C.; Auditore, L.; Loria, D.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Cavallaro, S.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.

    2011-08-15

    Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of light fragments emitted at forward angles in nuclear collisions {sup 40}Ca + {sup 40}Ca, {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon and identified in charge and mass with the Chimera multidetector have been analyzed. The amplitude of even-odd staggering effects seems to be related to the neutron to proton ratio N/Z of the entrance channels. A qualitative explanation of this effect, taking into account the deexcitation phase of primary excited fragments, is discussed.

  7. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia versus stimulus-dichotomy synaesthesia: Odd, even or something else?

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebekah C.; Plassart, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli—for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers)—elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent). This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been “rediscovered.” Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth. PMID:26034572

  8. The Helios Prototype flying wing is shown over the Pacific Ocean during its first test flight on sol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The solar-electric Helios Prototype flying wing is shown over the Pacific Ocean during its first test flight on solar power from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii, July 14, 2001. The 18-hour flight was a functional checkout of the aircraft's systems and performance in preparation for an attempt to reach sustained flight at 100,000 feet altitude later this summer.

  9. The Helios Prototype flying wing is shown near the Hawaiian island of Niihau during its first test f

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The solar-electric Helios Prototype flying wing is shown near the Hawaiian island of Niihau during its first test flight on solar power from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii, July 14, 2001. The 18-hour flight was a functional checkout of the aircraft's systems and performance in preparation for an attempt to reach sustained flight at 100,000 feet altitude later this summer.

  10. The Helios Prototype flying wing is shown near the Hawaiian islands of Niihau and Lehua during its f

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The solar-electric Helios Prototype flying wing is shown near the Hawaiian islands of Niihau and Lehua during its first test flight on solar power from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii, July 14, 2001. The 18-hour flight was a functional checkout of the aircraft's systems and performance in preparation for an attempt to reach sustained flight at 100,000 feet altitude later this summer.

  11. Practical Guidance for Conducting Mediation Analysis With Multiple Mediators Using Inverse Odds Ratio Weighting

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Schmidt, Nicole M.; Glymour, M. Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship between the exposure (treatment) and multiple mediators, conditional on covariates, by regressing exposure on mediators and covariates. The inverse of the covariate-adjusted exposure-mediator odds ratio association is used to weight the primary analytical regression of the outcome on treatment. The treatment coefficient in such a weighted regression estimates the natural direct effect of treatment on the outcome, and indirect effects are identified by subtracting direct effects from total effects. Weighting renders treatment and mediators independent, thereby deactivating indirect pathways of the mediators. This new mediation technique accommodates multiple discrete or continuous mediators. IORW is easily implemented and is appropriate for any standard regression model, including quantile regression and survival analysis. An empirical example is given using data from the Moving to Opportunity (1994–2002) experiment, testing whether neighborhood context mediated the effects of a housing voucher program on obesity. Relevant Stata code (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas) is provided. PMID:25693776

  12. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD and ODD in a Pediatric Population in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michanie, Claudio; Kunst, Gabriel; Margulies, Daniel S.; Yakhkind, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of DSM III-R symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in an outpatient pediatric population; to compare oppositional behavior and grade retention rates; and to establish local means and standard deviations (SD) for the ADHD rating scale. Method: 300

  13. Calculation of odds ratios on the TI-59 from logistic regression output.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, R P

    1987-01-01

    A program for the Texas Instruments TI-59 and, optionally, a print cradle is described that allows calculation of point estimates and confidence intervals for odds ratios using information included in the output from most logistic regression programs. The program considers up to fifteen continuous and/or dichotomous independent variables. PMID:3581804

  14. Community Opportunity, Perceptions of Opportunity, and the Odds of an Adolescent Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Anne; Sugland, Barbara; Manlove, Jennifer; Papillo, Angela

    2005-01-01

    The ability of the opportunity cost framework to predict the risk of a teen birth is tested by analyzing the relationship between adolescents perceptions of opportunity and the odds of a teen birth across levels of community opportunity. Patterns of this relationship are compared across African American, Latina, and White teens and across

  15. Delaware Middle Schools Beating the Odds. Technical Report Number T2010.4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grusenmeyer, Linda; Fifield, Steve; Murphy, Aideen; Nian, Qinghua; Qian, Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    The investigation identified Delaware public and charter middle schools across the state which outperformed other Delaware middle schools with similar student demographic profiles. Teachers and administrators at six of these "Beating the Odds" schools and at six comparison middle schools were surveyed regarding their schools characteristics and…

  16. Mother-Teacher Agreement on Preschoolers' Symptoms of ODD and CD: Does Context Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female

  17. Even-odd oscillation and valley polarization of transmission between multilayer graphenes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Takeshi; Ando, Tsuneya

    2013-12-04

    Electron transmission through a boundary between multi-layer graphenes with Bernal stacking consisting of different number of layers is studied. A valley polarization in transmission probability appears as in monolayer and bilayer systems, exhibits considerable oscillation depending of even or odd layer numbers, and its amplitude gradually decreases with the layer number. The total transmission shows oscillation with much smaller amplitude.

  18. Anger and Irritability Symptoms among Youth with ODD: Cross-Informant versus Source-Exclusive Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2012-01-01

    We examined differences in co-occurring psychological symptoms and background characteristics among clinically referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with and without anger/irritability symptoms (AIS) according to either parent or teacher (source-exclusive) and both informants (cross-informant), youth with noncompliant symptoms

  19. High Schools in California That Are Beating the Odds and How They Are Doing It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viloria, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to determine the common programs and practices that Beating the Odds (BTO) high schools in California are using to achieve high graduation rates. More specifically, this study identifies specific programs and practices that the high schools are using to address at-risk student behaviors as well as

  20. Executive Functioning Deficits in Relation to Symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Wahlstedt, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between executive functioning and symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children aged 4-6. A population-based sample (n = 201) was used and laboratory measures of inhibition, working memory and verbal fluency and teacher ratings of

  1. Parent Training for Families of Children with Comorbid ADHD and ODD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danforth, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the details of a parent training program for families of children with comorbid ADHD/ODD. The goal of the training is to develop specific parenting skills that promote pro-social compliance and decrease disruptive child behavior. There are two parts to the parent training program. First, a theoretical framework of interactions

  2. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839

  3. Teenage Parenthood among Child Welfare Clients: A Swedish National Cohort Study of Prevalence and Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Franzen, Eva; Danielsson, Maria

    2007-01-01

    To assess prevalence and odds for teenage parenthood among former child welfare clients, we used national register data for all children born in Sweden 1972-1983 (n = 1,178,207), including 49,582 former child welfare clients with varying intervention experiences. Logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and familial

  4. Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.

  5. Probing a light CP-odd scalar in di-top-associated production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Farooque, Trisha; Juste, Aurelio; Liu, Tao; Spannowsky, Michael

    2015-10-01

    CP-odd scalars are an integral part of many extensions of the Standard Model. Recently, electroweak-scale pseudoscalars have received increased attention in explaining the diffuse gamma-ray excess from the Galactic Centre. Elusive due to absence of direct couplings to gauge bosons, these particles receive only weak constraints from direct searches at LEP or searches performed during the first LHC runs. We investigate the LHC's sensitivity in probing a CP-odd scalar in the mass range 20 ? m_A ? 100 GeV via di-top-associated production using jet-substructure-based reconstruction techniques. We parameterise the scalar's interactions using a simplified model approach and relate the obtained upper limits to couplings within type-I and type-II 2HDMs as well as the NMSSM. We find that in di-top-associated production, experiments at the LHC can set tight limits on CP-odd scalars that fit the Galactic Centre excess. However, direct sensitivity to light CP-odd scalars from the NMSSM remains challenging.

  6. Building and Solving Odd-One-Out Classification Problems: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Philippe E.

    2011-01-01

    Classification problems ("find the odd-one-out") are frequently used as tests of inductive reasoning to evaluate human or animal intelligence. This paper introduces a systematic method for building the set of all possible classification problems, followed by a simple algorithm for solving the problems of the R-ASCM, a psychometric test derived

  7. Muon signals of very light CP-odd Higgs states of the NMSSM at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Almarashi, M. M.; Moretti, S.

    2011-02-01

    We study here the {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decay mode of a very light CP-odd Higgs boson of the NMSSM, a{sub 1}, produced in association with a bottom-antibottom pair and find that, despite small event rates, a significant signal should be extractable from the SM background at the LHC with high luminosity.

  8. Nuclear Forces in the Odd Parity Sector and the LS Forces from Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murano, Keiko

    2013-08-01

    The first lattice QCD calculation for the spin-orbit potential as well as the central and the tensor potentials in parity odd sector is presented for the two-nucleon system. These potentials are extracted from the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions for total angular momenta based on the representation theory of the cubic group.

  9. Building and Solving Odd-One-Out Classification Problems: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Philippe E.

    2011-01-01

    Classification problems ("find the odd-one-out") are frequently used as tests of inductive reasoning to evaluate human or animal intelligence. This paper introduces a systematic method for building the set of all possible classification problems, followed by a simple algorithm for solving the problems of the R-ASCM, a psychometric test derived…

  10. Anger and Irritability Symptoms among Youth with ODD: Cross-Informant versus Source-Exclusive Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2012-01-01

    We examined differences in co-occurring psychological symptoms and background characteristics among clinically referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with and without anger/irritability symptoms (AIS) according to either parent or teacher (source-exclusive) and both informants (cross-informant), youth with noncompliant symptoms…

  11. VLSI implementation of odd-even sorter using a uniform ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, I.

    1981-11-01

    Experimental designs of a sorting chip are described. The design implements an odd-even network sorter using a data structure called a uniform ladder. The algorithm is highly parallel. The designs attempt to transform this parallel algorithm directly into the hardware. Two designs are described: one using a parallel comparator, and the other a serial comparator.

  12. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, James E B; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839

  13. High precision elastic ? scattering on the even-odd 115In nucleus at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, G. G.; Szcs, T.; Mohr, P.; Flp, Zs; Gyrky, Gy; Halsz, Z.; Soha, R. F.; Somorjai, E.; Ornelas, A.; Galaviz, D.; Yal?n, C.; Gray, R. T.; zkan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Elastic alpha scattering cross sections on the even-odd 115In nucleus have been measured at energies Elab. = 16.15 MeV and 19.50 MeV. The high precision experimental data are used to derive the parameters of a local a nucleus optical potential.

  14. An Odds Ratio Approach for Detecting DDF under the Nested Logit Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Ragip; Suh, Youngsuk

    2015-01-01

    An odds ratio approach (ORA) under the framework of a nested logit model was proposed for evaluating differential distractor functioning (DDF) in multiple-choice items and was compared with an existing ORA developed under the nominal response model. The performances of the two ORAs for detecting DDF were investigated through an extensive

  15. Learning in the Home and at School: How Working Class Children "Succeed against the Odds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents data collected in individual case studies that aimed to investigate children and their families who succeeded against the usual "odds" of disadvantage. Funded as an extension of EPPE 3-11 by the Cabinet Office for the Equalities Review, the study focused particularly closely upon the performance of disadvantaged children from

  16. Improving the Odds for Adolescents: State Policies That Support Adolescent Health and Well-Being. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Susan Wile; Aratani, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    For policymakers, adolescence presents an invaluable opportunity to ensure that all young people can access the high-quality services and supports they need to improve their odds of becoming successful, healthy, productive adults. At an historic moment when the provisions and breadth of health care reform are under vigorous debate, it is important…

  17. Prevalence and diagnostic stability of ADHD and ODD in Turkish children: a 4-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was designed to assess the prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in a representative sample of second grade students from a country in a region where no previous rates are available (Turkey). The second aim is to evaluate the differences in ADHD and ODD prevalence rates among four different waves with one-year gap in reassessments. Method Sixteen schools were randomly selected and stratified according to socioeconomic classes. The DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S) was delivered to parents and teachers for screening in around 1500 children. Screen positive cases and matched controls were extensively assessed using the K-SADS-PL and a scale to assess impairment criterion. The sample was reassessed in the second, third and fourth waves with the same methodology. Results The prevalence rates of ADHD in the four waves were respectively 13.38%, 12.53%, 12.22% and 12.91%. The ODD prevalence was found to be 3.77% in the first wave, 0.96% in the second, 5.41% in the third and 5.35% in the fourth wave. Mean ODD prevalence was found to be 3.87%. Conclusions The prevalence rates of ADHD in the four waves were remarkably higher than the worldwide pooled childhood prevalence. ADHD diagnosis was quite stable in reassessments after one, two and three years. A mean ODD prevalence consistent with the worldwide-pooled prevalence was found; but diagnostic stability was much lower compared to ADHD. PMID:23919416

  18. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Yang; Xu, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Han, Bang-Min; Shao, Yi; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group) and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group). Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.66). In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88). The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS. PMID:24875824

  19. Hindered Gamow-Teller decay to the odd-odd N=Z (62)Ga: absence of proton-neutron T=0 condensate in A=62.

    PubMed

    Grodner, E; Gadea, A; Sarriguren, P; Lenzi, S M; Grebosz, J; Valiente-Dobn, J J; Algora, A; Grska, M; Regan, P H; Rudolph, D; de Angelis, G; Agramunt, J; Alkhomashi, N; Amon Susam, L; Bazzacco, D; Benlliure, J; Benzoni, G; Boutachkov, P; Bracco, A; Caceres, L; Cakirli, R B; Crespi, F C L; Domingo-Pardo, C; Doncel, M; Dombrdi, Zs; Doornenbal, P; Farnea, E; Ganio?lu, E; Gelletly, W; Gerl, J; Gottardo, A; Hyk, T; Kurz, N; Leoni, S; Mengoni, D; Molina, F; Morales, A I; Orlandi, R; Oktem, Y; Page, R D; Perez, D; Pietri, S; Podolyk, Zs; Poves, A; Quintana, B; Rinta-Antila, S; Rubio, B; Nara Singh, B S; Steer, A N; Verma, S; Wadsworth, R; Wieland, O; Wollersheim, H J

    2014-08-29

    Search for a new kind of superfluidity built on collective proton-neutron pairs with aligned spin is performed studying the Gamow-Teller decay of the T=1, J(?)=0+ ground state of (62)Ge into excited states of the odd-odd N=Z nucleus (62)Ga. The experiment is performed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fr Shwerionenforshung with the (62)Ge ions selected by the fragment separator and implanted in a stack of Si-strip detectors, surrounded by the RISING Ge array. A half-life of T1/2=82.9(14)??ms is measured for the (62)Ge ground state. Six excited states of (62)Ga, populated below 2.5 MeV through Gamow-Teller transitions, are identified. Individual Gamow-Teller transition strengths agree well with theoretical predictions of the interacting shell model and the quasiparticle random phase approximation. The absence of any sizable low-lying Gamow-Teller strength in the reported beta-decay experiment supports the hypothesis of a negligible role of coherent T=0 proton-neutron correlations in (62)Ga. PMID:25215980

  20. Hindered Gamow-Teller Decay to the Odd-Odd N=Z Ga62: Absence of Proton-Neutron T =0 Condensate in A =62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodner, E.; Gadea, A.; Sarriguren, P.; Lenzi, S. M.; Gr?bosz, J.; Valiente-Dobn, J. J.; Algora, A.; Grska, M.; Regan, P. H.; Rudolph, D.; de Angelis, G.; Agramunt, J.; Alkhomashi, N.; Amon Susam, L.; Bazzacco, D.; Benlliure, J.; Benzoni, G.; Boutachkov, P.; Bracco, A.; Caceres, L.; Cakirli, R. B.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Doncel, M.; Dombrdi, Zs.; Doornenbal, P.; Farnea, E.; Ganio?lu, E.; Gelletly, W.; Gerl, J.; Gottardo, A.; Hyk, T.; Kurz, N.; Leoni, S.; Mengoni, D.; Molina, F.; Morales, A. I.; Orlandi, R.; Oktem, Y.; Page, R. D.; Perez, D.; Pietri, S.; Podolyk, Zs.; Poves, A.; Quintana, B.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rubio, B.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Steer, A. N.; Verma, S.; Wadsworth, R.; Wieland, O.; Wollersheim, H. J.

    2014-08-01

    Search for a new kind of superfluidity built on collective proton-neutron pairs with aligned spin is performed studying the Gamow-Teller decay of the T=1, J?=0+ ground state of Ge62 into excited states of the odd-odd N =Z nucleus Ga62. The experiment is performed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fr Shwerionenforshung with the Ge62 ions selected by the fragment separator and implanted in a stack of Si-strip detectors, surrounded by the RISING Ge array. A half-life of T1/2=82.9(14) ms is measured for the Ge62 ground state. Six excited states of Ga62, populated below 2.5 MeV through Gamow-Teller transitions, are identified. Individual Gamow-Teller transition strengths agree well with theoretical predictions of the interacting shell model and the quasiparticle random phase approximation. The absence of any sizable low-lying Gamow-Teller strength in the reported beta-decay experiment supports the hypothesis of a negligible role of coherent T =0 proton-neutron correlations in Ga62.

  1. Critical-Point Symmetries in Boson-Fermion Systems: The Case of Shape Transitions in Odd Nuclei in a Multiorbit Model

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Vitturi, A.

    2007-02-02

    We investigate phase transitions in boson-fermion systems. We propose an analytically solvable model [E(5/12)] to describe odd nuclei at the critical point in the transition from the spherical to {gamma}-unstable behavior. In the model, a boson core described within the Bohr Hamiltonian interacts with an unpaired particle assumed to be moving in the three single-particle orbitals j=1/2, 3/2, 5/2. Energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions at the critical point compare well with the results obtained within the interacting boson-fermion model, with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that describes the same physical situation.

  2. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W

    1997-04-01

    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation. PMID:24897608

  3. Chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in transverse and longitudinal impact parameter spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, D.; Manohar, R.; Mukherjee, A.

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions for nonzero skewness {zeta} in transverse and longitudinal position spaces by taking Fourier transform with respect to the transverse and longitudinal momentum transfer, respectively. We present overlap formulas for the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in terms of light-front wave functions (LFWFs) of the proton both in the Efremov-Radyushkin-Brodsky-Lepage and Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi regions. We calculate them in a field theory inspired model of a relativistic spin-1/2 composite state with the correct correlation between the different LFWFs in Fock space, namely, that of the quantum fluctuations of an electron in a generalized form of QED. We show the spin-orbit correlation effect of the two-particle LFWF as well as the correlation between the constituent spin and the transverse spin of the target.

  4. Odd tensor electric transitions in high-spin Sn-isomers and generalized seniority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The similar behavior of the B (E 1) values of the recently observed 13- odd tensor E1 isomers and the B (E 2) values of the 10+ and 15- even tensor E2 isomers in the Sn-isotopes has been understood in terms of the generalized seniority for multi-j orbits by using the quasi-spin scheme. This simple approach proves to be quite successful in explaining the measured transition probabilities and the corresponding half-lives in the high-spin isomers of the semi-magic Sn-isotopes. Hence, we show for the first time the occurrence of seniority isomers in the 13- Sn-isomers, which decay by odd-tensor E1 transitions to the same seniority states.

  5. Prospects for observing the lowest-lying odd-parity ?c and ?b baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2015-10-01

    There exist candidates for the negative-parity states ?c ,b(1 /2-,3 /2-) consisting of an isospin-zero, spin-zero light diquark [u d ] with one unit of orbital angular momentum with respect to a c ,b quark. However, there exists only one candidate for the orbital excitations of the ?c(1 /2+) and ?c*(3 /2+), and none for the orbital excitations of ?b(1 /2+) or ?b*(3 /2+). We extend a previous discussion of odd-parity ?c ,b states and explore some patterns of the odd-parity ?c ,b baryons consisting of a light isospin-one nonstrange diquark (u u ,u d ,d d ) in a state of L =1 with respect to the spin-1 /2 heavy quark (c ,b ).

