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1

Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae).  

PubMed

Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest. PMID:24470078

Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A

2014-07-01

2

Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest.

Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A.

2014-01-01

3

Patterns of morphological variation amongst semifossorial shrews in the highlands of Guatemala, with the description of a new species (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Members of the Cryptotis goldmani group of small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae) represent a clade within the genus that is characterized by modifications of the forelimb that include broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened foreclaws, and massive humeri with enlarged processes. These modifications are consistent with greater adaptation to their semifossorial habits than other members of the genus. The species in this group occur discontinuously in temperate highlands from southern Tamaulipas, Mexico, to Honduras. In Guatemala, there are three species: the relatively widespread Cryptotis goodwini and two species (Cryptotis lacertosus, Cryptotis mam) endemic to highland forests in the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes of western Guatemala. Ongoing studies focusing on the relationships of variation in cranial and postcranial skeletal morphology have revealed a fourth species from remnant cloud forest in the Sierra de Yalijux, central Guatemala. In this paper, I describe this new species and characterize its morphology relative to other species in the C. goldmani group and to other species of Cryptotis in Guatemala. In addition, I summarize available details of its habitat and ecology.

Woodman, Neal

2011-01-01

4

At the foot of the shrew: manus morphology distinguishes closely-related Cryptotis goodwini and Cryptotis griseoventris (Mammalia: Soricidae) in Central America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae) of the New World genus Cryptotis are distributed from eastern North America to the northern Andes of South America. One well-defined clade in this genus is the Central American Cryptotis mexicana group, whose members are set off from other species in the genus by their variably broader fore feet and more elongate and broadened fore claws. Two species in the C. mexicana group, Cryptotis goodwini Jackson and Cryptotis griseoventris Jackson, inhabit highlands in Guatemala and southern Mexico and are presumed to be sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger body size of C. goodwini. To better characterize these species and confirm the identification of recently-collected specimens, we obtained digital X-ray images of the manus from large series of dried skins of both species. Measurements of the metacarpals and phalanges successfully separated most specimens of C. goodwini and C. griseoventris. These measurements also show that the fore feet of C. griseoventris from Chiapas, Mexico, are morphologically distinct from those of members of the species inhabiting Guatemala. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses indicate that fore foot characters are more conservative within species of the C. mexicana group than are cranio-mandibular characters. Patterns of evolution of fore foot characters that superficially appear to be linear gradations are actually more complex, illustrating individual evolutionary trajectories.

Woodman, Neal; Stephens, Ryan B.

2010-01-01

5

A new species of small-eared shrew from Colombia and Venezuela (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Genus Cryptotis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of small-eared shrews inhabiting the northern Cordillera Oriental of Colombia and adjoining Venezuelan highlands in the vicinity of Paramo de Tama have been referred alternatively to Cryptotis thomssi or Cryptotis meridensis. Morphological and morphometrical study of this population indicates that it belongs to neither taxon, but represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species. I describe this new species as Cryptotis tamensis and redescribe C. meridensis. Recognition of the population at Paramo de Tama as a separate taxon calls into question the identities of populations of shrews currently represented only by single specimens from Cerro Pintado in the Sierra de Perija, Colombia, and near El Junquito in the coastal highlands of Venezuela.

Woodman, N.

2002-01-01

6

A new small-eared shrew of the Cryptotis nigrescens-group from Colombia (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cryptotis colombiana Woodman & Timm, 1993 previously was known from few specimens from two isolated regions in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. Recent collecting in the northern Cordillera Central and review of older collections from the central Cordillera Oriental in the vicinity of Bogota yielded additional specimens that permit reevaluation of the two geographic populations of these small-eared shrews. Morphological and morphometrical studies indicate that the population inhabiting the Cordillera Oriental represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species that I describe herein as Cryptotis brachyonyx. Study of 54 specimens of shrews from the Cordillera Oriental in systematic collections in North America, South America, and Europe yielded only four specimens of the new species, all collected before 1926. The paucity of modern specimens suggests that C. brachyonyx may be extremely restricted in distribution, or possibly extinct.

Woodman, N.

2003-01-01

7

Distributional records of shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae) from Northern Central America with the first record of Sorex from Honduras  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Short term surveys for small mammals in Guatemala and Honduras during 1992–2009 provided important new records for 12 taxa of shrews from 24 localities. These locality records expand the known geographic distributions for five species and for the genus Sorex Linnaeus, 1758: the geographic range of Cryptotis goodwini Jackson, 1933, now includes the Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala, and several isolated highlands in western Honduras; the known distribution of Cryptotis mayensis (Merriam, 1901) is increased with the first definite modern record for this shrew from Guatemala; Cryptotis merriami Choate, 1970, is now known to occur in the Sierra de las Minas and the Sierra del Merendon, Guatemala, as well as the isolated Sierra de Omoa and Montana de La Muralla in Honduras, and its documented elevational range (600–1720 m) is expanded; records of Sorex veraepacis Alston, 1877, expand the known distribution of this species to include the Sierra de Yalijux, Guatemala; and discovery of Sorex salvini Merriam, 1897, at Celaque, Honduras (1825–3110 m), represents a considerable extension of the geographic range of the species, and it is the first record of the genus Sorex from Honduras. In addition, the first record of potential syntopy among C. goodwini, C merriami, and Cryptotis orophilus (J.A. Allen, 1895), is reported at an elevation of 1430 m in the Sierra de Celaque, Honduras. Information associated with these records contributes substantially to knowledge of habitat use, elevational distributions, reproductive patterns, diet, and parasites of the species encountered. General patterns include the first evidence that Neotropical species of soricids have smaller litters than their temperate congeners.

Woodman, Neal; Matson, John O.; McCarthy, Timothy J.; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Bulmer, Walter; Ordonez-Garza, Nicte

2012-01-01

8

This shrew is a jumping mouse (Mammalia, Dipodidae): Sorex dichrurus Rafinesque 1833 is a synonym of Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann 1780)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Constantine S. Rafinesque described Sorex dichrurus as a shrew in 1833, based on a specimen he found in a proprietary museum near Niagara Falls on the New York/Ontario border. The name subsequently has been ignored by the scientific community. By describing this specimen as a shrew and ascribing it to the genus Sorex, Rafinesque clearly indicated that his species should be considered a member of the taxonomic family now recognized as the Soricidae (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla). Yet, the description of the animal, and its comparison to ‘‘Gerbillus,’’ clearly identify it as a dipodid rodent, specifically Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780); S. dichrurus should be treated as a junior subjective synonym of that taxon. Based on its type locality of Goat Island, New York, this name is also a junior synonym of the subspecies Z. hudsonius canadensis (Davies, 1798).

Woodman, Neal

2012-01-01

9

The Stephen H. Long Expedition (1819?1820), Titian R. Peale?s field illustrations, and the lost holotypes of the North American shrews Sorex brevicaudus Say and Sorex parvus Say (Mammalia: Soricidae) from the Philadelphia Museum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While encamped for the winter of 1819?1820 at Engineer Cantonment along the Missouri River in present-day eastern Nebraska, members of Major Stephen Harriman Long?s Expedition to the Rocky Mountains collected a number of animals that were previously unknown. Among the mammals were two soricids that were subsequently described by Thomas Say as Sorex brevicaudus (Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda) and Sorex parvus (Least Shrew, Cryptotis parvus). The holotypes of these species were deposited and placed on public exhibit in the Philadelphia Museum, the predominant North American systematic collection of the early nineteenth century. Like most private museums of that era, the Philadelphia Museum eventually went out of business, and its collections were dispersed and, for the most part, lost. Fortunately, Titian R. Peale made a detailed field sketch of the two specimens soon after their capture and subsequently executed a watercolor based on that sketch. In addition, an engraving of the holotypes was published in the decade following the discovery of the two species. Illustrations of holotypes are taxonomically useful when they depict diagnostic characters of species. They take on added taxonomic significance in the absence of the holotypes. In the cases of Sorex brevicaudus and Sorex parvus, pictures provide strong confirmation of the taxonomic identities of these two species, as well as recording the early history of the specimens.

Woodman, N.

2009-01-01

10

Phylogeographical footprints of the Strait of Gibraltar and Quaternary climatic fluctuations in the western Mediterranean: a case study with the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula (Mammalia: Soricidae).  

PubMed

We used mitochondrial cyt b sequences to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Crocidura russula (sensu lato) populations across the Strait of Gibraltar, western Europe, Maghreb, and the Mediterranean and Atlantic islands. This revealed very low genetic divergence between European and Moroccan populations. The application of a molecular clock previously calibrated for shrews suggested that the separation of European from Moroccan lineages occurred less than 60 000 bp, which is at least 5 million years (Myr) after the reopening of the Strait of Gibraltar. This means that an overwater dispersal event was responsible for the observed phylogeographical structure. In contrast, genetic analyses revealed that Moroccan populations were highly distinct from Tunisian ones. According to the molecular clock, these populations separated about 2.2 million years ago (Ma), a time marked by sharp alternations of dry and humid climates in the Maghreb. The populations of the Mediterranean islands Ibiza, Pantelleria, and Sardinia were founded from Tunisian populations by overwater dispersal. In conclusion, overwater dispersal across the Strait of Gibraltar, probably assisted by humans, is possible for small terrestrial vertebrates. Moreover, as in Europe, Quaternary climatic fluctuations had a major effect on the phylogeographical structure of the Maghreb biota. PMID:15773942

Cosson, Jean-François; Hutterer, Rainer; Libois, Roland; Sarà, Maurizio; Taberlet, Pierre; Vogel, Peter

2005-04-01

11

A new species of small-eared shrew, genus Cryptotis (Insectivora: Soricidae), from Honduras.  

E-print Network

We describe a new species of small-eared shrew, Cryptotis hondurensis (Insectivora: Soricidae), from high elevation pine forest on the western slope of Cerro Uyuca, Francisco Morazán Province, southcentral Honduras. The new shrew is most similar...Resumen.--Se describe una nueva especie de musaraña, Cryptotis hondurensis (Insectivora: Soricidae), del bosque montanoso de la ladera occidental del Cerro Uyuca, Francisco Morazán, Honduras. Externamente, la nueva especie es similar a C. gracilis pero se diferencia de C. gracilis en características craniales y dentales; en particular, en la presencia de una mandíbula mas corta y mas ancha y con un proceso coronoides que se junta con la rama mandibular en un ángulo de casi 90 grados. Además, m3 presenta una talonida simple. El cráneo de la nueva musaraña se semejante al de C. nigrescens merriami pero la nueve especie defiere de C. nigrescens merriami por su cola mas larga y en varias características craniales y dentales incluyendo M3 con una corona mas compleja. El holotipo de la nueva especie había sido identificado como C. gracilis y este especimen era el único representante de esta especie al norte de Costa Rica. El reconocimiento de este especimen como una especie distinta, limita la distribución de C. gracilis a Costa Rica y Panamá y la remueve de la fauna de Honduras. Las otras especies de Cryptotis que habitan en Honduras son C. nigrescens merriami y C. parva orophila....

Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

1992-03-01

12

Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

Woodman, Neal

2010-01-01

13

Molecular Phylogeny of Short-Tailed Shrews, Blarina (Insectivora: Soricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic relationships among the three described species of short-tailed shrews (genus Blarina) were inferred based on mitochondrial DNA sequences of 16S rRNA (506 bp) and cytochrome b (1137 bp) from 38 specimens representing B. brevicauda, B. hylophaga, and B. carolinensis, from across their range in North America. Phylogenetic analyses of both data sets combined followed tests showing lack of incongruence

Sara V. Brant; Guillermo Ort??

2002-01-01

14

Molecular phylogeny of short-tailed shrews, Blarina (Insectivora: Soricidae).  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships among the three described species of short-tailed shrews (genus Blarina) were inferred based on mitochondrial DNA sequences of 16S rRNA (506 bp) and cytochrome b (1137 bp) from 38 specimens representing B. brevicauda, B. hylophaga, and B. carolinensis, from across their range in North America. Phylogenetic analyses of both data sets combined followed tests showing lack of incongruence between these fragments. Analysis of substitution patterns indicated saturation of transitions at third codon positions in cytochrome b when Blarina sequences were compared to those of Sorex and Cryptotis, used as outgroups. Maximum-likelihood and weighted parsimony supported the monophyly of the genus and placed B. hylophaga as its basal branch, sister to B. brevicauda + B. carolinensis. Phylogeographic analysis revealed a significant partition between eastern and western populations of B. carolinensis and B. brevicauda, on either side of the Mississippi basin. These results are discussed in relation to cytogenetic, morphological, and fossil data. PMID:11820838

Brant, Sara V; Ortí, Guillermo

2002-02-01

15

Fine structure of the submandibular salivary gland of the venomous short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda Say (Insectivora: Soricidae).  

PubMed

Adult male short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda, (Insectivora: Soricidae) were trapped in Virginia and Pennsylvania, anesthetized, and perfused via the left ventricle of the heart with fixative. The submandibular glands were dissected free and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. The lobular, compound tubuloacinar glands had secretory endpieces consisting of seromucous acini and serous tubules connected to intercalated ducts, granular ducts, striated ducts, and excretory ducts. The general cytology of the submandibular gland of Blarina shared morphological characters with individuals in several other mammalian orders and yet differed in many ways from another Insectivore, the European hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus. PMID:8398545

Carson, K A; Rose, R K

1993-01-01

16

American Society of Mammalogists A New Species of Shrew (Soricidae, Insectivora) from Alaska  

E-print Network

, shrew, taxonomy, Alaska, Beringia The Eurasian tiny shrew, Sorex minutis- simus, is known of the Bering Strait, originating in the Pleistocene glacial refug- ium known as Beringia (Chernyavsky, 1984

Sullivan, Jack

17

Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to  

E-print Network

communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra are, to varying degrees, specialized for a cold climate, as exemplified by the tundra community

18

The morphology of hymenolepidid and dilepidid cestodes from common and pygmy shrews (Soricidae) in southeast England.  

PubMed

One hundred and six of 109 common shrews (Sorex araneus) and 62 of 72 pygmy shrews (S. minutus), obtained by Longworth trapping in Southeast England, were infected with cestodes. Ten species were recovered: Choanotaenia hepatica and Hymenolepis prolifer (found in S. araneus); Choanotaenia crassiscolex, Hymenolepis furcata, H. jacutensis, H. schaldybini, H. scutigera, H. singularis, H. diaphana and H. infirma (in both hosts). The morphology, taxonomy and ecology of these species are discussed and the findings of the present study are discussed with reference to previous studies of the helminth fauna of British shrews. Cysticercoids of C. crassiscolex were found in the snail, Vitrina pellucida, and cysticercoids of H. schaldybini in the staphylinid beetle, Anthobium unicolor. PMID:7829846

Roots, C D; Lewis, J W; Churchfield, J S

1994-09-01

19

Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Hope, A.G.; Waltari, E.; Fedorov, V.B.; Goropashnaya, A.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Cook, J.A.

2011-01-01

20

Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes.

Hope, Andrew; Waltari, E.; Fedorov, V.B.; Goropashnaya, A.V.; Talbot, Sandra; Cook, Joseph A.

2014-01-01

21

Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change.  

PubMed

Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes. PMID:21919986

Hope, Andrew G; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, Vadim B; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Talbot, Sandra L; Cook, Joseph A

2011-10-01

22

Karyotypes of shrews of the genera Cryptotis and Blarina (mammalia: Soricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cryptotis parva has a diploid number of 52 and a fundamental number of 50. Blarina brevicauda in Nebraska and Pennsylvania has a diploid number of 49 or 50 and a fundamental number of 48. Blarina carolinensis in Nebraska and Kansas has a diploid number of 52 and a fundamental number of 62. The X-chromosome in all 3 species is

H. H. Genoways; J. C. Patton; J. R. Choate

1977-01-01

23

A new species of small-eared shrew (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The diversity and distribution of mammals in the American tropics remain incompletely known. We describe a new species of small-eared shrew (Soricidae, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Chiapas, southern Mexico. The new species is distinguished from other species of Cryptotis on the basis of a unique combination of pelage coloration, size, dental, cranial, postcranial, and external characters, and genetic distances. It appears most closely related to species in the Cryptotis nigrescens species group, which occurs from southern Mexico to montane regions of Colombia. This discovery is particularly remarkable because the new species is from a low-elevation habitat (approximately 90 m), whereas most shrews in the region are restricted to higher elevations, typically > 1,000 m. The only known locality for the new shrew is in one of the last areas in southern Mexico where relatively undisturbed tropical vegetation is still found. The type locality is protected by the Mexican government as part of the Yaxchilán Archaeological Site on the border between Mexico and Guatemala.

Guevara, Lázaro; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; León-Paniagua, Livia; Woodman, Neal

2014-01-01

24

First evidence of poisonous shrews with an envenomation apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein, we report evidence of an envenomation apparatus (EA) in two different species of extinct “giant” shrews, Beremendia and an indeterminate soricine (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae), documented by very well preserved fossil specimens recovered from two Early Pleistocene cave deposits of the Sierra de Atapuerca in Burgos, Spain. The two soricine taxa from Atapuerca have evolved specialized teeth as EAs, which differ from those of recently reported mammals of the Paleocene age, being more similar to the ones described in the modern Solenodon. This discovery reveals the first instance of shrews possessing what appears to be an EA, an evolutionary adaptation that, in these species, was probably related to an increase in body mass and hunting of a larger-sized prey. The Atapuerca specimens would have a highly specialized EA, one of the very few reported for an extinct or living mammal of any time. In addition to the presence of a gutter-like groove along the medial side of the crown of the lower incisors, these two species also present stout jaws and a modified mandibular symphysis with a conspicuous cavity, which in life would likely contain large amounts of connective tissue. The strong mandible architecture of these large shrews would be, in this way, reinforced by a more immovable symphysis, increasing the bite force exerted over a potential prey. This adaptation, together with the grooved incisors, would ensure a rapid and efficient transmission of the poisonous saliva to paralyze relatively large-sized prey.

Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Rofes, Juan

2007-02-01

25

Metal and metalloid accumulation in shrews (Soricomorpha, Mammalia) from two protected Mediterranean coastal sites.  

PubMed

Although ecotoxicological data on heavy metals are abundant, information on other potentially toxic elements with attributed deficiency and/or toxic disturbances is scarce. Here we quantify zinc, copper, iron, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, strontium, barium, and boron in bones of greater white-toothed shrews, Crocidura russula, inhabiting two protected Mediterranean coastal sites: the Ebro Delta, a wetland impacted by human activities, and the Medas Islands, a reference site. Natural and anthropogenic inputs significantly increase Fe, Mn, Mo, Sr, Ba, and B in specimens from the Ebro Delta, whereas Cu and Cr were higher in Medas' shrews. Principal component analysis allowed complete separation between sites along the first two axes in particular due to B, Sr, and Cu. This study provides metal reference values in bones of insectivores, explores their variability and bioaccumulation patterns in depth, and assesses the potential environmental risk and toxicity for biota exposed to the above elements. PMID:19144455

Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; López-Fuster, María José

2009-04-01

26

Maximal enzyme activities, and myoglobin and glutathione concentrations in heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed shrew ( Blarina brevicauda; Insectivora: Soricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the enzymes of glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, ?-oxidation and electron transport in the heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda. Additionally, we measured the amount of myoglobin in skeletal and heart muscle as well as the concentration of glutathione in heart. The picture that emerges is of an aerobically well-endowed animal with constrained anaerobic

J. M. Stewart; A. K. Woods; J. A. Blakely

2005-01-01

27

Novel hantavirus in the flat-skulled shrew (Sorex roboratus). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis  

E-print Network

Genetically distinct hantaviruses have been identified recently in multiple species of shrews (Order Soricomorpha, Family Soricidae) in Eurasia and North America. To corroborate decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in shrews from Russia, archival liver and lung tissues from 4 Siberian large-toothed shrews (Sorex

Hae Ji Kang; Satoru Arai; Andrew G. Hope; Joseph A. Cook; Richard Yanagihara; Key Words Hantavirus—pcr—zoonosis

2010-01-01

28

Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from insectivores. III. Seven new species in shrews (Soricidae: Soricinae) from Canada, Japan, and the United States.  

PubMed

Since May 1979, 458 shrews (Blarina sp. and Sorex spp.) representing 20 species collected in Canada, Japan, and the United States were examined for coccidia; 110 (24%) had oocysts in their feces, including 8 of 21 (38%) B. brevicauda from Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Vermont; 2 of 7 (29%) S. caecutiens from Hokkaido and Honshu; 14 of 63 (22%) S. cinereus from Colorado, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Manitoba, and Ontario; 3 of 7 (43%) S. fontinalis from Pennsylvania; 11 of 16 (69%) S. fumeus from Massachusetts, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Ontario; 1 of 4 (25%) S. haydeni from Minnesota; 6 of 8 (75%) S. longirostris from Florida and Virginia; 1 of 2 (50%) S. ornatus from California; 5 of 12 (42%) S. pacificus from California and Oregon; 13 of 41 (32%) S. palustris from California, Colorado, and New Mexico; 1 of 2 (50%) S. tenellus from California; 11 of 105 (10%) S. trowbridgii from California, Oregon, and Washington; 10 of 48 (21%) S. unguiculatus from Hokkaido; and 24 of 112 (21%) S. vagrans from Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Oregon, and Washington. The following coccidians were identified from infected shrews: Eimeria brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; Eimeria fumeus n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. pacificus, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans; Eimeria inyoni n. sp. from S. tenellus; Eimeria palustris n. sp. from S. cinereus, S. fontinalis, S. fumeus, S. haydeni, S. longirostris, S. ornatus, S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. tenellus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Eimeria vagrantis n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Isospora brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; and Isospora palustris n. sp. from S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. trowbridgii, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans. The world literature on coccidian parasites of shrews (16 eimerians and 3 isosporans exclusive of the 7 new species described here) is reviewed. PMID:3572649

Hertel, L A; Duszynski, D W

1987-02-01

29

Maximal enzyme activities, and myoglobin and glutathione concentrations in heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda; Insectivora: Soricidae).  

PubMed

We measured the enzymes of glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, beta-oxidation and electron transport in the heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda. Additionally, we measured the amount of myoglobin in skeletal and heart muscle as well as the concentration of glutathione in heart. The picture that emerges is of an aerobically well-endowed animal with constrained anaerobic capacity as indicated by small activities of glycolytic enzymes and creatine kinase. Lipid metabolism and amino acid transamination, as well as gluconeogenesis, are predominant in processing carbon resources and probably reflect the large contribution lipid and protein make to the diet of this carnivore. The citrate synthase activity is the largest of any reported value for vertebrate heart (250 U/g). The additional, very active cytochrome c oxidase activity (220 U/g) and large myoglobin concentrations (8 mg/g) in heart are clearly the underpinnings of the rapid metabolic rates reported for small insectivores. The potential for generation of reactive oxygen species must be great since the total glutathione concentration (165 mumol/g) is 300-fold greater in shrew hearts than in hearts of rats. PMID:15914053

Stewart, J M; Woods, A K; Blakely, J A

2005-07-01

30

JA (2001) Phylogeography of the dusky shrew, Sorex monticolus (Insectivora, Soricidae): insight into deep and shallow history in northwestern North America  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic relationships among the dusky shrew (Sorex monticolus) and eight related species (S. bairdi, S. bendirii, S. neomexicanus, S. ornatus, S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. sonomae and S. vagrans) were assessed using sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (801 bp). Analyses using parsimony and maximum likelihood revealed significant molecular variation not reflected in previous morphological studies of these species. Conversely, three morphologically defined species (S. bairdi, S. neomexicanus and S. pacificus) were poorly differentiated. Sorex ornatus and S. vagrans represented basal taxa for a more inclusive group that included: (i) a widespread Continental clade containing S. monticolus (Arizona to Alaska, including S. neomexicanus); (ii) a Coastal clade containing S. monticolus (Oregon to south-east Alaska, including S. bairdi and S. pacificus); (iii) the semiaquatic species (S. bendirii and S. palustris); and (iv) S. sonomae. Additional subdivision was observed within the Continental clade corresponding to populations from the northern and southern Rocky Mountains. Average uncorrected sequence divergence between the Coastal and Continental clades was 5.3 % (range 4.5–6.2%), which exceeds many interspecific comparisons within this species

John R. Demboski; Joseph A. Cook

31

Hand development and sequence of ossification in the forelimb of the European shrew Crocidura russula (Soricidae) and comparisons across therian mammals  

PubMed Central

Hand development in the European shrew Crocidura russula is described, based on the examination of a cleared and double-stained ontogenetic series and histological sections of a c. 20-day-old embryo and a neonate. In the embryo all carpal elements are still mesenchymal condensations, and there are three more elements than in the adult stage: the ‘lunatum’, which fuses with the scaphoid around birth; a centrale, which either fuses with another carpal element or just disappears later in ontogeny; and the anlage of an element that later fuses with the radius. Carpal arrangement in the neonate and the adult is the same. In order to compare the relative timing of the onset of ossification in forelimb bones in C. russula with that of other therians, we built up two matrices of events based on two sets of data and used the event-pair method. In the first analysis, ossification of forelimb elements in general was examined, including that of the humerus, radius, ulna, the first carpal and metacarpal to ossify, and the phalanges of the third digit. The second analysis included each carpal, humerus, radius, ulna, the first metacarpal and the first phalanx to ossify. Some characters (= event–pairs) provide synapomorphies for some clades examined. There have been some shifts in the timing of ossification apparently not caused by ecological and/or environmental influences. In two species (Oryctolagus and Myotis), there is a tendency to start the ossification of the carpals relatively earlier than in all other species examined, the sauropsid outgroups included. PMID:15291793

Prochel, Jan; Vogel, Peter; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

2004-01-01

32

Bones and genes: resolution problems in three Vietnamese species of Crocidura (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae) and the description of an additional new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recent investigations of Southeast Asian white toothed shrews belonging to the genus Crocidura have revealed discrepancies between the results of morphological and molecular studies. The following study concerns three species of Crocidura occurring in Vietnam, namely Crocidura attenuata, Crocidura tanakae and Crocidura wuchihensis, and an undescribed fourth species revealed by molecular analysis. For many years Crocidura attenuata has been known to occur in Vietnam but, until very recently, the morphologically similar and comparably sized Crocidura tanakae was believed to be restricted to Taiwan. Following several molecular studies over the last few years, this species is now believed to be considerably more widespread and recognised as occuring also in Vietnam. The results of one of these recent molecular studies also revealed the presence of an undescribed species of Crocidura, similar in size and morphology to Crocidura wuchihensis, which is herein described. Data are provided on geographical variation in Vietnam and the problems of defining morphologically similar yet molecularly disparate species are discussed. PMID:23840165

Jenkins, Paulina D.; Abramov, Alexei V.; Bannikova, Anna A.; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V.

2013-01-01

33

Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews Allyson G. Hindle a,  

E-print Network

palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed January 2010 Keywords: Senescence Antioxidant Breath-hold diving Redox Apoptosis Sorex palustris Blarina brevicauda Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine

Campbell, Kevin L.

34

Short Report: Phylogenetically Distinct Hantaviruses in the Masked Shrew (Sorex cinereus) and Dusky Shrew (Sorex monticolus) in the United States  

PubMed Central

A limited search for hantaviruses in lung and liver tissues of Sorex shrews (family Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) revealed phylogenetically distinct hantaviruses in the masked shrew (Sorex cinereus) from Minnesota and in the dusky shrew (Sorex monticolus) from New Mexico and Colorado. The discovery of these shrew-borne hantaviruses, named Ash River virus and Jemez Springs virus, respectively, challenges the long-held dogma that rodents are the sole reservoir hosts and forces a re-examination of their co-evolutionary history. Also, studies now underway are aimed at clarifying the epizootiology and pathogenicity of these new members of the genus Hantavirus. PMID:18256444

Arai, Satoru; Bennett, Shannon N.; Sumibcay, Laarni; Cook, Joseph A.; Song, Jin-Won; Hope, Andrew; Parmenter, Cheryl; Nerurkar, Vivek R.; Yates, Terry L.; Yanagihara, Richard

2008-01-01

35

Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free-radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18months) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed

Allyson G. Hindle; John M. Lawler; Kevin L. Campbell; Markus Horning

2010-01-01

36

Evidence for gene flow in parasitic nematodes between two host species of shrews  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the genetic structure of populations of the intestinal nematode Longistriata caudabullata (Trichostrongyloidea: Heligmosomidae), a common parasite of short-tailed shrews (genus Blarina , Insectivora: Soricidae). Parasites and hosts were collected from a transect across a contact zone between two species of hosts, Blarina brevicauda and B. hylo- phaga, in central North America. An 800-base pairs (bp) fragment of the

Sara V. Brant; Guillermo Orti

2003-01-01

37

Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews.  

PubMed

Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free-radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18months) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2x higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

2010-04-01

38

Nomenclatural notes and identification of small-eared shrews (Mammalia: genus Cryptotis) from Cobán, Guatemala, in The Natural History Museum, London  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A small series of shrews collected in Guatemala and registered in the British Museum between 1843 and 1907 includes parts of type series for three species: Corsira tropicalis Gray (1843), Sorex micrurus Tomes (1862), and Blarina tropicalis Merriam (1895). These three names are now considered equivalent, but my recent review of the specimens comprising the series indicates that they include three distinct species: Cryptotis merriami Choate (1970), Cryptotis oreoryctes Woodman (2011), and Cryptotis tropicalis (Merriam 1895). I review the taxonomic history of these specimens, provide current identifications tied directly to museum register numbers, describe how to distinguish the three species, and provide revised synonymies for these species.

Woodman, Neal

2011-01-01

39

Short Report: Phylogenetically Distinct Hantaviruses in the Masked Shrew (Sorex cinereus) and Dusky Shrew (Sorex monticolus) in the United States  

E-print Network

Abstract. A limited search for hantaviruses in lung and liver tissues of Sorex shrews (family Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) revealed phylogenetically distinct hantaviruses in the masked shrew (Sorex cinereus) from Minnesota and in the dusky shrew (Sorex monticolus) from New Mexico and Colorado. The discovery of these shrew-borne hantaviruses, named Ash River virus and Jemez Springs virus, respectively, challenges the long-held dogma that rodents are the sole reservoir hosts and forces a re-examination of their co-evolutionary history. Also, studies now underway are aimed at clarifying the epizootiology and pathogenicity of these new members of the genus Hantavirus. Based on phylogenetic analyses of full-length viral genomic sequences and host mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences, hantaviruses segregate into clades that parallel the evolution of murinae, arvicolinae, neotominae, and sigmodontinae rodents. 1–4 Whether insectivores (or soricomorphs), which are sympatric with rodents, are involved in the evolutionary origins of hantaviruses has not been systematically studied, despite previous reports of hantavirus antigens in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), alpine

Satoru Arai; Shannon N. Bennett; Laarni Sumibcay; Joseph A. Cook; Jin-won Song; Andrew Hope; Cheryl Parmenter; Vivek R. Nerurkar; Terry L. Yates; Richard Yanagihara

40

The Shrew (ist's) Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Dr. Werner Haberl of Vienna, Austria, this site contains The Shrew Conference Hall, ShrewTalk (an e-mail newsletter/digest), a photo gallery and a skull and skeleton collection, among other features. From the ShrewTalk page, users can access a hyperlink to "The Shrew Conference Hall" which contains the photo gallery of shrews, their tracks, their enemies, and an email list of shrew researchers. The site is devoted to the biology of this often overlooked creature and its small mammal relatives.

Haberl, Werner.

1998-01-01

41

High-latitude diversification within Eurasian least shrews and Alaska tiny shrews (Soricidae)  

E-print Network

their distribution spans Beringia, a large Pleistocene nonglaciated area that connected Asia and North America. Beringia was repeatedly divided due to raised sea levels during Pleistocene interglacials and subsequently skyline plot, Beringia, ecological niche model, multiple loci, phylogeography, Pleistocene refugia, Sorex

42

Evidence for gene flow in parasitic nematodes between two host species of shrews.  

PubMed

We describe the genetic structure of populations of the intestinal nematode Longistriata caudabullata (Trichostrongyloidea: Heligmosomidae), a common parasite of short-tailed shrews (genus Blarina, Insectivora: Soricidae). Parasites and hosts were collected from a transect across a contact zone between two species of hosts, Blarina brevicauda and B. hylophaga, in central North America. An 800-base pairs (bp) fragment of the ND4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene was sequenced for 28 worms and a 783-bp fragment of the mtDNA control region was analysed for 16 shrews. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences revealed reciprocal monophyly for the shrew species, concordant with morphological diagnosis, and supported the idea that the transect cuts through a secondary contact zone between well-differentiated B. brevicauda and B. hylophaga. In contrast to this pattern, the parasitic nematode mtDNA phylogeny was not subdivided according to host affiliation. Genealogical discordance between parasite and host phylogenies suggests extensive gene flow among parasites across the host species boundary. PMID:12969487

Brant, Sara V; Ortí, Guillermo

2003-10-01

43

Chronic exposure to environmental stressors induces fluctuating asymmetry in shrews inhabiting protected Mediterranean sites.  

PubMed

Many ecotoxicological studies have addressed the effects of contaminant exposure at various levels of biological organization. However, little information exists on the effects of toxicants on wildlife populations. Here we examined exposure of populations of the greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula (Soricomorpha, Soricidae) occupying two protected Mediterranean sites (a polluted area, the Ebro Delta, and a control site, Garraf Massif). Bioaccumulation of selected elements (Pb, Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cr, Mo, Sr, Ba, and B), a body condition index (BCI) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) were used to assess the chronic exposure to environmental pollution. BCI was correlated neither to metal concentrations nor to FA, suggesting that this fitness measure only reflects environmental disturbances at a local level. However, shrews from the polluted area showed higher concentrations of metals and metalloids (Pb, Hg, B, and Sr) and greater shape FA than specimens from the reference area. A correlation between FA was found for both first and second principal component vectors suggesting that developmental instability increases as a result of exposure to multiple pollutants. Our results corroborate the suitability of C. russula as a bioindicator of environmental quality and show that FA is an appropriate index to examine impact of developmental stressors in populations inhabiting disturbed areas. PMID:23800592

Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; García-Pando, Marián; López-Fuster, María José

2013-10-01

44

A Mitochondrial Phylogeny and Biogeographical Scenario for Asiatic Water Shrews of the Genus Chimarrogale: Implications for Taxonomy and Low-Latitude Migration Routes  

PubMed Central

The six species and three subspecies in the genus Chimarrogale (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) are commonly referred to as Asiatic water shrews. The Chimarrogale are the most widely distributed group of Nectogaline shrews, extending throughout the Oriental region and Japan. Because of the limited numbers of specimens available for study, the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical history of this genus have not been comprehensively discussed. We used mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences to estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among four Chimarrogale species, including all three subspecies of Chimarrogale himalayica. We also conducted a species delimitation analysis and tested two alternative migration scenarios in Asia through species distribution modeling and a reconstruction of the ancestral distribution. Here, we present the first proposed hypothesis regarding the Asiatic water shrew phylogeny and reveal ten putative species within the four recognized species. Distinct phylogenetic statuses of Chimarrogale phaeura, Chimarrogale platycephala, and Chimarrogale styani were confirmed. Chimarrogale himalayica was strongly supported as paraphyletic. We suggest that three subspecies of Chimarrogale himalayica should be reconsidered as distinct species. However, these suggestions must be considered with caution because only a single locus of a mtDNA gene was used. Four additional putative species, possibly distributed in central southwestern China and Taiwan, are currently undescribed; therefore, comprehensive morphological analyses are warranted to test their taxonomic statuses. The estimated molecular divergence times indicated that rapid speciation occurred during the early Pliocene, and current distribution patterns may have been affected by global cooling during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Reconstruction of the ancestral distribution and species distribution modeling for Asiatic water shrews revealed a low-latitude migration route over which ancestral Chimarrogale migrated from Europe via Central Asia to their current distribution. Our results demonstrated that Asiatic water shrews could have evolved throughout the low-latitude migration route from Europe to East and Southeast Asia. PMID:24124605

Yuan, Shou-Li; Jiang, Xue-Long; Li, Zhen-Ji; He, Kai; Harada, Masashi; Oshida, Tatsuo; Lin, Liang-Kong

2013-01-01

45

The Taming of the Shrew  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the extreme complexity of the turbulence problem in general and the unattainability of first-principles analytical solutions in particular, it is not surprising that controlling a turbulent flow remains a challenging task, mired in empiricism and unfulfilled promises and aspirations. Brute force suppression, or taming, of turbulence via active control strategies is always possible, but the penalty for doing so often exceeds any potential savings. The artifice is to achieve a desired effect with minimum energy expenditure. Spurred by the recent developments in chaos control, microfabrication and neural networks, efficient reactive control of turbulent flows, where the control input is optimally adjusted based on feedforward or feedback measurements, is now in the realm of the possible for future practical devices. But regardless of how the problem is approached, combating turbulence is always as arduous as the taming of the shrew. The former task will be emphasized during the oral presentation, but for this abstract we reflect on a short verse from the latter. From William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Curtis (Petruchio's servant, in charge of his country house): Is she so hot a shrew as she's reported? Grumio (Petruchio's personal lackey): She was, good Curtis, before this frost. But thou know'st winter tames man, woman, and beast; for it hath tamed my old master, and my new mistress, and myself, fellow Curtis.

Gad-El-Hak, M.

1996-11-01

46

Rediscovery of Enders’s small-eared shrew, Cryptotis endersi (Insectivora: Soricidae), with a redescription of the species  

E-print Network

C77C97C109C109C46 C98C105C111C108C46 C54C55 C40C50C48C48C50C41 C51C55C50C177C51C55C55 C77C97C109C109C97C108C105C97C110 C66C105C111C108C111C103C121 C227 C85C114C98C97C110 C38 C70C105C115C99C104C101C114 C86C101C114C108C97C103 C104C116C116C112C58C47C47...C119C119C119C46C117C114C98C97C110C102C105C115C99C104C101C114C46C100C101C47C106C111C117C114C110C97C108C115C47C109C97C109C109C98C105C111C108 C90C101C105C116C115C99C104C114C105C102C116 C102C117C200C114C83C97C200C117C103C101C116C105C101C114C107C117C110C...

Pine, Ronald H.; Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

2002-12-01

47

Phylogeography of the Northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda (Insectivora: Soricidae): past fragmentation and postglacial recolonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blarina brevicauda is distributed across the northeastern region of North America, in areas previously covered by Pleistocene glaciers. Previous molecular systematic study of the species in the genus Blarina suggested the presence of two distinct eastern and western phylogroups within B. brevicauda , in agreement with traditionally recognized semi-species. To expand the previous work, a collection of 76 individuals from

Sara V. Brant; Guillermo Orti

2003-01-01

48

Phylogeography of the Northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda (Insectivora: Soricidae): past fragmentation and postglacial recolonization.  

PubMed

Blarina brevicauda is distributed across the northeastern region of North America, in areas previously covered by Pleistocene glaciers. Previous molecular systematic study of the species in the genus Blarina suggested the presence of two distinct eastern and western phylogroups within B. brevicauda, in agreement with traditionally recognized semi-species. To expand the previous work, a collection of 76 individuals from 14 localities collected throughout the range of B. brevicauda was used to assess the mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome b genealogy for this species. Minimum evolution, maximum parsimony, analysis of molecular variance and nested clade analysis each supported the same conclusions of two well-differentiated and monophyletic east-west groups, separated by the Mississippi River. Denser sampling in areas immediately East of the Mississippi basin revealed further subdivision within the eastern phylogroup into an East-Central and an Appalachian clade. The western phylogroup differed from the eastern phylogroup by 2.5% mean absolute DNA sequence difference. About 65% of the genetic variance among samples was explained by the east-west subdivision alone. High haplotype diversities, low nucleotide diversities and unimodal mismatch distributions within subclades suggest recent expansion or diversification within each group. No phylogeographic structure was found within the western phylogroup, but genetic structure because of restricted gene flow and isolation by distance was inferred for the eastern group. The present distribution of B. brevicauda is best explained by past fragmentation and range expansion events during and following the Pleistocene glacial cycles. PMID:12755873

Brant, Sara V; Ortí, Guillermo

2003-06-01

49

Mitochondrial simple sequence repeats and 12S-rRNA gene reveal two distinct lineages of Crocidura russula (Mammalia, Soricidae).  

PubMed

A short segment (135 bp) of the control region and a partial sequence (394 bp) of the 12S-rRNA gene in the mitochondrial DNA of Crocidura russula were analyzed in order to test a previous hypothesis regarding the presence of a gene flow disruption in northern Africa. This breakpoint would have separated northeast-African C. russula populations from the European (plus the northwest-African) populations. The analysis was carried out on specimens from Tunisia (C. r. cf agilis), Sardinia (C. r. ichnusae), and Pantelleria (C. r. cossyrensis), and on C. r. russula from Spain and Belgium. Two C. russula lineages were identified; they both shared R2 tandem repeated motifs of the same length (12 bp), but not the same primary structure. These simple sequence repeats were present in 12-23 copies in the right domain of the control region. Within the northeast-African populations, a polymorphism of repeat variants, not yet found in Europe, was recorded. A neighbor-join tree, which was built by sequences of the conserved 12S-rRNA gene, separated the two sister groups; it permitted us to date a divergence time of 0.5 Myr. Our data discriminated two different mitochondrial lineages in accordance with the previous morphological and karyological data. Ecoclimatic barriers formed during the Middle Pleistocene broke the range of ancestral species in the Eastern Algeria (Kabile Mountains), leading to two genetically separate and modern lineages. The northeast-African lineage can today be located in Tunisia, Pantelleria, and Sardinia. The northwest-African lineage (Morocco and West Algeria), reaching Spain by anthropogenic introduction, spread over north Europe in modern times. The Palaearctic C. russula species is monophyletic, but a taxonomical revision (ie, to provide a full species rank for the northeast taxa and to put in synonymy some insular taxa) is required. PMID:15162115

Lo Brutto, S; Azeuleo, M; Sarà, M

2004-06-01

50

Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants  

PubMed Central

Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified “toilet pitchers” that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with feces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Feces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species. PMID:20861680

Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

2010-01-01

51

Tripartite genetic subdivisions in the ornate shrew (Sorex ornatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined cytochrome b sequence variation in 251 ornate shrews ( Sorex ornatus ) from 20 localities distributed throughout their geographical range. Additionally, vagrant ( S. vagrans ) and montane ( S. monticolus ) shrews from four localities were used as outgroups. We found 24 haplotypes in ornate shrews from California (USA) and Baja California (Mexico) that differed by 1-31

Jesus E. Maldonado; Carles VilA; Robert K. Wayne

2001-01-01

52

Recombinogenic telomeres in diploid Sorex granarius (Soricidae, Eulipotyphla) fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

The telomere structure in the Iberian shrew Sorex granarius is characterized by unique, striking features, with short arms of acrocentric chromosomes carrying extremely long telomeres (up to 300 kb) with interspersed ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat blocks. In this work, we investigated the telomere physiology of S. granarius fibroblast cells and found that telomere repeats are transcribed on both strands and that there is no telomere-dependent senescence mechanism. Although telomerase activity is detectable throughout cell culture and appears to act on both short and long telomeres, we also discovered that signatures of a recombinogenic activity are omnipresent, including telomere-sister chromatid exchanges, formation of alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT)-associated PML-like bodies, production of telomere circles, and a high frequency of telomeres carrying marks of a DNA damage response. Our results suggest that recombination participates in the maintenance of the very long telomeres in normal S. granarius fibroblasts. We discuss the possible interplay between the interspersed telomere and rDNA repeats in the stabilization of the very long telomeres in this organism. PMID:24842907

Zhdanova, N S; Draskovic, I; Minina, J M; Karamysheva, T V; Novo, C L; Liu, W-Y; Porreca, R M; Gibaud, A; Zvereva, M E; Skvortsov, D A; Rubtsov, N B; Londoño-Vallejo, A

2014-08-01

53

Recombinogenic Telomeres in Diploid Sorex granarius (Soricidae, Eulipotyphla) Fibroblast Cells  

PubMed Central

The telomere structure in the Iberian shrew Sorex granarius is characterized by unique, striking features, with short arms of acrocentric chromosomes carrying extremely long telomeres (up to 300 kb) with interspersed ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat blocks. In this work, we investigated the telomere physiology of S. granarius fibroblast cells and found that telomere repeats are transcribed on both strands and that there is no telomere-dependent senescence mechanism. Although telomerase activity is detectable throughout cell culture and appears to act on both short and long telomeres, we also discovered that signatures of a recombinogenic activity are omnipresent, including telomere-sister chromatid exchanges, formation of alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT)-associated PML-like bodies, production of telomere circles, and a high frequency of telomeres carrying marks of a DNA damage response. Our results suggest that recombination participates in the maintenance of the very long telomeres in normal S. granarius fibroblasts. We discuss the possible interplay between the interspersed telomere and rDNA repeats in the stabilization of the very long telomeres in this organism. PMID:24842907

Draskovic, I.; Minina, J. M.; Karamysheva, T. V.; Novo, C. L.; Liu, W.-Y.; Porreca, R. M.; Gibaud, A.; Zvereva, M. E.; Skvortsov, D. A.; Rubtsov, N. B.

2014-01-01

54

Evolution of the common shrew Sorex araneus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review data on the chromosomal variation in the common shrewSorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 in the context of recent molecular findings. The article considers all aspects of chromosomal variation in\\u000a this species: within-population polymorphism, karyotypic races, hybrid zones between karyotypic races, chromosomal evolution,\\u000a and speciation. The recent molecular data provide vital information on different evolutionary processes such as inbreeding,\\u000a genetic

Jan M. Wójcik; Miros?aw Ratkiewicz; Jeremy B. Searle

2002-01-01

55

Bioenergetics and thermal physiology of American water shrews ( Sorex palustris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of O 2 consumption and CO 2 production, telemetered body temperature ( T b) and activity level were recorded from adult and subadult water shrews ( Sorex palustris) over an air temperature ( T a) range of 3–32°C. Digesta passage rate trials were conducted before metabolic testing to estimate the minimum fasting time required for water shrews to achieve

R. W. Gusztak; R. A. MacArthur; K. L. Campbell

2005-01-01

56

Hantavirus in northern short-tailed shrew, United States.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial medium- and large-segment sequences, support an ancient evolutionary origin of a genetically distinct hantavirus detected by reverse transcription-PCR in tissues of northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) captured in Minnesota in August 1998. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of hantaviruses harbored by shrews in the Americas. PMID:18252128

Arai, Satoru; Song, Jin-Won; Sumibcay, Laarni; Bennett, Shannon N; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Parmenter, Cheryl; Cook, Joseph A; Yates, Terry L; Yanagihara, Richard

2007-09-01

57

Tripartite genetic subdivisions in the ornate shrew (Sorex ornatus).  

PubMed

We examined cytochrome b sequence variation in 251 ornate shrews (Sorex ornatus) from 20 localities distributed throughout their geographical range. Additionally, vagrant (S. vagrans) and montane (S. monticolus) shrews from four localities were used as outgroups. We found 24 haplotypes in ornate shrews from California (USA) and Baja California (Mexico) that differed by 1-31 substitutions in 392 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence. In a subset of individuals, we sequenced 699 bp of cytochrome b to better resolve the phylogeographic relationships of populations. The ornate shrew is phylogeographically structured into three haplotype clades representing southern, central and northern localities. Analysis of allozyme variation reveals a similar pattern of variation. Several other small California vertebrates have a similar tripartite pattern of genetic subdivision. We suggest that topographic barriers and expansion and contraction of wetland habitats in the central valley during Pleistocene glacial cycles account for these patterns of genetic variation. Remarkably, the northern ornate shrew clade is phylogenetically clustered with another species of shrew suggesting that it may be a unique lowland form of the vagrant shrew that evolved in parallel to their southern California counterparts. PMID:11251793

Maldonado, J E; Vilà, C; Wayne, R K

2001-01-01

58

Molecular epidemiology of paramyxoviruses in Zambian wild rodents and shrews.  

PubMed

Rodents and shrews are known to harbour various viruses. Paramyxoviruses have been isolated from Asian and Australian rodents, but little is known about them in African rodents. Recently, previously unknown paramyxovirus sequences were found in South African rodents. To date, there have been no reports related to the presence and prevalence of paramyxoviruses in shrews. We found a high prevalence of paramyxoviruses in wild rodents and shrews from Zambia. Semi-nested reverse transcription-PCR assays were used to detect paramyxovirus RNA in 21 % (96/462) of specimens analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses were novel paramyxoviruses and could be classified as morbillivirus- and henipavirus-related viruses, and previously identified rodent paramyxovirus-related viruses. Our findings suggest the circulation of previously unknown paramyxoviruses in African rodents and shrews, and provide new information regarding the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of paramyxoviruses. PMID:24189618

Sasaki, Michihito; Muleya, Walter; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Moonga, Ladslav; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

2014-02-01

59

Merriam's Shrew Sorex merriami Last updated: 2004  

E-print Network

The Merriam's shrew is found east of the Cascades and Sierra Nevadas, south to southern Arizona and New Mexico, and east to the western Great Plains (Verts and Carraway 1998, Wilson and Ruff 1999). Researchers recently discovered this species outside the United States in the southern Okanagan region of British Columbia (Nagorsen et al. 2001). Because of inadequate and biased sampling, the actual distribution of Merriam’s shrews is likely more extensive than documented (Nagorsen et al. 2001). Nowhere do Merriam’s shrews appear to be abundant (Verts and Carraway 1998). In the Pacific Northwest, Merriam's shrews are found primarily in the arid portions of the region (Verts and Carraway 1998). Their Washington range includes portions of central and southeastern Washington (Hudson and Bacon 1956, Johnson and

Written Jeffrey; M. Azerrad

60

Phylogenetic relationships among Nearctic shrews of the genus Sorex (Insectivora, Soricidae) inferred from combined cytochrome b and inter-SINE fingerprint data using Bayesian analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of molecular systematics has relied heavily on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis since its inception. Despite the obvious utility of mtDNA, such data inevitably only presents a limited (i.e., single genome) perspective on species evolution. A combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers is essential for reconstructing more robust phylogenetic trees. To evaluate the utility of one category of nuclear

Aaron B. A. Shafer; Donald T. Stewart

2007-01-01

61

Phylogenetic relationships among Nearctic shrews of the genus Sorex (Insectivora, Soricidae) inferred from combined cytochrome b and inter-SINE fingerprint data using Bayesian analysis.  

PubMed

The field of molecular systematics has relied heavily on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis since its inception. Despite the obvious utility of mtDNA, such data inevitably only presents a limited (i.e., single genome) perspective on species evolution. A combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers is essential for reconstructing more robust phylogenetic trees. To evaluate the utility of one category of nuclear marker (short interspersed elements or SINEs) for resolving phylogenetic relationships, we constructed an inter-SINE fingerprint for nine putative species of the genus Sorex. In addition, we analyzed 1011 nucleotides of the cytochrome b gene. Traditional neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony analyses were applied to the individual cytochrome b and inter-SINE fingerprint data sets, along with Bayesian analysis to the combined data sets. We found inter-SINE fingerprinting to be an effective species level marker; however, we were unable to reconstruct deeper branching patterns within the Sorex genus using these data. The combined data analyzed under a Bayesian analysis showed higher levels of structuring within the Otisorex subgenus, most notably recognizing a monophyletic group consisting of sister-taxa S. palustris and S. monticolus, S. cinereus and S. haydeni, and S. hoyi. An additional noteworthy result was the detection of an historic mitochondrial introgression event between S. monticolus and S. palustris. When combining disparate data sets, we emphasize researcher diligence as certain types of data and processes may overly influence the analysis. However, there is considerable phylogenetic potential stemming from inter-SINE fingerprinting. PMID:17275347

Shafer, Aaron B A; Stewart, Donald T

2007-07-01

62

Beitr. Palont., 26:195, Wien 2001 Gulo gulo (Mustelidae, Mammalia) im Jungpleistozn  

E-print Network

Beitr. Paläont., 26:1­95, Wien 2001 Gulo gulo (Mustelidae, Mammalia) im Jungpleistozän Mitteleuropas von Doris D�PPES*) D�PPES, D., 2001. Gulo gulo (Mustelidae, Mammalia) im Jungpleistozän Mitteleuropas. -- Beitr. Paläont., 26:1­95, Wien. Inhalt 1. Biologie des rezenten Gulo gulo (LINNAEUS, 1758

Döppes, Doris

63

Adoption of a nestling house mouse by a female short-tailed shrew  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A nursing female short-tailed shrew adopted a nestling house mouse. The mouse was observed in the nest with the female and her litter of shrews three days after it was introduced into the aluminum box containing the shrews, but it was found dead in the nest four days later.

Blus, L.J.; Johnson, D.A.

1969-01-01

64

A new species of shrew tenrec (Microgale jobihely) from northern Madagascar  

E-print Network

A new species of shrew tenrec (Microgale jobihely) from northern Madagascar S. M. Goodman1,2 , C. J February 2006 doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00146.x Abstract A new species of shrew tenrec in the genus remarkable adaptive radiations found in living mammals, includes the genus Microgale or shrew tenrecs

Olson, Link

65

Phylogeny and conservation priorities of afrotherian mammals (Afrotheria, Mammalia)  

E-print Network

to the remaining elephants and the woolly mammoth sister to the Asian elephant, while both living elephant genera and mammoths, dugong and manatees, hyraxes, tenrecs, golden moles, elephant shrews and aardvark. To date

Agnarsson, Ingi

66

Organization of the somatosensory cortex in elephant shrews (E. edwardii).  