  6. Rapid deactivation of N(2D) by O - Impact on thermospheric and mesospheric odd nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesen, C. G.; Rusch, D. W.; Gerard, J.-C.

    1989-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional models of thermospheric odd nitrogen are used to explore the consequences of the recently measured fast quenching of N(2D) by O. A large rate coefficient for this reaction profoundly affects the odd-nitrogen chemistry by removing N(2D) as a source of NO and increasing the concentration of N(4S), which destroys NO. The model calculations show that, as the quenching rate increases, the NO and N(2D) densities decrease, while N(4S) densities increase. Comparisons with Atmosphere Explorer and Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite observations are made. Use of the fast quenching rate in the models causes the NO peak altitude, typically observed near 110 km, to rise to 140 km.

  7. Signature of magnetic-dependent gapless odd frequency states at superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardo, A; Diesch, S; Gu, Y; Linder, J; Divitini, G; Ducati, C; Scheer, E; Blamire, M G; Robinson, J W A

    2015-01-01

    The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces. PMID:26329811

  8. The global distribution of thermospheric odd nitrogen for solstice conditions during solar cycle minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, J.-C.; Roble, R. G.; Rusch, D. W.; Stewart, A. I.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of odd nitrogen in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere is described. The global distributions of nitric oxide and atomic nitrogen are calculated for the solstice period for quiet and moderate magnetic activity during the solar minimum period. The effect of thermospheric transport by winds is investigated along with the importance of particle-induced ionization in the auroral zones. The results are compared with rocket and satellite measurements, and the sensitivity of the model to eddy diffusion and neutral winds is investigated. Downward fluxes of NO into the mesosphere are given, and their importance for stratospheric ozone is discussed. The results show that the summer-to-winter pole meridional circulation transports both NO and N(S-4) across the solar terminator into the polar night region where there is a downward vertical transport toward the mesosphere. The model shows that odd nitrogen densities at high winter latitudes are entirely controlled by particle precipitation and transport processes.

  9. Chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in transverse and longitudinal impact parameter spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, D.; Manohar, R.; Mukherjee, A.

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions for nonzero skewness ? in transverse and longitudinal position spaces by taking Fourier transform with respect to the transverse and longitudinal momentum transfer, respectively. We present overlap formulas for the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in terms of light-front wave functions (LFWFs) of the proton both in the Efremov-Radyushkin-Brodsky-Lepage and Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi regions. We calculate them in a field theory inspired model of a relativistic spin-1/2 composite state with the correct correlation between the different LFWFs in Fock space, namely, that of the quantum fluctuations of an electron in a generalized form of QED. We show the spin-orbit correlation effect of the two-particle LFWF as well as the correlation between the constituent spin and the transverse spin of the target.

  10. Signature of magnetic-dependent gapless odd frequency states at superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Di Bernardo, A.; Diesch, S.; Gu, Y.; Linder, J.; Divitini, G.; Ducati, C.; Scheer, E.; Blamire, M.G.; Robinson, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces. PMID:26329811

  11. Rotational structure of the odd-proton nuclide 171Tm: A projected shell model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, YanXin; Chen, FangQi; Yu, ShaoYing; Sun, Yang

    2015-05-01

    Deformed odd-mass nuclei are ideal examples where the interplay between single-particle and collective degrees of freedom can be studied. Inspired by the recent experimental high-spin data in the odd-proton nuclide 171Tm, we perform projected shell model (PSM) calculations to investigate structure of the ground band and other bands based on isomeric states. In addition to the usual quadrupole-quadrupole force in the Hamiltonian, we employ the hexadecapole-hexadecapole ( HH) interaction, in a self-consistent way with the hexadecapole deformation of the deformed basis. It is found that the known experimental data can be well described by the PSM calculation. The effect of the HH force on the quasiparticle isomeric states is discussed.

  12. Microscopic calculations of Qp-values in well-deformed odd-Z proton emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneau, L.; Le Bloas, J.; Quentin, P.

    2011-11-30

    Within the Hartree-Fock-BCS and Highly Truncated Diagonalization microscopic approaches we have calculated the ground-state binding energies of axially-deformed odd-Z, even-N nuclei in the A {approx} 130 region and of the even-even daughter nuclei resulting from one-proton emission. The deduced Q{sub p} values are in fair agreement with available experimental data.

  13. Child ADHD and ODD behavior interacts with parent ADHD symptoms to worsen parenting and interparental communication.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; Wymbs, Frances A; Dawson, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults increases risk of parenting difficulties and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether disruptive child behavior and adult ADHD operate additively or synergistically to predict parenting and interparental relationship quality. As part of a larger study, 90 parent couples were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Before these interactions, parents reported their own ADHD symptoms. Afterwards, parents reported on their partner's parenting and interparental communication behavior. Observers coded the parenting and communication behavior of both partners during the tasks. Child ADHD/ODD-like behavior was found to predict less positive and more negative parenting and communication reported by partners and observers beyond adult ADHD symptoms and other covariates. Elevated adult ADHD symptoms only uniquely increased risk of observer-coded negative parenting. Child and adult ADHD behavior interacted synergistically to predict partner-reported negative parenting and interparental communication, such that parents reporting greater ADHD symptoms-especially inattentiveness-were rated by their partners as parenting and communicating more negatively when managing child ADHD/ODD-like behavior than parents with fewer ADHD symptoms or those managing typical child behavior. Child and adult ADHD behavior did not interact to predict observer-coded parenting or interparental communication, and patterns did not differ for mothers or fathers. Our results underscore the potential risk of parents with elevated ADHD symptoms parenting and communicating negatively, at least as perceived by their partners, during interactions with children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior. PMID:24882503

  14. Preschool enrollment is associated with lower odds of childhood obesity among WIC participants in LA County.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Maria; Harrison, Gail G; Whaley, Shannon; McGregor, Samar; Jenks, Eloise; Afifi, Abdelmonem

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children in the United States has increased rapidly during the past few decades. Research into social and behavioral determinants of obesity could lead to innovative strategies for prevention. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between childhood obesity and preschool enrollment and number of hours in child care among low-income preschool-aged children who were participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). We conducted a case-control study including 556 3- to 4-year-old children who were either obese (BMI>95th percentile of reference standard) or normal-weight (BMI 25-75th percentile). The population was largely (96%) Hispanic, an ethnic group that has one of the highest rates of overweight and obesity in adults and children in the US. In multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for a variety of psychosocial and cognitive home environment variables, key demographics and maternal variables, the odds ratio of being obese was 0.61 for children who attended preschool more than 4days a week (95% CI: 0.41-0.90). Watching television or videos for an hour or more on a typical day (odds ratio 1.71 (95% CI 1.07-2.75)), and higher maternal BMI (odds ratio 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.11)) were independently related to odds of obesity. The impact of preschool attendance and TV viewing are potentially instructive in terms of preventive interventions for children at this age. PMID:21431308

  15. Observation of the Naive-T-Odd Sivers Effect in Deep-Inelastic Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Avetissian, A.; Elbakian, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Marukyan, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Taroian, S.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Boettcher, H.; Fabbri, R.; Gabbert, D.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hristova, I.; Lu, X.-G.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Riedl, C.; Stewart, J.

    2009-10-09

    Azimuthal single-spin asymmetries of leptoproduced pions and charged kaons were measured on a transversely polarized hydrogen target. Evidence for a naive-T-odd, transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution function is deduced from nonvanishing Sivers effects for pi{sup +}, pi{sup 0}, and K{sup +}-, as well as in the difference of the pi{sup +} and pi{sup -} cross sections.

  16. Odd and even sums of generalized Fibonacci numbers by matrix methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C. K.; Chong, Chin-Yoon

    2014-06-01

    For integers A and B, and positive integers n, we define two generalized Fibonacci sequence {gn} and {hn}, respectively, by the recurrence relations gn+1 = Agn+gn-1 and hn+1 = hn+Bhn-1 where g0 = h0 = 0, g1 = h1 = 1. Using a matrix approach, we obtained the odd sum and even sum of the two sequences for all values of A and B.

  17. CP-odd correlations using jet momenta from tt events at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sudhir Kumar; Valencia, G.

    2010-02-01

    We discuss T-odd correlations between jet and lepton momenta in tt events at the Tevatron that can be used to search for CP violation. We identify correlations suitable for the lepton plus jets and purely hadronic top-quark pair decay channels. As an example of CP violation we consider the top-quark anomalous couplings, including its chromo-electric dipole moment, and we estimate the limits that can be placed at the Tevatron.

  18. Computer search for binary cyclic UEP codes of odd length up to 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Mao-Chao; Lin, Chi-Chang; Lin, Shu

    1990-01-01

    Using an exhaustive computation, the unequal error protection capabilities of all binary cyclic codes of odd length up to 65 that have minimum distances at least 3 are found. For those codes that can only have upper bounds on their unequal error protection capabilities computed, an analytic method developed by Dynkin and Togonidze (1976) is used to show that the upper bounds meet the exact unequal error protection capabilities.

  19. Entrance-channel effects in odd-Z tranactinide compound nucleus reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.L.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dragojevic, I.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Eichler, R.; Folden III, C.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H.

    2007-09-01

    Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' description [1] of transactinide (TAN) compound nucleus (CN) formation utilizes a three-step model. The first step is the 'sticking', or capture, which can be calculated relatively accurately. The second step is the probability for the formation of a CN by 'diffusion' analogous to that of Brownian motion. Lastly, there exists the probability of the CN 'surviving' deexcitation by neutron emission, which competes with fission and other de-excitation modes. This model predicts and reproduces cross sections typically within a factor of two. Producing the same CN with different projectile-target pairs is a very sensitive way to test entrance channel effects on heavy element production cross sections. If the same CN is produced at or near the same excitation energy the survival portion of the theory is nearly identical for the two reactions. This method can be used as a critical test of the novel 'diffusion' portion of the model. The reactions producing odd-Z TAN CN such as Db, Bh, Mt, and Rg (Z = 105, 107, 109, and 111, respectively) were first studied using even-Z projectiles on {sup 209}Bi targets (as opposed to odd-Z projectiles on {sup 208}Pb targets) because lower effective fissility [2] was expected to lead to larger cross sections. Many odd-Z projectile reactions producing odd-Z CN had not been studied in-depth until very recently. We have completed studies of these reaction pairs with the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator (BGS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), see Figure 1. Cross section ratios for several pairs of reactions will be presented and compared with theory.

  20. Inhibition, Reinforcement Sensitivity and Temporal Information Processing in ADHD and ADHD+ODD: Evidence of a Separate Entity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luman, Marjolein; van Noesel, Steffen J. P.; Papanikolau, Alky; Van Oostenbruggen-Scheffer, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    This study compared children with ADHD-only, ADHD+ODD and normal controls (age 8-12) on three key neurocognitive functions: response inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity, and temporal information processing. The goal was twofold: (a) to investigate neurocognitive impairments in children with ADHD-only and children with ADHD+ODD, and (b) to test

  1. Effects of Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and Cognitive Functioning on Social Acceptance and the Positive Illusory Bias in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtens, Sara; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Tillman, Carin M.; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of symptoms of ADHD and ODD and cognitive functioning on social acceptance and positive bias in children. Method: The sample consisted of 86 children (49 girls) between 7 and 13 years old, recruited to reflect a wide range of ADHD symptoms. Parents and teachers reported on ADHD and ODD symptoms and social…

  2. Effects of Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and Cognitive Functioning on Social Acceptance and the Positive Illusory Bias in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtens, Sara; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Tillman, Carin M.; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of symptoms of ADHD and ODD and cognitive functioning on social acceptance and positive bias in children. Method: The sample consisted of 86 children (49 girls) between 7 and 13 years old, recruited to reflect a wide range of ADHD symptoms. Parents and teachers reported on ADHD and ODD symptoms and social

  3. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education

  4. Risk of hepatitis C in patients who received blood from donors subsequently shown to be carriers of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Ayob, Y; Davidson, J I; Baxter, A; Jordan, A; Yap, P L; Gillon, J

    1994-12-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to identify recipients of blood from donors subsequently shown to be positive for hepatitis C virus using second-generation tests and polymerase chain reaction. The main aims were to determine the numbers of such recipients who were still alive and traceable, and to determine the risk of infection in this group. The feasibility and workload of this procedure, which is currently not practised in the U.K. or U.S.A., was also assessed. In the first six months of routine testing 42,697 donors were tested. Of 20 confirmed to be HCV-positive, 15 were regular donors. Eighty-three components were prepared from 63 anti-HCV positive previous donations from these donors. In all, nine recipients were found to be alive. All were positive for anti-HCV. We conclude that although this retrospective procedure is time-consuming and difficult, substantial numbers of infected recipients can be identified. The availability of treatment for chronic hepatitis C for such patients should encourage transfusion services to reassess current policies on the hepatitis C retrospective. PMID:7889139

  5. The second X-15 rocket plane (56-6671) is shown with two external fuel tanks which were added during

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The second X-15 rocket plane (56-6671) is shown with two external fuel tanks which were added during its conversion to the X-15A-2 configuration in the mid-1960's. After receiving an ablative coating to protect the craft from the high temperatures associated with high-Mach-number supersonic flight, the X-15A-2 was then covered with a white sealant coat. This ablative coating and sealant and the additional fuel would help Air Force Col. William J. 'Pete' Knight fly the #2 X-15 to a world record speed of 4,520 mph (Mach 6.7). The famed X-15 rocket planes were flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from 1959 through 1968. The X-15 was developed to provide data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls and the physiological aspects of high speed, high altitude flight. The joint NASA/U.S. Air Force/North American Aviation X-15 hypersonic flight research program is still considered to be one of the most successful NASA aeronautical research programs ever flown. One of the most advanced aeronautical tools of its day, the X-15 carried almost 600 instruments and sensors to record flight data. A wide range of experiments flown by the three X-15s during the 199-flight program helped advance the development of vital aeronautic and space flight systems.

  6. Effect of core polarization on magnetic dipole moments in deformed odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneau, L.; Minkov, N.; Duc, Dao Duy; Quentin, P.; Bartel, J.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic properties of deformed odd-mass nuclei are studied within a nonrelativistic mean-field-plus-pairing approach, namely the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-BCS approach with self-consistent blocking. For an odd number of nucleons these approaches lead to the breaking of the time-reversal invariance. The deviation from the Schmidt values of the isoscalar magnetic dipole moment is known to result from a subtle balance between core-polarization effects and meson-exchange current effects. However, the former are usually calculated in the random phase approximation without time-reversal symmetry breaking at the mean-field level. In this work we show that if one takes into account this symmetry breaking already in the mean-field solution, the correction from core polarization yields a significant contribution to the empirical quenching of the spin gyromagnetic ratios as compared to the free values in deformed odd-mass nuclei. Moreover, we calculate magnetic dipole moments in the Bohr and Mottelson unified-model description with self-consistent blocked mean-field intrinsic states. The obtained results in the A ˜100 and A ˜180 mass regions as well as for three actinide nuclei compare favorably with experimental data.

  7. Structure of the doublet bands in doubly odd nuclei: The case of {sup 128}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, H. G.; Brant, S.

    2010-09-15

    The structure of the {Delta}J=1 doublet bands in {sup 128}Cs is investigated within the framework of the interacting vector boson-fermion model. A new, purely collective interpretation of these bands is given on the basis of the used boson-fermion dynamical symmetry of the model. The energy levels of the doublet bands as well as the absolute B(E2) and B(M1) transition probabilities between the states of both yrast and yrare bands are described quite well. The observed odd-even staggering of both B(M1) and B(E2) values is reproduced by the introduction of an appropriate interaction term of quadrupole type, which produces such a staggering effect in the transition strengths. The calculations show that the appearance of doublet bands in certain odd-odd nuclei could be a consequence of the realization of a larger dynamical symmetry based on the noncompact supersymmetry group OSp(2{Omega}/12,R).

  8. LACK OF ANGULAR CORRELATION AND ODD-PARITY PREFERENCE IN COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated the angular correlation in the recent cosmic microwave background data. In addition to the known large-angle correlation anomaly, we find the lack of correlation at small angles with high statistical significance. We have investigated various non-cosmological contamination as well as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team's simulated data. However, we have not found a definite cause. In the angular power spectrum of WMAP data, there exists anomalous odd-parity preference at low multipoles. Noting the equivalence between the power spectrum and the correlation, we have investigated the association between the lack of large-angle correlation and the odd-parity preference. From our investigation, we find that the odd-parity preference at low multipoles is, in fact, a phenomenological origin of the lack of large-angle correlation. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of the anomaly is cosmological or due to unaccounted systematics. The data from the Planck surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will greatly help us to resolve its origin.

  9. Charge radii of odd-A191-211Po isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstov, M. D.; Cocolios, T. E.; Dexters, W.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A. E.; Bastin, B.; Bscher, J.; Darby, I. G.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Fritzsche, S.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Keupers, M.; Kster, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Page, R. D.; Sjdin, A. M.; Stefan, I.; Van de Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Zemlyanoy, S. G.

    2013-02-01

    Isotope shifts have been measured for the odd-A polonium isotopes 191-211Po and changes in the nuclear mean square charge radii ? have been deduced. The measurements were performed at CERN-ISOLDE using the in-source resonance-ionization spectroscopy technique. The combined analysis of these data and our recent results for even-A polonium isotopes indicates an onset of deformation already at 197,198Po, when going away from stability. This is significantly earlier than was suggested by previous theoretical and experimental studies of the polonium isotopes. Moreover and in contrast to the mercury isotopes, where a strong odd-even staggering of the charge radii of the ground states was observed by approaching the neutron mid-shell at N = 104, no such effect is present in polonium down to 191Po. Consequently the charge radii of both isomeric and ground states of the odd-A polonium isotopes follow the same trend as the even-A isotopes.

  10. Self-assembled monolayers of perfluoroterphenyl-substituted alkanethiols: specific characteristics and odd-even effects.