PubMed

The superorder Afrotheria consists of a diverse group of mammals, including elephants, hyraxes, dugongs, sea cows, aardvarks, tenrecs, golden moles, and elephant shrews. Recent studies suggest this clade diverged from other placental mammals 100 million years ago and thus may represent the sister group to the remaining placental mammals. Despite this important taxonomic position, relatively few studies have investigated cortical organization in these species. Here we present results of an investigation of the somatosensory cortex in the Cape elephant shrew (Elephantulus edwardii). Using multiunit electrophysiological recording techniques, we identified a topographic map of the elephant shrew's body in a location and orientation consistent with the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). The elephant shrew's elongated snout, extensive facial vibrissae, and long tongue accounted for a large portion of the somatosensory representation, located in a relatively rostral area of cortex. Evidence for an additional somatosensory area, presumed to be secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), was found just lateral to S1. Visual and auditory responsive areas were also identified and the extent of visual cortex appeared to be quite large in these highly visual mammals. Despite the elephant shrew's exceptionally well-developed eyes, ears, and vibrissae, there were no anatomical correlates to sensory areas, or body part representations (e.g., barrels), that could be identified in the flatted cortex. PMID:16847884

Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Crish, Samuel D; O'Riain, M Justin; Catania, Kenneth C

2006-08-01

67

Circadian rhythms in the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms of wheel running and feeding were measured in the short-tailed shrew. Shrews were strongly nocturnal, and their activity rhythms entrained to both long-day (LD 16:8) and short-day (LD 6:18) photocycles. Under conditions of continuous light (LL) or darkness (DD), the activity rhythms free-ran with average periodicities of 25.1 hours and 24.1 hours, respectively. In LL the level of activity was depressed, and in some cases wheel running was completely inhibited. No significant sex differences were observed in the period or amplitude of the monitored circadian rhythms. All shrews fed throughout the day and night; however, unlike in previous reports, ultradian periods of feeding behavior were not found. The results are related to Aschoff's four observations for the effect of light on activity rhythms in nocturnal rodents. PMID:2255728

Antipas, A J; Madison, D M; Ferraro, J S

1990-08-01

68

Bioenergetics and thermal physiology of American water shrews (Sorex palustris).  

PubMed

Rates of O(2) consumption and CO(2) production, telemetered body temperature (T(b)) and activity level were recorded from adult and subadult water shrews (Sorex palustris) over an air temperature (T(a)) range of 3-32 degrees C. Digesta passage rate trials were conducted before metabolic testing to estimate the minimum fasting time required for water shrews to achieve a postabsorptive state. Of the 228 metabolic trials conducted on 15 water shrews, 146 (64%) were discarded because the criteria for inactivity were not met. Abdominal T(b) of S. palustris was independent of T(a) and averaged 38.64 +/- 0.07 degrees C. The thermoneutral zone extended from 21.2 degrees C to at least 32 degrees C. Our estimate of the basal metabolic rate for resting, postabsorptive water shrews (96.88 +/- 2.93 J g(-1) h(-1) or 4.84 +/- 0.14 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) was three times the mass-predicted value, while their minimum thermal conductance in air (0.282 +/- 0.013 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) concurred with allometric predictions. The mean digesta throughput time of water shrews fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) or ground meat was 50-55 min. The digestibility coefficients for metabolizable energy (ME) of water shrews fed stickleback minnows (Culaea inconstans) and dragonfly nymphs (Anax spp. and Libellula spp.) were 85.4 +/- 1.3% and 82.8 +/- 1.1%, respectively. The average metabolic rate (AMR) calculated from the gas exchange of six water shrews at 19-22 degrees C (208.0 +/- 17.0 J g(-1) h(-1)) was nearly identical to the estimate of energy intake (202.9 +/- 12.9 J g(-1) h(-1)) measured for these same animals during digestibility trials (20 degrees C). Based on 24-h activity trials and our derived ME coefficients, the minimum daily energy requirement of an adult (14.4 g) water shrew at T(a) = 20 degrees C is 54.0 kJ, or the energetic equivalent of 14.7 stickleback minnows. PMID:15592850

Gusztak, R W; Macarthur, R A; Campbell, K L

2005-02-01

69

Neuropeptide alterations in the tree shrew hypothalamus during volatile anesthesia  

E-print Network

Neuropeptide alterations in the tree shrew hypothalamus during volatile anesthesia Laetitia perception and brain cognitive state. Prolonged general anesthesia has an impact on many of these processes anesthesia administered accompanying a neurosurgical procedure. Using a predicted-peptide database and hybrid

70

Immunohistochemical mapping of neuropeptide Y in the tree shrew brain.  

PubMed

Day-active tree shrews are promising animals as research models for a variety of human disorders. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) modulates many behaviors in vertebrates. Here we examined the distribution of NPY in the brain of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) using immunohistochemical techniques. The differential distribution of NPY-immunoreactive (-ir) cells and fibers were observed in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalon of tree shrews. Most NPY-ir cells were multipolar or bipolar in shape with triangular, fusiform, and/or globular perikarya. The densest cluster of NPY-ir cells were found in the mitral cell layer of the main olfactory bulb (MOB), arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and pretectal nucleus of the thalamus. The MOB presented a unique pattern of NPY immunoreactivity. Laminar distribution of NPY-ir cells was observed in the MOB, neocortex, and hippocampus. Compared to rats, the tree shrews exhibited a particularly robust and widespread distribution of NPY-ir cells in the MOB, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala as well as the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus and pretectal nucleus of the thalamus. By contrast, a low density of neurons were scattered in the striatum, neocortex, polymorph cell layer of the dentate gyrus, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, and dorsal tegmental nucleus. These findings provide the first detailed mapping of NPY immunoreactivity in the tree shrew brain and demonstrate species differences in the distribution of this neuropeptide, providing an anatomical basis for the participation of the NPY system in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes. PMID:25327585

Ni, Rong-Jun; Shu, Yu-Mian; Luo, Peng-Hao; Fang, Hui; Wang, Yu; Yao, Lei; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

2015-02-15

71

Short-tailed shrews as reservoirs of the agents of Lyme disease and human babesiosis.  

PubMed

To determine whether short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) serve as reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and the agent of human babesiosis (Babesia microti), we examined nymphal ticks that had fed as larvae on shrews collected from 3 enzootic sites in coastal Massachusetts for evidence of infection by either or both of these agents. Xenodiagnosis indicated that 11 of 14 shrews were infected by B. burgdorferi. One of 3 piroplasm-infected shrews also infected ticks with B. microti. In a site where the piroplasm is endemic, 11 of 17 shrews showed patent parasitemias by thin blood smears. Of these, 4 had parasitemias exceeding 40%. Few immature ticks infested shrews, however, suggesting that B. brevicauda, although abundant in some endemic sites and serving as a competent reservoir, would contribute minimally to the population of infected nymphs. PMID:2213411

Telford, S R; Mather, T N; Adler, G H; Spielman, A

1990-10-01

72

Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile\\/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda

Allyson G. Hindle; John M. Lawler; Kevin L. Campbell; Markus Horning

2009-01-01

73

Why do shrews twitter? Communication or simple echo-based orientation  

PubMed Central

Shrews are very vocal animals. We tested behaviourally whether the high-pitched laryngeal ‘twittering’ calls of as-yet unclear function serve for communication or echo-based orientation. We used a representative species from each of the two largest phylogenetic groups of shrews. In both species, experimental manipulation of substrate density, but not of the likelihood of conspecific presence, affected the shrews' call rate when exploring an unknown environment. This adaptation of call rate to the degree of habitat clutter parallels bat echolocation and suggests that shrews may use the echoes and reverberations of their calls for identifying routes through their habitat or for probing habitat type. To assess the acoustic feasibility of shrew echo orientation, we ensonified shrew habitats in the field with an ‘artificial shrew’ (small speaker mounted close to a sensitive microphone). The data showed that shrew-like calls can indeed yield echo scenes useful for habitat assessment at close range, but beyond the range of the shrews' vibrissae. PMID:19535367

Siemers, Björn M.; Schauermann, Grit; Turni, Hendrik; von Merten, Sophie

2009-01-01

74

The humerus of Cryptotis colombiana and its bearing on the species? phylogenetic relationships (Soricomorpha: Soricidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Colombian small-eared shrew, Cryptotis colombiana Woodman and Timm, was described from the Colombian Andes in 1993. Its original allocation to the Cryptotis nigrescens-group recently was questioned based on several cranial characters the species appeared to share with some members of the Cryptotis thomasi-group. We review characteristics of the C. nigrescens- and C. thomasi-groups, and we describe the humerus of C. colombiana and the humerus and manus of Cryptotis medellinia. The morphology of the humerus joins the suite of characters that supports the hypotheses that C. colombiana is not a member of the C. thomasi-group and that all remaining South American species form a cohesive, definable set that is probably monophyletic.

Woodman, N.; Cuartas-Calle, C.A.; Delgado-V., C.A.

2003-01-01

75

Neurochemical Characterization of the Tree Shrew Dorsal Striatum  

PubMed Central

The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington’s, Tourette’s syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei), which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally) can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia) are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry), and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum. PMID:21887131

Rice, Matthew W.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Perez-Costas, Emma

2011-01-01

76

NEARCTIC SHREWS, SOREX SPP., AS PARATENIC HOSTS OF SOBOLIPHYME BATURINI (NEMATODA: SOBOLIPHYMIDAE).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: Third-stage larvae of Soboliphyme baturini were discovered for the first time in shrews, Sorex cinereus, and S. tundrensis from Alaska and the Nearctic. Shrews were found to be infected with L3 at Suloia Lake, southeastern Alaska, Togiak National Wildlife Refuge, southwestern Alaska and from the Y...

77

Population dynamics of the northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda: insights from a 25-year  

E-print Network

Population dynamics of the northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda: insights from a 25-year demography of the northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1823), was studied for 25 years, Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1823), a été étudiée pendant 25 ans dans des habitats de pâturin, de luzerne et d

Oli, Madan K.

78

Prevalence of SFTSV among Asian House Shrews and Rodents, China, January–August 2013  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the role of small mammals as hosts of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), we tested serum samples from rodents and shrews in China, collected in 2013. SFTSV antibodies and RNA were detected, suggesting that rodents and shrews might be hosts for SFTSV. PMID:25418111

Liu, Jian-Wei; Wen, Hong-Ling; Fang, Li-Zhu; Zhang, Zhen-Tang; He, Shu-Ting; Xue, Zai-Feng; Ma, Dong-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Tao; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Yan

2014-01-01

79

CXC Chemokine CXCL12 and Its Receptor CXCR4 in Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri): Structure, Expression and Function  

PubMed Central

Chemokines are small secreted proteins functionally involved in the immune system's regulation of lymphocyte migration across numerous mammalian species. Given its growing popularity in immunological models, we investigated the structure and function of chemokine CXCL12 protein in tree shrews. We found that CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in tree shrew had structural similarities to their homologous human proteins. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that tree shrew is evolutionarily-close to the primates. Our results also showed that the human recombinant CXCL12 protein directly enhanced the migration of tree shrew's lymphocytes in vitro, while AMD3100 enhanced the mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from bone marrow into peripheral blood in tree shrew in vivo. Collectively, these findings suggested that chemokines in tree shrews may play the same or similar roles as those in humans, and that the tree shrew is a viable animal model for studying human immunological diseases. PMID:24858548

Meng, Shengke; Zhang, Lichao; Wang, Wenxue; Jiang, Zongmin; Yu, Min; Cui, Qinghua; Li, Meizhang

2014-01-01

80

The annular hematoma of the shrew yolk-sac placenta.  

PubMed

The annular hematoma of the shrew, Blarina brevicauda, is a specialized portion of the yolk-sac wall. In this study, we have examined the fine structure of the different cellular components of the anular hematoma. Small pieces of the gestation sacs from seven pregnant shrews were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide and processed for transmission electron microscopy. In the area of the trophoblastic curtain, the maternal capillary endothelial cells were hypertrophied and syncytial trophoblast surrounded the capillaries. Cellular trophoblast covered part of the luminal surface of the curtain region, whereas masses of apparently degenerating syncytium were present on other areas of the surface. Maternal erythrocytes, released into the uterine lumen from the curtain region, were phagocytized and degraded by the columnar cells of the trophoblastic annulus. No evidence of iron or pigment accumulation was evident in the parietal endodermal cells underlying the annular trophoblast. Parietal endodermal cells were characterized by cuboidal shape, widely dilated intercellular spaces, and cytoplasm containing granular endoplasmic reticulum. Endodermal cells of the visceral yolk-sac accumulated large numbers of electron-dense granules as well as glycogen in their cytoplasm. Hemopoietic areas and vitelline capillaries were found subjacent to the visceral endoderm. The various portions of the yolk-sac wall of Blarina appear to perform complementary functions which are probably important in maternal-fetal iron transfer. PMID:677046

King, B F; Enders, A C; Wimsatt, W A

1978-05-01

81

Hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor expression in the tree shrew: Regulation by psychosocial conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. This study was conducted to determine whether chronic psychosocial conflict alters the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA in the hippocampus of male tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

Olaf JiJhren; Gabriele Fiiigge; Eberhard Fuchs

1994-01-01

82

THE OCCURRENCE OF A SPOROZOAN IN THE MYOCARDIUM OF SHORT-TAILED SHREW (Blarina brevicauda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyst was observed in the cardiac musculature of a short-tailed shrew (B\\/anna brevicauda) during a survey on the helminth fauna of the species in Connecticut. Histologically this organism resembled a species of Sarcocystis.

J. E. HUFFMAN; D. E. ROSCOE

83

Ticks and fleas of shrews in Appalachian Georgia and North Carolina.  

PubMed

Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) were recovered from 8 smoky shrews, Sorex fumeus Miller, and 9 northern short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda (Say), trapped at elevations of 720-1,310 m in Macon and Jackson counties in western North Carolina and Union County in northern Georgia from April 1994 to August 1995. The ticks Ixodes angustus Neumann and Ixodes woodi Bishopp, and the flea Corrodopsylla curvata (Rothschild), were recovered from smoky shrews. The same 2 tick species, in addition to the fleas, Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes Baker and Doratopsylla blarinae Fox, were recovered from northern short-tailed shrews. New state records for I. angustus from Georgia and I. woodi from North Carolina are established. PMID:8691385

McCay, T S; Durden, L A

1996-08-01

84

Patterns of Sequence Variation in the Mitochondrial D-Loop Region of Shrews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct sequencing of the mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) of shrews (genus Sorex) for the region between the tRNA pro and the conserved sequence block-F revealed variable numbers of 79-bp tandem repeats. These repeats were found in all 19 individuals sequenced, representing three subspecies and one closely related species of the masked shrew group (Sorex cineretrs cinereus, S. c. miscix, S.

Donald T. Stewart; Allan J. Baker

1994-01-01

85

New infectious spirochete isolated from short-tailed shrews and white-footed mice.  

PubMed

A spirochete with two periplasmic flagella was isolated from the blood or tissues of spleens and kidneys from short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in Connecticut and Minnesota. After inoculation, the shrew-mouse spirochete infected Swiss mice and Syrian hamsters. This spirochete is morphologically and serologically distinct from the species of Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, and Spirochaeta examined. PMID:3305565

Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W; Andreadis, T G

1987-08-01

86

Biodiversity and evolution of Imjin virus and Thottapalayam virus in Crocidurinae shrews in Zhejiang Province, China.  

PubMed

The recent discovery of numerous hantaviruses in insectivores has provided a new view of hantavirus biodiversity and evolution. To determine the presence and genetic diversity of Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in insectivores in Zhejiang Province, China, we captured and performed virus screening of 32 Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) and 105 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) in different coastal regions. Hantavirus genome (S, M, and L segments) sequences were successfully recovered from one Ussuri white-toothed shrew and seven Asian house shrews. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus carried by the Ussuri white-toothed shrew was most closely related to MJNV, but with >15% nucleotide sequence difference, suggesting that it represents a new subtype. The hantaviruses carried by Asian house shrews were closely related to the TPMV variants found in the same geographic area, but more distantly related to those sampled in India and Nepal. Additionally, the TPMV sequences obtained in this study, as well as those found previously in this area, could be divided into three lineages reflecting their geographic origins, indicative of largely allopatric evolution. Overall, our data highlights the high genetic diversity of insectivore-borne hantaviruses in China, suggesting that more may be discovered in the future. PMID:24874196

Lin, Xian-Dan; Zhou, Run-Hong; Fan, Fei-Neng; Ying, Xu-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Wen; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

2014-08-30

87

Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants: perspectives and avenues for future research.  

PubMed

Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified "toilet pitchers" that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with faeces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Faeces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews, and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species. PMID:20861680

Clarke, Charles; Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

2010-10-01

88

Identification of the full-length ?-actin sequence and expression profiles in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri).  

PubMed

The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) diverges from the primate order (Primates) and is classified as a separate taxonomic group of mammals - Scandentia. It has been suggested that the tree shrew can be used as an animal model for studying human diseases; however, the genomic sequence of the tree shrew is largely unidentified. In the present study, we reported the full-length cDNA sequence of the housekeeping gene, ?-actin, in the tree shrew. The amino acid sequence of ?-actin in the tree shrew was compared to that of humans and other species; a simple phylogenetic relationship was discovered. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis further demonstrated that the expression profiles of ?-actin, as a general conservative housekeeping gene, in the tree shrew were similar to those in humans, although the expression levels varied among different types of tissue in the tree shrew. Our data provide evidence that the tree shrew has a close phylogenetic association with humans. These findings further enhance the potential that the tree shrew, as a species, may be used as an animal model for studying human disorders. PMID:25516020

Zheng, Yu; Yun, Chenxia; Wang, Qihui; Smith, Wanli W; Leng, Jing

2015-02-01

89

Mitochondrial cytochrome b of the Lyakhov mammoth (Proboscidea, Mammalia): new data and phylogenetic analyses of Elephantidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships between recent Elephantidae (Proboscidea, Mammalia), that is to say extant elephants (Asian and African) and extinct woolly mammoth, have remained unclear to date. The prevailing morphological scheme (mammoth grouped with Asian elephant) is either supported or questioned by the molecular results. Recently, the monophyly of woolly mammoths on mitochondrial grounds has been demonstrated (Thomas et al., 2000),

Re Egis Debruyne; Ve Eronique Barriel; Pascal Tassy

2003-01-01

90

Mammuthus (Mammalia, Proboscidea) à la croisée de la Beringia, avec une digression sur les mammifères  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammuthus (Mammalia, Proboscidea) at the crossroads in Beringia, with a di- gression on mammals. Th e latest DNA analyses of woolly mammoths confi rm the antiquity of the dif- ferentiation of the species Mammuthus primigenius, c. 600 000-800 000 years ago. Th ey renew also the study of the \\

Pascal TASSY

2009-01-01

91

NEW SKULLS OF KOLPOCHOERUS PHACOCHOEROIDES (SUIDAE, MAMMALIA) FROM THE LATE PLIOCENE OF AHL AL OUGHLAM,  

E-print Network

1 NEW SKULLS OF KOLPOCHOERUS PHACOCHOEROIDES (SUIDAE, MAMMALIA) FROM THE LATE PLIOCENE OF AHL AL dgeraads@ivry.cnrs.fr #12;2 ABSTRACT. The discovery of two male skulls of Kolpochoerus phacochoeroides specimens are two virtually complete male skulls: AaO-3655, in very good condition, and AaO-3656, which

Boyer, Edmond

92

The ear region of edentates and the phylogeny of the Tardigrada (Mammalia, Xenarthra)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cladistic investigation of the phylogenetic relationships among 21 extinct and extant genera of sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Tardigrada) was performed on the basis of characteristics of the bony anatomy of the auditory region. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate specific hypotheses of relationship within the group. Questions of particular interest include the relationship among the three traditional family

Timothy J. Gaudin

1995-01-01

93

Climate history, human impacts and global body size of Carnivora (Mammalia  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Climate history, human impacts and global body size of Carnivora (Mammalia-components across species were correlated with environmental variables and human occupation both globally. In contrast, the mean S-component of body size shows large positive deviations from ancestors across

Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

94

Amphilemuridae (Lipotyphla, Mammalia) éocènes d'Europe occidentale : nouvelles données taxonomiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eocene Amphilemuridae (Lipotyphla, Mammalia) of Western Europe: new taxonomical data. This work deals with amphilemurids, a very specialised group of Eocene small placental mammals currently considered as erinaceomorph members of the Lipotyphla order. Five European and North-American genera, including 17 species, have been recognized until now: Macrocranion, Gesneropithex, Amphilemur, Alsaticopithecus, and Pholidocercus. The study is based on mostly original tooth

Élodie Maitre; Gilles Escarguel; Bernard Sigé

2006-01-01

95

Topografia do cone medular no ratão-do-banhado ( Myocastor coypus Molina, 1782 - Rodentia: Mammalia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topography of the medullar cone in nutria (Myocastor coypus Molina, 1782 - Rodentia: Mammalia). Aiming to investigate the topography of the medullar cone, ten adult nutria (Myocastor coypus), eight male and two female, were previously fixed in 10% aqueous formalin solution, maintained in similar solution and dissected. After the dissection the following data were noted: a) the medullar cone apex

Gilberto Valente Machado; Josy Alvarenga Cal; Arlei José Birck

96

Physical and morphological aspects of the eye of the manatee trichechus inunguis natterer 1883: (Sirenia: Mammalia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eyes and aspects of vision of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis NATTERER 1883: (Sirenia: mammalia) have been examined in five animals, in relation to previous findings for sirenians. This paper presents a review of previous findings confirming those upon gross ocular anatomy, retinal histology and ocular refraction. The confirmation of a primarily rod retina, high receptor: ganglion cell ratio

David Piggins; W. R. A. Muntz; Robin C. Best

1983-01-01

97

Structural and functional characterization of enamel pigmentation in shrews.  

PubMed

Pigmented tooth enamel occurs in several vertebrate clades, ranging from mammals to fish. Although an iron compound is associated with this orange to red colored pigmentation, its chemical and structural organization within the enamel is unknown. To determine the nature of the iron compound, we investigated heavily pigmented teeth of the northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda using combined characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We found that the pigmentation of the enamel with an iron content of around 8wt% results from a close to amorphous magnetite phase deposited around the nm-sized enamel crystals. Furthermore, the influence of the pigmentation on the enamel hardness was determined by nanoindentation measurements. Finally, the biomechanical function and biological context are discussed in light of the obtained results. PMID:24556576

Dumont, M; Tütken, T; Kostka, A; Duarte, M J; Borodin, S

2014-04-01

98

Thermoregulatory correlates of nausea in rats and musk shrews.  

PubMed

Nausea is a prominent symptom and major cause of complaint for patients receiving anticancer chemo- or radiation therapy. The arsenal of anti-nausea drugs is limited, and their efficacy is questionable. Currently, the development of new compounds with anti-nausea activity is hampered by the lack of physiological correlates of nausea. Physiological correlates are needed because common laboratory rodents lack the vomiting reflex. Furthermore, nausea does not always lead to vomiting. Here, we report the results of studies conducted in four research centers to investigate whether nausea is associated with any specific thermoregulatory symptoms. Two species were studied: the laboratory rat, which has no vomiting reflex, and the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus), which does have a vomiting reflex. In rats, motion sickness was induced by rotating them in their individual cages in the horizontal plane (0.75 Hz, 40 min) and confirmed by reduced food consumption at the onset of dark (active) phase. In 100% of rats tested at three centers, post-rotational sickness was associated with marked (~1.5°C) hypothermia, which was associated with a short-lasting tail-skin vasodilation (skin temperature increased by ~4°C). Pretreatment with ondansetron, a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, which is used to treat nausea in patients in chemo- or radiation therapy, attenuated hypothermia by ~30%. In shrews, motion sickness was induced by a cyclical back-and-forth motion (4 cm, 1 Hz, 15 min) and confirmed by the presence of retching and vomiting. In this model, sickness was also accompanied by marked hypothermia (~2°C). Like in rats, the hypothermic response was preceded by transient tail-skin vasodilation. In conclusion, motion sickness is accompanied by hypothermia that involves both autonomic and thermoeffector mechanisms: tail-skin vasodilation and possibly reduction of the interscapular brown adipose tissue activity. These thermoregulatory symptoms may serve as physiological correlates of nausea. PMID:24728971

Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Cerri, Matteo; Del Vecchio, Flavia; Corrigan, Joshua J; Kamphee, Amornrat; Dragic, Alexander S; Rudd, John A; Romanovsky, Andrej A; Nalivaiko, Eugene

2014-03-30

99

Thermoregulatory correlates of nausea in rats and musk shrews  

PubMed Central

Nausea is a prominent symptom and major cause of complaint for patients receiving anticancer chemo- or radiation therapy. The arsenal of anti-nausea drugs is limited, and their efficacy is questionable. Currently, the development of new compounds with anti-nausea activity is hampered by the lack of physiological correlates of nausea. Physiological correlates are needed because common laboratory rodents lack the vomiting reflex. Furthermore, nausea does not always lead to vomiting. Here, we report the results of studies conducted in four research centers to investigate whether nausea is associated with any specific thermoregulatory symptoms. Two species were studied: the laboratory rat, which has no vomiting reflex, and the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus), which does have a vomiting reflex. In rats, motion sickness was induced by rotating them in their individual cages in the horizontal plane (0.75 Hz, 40 min) and confirmed by reduced food consumption at the onset of dark (active) phase. In 100% of rats tested at three centers, post-rotational sickness was associated with marked (~1.5°C) hypothermia, which was associated with a short-lasting tail-skin vasodilation (skin temperature increased by ~4°C). Pretreatment with ondansetron, a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, which is used to treat nausea in patients in chemo- or radiation therapy, attenuated hypothermia by ~30%. In shrews, motion sickness was induced by a cyclical back-and-forth motion (4 cm, 1 Hz, 15 min) and confirmed by the presence of retching and vomiting. In this model, sickness was also accompanied by marked hypothermia (~2°C). Like in rats, the hypothermic response was preceded by transient tail-skin vasodilation. In conclusion, motion sickness is accompanied by hypothermia that involves both autonomic and thermoeffector mechanisms: tail-skin vasodilation and possibly reduction of the interscapular brown adipose tissue activity. These thermoregulatory symptoms may serve as physiological correlates of nausea. PMID:24728971

Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Cerri, Matteo; Vecchio, Flavia Del; Corrigan, Joshua J.; Kamphee, Amornrat; Dragic, Alexander S.; Rudd, John A.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.; Nalivaiko, Eugene

2014-01-01

100

Patterns of sequence variation in the mitochondrial D-loop region of shrews.  

PubMed

Direct sequencing of the mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) of shrews (genus Sorex) for the region between the tRNA(Pro) and the conserved sequence block-F revealed variable numbers of 79-bp tandem repeats. These repeats were found in all 19 individuals sequenced, representing three subspecies and one closely related species of the masked shrew group (Sorex cinereus cinereus, S. c. miscix, S. c. acadicus, and S. haydeni) and an outgroup, the pygmy shrew (S. hoyi). Each specimen also possessed an adjacent 76-bp imperfect copy of the tandem repeats. One individual was heteroplasmic for length variants consisting of five and seven copies of the 79-bp tandem repeat. The sequence of the repeats is conducive to the formation of secondary structure. A termination-associated sequence is present in each of the repeats and in a unique sequence region 5' to the tandem array as well. Mean genetic distance between the masked shrew taxa and the pygmy shrew was calculated separately for the unique sequence region, one of the tandem repeats, the imperfect repeat, and these three regions combined. The unique sequence region evolved more rapidly than the tandem repeats or the imperfect repeat. The small genetic distance between pairs of tandem repeats within an individual is consistent with a model of concerted evolution. Repeats are apparently duplicated and lost at a high rate, which tends to homogenize the tandem array. The rate of D-loop sequence divergence between the masked and pygmy shrews is estimated to be 15%-20%/Myr, the highest rate observed in D-loops of mammals. Rapid sequence evolution in shrews may be due either to their high metabolic rate and short generation time or to the presence of variable numbers of tandem repeats. PMID:8121290

Stewart, D T; Baker, A J

1994-01-01

101

LONGEVITY OF THE NORTHERN SHORT-TAIL SHREW (BLARINA BREVICAUDA) AT RICE CREEK FIELD STATION, SUNY OSWEGO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term longitudinal studies can provide information on habitat quality over time. The Short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) is carnivorous, abundant in most habitats and lives 18 months or less. Ageing criteria based on weight or reproductive condition provide unreliable results since shrews are nearly adult weight at emergence from the nest and can begin reproduction shortly thereafter. The only reliable ageing

Sara Ressing

102

Chronic Psychosocial Stress Causes Apical Dendritic Atrophy of Hippocampal CA3 Pyramidal Neurons in Subordinate Tree Shrews  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown previously that repeated laboratory restraint stress or daily corticosterone administration affects the struc- ture of CA3 hippocampal neurons in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of repeated daily psychosocial stress on the structure of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons in male tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). Male tree shrews develop social hierarchies in which subordinates show

Ana Maria Magarinos; Bruce S. McEwen; Gabriele Flugge; Eberhard Fuchs

1996-01-01

103

Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.  

PubMed

Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions. PMID:24150169

Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

2013-10-22

104

Tuning of color contrast signals to visual sensitivity maxima of tree shrews by three Bornean highland Nepenthes species.  

PubMed

Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants (Nepenthes rajah, Nepenthes lowii and Nepenthes macrophylla) specialize in harvesting nutrients from tree shrew excreta in their pitchers. In all three species, nectaries on the underside of the pitcher lid are the focus of the tree shrews' attention. Tree shrews are dichromats, with visual sensitivity in the blue and green wavebands. All three Nepenthes species were shown to produce visual signals, in which the underside of the pitcher lid (the area of highest nectar production) stood out in high contrast to the adjacent area on the pitcher (i.e., was brighter), in the blue and green wavebands visible to the tree shrews. N. rajah showed the tightest degree of "tuning," notably in the green waveband. Conversely, pitchers of Nepenthes burbidgeae, a typical insectivorous species sympatric with N. rajah, did not produce a color pattern tuned to tree shrew sensitivity maxima. PMID:22902686

Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles; Greenwood, Melinda; Chin, Lijin

2012-10-01

105

Tuning of color contrast signals to visual sensitivity maxima of tree shrews by three Bornean highland Nepenthes species  

PubMed Central

Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants (Nepenthes rajah, Nepenthes lowii and Nepenthes macrophylla) specialize in harvesting nutrients from tree shrew excreta in their pitchers. In all three species, nectaries on the underside of the pitcher lid are the focus of the tree shrews' attention. Tree shrews are dichromats, with visual sensitivity in the blue and green wavebands. All three Nepenthes species were shown to produce visual signals, in which the underside of the pitcher lid (the area of highest nectar production) stood out in high contrast to the adjacent area on the pitcher (i.e., was brighter), in the blue and green wavebands visible to the tree shrews. N. rajah showed the tightest degree of “tuning,” notably in the green waveband. Conversely, pitchers of Nepenthes burbidgeae, a typical insectivorous species sympatric with N. rajah, did not produce a color pattern tuned to tree shrew sensitivity maxima. PMID:22902686

Moran, Jonathan A.; Clarke, Charles; Greenwood, Melinda; Chin, Lijin

2012-01-01

106

Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China.  

PubMed

To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. PMID:25506671

Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; He, Jin-Rong; Wang, Ke; Li, Ming-Hui; Cao, Jian-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Liu; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

2015-02-01

107

Experimental infection of tree shrews(Tupaia belangeri) with Coxsackie virus A16.  

PubMed

Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) is commonly recognized as one of the main human pathogens of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). The clinical manifestations of HFMD include vesicles of hand, foot and mouth in young children and severe inflammatory CNS lesions. In this study, experimentally CA16 infected tree shrews(Tupaia belangeri) were used to investigate CA16 pathogenesis. The results showed that both the body temperature and the percentages of blood neutrophilic granulocytes / monocytes of CA16 infected tree shrews increased at 4-7 days post infection. Dynamic distributions of CA16 in different tissues and stools were found at different infection stages. Moreover, the pathological changes in CNS and other organs were also observed. These findings indicate that tree shrews can be used as a viable animal model to study CA16 infection. PMID:25465084

Li, Jian-Ping; Liao, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Li-Chun; Feng, Kai; Li, Qi-Han; Liu, Long-Ding

2014-11-01

108

High shrew diversity on Alaska's Seward Peninsula: Community assembly and environmental change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In September 2010, 6 species of shrews (genus: Sorex) were collected at a single locality on the Seward Peninsula of Alaska. Such high sympatric diversity within a single mammalian genus is seldom realized. This phenomenon at high latitudes highlights complex Arctic community dynamics that reflect significant turnover through time as a consequence of environmental change. Each of these shrew species occupies a broad geographic distribution collectively spanning the entire Holarctic, although the study site lies within Eastern Beringia, near the periphery of all individual ranges. A review of published genetic evidence reflects a depauperate shrew community within ice-free Beringia through the last glaciation, and recent assembly of current diversity during the Holocene.

Hope, Andrew G.

2012-01-01

109

Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris.  

PubMed

Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H(0): shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n=17) and second-year (n=17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: approximately 50%; B. brevicauda: approximately 60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris ( approximately 50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

2009-06-01

110

Illumination of cryptic species boundaries in long-tailed shrew tenrecs (Mammalia: Tenrecidae; Microgale), with new insights into geographic variation and distributional constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to explore and test species limits among morphologically similar species is potentially compromised by phenomena poorly reflective of organismal history and speciation, including (but not limited to) stochastic lineage sorting and gene flow. In situations where molecular data are only available from a single gene or linkage partition (e.g. mtDNA), corroboration of suspected

LINK E. OLSON; STEVEN M. GOODMAN; ANNE D. YODER

111

Novel dynamic measures of emetic behavior in musk shrews.  

PubMed

The emetic reflex occurs as a pattern of motor responses produced by a network of neurons in the hindbrain. Despite an understanding of the sequence of motor outputs that form an emetic episode (EE), the variability in the dynamics of multiple EEs across time remains a mystery. Many clinical investigations rely on once a day patient recall of total amount of vomiting, and preclinical studies frequently report only the total number of EE per unit time. The aim of the current study was to develop novel temporal measures of emetic activation in a preclinical model. Male and female musk shrews were tested with prototypical emetic stimuli: motion exposure (1 Hz), nicotine (5 mg/kg, sc), and copper sulfate (120 mg/kg, ig). New emetic measures included duration (time from first to last episode), rate, standard deviation of the inter-episode interval (SD-I), and a survival analysis of emetic latency (analyzed with Cox regression). Behavioral patterns associated with emesis were also assessed using statistical temporal pattern (T-pattern) analysis to measure nausea-like behaviors (e.g., immobility). The emetic stimuli produced different levels of total EE number, duration, rate, and SD-I. A typical antiemetic, the neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist CP-99,994, suppressed the number of EEs but was less effective for reducing the duration or prolonging the emetic latency. Overall, the current study shows the use of novel dynamic behavioral measures to more comprehensively assess emesis and the impact of therapies. PMID:23953843

Horn, Charles C; Wang, Hong; Estival, Laureline; Meyers, Kelly; Magnusson, Magnus S

2013-12-01

112

The bicolored white-toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) is an indigenous host of mammalian Borna disease virus.  

PubMed

Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV. PMID:24699636

Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

2014-01-01

113

The Bicolored White-Toothed Shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) Is an Indigenous Host of Mammalian Borna Disease Virus  

PubMed Central

Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV. PMID:24699636

Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

2014-01-01

114

Molecular phylogeny of long-tailed shrews (genus Sorex) from México and Guatemala  

E-print Network

We present a molecular phylogeny of North American species of long-tailed shrews of the genus Sorex. Our focus is on Mexican and Guatemalan species to begin understanding their evolutionary relationships and to test the validity of nominal species. Seventy-seven sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were analyzed, including 19 specimens representing nine Mexican and one Guatemalan species. Phylogenetic analyses using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches revealed two major clades of North American species, all within the subgenus Otisorex. The first major clade includes S. trowbridgii and southern species (S. macrodon from Oaxaca; S. veraecrucis from Nuevo León, Michoacán, Chiapas, S. saussurei from Jalisco and Guatemala; S. veraepacis from Guerrero and Guatemala). Relatively deep branches among taxa characterize this clade and suggest that their early divergence from other North American shrews was soon after arrival of the ancestral stock from the Beringian region. The other major clade includes all other North American species of Sorex we examined, with two Mexican species, S. milleri and S. emarginatus, grouped in a subclade with the S. cinereus complex. Sorex veraecrucis is not, however, a monophyletic taxon because specimens of this nominal species were included in both the major clades. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec has likely played a role as a biogeographic barrier in the evolutionary history of Mexican shrews. This study of mitochondrial variation in southern North American shrews of the genus Sorex indicates there is substantial, previously

Martha Esteva; Fernando A. Cervantes; Sara V. Brant; Joseph A. Cook

115

RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of

E. Farfan; T. Jannik

2011-01-01

116

Distribution, Habitat Use, and Identification of Masked Shrews, Sorex cinereus and Sorex haydeni, in Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BSTRACT.—Several studies support specific status for the prairie form of Sorex cinereus, designated as Sorex haydeni. Evidence for introgression between these species has been found in Alberta despite significant sequence differences (>15%) in mitochondrial DNA. We identified to species 94 masked shrews using mtDNA and morphological criteria to assess the distribution of these two species in Minnesota and to

ANJA K. BRUNET; ROBERT M. ZINK; KRISTIN M. KRAMER

117

A new species of shrew tenrec (Microgale jobihely) from northern Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of shrew tenrec in the genus Microgale is described from a series of 12 specimens taken on the south-western slopes of the Tsaratanana Massif in northern Madagascar and is named Microgale jobihely. This new species is distinguished from other named members of this endemic genus by a variety of mensural and discrete morphological characters. Phylogenetic analysis of

S. M. Goodman; C. J. Raxworthy; C. P. Maminirina; L. E. Olson

118

Short-Tailed Shrews (Blarina brevicauda) Exhibit Unusual Behavior in an Urban Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological studies typically stress the use of habitats by wildlife in natural environments. However, in urban environments, habitat use may be altered, or it may be easier to discern use or behaviors overlooked in more natural settings. This note details unique observations of the northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) congregating around a bird feeder, living in a flower bed isolated

Virgil Brack Jr

119

Olfactory mucosa ultrastructure in the short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda and Blarina carolinensis.  

PubMed

The olfactory mucosae of the northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda, and the southern short-tailed shrew, Blarina carolinensis, were examined by light and electron microscopy. A well-developed olfactory epithelium was observed that included all of the cells necessary to provide for a sensitive olfactory system, suggesting that olfaction plays a major role in the behavior of these animals. There were no significant differences between the olfactory mucosae of these two species. The general features of the olfactory epithelium in these shrews were similar to those reported for several other macrosmatic mammals. A new type of supporting cell, called the light supporting cell, was observed in these shrews. The light supporting cell cytoplasm exhibited very little staining by light microscopy and had low electron density by transmission electron microscopy compared to that of the more common dark supporting cell. The light supporting cell had a convex apical surface with microvilli and lacked the large amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) typical of the apical cytoplasm of the dark supporting cell. In the lamina propria of the mucosa, the Bowman's glands consisted of two cell types, one with electron-lucent, alcian blue-positive granules, and the other with electron-dense PAS-positive granules. The cell with electron-lucent granules contained large amounts of SER and small clumps of rough ER. The cells with electron-dense granules had large amounts of RER and little SER. PMID:12221510

Byrum, L J; Carson, K A; Rose, R K

2001-12-01

120

DEMOGRAPHY OF SHORT-TAILED SHREW POPULATIONS LIVING ON PCB CONTAMINATED SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River, Massachusetts on soils contaminated

RUDY BOONSTRA

2002-01-01

121

Ultrastructure of the stomach of the small short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda c.  

PubMed

The normal gastric ultrastructure has been characterized for the small short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda c., which is a primitive eutherian and one of the smallest living mammals with extraordinarily high metabolic rate. In general the cell types present and cytologic character of gastric mucosal, submucosal, and muscularis cells were similar to that reported for other more advanced small mammalian species. Chief cells, endocrine cells, and lamina proprial elements were morphologically identical to their counterpart in rats, ferrets and other small carnivores. Distinctive cytologic features in this species of shrew included the scanty monolayer or small number of mucous granules in the simple columnar surface epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the thin elongated shape of their microvilli. Dense bodies were absent in the parietal cell mitochondria of the shrew, though usually abundant in other mammalian parietal cells. Our data indicate few morphologic specializations in the shrew stomach which can be correlated with their high rate of food assimilation and metabolic demands, though future studies of mucosal biochemistry and lower gut morphology may reveal such adaptations. PMID:4020920

Pfeiffer, C J; Keith, J C

1985-07-01

122

Evolution of the common shrew Sorex araneus: chromosomal and molecular aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review data on the chromosomal variation in the common shrew Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 in the context of recent molecular findings. The article considers all aspects of chromosomal variation in this species: within-population polymorphism, karyotypic races, hybrid zones between karyotypic races, chromosomal evolution, and speciation. The recent molecular data provide vital information on different evolutionary processes such as inbreeding,

Jan M. WÓJCIK; Jeremy B. SEARLE

2002-01-01

123

Airoldi, J.-P. & Flury, B. (1988). An application of common principal component analysis to cranial morphometry of Microtus californicus and M. ochrogaster (Mammalia, Rodentia). J.  

E-print Network

morphometry of Microtus californicus and M. ochrogaster (Mammalia, Rodentia). J. Zool., Lond. 216 (1) : 21 males and females of Microtus californicus and M. ochrogaster is presented, comparing PCA, CPC

Airoldi, Jean-Pierre

124

Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2004, 83, 122. With 6 figures 2004 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2004, 83, 122 1  

E-print Network

Article IDENTIFYING CRYPTIC SPECIES IN SHREW TENRECS L. E. OLSON ET AL. *Corresponding author. Current.olson@uaf.edu Illumination of cryptic species boundaries in long-tailed shrew tenrecs (Mammalia: Tenrecidae; Microgale tenrecs (Mammalia: Tenrecidae; Microgale spp.) from Madagascar. Current taxonomy recognizes two broadly

Yoder, Anne

125

Colonization of Ireland: revisiting ‘the pygmy shrew syndrome' using mitochondrial, Y chromosomal and microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

There is great uncertainty about how Ireland attained its current fauna and flora. Long-distance human-mediated colonization from southwestern Europe has been seen as a possible way that Ireland obtained many of its species; however, Britain has (surprisingly) been neglected as a source area for Ireland. The pygmy shrew has long been considered an illustrative model species, such that the uncertainty of the Irish colonization process has been dubbed ‘the pygmy shrew syndrome'. Here, we used new genetic data consisting of 218 cytochrome (cyt) b sequences, 153 control region sequences, 17 Y-intron sequences and 335 microsatellite multilocus genotypes to distinguish between four possible hypotheses for the colonization of the British Isles, formulated in the context of previously published data. Cyt b sequences from western Europe were basal to those found in Ireland, but also to those found in the periphery of Britain and several offshore islands. Although the central cyt b haplotype in Ireland was found in northern Spain, we argue that it most likely occurred in Britain also, from where the pygmy shrew colonized Ireland as a human introduction during the Holocene. Y-intron and microsatellite data are consistent with this hypothesis, and the biological traits and distributional data of pygmy shrews argue against long-distance colonization from Spain. The compact starburst of the Irish cyt b expansion and the low genetic diversity across all markers strongly suggests a recent colonization. This detailed molecular study of the pygmy shrew provides a new perspective on an old colonization question. PMID:21673740

McDevitt, A D; Vega, R; Rambau, R V; Yannic, G; Herman, J S; Hayden, T J; Searle, J B

2011-01-01

126

Fennoscandian phylogeography of the common shrew Sorex araneus . Postglacial recolonisation—combining information from chromosomal variation with mitochondrial DNA data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine mtDNA variation of the common shrew in Fennoscandia to explore the incongruence found in previous studies using\\u000a chromosomal and mitochondrial markers, aiming to reveal post-glacial recolonisation patterns. A total of 241 common shrews\\u000a from 51 localities in Fennoscandia were analysed. This area includes a secondary contact zone between two groups (the Northern\\u000a group and the Western group) showing

Anna-Carin Lundqvist; Cecilia Alström-Rapaport; Håkan Tegelström

2011-01-01

127

Redescription of Pterygodermatites (Mesopectines) nycticebi (Mönnig, 1920) (Nematoda: Rictulariidae), a parasite of slow loris Nycticebus coucang (Mammalia: Primates)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pterygodermatites (Mesopectines) nycticebi (Mönnig, 1920) (Nematoda: Spirurida: Rictulariidae) is redescribed based on immature and mature adults collected from the stomach and small intestine at autopsy of a slow loris, Nycticebus coucang (Boddaert, 1785) (Mammalia: Primates), in a zoological garden in Japan. It is first demonstrated that male possesses a minute telamon and a left lateral pore in the preanal part

Yatsukaho Ikeda; Akiko Fujisaki; Koichi Murat; Hideo Hasegawa

128

A SKULL OF ANCYLOTHERIUM (CHALICOTHERIIDAE, MAMMALIA) FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF THERMOPIGI (SERRES, N.GREECE), AND THE RELATIONSHIPS  

E-print Network

1 A SKULL OF ANCYLOTHERIUM (CHALICOTHERIIDAE, MAMMALIA) FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF THERMOPIGI (SERRES has yielded a well- preserved skull of Ancylotherium pentelicum, among a rich collection of late Miocene mammals. It is the most complete Ancylotherium skull ever reported, and lack of crushing makes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

129

Diverse Interleukin-7 mRNA Transcripts in Chinese Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis)  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-7 (IL7) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is actively involved in the immune system. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. However, there is a lack of biological knowledge about the immune system of the tree shrew. In this study, we cloned the IL7 gene (tIL7) in the Chinese tree shrew and quantified the expression of mRNA transcripts in eight tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, intestine, skeletal muscle and brain) from 20 individuals. Eleven tIL7 mRNA transcripts were identified in different tissues. The canonical form (tIL7c) had a length of 1817 bp and encoded a predicted gene product with 177 amino acids. Phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences revealed a considerably large genetic difference between tree shrew and human. Quantification of mRNA expression of transcripts tIL7c, tIL7-sv1, tIL7-sv2 and tIL7-sv3 showed that these transcripts were expressed in all tissues, albeit the expression levels varied in different tissues. Transcripts tIL7c, tIL7-sv1, and tIL7-sv2 had the lowest expression in brain, and tIL7-sv3 had a dramatically high mRNA expression in skeletal muscle and heart. The mRNA expression levels of tIL7c and tIL7-sv1 were significantly increased upon ploy(I:C) stimulation in tree shrew primary renal cells. As with human full-length IL7, tIL7c, tIL7-sv1, tIL7-sv2 and tIL7-sv3 showed similar a subcellular localization pattern. Our results identified diverse tIL7 transcripts in the Chinese tree shrew, which may play a potential role in modulating IL7-regulated biological effects. PMID:24945249

Yu, Dandan; Xu, Ling; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Fan, Yu; Lü, Long-Bao; Yao, Yong-Gang

2014-01-01

130

scanning electron microscopy of lingual papillae in the common shrew, Sorex araneus, L.  

PubMed

The dorsal surface of the tongue of the adult common shrew (Sorex araneus L.) was examined by scanning electron microscopy. As in the other insectivores, three types of lingual papillae were observed: filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae. The filiform papillae represented the most numerous type of lingual papillae. The characteristic feature of the filiform papillae, covering the apex and corpus of the tongue, is the two processes tilted to the root of the tongue. The filiform papillae on the lingual apex are reduced in size and structure. Five to six fungiform papillae are placed symmetrically along the left and right border of the corpus of the tongue. Two large oval vallate papillae are located on the radix of the tongue. The posterior surface of the tongue in common shrew is covered with a smooth mucosa with the openings of the serous glands. PMID:15352882

Jackowiak, H; Godynicki, S; Jaroszewska, M; Wilczy?ska, B

2004-10-01

131

Risk-sensitive foraging behaviour of the round-eared elephant shrew ( Macroscelides proboscideus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the risk-sensitive foraging behaviour of the round-eared elephant shrew by open-economy choice experiments, in which animals were deprived of food immediately prior to experiments but given food ad libitum afterwards, to test the energy budget rule. The energy budget rule states that if an animal's (daily) energy budget is negative it should behave in a risk-prone manner. A

M. J. Lawes; M. R. Perrin

1995-01-01

132

Kisspeptin neurons mediate reflex ovulation in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus)  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated whether kisspeptin–G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) signaling plays a role in mediating mating-induced ovulation in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus), a reflex ovulator. For this purpose, we cloned suncus Kiss1 and Gpr54 cDNA from the hypothalamus and found that suncus kisspeptin (sKp) consists of 29 amino acid residues (sKp-29). Injection of exogenous sKp-29 mimicked the mating stimulus to induce follicular maturation and ovulation. Administration of several kisspeptins and GPR54 agonists also induced presumed ovulation in a dose-dependent manner, and Gpr54 mRNA was distributed in the hypothalamus, showing that kisspeptins induce ovulation through binding to GPR54. The sKp-29–induced ovulation was blocked completely by pretreatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, suggesting that kisspeptin activates GnRH neurons to induce ovulation in the musk shrew. In addition, in situ hybridization revealed that Kiss1-expressing cells are located in the medial preoptic area (POA) and arcuate nucleus in the musk shrew hypothalamus. The number of Kiss1-expressing cells in the POA or arcuate nucleus was up-regulated or down-regulated by estradiol, suggesting that kisspeptin neurons in these regions were the targets of the estrogen feedback action. Finally, mating stimulus largely induced c-Fos expression in Kiss1-positive cells in the POA, indicating that the mating stimulus activates POA kisspeptin neurons to induce ovulation. Taken together, these results indicate that kisspeptin–GPR54 signaling plays a role in the induction of ovulation in the musk shrew, a reflex ovulator, as it does in spontaneous ovulators. PMID:21987818

Inoue, Naoko; Sasagawa, Karin; Ikai, Kotaro; Sasaki, Yuki; Tomikawa, Junko; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Ohmori, Yasushige; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Hondo, Eiichi; Maeda, Kei-ichiro; Tsukamura, Hiroko

2011-01-01

133

High density lipoproteins and prevention of experimental atherosclerosis with special reference to tree shrews.  

PubMed

According to data obtained from epidemiological and experimental survey, serum HDL level is known to be correlated conversely with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Experimental data collected in this article explained part of its mechanism, which is described in four parts as follows: 1. The result of 3 successive experiments on experimental atherosclerosis in tree shrews (total of 96 animals available including 40 as the controls) showed that the serum HDL level had been kept persistantly to 69-88% of the total serum lipoproteins even after a high cholesterol intake for 32 weeks. The incidence of atheromatous lesions developed was only 0-9%, but the incidence of gall stone was very high, 48-84% by gross examination by the end of these experiments. 2. HDL are also capable of (1) promotion of monocyte migration activity; (2) enhancement of cholesterol clearance rate of aortic smooth muscle cells originally isolated from either rabbits or tree shrews; (3) inhibition of 20% of LDL degradation but with no inhibitory effect obtained on Ac-LDL degradation in the endothelial cells; (4) presence of specific binding sites for apo E free HDL on the surface of aortic smooth muscle cells from either rabbits or tree shrews which recognizes apo A1 as a ligand. 3. Data from 2 successive experiments in rabbits showed that HDL lipoproteins (mainly apo A1) possess an inhibitory effect on the development of atheromatous plaques, but not a very strong one. 4. The colesterol clearance effect of smooth muscle cells was markedly enhanced by apo A1/phospholipid liposomes (the apo A1 used was isolated from either rabbit's or tree shrew's serum) in vitro. PMID:2123379

She, M P; Xia, R Y; Ran, B F; Wong, Z L

1990-01-01

134

The XYY condition in a wild mammal: an XY\\/XYY mosaic common shrew (Sorex araneus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

XY\\/XYY sex-chromosome mosaicism was demonstrated in both bone marrow and germ cells of a wild adult common shrew. Secondary sexual characteristics were those of a normal male, but the testes were small, and the sperm count was only about 3% of normal. Most of the seminiferous tubule cross-sections examined revealed serious spermatogenic impairment and a reduced diameter. A range of

J. B. Searle; P. J. Wilkinson

1986-01-01

135

Field metabolic rate in two species of shrew-tenrec, Microgale dobsoni and M. talazaci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doubly labelled water (DLW) was used to determine field metabolic rate (FMR) in the shrew-tenrecs Microgale dobsoni and M. talazaci. Measures were obtained on six animals in their natural habitat and on five individuals in captivity. Mean FMR for nonreproducing M. dobsoni (mean body mass 42.6 ± 1.7 g) was 77.1 ± 3.2 kJ\\/d (CV = 53.7%, N = 4),

P. J. Stephenson; J. R. Speakman; P. A. Racey

1994-01-01

136

Effect of cannabinoids on lithium-induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleMarijuana has been reported to interfere with nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients. The principal cannabinoids found in marijuana include the psychoactive compound ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive compound cannabidiol (CBD). The experiments reported here evaluated the potential of THC and CBD to interfere with vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew) produced by lithium chloride (LiCl), which is

Linda A. Parker; Magdalena Kwiatkowska; Page Burton; Raphael Mechoulam

2004-01-01

137

Cardiac musculature of the cranial vena cava in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).  

PubMed Central

Cardiac musculature of the cranial vena cava in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The common tree shrew has well developed cardiac myocyte layers in the tunica media of the cranial vena cava, extending from the right atrium to the root of the subclavian vein. Because the common tree shrew belongs to a primitive group of mammals, the occurrence of cardiac musculature in the cranial vena cava may be a common feature in lower mammals. The development of this musculature indicates that active contraction of the cranial vena cava wall occurs in this species. Electron micrographs showed the typical ultrastructure of myocytes and nerve endings. These observations suggest that this musculature may serve as a regulatory pump for the return of venous blood to the right atrium and as a blood reservoir system under conditions of rapid heart rate. Additionally, the presence of atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) was also demonstrated in the myocytes of the vena cava immunohistochemically. These findings show that the cardiac endocrine organ for ANP develops even in the principal veins including the cranial vena cava. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7591997

Endo, H; Maeda, S; Kimura, J; Yamada, J; Rerkamnuaychoke, W; Chungsamarnyart, N; Tanigawa, M; Kurohmaru, M; Hayashi, Y; Nishida, T

1995-01-01

138

Associative memory or algorithmic search: a comparative study on learning strategies of bats and shrews.  