    PubMed

    Chesneau, Frederick; Schpbach, Bjrn; Szelagowska-Kunstman, Katarzyna; Ballav, Nirmalya; Cyganik, Piotr; Terfort, Andreas; Zharnikov, Michael

    2010-10-14

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed by perfluoroterphenyl-substituted alkanethiols (C(6)F(5)-C(6)F(4)-C(6)F(4)-(CH(2))(n)-SH, FTPn) with variable length of the aliphatic linker (n = 2 and 3) were prepared on (111) Au and Ag and characterized by a combination of several complementary spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. A specific feature of these systems is the helical conformation of the FTP moieties, which, along with the high electronegativity of fluorine, distinguishes them from the analogous non-fluorinated systems and makes them attractive for different applications. The SAMs were found to be well-defined, highly ordered, and densely packed, which suggests a perfect correlation between the orientations and, in particular, twists of the FTP helices in the adjacent molecules. Significantly, the SAM exhibited pronounced odd-even effects, i.e. a dependence of the molecular orientation and packing density on the length of the aliphatic linker in the target molecules, with parity of n being the decisive parameter and the direction of the effects on Au opposite to that on Ag. The presence of the odd-even effects in the FTPn system brings new aspects into the discussion about the origin and mechanism of these phenomena. Specifically, the helical conformation of the FTP moieties in the dense phase excludes a variation of the intramolecular torsion and molecular twist as the mechanism behind the odd-even effects. PMID:20694249

  11. Childhood ODD and ADHD Behavior: The Effect of Classroom Sharing, Gender, Teacher Gender and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Lubke, Gitta H; Glasner, Tina J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-07-01

    One criterion for a diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is that symptoms are present in at least two settings, and often teacher ratings are taken into account. The short Conners' Teacher Rating Scales-Revised (CTRS-R) is a widely used standardized instrument measuring ODD and ADHD behavior in a school setting. In the current study CTRS-R data were available for 7, 9 and 12-year-old twins from the Netherlands Twin Register. Measurement invariance (MI) across student gender and teacher gender was established for three of the four scales (Oppositional Behavior, Hyperactivity and ADHD Index) of the CTRS-R. The fourth scale (ATT) showed an unacceptable model fit even without constraints on the data and revision of this scale is recommended. Gene-environment (GxE) interaction models revealed that heritability was larger for children sharing a classroom. There were some gender differences in the heritability of ODD and ADHD behavior and there was a moderating effect of teacher's gender at some of the ages. Taken together, this indicates that there was evidence for GxE interaction for classroom sharing, gender of the student and gender of the teacher. PMID:25711757

  12. The construction and use of log-odds substitution scores for multiple sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Altschul, Stephen F; Wootton, John C; Zaslavsky, Elena; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Most pairwise and multiple sequence alignment programs seek alignments with optimal scores. Central to defining such scores is selecting a set of substitution scores for aligned amino acids or nucleotides. For local pairwise alignment, substitution scores are implicitly of log-odds form. We now extend the log-odds formalism to multiple alignments, using Bayesian methods to construct "BILD" ("Bayesian Integral Log-odds") substitution scores from prior distributions describing columns of related letters. This approach has been used previously only to define scores for aligning individual sequences to sequence profiles, but it has much broader applicability. We describe how to calculate BILD scores efficiently, and illustrate their uses in Gibbs sampling optimization procedures, gapped alignment, and the construction of hidden Markov model profiles. BILD scores enable automated selection of optimal motif and domain model widths, and can inform the decision of whether to include a sequence in a multiple alignment, and the selection of insertion and deletion locations. Other applications include the classification of related sequences into subfamilies, and the definition of profile-profile alignment scores. Although a fully realized multiple alignment program must rely upon more than substitution scores, many existing multiple alignment programs can be modified to employ BILD scores. We illustrate how simple BILD score based strategies can enhance the recognition of DNA binding domains, including the Api-AP2 domain in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:20657661

  13. The Construction and Use of Log-Odds Substitution Scores for Multiple Sequence Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Altschul, Stephen F.; Wootton, John C.; Zaslavsky, Elena; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Most pairwise and multiple sequence alignment programs seek alignments with optimal scores. Central to defining such scores is selecting a set of substitution scores for aligned amino acids or nucleotides. For local pairwise alignment, substitution scores are implicitly of log-odds form. We now extend the log-odds formalism to multiple alignments, using Bayesian methods to construct BILD (Bayesian Integral Log-odds) substitution scores from prior distributions describing columns of related letters. This approach has been used previously only to define scores for aligning individual sequences to sequence profiles, but it has much broader applicability. We describe how to calculate BILD scores efficiently, and illustrate their uses in Gibbs sampling optimization procedures, gapped alignment, and the construction of hidden Markov model profiles. BILD scores enable automated selection of optimal motif and domain model widths, and can inform the decision of whether to include a sequence in a multiple alignment, and the selection of insertion and deletion locations. Other applications include the classification of related sequences into subfamilies, and the definition of profile-profile alignment scores. Although a fully realized multiple alignment program must rely upon more than substitution scores, many existing multiple alignment programs can be modified to employ BILD scores. We illustrate how simple BILD score based strategies can enhance the recognition of DNA binding domains, including the Api-AP2 domain in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:20657661

  14. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce odd chain-length fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhu; Wong, Adison; Foo, Jee Loon; Ng, Joey; Cao, Ying-Xiu; Chang, Matthew Wook; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Fatty aldehydes and alcohols are valuable precursors used in the industrial manufacturing of a myriad of specialty products. Herein, we demonstrate the de novo production of odd chain-length fatty aldehydes and fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expressing a novel biosynthetic pathway involving cytosolic thioesterase, rice α-dioxygenase and endogenous aldehyde reductases. We attained production titers of ∼20 mg/l fatty aldehydes and ∼20 mg/l fatty alcohols in shake flask cultures after 48 and 60 h respectively without extensive fine-tuning of metabolic fluxes. In contrast to prior studies which relied on bi-functional fatty acyl-CoA reductase to produce even chain-length fatty alcohols, our biosynthetic route exploits α-oxidation reaction to produce odd chain-length fatty aldehyde intermediates without using NAD(P)H cofactor, thereby conserving cellular resource during the overall synthesis of odd chain-length fatty alcohols. The biosynthetic pathway presented in this study has the potential to enable sustainable and efficient synthesis of fatty acid-derived chemicals from processed biomass. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 842-851. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26461930

  15. Intrinsic Paramagnetic Meissner Effect Due to s -Wave Odd-Frequency Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bernardo, A.; Salman, Z.; Wang, X. L.; Amado, M.; Egilmez, M.; Flokstra, M. G.; Suter, A.; Lee, S. L.; Zhao, J. H.; Prokscha, T.; Morenzoni, E.; Blamire, M. G.; Linder, J.; Robinson, J. W. A.

    2015-10-01

    In 1933, Meissner and Ochsenfeld reported the expulsion of magnetic fluxthe diamagnetic Meissner effectfrom the interior of superconducting lead. This discovery was crucial in formulating the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity. In exotic superconducting systems BCS theory does not strictly apply. A classical example is a superconductor-magnet hybrid system where magnetic ordering breaks time-reversal symmetry of the superconducting condensate and results in the stabilization of an odd-frequency superconducting state. It has been predicted that under appropriate conditions, odd-frequency superconductivity should manifest in the Meissner state as fluctuations in the sign of the magnetic susceptibility, meaning that the superconductivity can either repel (diamagnetic) or attract (paramagnetic) external magnetic flux. Here, we report local probe measurements of faint magnetic fields in a Au /Ho /Nb trilayer system using low-energy muons, where antiferromagnetic Ho (4.5 nm) breaks time-reversal symmetry of the proximity-induced pair correlations in Au. From depth-resolved measurements below the superconducting transition of Nb, we observe a local enhancement of the magnetic field in Au that exceeds the externally applied field, thus proving the existence of an intrinsic paramagnetic Meissner effect arising from an odd-frequency superconducting state.

  16. Shape phase transition in odd-even nuclei: From spherical to deformed gamma-unstable shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Boeyuekata, M.; Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2010-07-15

    Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The case of a single j=9/2 fermion coupled to an even-even boson core is considered. This boson core transits from spherical to gamma-unstable shapes depending on the value of a control parameter in the boson Hamiltonian. The effect of the coupling of the odd particle to this core along the shape transition and, in particular, at the critical point is discussed. For that purpose, the ground-state energy surface in terms of the beta and gamma shape variables for the even core and odd-even energy surfaces for the different K states coming from j=9/2 are constructed. The evolution of each individual coupled state along the transition from the spherical [U(5)] to the gamma-unstable [O(6)] situation is investigated. One finds that the core-fermion coupling gives rise to a smoother transition than in the even-core case.

  17. Structure of the low-lying states of the odd-neutron nuclei with Z ≈ 100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirikova, N. Yu.; Sushkov, A. V.; Malov, L. A.; Jolos, R. V.

    2015-02-01

    Theoretical investigations of the structure of the low-lying states of the nuclei with Z ≈ 100 play an important role in understanding the properties of nuclei belonging to the new region of the nuclide chart which are now available for the experimental study. We perform the calculations of the excitation energies and the wave functions of the low-lying states of the nuclei with Z ≈ 100. The quasiparticle-phonon model, which takes into account the interaction of quasiparticles with phonons of different multipolarities, is used as a basis for the calculations. The excitation energies and the quasiparticle-phonon structure of the low-lying states with excitation energies up to 1200 keV of the odd-neutron nuclei 245-251Cm, 249-255Cf, 249-259Fm, 253-259No and 257-261Rf are calculated. It is shown that the excitation of the phonons and the quasiparticle-phonon interaction play an important role in the description of the properties of the excited states of the nuclei with Z ≈ 100 with excitation energy exceeding 600 keV.

  18. Effect of solar proton events in 1978 and 1979 on the odd nitrogen abundance in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Meade, Paul E.

    1988-01-01

    Daily average solar proton flux data for 1978 and 1979 are used in a proton energy degradation scheme to derive ion pair production rates and atomic nitrogen production rates. The latter are computed in a form suitable for inclusion in an atmopheric, two-dimensional, time-dependent photochemical model. Odd nitrogen distributions are computed from the model, including atomic nitrogen production from solar protons, and are compared with baseline distributions. The comparisons show that the average effect of the solar protons in 1978 and 1979 was to cause changes in odd nitrogen only above 10 mbar and at latitudes only above about 50 deg in both hemispheres. The influence of the solar proton-produced odd nitrogen on the local abundance of odd nitrogen depends primarily on the background odd nitrogen abundance as well as the altitude and season.

  19. Fission studies of secondary beams from relativistic uranium projectiles: The proton even-odd effect in fission fragment charge yields

    SciTech Connect

    Junghans, A. R.; Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Voss, B.; Boeckstiegel, C.; Clerc, H.-G.; Grewe, A.; Heinz, A.; Jong, M. de; Mueller, J.; Steinhaeuser, S.; Pfuetzner, M.

    1999-09-02

    Nuclear-charge yields of fragments produced by fission of neutron-deficient isotopes of uranium, protactinium, actinium, and radium have been measured. These radioactive isotopes were produced as secondary beams, and electromagnetic fission was induced in a lead target with an average excitation energy around 11 MeV. The local even-odd effect in symmetric and in asymmetric fission of thorium isotopes is found to be independent of Z{sup 2}/A. The charge yields of the fission fragments of the odd-Z fissioning protactinium and actinium show a pronounced even-odd effect. In asymmetric fission the unpaired proton predominantly sticks to the heavy fragment. A statistical model based on the single-particle level density at the Fermi energy is able to reproduce the overall trend of the local even-odd effects both in even-Z and odd-Z fissioning systems.

  20. First identification of resident and circulating fibrocytes in Dupuytren's disease shown to be inhibited by serum amyloid P and Xiapex.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Syed Amir; Hayton, Michael John; Watson, James Stewart; Szczypa, Piotr; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2014-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a common progressive fibroproliferative disorder causing permanent digital contracture. Proliferative myofibroblasts are thought to be the cells responsible for DD initiation and recurrence, although their source remains unknown. DD tissue has also been shown to harbor mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells. Fibrocytes are circulating cells that show characteristics of fibroblasts and they express surface markers for both hematopoietic and mesenchymal stromal cells. Fibrocytes differentiate from peripheral CD14+ mononuclear cells, which can be inhibited by serum amyloid P (SAP). In this study we have demonstrated the presence of fibrocytes in DD blood and tissue, moreover we have evaluated the effects of SAP and Xiapex (Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum) on fibrocytes derived from DD. H&E staining showed typical Spindle shaped morphology of fibrocytes. FACS analysis based on a unique combination of 3 markers, revealed the increased presence of fibrocytes in blood and tissue of DD patients. Additionally, immunohistology of DD nodule and cord tissue showed the presence of collagen 1+/CD34+ cells. No difference in plasma SAP levels was observed between DD and control. Higher concentrations of SAP significantly inhibited fibrocytes differentiated from DD derived monocytes compared to control. DD fascia derived fibrocytes showed resistance to growth inhibition by SAP, particularly nodule derived fibrocytes showed robust growth even at higher SAP concentrations compared to control. DD derived fibrocytes were positive for typical fibrocyte dual markers, i.e. Collagen 1/LSP-1 and collagen 1/CD34. Xiapex was more effective in inhibiting the growth of nodule derived cells compared to commercially available collagenase A. Our results show for the first time the increased presence of fibrocytes in DD patient's blood and disease tissue compared to control tissue. Additionally, we evaluate the response of these fibrocytes to SAP and Xiapex therapy. PMID:24933153

  1. Carbohydrate moieties of the interstitial and glandular tissues of the amphibian Pleurodeles waltl testis shown by lectin histochemistry

    PubMed Central

    SEZ, FRANCISCO JOS; MADRID, JUAN FRANCISCO; APARICIO, RAQUEL; HERNNDEZ, FRANCISCO; ALONSO, EDURNE

    2001-01-01

    The amphibian testis is a useful model because of its zonal organisation in lobules, distributed along the cephalocaudal axis, each containing a unique germ cell type. Sperm empty lobules form the so-called glandular tissue at the posterior region of the gonad. Androgen production is limited to the cells of the interstitial tissue surrounding lobules with spermatozoa bundles and to the cells of the glandular tissue. In this work, we have studied the distribution of terminal carbohydrate moieties of N- and O-linked oligosaccharides in the interstitial and glandular tissue of the Pleurodeles waltl testis, by means of 14 lectins combined with chemical and enzymatic deglycosylation pretreatment. Some differences in glycan composition between the interstitial and the glandular tissue have been detected. Thus in both tissues, N-linked oligosaccharides contained mannose, Gal(?1,4)GlcNAc, and Neu5Ac(?2,3)Gal(?1,4)GlcNAc, while O-linked oligosaccharides contained Con A-positive mannose, Gal(?1,3)GalNAc, Gal(?1,4)GlcNAc, Neu5Ac(?2,3)Gal(?1,4)GlcNAc, and WGA-positive GlcNAc. Fucose was also detected in both tissues. However, GlcNAc on N-linked oligosaccharides and GalNAc and Neu5Ac(?2,6)Gal/GalNAc on both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides were found only in the interstitial tissue. As glandular tissue cells arise from the innermost cells of interstitial tissue that surround lobules, the differences in the glycan composition of interstitial and glandular tissue shown in this work may be related to the start of androgen synthesis when steroid hormone (SH)-secreting cells develop. PMID:11215767

  2. The source of the H cloud shown in Cassini UVIS H Ly-a map in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, W.; Gladstone, R.; Johnson, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    The origin of the broad hydrogen cloud in Saturn's magnetosphere observed by Voyager and Cassini has been debated ever since it was discovered by Broadfoot et al. (1981). Proposed sources included Titan's H torus shaped by solar radiation pressure (Smyth and Marconi, 1993; Ip, 1996) and hydrogen atoms flowing outward from Saturn (Shemansky and Hall, 1992; Shemansky et al., 2009). From the H Ly-alpha intensity map observed by Cassini UVIS, Shemansky et al. (2009) suggested that a peaked brightness on Saturn's disk and an enhancement below the ring plane were evidence of H outflow from Saturn. The Saturnian magnetosphere is also immersed in a neutral cloud (H2O, O2 and H2) and their dissociate products, which originate from several sources, including the Enceladus plumes, the rings, the inner icy satellites and Titan's H2 torus (e.g., Tseng et al., 2011). Tseng et al. (2013) have carried out a global investigation of the atomic hydrogen cloud taking into account all possible sources above. Our simulations showed that H directly escaping from Titan is a major contribution in the outer magnetosphere. For the H cloud in the inner magnetosphere (as shown in the Cassini UVIS H Ly-a map in 2005 presented in Melin et al., 2009), we found that the H from photodissociation of the H2 cloud around the main rings has a similar morphology to that indicated by the observations, but with a smaller intensity. This work will be focused on further exploring the H from 1) the H2 cloud around main rings and 2) directly from the rings. The source mechanism (i.e., H+ neutralized by the rings) and the interaction of H with the ring particles (i.e., ring absorption, energy reduction due to re-impact on the rings, and possibly preferential re-emission below the ring plane due to sunlight) will be investigated over a large parametric space. In addition, a resonant line radiative transfer model will be used to convert the simulated H column density into H Ly-a intensity, taking into account the nearly optically thick H cloud and opacity of the rings.

  3. Biological pattern and transcriptomic exploration and phylogenetic analysis in the odd floral architecture tree: Helwingia willd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Odd traits in few of plant species usually implicate potential biology significances in plant evolutions. The genus Helwingia Willd, a dioecious medical shrub in Aquifoliales order, has an odd floral architecture-epiphyllous inflorescence. The potential significances and possible evolutionary origin of this specie are not well understood due to poorly available data of biological and genetic studies. In addition, the advent of genomics-based technologies has widely revolutionized plant species with unknown genomic information. Results Morphological and biological pattern were detailed via anatomical and pollination analyses. An RNA sequencing based transcriptomic analysis were undertaken and a high-resolution phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on single-copy genes in more than 80 species of seed plants, including H. japonica. It is verified that a potential fusion of rachis to the leaf midvein facilitates insect pollination. RNA sequencing yielded a total of 111450 unigenes; half of them had significant similarity with proteins in the public database, and 20281 unigenes were mapped to 119 pathways. Deduced from the phylogenetic analysis based on single-copy genes, the group of Helwingia is closer with Euasterids II and rather than Euasterids, congruent with previous reports using plastid sequences. Conclusions The odd flower architecture make H. Willd adapt to insect pollination by hosting those insects larger than the flower in size via leave, which has little common character that other insect pollination plants hold. Further the present transcriptome greatly riches genomics information of Helwingia species and nucleus genes based phylogenetic analysis also greatly improve the resolution and robustness of phylogenetic reconstruction in H. japonica. PMID:24969969

  4. Behavioral and electrophysiological indicators of auditory distractibility in children with ADHD and comorbid ODD.

    PubMed

    Oja, L; Huotilainen, M; Nikkanen, E; Oksanen-Hennah, H; Laasonen, M; Voutilainen, A; von Wendt, L; Alho, K

    2016-02-01

    Involuntary switching of attention to distracting sounds was studied by measuring effects of these events on auditory discrimination performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in 6-11-year-old boys with Attention Deficit - Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and in age-matched controls. The children were instructed to differentiate between two animal calls by pressing one response button, for example, to a dog bark and another button to a cat mew. These task-relevant sounds were presented from one of two loudspeakers in front of the child, and there were occasional task-irrelevant changes in the sound location, that is, the loudspeaker. In addition, novel sounds (e.g., a sound of hammer, rain, or car horn) unrelated to the task were presented from a loudspeaker behind the child. The percentage of correct responses was lower for target sounds preceded by a novel sound than for targets not preceded by such sound in the ADHD group, but not in the control group. In both groups, a biphasic positive P3a response was observed in ERPs to the novel sounds. The later part of the P3a appeared to continue longer over the frontal scalp areas in the ADHD group than in the controls presumably because a reorienting negativity (RON) ERP response following the P3a was smaller in the ADHD group than in the control group. This suggests that the children with ADHD had problems in reorienting their attention to the current task after a distracting novel sound leading to deterioration of performance in this task. The present study also indicates that children with ADHD and comorbid ODD show same kind of distractibility as found in previous studies for children with ADHD without systematic comorbid ODD. PMID:26688114

  5. Odds Ratio Product of Sleep EEG as a Continuous Measure of Sleep State

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Soiferman, Marc; Younes, Henry; Younes, Mark; Raneri, Jill; Hanly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Design: Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 02.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 0.05). ORP < 1.0 predicted sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch. Conclusions: Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth. Citation: Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, Hanly P. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state. SLEEP 2015;38(4):641654. PMID:25348125

  6. Odd-Parity Superconductivity in the Vicinity of Inversion Symmetry Breaking in Spin-Orbit-Coupled Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozii, Vladyslav; Fu, Liang

    2015-11-01

    We study superconductivity in spin-orbit-coupled systems in the vicinity of inversion symmetry breaking. We find that, because of the presence of spin-orbit coupling, fluctuations of the incipient parity-breaking order generate an attractive pairing interaction in an odd-parity pairing channel, which competes with the s -wave pairing. We show that Coulomb repulsion or an external Zeeman field suppresses the s -wave pairing and promotes the odd-parity superconducting state. Our work provides a new mechanism for odd-parity pairing and opens a route to novel topological superconductivity.