PubMed

Two common strategies for successful foraging are learning to associate specific sensory cues with patches of prey ("associative learning") and using set decision-making rules to systematically scan for prey ("algorithmic search"). We investigated whether an animal's life history affects which of these two foraging strategies it is likely to use. Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) have slow life-history traits and we predicted they would be more likely to use associative learning. Common shrews (Sorex araneus) have fast life-history traits and we predicted that they would rely more heavily on routine-based search. Apart from their marked differences in life-history traits, these two mammals are similar in body size, brain weight, habitat, and diet. We assessed foraging strategy, associative learning ability, and retention time with a four-arm maze; one arm contained a food reward and was marked with four sensory stimuli. Bats and shrews differed significantly in their foraging strategies. Most bats learned to associate the sensory stimuli with the reward and remembered this association over time. Most shrews searched the maze using consistent decision-making rules, but did not learn or remember the association. We discuss these results in terms of life-history traits and other key differences between these species. Our results suggest a link between an animal's life-history strategy and its use of associative learning. PMID:22391618

Page, Rachel A; von Merten, Sophie; Siemers, Björn M

2012-07-01

139

Distribution of lectin binding in the testes of the musk shrew, Suncus murinus.  

PubMed Central

Distribution of lectin binding in the testis of the musk shrew, Suncus murinus, was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Not only spermatogenic cells but also Sertoli cells bound some lectins. Canavalia ensiformis agglutinin (Con A) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, Triticum vulgaris), indicating the presence of D-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine respectively, showed an intense reaction in the acrosomal region of early to late spermatids. Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA, Arachis hypogaea), Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin (BPA), soybean agglutinin (SBA, Glycine max), revealing the presence of D-galactose and/or N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, bound to the acrosomal region from Golgi to acrosome-phase spermatids and abruptly decreased in intensity in maturation-phase spermatids. GS-II, indicating the presence of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, gave an intense reaction only in the acrosome of acrosome-phase spermatids. These findings demonstrate that the appearance/disappearance of some glycoconjugates in the spermatid acrosome occurs in the musk shrew during acrosomal formation. Additionally, RCA-I, PNA and BPA revealed a strong reaction in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells. The reaction that was observed in the intramembranous region of Sertoli cell cytoplasm at the electron microscope level appeared from stages VIII to XIII but not from stages I to VII. This finding suggests that glycoconjugates containing D-galactose may change stage-dependently in the musk shrew Sertoli cell. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7591995

Kurohmaru, M; Kobayashi, H; Kanai, Y; Hattori, S; Nishida, T; Hayashi, Y

1995-01-01

140

Daily metabolic patterns of short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes  

SciTech Connect

An automatic, continuous-flow gas analysis system was used to determine daily metabolic patterns of individual short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes in eastern Tennessee. Average daily metabolic rates (ADMR) were lowest in the summer (0.426 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/), approximately doubled under winter conditions (0.810 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) but were the highest under fall conditions (1.110 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) possibly due to incomplete acclimatization of the shrews. The shape of the daily metabolic pattern for Blarina does not change seasonally; however, summer metabolic rates are the least variable and are lower than most values previously reported in the literature. Polynomial multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative influence of body mass, ambient temperature, and time of day on metabolic rates; only ambient temperature was significant in predicting metabolic rates of this shrew. Average daily metabolic rates of Blarina observed under summer and winter conditions further substantiate the general predictive equations of metabolic rates formulated for small mammals by French et al. (1976). Comparisons of metabolic patterns of Blarina with those of Peromyscus leucopus observed under nearly identical conditions indicate similar rates with strong seasonal influences.

Randolph, J.C.

1980-01-01

141

Pulmonary appendix of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina): a unique immunologic organ.  

PubMed

The right bronchus of the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda, terminates in a nonrespiratory pulmonary appendix (PA) containing two bronchial extensions. The experimentally demonstrated ability of these structures to collect and peristaltically expel aspirated material was initially assumed to be a sufficient reason for their developmental persistence, but as bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) became a subject of immunologic interest in other species, a possible immunologic role for the concentrations of BALT observed in the shrew PA were investigated. As the BALT of the PA contained many well-differentiated plasma cells and numerous particle-containing macrophages, 6-mu paraffin sections were treated with an immunoperoxidase avidin-biotin preparation that chromogenically identified alpha chains of IgA in many of the PA plasma cells and their associated luminal secretions. Also, vascular injections revealed that the PA had a complex relationship with anastomotic sinusoids connecting the bronchial and pulmonary circulation systems, and scanning electron microscopy showed that the luminal epithelial surfaces of the PA were virtually identical to the scattered BALT aggregates in the bronchi of other animals. It thus appeared that these unique structures in the shrew are morphologically and topographically suited to receive aspirated antigens that induce secretory IgA production, while possibly providing other humoral and cellular immunologic products to the general circulation. PMID:11870601

Parke, Wesley Wilkin

2002-03-01

142

Cardiac ultrastructure and electrocardiogram of the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda.  

PubMed

The smaller species of shrews have been of considerable interest to scientists because of their high rate of metabolism, structure-functional and behavioral adaptations to support their energy demands. The present data are the first detailed cardiac ultrastructural findings and electrocardiographic (ECG) data of adult and immature small short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda. The heart is morphologically elongated and heart rates in excess of 900 b/min were observed, but ECG components and pattern are non-distinctive for this species. Ultrastructurally, the sarcomeres, tubular and sarcotubular systems and Purkinje cells resemble closely those observed in larger, less active mammals. Several distinctive features resembling those seen in some other shrews or hummingbirds exist, including reduced quantities of myocyte glycogen, irregularly shaped and tightly packed mitochondria, increased neural and vascular elements in the myocardium, and small size and unusual dispersion of atrial specific granules. These morphologic findings suggest that the remarkable physiologic performance of the heart of Blarina brevicauda is supported by a combination of macroscopic, histologic and cellular adaptations. PMID:8269404

Pfeiffer, C J; Keith, J C

1993-10-01

143

Mechanisms underlying the failure of an attempt to eradicate the invasive Asian musk shrew Suncus murinus from an island nature reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian musk shrew Suncus murinus is an invasive predator that has had a considerable impact on biodiversity. An eradication was attempted from Ile aux Aigrettes, a 25-ha island reserve off the coast of Mauritius as part of a wider restoration program. A total of 759 shrews were removed using up to 1112 live-traps, in six trapping sweeps of the

Adrian Seymour; Karen Varnham; Sugoto Roy; Stephen Harris; Lucy Bhageerutty; Stuart Church; Alex Harris; Nancy V. Jennings; Carl Jones; Ashok Khadun; John Mauremootoo; Tabetha Newman; Vikash Tatayah; Charlotte Webbon; Gavin Wilson

2005-01-01

144

Complete genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea.  

PubMed

Elucidation of the molecular phylogeny of shrew-borne hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the lack of full-length viral genomes. In this report, we present the complete genome analysis of a newfound hantavirus, designated Bowé virus, detected in ethanol-fixed intercostal muscle of a Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti), captured in southwestern Guinea in February 2012. Full-length amino acid sequence comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment gene products revealed that Bowé virus differed by 24.1-53.4%, 17.0-59.9% and 14.6-39.7%, respectively, from all other representative rodent-, shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+? model of evolution, showed that Bowé virus shared a common ancestry with Tanganya virus, a hantavirus detected in the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae) in Guinea. Whole genome analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are needed to better clarify how the radiation of African shrews might have contributed to the phylogeography of hantaviruses. PMID:23994121

Gu, Se Hun; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Yanagihara, Richard

2013-12-01

145

Dental and Mandibular Morphologies of Arboroharamiya (Haramiyida, Mammalia): A Comparison with Other Haramiyidans and Megaconus and Implications for Mammalian Evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Two recent studies published in the same issue of Nature reached conflicting conclusions regarding the phylogeny of early mammals: One places the clade containing haramiyidans and multituberculates within the Mammalia and the other separates haramiyidans from multituberculates and places the former outside of the Mammalia. These two contrasting results require that the minimally oldest divergence time of the Mammalia was within the Late Triassic or the Middle Jurassic, respectively. Morphological descriptions of the species named in the two papers were brief, and no comparisons between the newly named species were possible. Principal Findings Here we present a detailed description of the dentary bone, teeth, occlusal and wear patterns of the haramiyidan Arboroharamiya and compare it with other haramiyidans and Megaconus. Using this new information, we suggest that tooth identifications and orientations of several previously described haramiyidan species are incorrect, and that previous interpretations of haramiyidan occlusal pattern are problematic. We propose that the published upper tooth orientation of Megaconus was problematic and question the number of upper molars, the length of dentition and mandible, and presence of the mandibular middle ear in Megaconus. Conclusions The additional morphological descriptions and comparisons presented here further support the view that Arboroharamiya, as a derived haramiyidan, shows similarity to multituberculates in tooth and mandible morphologies. Our comparison also suggests that Megaconus lacks many diagnostic features for the family Eleutherodontidae and that its close affinity with multituberculates cannot be ruled out. The detailed morphological data demonstrate that haramiyidans are more similar to multituberculates than to any other mammaliaforms. PMID:25494181

Meng, Jin; Bi, Shundong; Wang, Yuanqing; Zheng, Xiaoting; Wang, Xiaoli

2014-01-01

146

Musk shrews selectively bred for motion sickness display increased anesthesia-induced vomiting.  

PubMed

Susceptibility to motion sickness is a predictor of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and studies in humans suggest that genetic factors determine sensitivity to motion sickness. The aim of the current study was to determine if a preclinical model could be selectively bred for motion-induced emesis and to assess a potential relationship to anesthesia-induced emesis. Musk shrews were tested for motion-induced emesis using a shaker plate (10min, 1Hz, and 4cm of lateral displacement). Animals were rank ordered for motion-induced emesis and selectively bred to produce high and low response strains. Shrews were also tested with nicotine (5mg/kg, sc), copper sulfate (CuSO4; 120mg/kg, ig), and isoflurane anesthesia (10min; 3%) to measure responses to a panel of emetic stimuli. High response strain shrews demonstrated significantly more emetic episodes to motion exposure compared to low response strain animals in the F1 and F2 generations. In F2 animals, there were no significant differences in total emetic responses or emetic latency between strains after nicotine injection or CuSO4 gavage. However, isoflurane exposure stimulated more emesis in F1 and F2 high versus low strain animals, which suggests a relationship between vestibular- and inhalational anesthesia-induced emesis. Overall, these results indicate genetic determinants of motion sickness in a preclinical model and a potential common mechanism for motion sickness and inhalational anesthesia-induced emesis. Future work may include genetic mapping of potential "emetic sensitivity genes" to develop novel therapies or diagnostics for patients with high risk of nausea and vomiting. PMID:24239993

Horn, Charles C; Meyers, Kelly; Oberlies, Nicholas

2014-01-30

147

Effect of PAHs on MFO induction in common shrews (Crocidura russula)  

SciTech Connect

PAHs are widespread environmental contaminants. Despite the relatively high turnover rates for enzymatic breakdown, PAHs have been detected in tissues from species at various trophic levels. As a consequence they have the potential to be passed on to the higher levels of the foodchain. As a model for the primary carnivores in the terrestrial foodchain the common shrew (Crocidura russula) is studied in the laboratories. The authors investigated the effect of exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in relation to the effect of a known strong inducer of the MFO system i.e. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The compounds were dissolved in oil and mixed with food. Shrews were exposed for a period of one week to BaP at concentrations equivalent to 10 or 100 mg/kg bodyweight per day (n = 3 for each dose group) and to TCDD at a concentration equivalent to 10 {micro}g/kg per day (n = 5). Controls received a diet with only the carier (oil) added. At termination of the experiment, hepatic CYP1A1 associated EROD activity was induced 20% in both the low and high dosed BaP group. In the TCDD exposed shrews EROD was induced up to 776% compared to the controls. Related MFO activities, including PROD, BROD, MROD and site specific testosterone hydroxylation are under investigation and the results will be presented. The relevance of MFO induction by PAHs and the use of these parameters as biomarkers for PAH exposure will be discussed.

Bosveld, A.T.C.; Bie, P. de; Weggemans, J. [Inst. for Forestry and Nature Research, Wageningen (Netherlands); Murk, A. [Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Toxicology

1995-12-31

148

Post-anesthesia vomiting: Impact of isoflurane and morphine on ferrets and musk shrews  

PubMed Central

Although partially controlled with antiemetic drugs, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) continues to be a problem for many patients. Clinical research suggests that opioid analgesics and volatile anesthetics are the main triggers of PONV. The aim of this study was to develop an animal model for post-anesthesia vomiting for future studies to further determine mechanisms and preclinical drug efficacy. Ferrets (N=34) were initially used because they have served as a gold standard for emesis research. Ferrets were tested with several doses of morphine, inhaled isoflurane, and a positive control injection of cisplatin (a chemotherapy agent) to induce emesis. Musk shrews (a small animal model; N=36) were also tested for emesis with isoflurane exposure. A control injection of cisplatin produced emesis in ferrets (ip, 129.8±22.0 retches; 13.7±2.3 vomits; mean ± SEM). Morphine produced a dose-response on emesis in ferrets, with maximal responses at 0.9 mg/kg (sc, 29.6±12.6 retches; 1.8±0.9, vomits). Isoflurane exposure (2–4% for 10 min to 6 h exposure) failed to induce vomiting, was not associated with an increased frequency in emesis when combined with a low dose of morphine (0.1 mg/kg, sc), and failed to produced consistent effects on food and water intake. In contrast to ferrets, musk shrews were very sensitive to isoflurane-induced emesis (0.5 to 3%, 10 min exposure; up to 11.8±2.4 emetic episodes). Overall, these results indicate that ferrets will not be useful for delineating mechanisms responsible for isoflurane-induced emesis; however, musk shrews may prove to be a model for vomiting after inhalation of volatile agents. PMID:22504494

Horn, Charles C.; Meyers, Kelly; Pak, Diana; Nagy, Allysa; Apfel, Christian C.; Williams, Brian A.

2012-01-01

149

Refractive State of Tree Shrew Eyes Measured with Cortical Visual Evoked Potentials  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the refractive state of tree shrew eyes using visual evoked potentials (VEP's) recorded from primary visual cortex and compare the values with those obtained with streak retinoscopy and with an autorefractor. Methods VEP's were recorded in seven normal tree shrews and three animals in which ?5 D of myopia (relative to control eye) was induced by monocular ?5 D lens wear. While the animals were awake, refractive correction was measured with an autorefractor before and after cycloplegia (1% atropine and 2.5% phenylepherine). When anesthetized, cycloplegic refractive correction was measured with streak retinoscopy. Then VEP's were produced with square-wave counterphased (1 Hz) high-contrast checkerboard patterns near the animals' high spatial frequency cutoff. Spherical lenses (2 D steps) were placed before the eye, and the VEP (average of 128 sweeps) was measured to determine the lens that produced the largest first positive peak (P1). Results VEP's were obtained over a broad range of trial lenses. Tuning was narrower when check sizes were small. In normal and control eyes, the P1 amplitude was largest, on average, for a trial lens of (mean ± SD) ?0.6 ± 1.6 D (corrected for working distance but not vertex distance). The mean streak retinoscopy value (spherical equivalent at the corneal plane) was 7.0 ± 0.8 D, and mean autorefractor values were 4.0 ± 1.1 D (cycloplegic) and 3.7 ± 1.2 D (noncycloplegic). In the eyes that compensated for a ?5 D lens, the largest P1 values occurred with lenses with a power of ?6.3 ± 3.2 D. Thus, the VEP measure showed a similar treated vs. control eye difference as did streak retinoscopy (treated eyes, 4.7 ± 0.4 D myopic) and the autorefractor (treated eyes, 4.8 ± 0.5 D myopic). Conclusions Normal tree shrew eyes are approximately emmetropic. The hyperopic values obtained with streak retinoscopy and the autorefractor are consistent with the presence of a “small-eye artifact” in tree shrews. Eyes that have compensated for a ?5 D lens are myopic by approximately the value of the lens. PMID:14502042

NORTON, THOMAS T.; WU, WENDE W.; SIEGWART, JOHN T.

2007-01-01

150

Chronic psychosocial stress alters NPY system: Different effects in rat and tree shrew E. Zambello a,b,  

E-print Network

regulating the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression and in the stress-related behaviours. Although NPY), environmental stress plays an important role in the etiology of anxiety and depression, which are linkedChronic psychosocial stress alters NPY system: Different effects in rat and tree shrew E. Zambello

151

Trap geometry in three giant montane pitcher plant species from Borneo is a function of tree shrew body size.  

PubMed

*Three Bornean pitcher plant species, Nepenthes lowii, N. rajah and N. macrophylla, produce modified pitchers that 'capture' tree shrew faeces for nutritional benefit. Tree shrews (Tupaia montana) feed on exudates produced by glands on the inner surfaces of the pitcher lids and defecate into the pitchers. *Here, we tested the hypothesis that pitcher geometry in these species is related to tree shrew body size by comparing the pitcher characteristics with those of five other 'typical' (arthropod-trapping) Nepenthes species. *We found that only pitchers with large orifices and lids that are concave, elongated and oriented approximately at right angles to the orifice capture faeces. The distance from the tree shrews' food source (that is, the lid nectar glands) to the front of the pitcher orifice precisely matches the head plus body length of T. montana in the faeces-trapping species, and is a function of orifice size and the angle of lid reflexion. *Substantial changes to nutrient acquisition strategies in carnivorous plants may occur through simple modifications to trap geometry. This extraordinary plant-animal interaction adds to a growing body of evidence that Nepenthes represents a candidate model for adaptive radiation with regard to nitrogen sequestration strategies. PMID:20100203

Chin, Lijin; Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles

2010-04-01

152

Structure of the Ovaries of the Nimba Otter Shrew, Micropotamogale lamottei, and the Madagascar Hedgehog Tenrec, Echinops telfairi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The otter shrews are members of the subfamily Potamogalinae within the family Tenrecidae. No description of the ovaries of any member of this subfamily has been published previously. The lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, is a member of the subfamily Tenrecinae of the same family and, although its ovaries have not been described, other members of this subfamily have been

A. C. Enders; A. M. Carter; H. Künzle; P. Vogel

2005-01-01

153

Short-term response of shrews to prescribed fire and mechanical fuel reduction in a Southern Appalachian upland hardwood forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the multidisciplinary National Fire and Fire Surrogate study, we used drift fences with pitfall traps from May to September 2003 and 2004 to determine how three fuel reduction techniques affected shrews in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Ground-dwelling macroarthropods also were collected from a subset of pitfall traps to assess relative prey availability among the

Cathryn H. Greenberg; Stanlee Miller; Thomas A. Waldrop

2007-01-01

154

Ultrastructural Examination of Diffuse and Specific Tectopulvinar Projections in the Tree Shrew  

PubMed Central

Two pathways from the superior colliculus (SC) to the tree shrew pulvinar nucleus have been described, one in which the axons terminate in dense (or specific) patches and one in which the axon arbors are more diffusely organized (Luppino et al. [1988] J. Comp. Neurol. 273:67– 86). As predicted by Lyon et al. ([2003] J. Comp. Neurol. 467:593– 606), we found that anterograde labeling of the diffuse tectopulvinar pathway terminated in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-rich dorsal pulvinar (Pd), whereas the specific pathway terminated in the AChE-poor central pulvinar (Pc). Injections of retrograde tracers in Pd labeled non-?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic wide-field vertical cells located in the lower stratum griseum superficiale and stratum opticum of the medial SC, whereas injections in Pc labeled similar cells in more lateral regions. At the ultrastructural level, we found that tectopulvinar terminals in both Pd and Pc contact primarily non-GABAergic dendrites. When present, however, synaptic contacts on GABAergic profiles were observed more frequently in Pc (31% of all contacts) compared with Pd (16%). Terminals stained for the type 2 vesicular glutamate transporter, a potential marker of tectopulvinar terminals, also contacted more GABAergic profiles in Pc (19%) compared with Pd (4%). These results provide strong evidence for the division of the tree shrew pulvinar into two distinct tectorecipient zones. The potential functions of these pathways are discussed. J. Comp. Neurol. 510:24 – 46, 2008. PMID:18615501

CHOMSUNG, RANIDA D.; PETRY, HEYWOOD M.; BICKFORD, MARTHA E.

2008-01-01

155

Anatomy and function of the reproductive tract in the captive male tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri).  

PubMed

The reproductive anatomy of the male tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) was examined and compared with other Tupaiidae. The testes are located prepenially in a pigmented scrotum which is fused to the base of a pendulous penis. The terminal portion of the vas deferens is differentiated into an ampullary gland and joins the duct of the seminal vesicle to form a short ejaculatory duct. The prostate is a compact bilateral body drained by a main collecting duct. In the aggregate, these features indicate that the reproductive system in Tupaia is primate in character. Testicular function in tree shrews is affected by both social and seasonal factors. When males were housed communally, the majority exhibited testicular degeneration accompanied by a loss in the weight and fructose content of the seminal vesicles and in pigmentation of the scrotum. These changes may be due to the presence of dominant conspecifics since animals kept in isolation undergo normal sexual development. Animals captured throughout the year and isolated show seasonal fluctuations in androgenic and spermatogenic function. Reproductive capacity is maximal during the winter and minimal during the summer. Local environmental factors appear to regulate reproductive function so that the greatest number of births occur during the dry season. PMID:7066453

Collins, P M; Tsang, W N; Lofts, B

1982-02-01

156

Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)  

PubMed Central

The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews. PMID:23124770

Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

2012-01-01

157

Ablation of Least Shrew Central Neurokinin NK1 Receptors Reduces GR73632-Induced Vomiting  

PubMed Central

The neurocircuitry mediating the emetic reflex is still incompletely understood, and a key question is the degree to which central and/or peripheral components contribute to the overall vomiting mechanism. Having previously found a significant peripheral component in neurokinin NK1-receptor mediated emesis, we undertook this study to examine the putative central component. Adult least shrews were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with saline or the blood-brain barrier impermeable toxin, Stable Substance P-saporin (SSP-SAP), which ablates cells expressing NK1 receptors. After three days, shrews were challenged intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the emetogenic NK1 agonist GR73632 at different doses and vomiting and scratching behaviors quantified. Ablation of NK1-bearing cells was verified immunohistochemically. Although SSP-SAP injection reduced emesis at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg GR73632 doses, no injections completely eliminated emesis. These data demonstrate that there is a major central nervous system component, and minor peripheral nervous system component, to tachykinin-mediated vomiting. Side effects of the current generation of antiemetics could potentially be reduced by improving bioavailability of the drugs in the more potent central nervous system compartment while reducing bioavailability in the less potent peripheral compartment. PMID:19485577

Ray, Andrew P; Chebolu, Seetha; Ramirez, Juan; Darmani, Nissar A

2009-01-01

158

Demography of short-tailed shrew populations living on polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated sites.  

PubMed

In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River (MA, USA) on soils contaminated with a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (1.5-38.3 ppm). The objective of the study was to assess whether PCBs adversely affect the population demography of these small mammals living in their natural environment. Blarina were selected for study because they would be expected to readily bioaccumulate PCBs from the soil. Populations were intensively live trapped on 1-ha grids from spring to autumn 2001. There was no relationship between any demographic parameter and PCB soil concentrations. Densities were high (usually exceeding 20/ha, and on two grids exceeded 60/ha in summer); survival was good (typically 60-75% per 30 d); and sex ratio, reproduction rates, growth rates, and body mass were within the ranges reported in the literature. Thus, these shrew populations showed no detectable impact on their population demography from living on PCB-contaminated sites. PMID:12785599

Boonstra, Rudy; Bowman, Lanna

2003-06-01

159

Vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 1-14 December 15, 2008 NEW PRIMATES (MAMMALIA) FROM THE EARLY AND MIDDLE EOCENE OF  

E-print Network

Vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 1-14 December 15, 2008 NEW PRIMATES (MAMMALIA) FROM THE EARLY AND MIDDLE EOCENE Eocene primates, including three new adapiforms and one new omomyiform, are described from the Ghazij and Kuldana formations of northwestern Pakistan. These are among the oldest primates known from the Indo

Licciardi, Joseph M.

160

A skull of Machairodus giganteus (Felidae, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Turkey Denis GERAADS -UPR 2147 CNRS, 44 rue de l'Amiral Mouchez, 75014 PARIS, France  

E-print Network

A skull of Machairodus giganteus (Felidae, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Turkey Denis GERAADS, Late Miocene, Turkey, phylogeny, cladistics. Abstract: A skull and associated mandible from the upper) is a fragment of skull with incomplete mandible, that BONIS referred to Machairodus aphanistus, but the genus

Boyer, Edmond

161

A new species of three-toed sloth (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from PanamB, with a review of the genus Bradypus  

E-print Network

A new species of three-toed sloth (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from PanamB, with a review of the genus analyses of three-toed sloths (Bradypus) from the islands of Bocas del Toro reveal rapid differentiation independent events, sloths on five of the islands evolved smaller size following insulari- zation. Sloths

Anderson, Robert P.

162

Dietary competition between the alien Asian Musk Shrew (Suncus murinus) and a re-introduced population of Telfair's Skink (Leiolopisma telfairii).  

PubMed

Re-introduction of rare species to parts of their historical range is becoming increasingly important as a conservation strategy. Telfair's Skinks (Leiolopisma telfairii), once widespread on Mauritius, were until recently found only on Round Island. There it is vulnerable to stochastic events, including the introduction of alien predators that may either prey upon it or compete for food resources. Consequently, skinks have been introduced to Ile aux Aigrettes, another small Mauritian island that has been cleared of rats. However, the island has been invaded by Asian Musk Shrews (Suncus murinus), a commensal species spread by man well beyond its natural Asian range. Our aim was to use next-generation sequencing to analyse the diets of the shrews and skinks to look for niche competition. DNA was extracted from skink faeces and from the stomach contents of shrews. Application of shrew- and skink-specific primers revealed no mutual predation. The DNA was then amplified using general invertebrate primers with tags to identify individual predators, and then sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. 119 prey MOTUs (molecular taxonomic units) were isolated, although none could be identified to species. Seeding of cladograms with known sequences allowed higher taxonomic assignments in some cases. Although most MOTUs were not shared by shrews and skinks, Pianka's niche overlap test showed significant prey overlap, suggesting potentially strong competition where food resources are limited. These results suggest that removal of the shrews from the island should remain a priority. PMID:24033506

Brown, D S; Burger, R; Cole, N; Vencatasamy, D; Clare, E L; Montazam, A; Symondson, W O C

2014-08-01

163

Preliminary data on the biodiversity of rodents and insectivores (Mammalia) in the periphery of Kisangani (D. R. Congo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the species diversity of rodents and insectivores s.l. as observed in the forests around Kisangani (D.R. Congo) between 1979 and 2003. 7736 specimens were collected using Victor snap traps, Sherman live traps and pitfalls. In total, 49 small mammals species (36 rodents and 18 shrews) were identified of which 42 were actually captured and 7 more were

I. Mukinzi; P. G. B. Katuala; J. Kennis; M. Gambalemoke; N. Kadange; A. M. Dudu

2005-01-01

164

Molecular Evidence for the Monophyly of Tenrecidae (Mammalia) and the Timing of the Colonization of Madagascar by Malagasy Tenrecs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tenrecs are a diverse family of insectivores, with an Afro-Malagasian biogeographic distribution. Three subfamilies (Geogalinae, Oryzorictinae, Tenrecinae) are restricted to Madagascar and one subfamily, the otter shrews (Potamogalinae), occurs on the mainland. Morphological studies have generated conflicting hypotheses according to which both tenrecids and Malagassy tenrecs are either monophyletic or paraphyletic. Competing hypotheses have different implications for the biogeographic history

Christophe J. Douady; Francois Catzeflis; Diana J. Kao; Mark S. Springer; Michael J. Stanhope

2002-01-01

165

Effect of land cover, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Because effects of habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbance on native animals have been relatively little studied in arid areas and in insectivores, we investigated the roles of different land covers, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, in southern California. 2. Notiosorex crawfordi was the numerically dominant species (trap-success rate 0.52) occurring in 21 of the 22 study sites in 85% of the 286 pitfall arrays used in this study. Sorex ornatus was captured in 14 of the sites, in 52% of the arrays with a total trap-success rate of 0.2. Neither of the species was found in one of the sites. 3. The population dynamics of the two shrew species were relatively synchronous during the 4-5-year study; the peak densities usually occurred during the spring. Precipitation had a significant positive effect, and maximum temperature a significant negative effect on the trap-success rate of S. ornatus. 4. Occurrence and abundance of shrews varied significantly between sites and years but the size of the landscape or the study site had no effect on the abundance of shrews. The amount of urban edge had no significant effect on the captures of shrews but increased edge allows invasion of the Argentine ants, which had a highly significant negative impact on the abundance of N. crawfordi. 5. At the trap array level, the percentage of coastal sage scrub flora had a significant positive, and the percentage of other flora had a significant negative effect on the abundance of N. crawfordi. The mean canopy height and the abundance of N. crawfordi had a significant positive effect on the occurrence of S. ornatus. 6. Our study suggests that the loss of native coastal sage scrub flora and increasing presence of Argentine ant colonies may significantly effect the distribution and abundance of N. crawfordi. The very low overall population densities of both shrew species in most study sites make both species susceptible to extinction in isolated habitat fragments due to environmental stochasticity, and anthropogenic disturbance.

Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

2001-01-01

166

A new Ixodes species (Acari: Ixodidae), parasite of shrew tenrecs (Afrosoricida: Tenrecidae) in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Abstract :? A new tick species belonging to the African subgenus Afrixodes Morel, 1966 of the genus Ixodes Latreille, 1795, namely, Ixodes (Afrixodes) microgalei n. sp., is described. Females of this species are most similar to those of Ixodes colasbelcouri Arthur, 1957 and Ixodes nesomys Uilenberg & Hoogstraal, 1969. The female of the new species can easily be differentiated from I. colasbelcouri by a short spur on coxae IV, and from I. nesomys by longer spurs on coxae I and large punctations on its scutum. Ixodes microgalei is known only from the eastern humid forest of Madagascar, specifically in the Province of Antananarivo, where its females have been collected from several species of shrew tenrecs (Afrosoricida, Tenrecidae), namely, Microgale dobsoni Thomas, Microgale parvula Grandidier, and Microgale soricoides Jenkins. PMID:23901784

Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Goodman, Steven M

2013-12-01

167

Redescription of Pterygodermatites (Mesopectines) nycticebi (Mönnig, 1920) (Nematoda: Rictulariidae), a parasite of slow loris Nycticebus coucang (Mammalia: Primates).  

PubMed

Pterygodermaties (Mesopectines) nycticebi (Mönnig, 1920) (Nematoda: Spirurida: Rictulariidae) is redescribed based on immature and mature adults collected from the stomach and small intestine at autopsy of a slow loris, Nycticebus coucang (Boddaert, 1785) (Mammalia: Primates), in a zoological garden in Japan. It is first demonstrated that male possesses a minute telamon and a left lateral pore in the preanal part of body. The cause of death of the slow loris is strongly surmised to be related to the nematode infection, which was apparently acquired under captivity in the zoological garden. PMID:14560972

Ikeda, Yatsukaho; Fujisaki, Akiko; Murata, Koichi; Hasegawa, Hideo

2003-06-01

168

Discovery of Natural Infection by Metagonimus hakubaensis Shimazu, 1999 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in Japanese Water Shrews (Chimarrogale platycephala) in Japan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT ABSTRACT. A total of 611 preserved adult Metagonimus spp. specimens recovered from 32 of 53 Japanese water shrews (Chimarrogale platycephala) that had previously been collected in Aomori Prefecture between June 1994 and August 1996, were examined in this study. Morphological examination revealed that 603 of these flukes were identical to M. hakubaensis Shimazu, 1999, and that the others were M. takahashii Suzuki, 1930 (n=4), M. otsurui Saito et Shimizu, 1968 (n=2), and M. miyatai Saito et al., 1997 (n=2). Each of the 32 Japanese water shrews infected with M. hakubaensis contained between 1 and 83 flukes. This is the first record of the natural final host for M. hakubaensis, since this fluke species was described. PMID:25131808

KUDO, Noboru; SHIGETA, Kai; MATSUMOTO, Koji; OYAMADA, Takashi

2014-01-01

169

Delineation of vagal emetic pathways: intragastric copper sulfate-induced emesis and viral tract tracing in musk shrews.  

PubMed

Signals from the vestibular system, area postrema, and forebrain elicit nausea and vomiting, but gastrointestinal (GI) vagal afferent input arguably plays the most prominent role in defense against food poisoning. It is difficult to determine the contribution of GI vagal afferent input on emesis because various agents (e.g., chemotherapy) often act on multiple sensory pathways. Intragastric copper sulfate (CuSO4) potentially provides a specific vagal emetic stimulus, but its actions are not well defined in musk shrews (Suncus murinus), a primary small animal model used to study emesis. The aims of the current study were 1) to investigate the effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on CuSO4-induced emesis and 2) to conduct preliminary transneuronal tracing of the GI-brain pathways in musk shrews. Vagotomy failed to inhibit the number of emetic episodes produced by optimal emetic doses of CuSO4 (60 and 120 mg/kg ig), but the effects of lower doses were dependent on an intact vagus (20 and 40 mg/kg). Vagotomy also failed to affect emesis produced by motion (1 Hz, 10 min) or nicotine administration (5 mg/kg sc). Anterograde transport of the H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1 from the ventral stomach wall identified the following brain regions as receiving inputs from vagal afferents: the nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema, and lateral parabrachial nucleus. These data indicate that the contribution of vagal pathways to intragastric CuSO4-induced emesis is dose dependent in musk shrews. Furthermore, the current neural tracing data suggest brain stem anatomical circuits that are activated by GI signaling in the musk shrew. PMID:24430885

Horn, Charles C; Meyers, Kelly; Lim, Audrey; Dye, Matthew; Pak, Diana; Rinaman, Linda; Yates, Bill J

2014-03-01

170

Blockade of glucocorticoid receptors with ORG 34116 does not normalize stress-induced symptoms in male tree shrews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid receptors play an important role in the regulation of the activity of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis, and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. The present study investigated the effect of the specific glucocorticoid receptor antagonist ORG 34116 (a substituted 11,21 bisarylsteroid compound) in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) chronic psychosocial stress model, an established animal

Marja Van Kampen; E. Ronald De Kloet; Gabriele Flügge; Eberhard Fuchs

2002-01-01

171

Blarina toxin, a mammalian lethal venom from the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda: Isolation and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been characterized. We have purified and characterized the blarina toxin (BLTX), a lethal mammalian venom with a tissue kallikrein-like activity from the submaxillary and sublingual glands of the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda. Mice administered BLTX i.p. developed irregular respiration, paralysis, and convulsions before dying. Based on the amino acid sequence of

Masaki Kita; Yasuo Nakamura; Yuushi Okumura; Satoshi D. Ohdachi; Yuichi Oba; Michiyasu Yoshikuni; Hiroshi Kido; Daisuke Uemura

2004-01-01

172

Population dynamics of the northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda : insights from a 25-year study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The population demography of the northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1823), was studied for 25 years in bluegrass, alfalfa, and tallgrass habitats in east-central Illinois. The population in bluegrass had higher over-winter population density, began increasing earlier in the year, peaked earlier in the year, had higher mean monthly densities and amplitudes of fluctuation, and remained higher for

Lowell L. Getz; Joyce E. Hofmann; Betty McGuire; Madan K. Oli

2004-01-01

173

New Aspidoderidae species parasite of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae): a light and scanning electron microscopy approach.  

PubMed

Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, are widely distributed in the Americas. The family Aspidoderidae includes the subfamilies Aspidoderinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, and Lauroiinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1951. These two subfamilies are delineated by the presence or absence of cephalic cordons at the anterior region. The nematodes in the subfamily Aspidoderinae, which includes the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are represented by nematodes with anterior cephalic cordons at the anterior end. The nematodes of the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are found in the cecum and large intestine of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia and Rodentia. Species within this genus have many morphological similarities. The use of scanning electron microscopy allows the specific characterization of the species within this genus. In the present work, we describe a new species of Aspidodera parasite of the large intestine of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae) Wied-Neuwied, 1826, collected from Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro. The combination of light and scanning electron microscopy allowed us a detailed analysis of this nematode. PMID:24129095

Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Sant'anna, V; Oliveira-Menezes, A; De Souza, W

2014-02-01

174

Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.  

PubMed

Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR. PMID:18576829

Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

2008-08-01

175

A climate for speciation: rapid spatial diversification within the Sorex cinereus complex of shrews  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The cyclic climate regime of the late Quaternary caused dramatic environmental change at high latitudes. Although these events may have been brief in periodicity from an evolutionary standpoint, multiple episodes of allopatry and divergence have been implicated in rapid radiations of a number of organisms. Shrews of the Sorex cinereus complex have long challenged taxonomists due to similar morphology and parapatric geographic ranges. Here, multi-locus phylogenetic and demographic assessments using a coalescent framework were combined to investigate spatiotemporal evolution of 13 nominal species with a widespread distribution throughout North America and across Beringia into Siberia. For these species, we first test a hypothesis of recent differentiation in response to Pleistocene climate versus more ancient divergence that would coincide with pre-Pleistocene perturbations. We then investigate the processes driving diversification over multiple continents. Our genetic analyses highlight novel diversity within these morphologically conserved mammals and clarify relationships between geographic distribution and evolutionary history. Demography within and among species indicates both regional stability and rapid expansion. Ancestral ecological differentiation coincident with early cladogenesis within the complex enabled alternating and repeated episodes of allopatry and expansion where successive glacial and interglacial phases each promoted divergence. The Sorex cinereus complex constitutes a valuable model for future comparative assessments of evolution in response to cyclic environmental change.

Hope, Andrew G.; Speer, Kelly A.; Demboski, John R.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

2012-01-01

176

RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE  

SciTech Connect

This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

177

Convergent evolution of novel protein function in shrew and lizard venom.  

PubMed

How do proteins evolve novel functions? To address this question, we are studying the evolution of a mammalian toxin, the serine protease BLTX [1], from the salivary glands of the North American shrew Blarina brevicauda. Here, we examine the molecular changes responsible for promoting BLTX toxicity. First, we show that regulatory loops surrounding the BLTX active site have evolved adaptively via acquisition of small insertions and subsequent accelerated sequence evolution. Second, these mutations introduce a novel chemical environment into the catalytic cleft of BLTX. Third, molecular-dynamic simulations show that the observed changes create a novel chemical and physical topology consistent with increased enzyme catalysis. Finally, we show that a toxic serine protease from the Mexican beaded lizard (GTX) [2] has evolved convergently through almost identical functional changes. Together, these results suggest that the evolution of toxicity might be predictable-arising via adaptive structural modification of analogous labile regulatory loops of an ancestral serine protease-and thus might aid in the identification of other toxic proteins. PMID:19879144

Aminetzach, Yael T; Srouji, John R; Kong, Chung Yin; Hoekstra, Hopi E

2009-12-01

178

Mitochondrial cytochrome b of the Lyakhov mammoth (Proboscidea, Mammalia): new data and phylogenetic analyses of Elephantidae.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships between recent Elephantidae (Proboscidea, Mammalia), that is to say extant elephants (Asian and African) and extinct woolly mammoth, have remained unclear to date. The prevailing morphological scheme (mammoth grouped with Asian elephant) is either supported or questioned by the molecular results. Recently, the monophyly of woolly mammoths on mitochondrial grounds has been demonstrated (Thomas, et al., 2000), but it conflicts with previous studies (Barriel et al., 1999; Derenko et al., 1997). Here, we report the partial sequencing of two mitochondrial genes: 128 bp of 12S rDNA and 561 bp of cytochrome b for the Lyakhov mammoth, a 49,000-year-old Siberian individual. We use the most comprehensive sample of mammoth (11 sequences) to determine whether the sequences achieved by former studies were congruent or not. The monophyly of a major subset of mammoths sequences (including ours) is recovered. Such a result is assumed to be a good criterion for ascertaining the origin of ancient DNA. Our sequence is incongruent with that of Yang et al. (1996), though obtained for the same individual. As far as the latter sequence is concerned, a contamination by non-identified exogenous DNA is suspected. The robustness and reliability of the sister group relation between Mammuthus primigenius and Loxodonta africana are examined: down-weighting saturated substitutions has no impact on the topology; analyzing data partitions proves that the support of this clade can be assigned to the most conservative phylogenetic signal; insufficient taxonomic and/or characters sampling contributed to former discordant conclusions. We therefore assume the monophyly of "real mammoth sequences" and the (Mammuthus, Loxodonta) clade. PMID:12644401

Debruyne, Régis; Barriel, Véronique; Tassy, Pascal

2003-03-01

179

Feeding mechanics and dietary implications in the fossil sloth Neocnus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Megalonychidae) from Haiti.  

PubMed

Haitian species of the extinct ground sloth genus Neocnus (Mammalia: Pilosa: Megalonychidae) have previously been hypothesized to have a much reduced jugal bone and a correspondingly reduced masseter musculature but a paucity of specimens has prevented further investigation of this hypothesis. Recent discovery of jugal bones belonging to Haitian specimens of Neocnus within the University of Florida Museum collections enables the element to be more accurately described. The discovery also makes it possible to explore mastication in these sloths. Osteological characters related to feeding were examined, along with comparative estimations of bite force with the extant tree sloths, Bradypus and Choloepus, and their known dietary habits as a means to infer aspects of the paleodiet of Neocnus. There is a significant difference in moment arm calculations for m. masseter between predicted and actual jugals, but the overall significance for bite force is lost and hampered by small sample size. Neocnus demonstrates a variety of characters that are similar to those of Bradypus and not to Choloepus, which is a close phylogenetic relative. The masticatory musculature of Neocnus enabled a chewing cycle emphasizing a grinding combination of mesiodistal and linguobuccal movements of the molariform dentition. The orientations of m. masseter and m. temporalis are estimated to produce relatively high bite force ratios that imply a masticatory system with stronger versus faster components. Because of the similarity of bite forces and jaw mechanics to those of Bradypus, in addition to a number of osteological adaptations indicative of herbivorous grazers (elevated mandibular condyle, large and complex masseter, and robust angular process), the Haitian forms of Neocnus are considered to have been selective feeders with a folivorous diet. PMID:21638306

McAfee, Robert K

2011-10-01

180

Spatio-temporal patterns of habitat use in voles and shrews modified by density, season and predators.  

PubMed

1.?Although the intrinsic habitat preferences of a species can be considered to be fixed, the realized habitat use depends on the prevailing abiotic and biotic conditions. Often the core habitats are occupied by dense and stable populations, while marginal habitats become occupied only at times of high density. In a community of interacting species, habitat uses of different species become inter-related, for example an increased density of a strong competitor forcing a weaker competitor to use more marginal habitats. 2.?We studied the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of three common small mammal species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus; the field vole Microtus agrestis; and the common shrew Sorex araneus, in a 4-year trapping study carried out on six large islands, each containing a mixture of three main habitat types (forest, field and clear-cut). We experimentally released least weasels (Mustela n. nivalis) to some of the islands to see how the focal species respond to increased predation pressure. 3.?Both vole species were largely restricted to their core habitats (bank voles to forests and field voles to fields) at times of low population density. With increasing density, the relative habitat use of both species increased in the clear-cut areas. The common shrew was a generalist in its habitat use at all population densities. 4.?The release of the weasels changed the habitat use of all study species. 5.?The vole species showed a stronger aggregated pattern than the common shrew, especially at low population density. The vole aggregations remained in the same localities between seasons, except in the case of bank voles after the weasels were released. 6.?Bank voles and field voles avoided each other at high density. 7.?We conclude that intrinsically differential habitat requirements and flexibility to modify habitat use facilitate the coexistence of the two competing vole species in mosaic landscapes consisting of boreal forests and open habitats. PMID:22325037

Sundell, Janne; Church, Christina; Ovaskainen, Otso

2012-07-01

181

Structure of the ovaries of the Nimba otter shrew, Micropotamogale lamottei, and the Madagascar hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi.  

PubMed

The otter shrews are members of the subfamily Potamogalinae within the family Tenrecidae. No description of the ovaries of any member of this subfamily has been published previously. The lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, is a member of the subfamily Tenrecinae of the same family and, although its ovaries have not been described, other members of this subfamily have been shown to have ovaries with non-antral follicles. Examination of these two species illustrated that non-antral follicles were characteristic of the ovaries of both species, as was clefting and lobulation of the ovaries. Juvenile otter shrews range from those with only small follicles in the cortex to those with 300- to 400-microm follicles similar to those seen in non-pregnant and pregnant adults. As in other species, most of the growth of the oocyte occurred when follicles had one to two layers of granulosa cells. When larger follicles became atretic in the Nimba otter shrew, hypertrophy of the theca interna produced nodules of glandular interstitial tissue. In the tenrec, the hypertrophying theca interna cells in most large follicles appeared to undergo degeneration. Both species had some follicular fluid in the intercellular spaces between the more peripheral granulosa cells. It is suggested that this fluid could aid in separation of the cumulus from the remaining granulosa at ovulation. The protruding follicles in lobules and absence of a tunica albuginea might also facilitate ovulation of non-antral follicles. Ovaries with a thin-absent tunica albuginea and follicles with small-absent antra are widespread within both the Eulipotyphla and in the Afrosoricida, suggesting that such features may represent a primitive condition in ovarian development. Lobulated and deeply crypted ovaries are found in both groups but are not as common in the Eulipotyphla making inclusion of this feature as primitive more speculative. PMID:16046864

Enders, A C; Carter, A M; Künzle, H; Vogel, P

2005-01-01

182

Do geological or climatic processes drive speciation in dynamic archipelagos? The tempo and mode of diversification in Southeast Asian shrews  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00743.x DO GEOLOGICAL OR CLIMATIC PROCESSES DRIVE SPECIATION IN DYNAMIC ARCHIPELAGOS? THE TEMPO AND MODE OF DIVERSIFICATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIAN SHREWS Jacob A. Esselstyn, 1,2 Robert M. Timm, 1,3 and Rafe... M. Brown 1,4 1 Biodiversity Research Center and Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, 1345 Jayhawk Boulevard, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 2 E-mail: esselsty@ku.edu 3 E-mail: btimm@ku.edu 4 E-mail: rafe@ku.edu Received August...

Esselstyn, Jacob Aaron; Timm, Robert M.; Brown, Rafe M.

2009-10-01

183

Une nouvelle espèce d'hyracoïde du genre Bunohyrax (Mammalia) de l'Éocène de Bir El Ater (Algérie).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new species of Bunohyrax, B. matsumotoi n. sp. (Hyracoidea, Mammalia) from the Bir El Ater locality (Algeria) is described and compared with the two known species from the Oligocene of the Fayum (Egypt). This new hyracoid is documented by fragmentary remains, but the characters are significant enough to establish a new species, particularly because of its extremely small size. B. matsumotoi appears to be more primitive than the Egyptian Bunohyrax. The Algerian species, together with geological and palaeontological data, argues for a late Middle to Late Eocene age for the Bir El Ater site, rather than an Oligocene age, equivalent to the upper sequence of the Fayum, as suggested by Rasmussen et al. [17].

Tabuce, Rodolphe; Coiffait, Brigitte; Coiffait, Philippe-Emmanuel; Mahboubi, Mohamed; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

2000-07-01

184

Evolution of Mammalian Diving Capacity Traced by Myoglobin  

E-print Network

* Introduction: Evolution of extended breath-hold endurance enables the exploitation of the aquatic niche with an extended aquatic history--from 16-g water shrews to 80,000-kg whales--that correlates with exponential illion years ago) 0 50 100 150 200 250 Mammalia Beaver Whales True seals Eared seals Water shrew

Campbell, Kevin L.

185

Gene Expression Signatures in Tree Shrew Sclera in Response to Three Myopiagenic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We compared gene expression signatures in tree shrew sclera produced by three different visual conditions that all produce ocular elongation and myopia: minus-lens wear, form deprivation, and dark treatment. Methods. Six groups of tree shrews (n = 7 per group) were used. Starting 24 days after normal eye-opening (days of visual experience [DVE]), two minus-lens groups wore a monocular ?5 diopter (D) lens for 2 days (ML-2) or 4 days (ML-4); two form-deprivation groups wore a monocular translucent diffuser for 2 days (FD-2) or 4 days (FD-4). A dark-treatment (DK) group was placed in continuous darkness for 11 days after experiencing a light/dark environment until 17 DVE. A normal colony-reared group was examined at 28 DVE. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the relative differences in mRNA levels for 55 candidate genes in the sclera that were selected, either because they showed differential expression changes in previous ML studies or because a whole-transcriptome analysis suggested they would change during myopia development. Results. The treated eyes in all groups responded with a significant myopic shift, indicating that the myopia was actively progressing. In the ML-2 group, 27 genes were significantly downregulated in the treated eyes, relative to control eyes. In the treated eyes of the FD-2 group, 16 of the same genes also were significantly downregulated and one was upregulated. The two gene expression patterns were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.90, P < 0.001). After 4 days of treatment, 31 genes were significantly downregulated in the treated eyes of the ML-4 group and three were upregulated. Twenty-nine of the same genes (26 down- and 3 up-regulated) and six additional genes (all downregulated) were significantly affected in the FD-4 group. The response patterns were highly correlated (r2 = 0.95, P < 0.001). When the DK group (mean of right and left eyes) was compared to the control eyes of the ML-4 group, the direction and magnitude of the gene expression patterns were similar to those of the ML-4 (r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001, excluding PENK). Similar patterns also were found when the treated eyes of the ML-4, FD-4, and DK groups were compared to the age-matched normal eyes. Conclusions. The very similar gene expression signatures produced in the sclera by the three different myopiagenic visual conditions at different time points suggests that there is a “scleral remodeling signature” in this mammal, closely related to primates. The scleral genes examined did not distinguish between the specific visual stimuli that initiate the signaling cascade that results in axial elongation and myopia. PMID:24045991

Guo, Lin; Frost, Michael R.; He, Li; Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.

2013-01-01

186

Neural regulation of esophageal striated muscle in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).  

PubMed

In the present study, we characterized the neural regulation of esophageal striated muscle in Suncus murinus (a house musk shrew; "suncus" used as a laboratory name), which was compared with that in the rat. The tunica muscularis consists of striated muscle in the suncus esophagus. An isolated segment of the suncus esophagus was placed in an organ bath and the contractile responses were recorded using a force transducer. Electrical stimulations to vagus nerves induced contractile responses in the esophageal segment. Treatment with ?-bungarotoxin, a blocker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, blocked the vagally mediated contractions of the suncus esophagus. D-tubocurarine and succinylcholine, typical antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, also inhibited the suncus esophageal contractions, while higher concentrations of the agents were required rather than concentrations for producing an equivalent block in the rat. We used capsaicin, a stimulator of small-caliber afferent neurons, for activating the peripheral neural network. The reagent inhibited the vagally mediated twitch contractions of striated muscle in the suncus esophagus, which was reversed by pretreatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Application of a nitric oxide donor, diethylamine NONOate diethylammonium salt, mimicked capsaicin-induced inhibition. The results suggest that motility of the suncus esophagus, which consists of striated muscles, is regulated by vagal cholinergic neurons. The local neural network including capsaicin-sensitive neurons and intrinsic nitrergic neurons can modify the vagally mediated motility in the suncus esophagus. In addition, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the suncus esophagus might be pharmacologically distinct from those of rodent esophagi. PMID:22285704

Shiina, Takahiko; Shima, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yuji; Wörl, Jürgen; Shimizu, Yasutake

2012-05-21

187

Behavioral Patterns Associated with Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis: A Potential Signature for Nausea in Musk Shrews  

PubMed Central

Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with many diseases, including cancer and its treatments. Although the neurological basis of vomiting is reasonably well known, an understanding of the physiology of nausea is lacking. The primary barrier to mechanistic research on the nausea system is the lack of an animal model. Indeed investigating the effects of anti-nausea drugs in pre-clinical models is difficult because the primary readout is often emesis. It is known that animals show a behavioral profile of sickness, associated with reduced feeding and movement, and possibly these general measures are signs of nausea. Studies attempting to relate the occurrence of additional behaviors to emesis have produced mixed results. Here we applied a statistical method, temporal pattern (t-pattern) analysis, to determine patterns of behavior associated with emesis. Musk shrews were injected with the chemotherapy agent cisplatin (a gold standard in emesis research) to induce acute (<24?h) and delayed (>24?h) emesis. Emesis and other behaviors were coded and tracked from video files. T-pattern analysis revealed hundreds of non-random patterns of behavior associated with emesis, including sniffing, changes in body contraction, and locomotion. There was little evidence that locomotion was inhibited by the occurrence of emesis. Eating, drinking, and other larger body movements including rearing, grooming, and body rotation, were significantly less common in emesis-related behavioral patterns in real versus randomized data. These results lend preliminary evidence for the expression of emesis-related behavioral patterns, including reduced ingestive behavior, grooming, and exploratory behaviors. In summary, this statistical approach to behavioral analysis in a pre-clinical emesis research model could be used to assess the more global effects and limitations of drugs used to control nausea and its potential correlates, including reduced feeding and activity levels. PMID:21808604

Horn, Charles C.; Henry, Séverine; Meyers, Kelly; Magnusson, Magnus S.