  7. Odd-Parity Superconductivity in the Vicinity of Inversion Symmetry Breaking in Spin-Orbit-Coupled Systems.

    PubMed

    Kozii, Vladyslav; Fu, Liang

    2015-11-13

    We study superconductivity in spin-orbit-coupled systems in the vicinity of inversion symmetry breaking. We find that, because of the presence of spin-orbit coupling, fluctuations of the incipient parity-breaking order generate an attractive pairing interaction in an odd-parity pairing channel, which competes with the s-wave pairing. We show that Coulomb repulsion or an external Zeeman field suppresses the s-wave pairing and promotes the odd-parity superconducting state. Our work provides a new mechanism for odd-parity pairing and opens a route to novel topological superconductivity. PMID:26613464

  8. Search for Very Light CP-Odd Higgs Boson in Radiative Decays of ?(1S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Khalil, S.; Li, J.; Mountain, R.; Nisar, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Sultana, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, L. M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A.; Naik, P.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Briere, R. A.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Hunt, J. M.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Ledoux, J.; Mahlke-Krger, H.; Mohapatra, D.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Athar, S. B.; Patel, R.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Karliner, I.; Mehrabyan, S.; Lowrey, N.; Selen, M.; White, E. J.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Lang, B. W.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Libby, J.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Ecklund, K. M.

    2008-10-01

    We search for a non-SM-like CP-odd Higgs boson (a10) decaying to ?+?- or ?+?- in radiative decays of the ?(1S). No significant signal is found, and upper limits on the product branching ratios are set. Our ?+?- results are almost 2 orders of magnitude more stringent than previous upper limits. Our data provide no evidence for a Higgs state with a mass of 214 MeV decaying to ?+?-, previously proposed as an explanation for 3 ?+?p?+?- events observed by the HyperCP experiment. Our results constrain NMSSM models.

  9. Search for a very light CP-odd neutral Higgs boson of the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Mours, B.; Alemany, R.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Pacheco, A.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Gao, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Lou, J.; Qiao, C.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Atwood, W. B.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boudreau, J.; Burnett, T. H.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Haywood, S.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lanon, E.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Lusiani, A.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Mattison, T.; Meinhard, H.; Menary, S.; Meyer, T.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Nash, J.; Palazzi, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Roth, A.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Bencheikh, A. M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Proriol, J.; Prulhire, F.; Stimpfl, G.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Mllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Gamess, A.; Orteu, S.; Rosowsky, A.; Roug, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Wasserbaech, S.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Altoon, B.; Boyle, O.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Patton, S. J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Barczewski, T.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Roehn, S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wolf, B.; Aubert, J.-J.; Benchouk, C.; Bernard, V.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Qian, Z.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cowan, G.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Lauber, J.; Ltjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Mnner, W.; Richter, R.; Schrder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Takashima, M.; Thomas, J.; Wolf, G.; Bertin, V.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, X.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefranois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Abbaneo, D.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fo, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Ligabue, F.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Kozanecki, W.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Loucatos, S.; Monnier, E.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.

    1992-07-01

    The reactions e+e- ? hZ?ande+e- ? hA have been used to search for the neutral Higgs bosons h and A of the MSSM in the case where the CP-odd A is lighter than 2 m?, taking into account the large h ? AA decay branching ratio. No signal was found in the data sample collected until the end of 1991 by the ALEPH experiment at LEP. For tan ? ?, mA < 2 m? is excluded at 95% CL for any mh.

  10. K {/l3 ? +} decays revisited: Branching ratios and T-ODD momenta correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khriplovich, I. B.; Rudenko, A. S.

    2011-08-01

    We calculate the branching ratios of the K + ? ? 0 l + ? l? ( l = e, ) decays, and the T-odd triple momenta correlations ? = q [ p l p ? ]/ M {/K 3}, due to the electromagnetic final-state interaction, in these processes. The contributions on the order of ? -1 and ? 0 to the corresponding amplitudes are treated exactly. For the branching ratios, the corrections on the order of ? are estimated and demonstrated to be small. We compare the results with those of other authors. In some cases our results differ considerably from the previous ones.

  11. Projected quasiparticle calculations for the N =82 odd-proton isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Losano, L. ); Dias, H. )

    1991-12-01

    The structure of low-lying states in odd-mass {ital N}=82 isotones (135{le}{ital A}{le}145) is investigated in terms of a number-projected one- and three-quasiparticles Tamm-Dancoff approximation. A surface-delta interaction is taken as the residual nucleon-nucleon interaction. Excitation energies, dipole and quadrupole moments, and {ital B}({ital M}1) and {ital B}({ital E}2) values are calculated and compared with the experimental data.

  12. Mid-infrared-to-mid-ultraviolet supercontinuum enhanced by third-to-fifteenth odd harmonics.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, A V; Voronin, A A; Mitryukovskiy, S I; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Puglys, A; Andriukaitis, G; Flry, T; Stepanov, E A; Fedotov, A B; Baltuka, A; Zheltikov, A M

    2015-05-01

    A high-energy supercontinuum spanning 4.7 octaves, from 250 to 6500nm, is generated using a 0.3-TW, 3.9-?m output of a mid-infrared optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier as a driver inducing a laser filament in the air. The high-frequency wing of the supercontinuum spectrum is enhanced by odd-order optical harmonics of the mid-infrared driver. Optical harmonics up to the 15th order are observed in supercontinuum spectra as overlapping, yet well-resolved peaks broadened, as verified by numerical modeling, due to spatially nonuniform ionization-induced blue shift. PMID:25927786

  13. Energy levels of odd-even nuclei using broken pair model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamammu, I. M.; Haq, S.; Eldahomi, J. M.

    2012-09-06

    A method to calculate energy levels and wave functions of odd-even nuclei, in the frame work of the broken pair model have been developed. The accuracy of the model has been tested by comparing the shell model results of limiting cases in which the broken pair model exactly coincides with the shell model, where there are two-proton/neutron + one-neutron/proton in the valence levels. The model is then applied to calculate the energy levels of some nuclei in the Zirconium region. The model results compare reasonably well with the shell model as well as with the experimental data.

  14. Formation of collisionless high-beta plasmas by odd-parity rotating magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S A; Berlinger, B; Brunkhorst, C; Brooks, A; Ferraro, N; Lundberg, D P; Roach, A; Glasser, A H

    2007-04-01

    Odd-parity rotating magnetic fields (RMFo) applied to mirror-configuration plasmas have produced average electron energies exceeding 200 eV at line-averaged electron densities of approximately 10(12) cm-3. These plasmas, sustained for over 10(3)tauAlfven, have low Coulomb collisionality, vc* triple bond L/lambdaC approximately 10(-3), where lambdaC is the Coulomb scattering mean free path and L is the plasma's characteristic half length. Divertors allow reduction of the electron-neutral collision frequency to values where the RMFo coupling indicates full penetration of the RMFo to the major axis. PMID:17501282

  15. Chern-Simons topological Lagrangians in odd dimensions and their Kaluza-Klein reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.

    1984-08-01

    Clarifying the behavior of generic Chern-Simons secondary invariants under infinitesimal variation and finite gauge transformation, it is proved that they are eligible to be a candidate term in the Lagrangian in odd dimensions (2k-1 for gauge theories and 4k-1 for gravity). The coefficients in front of these terms may be quantized because of topological reasons. As a possible application, the dimensional reduction of such actions in Kaluza-Klein theory is discussed. The difficulty in defining the Chern-Simons action for topologically nontrivial field configurations is pointed out and resolved.

  16. GUE-type energy level statistics for spherical odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, H.

    2014-06-01

    The spectral statistics of spherical nuclei are steadily considered with emphasis on nearest-neighbor spacing statistics. Sequences are constructed by using all the available empirical data for the considered nuclei in different mass regions and analyzed via the generalized Brody distribution and the maximum likelihood estimation technique. Our results indicate an approach to chaotic dynamics for the nuclei considered in this work. Also, spherical odd-mass nuclei in the 50 A ? 100 mass region exhibit a slight deviation to the GUE spectral statistics rather than to the GOE.

  17. Development of odd-Z-projectile reactions for transactinide element synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Folden III, Charles Marvin

    2004-11-04

    The development of new odd-Z-projectile reactions leading to the production of transactinide elements is described. The cross section of the even-Z-projectile 208Pb(64Ni, n)271Ds reaction was measured at two new energies using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. In total, seven decay chains attributable to 271Ds were observed. These data, combined with previous results, establish an excitation function for the production of 271Ds. The maximum cross section was 20 +15 -11 pb at a center-of-target energy of 311.5 MeV in the laboratory frame.The data from the 271Ds experiments were used to estimate the optimum beam energy for the new odd-Z-projectile 208Pb(65Cu, n)272-111 reaction using the Fusion by Diffusion theory proposed by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski. A cross section for this reaction was measured for the first time, at a center-of-target energy of 321.1 MeV in the laboratory frame. The excitation energy f or compound nuclei formed at the target center was 13.2 MeV. One decay chain was observed, resulting in a measured cross section of 1.7 +3.9 -1.4 pb. This decay chain is in good agreement with previously published data on the decay of 272-111.The new odd-Z-projectile 208Pb(55Mn, n)262Bh reaction was studied at three different projectile energies, and 33 decay chains of 262Bh were observed. The existence of a previously reported alpha-decaying isomeric state in this nuclide was confirmed. Production of the ground state was preferred at all three beam energies. The maximum cross section was 540 +180 -150 pb at a projectile center-of-target energy of 264.0 MeV. This cross section is much larger than that previously reported for the even-Z-projectile 209Bi(54Cr, n)262Bh reaction, which may be because the 54Cr projectile energies in the latter reaction were too high for optimum production of the 1n product. At the highest projectile energy of 268.0 MeV in the target center, two decay chains from 261Bh were observed as a result of the 208Pb(55Mn, 2n) reaction. In summary, this work shows that odd-Z-projectile reactions can have cross sections comparable to analogous even-Z-projectile reactions, and that the energy of the maximum cross section for 1n reactions can be estimated simply.

  18. Parallel FE Approximation of the Even/Odd Parity Form of the Linear Boltzmann Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Drumm, Clifton R.; Lorenz, Jens

    1999-07-21

    A novel solution method has been developed to solve the linear Boltzmann equation on an unstructured triangular mesh. Instead of tackling the first-order form of the equation, this approach is based on the even/odd-parity form in conjunction with the conventional mdtigroup discrete-ordinates approximation. The finite element method is used to treat the spatial dependence. The solution method is unique in that the space-direction dependence is solved simultaneously, eliminating the need for the conventional inner iterations, and the method is well suited for massively parallel computers.

  19. Difference between even and odd 11-year cycles in cosmic ray intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otaola, J. A.; Perez-Enriquez, R.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray data for the period 1946-1984 are used to determine the run of the cosmic ray intensity over three complete solar cycles. The analysis shows a tendency towards a regular alternation of cosmic ray intensity cycles with double and single maxima. Whereas a saddle-like shape is characteristic of even cycles, odd cycles are characterized by a peak-like shape. The importance of this behavior is discussed in terms of different processes influencing cosmic ray transport in the heliosphere.

  20. 50 CFR Figure 27 to Part 679 - Locations for Measuring Maximum Cross Sections of Line Material (shown as A) and Supporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sections of Line Material (shown as A) and Supporting Material (shown as B) for Modified Nonpelagic Trawl... Sections of Line Material (shown as A) and Supporting Material (shown as B) for Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear ER06OC10.051 Note: The location for measurement of maximum line material cross section does...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 27 to Part 679 - Locations for Measuring Maximum Cross Sections of Line Material (shown as A) and Supporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sections of Line Material (shown as A) and Supporting Material (shown as B) for Modified Nonpelagic Trawl... Sections of Line Material (shown as A) and Supporting Material (shown as B) for Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear ER06OC10.051 Note: The location for measurement of maximum line material cross section does...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 27 to Part 679 - Locations for Measuring Maximum Cross Sections of Line Material (shown as A) and Supporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sections of Line Material (shown as A) and Supporting Material (shown as B) for Modified Nonpelagic Trawl... Sections of Line Material (shown as A) and Supporting Material (shown as B) for Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear ER06OC10.051 Note: The location for measurement of maximum line material cross section does...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 27 to Part 679 - Locations for Measuring Maximum Cross Sections of Line Material (shown as A) and Supporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Sections of Line Material (shown as A) and Supporting Material (shown as B) for Modified Nonpelagic Trawl... Sections of Line Material (shown as A) and Supporting Material (shown as B) for Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear ER06OC10.051 Note: The location for measurement of maximum line material cross section does...

  4. Relationship of peroxyacetyl nitrate to active and total odd nitrogen at northern high latitudes - Influence of reservoir species on NO(x) and O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Herlth, D.; O'Hara, D.; Zahnle, K.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Talbot, R.; Crutzen, P. J.; Kanakidou, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The partitioning of relative nitrogen in the Arctic and the sub-Arctic troposphere based on measurements conducted during the 1988 Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) is described. The first set of comprehensive odd nitrogen and O3 measurements from the Arctic/sub-Arctic free troposphere shows that a highly aged air mass that has persisted under very cold conditions is present. A large fraction of the odd nitrogen appears to be present in the form of reservoir species such as PAN. Significant quantities of as yet unknown reactive nitrogen species, such as complex alkyl nitrates and pernitrates, are expected to be present. Together with PAN, these nitrate and pernitrate reservoir species could control the entire NO(x) availability of the high-latitude troposphere and in turn influence the O3 photochemistry of the region. The role of PAN in influencing the O3 reservoir is shown to be important and may be responsible for the increasing O3 temporal trend observed at high latitudes.

  5. Effects of Odd-Z Projectiles on Fusion-Evaporation Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werke, Tyler; Mayorov, Dmitriy; Alfonso, Marisa; Bennett, Megan; Devanzo, Michael; Folden, Charles, III

    2013-04-01

    The production of nuclides near the N=126 shell in the ^45Sc + ^159Tb, ^162Dy reactions has been studied at Texas A&M University using the MARS spectrometer. Previously measured 4n exit channel cross sections for the ^48Ca, ^50Ti + ^159Tb and ^48Ca + ^162Dy reactions have exhibited enhanced fission probabilities in the de-excitation of the compound nucleus due to collective enhancements to the fission level density. The current research intends to study the change in the evaporation residue cross sections when odd-Z projectiles react with the same targets. The maximum 4n cross sections of the ^45Sc + ^159Tb, ^162Dy reactions were 2 ?b, and 4 ?b respectively, and these data are several orders of magnitude smaller than both theoretical predictions and the experimental data for the ^48Ca and ^50Ti reactions discussed above. This can be explained by collective enhancements as well as the relative neutron deficiency of ^45Sc compared to ^48Ca and ^50Ti. This talk will discuss theoretical models of evaporation residue cross sections, and will discuss the latest results on excitation functions for odd-Z projectiles reacting with lanthanide targets. This work may also have relevance to the production of superheavy elements with Z 118.

  6. E2 transition probabilities for decays of isomers observed in neutron-rich odd Sn isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Iskra, Ł. W.; Broda, R.; Janssens, R. V.F.; Wrzesiński, J.; Chiara, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fornal, B.; Hoteling, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Królas, W.; Lauritsen, T.; Pawłat, T.; Seweryniak, D.; Stefanescu, I.; Walters, W. B.; Zhu, S.

    2015-01-01

    High-spin states were investigated with gamma coincidence techniques in neutron-rich Sn isotopes produced in fission processes following ⁴⁸Ca + ²⁰⁸Pb, ⁴⁸Ca + ²³⁸U, and ⁶⁴Ni + ²³⁸U reactions. By exploiting delayed and cross-coincidence techniques, level schemes have been delineated in odd ¹¹⁹⁻¹²⁵Sn isotopes. Particular attention was paid to the occurrence of 19/2⁺ and 23/2⁺ isomeric states for which the available information has now been significantly extended. Reduced transition probabilities, B(E2), extracted from the measured half-lives and the established details of the isomeric decays exhibit a striking regularity. This behavior was compared with the previously observed regularity of the B(E2) amplitudes for the seniority ν = 2 and 3, 10⁺ and 27/2⁻ isomers in even- and odd-Sn isotopes, respectively.

  7. E2 transition probabilities for decays of isomers observed in neutron-rich odd Sn isotopes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Iskra, Ł. W.; Broda, R.; Janssens, R. V.F.; Wrzesiński, J.; Chiara, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fornal, B.; Hoteling, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Królas, W.; et al

    2015-01-01

    High-spin states were investigated with gamma coincidence techniques in neutron-rich Sn isotopes produced in fission processes following ⁴⁸Ca + ²⁰⁸Pb, ⁴⁸Ca + ²³⁸U, and ⁶⁴Ni + ²³⁸U reactions. By exploiting delayed and cross-coincidence techniques, level schemes have been delineated in odd ¹¹⁹⁻¹²⁵Sn isotopes. Particular attention was paid to the occurrence of 19/2⁺ and 23/2⁺ isomeric states for which the available information has now been significantly extended. Reduced transition probabilities, B(E2), extracted from the measured half-lives and the established details of the isomeric decays exhibit a striking regularity. This behavior was compared with the previously observed regularity of the B(E2) amplitudesmore » for the seniority ν = 2 and 3, 10⁺ and 27/2⁻ isomers in even- and odd-Sn isotopes, respectively.« less

  8. Negative parity low-spin states of even-odd 187-197Pt isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassim, Huda H.; Sharrad, Fadhil I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the negative parity low-spin states of even-odd 187-197Pt isotopes have been studied within the framework of the Interacting Boson-Fermion Model (IBFM-1). The single fermion is assumed to be in one of the 2 f 5 / 2, 3 p 3 / 2 and 3 p 1 / 2 single-particle orbits. The calculated negative parity low-states energy spectra agree quite well with the experimental data. The B (E 2) values have been also calculated and compared with the experimental data. The calculated energy levels and B (E 2) are in good agreement with experimental data than that in the previous study for 195Pt isotope. Furthermore, the energy levels, electric quadrupole transition probabilities and the potential energy surface for even-even platinum isotopes (as core for even-odd nuclei) have been calculated within framework of the Interacting Boson Model (IBM-1). The predicted energy levels and B (E 2) transition probabilities results are reasonably consistent with the experimental data. The contour plot of the potential energy surfaces shows all interesting nuclei are deformed and have ?-unstable-like characters.