2011-01-01

188

Identification of aflatoxin M1-N7-guanine in liver and urine of tree shrews and rats following administration of aflatoxin B1.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and concurrent infection with hepatitis B lead to a multiplicative risk of developing liver cancer. This chemical-viral interaction can be recapitulated in the tree shrew (Tupia belangeri chinensis). As an initial characterization of this model, the metabolism of AFB(1) in tree shrews has been examined and compared to a sensitive bioassay species, the rat. Utilizing LC/MS/MS, an unreported product, aflatoxin M(1)-N(7)-guanine (AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine), was detected in urine and hepatic DNA samples 24 h after administration of 400 microg/kg AFB(1). In hepatic DNA isolated from tree shrews, AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine was the predominant adduct, 0.74 +/- 0.14 pmol/mg DNA, as compared to 0.37 +/- 0.07 pmol/mg DNA of AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine. Conversely, in rat liver, 6.56 +/- 2.41 pmol/mg DNA of AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine and 0.42 +/- 0.13 pmol/mg DNA of AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine were detected. Rats excreted 1.00 +/- 0.21 pmol AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine and 0.29 +/- 0.10 pmol AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine as compared to 0.60 +/- 0.12 pmol AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine and 0.69 +/- 0.16 pmol AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine excreted by the tree shrew. Furthermore, tree shrew urine contained 40 times more of the hydroxylated metabolite, AFM(1), than was excreted by rats. In vitro experiments confirmed this difference in oxidative metabolism. Hepatic microsomes isolated from tree shrews failed to produce aflatoxin Q(1) or aflatoxin P(1) but formed a significantly greater amount of AFM(1) than rat microsomes. Bioassays indicated that the tree shrew was considerably more resistant than the rat to AFB(1) hepatocarcinogenesis, which may reflect the significant differences in metabolic profiles of the two species. PMID:12971806

Egner, Patricia A; Yu, Xiang; Johnson, Jesse K; Nathasingh, Christopher K; Groopman, John D; Kensler, Thomas W; Roebuck, Bill D

2003-09-01

189

Description and molecular differentiation of a new Staphylocystoides (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) from the dusky shrew Sorex monticolus in Southeast Alaska.  

PubMed

Staphylocystoides gulyaevi n. sp. is described based on specimens obtained from the dusky shrew Sorex monticolus collected on Sukkwan Island, southeast Alaska. Staphylocystoides gulyaevi n. sp. is compared with other North American members of the genus having 10 rostellar hooks. The new species is morphologically similar to Staphylocystoides parvissima and Staphylocystoides asketus. The uterus in S. gulyaevi n. sp. develops much more rapidly, and a well-developed uterus appears abruptly after it is barely visible in a previous proglottid. In S. parvissima the uterus grows gradually, and its early development is seen in several proglottids. At the level of pre-gravid proglottids the uterus of S. gulyaevi n. sp. occupies only the middle field of the proglottid, while in S. parvissima it fills the whole proglottid including lateral fields. The rostellar hooks in the new species are significantly smaller in size than in S. asketus. Additionally, the new species has fewer proglottids than S. asketus, while having a similar strobila length. Molecular comparison, using 3 genes (28s rDNA, cox1, and nad1), between S. gulyaevi n. sp. and S. parvissima, further corroborates the status of S. gulyaevi n. sp. as a new species. The new species is the seventh species of Staphylocystoides found in North America and the first cestode or any helminth reported from shrews in southeast Alaska. PMID:23919726

Greiman, Stephen E; Tkach, Vasyl V; Cook, Joseph A

2013-12-01

190

Digital Cranial Endocast of Hyopsodus (Mammalia, “Condylarthra”): A Case of Paleogene Terrestrial Echolocation?  

PubMed Central

We here describe the endocranial cast of the Eocene archaic ungulate Hyopsodus lepidus AMNH 143783 (Bridgerian, North America) reconstructed from X-ray computed microtomography data. This represents the first complete cranial endocast known for Hyopsodontinae. The Hyopsodus endocast is compared to other known “condylarthran” endocasts, i. e. those of Pleuraspidotherium (Pleuraspidotheriidae), Arctocyon (Arctocyonidae), Meniscotherium (Meniscotheriidae), Phenacodus (Phenacodontidae), as well as to basal perissodactyls (Hyracotherium) and artiodactyls (Cebochoerus, Homacodon). Hyopsodus presents one of the highest encephalization quotients of archaic ungulates and shows an “advanced version” of the basal ungulate brain pattern, with a mosaic of archaic characters such as large olfactory bulbs, weak ventral expansion of the neopallium, and absence of neopallium fissuration, as well as more specialized ones such as the relative reduction of the cerebellum compared to cerebrum or the enlargement of the inferior colliculus. As in other archaic ungulates, Hyopsodus midbrain exposure is important, but it exhibits a dorsally protruding largely developed inferior colliculus, a feature unique among “Condylarthra”. A potential correlation between the development of the inferior colliculus in Hyopsodus and the use of terrestrial echolocation as observed in extant tenrecs and shrews is discussed. The detailed analysis of the overall morphology of the postcranial skeleton of Hyopsodus indicates a nimble, fast moving animal that likely lived in burrows. This would be compatible with terrestrial echolocation used by the animal to investigate subterranean habitat and/or to minimize predation during nocturnal exploration of the environment. PMID:22347998

Orliac, Maeva J.; Argot, Christine; Gilissen, Emmanuel

2012-01-01

191

Short interspersed elements (SINEs) from insectivores. Two classes of mammalian SINEs distinguished by Arich tail structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Four tRNA-related SINE families were isolated from the genome of the shrew Sorex araneus (SOR element), mole Mogera robusta (TAL element), and hedgehog Mesechinus dauuricus (ERI-1 and ERI-2 elements). Each of these SINEs families is specific for a single Insectivora family: SOR, for Soricidae\\u000a (shrews); TAL, for Talpidae (moles and desmans); ERI-1 and ERI-2, for Erinaceidae (hedgehogs). There is

Olga R. Borodulina; Dmitri A. Kramerov

2001-01-01

192

Cyclophosphamide causes activation of protein kinase A (PKA) in the brainstem of vomiting least shrews (Cryptotis parva).  

PubMed

Complete control of emesis caused by cyclophosphamide (CPA) is of immense interest to both patients and physicians. Serotonin 5-HT3- and tachykinin NK1-receptor antagonists are widely used antiemetics in clinic, but they fail to completely control CPA-induced emesis. New antiemetic targets for the full control of CPA-induced vomiting are lacking. We therefore examined the effects of CPA on emetic targets downstream of 5-HT3- and NK1- receptors in an attempt to better understand the molecular bases of CPA-induced emesis. Acute CPA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) administration in the least shrew caused a biphasic pattern of emesis over a 40 h observation period, with maximal peak vomit frequency during the 1st hour of treatment (acute phase), followed by a delayed-phase which peaks at 27th hour. The NK1 receptor mRNA levels increased significantly at 8 h post-CPA treatment in the brainstem, and at 28 h in the whole intestine. Substance P mRNA levels tended to increase both in the brainstem and intestine at most time-points post-CPA injection, however due to large variability, they failed to attain significance. Likewise, protein expression profiles of both NK1- and 5-HT3 -receptors in the brainstem were unchanged at any time-point. However, phosphorylation levels of protein kinase A (PKA), but not of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), were increased at 2, 8, 22, 28, and 33 h time-points after the treatment with CPA. Moreover, brainstem but not frontal cortex cAMP tissue levels tended to be elevated at most time-points, but significant increases occurred only at 1 and 2 h post-CPA treatment. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor, rolipram, caused significant increases in shrew brainstem cAMP levels which were associated with its capacity to produce vomiting, while pretreatment with SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, prevented rolipram-induced emesis. The results demonstrate that accumulation of cAMP and subsequent activation of PKA in the brainstem may help to initiate and sustain emesis induced by CPA in the least shrew. Our findings suggest that suppression of the cAMP/PKA cascade may have antiemetic potential in the management of CPA-induced emesis. PMID:24513510

Alkam, Tursun; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A

2014-01-01

193

Molecular evidence for the monophyly of tenrecidae (mammalia) and the timing of the colonization of Madagascar by Malagasy Tenrecs.  

PubMed

Tenrecs are a diverse family of insectivores, with an Afro-Malagasian biogeographic distribution. Three subfamilies (Geogalinae, Oryzorictinae, Tenrecinae) are restricted to Madagascar and one subfamily, the otter shrews (Potamogalinae), occurs on the mainland. Morphological studies have generated conflicting hypotheses according to which both tenrecids and Malagassy tenrecs are either monophyletic or paraphyletic. Competing hypotheses have different implications for the biogeographic history of Tenrecidae. At present, there are no molecular studies that address these hypotheses. The present study provides sequences of a nuclear protein-coding gene (vWF) and the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, tRNA valine, and 16S rRNA genes from a potamogaline (Micropotamogale). New sequences of these genes are also reported for the tenrecine, Tenrec ecaudatus. The 12S sequences from these taxa were combined with data already available for this locus from two other tenrecids (Echinops telfairi, subfamily Tenrecinae and Oryzorictes talpoides, subfamily Oryzorictinae). Phylogenetic analyses provided strong bootstrap support for the monophyly of Tenrecidae and Malagasy tenrecs. The majority of statistical tests rejected morphological claims for both a Tenrecinae--Chrysochloridae clade and an Oryzorictinae--Potamogalinae clade. Molecular clock estimates suggest a split of otter shrews and Malagasy tenrecs at approximately 53 MYA. We estimate that the ancestor of Malagasy tenrecs dispersed to Madagascar subsequent to this split but prior to about 37 MYA. PMID:11884160

Douady, Christophe J; Catzeflis, Francois; Kao, Diana J; Springer, Mark S; Stanhope, Michael J

2002-03-01

194

Molecular evidence for multiple origins of Insectivora and for a new order of endemic African insectivore mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional views regarding the mamma- lian order Insectivora are that the group descended from a single common ancestor and that it is comprised of the following families: Soricidae (shrews), Tenrecidae (tenrecs), Solenodonti- dae (solenodons), Talpidae (moles), Erinaceidae (hedgehogs and gymnures), and Chrysochloridae (golden moles). Here we present a molecular analysis that includes representatives of all six families of insectivores,

MICHAEL J. STANHOPE; V ICTOR G. WADDELL; O LE MADSEN; W ILFRIED DE JONG; S. B LAIR; GREGORY C. CLEVENi; MARK S. SPRINGER

1998-01-01

195

Soricid response to forest stand age in southern Appalachian cove hardwood communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly from May 1994 until April 1995, we examined four age classes (15, 25, 50, and > 85 years old) of southern Appalachian cove hardwood stands in the Chattahoochee National Forest of Georgia to determine the effects of even-aged forest management (clearcutting) on the relative abundance of shrews (Insectivora: Soricidae). Stands were sampled using drift-fence\\/pitfall trap methodologies. During 60 060

William M. Ford; Joshua Laerm; Katherine G. Barker

1997-01-01

196

A new hantavirus from the stripe-backed shrew (Sorex cylindricauda) in the People's Republic of China.  

PubMed

Inspired by the recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses from insectivore species worldwide, we performed a small-scale search for insectivore-borne hantaviruses. In this paper, we report the discovery of a new hantavirus, which was designated the Qian Hu Shan virus (QHSV). This virus was detected in the lung tissues of three stripe-backed shrews (Sorex cylindricauda), which were captured in the Yunnan Province, China. The full-length S genomic segment of the representative QHSV strain YN05-284 was 1661 nucleotides and is predicted to encode a nucleocapsid protein of 429 amino acids that starts at nucleotide position 48. It exhibited the highest similarity with other Sorex-related hantaviruses, with 68.1%-72.8% nucleotide and 71.9%-84.4% amino acid sequence identities. An analysis of a 1430-nucleotide region of the partial M segment exhibited approximately 54.4%-79.5% nucleotide and 43.2%-90.8% amino acid sequence identities to other hantaviruses. A comparison of a 432-nucleotide region of the L segment also showed similar degrees of identity, with 68.9%-78.4% nucleotide and 71.1%-93.8% amino acid sequence identities to other hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian methods indicated that QHSV shared the most recent common ancestor with other Sorex-related hantaviruses. The host was identified using a morphological assessment and verified using mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cyt b) gene sequencing. A pair-wise comparison of the 1140-nucleotide mt-Cyt b gene sequence from the host demonstrated that the host was close to S. cylindricauda from Nepal with 94.3% identity. The virus-host association tanglegram, which was constructed using the Dendroscope software, indicated that the QHSV phylogeny and the host phylogeny were approximately matched, which suggests no evidence of host switching for QHSV. Our results contribute to a wider viewpoint regarding the heterogeneity of viruses that infect shrews. PMID:24553099

Zuo, Shu-Qing; Gong, Zheng-Da; Fang, Li-Qun; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhang, Jiu-Song; Zhao, Qiu-Min; Cao, Wu-Chun

2014-05-12

197

Activation of glycogenolysis by stimulation of the hepatic nerves in perfused livers of guinea pig and tree shrew as compared to rat: differences in the mode of action.  

PubMed

A study on the metabolic and hemodynamic actions of hepatic nerve stimulation in the perfused liver of guinea pig and tree shrew as compared to rat was performed, since the density of liver innervation was reported to be different. 1) Nerve stimulation resulted in an increase in glucose release and decrease in lactate uptake or in a shift to output as well as a decrease in portal flow in all three species. The change in glucose output was very similar, that in lactate balance and flow was smaller in tree shrew than in guinea pig and rat. Apparently, the metabolic and hemodynamic changes did not reflect the different densities of liver innervation. 2) The overflow of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline into the hepatic vein differed very clearly in the three animals. In the guinea pig and tree shrew the maximal increase in noradrenaline concentration measured in the effluent was about 6-7-fold higher than in the rat. 3) The content of noradrenaline in the liver in vivo was about five-fold higher in the guinea pig and again another four-fold higher in the tree shrew than in the rat. The contents of adrenaline and dopamine were very low in comparison to those of noradrenaline. The different hepatic noradrenaline contents of the three species investigated are in line with the anatomical findings on the different innervation density. 4) Inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis reduced the nerve stimulation-dependent metabolic and hemodynamic alterations in guinea pig liver as in rat liver indicating a similar mechanism in these species. Apparently, prostaglandins might be involved as mediators or modulators of nerve actions also in the more densely innervated guinea pig liver and not only in the less densely innervated rat liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2334519

Beckh, K; Fuchs, E; Ballé, C; Jungermann, K

1990-02-01

198

Effect of chronic psychosocial stress and long-term cortisol treatment on hippocampus-mediated memory and hippocampal volume: a pilot-study in tree shrews  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the impact of chronic psychosocial stress and long-term cortisol treatment on hippocampus-mediated memory processes and hippocampal volume in male tree shrews. By combining cognitive tests on a hole board, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and saliva cortisol analysis, we were able to follow in individual animals the stress- and cortisol-induced temporal effects on HPA axis activity and the hippocampus

F. Ohl; T. Michaelis; G. K. Vollmann-Honsdorf; C. Kirschbaum; E. Fuchs

2000-01-01

199

Brevinema andersonii gen. nov., sp. nov., an infectious spirochete isolated from the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus).  

PubMed

A spirochete which infects short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) has been shown previously to be ultrastructurally and serologically distinct from other spirochetes. Two of the original isolates from Connecticut and Minnesota and 16 new isolates obtained from shrews captured in Minnesota were characterized phenotypically and genetically in this study. A comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of two shrew isolates and one mouse isolate and the 16S rRNA sequences of 16 other spirochetes and Escherichia coli revealed that these organisms exhibited low levels of similarity (range of similarity values, 73.9 to 77.8%; average level of similarity, 74.7%). The shrew and mouse isolates which we examined formed a deeply branching subgroup that was clearly distinct from the other genera of spirochetes examined. These and other results indicated that the new spirochetes represent a unique taxon in the order Spirochaetales. Accordingly, we propose that they should be classified as members of a new genus, Brevinema. The three strains of Brevinema which we examined had 16S rRNA sequences that were nearly identical. We also compared these isolates by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fatty acid and enzyme analyses, restriction endonuclease analysis, and Southern hybridization and found that the levels of genetic and phenotypic homogeneity among the strains were very high. We concluded that the isolates which we examined were members of a single species, for which we propose the name Brevinema andersonii. The type strain of Brevinema andersonii is CT11616 (= ATCC 43811).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7857811

Defosse, D L; Johnson, R C; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Fraser, G J

1995-01-01

200

Broad-spectrum antiemetic efficacy of the L-type calcium channel blocker amlodipine in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).  

PubMed

The dihydropyridine l-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channel blockers nifedipine and amlodipine reduce extracellular Ca(2+) entry into cells. They are widely used for the treatment of hypertensive disorders. We have recently demonstrated that extracellular Ca(2+) entry via l-type Ca(2+) channels is involved in emesis and that nifedipine has broad-spectrum antiemetic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiemetic efficacy of the longer-acting l-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, amlodipine. Fully effective emetic doses of diverse emetogens such as the l-type Ca(2+) channel agonist (FPL 64176) as well as selective and/or nonselective agonists of serotonergic 5-HT3 (e.g. 5-HT or 2-Me-5-HT)-, dopamine D2 (e.g. apomorphine or quinpirole)-, cholinergic M1 (e.g. pilocarpine or McN-A343)- and tachykininergic NK1 (e.g. GR73632)-receptors, were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in the least shrew to induce vomiting. The broad-spectrum antiemetic potential of amlodipine was evaluated against these emetogens. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of amlodipine (0.5-10mg/kg) attenuated in a dose-dependent and potent manner both the frequency and percentage of shrews vomiting in response to intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of FPL 64176 (10mg/kg), 5-HT (5mg/kg), 2-Me-5-HT (5mg/kg), apomorphine (2mg/kg), quinpirole (2mg/kg), pilocarpine (2mg/kg), McN-A343 (2mg/kg), or GR73632 (5mg/kg). A combination of non-effective doses of amlodipine (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist palonosetron (0.05 mg/kg, s.c.) was more effective against FPL 64176-induced vomiting than their corresponding doses tested alone. Amlodipine by itself suppressed the frequency of acute cisplatin (10mg/kg, i.p)-induced vomiting in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, a combination of a non-effective dose of amlodipine (1mg/kg) potentiated the antiemetic efficacy of a semi-effective dose of palonosetron (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) against acute vomiting caused by cisplatin. We confirm that influx of extracellular Ca(2±) ion underlies vomiting due to diverse causes and demonstrate that l-type Ca(2+) channel blockers are a new class of broad-spectrum antiemetics. PMID:24631485

Zhong, Weixia; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A

2014-05-01

201

Tissue, age, and sex distribution of thallium in shrews from Doñana, a protected area in SW Spain.  

PubMed

In 1998, the protected area of Doñana, an important natural region in SW Europe, was affected with great amount of acidic waters and sludge from a pyrite mine loaded with toxic metals such as thallium (Tl). Since this ecological catastrophe, several studies have addressed the effects of this pollution on the flora and fauna in this protected area. However, in contrast to other non-essential metals, scarce information on Tl was available after this disaster, especially in terrestrial environments. This study reported a 3- and 10-fold increase in Tl in liver and kidneys, respectively, of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, in the polluted site in comparison with reference animals. Kidneys showed the highest concentrations of this metal in the polluted site, whereas both organs analysed have similar concentrations in the reference site. Although no significant age-dependent variation was found, adults had higher concentrations than juveniles. Moreover, females showed higher concentrations than males. These results demonstrate the high entrance and transfer of Tl in terrestrial food-chains. To the best of my knowledge, these data constitute the first measurements of Tl in mammals from the protected area of Doñana and are among the few available for insectivorous mammals. PMID:17570462

Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro

2007-09-20

202

The shrew tamed by Wolff's law: Do functional constraints shape the skull through muscle and bone covariation?  

PubMed

Bone is a highly plastic tissue that reflects the many potential sources of variation in shape. Here, we focus on the functional aspects of bone remodeling. We choose the skull for our analyses because it is a highly integrated system that plays a fundamental role in feeding and is thus, likely under strong natural selection. Its principal mechanical components are the bones and muscles that jointly produce bite force and jaw motion. Understanding the covariations among these three components is of interest to understand the processes driving the evolution of the feeding apparatus. In this study, we quantitatively and qualitatively compare interactions between these three components in shrews from populations known to differ in shape and bite force. Bite force was measured in the field using a force transducer and skull shape was quantified using surface geometric morphometric approaches based on µCT-scans of the skulls of same individuals. The masseter, temporalis, pterygoideus, and digastricus muscles of these individuals were dissected and their cross sectional areas determined. Our results show strong correlations between bite force and muscle cross sectional areas as well as between bite force and skull shape. Moreover, bite force explains an important amount of skull shape variation. We conclude that interactions between bone shape and muscle characteristics can produce different morpho-functional patterns that may differ between populations and may provide a suitable target for selection to act upon. J. Morphol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25385121

Cornette, Raphaël; Tresset, Anne; Herrel, Anthony

2014-11-11

203

Blarina toxin, a mammalian lethal venom from the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda: Isolation and characterization.  

PubMed

Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been characterized. We have purified and characterized the blarina toxin (BLTX), a lethal mammalian venom with a tissue kallikrein-like activity from the submaxillary and sublingual glands of the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda. Mice administered BLTX i.p. developed irregular respiration, paralysis, and convulsions before dying. Based on the amino acid sequence of purified protein, we cloned the BLTX cDNA. It consists of a prosequence and an active form of 253 aa with a typical catalytic triad of serine proteases, with a high identity with tissue kallikreins. BLTX is an N-linked microheterogeneous glycoprotein with a unique insertion of 10 residues, L(106)TFFYKTFLG(115). BLTX converted kininogens to kinins, which may be one of the toxic pathogens, and had dilatory effects on the blood vessel walls. The acute toxicity and proteolytic activity of BLTX were strongly inhibited by aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor, suggesting that its toxicity is due to a kallikrein-like activity of the venom. PMID:15136743

Kita, Masaki; Nakamura, Yasuo; Okumura, Yuushi; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Oba, Yuichi; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu; Kido, Hiroshi; Uemura, Daisuke

2004-05-18

204

Transformation of Receptive Field Properties from Lateral Geniculate Nucleus to Superficial V1 in the Tree Shrew  

PubMed Central

Tree shrew primary visual cortex (V1) exhibits a pronounced laminar segregation of inputs from different classes of relay neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). We examined how several receptive field (RF) properties were transformed from LGN to V1 layer 4 to V1 layer 2/3. The progression of RF properties across these stages differed markedly from that found in the cat. V1 layer 4 cells are largely similar to the the LGN cells that provide their input, being dominated by a single sign (ON or OFF) and being strongly modulated by sinusoidal gratings. Some layer 4 neurons, notably those near the edges of layer 4, exhibited increased orientation selectivity, and most layer 4 neurons exhibited a preference for lower temporal frequencies. Neurons in cortical layer 2/3 differ significantly from those in the LGN; most exhibited strong orientation tuning and both ON and OFF responses. The strength of orientation selectivity exhibited a notable sublaminar organization, with the strongest orientation tuned neurons in the most superficial parts of layer 2/3. Modulation indexes provide evidence for simple and complex cells in both layer 4 and layer 2/3. However, neurons with high modulation indexes were heterogenous in the spatial organization of ON and OFF responses, with many of them exhibiting unbalanced ON and OFF responses rather than well-segregated ON and OFF subunits. When compared to the laminar organization of V1 in other mammals, these data show that the process of natural selection can result in significantly altered structure/function relationships in homologous cortical circuits. PMID:23843520

Roy, Arani; Rhodes, Heather J.; Culp, Julie H.; Fitzpatrick, David

2013-01-01

205

To what extent are the retinal capillaries ensheathed by Müller cells? A stereological study in the tree shrew Tupaia belangeri  

PubMed Central

The cellular ensheathment of capillaries in the 3 outer capillary layers of the central retina of the adult tree shrew Tupaia belangeri was studied quantitatively by transmission electron microscopy. Using a stereological approach, the relative surface of capillary basal lamina ensheathed by Müller cells and by nonmacroglial cells (collectively termed non-Müller cells) was estimated in 5 animals. The participation of Müller cells was distinctly different in the 3 capillary layers studied. In the outermost capillary layer 1, the mean (standard deviation) percentage surface coverage by non-Müller cell processes was 46.8 (15.3)%. Much less of the capillary basal lamina was ensheathed by non-Müller cells in capillary layers 2 and 3 (3.0 (2.1)% and 0.3 (0.3)% respectively). The observed total variation of the stereological estimates for the surface fraction of Müller cells (expressed as the between-subject coefficient of variation) was significantly higher in capillary layer 1 (28.8%) compared with capillary layers 2 (2.2%) and 3 (0.3%). In capillary layer 1, the high observed total variation was due to a high biological variation among animals for the fractions of both Müller cell and non-Müller cell ensheathment. The rare occurrence of direct contacts between the capillary basal lamina and the perikarya of either microglial cells (capillary layer 3) or amacrine cells (capillary layer 2) corresponded well to the low stereological values obtained for the relative capillary surface ensheathed by non-Müller cells in these capillary layers. Previously, extensive and frequent contacts between the basal lamina of capillaries belonging to capillary layer 1 and horizontal cells had been observed in single sections. The present study quantitatively demonstrates a marked paucity of macroglial investment of capillaries located in capillary layer 1 of Tupaia. It can be concluded that horizontal cells ensheath most of the capillary surface not invested by Müller cells. PMID:10853967

OCHS, MATTHIAS; MAYHEW, TERRY M.; KNABE, WOLFGANG

2000-01-01

206

NMR spectroscopy based metabonomic studies on the comparative biochemistry of the kidney and urine of the bank vole ( Clethrionomys glareolus), wood mouse ( Apodemus sylvaticus), white toothed shrew ( Crocidura suaveolens) and the laboratory rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic profiles of three wild mammals that vary in their trophic strategies, the herbivorous bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), the granivorous wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), and the insectivorous white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens), were compared with that of a widely used strain of laboratory rat (Sprague Dawley). In conjunction with NMR spectroscopic investigations into the urine and blood plasma composition for

J. L Griffin; L. A Walker; S Garrod; E Holmes; R. F Shore; J. K Nicholson

2000-01-01

207

The Sahara as a vicariant agent, and the role of Miocene climatic events, in the diversification of the mammalian order Macroscelidea (elephant shrews)  

PubMed Central

Although the Sahara is a major geographical feature of the African continent, its role in the diversification of animal species is not well understood. We present here a molecular phylogeny for members of the endemic African mammalian order Macroscelidea (elephant shrews) with molecular-clock calculations; this molecular phylogeny provides convincing evidence that the genus Elephantulus is diphyletic. Elephantulus rozeti, the only elephant shrew species that resides north of the Sahara, is the sister group of a species from a different genus (Petrodromus tetradactylus), which resides just south of the Sahara. The split between these taxa coincided with major Miocene climatic events, which triggered the cooling and aridification of midlatitude continental regions, and a shift in the Sahara from a tropical to an arid environment. Thus, the North African distribution of E. rozeti is not the result of dispersion from an eastern species of the genus, but instead the result of a vicariant event involving the formation of the Sahara. The splitting events involved with most Elephantulus species in our analysis appear to coincide with these climatic events. This coincidence suggests that the environmental consequences associated with this period played an important role in the radiation of this order of mammals. The strongly supported phylogeny provides compelling evidence for a complex history of mosaic evolution, including pronounced bradytelic morphological evolution in some lineages, accelerated morphological evolution in others, and a remarkably slow rate of evolution of the male reproductive structure. PMID:12821774

Douady , Christophe J.; Catzeflis, François; Raman, Jaishree; Springer , Mark S.; Stanhope , Michael J.