  9. T-odd correlation in muon neutrino elastic scattering on polarized proton target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobków, W.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the elastic scattering of the muon neutrino (νμ) beam on the polarized proton target (PPT) in a presence of induced couplings, and predict how the existence of relative phases between the complex vector (weak magnetism) and axial (induced pseudoscalar) form factors of the proton with left-chirality νμ affects the azimuthal dependence of the differential cross section. The neutrinos are assumed to be Dirac fermions with non-zero mass and CPT symmetry is conserved. We show that the azimuthal asymmetry of recoil protons depends on the neutrino mass, but contributions are very tiny (˜10-5). Analysis of the differential cross section in the case of pure vector and axial couplings at zero νμ mass limit and zero momentum transfer shows that the T-violating phase βVA generates the T-odd, P-even triple correlation and it could be detected by measuring the asymmetry between the (0,π) and (π,2π) angles. It should be clearly stressed that the considered T-odd observable is not a genuine CP-violating quantity as it can also be produced by the T-invariant contributions due to the final state interactions (FSI). Their magnitude must be precisely estimated and subtracted from the measured observable to extract information on the possible time reversal violation (TRV). We also indicate the possibility of using the PPT in the neutrino telescope.

  10. Deformed rotational bands in the doubly odd nuclei [sup 134]Pr and [sup 132]Pr

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, K.; Wadsworth, R.; Clark, R.M.; Hibbert, I.M. ); Beausang, C.W.; Forbes, S.A.; Nolan, P.J.; Paul, E.S.; Semple, A.T.; Wilson, J.N. ); Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Santos, D. ); Simpson, J. )

    1994-08-01

    The nuclei [sup 132,134]Pr have been investigated using the [sup 100]Mo([sup 37]Cl,[ital xn]) reactions at a beam energy of 155 MeV. Gamma rays were detected with the Eurogam array. Analysis of the data has revealed the presence of two new weakly populated decoupled bands in [sup 134]Pr. One of these bands has been linked into the normal-deformed states and is thought to be built on a [pi]([ital h][sub 11/2])[sup 2][direct product][nu]([ital f][sub 7/2],[ital h][sub 9/2]) configuration. The second band has been interpreted as being based on a [pi]([ital h][sub 11/2])[sup 3][direct product][nu][ital i][sub 13/2] intruder configuration within the second [beta][sub 2][congruent]0.3 prolate minimum. The known decoupled band in [sup 132]Pr (5[ital n] reaction channel) and the highly deformed band in [sup 130]La A([alpha]3[ital n]) have also been extended. The structure of all of these bands is discussed together with similar bands in nieghboring odd-odd nuclei.

  11. Technology diffusion in hospitals: a log odds random effects regression model.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jos L T; Valdmanis, Vivian G

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the factors that affect the diffusion of hospital innovations. We apply a log odds random effects regression model on hospital micro data. We introduce the concept of clustering innovations and the application of a log odds random effects regression model to describe the diffusion of technologies. We distinguish a number of determinants, such as service, physician, and environmental, financial and organizational characteristics of the 60 Dutch hospitals in our sample. On the basis of this data set on Dutch general hospitals over the period 1995-2002, we conclude that there is a relation between a number of determinants and the diffusion of innovations underlining conclusions from earlier research. Positive effects were found on the basis of the size of the hospitals, competition and a hospital's commitment to innovation. It appears that if a policy is developed to further diffuse innovations, the external effects of demand and market competition need to be examined, which would de facto lead to an efficient use of technology. For the individual hospital, instituting an innovations office appears to be the most prudent course of action. PMID:24323484

  12. Fitting Proportional Odds Model to Case-Control data with Incorporating Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zehui; Li, Xinmin; Li, Qizhai

    2015-01-01

    Genetic association studies have been proved to be an efficient tool to reveal the aetiology of many human complex diseases and traits. When the phenotype is binary, the logistic regression model is commonly employed to evaluate the association strength of the genetic variants predispose to human diseases because the maximum likelihood estimator of the odds ratio based on case-control data is equivalent to that from the same model by taking the data as being arisen prospectively. This equivalence does not hold for the proportional odds model and using it to analyze the case-control data directly often results in a substantial bias. Through putting a parameter of the minor allele frequency in the modified likelihood function under the condition that the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law holds within controls, a consistent estimator is obtained. On the basis of it, we construct a score test statistic to test whether the genetic variant is associated with the diseases. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimator has smaller mean squared error than the existing methods when the genetic effect size is away from zero and the proposed test statistic has a good control of type I error rate and is more powerful than the existing procedures. Application to 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the region of TRAF1-C5 genes for the association with four-level anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody from Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 further demonstrates its performance. PMID:26607176

  13. Benford's law and number selection in fixed-odds numbers game.

    PubMed

    Chou, Mabel C; Kong, Qingxia; Teo, Chung-Piaw; Wang, Zuozheng; Zheng, Huan

    2009-12-01

    In fixed-odds numbers games, the prizes and the odds of winning are known at the time of placement of the wager. Both players and operators are subject to the vagaries of luck in such games. Most game operators limit their liability exposure by imposing a sales limit on the bets received for each bet type, at the risk of losing the rejected bets to the underground operators. This raises a question--how should the game operator set the appropriate sales limit? We argue that the choice of the sales limit is intimately related to the ways players select numbers to bet on in the games. There are ample empirical evidences suggesting that players do not choose all numbers with equal probability, but have a tendency to bet on (small) numbers that are closely related to events around them (e.g., birth dates, addresses, etc.). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to quantify this phenomenon and examine its relation to the classical Benford's law. We use this connection to develop a choice model, and propose a method to set the appropriate sales limit in these games. PMID:19641983

  14. Matrix methods for estimating odds ratios with misclassified exposure data: extensions and comparisons.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, M J; Spiegelman, D

    1999-06-01

    Misclassification of exposure variables is a common problem in epidemiologic studies. This paper compares the matrix method (Barron, 1977, Biometrics 33, 414-418; Greenland, 1988a, Statistics in Medicine 7, 745-757) and the inverse matrix method (Marshall, 1990, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 43, 941-947) to the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) that corrects the odds ratio for bias due to a misclassified binary covariate. Under the assumption of differential misclassification, the inverse matrix method is always more efficient than the matrix method; however, the efficiency depends strongly on the values of the sensitivity, specificity, baseline probability of exposure, the odds ratio, case-control ratio, and validation sampling fraction. In a study on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), an estimate of the asymptotic relative efficiency (ARE) of the inverse matrix estimate was 0.99, while the matrix method's ARE was 0.19. Under nondifferential misclassification, neither the matrix nor the inverse matrix estimator is uniformly more efficient than the other; the efficiencies again depend on the underlying parameters. In the SIDS data, the MLE was more efficient than the matrix method (ARE = 0.39). In a study investigating the effect of vitamin A intake on the incidence of breast cancer, the MLE was more efficient than the matrix method (ARE = 0.75). PMID:11318185

  15. New constraints on a light CP-odd Higgs boson and related NMSSM ideal Higgs scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermisek, Radovan; Gunion, John F.

    2010-04-01

    Recent BABAR limits on BR(?(3S)??a???+?-) and BR(?(3S)??a???+?-) provide increased constraints on the abb coupling of a CP-odd Higgs boson, a, with maodd Higgs bosons, h1?a1a1, with ma1<2mB. Most such scenarios with ma1<2m? are eliminated, but the bulk of the ma1>7.5GeV scenarios, which are theoretically the most favored, survive. We also outline the impact of the new ALEPH LEP results in the e+e-?Z+4? channel. For tan???3, only NMSSM ideal Higgs scenarios with mh1?98GeV and ma1 close to 2mB satisfy the ALEPH limits. For tan???2, the ALEPH limits are easily satisfied for the most theoretically preferred NMSSM scenarios, which are those with ma1 close to 2mB and mh190-100GeV.

  16. Fitting Proportional Odds Model to Case-Control data with Incorporating Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zehui; Li, Xinmin; Li, Qizhai

    2015-01-01

    Genetic association studies have been proved to be an efficient tool to reveal the aetiology of many human complex diseases and traits. When the phenotype is binary, the logistic regression model is commonly employed to evaluate the association strength of the genetic variants predispose to human diseases because the maximum likelihood estimator of the odds ratio based on case-control data is equivalent to that from the same model by taking the data as being arisen prospectively. This equivalence does not hold for the proportional odds model and using it to analyze the case-control data directly often results in a substantial bias. Through putting a parameter of the minor allele frequency in the modified likelihood function under the condition that the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law holds within controls, a consistent estimator is obtained. On the basis of it, we construct a score test statistic to test whether the genetic variant is associated with the diseases. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimator has smaller mean squared error than the existing methods when the genetic effect size is away from zero and the proposed test statistic has a good control of type I error rate and is more powerful than the existing procedures. Application to 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the region of TRAF1-C5 genes for the association with four-level anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody from Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 further demonstrates its performance. PMID:26607176

  17. Chiral Odd Structure Functions in The Nambu--Jona--Lasinio Soliton Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberg, Leonard; Reinhardt, Hugo; Weigel, Herbert

    1998-10-01

    We study unpolarized and polarized nucleon structure functions(H. Weigel, L. Gamberg, and H. Reinhardt, Mod. Phys. Lett. A11) (1996) 3021; Phys. Lett. B399 (1997) 287;Phys. Rev. D55(1997) 6910. within the bosonized Nambu--Jona--Lasinio (NJL) model where the nucleon emerges as a chiral soliton(R. Alkofer, H. Reinhardt and H. Weigel, Phys. Rep. 265) (1996) 139.. These considerations attempt to merge the parton model description of deep inelastic scattering with the phenomenologically successful picture of baryons as chiral solitons. In addition we report on the calculation of the chiral odd quark distributions(L. Gamberg, H. Reinhardt and H. Weigel, "Chiral odd structure functions from a chiral soliton", hep-ph/9801379, Phys. Rev. D. in press.) and the corresponding structure functions h_T(x,Q^2) and h_L(x,Q^2). At the low model scale, Q_0^2, we find that the leading twist effective quark distributions, f_1^(q)(x,Q_0^2), g_1^(q)(x,Q_0^2) and h_T^(q)(x,Q_0^2) satisfy Soffer's inequality for both quark flavors q=u,d. The Q^2 evolution of the twist--2 contributions is performed according to the standard GLAP formalism while the twist--three pieces, \\overlineg_2(x) and \\overlineh_L(x), are evolved according to the large NC scheme.

  18. A multi-length bunch design for electron storage rings with odd buckets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-Jing; Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Lin; Xiang, Dao; Huang, Xiao-Biao

    2015-07-01

    A scheme with two superconducting RF cavities is designed to upgrade electron storage rings with odd buckets to multi-length bunches. In this paper, the Hefei Light Source II (HLS II) is given as an example for odd buckets. As it is designed for 45 buckets, which is a multiple of 3, simultaneous generation of three different lengths of bunches is proposed with the presently applied user optics. The final result, without low-? optics, is to fill HLS II with long bunches of length 50 ps, medium bunches of 23 ps and short bunches of 6 ps. Every third bucket can be filled with short bunches, of which the current limit is up to 6.6 mA, more than 60 times the limit for low-? mode. Moreover, particle tracking simulations to examine the beam dynamics, performed by ELEGANT, and calculations of the beam instabilities are presented in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11327902, 11175180, 11175182) and U.S. DOE (DE-AC02-76SF00515)

  19. bowel, an odd-skipped homolog, functions in the terminal pathway during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Coulter, D E

    1996-01-01

    The terminal genes of Drosophila specify non-segmented regions of the larval body that are derived from the anterior and posterior regions of the early embryo. Terminal class genes include both maternal-effect loci (typified by the receptor tyrosine kinase torso) that encode components of a signal transduction cascade and zygotic genes (e.g. tailless and huckebein) that are transcribed at the poles of the embryo in response to the local activation of the pathway. We have characterized a zygotic gene, bowel, that was identified as a zinc finger homolog of the pair-rule segmentation gene odd-skipped. bowel transcripts are initially expressed at both poles of the blastoderm embryo and in a single cephalic stripe. This pattern depends upon torso and tailless activity, but is not affected in huckebein mutants. We isolated and sequenced five mutations that affect the bowel protein, including a nonsense mutation upstream of the zinc fingers and a missense mutation in a putative zinc-chelating residue. bowel mutants die as late embryos with defects in terminal derivatives including the hindgut and proventriculus. Our results indicate that the developmental roles of odd-skipped and bowel have diverged substantially, and that bowel represents a new member of the terminal hierarchy that acts downstream of tailless and mediates a subset of tailless functions in the posterior of the embryo. Images PMID:8670819

  20. PARAMETRIC TENSION BETWEEN EVEN AND ODD MULTIPOLE DATA OF THE WMAP POWER SPECTRUM: UNACCOUNTED CONTAMINATION OR MISSING PARAMETERS?

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-12-01

    There exists power contrast in even and odd multipoles of the WMAP power spectrum at low and intermediate multipole ranges. This anomaly is explicitly associated with the angular power spectrum, which is heavily used for cosmological model fitting. Having noted this, we have investigated whether even (odd) multipole data set is individually consistent with the WMAP concordance model. Our investigation shows that the WMAP concordance model does not make a good fit for even (odd) multipole data set, which indicates parametric tension between even and odd multipole data set. Noting that tension is highest in primordial power spectrum parameters, we have additionally considered a running spectral index, but found that tension increases to even a higher level. We believe these parametric tensions may be indications of unaccounted contamination or imperfection of the model.

  1. Nuclear structure of the odd-neutron radon isotopes radon-203,205,207

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, John R.

    High-spin states in the odd-neutron nuclei 203,205,207Rn have been investigated following heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction experiments at Yale University, the University of Jyvskyl, and Argonne National Laboratory. The emitted gamma rays were measured at each location using the Jurosphere, YRAST Ball and Gammasphere detector arrays, respectively. Fusion products were detected at Jyvskyl using the gas-filled recoil separator RITU and at Argonne with the Fragment Mass Analyzer. Internal conversion electrons were measured at Argonne using the ICE Ball array of mini-orange spectrometers. Experiments that were carried out include excitation function measurements, multi-gamma coincidences, angular distribution measurements, polarization measurements, and internal conversion electron spectroscopy. No gamma-ray transitions above the 13/2+ state had been reported for any of these isotopes prior to this work. Nuclear decay schemes were constructed for 203,205,207Rn up to a spin of ~29/2? and an excitation energy of ~4 MeV. The states built on the 13/2 + isomers feature strongly in the decay of these nuclei. A roughly harmonic ?I = 2 sequence assigned the ?( i13/2-1) configuration was observed in each odd-A nucleus. The energy level spacing of the 17/2+, 21/2+ and 25/2+ states relative to the 13/2 + state is similar to the 0+, 2+, 4 +, 6+ spacing observed in the neighboring even-even isotopes. The decreasing E(17/2+) energies and increasing R(/) /(/) values with decreasing neutron number reflect the increasing collectivity in the lighter isotopes as more neutron holes are added to the system. In contrast to the even-even neighbors, no evidence was found in any of the odd-A isotopes for isomeric states with lifetimes of tens of nanoseconds. An unobserved isomer in 205Rn with a lifetime of a few nanoseconds is suggested to exist near the top of the most intense cascade to account for the essentially isotropic angular distributions of the transitions in this sequence. A possible explanation for the lack of such long-lived isomers in the odd-A isotopes is the deformation-driving effects of the odd neutron, allowing additional configuration mixing and leading to increased collectivity at higher spin. A cascade of magnetic dipole transitions was observed in 205Rn and interpreted in terms of the shears mechanism. Its assigned configuration is the ?(i13/2-1) ? ?( i13/22). A short cascade of low-energy transitions was observed in 203Rn, but the shortness of the cascade and lack of other evidence precludes a shears band assignment for this sequence at this time. Such a band was not observed in 207Rn, which may be due to the fact that its core is not sufficiently polarized to allow the perpendicular coupling of the proton and neutron angular momentum vectors required for the manifestation of a shears band structure. A series of IBM and IBFM calculations were carried out in order to interpret the structure of the light radon nuclei in terms of a collective model. Excitation energies for the low-lying levels in the series of even- even isotopes 198-206Rn are well reproduced by the IBM predictions. Good agreement is also obtained between the IBFM calculations and the data obtained during the course of this work for the ?I = 2 sequence built on the 13/2+ states in 203Rn and 205 Rn.

  2. Identifying the irritability dimension of ODD: Application of a modified bifactor model across five large community samples of children.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Boylan, Khrista; Rowe, Richard; Duku, Eric; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hipwell, Alison E; Waldman, Irwin D

    2014-11-01

    The importance of irritability, as measured among the symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), has dramatically come to the fore in recent years. New diagnostic categories rely on the distinct clinical utility of irritability, and models of psychopathology suggest it plays a key role in explaining developmental pathways within and between disorders into adulthood. However, only a few studies have tested multidimensional models of ODD, and the results have been conflicting. Further, consensus has not been reached regarding which symptoms best identify irritability. The present analyses use 5 large community data sets with 5 different measures of parent-reported ODD, comprising 16,280 youth in total, to help resolve these questions. Across the samples, ages ranged from 5 to 18, and included both boys and girls. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a modified bifactor model showed the best fit in each data set. The structure of the model included 2 correlated specific factors (irritability and oppositional behavior) in addition to a general ODD factor. In 4 models, the best fit was obtained using the items "being touchy," "angry," and "often losing temper" as indicators of irritability. Given the structure of the models and the generally high correlation between the specific dimensions, the results suggest that irritability may not be sufficiently distinct from oppositional behavior to support an entirely independent diagnosis. Rather, irritability may be better understood as a dimension of psychopathology that can be distinguished within ODD, and which may be related to particular forms of psychopathology apart from ODD. PMID:25314267

  3. Physical Activity, Sports Participation, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David R.; Blanton, Curtis J.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to evaluate the relationship between physical activity, sports participation, and suicide among college students. Overall, selected physical activity patterns were associated in a non-systematic manner with decreased or increased odds of suicidal behavior among male and female

  4. Body mass index and anxiety/depression as mediators of the effects of child sexual and physical abuse on physical health disorders in women.

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; McCarthy-Jones, Roseline

    2014-12-01

    The relation between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and physical health disorders in adulthood, and what factors may serve as mediators, remains poorly understood. Using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N=3,486), we tested whether CSA was associated with physical health disorders in adult women and if mediated effects via body mass index (BMI), anxiety/depression, alcohol dependence, and smoking were present. Compared to women with no CSA, women who had experienced CSA involving intercourse had more than twice the odds of being obese, more than 3 times the odds of experiencing mental health disorders, more than 4 times the odds of being alcohol dependent, more than 5 times the odds of being drug dependent, and more than 6 times the odds of attempting suicide. Those experiencing both CSA and child physical abuse (CPA) were on average over 11kg heavier than those with neither CSA nor CPA. After controlling for demographics, CPA, and childhood bullying, CSA was associated with the majority of physical health disorders studied (typically 50-100% increases in odds). Evidence was found consistent with mediation by BMI (typically accounting for 5-20% increases in odds) and anxiety/depression (typically accounting for 8-40% increases in odds), in a dose-response manner, for the majority of physical health disorders. Bidirectional relations among these mediators and physical health disorders, and residual confounding, may have led to overestimation of mediation through BMI and anxiety/depression and underestimation of mediation through alcohol/smoking. Relations between both CPA and childhood bullying and physical health disorders in adulthood were also found. Longitudinal studies employing more sensitive measures of potential mediators are now required. PMID:25459987

  5. Fully and partially coherent pathways in multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nathan A; Yurs, Lena A; Block, Stephen B; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Kornau, Kathryn M; Sibert, Edwin L; Wright, John C

    2010-01-21

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy relies on using multiple excitation pulses to create multiple quantum coherences that provide great specificity for chemical measurements. Coherent multidimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) is the optical analogue of NMR. Current CMDS methods use three excitation pulses and phase matching to create zero, single, and double quantum coherences. In order to create higher order multiple quantum coherences, the number of interactions must be increased by raising the excitation intensities high enough to create Rabi frequencies that are comparable to the dephasing rates of vibrational coherences. The higher Rabi frequencies create multiple, odd-order coherence pathways. The coherence pathways that involve intermediate populations are partially coherent and are sensitive to population relaxation effects. Pathways that are fully coherent involve only coherences and measure the direct coupling between excited quantum states. The fully coherent pathways are related to the multiple quantum coherences created in multiple pulse NMR methods such as heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) spectroscopy with the important difference that HMQC NMR methods have a defined number of interactions and avoid dynamic Stark effects whereas the multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing pathways do not. The difference arises because CMDS methods use phase matching to define the interactions and at high intensities, multiple pathways obey the same phase matching conditions. The multiple pathways correspond to the pathways created by dynamic Stark effects. This paper uses rhodium dicarbonyl chelate (RDC) as a model to demonstrate the characteristics of multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing (MEOW) methods. Dynamic Stark effects excite vibrational ladders on the symmetric and asymmetric CO stretch modes and create a series of multiple quantum coherences and populations using partially and fully coherent pathways. Vibrational quantum states up to v = 6 are excited. A series of spectra provides different two-dimensional cross sections through the multidimensional parameter space involving two excitation frequencies, the frequency of the output coherence, and the excitation pulse time delays. The spectra allow the identification of 18 different overtone and combination band states. Comparison with a local mode model with two anharmonic Morse oscillators with interbond coupling shows excellent agreement. PMID:19950915

  6. Physical Development: Thinking Physically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Children grow and develop physically according to their own experiences, characteristics, and abilities. Physical development is so important and the environment should allow each child to find her space in the sunshine. This can be done by: (1) creating the right outdoor environment; (2) allowing children time to use it; (3) encouraging movement

  7. Development of the quantum theory of T-odd asymmetries for prescission and evaporated third particles in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bunakov, V. E.; Titova, L. V.; Kadmensky, S. S.

    2011-10-15

    A comparative analysis of the results obtained by experimentally and theoretically studying T-odd asymmetries for various third particles in the true and delayed ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons was performed. It was confirmed that the appearance of these asymmetries was associated with the effect of rotation of a polarized system undergoing fission on the angular distributions of prescission and evaporated third particles with respect to the direction along which the emerging fission fragments flew apart, this effect being determined by the Coriolis interaction of the rotational and the internalmotion of the fissioning system. A quantum-mechanical description of particle motion in a rotating coordinate system was generalized to the case where gamma-ray emission was present. It was shown that the separation of the motions of an axially symmetric fissile system into a rotational and an internal motion was valid in the external region as well, where ternary-fission products had already been formed, if it was considered that the motion of fission fragments was tightly connected with the system symmetry axis, which rotated in the laboratory frame. It was found that the dependence of the fissile-system moment of inertia appearing in the Coriolis interaction Hamiltonian on the distance between the fission fragments flying apart generated an additional phase in the amplitude of the radial distribution of fission fragments. It was shown that this phase might change sizably the contribution of the interference between fission amplitudes of neutron resonances excited in a fissile compound nucleus to the absolute values of T -odd asymmetries, especially for third particles such as neutrons and photons, which interacted only slightly with fission fragments.

  8. Development of the quantum theory of T-odd asymmetries for prescission and evaporated third particles in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bunakov, V. E.; Titova, L. V.; Kadmensky, S. S.

    2011-10-01

    A comparative analysis of the results obtained by experimentally and theoretically studying T-odd asymmetries for various third particles in the true and delayed ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons was performed. It was confirmed that the appearance of these asymmetries was associated with the effect of rotation of a polarized system undergoing fission on the angular distributions of prescission and evaporated third particles with respect to the direction along which the emerging fission fragments flew apart, this effect being determined by the Coriolis interaction of the rotational and the internalmotion of the fissioning system. A quantum-mechanical description of particle motion in a rotating coordinate system was generalized to the case where gamma-ray emission was present. It was shown that the separation of the motions of an axially symmetric fissile system into a rotational and an internal motion was valid in the external region as well, where ternary-fission products had already been formed, if it was considered that the motion of fission fragments was tightly connected with the system symmetry axis, which rotated in the laboratory frame. It was found that the dependence of the fissile-system moment of inertia appearing in the Coriolis interaction Hamiltonian on the distance between the fission fragments flying apart generated an additional phase in the amplitude of the radial distribution of fission fragments. It was shown that this phase might change sizably the contribution of the interference between fission amplitudes of neutron resonances excited in a fissile compound nucleus to the absolute values of T -odd asymmetries, especially for third particles such as neutrons and photons, which interacted only slightly with fission fragments.

  9. Search for very light CP-odd Higgs Boson in radiative decays of Upsilon(1S).

    PubMed

    Love, W; Savinov, V; Mendez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Libby, J; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M

    2008-10-10

    We search for a non-SM-like CP-odd Higgs boson (a(1)(0)) decaying to tau(+)tau(-) or mu(+)mu(-) in radiative decays of the Upsilon(1S). No significant signal is found, and upper limits on the product branching ratios are set. Our tau(+)tau(-) results are almost 2 orders of magnitude more stringent than previous upper limits. Our data provide no evidence for a Higgs state with a mass of 214 MeV decaying to mu(+)mu(-), previously proposed as an explanation for 3 Sigma(+)-->pmu(+)mu(-) events observed by the HyperCP experiment. Our results constrain NMSSM models. PMID:18999589

  10. The influence of an external symbol system on number parity representation, or what's odd about 6?

    PubMed

    Iversen, Wiebke; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Jäger, Ludwig; Willmes, Klaus

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether language-specific properties influence mental number processing. German Sign Language (DGS) numbers differ from those in spoken German not only in terms of modality but also in their basic language structure. A group of 20 congenitally deaf German signers participated in a number parity (odd/even) judgment task with DGS and printed German number words. The results indicated that two-handed DGS number signs are processed in a decomposed way. This language-specific effect also generalized to another linguistic number notation, German number words, but not to Arabic digit notation. These differences are discussed with respect to two possible routes to number parity. PMID:17201377

  11. Odd-parity topological superconductor with nematic order: Application to CuxBi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Liang

    2014-09-01

    CuxBi2Se3 was recently proposed as a promising candidate for time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors. In this work, we argue that the unusual anisotropy of the Knight shift observed by Zheng and co-workers (unpublished), taken together with specific heat measurements, provides strong support for an unconventional odd-parity pairing in the two-dimensional Eu representation of the D3d crystal point group, which spontaneously breaks the threefold rotational symmetry of the crystal, leading to a subsidiary nematic order. We predict that the spin-orbit interaction associated with hexagonal warping plays a crucial role in pinning the two-component order parameter and makes the superconducting state generically fully gapped, leading to a topological superconductor. Experimental signatures of the Eu pairing related to the nematic order are discussed.

  12. Sensitivity of calculated odd nitrogen distributions to the diabatic wind fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boughner, R. E.; Callis, L. B., Jr.; Natarajan, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper compares atmospheric total odd nitrogen and ozone computed with two different advective wind fields, one using climatological averages of ozone and temperature to obtain monthly averaged horizontal and vertical winds and the other using measurements from the LIMS instrument. Calculations using the former data show stronger poleward and downward motion in the winter season compared to those using the LIMS data. This leads to NO(y) mixing ratios in the lower stratosphere that are about 20 percent larger in the polar regions of both hemispheres and about 40 percent higher in the equatorial region for climatological transport fields compared to those derived from LIMS data. Consequently, the NO(y) distributions calculated with the LIMS advective field show worse agreement with the NO(y) values inferred from the LIMS measurements than similar results obtained with the climatological wind field.

  13. The even-odd systematics in R-process nuclide abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, K.; Suess, H. E.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reports and discusses solar system N(R) abundances for nuclides A greater than 70, obtained as differences between measured solar system abundances and calculated S-process contributions. The abundance peak at A of about 163 in the rare earth element region reveals properties which are similar to those of the R-process peaks corresponding to magic neutron numbers N = 82 and N = 126. Systematic differences in the N(R) abundances of even-A and odd-A nuclides are restricted to specific mass regions. It is concluded that these differences are most probably related to the properties of nuclear species during beta(-) decay to the stability valley.

  14. Electromagnetic moments of odd-A Po193-203,211 isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstov, M. D.; Cocolios, T. E.; Dexters, W.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A. E.; Bastin, B.; Bscher, J.; Darby, I. G.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Keupers, M.; Kster, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Page, R. D.; Sjdin, A. M.; Stefan, I.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Zemlyanoy, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    Hyperfine splitting parameters have been measured for the neutron-deficient odd-mass polonium isotopes and isomers Po193-203g,m, Po209,211. The measurement was performed at the ISOLDE (CERN) online mass separator using the in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy technique. The magnetic dipole moments ? and spectroscopic electric quadrupole moments QS have been deduced. Their implication for the understanding of nuclear structure in the vicinity of the closed proton shell at Z =82 and the neutron mid-shell at N =104 is discussed. For the most neutron-deficient nuclei (A =193,195,197), a deviation of ? and QS from the nearly constant values for heavier polonium nuclei was observed. Particle-plus-rotor calculations with static oblate deformation describe the electromagnetic moments for these nuclei well, provided a gradual increase of a mean deformation when going to lighter masses is assumed for the polonium nuclei with A <198.

  15. Odd-skipped related 2 is epigenetically regulated in cellular quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Shinji; Amano, Atsuo

    2010-06-11

    Cellular behavior and development are extensively altered during the transition from cell cycle into quiescence, though the mechanism involved in establishing and maintaining quiescence is largely unknown. We found that Odd-skipped related 2 (Osr2) was up-regulated during cellular quiescence by serum starvation as well as culturing to confluence. To investigate the regulatory mechanism of Osr2 under these conditions, we characterized the mouse Osr2 promoter. CpG islands in the flanking region of the transcription start site were predominantly methylated in exponentially growing cells, resulting in silencing of Osr2 expression. In addition, CpG demethylation in quiescence caused activation of Osr2 expression, while acetylation of the H3 and H4 histones during quiescence also led to an increase in Osr2 expression. These results suggest that epigenetically regulated Osr2 plays an important role in cellular quiescence and proliferation.

  16. Even-odd alternation in mass spectrum of thymine and uracil clusters: Evidence of intracluster photodimerization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Joon; Kang, Hyuk; Jeong, Gawoon; Kim, Yung Sam; Lee, Kang Taek; Kim, Seong Keun

    2001-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization of thymine and uracil clusters generated by a supersonic molecular beam gave rise to a remarkable alternation of mass spectral intensities between even- and odd-numbered clusters. Such alternation was observed in clusters of up to 30 molecules. Excitation to the two lowest electronically excited states seemed to be a strong prerequisite. In view of the well known photodimerization reaction of thymine and uracil in the bulk phase, it is proposed that such alternation in the mass spectral intensity resulted from formation of photodimer units within the cluster on intense UV irradiation. Several analogues of thymine with no known propensity for photodimerization in the bulk phase did not exhibit any sign of such alternation in the cluster mass spectrum. The intrinsic UV window for photodimerization, and hence photoinduced mammalian mutagenesis, was estimated to be approximately 210–280 nm, significantly narrower than the previously reported bulk values of 150–300 nm. PMID:11296267

  17. On strontium isotopic anomalies and odd-A p-process abundances. [in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects of the nucleosynthesis of Sr isotopes are considered in an attempt to shed light on the problem of the Sr isotopic anomalies discovered in an inclusion of the Allende meteorite. Decomposition of the Sr isotopes into average r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynthetic classes is performed. It is suggested that the Allende inclusion most likely has an excess of s-process Sr and that the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 isotopic ratio is probably slightly more primitive than basaltic achondrites. The results also show that Sn-115 is mostly due to the r-process and that odd-A yields are very small. It is concluded that if the Sr anomaly in the inclusion is an average s enhancement, it argues somewhat in favor of a model of gas/dust fractionation of s and r isotopes during accumulation of the inclusion parent in the protosolar cloud.

  18. Dissociation of metastable O2 as a potential source of atmospheric odd oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, J. E.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the possible dissociation of metastable oxygen molecules subject ot constraints imposed by selection rules for molecular transitions, airglow observations, and atmospheric chemistry leads to the following conclusions. Dissociation of O2(b1Sigma g +) must produce a negligible number of oxygen atoms at all altitudes in the earth's atmosphere. However, if the dissociation cross section of O2(a1Delta g) has a maximum value in the range 10 to the -20th to 10 to the -19th/sq cm, then the process O2(a1Delta g) + h(nu) yields O2(C3Delta u) yields O(3P) + O(3P) will constitute a significant, and potentially the major, source of odd oxygen in the uppermost stratosphere and mesosphere.

  19. Evidence of antimagnetic rotation in odd-A {sup 105}Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Deepika; Jain, A. K.; Patial, M.; Gupta, N.; Arumugam, P.; Dhal, A.; Sinha, R. K.; Chaturvedi, L.; Joshi, P. K.; Trivedi, T.; Palit, R.; Kumar, S.; Garg, R.; Mandal, S.; Negi, D.; Mohanto, G.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Madhavan, N.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2010-12-15

    The lifetimes of the levels above spin 23/2{sup -} in the negative-parity yrast band of {sup 105}Cd have been measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method. The obtained B(E2) values are small and show a decrease with an increase in spin. This establishes, for the first time, antimagnetic rotation (AMR) in an odd-A nucleus. An excellent agreement between the theoretical (semiclassical model) and experimental results along with a large I{sup (2)}/B(E2) ratio for the states strongly suggests that the structure of the levels beyond spin 23/2{sup -} has the character of a twin-shears type AMR band resulting from the coupling of a pair of g{sub 9/2} proton holes with aligned h{sub 11/2} and (g{sub 7/2}){sup 2} neutron particles, along with a small contribution from the core rotation.

  20. Signatures of shape transitions in odd-A neutron-rich rubidium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Guzman, R.; Sarriguren, P.; Robledo, L. M.

    2010-12-15

    The isotopic evolution of the ground-state nuclear shapes and the systematics of one-quasiproton configurations are studied in odd-A Rubidium isotopes. We use a self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism based on the Gogny energy density functional with two parametrizations, D1S and D1M, and implemented with the equal-filling approximation. We find clear signatures of a sharp shape transition at N=60 in both the charge radii and spin parity of the ground states, which are robust, consistent with each other, and in agreement with experiment. We point out that the combined analysis of these two observables could be used to predict unambiguously new regions where shape transitions might develop.

  1. Nonexistence of sharply covariant mutually unbiased bases in odd prime dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2015-09-01

    Mutually unbiased bases (MUB) are useful in a number of research areas. The symmetry of MUB is an elusive and interesting subject. A (complete set of) MUB in dimension d is sharply covariant if it can be generated by a group of order d (d +1 ) from a basis state. Such MUB, if they exist, would be most appealing to theoretical studies and practical applications. Unfortunately, they seem to be quite rare. Here we prove that no MUB in odd prime dimensions is sharply covariant, by virtue of clever applications of Mersenne primes, Galois fields, and Frobenius groups. This conclusion provides valuable insight about the symmetry of MUB and the geometry of quantum state space. It complements and strengthens the earlier result of the author that only two stabilizer MUB are sharply covariant. Our study leads to the conjecture that no MUB other than those in dimensions 2 and 4 is sharply covariant.

  2. Variability of chromosome structure in pathogenic fungi of ends and odds

    PubMed Central

    Galazka, Jonathan M.; Freitag, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin structure can affect the organization and maintenance of chromosomes. Recent discoveries in several filamentous fungi suggest mechanisms for the clustering and co-regulation of secondary metabolite genes or pathogenicity islands. An extreme case of this may be fungal accessory, conditionally dispensable, or supernumerary chromosomes that often confer beneficial traits. Fungal supernumerary chromosomes may be derived by similar mechanisms as animal or plant B chromosomes, and we thus propose that this term should be reconsidered to capture the wide variety of fungal accessory chromosomes. In some fungi, both the ends of chromosomes and these odd B chromosomes are enriched with a silencing histone modification, H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), suggesting parallel mechanisms in evolving subtelomeric or B-chromosomal pathogenicity islands and secondary metabolite clusters (SMCs). PMID:24835423

  3. Methods for a quantitative evaluation of odd-even staggering effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmi, Alessandro; Piantelli, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Odd-even effects, also known as staggering effects, are a common feature observed in the yield distributions of fragments produced in different types of nuclear reactions. We review old methods, and we propose new ones, for a quantitative estimation of these effects as a function of proton or neutron number of the reaction products. All methods are compared on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that some are not well suited for the task, the most reliable ones being those based either on a non-linear fit with a properly oscillating function or on a third (or fourth) finite difference approach. In any case, high statistic is of paramount importance to avoid that spurious structures appear just because of statistical fluctuations in the data and of strong correlations among the yields of neighboring fragments.

  4. Calculation of the (T,P)-odd electric dipole moment of thallium and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2009-12-15

    Parity and time invariance violating electric dipole moment of {sup 205}Tl is calculated using the relativistic Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction methods and the many-body perturbation theory. Contributions from the interaction of the electron electric dipole moments with internal electric field and scalar-pseudoscalar electron-nucleon (T,P)-odd interaction are considered. The results are d({sup 205}Tl)=-582(20)d{sub e} or d({sup 205}Tl)=-7.0(2)x10{sup -18}C{sup SP}e cm. Interpretation of the measurements are discussed. The results of similar calculations for {sup 133}Cs are d({sup 133}Cs)=124(4)d{sub e} or d({sup 133}Cs)=0.76(2)x10{sup -18}C{sup SP}e cm.

  5. Odd-skipped related 2 regulates genes related to proliferation and development

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Shinji; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Amano, Atsuo

    2010-07-23

    Cell proliferation is a biological process in which chromosomes replicate in one cell and equally divide into two daughter cells. Our previous findings suggested that Odd-skipped related 2 (Osr2) plays an important role in cellular quiescence and proliferation under epigenetic regulation. However, the mechanism used by Osr2 to establish and maintain proliferation is unknown. To examine the functional role of Osr2 in cell proliferation, we analyzed its downstream target genes using microarray analysis following adenovirus-induced overexpression of Osr2 as well as knockdown with Osr2 siRNA, which showed that Osr2 regulates a multitude of genes involved in proliferation and the cell cycle, as well as development. Additional proliferation assays also indicated that Osr2 likely functions to elicit cell proliferation. Together, these results suggest that Osr2 plays important roles in proliferation and development.

  6. Green functions of currents in the odd-intrinsic parity sector of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadav, Tom; Kampf, Karol; Novotn, Ji?

    2016-01-01

    The independent operator basis of the most important resonances in the odd-intrinsic parity sector of QCD allows us to construct Lagrangians for corresponding Feynman diagrams of several types of interaction channels of the mesons and resonances. Here, we will discuss all three-point current correlators non-trivial for this sector. We briefly summarize their basic properties and high energy behaviour via the operator product expansion (OPE) framework. We also show that the vector field formalism is not compatible with the OPE, and for this reason the antisymmetric field formalism is a more suitable choice. We also briefly introduce some fundamental phenomological aspects that could be useful in the next studies.

  7. Study of weakly-bound odd-A nuclei with quasiparticle blocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue-Yu, Xiong; Jun-Chen, Pei; Yi-Nu, Zhang; Yi, Zhu

    2016-02-01

    The coordinate-space Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (HFB) approach with quasiparticle blocking has been applied to study the odd-A weakly bound nuclei 17,19B and 37Mg, in which halo structures have been reported in experiments. The Skyrme nuclear forces SLy4 and UNEDF1 have been adopted in our calculations. The results with and without blocking have been compared to demonstrate the emergence of deformed halo structures due to blocking effects. In our calculations, 19B and 37Mg have remarkable features of deformed halos. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB83440), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375016, 11235001, 11320101004) and Research Fund for Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20130001110001)

  8. Odd nitrogen during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign - Theoretical considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Cariolle, Daniel; De Rudder, Anne; Gray, Lesley J.; Pyle, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reviews the chemical processes involved in the formation and destruction of active nitrogen in the stratosphere and indicates that transport processes play an important role in the behavior of these species. Vertical profiles measured during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign are compared to distributions calculated by a number of one-dimensional models. An intercomparison between six of these models shows that, if some quantitative differences attributed to different model input are noticeable, the same type of behavior is predicted for NO and NO2 by all models. Although the observed concentration of species belonging to the odd nitrogen family should be highly variable, as a result of dynamical disturbances, most data obtained during the campaign appear to be consistent with the chemical scheme currently used in photochemical models.

  9. Reflection-asymmetric rotor model of odd Aapprox. 219--229 nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Leander, G.A.; Chen, Y.S.

    1988-06-01

    The low-energy spectroscopy of odd-A nuclei in the mass region Aapprox.219--229 is modeled by coupling states of a deformed shell model including octupole deformation to a reflection-asymmetric rotor core. Theory and experiment are compared for the nuclei in which data are available: /sup 219,221,223,225/Rn, /sup 221,223,225,227/Fr, /sup 219,221,223,225,227/Ra, /sup 219,223,225,227,229/Ac /sup 221,223,225,227,229/Th, and /sup 229/Pa. Overall agreement requires an octupole deformation ..beta../sub 3/approx.0.1. The results throughout the region are synthesized to evaluate the model.

  10. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on odd nitrogen in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Herman, J. R.; Maier, E. J. R.; Mcquillan, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbon breakdown in the atmosphere produces aldehydes of which a fraction are transferred into peroxyacetyl nitrates (PAN) in the presence of NO and NO2. Since ethane is destroyed photochemically primarily above 1 km, PAN can be introduced into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere without the need to be transported from the boundary layer where most hydrocarbons are destroyed and where PAN may be lost due to thermal decomposition and heterogeneous loss. Mixing ratios of ethane in the lower troposphere increase by a factor of 4-8 from equatorial to northern mid-latitudes. This difference is directly translatable into a PAN latitude gradient. At mid-latitudes the concentration of PAN below 20 km is 0.1 ppb comparable to and in some instances larger than predicted HO2NO2 mixing ratios. Like HO2NO2 and HNO3, PAN serves as a reservoir for odd nitrogen.

  11. Search for Very Light CP-Odd Higgs Boson in Radiative Decays of {upsilon}(1S)

    SciTech Connect

    Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.

    2008-10-10

    We search for a non-SM-like CP-odd Higgs boson (a{sub 1}{sup 0}) decaying to {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} or {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} in radiative decays of the {upsilon}(1S). No significant signal is found, and upper limits on the product branching ratios are set. Our {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} results are almost 2 orders of magnitude more stringent than previous upper limits. Our data provide no evidence for a Higgs state with a mass of 214 MeV decaying to {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, previously proposed as an explanation for 3 {sigma}{sup +}{yields}p{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} events observed by the HyperCP experiment. Our results constrain NMSSM models.

  12. Pair production of the T-odd leptons at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Chong-Xing; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Lui, Wei; Ma, Wei

    2009-05-01

    The T-odd leptons predicted by the littlest Higgs model with T-parity can be pair produced via the subprocesses gg→ell+Hell-H, qbar q→ell+Hell-H, γγ→ell+Hell-H, and VV→ell+Hell-H (V=W or Z) at the CERN large hadron collider (LHC). We estimate the hadronic production cross-sections for all of these processes and give a simple phenomenology analysis. We find that the cross-sections for most of the above processes are very small. However, the value of the cross-section for the Drell-Yan process, qbar q→ell+Hell-H, can reach 270 fb.

  13. Chirality in odd-A Rh isotopes within the triaxial particle rotor model

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, B.; Wang, S. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Meng, J.; Koike, T.

    2011-03-15

    By adopting the fully quantal triaxial particle-rotor model, the candidate chiral doublet bands in odd-A nuclei {sup 103}Rh and {sup 105}Rh with {pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup -1} x {nu}h{sub 11/2}{sup 2} configuration are studied. For the doublet bands in both nuclei, agreement is excellent for the observed energies over the entire spin range and B(M1)/B(E2) at higher spin range. The evolution of the chiral geometry with angular momentum is discussed in detail by using the angular momentum components and their probability distributions. Chirality is found to change from chiral vibration to nearly static chirality at spin I=37/2 and back to another type of chiral vibration at higher spin. The influence of the triaxial deformation {gamma} is also studied.

  14. Optimal odd-periodic complementary sequences for diffuse wireless optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Bo; Xie, Xiu-Xiu; Jiao, Yuan; Song, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xibin; Gu, Ming; Sheng, Ming

    2012-09-01

    Indoor wireless optical communication (WOC) systems become promising because of their distinct advantages over their radio frequency counterparts. We address the optimal odd-periodic complementary sequences (OPCSs) for estimating a channel impulse response in WOC systems. Based on the Cramer-Rao bound, a criterion for design the optimal OPCSs is introduced. Optimum OPCSs are obtained and tabulated by computer search for different channel responses and OPCS length. Moreover, the sequence detection performance measured by bit error ratio (BER) for OPCSs-based channel estimation is also investigated. Simulation results show that the sequence detection performance can be significantly improved by using the optimal OPCS pairs. Moreover, the longer OPCS is, the better a BER performance can be obtained when the channel order is held fixed.

  15. Odd-frequency triplet superconductivity at the helical edge of a topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crpin, Franois; Burset, Pablo; Trauzettel, Bjrn

    2015-09-01

    Nonlocal pairing processes at the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator in proximity to an s -wave superconductor are usually suppressed by helicity. However, the additional proximity of a ferromagnetic insulator can substantially influence the helical constraint and therefore open a new conduction channel by allowing for crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) processes. We show a one-to-one correspondence between CAR and the emergence of odd-frequency triplet superconductivity. Hence, nonlocal transport experiments that identify CAR in helical liquids yield smoking-gun evidence for unconventional superconductivity. Interestingly, we identify a setupcomposed of a superconductor flanked by two ferromagnetic insulatorsthat allows us to favor CAR over electron cotunneling, which is known to be a difficult but essential task to be able to measure CAR.

  16. The effect of large-scale magnetic field on outflow in ADAFs: an odd symmetry configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi, Maryam; Abbassi, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    We construct self-similar inflow-outflow solutions for a hot viscous-resistive accretion flow with large-scale magnetic fields that have odd symmetry with respect to the equatorial plane in Bθ and even symmetry in Br and Bφ. Following previous authors, we also assume that the polar velocity vθ is non-zero. We focus on four parameters: βr0, βφ0 (the plasma beta parameters associated with magnetic field components at the equatorial plane), the magnetic resistivity η0 and the density index n = -dln ρ/dln r. The resulting flow solutions are divided into two parts, consisting of an inflow region with a negative radial velocity (vr < 0) and an outflow region with vr > 0. Our results show that stronger outflows emerge for smaller βr0 (≤10-2 for n > 1) and larger values of βφ0, η0 and n.

  17. Suppression of the Kondo effect in quantum dots by even-odd asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y.; Phillips, P.; Li, Q.

    1995-05-15

    We analyze here a model for single-electron charging in semiconductor quantum dots that includes the standard Anderson on-site repulsion ({ital U}) as well as the spin exchange ({ital J}{sub {ital d}}) that is inherently present among the electrons occupying the various quantum levels of the dot. We show explicitly that for ferromagnetic coupling ({ital J}{sub {ital d}}{gt}0), an {ital s}-{ital d} exchange for an {ital S}=1 Kondo problem is recovered. In contrast, for the antiferromagnetic case, {ital J}{sub {ital d}}{lt}0, we find that the Kondo effect is present only if there are an odd number of electrons on the dot. In addition, we find that spin exchange produces a second period as well as additional fine structure in the conductance that is consistent with experimental measurements.

  18. Outbreeding depression in hybrids between odd-and even-broodyear pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gharrett, A.J.; Smoker, W.W.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Taylor, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    Fewer F2 hybrids between even- and odd-broodline pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), which are lines that are genetically isolated by their strict two-year life cycle, survived than did F2 controls, indicating outbreeding depression. Cryopreserved sperm of 40 broodyear 1990 males and of 40 broodyear 1991 males fertilized equal subsamples of eggs from 40 broodyear 1992 females. Return rates of F1 hybrids (1.73%) and controls (1.63%) in 1994 did not differ significantly (P=0.30). F2 hybrid and control crosses were made from 40 males and 40 females selected at random from each return group. Offspring were differentially marked and released. In 1996, returns differed significantly (P=0.011) between hybrids (n=34, 0.34%) and controls (n=44, 0.42%). The low rate of return of the control fish was similar to the measured return of a much larger group of tagged Auke Creek pink salmon, and probably not an artifact of the experiment. Although no increase in fluctuating asymmetry of paired meristic counts was observed in either F1or F2 hybrids, size and some meristic counts of hybrids exceed measurements of controls, suggesting heterosis for those traits. The observations of decreased survival in F2 hybrids confirm previous work [Gharrett, A.J., Smoker, W.W., 1991. Two generations of hybrids between even- and odd-year pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 48(9) 1744–1749]. Although genetic divergence between pink salmon broodlines is large and outbreeding depression might be expected in such unlikely hybrids, the results document the occurrence of outbreeding depression in salmon and signal caution in making management and aquacultural decisions that may create the possibility of outbreeding depression in self-sustaining or cultured populations.

  19. Exposure to Childhood Traumas Ups the Odds of Giving Birth to Daughters

    PubMed Central

    Kaitz, Marsha; Rokem, Ann Marie; Mankuta, David; Davidov, Maayan; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the likelihood of giving birth to a daughter as a function of womens exposure to four categories of stressors: Childhood Trauma, Adult Trauma, Chronic Stressors, and Recent (adverse) Life Events. Hypothesis 1 stated that that exposure to Recent Life Events (near conception) and to childhood traumas would increase womens chances of having a girl baby. Hypothesis 2 stated that the relation between stress and gender outcome is mediated by persistent PTSD symptoms. Method The final sample was comprised of 225 women. The design was Prospective Observational. At first contact, women were retained if they were < 27 weeks pregnant and met initial inclusion criteria. In interview 2, at 2730 weeks, women were excluded for positive diagnoses of anxiety disorders besides PTSD with or without depression (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders). In interview 3 (3034 weeks), reports on stress categories (Social Stress Indicator Questionnaire, SSI) and PTSD symptoms (Post Traumatic Checklist) were obtained. Infant Gender was obtained from medical records. The relation between stress categories and the distribution of girl/boy infants was examined with Chi Squares and Logistic Regression analyses. Mediation was tested with the macro PROCESS (Hayes 2012). Results Childhood Trauma was the only stress category that increased the odds of having a girl; with an odds ratio of > 3.0 for women who had been exposed to more than two such events. PTSD symptoms (partially) mediated the relation between Childhood Trauma and infant gender. Conclusions Findings suggest that womens exposure to childhood trauma contributes to the determination of the sex ratio at birth and that PTSD symptoms are part of the cause. PMID:24221408

  20. Exposure to childhood traumas ups the odds of giving birth to daughters.

    PubMed

    Kaitz, Marsha; Rokem, Ann Marie; Mankuta, David; Davidov, Maayan; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the likelihood of giving birth to a daughter as a function of women's exposure to four categories of stressors: childhood trauma, adult trauma, chronic stressors, and recent (adverse) life events. Hypothesis 1 stated that exposure to recent life events (near conception) and to childhood traumas would increase women's chances of having a girl baby. Hypothesis 2 stated that the relationship between stress and gender outcome is mediated by persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The final sample was comprised of 225 women. The design was prospective observational. At first contact, women were retained if they were <27 weeks pregnant and met initial inclusion criteria. In interview 2, at 27-30 weeks, women were excluded for positive diagnoses of anxiety disorders besides PTSD with or without depression (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders). In interview 3 (30-34 weeks), reports on stress categories (Social Stress Indicator Questionnaire) and PTSD symptoms (Post-Traumatic Checklist) were obtained. Infant gender was obtained from medical records. The relationship between stress categories and the distribution of girl/boy infants was examined with Chi Squares and logistic regression analyses. Mediation was tested with the macro PROCESS (Hayes 2012). Childhood trauma was the only stress category that increased the odds of having a girl, with an odds ratio of >3.0 for women who had been exposed to more than two such events. PTSD symptoms (partially) mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and infant gender. Findings suggest that women's exposure to childhood trauma contributes to the determination of the sex ratio at birth and that PTSD symptoms are part of the cause. PMID:24221408

  1. Analytical relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in odd-number lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Hideo; Doi, Takahiro M.; Iritani, Takumi

    2014-04-01

    To clarify the relation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD, we consider a temporally odd-number lattice, with the temporal lattice size Nt being odd. We here use an ordinary square lattice with the normal (nontwisted) periodic boundary condition for link-variables in the temporal direction. By considering Tr({hat U_4}{hat not D{N_t - 1}}) we analytically derive a gauge-invariant relation between the Polyakov loop and the Dirac eigenvalues ?n in QCD, i.e., ? ?n ?nNt-1 , which is a Dirac spectral representation of the Polyakov loop in terms of Dirac eigenmodes |n>. Owing to the factor ?nNt-1 in the Dirac spectral sum, this relation generally indicates fairly small contribution of low-lying Dirac modes to the Polyakov loop, while the low-lying Dirac modes are essential for chiral symmetry breaking. Also in lattice QCD calculations in both confined and deconfined phases, we numerically confirm the analytical relation, non-zero finiteness of for each Dirac mode, and negligibly small contribution from low-lying Dirac modes to the Polyakov loop, i.e., the Polyakov loop is almost unchanged even by removing low-lying Dirac-mode contribution from the QCD vacuum generated by lattice QCD simulations. We thus conclude that low-lying Dirac modes are not essential modes for confinement, which indicates no direct one-to-one correspondence between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD.

  2. LIMS data - Inferred stratospheric distribution of NOx and HOx trace constituents and the calculated odd nitrogen budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Russell, J. M.; Boughner, R. E.; Natarajan, M.

    1985-01-01

    LIMS, SAMS, SBUV and in-situ data have been used to infer species not measured but which are of photochemical interest, e.g., O(3P), O(1D), NO, N2O5, OH, HO2, ClO and HCl. (LIMS = limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere; SAMS = stratospheric and mesospheric sounder; and SBUV = solar backscattered ultraviolet instrument.) Production and loss of odd nitrogen have been calculated and estimates have been made of the odd nitrogen transport due to adiabatically driven circulation derived from LIMS data. Data used from LIMS include O3, NO2, HNO3, H2O and T. CH4 and N2O were taken from SAMS and the UV solar flux from the SBUV instrument. Species were inferred for periods in October, December, March and May. Results for December are discussed. Results indicate: (1) maximum stratospheric odd nitrogen levels of 25 ppbv; (2) evidence of odd nitrogen transport from the mesosphere appearing at 25 km in the wintertime polar latitudes; (3) the polar night build-up of high levels of N2O5 beginning after the autumnal equinox; and (4) the possibility of large downward fluxes of odd nitrogen into the troposphere during the winter at latitudes poleward of 60 degrees.

  3. Direct observation of odd-even effect for chiral alkyl alcohols in solution using vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hiroshi; Yamagami, Souko; Futamura, Shigeru; Nafie, Laurence A; Dukor, Rina K

    2004-01-14

    The odd-even effect of chiral alkyl alcohols, (S)-CH(3)CHOHC(n)()H(2)(n)()(+1) (n = 2-8), in solution state has been observed spectroscopically for the first time. The vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) bands at 1148 cm(-)(1) exhibit a clear odd-even effect. The observed VCD bands of (R)-(-)-2-hexanol correspond well to those predicted (population weighted). Density functional theory calculations indicate that the most prevalent conformations in solution are the all-trans forms. The odd-even effect of the VCD bands is ascribed to the alternating terminal methyl motions in the alkyl chains relative to fixed motions near the chiral center in the trans conformations. The conformational sensitivity of VCD for the chiral alcohols in the solution state may be useful for the design of liquid crystals and ligands in the future. PMID:14709084

  4. Glauber-based evaluations of the odd moments of the initial eccentricity relative to the even order participant plates

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, R.; Wei, R.; Ajitanand, N.; Alexander, J.; Taranenko, A.

    2011-09-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to compute the centrality dependence of the odd moments of the initial eccentricity {var_epsilon}{sub n+1}, relative to the even-order (n) participant planes {Psi}{sub n} in Au + Au collisions. The results obtained for two models of the eccentricity - the Glauber and the factorized Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi (fKLN) models - indicate magnitudes which are essentially zero. They suggest that a possible correlation between the orientations of the odd and even participant planes ({Psi}{sub n+1} and {Psi}{sub n}, respectively) does not have a significant influence on the calculated eccentricities. An experimental verification test for correlations between the orientations of the odd and even participant planes is also proposed.

  5. Algebraic solutions for UB F(5 ) -OB F(6 ) quantum phase transition in odd-mass-number nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Ghapanvari, M.; Fouladi, N.

    2015-11-01

    The spherical to ? -unstable nuclei shape-phase transition in odd-A nuclei is investigated by using the dual algebraic structures and the affine SU (1 ,1 ) ? Lie algebra within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The new algebraic solution for odd-A nuclei is introduced. In this model, single j =1 /2 and 3/2 fermions are coupled with an even-even boson core. Energy spectra, quadrupole electromagnetic transitions, and an expectation value of the d -boson number operator are presented. Experimental evidence for the UB F(5 ) -OB F(6 ) transition in odd-A Ba and Rh isotopes is presented. The low-states energy spectra and B (E 2 ) values for these nuclei are also calculated and compared with the experimental data.

  6. Ab initio theory of magnetic-field-induced odd-frequency two-band superconductivity in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aperis, Alex; Maldonado, Pablo; Oppeneer, Peter M.

    2015-08-01

    We develop the anisotropic Eliashberg framework for superconductivity in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Using as input the ab initio calculated electron and phonon band structures and electron-phonon coupling, we solve self-consistently the anisotropic Eliashberg equations for the archetypal superconductor MgB2. We find two self-consistent solutions, time-even two-band superconductivity, as well as unconventional time-odd s -wave spin triplet two-band superconductivity emerging with applied field. We provide the full momentum, frequency, and spin-resolved dependence and magnetic field-temperature phase diagrams of the time-even and time-odd superconducting pair amplitudes and predict fingerprints of this novel odd-frequency state in tunneling experiments.

  7. Identifying the Irritability Dimension of ODD: Application of a Modified Bifactor Model Across Five Large Community Samples of Children

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Boylan, Khrista; Rowe, Richard; Duku, Eric; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of irritability as measured among the symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has dramatically come to the fore in recent years. New diagnostic categories rely on the distinct clinical utility of irritability, and models of psychopathology suggest it plays a key role in explaining developmental pathways within and between disorders into adulthood. However, only a few studies have tested multidimensional models of ODD, and the results have been conflicting. Further, consensus has not been reached regarding which symptoms best identify irritability. The present analyses use data from five large community data sets with five different measures of parent-reported ODD, comprising 16,280 youth in total, to help resolve these questions. Across the samples, ages ranged from 5 to 18, and included both boys and girls. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a modified bifactor model showed the best fit in each of the five data sets. The structure of the model included two correlated specific factors (irritability and oppositional behavior) in addition to a general ODD factor. In four of the five models, the best fit was obtained using the items of being touchy, angry and often losing temper as indicators of irritability. Given the structure of the models and the generally high correlation between the specific dimensions, the results suggest that irritability may not be sufficiently distinct from oppositional behavior to support an entirely independent diagnosis. Rather, irritability may be better understood as a dimension of psychopathology that can be distinguished within ODD, and which may be related to particular forms of psychopathology apart from ODD. PMID:25314267

  8. Identifying the odds ratio estimated by a two-stage instrumental variable analysis with a logistic regression model.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Stephen

    2013-11-30

    An adjustment for an uncorrelated covariate in a logistic regression changes the true value of an odds ratio for a unit increase in a risk factor. Even when there is no variation due to covariates, the odds ratio for a unit increase in a risk factor also depends on the distribution of the risk factor. We can use an instrumental variable to consistently estimate a causal effect in the presence of arbitrary confounding. With a logistic outcome model, we show that the simple ratio or two-stage instrumental variable estimate is consistent for the odds ratio of an increase in the population distribution of the risk factor equal to the change due to a unit increase in the instrument divided by the average change in the risk factor due to the increase in the instrument. This odds ratio is conditional within the strata of the instrumental variable, but marginal across all other covariates, and is averaged across the population distribution of the risk factor. Where the proportion of variance in the risk factor explained by the instrument is small, this is similar to the odds ratio from a RCT without adjustment for any covariates, where the intervention corresponds to the effect of a change in the population distribution of the risk factor. This implies that the ratio or two-stage instrumental variable method is not biased, as has been suggested, but estimates a different quantity to the conditional odds ratio from an adjusted multiple regression, a quantity that has arguably more relevance to an epidemiologist or a policy maker, especially in the context of Mendelian randomization. PMID:23733419

  9. An Inquiry-Based Course Using "Physics?" in Cartoons and Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Books, cartoons, movies, and video games provide engaging opportunities to get both science and nonscience students excited about physics. An easy way to use these media in one's classroom is to have students view clips and identify unusual events, odd physics, or list things that violate our understanding of the physics that governs our universe.

  10. An Inquiry-Based Course Using "Physics?" in Cartoons and Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Books, cartoons, movies, and video games provide engaging opportunities to get both science and nonscience students excited about physics. An easy way to use these media in one's classroom is to have students view clips and identify unusual events, odd physics, or list things that violate our understanding of the physics that governs our universe.…

  11. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates back to 1967, when the first Olympiad was organized in Warsaw, Poland. Today this Olympiad is a worldwide enterprise, and in the 2008 competition in Hanoi, Vietnam, students from 82 countries took part. An overview of the problems and a summary of the results of this Olympiad are given in the first paper, prepared by the organizers of the competition [3]. The students work on four or five different problems, three theoretical ones on one day, and one or two experimental tasks on another. On each day, they have five hours to accomplish their tasks. The problems are prepared by the local organizer, usually a team of physicists from universities in the home country. The level is set by an international syllabus, and the content and wording of the problems have to be agreed by a majority of the supervisors (one from each participating country) in an initial meeting. Afterwards the tasks are translated into the various languages of the competitors; the students also write their results in their own language. The number of awards (gold, silver and bronze, as well as honorable mentions) varies from competition to competition, since it depends on the number of participants. A team consists of at most five students, but they do not act as a team—they work independantly. The selection process in individual countries varies, but is usually executed in several steps, starting from school competitions and going on to regional and national ones. Training courses are often organized on the same levels. Big differences can be seen in training courses at the highest level, the duration ranging from one week to several months. The International Young Physicists Tournament (IYPT) is completely different in spirit [4]. Whereas the students work individually in the Olympiad, IYPT is a competition between teams. In addition, the 17 tasks are known almost a year in advance. The problems are very open, allow for different approaches and include experimental as well as theoretical work. The students are allowed to use any method they like, are coached by teachers, and are encouraged to ask for help from experts at research centres or universities. Finally, they must prepare a 12-minute presentation. A tournament consists of different contests. In each contest, three teams are involved: the reporting team is challenged by an opponent team to present a task. This presentation is then criticized by the opponent, pointing out merits and possible weak parts. The discussion between the two representatives of the teams is a central element of a contest. The third team acts as reviewer, giving final comments on the performances of the contesting teams. At the end, a jury grades the performances of all three teams. Then, the different roles of the teams rotate, and the students also rotate roles within the teams. The competition started in the former Soviet Union in 1988 and became international for the first time in 1994 when it was organized in Groningen, The Netherlands. In the 2008 tournament in Trogir, Croatia, teams from 24 countries participated [5]. Since this tournament is younger and less known, the national pre-selections are not as well established and numerous as for the Olympiad. Also, the training is different: in addition to developing experimental skills and physical understanding of the problems, the students must organize their performances, share work and responsibilities, and must train in the techniques of presentation and debate (in English). The winner of the tournament in Croatia was the team from Germany. Their presentation in the finals was an experimental and theoretical investigation into the Kaye effect. The students wrote up their presentation, and it is reproduced here as the second paper in this special section. Again, different in spirit and aim is 'First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics' [6]. This competition started in 1991 in Poland and encourages students to take their first steps in physics research. Students of 20 years old or less are invited to present their research and results as a paper, in the style typically published by scientific journals. The student is allowed to choose a topic within the broad scope of physics, including cross-over fields such as astro- or biophysics. In 2008 over 2000 papers were submitted and 25 awards were given. In line with 'First Step' is the International Conference for Young Scientists (ICYS) [7]. The conference started in 1994 in Viségrad, Hungary. Here too, the participants present the results of their research, not by submitting a research paper but by giving a presentation to an audience of peers and a jury of specialists. The subjects of the presentations are in physics, mathematics, computer science, environmental sciences, engineering or life sciences. The jury awards the presentations according to the level of the content and the presentation. The last three competitions presented here are younger and did not start within Eastern European countries. The International Olympics of Astrophysics and Astronomy (IOAA) was organized for the second time in Bandung, Indonesia in 2008 and 24 countries participated [8]. As the title of the competition indicates, problems are directed towards theoretical and experimental aspects of astronomy. A little bit older is the European Union Science Olympiad (EUSO) [9]. This started in 2001, but the first competition took place in Dublin, Ireland, in 2003. The last competition was organized in March-April 2009 in Murcia, Spain. This competition addresses younger students, aged 17 years or less. It tries to combine biology, chemistry and physics. Although the problems are formulated in an interdisciplinary way, the students remain specialists, one in physics and the others in biology and chemistry. For even younger students, there is the International Junior Science Olympiad (IJSO) [10]. This competition started in December 2004 on the initiative of Professor Masno Ginting from Indonesia. The last competition took place in Changwon, South Korea, where over 50 countries were represented. The aim of this Olympiad is similar to EUSO, but on top of teamwork, members also have to participate in an individual test. Because of the importance of these international competitions for physics education, and also because of their growing number, it was seen as useful to found an umbrella organization, the World Federation of Physics Competitions (WFPhC), which would undertake tasks common to most of the competitions [11]. These are: To stimulate talent for physics by means of physics competitions in secondary schools; To stimulate meetings and conferences where people interested in physics competitions can develop and interchange their ideas within their home country; To afford the opportunity to, in particular by means of the foundation's periodical, exchange publications in the field of physics teaching; To acknowledge the merits of people who have contributed greatly to the goals of the Federation, through a WFPhC award; To afford assistance and support to countries that wish to organize physics competitions by putting them in contact with experienced countries; To promote physics and to encourage youngsters interested in physics. The WFPhC was founded in 1999 and the first and acting president is Hans Jordens, one of the authors of this article. The Federation edits a publication twice a year with an extensive collection of former or recent tasks and solutions, as well as organizational matters. It organizes every other year a Congress during which an award is giving to a person who has contributed greatly to the goals of the Federation. So far this award has been given to three people: Gunter Lind (Germany), Gunnar Tibell (Sweden) and posthumously to Waldemar Gorzkowski (Poland). 2. Physics competitions and European Journal of Physics The aim of European Journal of Physics is 'to assist in maintaining and improving the standard of taught physics in universities and other institutes of higher education'. One point, among others, is to publish 'descriptions of successful and original student projects, experimental, theoretical or computational'. This comes close to the tasks and student work carried out in physics competitions. Physics educators at university level are usually aware of the existence of such competitions, but the majority, with the few exceptions of those involved in these competitions, lack knowledge of what is actually going on, and how high levelled the performances are. Therefore, it is not obvious to them that these competitions could be useful for university teaching, and could be sources of interesting and novel examples for labs and theoretical exercises. Each physics department wants to attract good students or, in other words, wants talented students to choose physics as their first subject of study. Experience has shown that physics competitions can assist in meeting this demand. Not only do students involved in the competitions beoome more inclined to study physics, their experimental and theoretical knowledge is far beyond that of typical students. Therefore it would be of mutual interest to intensify the bonds between physics competitions and universities. The publication of tasks and solutions to problems from physics competitions may serve several purposes: Competitions and especially their high quality can be communicated to a very broad audience of physicists. University teachers could be encouraged to implement these problems in their lectures, exercises and labs, mainly at the undergraduate level, theoretically as well as experimentally. The previous point is even more important for the education of physics teachers. Ongoing physics teachers should know in detail the different competitions and their specific goals and problems. The winners of the competitions get greater publicity, which in turn could create additional attraction to future participants. As an example of the second point, the successful application of competition tasks has been implemented at the University Ljubljana, Slovenia: in the final paper of the set, Gorazd Planinsic reports on the adoption of IYPT problems in introductory labs. 3. Outlook This collection of papers gives information about physics competitions and can provide physics teachers, in particular at university level, with ideas, examples and exercises to implement in their teaching. Since this combined presentation is a first for European Journal of Physics (and perhaps for other journals, at least to our knowledge), it would be very helpful to get feedback. In particular, we would be interested to receive answers to the following questions: Did you find these papers interesting and/or useful and should European Journal of Physics continue publishing annotated examples of physics competitions on an annual basis? Which parts were of special interest to you and which parts were not adequate or useful at all? Should we extend these projects including examples from other competitions (for example, the Olympiad on Astrophysics and Astronomy)? Do you know of other examples, where physics competitions were included in university teaching? If yes, please inform us and give references. Please send your feedback to h.jordens@rug.nl or leopold.mathelitsch@uni-graz.at. References [1] Tibnell G 2008 Student's skills developed by participation in international physics competitions GIREP/MPTL Conference: Physics Curriculum Design, Development and Validation, Nicosia, Cyprus, 2008 [2] http://www.jyu.fi/ipho [3] http://ipho2008.hnue.edu.vn/ [4] http://www.iypt.org [5] http://www.hfd.hr/iypt2008/ [6] http://www.ifpan.edu.pl/firststep/ [7] http://metal.elte.hu/~icys/ [8] http://ioaa.info/ioaa2007/ [9] http://www.euso.dcu.ie/euso/home/index.htm [10] http://www.ijso-official.org/ [11] http://info.ifpan.edu.pl/wfphc/

  12. Chiral-odd generalized parton distributions for proton in a light-front quark-diquark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Dipankar; Mondal, Chandan

    2015-10-01

    We present a study of the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions (GPDs) for u and d quarks in a proton using the light-front wave functions (LFWFs) of the scalar quark-diquark model for a nucleon constructed from the soft-wall AdS/QCD correspondence. We obtain the GPDs in terms of overlaps of the LFWFs. Numerical results for chiral-odd GPDs in momentum as well as transverse position (impact) spaces considering both zero and nonzero skewness(? ) are presented. For nonzero skewness, the GPDs are also evaluated in longitudinal position space.

  13. Onset and Saturation of Ion Heating by Odd-parity Rotating-magnetic-fields in a Field-reversed Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    A.S. Landsman, S.A. Cohen, A.H. Glasser

    2005-11-01

    Heating of figure-8 ions by odd-parity rotating magnetic fields (RMFο) applied to an elongated field-reversed configuration (FRC) is investigated. The largest energy gain occurs at resonances (s ≡ ω(sub)R/ω) of the RMFο frequency, ω(sub)R, with the figure-8 orbital frequency, ω, and is proportional to s^2 for s – even resonances and to s for s – odd resonances. The threshold for the transition from regular to stochastic orbits explains both the onset and saturation of heating. The FRC magnetic geometry lowers the threshold for heating below that in the tokamak by an order of magnitude.

  14. The even-odd effect in fission-fragment Z yields - a new kind of nuclear clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Beatriz; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz

    2013-12-01

    A model for the even-odd effect in fission based on statistical mechanics is presented. It reveals that the variation of the even-odd effect with the mass of the fissioning nucleus and the increase towards asymmetric splits is due to the important statistical weight of configurations where the light fission fragment populates the ground state of an even-even nucleus. This implies that excitation energy and unpaired nucleons are predominantly transferred to the heavy fragment. Our results indicate that the time for transfer of excitation energy and nucleons is shorter than the saddle-to-scission time.

  15. Physical activity level and its sociodemographic correlates in a peri-urban Nepalese population: a cross-sectional study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot health demographic surveillance site

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains—work, travel and leisure—in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. Methods Adult participants (n = 640) from six randomly selected wards of the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) near Kathmandu responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. To determine total physical activity, we calculated the metabolic equivalent of task in minutes/week for each domain and combined the results. Respondents were categorized into high, moderate or low physical activity. We also calculated the odds ratio for low physical activity in various sociodemographic variables and self-reported cardiometabolic states. Results The urbanizing JD-HDSS community showed a high prevalence of low physical activity (43.3%; 95% CI 39.4–47.1). Work-related activity contributed most to total physical activity. Furthermore, women and housewives and older, more educated and self-or government-employed respondents showed a greater prevalence of physical inactivity. Respondents with hypertension, diabetes or overweight/obesity reported less physical activity than individuals without those conditions. Only 5% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cardiovascular risk factor. Conclusions Our findings reveal a high burden of physical inactivity in a peri-urban community of Nepal. Improving the level of physical activity involves sensitizing people to its importance through appropriate multi-sector strategies that provide encouragement across all sociodemographic groups. PMID:24628997

  16. Search for a light C P -odd Higgs boson in radiative decays of J /ψ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. Y.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We search for a light Higgs boson A0 in the fully reconstructed decay chain of J /ψ →γ A0 , A0→μ+μ- using (225.0 ±2.8 )×106 J /ψ events collected by the BESIII experiment. The A0 is a hypothetical C P -odd light Higgs boson predicted by many extensions of the Standard Model including two spin-0 doublets plus an extra singlet. We find no evidence for A0 production and set 90% confidence-level upper limits on the product branching fraction B (J /ψ →γ A0)×B (A0→μ+μ-) in the range of (2.8 - 495.3 )×10-8 for 0.212 ≤mA0≤3.0 GeV /c2 . The new limits are five times below our previous results, and the nature of the A0 is constrained to be mostly singlet.

  17. A mid-latitude balloon-borne observation of total odd nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Aimedieu, P.; Matthews, W. A.; Sheldon, W. R.; Benbrook, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    A balloon-borne instrument to measure total odd nitrogen NO(y) has been developed. A converter which enables catalytic conversion of NO(y) into nitric oxide on a heated gold surface is combined with a chemiluminescence detector. The conversion efficiency for NO2 was measured to be close to 100 percent at pressures between 60 and 7 mb. The major source of errors in the balloon-borne measurements are the uncertainties in the estimates of the sample flow rate and the zero level of the instrument. The NO(y) concentration was measured at altitudes between 12 and 28 km with a precision of about 25 percent on a balloon experiment conducted at latitude 44 deg N in June 1989. The NO(y) concentration has been measured to be 1.5 + or - 0.4, 3 + or - 0.7, 10 + or - 3, and 14 + or - 4 ppbv at altitudes of 17, 20, 25, and 28 km, respectively.

  18. Precipitating relativistic electrons - Their long-term effect on stratospheric odd nitrogen levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, Linwood B.; Boughner, Robert E.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Lambeth, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Using electron count rate data at geostationary orbit, daily energy spectra, extending from 30 keV to 15 MeV, have been developed for trapped relativistic electrons at 6.6 earth radii. These spectra have been used to model the flux of these electrons into the atmosphere at 120 km. Energy deposition calculations permit daily sources of HO(x) and NO(y) to be calculated at auroral and subauroral latitudes due to relativistic electron precipitation (REP) for the period June 13, 1979, through June 4, 1988. Both short-term and long-term source variations are quite large over the period considered. The results suggest that a significant contribution to the anomalously large and unexplained global O3 declines between 1979 and 1985 has been made by the catalytic destruction of O3 by odd nitrogen in the lower stratosphere at mid to high latitudes. The results also provide evidence for a clear and strong linkage between solar variability, the state of the magnetosphere, and the chemical climatological state of the middle and lower atmosphere.

  19. 20 {mu}s isomeric state in doubly odd {sub 61}{sup 134}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. M.; Mason, P. J. R; Rigby, S. V.; Kishada, A. M.; Varley, B. J.; Scholey, C.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Leppaenen, A.-P.; Maentyniemi, K.; Nieminen, P.; Nyman, M.; Pakarinen, J.

    2009-08-15

    Recoil-isomer tagging at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae has been used to establish the isomeric nature of a known (7{sup -}) excited state in the doubly odd nucleus {sup 134}Pm. The isomeric state was determined to have a half-life of 20(1) {mu}s and was populated from the decay of a {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}h{sub 11/2} band using the {sup 92}Mo({sup 54}Fe,2{alpha}3pn) reaction at 305 and 315 MeV. The isomer decays by a 71-keV transition that provides an intermediate step in linking the established {sup 134}Pm high-spin level scheme to the lower-spin states observed from the {beta} decay of {sup 134}Sm. Electron-conversion analysis for the 71-keV {gamma}-ray transition reveals that it is of E1 character and its small reduced-transition probability suggests that {sup 134}Pm may have a nuclear shape more rigid than that of the neighboring nuclei.

  20. Collective band structures in the odd-proton nuclei /sup 135,137/Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Beausang, C.W.; Hildingsson, L.; Paul, E.S.; Piel W.F. Jr.; Weng, P.K.; Xu, N.; Fossan, D.B.

    1987-08-01

    Collective bands based on a low-K ..pi..h/sub 11/2/ orbital have been populated to high spins in the odd-proton nuclei /sup 135,137/Pm following the reactions /sup 116/Sn(/sup 24/Mg,p4n)/sup 135/Pm and /sup 114/Cd(/sup 27/Al,4n)/sup 137/Pm, respectively. Both nuclei exhibit a band crossing in the ..pi..h/sub 11/2/ band at a frequency of h-dash-bar..omega..--0.42 MeV. In /sup 135/Pm, an upbend is observed, while a weaker interaction backbend is observed in /sup 137/Pm. Cranked-shell model calculations, including triaxiality, imply that this crossing is due to the alignment of the second and third valence h/sub 11/2/ protons. The systematics of this alignment in the Pm isotopes will be discussed. In addition, positive parity three-quasiproton states were observed in both nuclei. These structures also contain a pair of aligned h/sub 11/2/ protons, in this case the first and second valence protons which align at a much lower frequency of h-dash-bar..omega..--0.28 MeV.