2003-01-01

208

Receptor-Selective Agonists Induce Emesis and Fos Expression in the Brain and Enteric Nervous System of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)  

PubMed Central

Research on the mechanisms of emesis has implicated multiple neurotransmitters via both central (dorsal vagal complex) and peripheral (enteric neurons and enterochromaffin cells) anatomical substrates. Taking advantage of advances in receptor-specific agonists, and utilizing Fos expression as a functional activity marker, this study demonstrates a strong, but incomplete, overlap in anatomical substrates for a variety of emetogens. We used cisplatin and specific agonists to 5-HT3 serotonergic, D2/D3 dopaminergic, and NK1 tachykininergic receptors to induce vomiting in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva), and quantified the resulting Fos expression. The least shrew is a small mammal whose responses to emetic challenges are very similar to its human counterparts. In all cases, the enteric nervous system, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus demonstrated significantly increased Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR). However, Fos-IR induction was notably absent from the area postrema following the dopaminergic and NK1 receptor-specific agents. Two brain nuclei not usually discussed regarding emesis, the dorsal raphe nucleus and paraventricular thalamic nucleus, also demonstrated increased emesis-related Fos-IR. Taken together, these data suggest the dorsal vagal complex is part of a common pathway for a variety of distinct emetogens, but there are central emetic substrates, both medullary and diencephalic, that can be accessed without directly stimulating the area postrema. PMID:19699757

Ray, Andrew P.; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A.

2009-01-01

209

Bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, from the Ebro Delta (NE Spain): sex- and age-dependent variation.  

PubMed

We quantified bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in bones from 105 greater white-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula) collected at the Ebro Delta, a polluted area, and the Medas Islands, a control site. Lead and mercury levels varied with site, age, and sex, although statistical significances depended on each factor. Globally, shrews from the polluted area exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Pb and Hg. Increment of Pb with age was particularly remarkable in wetland animals and was interpreted in relation to human activities, namely hunting. Unlike males, females from the Ebro Delta maintained low Hg levels, which were associated with gestation and lactation. Cadmium levels did not differ between sites, sexes, or ages. This study provides the first data on heavy metals in mammals from this wetland and suggests that C. russula is a good bioindicator of metal pollution. We concluded that sex and age may represent an important source of variation in the bioaccumulation of these metals in wild populations. PMID:16777291

Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; López-Fuster, María José; Nadal, Jacint

2007-01-01

210

Purification and characterisation of blarinasin, a new tissue kallikrein-like protease from the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda: comparative studies with blarina toxin.  

PubMed

A new tissue kallikrein-like protease, blarinasin, has been purified from the salivary glands of the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda. Blarinasin is a 32-kDa N-glycosylated protease with isoelectric values ranging between 5.3 and 5.7, and an optimum pH of 8.5 for enzyme activity. The cloned blarinasin cDNA coded for a pre-pro-sequence and a mature peptide of 252 amino acids with a catalytic triad typical for serine proteases and 43.7-54.0% identity to other mammalian tissue kallikreins. Blarinasin preferentially hydrolysed Pro-Phe-Arg-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide (MCA) and N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-Val-Leu-Lys-MCA, and preferentially converted human high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) to bradykinin. The activity of blarinasin was prominently inhibited by aprotinin (K(i) =3.4 nM). A similar kallikrein-like protease, the lethal venom blarina toxin, has previously been purified from the salivary glands of the shrew Blarina and shows 67.9% identity to blarinasin. However, blarinasin was not toxic in mice. Blarinasin is a very abundant kallikrein-like protease and represents 70-75% of kallikrein-like enzymes in the salivary gland of B. brevicauda. PMID:15843162

Kita, Masaki; Okumura, Yuushi; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Oba, Yuichi; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu; Nakamura, Yasuo; Kido, Hiroshi; Uemura, Daisuke

2005-02-01

211

Binocular Lens Treatment in Tree Shrews: Effect of Age and Comparison of Plus Lens Wear with Recovery from Minus Lens-induced Myopia  

PubMed Central

We examined normal emmetropization and the refractive responses to binocular plus or minus lenses in young (late infantile) and juvenile tree shrews. In addition, recovery from lens-induced myopia was compared with the response to a similar amount of myopia produced with plus lenses in age-matched juvenile animals. Normal emmetropization was examined with daily noncycloplegic autorefractor measures from 11 days after natural eye-opening (days of visual experience [VE]) when the eyes were in the infantile, rapid growth phase and their refractions were substantially hyperopic, to 35 days of VE when the eyes had entered the juvenile, slower growth phase and the refractions were near emmetropia. Starting at 11 days of VE, two groups of young tree shrews wore binocular +4 D lenses (n = 6) or ?5 D lenses (n = 5). Starting at 24 days of VE, four groups of juvenile tree shrews (n = 5 each) wore binocular +3 D, +5 D, ?3 D, or ?5 D lenses. Non-cycloplegic measures of refractive state were made frequently while the animals wore the assigned lenses. The refractive response of the juvenile plus-lens wearing animals was compared with the refractive recovery of an age-matched group of animals (n=5) that were myopic after wearing a ?5 D lens from 11 to 24 days of VE. In normal tree shrews, refractions (corrected for the small eye artifact) declined rapidly from (mean ± SEM) 6.6 ± 0.6 D of hyperopia at 11 VE to 1.4 ± 0.2 D at 24 VE and 0.8 ± 0.4 D at 35 VE. Plus 4 D lens treatment applied at 11 days of VE initially corrected or over-corrected the young animals’ hyperopia and produced a compensatory response in most animals; the eyes became nearly emmetropic while wearing the +4 D lenses. In contrast, plus-lens treatment starting at 24 days of VE initially made the juvenile eyes myopic (over-correction) and, on average, was less effective. The response ranged from no change in refractive state (eye continued to experience myopia) to full compensation (emmetropic with the lens in place). Minus-lens wear in both the young and juvenile groups, which initially made eyes more hyperopic, consistently produced compensation to the minus lens so that eyes reached age-appropriate refractions while wearing the lenses. When the minus lenses were removed, the eyes recovered quickly to age-matched normal values. The consistent recovery response from myopia in juvenile eyes after minus-lens compensation, compared with the highly variable response to plus lens wear in age-matched juvenile animals suggests that eyes retain the ability to detect the myopic refractive state, but there is an age-related decrease in the ability of normal eyes to use myopia to slow their elongation rate below normal. If juvenile human eyes, compared with infants, have a similar difficulty in using myopia to slow axial elongation, this may contribute to myopia development, especially in eyes with a genetic pre-disposition to elongate. PMID:20713041

Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.

2010-01-01

212

Biomic Specialization and Speciation Rates in Ruminants (Cetartiodactyla, Mammalia): A Test of the Resource-Use Hypothesis at the Global Scale  

PubMed Central

The resource-use hypothesis proposed by E.S. Vrba predicts that specialist species have higher speciation and extinction rates than generalists because they are more susceptible to environmental changes and vicariance. In this work, we test some of the predictions derived from this hypothesis on the 197 extant and recently extinct species of Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla, Mammalia) using the biomic specialization index (BSI) of each species, which is based on its distribution within different biomes. We ran 10000 Monte Carlo simulations of our data in order to get a null distribution of BSI values against which to contrast the observed data. Additionally, we drew on a supertree of the ruminants and a phylogenetic likelihood-based method (QuaSSE) for testing whether the degree of biomic specialization affects speciation rates in ruminant lineages. Our results are consistent with the predictions of the resource-use hypothesis, which foretells a higher speciation rate of lineages restricted to a single biome (BSI?=?1) and higher frequency of specialist species in biomes that underwent high degree of contraction and fragmentation during climatic cycles. Bovids and deer present differential specialization across biomes; cervids show higher specialization in biomes with a marked hydric seasonality (tropical deciduous woodlands and schlerophyllous woodlands), while bovids present higher specialization in a greater variety of biomes. This might be the result of divergent physiological constraints as well as a different biogeographic and evolutionary history. PMID:22174888

Cantalapiedra, Juan L.; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Morales, Jorge

2011-01-01

213

These studies were conducted to assess the effects of lead toxicity on exploratory behavior and running. Effects of lead on exploratory behavior and running speed in the shrew, Blarina brevicauda (Insectivora).  

PubMed

These studies were conducted to assess the effects of lead toxicity on exploratory behavior and running speed in the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda. Shrews from the experimental group received 25 mg/kg/day of lead acetate in their drinking water for a period of 90 days. Control subjects received sodium acetate. Exploratory behavior was determined using a computerized activity chamber where movements of test subjects broke infrared beams projected onto the floor of the apparatus. Time spent (sec) in exploration was recorded over eight 6-min intervals. Running speed (km/hr) was measured in a microprocessor-controlled rectangular racetrack fitted with photocell timers. With respect to time spent in exploration, there were significant differences between lead-exposed (20.5-23.9 sec per 6-min testing session) and control subjects (6.8-8.1 sec) after the sixth testing interval in the activity chamber. With respect to maximal running speed, control subjects ran significantly faster (mean: 14.8 km/hr) than their lead-exposed counterparts (5.83 km/hr). Lead-exposed animals exhibited hyperactivity and increased random locomotor movements. They would frequently bump into the walls and their movements were more random. Controls typically ran along the racetrack in a straight line. These results represent the first data for the effects of lead exposure on exploratory behavior and running speed for shrews. PMID:15248655

Punzo, F; Farmer, C

2003-10-01

214

Taxonomic uncertainty and the loss of biodiversity on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

The taxonomic uniqueness of island populations is often uncertain which hinders effective prioritization for conservation. The Christmas Island shrew (Crocidura attenuata trichura) is the only member of the highly speciose eutherian family Soricidae recorded from Australia. It is currently classified as a subspecies of the Asian gray or long-tailed shrew (C. attenuata), although it was originally described as a subspecies of the southeast Asian white-toothed shrew (C. fuliginosa). The Christmas Island shrew is currently listed as endangered and has not been recorded in the wild since 1984-1985, when 2 specimens were collected after an 80-year absence. We aimed to obtain DNA sequence data for cytochrome b (cytb) from Christmas Island shrew museum specimens to determine their taxonomic affinities and to confirm the identity of the 1980s specimens. The Cytb sequences from 5, 1898 specimens and a 1985 specimen were identical. In addition, the Christmas Island shrew cytb sequence was divergent at the species level from all available Crocidura cytb sequences. Rather than a population of a widespread species, current evidence suggests the Christmas Island shrew is a critically endangered endemic species, C. trichura, and a high priority for conservation. As the decisions typically required to save declining species can be delayed or deferred if the taxonomic status of the population in question is uncertain, it is hoped that the history of the Christmas Island shrew will encourage the clarification of taxonomy to be seen as an important first step in initiating informed and effective conservation action. PMID:24283832

Eldridge, Mark D B; Meek, Paul D; Johnson, Rebecca N

2014-04-01

215

Redescription and systematic position of Soricinia tripartita Zarnowski, 1955 (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea), a cestode species parasitic in shrews of the genus Sorex, including erection of Gulyaevilepis gen. n.  

PubMed

Soricinia tripartita Zarnowski, 1955 is redescribed on the basis of specimens from the type host Sorex araneus Linnaeus from Lithuania, Latvia and Russia (Republic of Karelia and Republic of Komi - a new geographical record) as well as from Sorex satunini Ognev and Sorex volnuchini Ognev from Russia (Nalchik Area in the Caucasus Mountains). The strobilar morphology of S. tripartita is compared with that of other hymenolepidid cestodes of shrews with an unarmed scolex and serial development of proglottides in the strobila, i.e. species of Mathevolepis Spassky, 1948, Ditestolepis Soltys, 1952, Spasskylepis Schaldybin, 1964, Ecrinolepis Spassky et Karpenko, 1983 and Diorchilepis Lykova, Gulyaev, Melnikova et Karpenko, 2006. It was noted that S. tripartita does not correspond to any of the known genera. The following unique characters are found for S. tripartita: heteronomous serial strobilation with one or two sterile proglottides at the end of each series in the strobila and the whole copulatory part of the vagina covered with numerous, fine spines. Therefore, the new genus Gulyaevilepis is erected, with Gulyaevilepis tripartita (Zarnowski, 1955) comb. n. as its type and only species. Since the type material of Soricinia tripartita is not known to exist, a neotype from the same host species and from a locality close to the type locality is designated. PMID:24822320

Kornienko, Svetlana A; Binkiene, Rasa

2014-04-01

216

The testis of greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula in Southern European populations: a case of adaptive lack of seasonal involution?  

PubMed

Males of all seasonal breeding mammals undergo circannual periods of testis involution resulting in almost complete ablation of the germinative epithelium. We performed a morphometric, histological, hormonal, and gene-expression study of the testes from winter and summer males of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, in populations of the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. Unexpectedly, we found no significant differences between the two study groups. Surprisingly, female data confirmed a non-breeding period in the summer, evidencing that males retain full testis function even when most females are not receptive. This situation, which has not been described before, does not occur in northern populations of the same species where, in addition, the reproductive cycle is inverted with respect to those in the south, as the non-breeding period occurs in winter instead in summer. Considering that the non-reproductive period shortens at lower latitude locations, we hypothesize that in southern populations the non-breeding period is short enough to make testis regression inefficient in terms of energy savings, because: (1) testes of C. russula are very small, a condition derived from their monogamy that implies low investment in spermatogenesis; and (2) the spermatogenic cycle of this species is slow and long. The inverted seasonal breeding cycle and the lack of seasonal testis regression described here are new adaptive processes that deserve further research, and provide evidence that the genetic and hormonal mechanisms controlling reproduction timing in mammals are more plastic and versatile than initially suspected. PMID:24895181

Massoud, Diaa; Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Ortega, Esperanza; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

2014-07-01

217

Additive antiemetic efficacy of low-doses of the cannabinoid CB(1/2) receptor agonist ?(9)-THC with ultralow-doses of the vanilloid TRPV1 receptor agonist resiniferatoxin in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that cannabinoid CB1/2 and vanilloid TRPV1 agonists (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC) and resiniferatoxin (RTX), respectively) can attenuate the emetic effects of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. In this study we used the least shrew to demonstrate whether combinations of varying doses of ?(9)-THC with resiniferatoxin can produce additive antiemetic efficacy against cisplatin-induced vomiting. RTX by itself caused vomiting in a bell-shaped dose-dependent manner with maximal vomiting at 18 ?g/kg when administered subcutaneously (s.c.) but not intraperitoneally (i.p.). ?(9)-THC up to 10 mg/kg provides only 80% protection of least shrews from cisplatin-induced emesis with an ID50 of 0.3-1.8 mg/kg. Combinations of 1 or 5 ?g/kg RTX with varying doses of ?(9)-THC completely suppressed both the frequency and the percentage of shrews vomiting with ID50 dose values 5-50 times lower than ?(9)-THC doses tested alone against cisplatin. A less potent TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, by itself did not cause emesis (i.p. or s.c.), but it did significantly reduce vomiting induced by cisplatin given after 30 min but not at 2 h. The TRPV1-receptor antagonist, ruthenium red, attenuated cisplatin-induced emesis at 5mg/kg; however, another TRPV1-receptor antagonist, capsazepine, did not. In summary, we present evidence that combination of CB1/2 and TRPV1 agonists have the capacity to completely abolish cisplatin-induced emesis at doses that are ineffective when used individually. PMID:24157976

Darmani, Nissar A; Chebolu, Seetha; Zhong, Weixia; Trinh, Chung; McClanahan, Bryan; Brar, Rajivinder S

2014-01-01

218

The Effect of Age on Compensation for a Negative Lens and Recovery from Lens-induced Myopia in Tree Shrews (Tupaia glis belangeri)  

PubMed Central

We examined in tree shrews the effect of age on the development of, and recovery from, myopia induced with a negative lens. Starting at 11, 16, 24, 35 or 48 days after natural eye-opening (days of visual experience [VE]), juvenile tree shrews (n = 5 per group) wore a monocular ?5 D lens for 11 days. A long-term lens-wear group (n=6) began treatment at 16 days of VE and wore the lens for 30 days. A young adult group (n = 5) began to wear a ?5 D lens between 93 and 107 days of VE (mean ± SD, 100 ± 6 days of VE) and wore the lens for 29 to 54 days (mean ± SD, 41.8 ± 9.8 days). The recovery phase in all groups was started by discontinuing ?5 D lens wear. Contralateral control eyes in the three youngest groups were compared with a group of age-matched normal eyes and showed a small (<1 D), transient myopic shift. The amount of myopia that developed during lens wear was measured as the difference between the treated and control eye refractions. After 11 days of lens wear, the induced myopia was similar for the four younger groups (near full compensation: 11 day, ?5.1 ± 0.4 D; 16 day, ?4.7 ± 0.3 D, 24 day, ?4.9 ± 0.4 D; 35 day, ?4.0 ± 0.02) and slightly less in the oldest juvenile group (48 day, ?3.3 ± 0.5 D). The young adult animals developed ?4.8 ± 0.3 D of myopia after a longer lens-wear period. The rate of compensation (D/day) was high in the 4 youngest groups and decreased in the 48-day and young adult groups. The refractions of the long-term lens-wear juvenile group remained stable after compensating for the ?5 D lens. During recovery, all animals in the youngest group recovered fully (< 1 D residual myopia) within seven days. Examples of both rapid (< 10 days) and slow recovery (> 12 days) occurred in all age groups except the youngest. Every animal showed more rapid recovery (higher recovery slope) in the first 4 days than afterward. One animal showed extremely slow recovery. Based on the time-course of myopia development observed in the youngest age groups, the start of the susceptible period for negative lens wear is around 11 to 15 days after eye opening; the rate of compensation remains high until approximately 35 days of VE and then gradually declines. Compensation is stable with continued lens wear. The emmetropization mechanism, both for negative lens compensation and recovery, remains active into young adulthood. The time-course of recovery is more variable than that of compensation and seems to vary with age, with the amount of myopia (weakly) and with the individual animal. PMID:20045711

Norton, Thomas T.; Amedo, Angela O.; Siegwart, John T.

2010-01-01

219

High Levels of Antimicrobial Resistance among Escherichia coli Isolates from Livestock Farms and Synanthropic Rats and Shrews in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.  

PubMed

In Mekong Delta farms (Vietnam), antimicrobials are extensively used, but limited data are available on levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Escherichia coli isolates. We performed a structured survey of AMR in E. coli isolates (n = 434) from 90 pig, chicken, and duck farms. The results were compared with AMR among E. coli isolates (n = 234) from 66 small wild animals (rats and shrews) trapped on farms and in forests and rice fields. The isolates were susceptibility tested against eight antimicrobials. E. coli isolates from farmed animals were resistant to a median of 4 (interquartile range [IQR], 3 to 6) antimicrobials versus 1 (IQR, 1 to 2) among wild mammal isolates (P < 0.001). The prevalences of AMR among farmed species isolates (versus wild animals) were as follows: tetracycline, 84.7% (versus 25.6%); ampicillin, 78.9% (versus 85.9%); trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 52.1% (versus 18.8%); chloramphenicol, 39.9% (versus 22.5%); amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 36.6% (versus 34.5%); and ciprofloxacin, 24.9% (versus 7.3%). The prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) (resistance against three or more antimicrobial classes) among pig isolates was 86.7% compared to 66.9 to 72.7% among poultry isolates. After adjusting for host species, MDR was ?8 times greater among isolates from wild mammals trapped on farms than among those trapped in forests/rice fields (P < 0.001). Isolates were assigned to unique profiles representing their combinations of susceptibility results. Multivariable analysis of variance indicated that AMR profiles from wild mammals trapped on farms and those from domestic animals were more alike (R(2) range, 0.14 to 0.30) than E. coli isolates from domestic animals and mammals trapped in the wild (R(2) range, 0.25 to 0.45). The results strongly suggest that AMR on farms is a key driver of environmental AMR in the Mekong Delta. PMID:25398864

Nhung, N T; Cuong, N V; Campbell, J; Hoa, N T; Bryant, J E; Truc, V N T; Kiet, B T; Jombart, T; Trung, N V; Hien, V B; Thwaites, G; Baker, S; Carrique-Mas, J

2015-02-01

220

High Levels of Antimicrobial Resistance among Escherichia coli Isolates from Livestock Farms and Synanthropic Rats and Shrews in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam  

PubMed Central

In Mekong Delta farms (Vietnam), antimicrobials are extensively used, but limited data are available on levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Escherichia coli isolates. We performed a structured survey of AMR in E. coli isolates (n = 434) from 90 pig, chicken, and duck farms. The results were compared with AMR among E. coli isolates (n = 234) from 66 small wild animals (rats and shrews) trapped on farms and in forests and rice fields. The isolates were susceptibility tested against eight antimicrobials. E. coli isolates from farmed animals were resistant to a median of 4 (interquartile range [IQR], 3 to 6) antimicrobials versus 1 (IQR, 1 to 2) among wild mammal isolates (P < 0.001). The prevalences of AMR among farmed species isolates (versus wild animals) were as follows: tetracycline, 84.7% (versus 25.6%); ampicillin, 78.9% (versus 85.9%); trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 52.1% (versus 18.8%); chloramphenicol, 39.9% (versus 22.5%); amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 36.6% (versus 34.5%); and ciprofloxacin, 24.9% (versus 7.3%). The prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) (resistance against three or more antimicrobial classes) among pig isolates was 86.7% compared to 66.9 to 72.7% among poultry isolates. After adjusting for host species, MDR was ?8 times greater among isolates from wild mammals trapped on farms than among those trapped in forests/rice fields (P < 0.001). Isolates were assigned to unique profiles representing their combinations of susceptibility results. Multivariable analysis of variance indicated that AMR profiles from wild mammals trapped on farms and those from domestic animals were more alike (R2 range, 0.14 to 0.30) than E. coli isolates from domestic animals and mammals trapped in the wild (R2 range, 0.25 to 0.45). The results strongly suggest that AMR on farms is a key driver of environmental AMR in the Mekong Delta. PMID:25398864

Nhung, N. T.; Cuong, N. V.; Campbell, J.; Hoa, N. T.; Bryant, J. E.; Truc, V. N. T.; Kiet, B. T.; Jombart, T.; Trung, N. V.; Hien, V. B.; Thwaites, G.; Baker, S.

2014-01-01

221

Lipotyphla limb myology comparison.  

PubMed

Fore- and hindlimb muscles were dissected in four species of Lipotyphla: the western European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus (Erinaceidae, Erinaceinae); the moonrat Echinosorex gymnura (Erinaceidae, Hylomyinae or Galericinae); the tailless tenrec Tenrec ecaudatus (Tenrecidae, Tenrecinae); and the common European white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula (Soricidae, Soricinae). This work completely reviews the limb musculature of these walking mammals. Twelve myological characters were evaluated in order to disclose phylogenetic relationships. The cladogram obtained supported previous ones based on cranial and dental characters. This study shows that myological characters are valuable in phylogenetic analyses. PMID:11921044

Neveu, Pauline; Gasc, Jean-Pierre

2002-05-01

222

Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor-Mediated Vomiting Occurs via the Activation of Ca2+/CaMKII-Dependent ERK1/2 Signaling in the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) by 2-methylserotonin (2-Me-5-HT), a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, can induce vomiting. However, downstream signaling pathways for the induced emesis remain unknown. The 5-HT3R channel has high permeability to extracellular calcium (Ca2+) and upon stimulation allows increased Ca2+ influx. We examined the contribution of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II? (Ca2+/CaMKII?), interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling to 2-Me-5-HT-induced emesis in the least shrew. Using fluo-4 AM dye, we found that 2-Me-5-HT augments intracellular Ca2+ levels in brainstem slices and that the selective 5-HT3R antagonist palonosetron, can abolish the induced Ca2+ signaling. Pre-treatment of shrews with either: i) amlodipine, an antagonist of L-type Ca2+ channels present on the cell membrane; ii) dantrolene, an inhibitor of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) Ca2+-release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); iii) a combination of their less-effective doses; or iv) inhibitors of CaMKII (KN93) and ERK1/2 (PD98059); dose-dependently suppressed emesis caused by 2-Me-5-HT. Administration of 2-Me-5-HT also significantly: i) enhanced the interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin in the brainstem as revealed by immunoprecipitation, as well as their colocalization in the area postrema (brainstem) and small intestine by immunohistochemistry; and ii) activated CaMKII? in brainstem and in isolated enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine as shown by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. These effects were suppressed by palonosetron. 2-Me-5-HT also activated ERK1/2 in brainstem, which was abrogated by palonosetron, KN93, PD98059, amlodipine, dantrolene, or a combination of amlodipine plus dantrolene. However, blockade of ER inositol-1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptors by 2-APB, had no significant effect on the discussed behavioral and biochemical parameters. This study demonstrates that Ca2+ mobilization via extracellular Ca2+ influx through 5-HT3Rs/L-type Ca2+ channels, and intracellular Ca2+ release via RyRs on ER, initiate Ca2+-dependent sequential activation of CaMKII? and ERK1/2, which contribute to the 5-HT3R-mediated, 2-Me-5-HT-evoked emesis. PMID:25121483

Zhong, Weixia; Hutchinson, Tarun E.; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A.

2014-01-01

223

Identification of Bartonella species in rodents, shrews and cats in Denmark: detection of two B. henselae variants, one in cats and the other in the long-tailed field mouse.  

PubMed

Small mammals and stray cats were trapped in two areas of North Zealand, Denmark, and their blood cultured for hemotrophic bacteria. Bacterial isolates were recovered in pure culture and subjected to 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Bartonella species were isolated from five mammalian species: B. grahamii from Microtus agrestis (field vole) and Apodemus flavicollis (yellow-necked field mouse); B. taylorii from M. agrestis, A. flavicollis and A. sylvaticus (long-tailed field mouse); B. tribocorum from A. flavicollis; B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii from M. agrestis and A. sylvaticus; and B. birtlesii from Sorex vulgaris (common shrew). In addition, two variant types of B. henselae were identified: variant I was recovered from three specimens of A. sylvaticus, and B. henselae variant II from 11 cats; in each case this was the only B. henselae variant found. No Bartonella species was isolated from Clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole) or Micromys minutus (harvest mouse). These results suggest that B. henselae occurs in two animal reservoirs in this region, one of variant I in A. sylvaticus, which may be transmitted between mice by the tick Ixodes ricinus, and another of variant II in cats, which may be transmitted by the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of B. henselae and B. tribocorum in Apodemus mice. PMID:15511270

Engbaek, Kraesten; Lawson, Paul A

2004-06-01

224

The historical biogeography of Mammalia  

PubMed Central

Palaeobiogeographic reconstructions are underpinned by phylogenies, divergence times and ancestral area reconstructions, which together yield ancestral area chronograms that provide a basis for proposing and testing hypotheses of dispersal and vicariance. Methods for area coding include multi-state coding with a single character, binary coding with multiple characters and string coding. Ancestral reconstruction methods are divided into parsimony versus Bayesian/likelihood approaches. We compared nine methods for reconstructing ancestral areas for placental mammals. Ambiguous reconstructions were a problem for all methods. Important differences resulted from coding areas based on the geographical ranges of extant species versus the geographical provenance of the oldest fossil for each lineage. Africa and South America were reconstructed as the ancestral areas for Afrotheria and Xenarthra, respectively. Most methods reconstructed Eurasia as the ancestral area for Boreoeutheria, Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria. The coincidence of molecular dates for the separation of Afrotheria and Xenarthra at approximately 100 Ma with the plate tectonic sundering of Africa and South America hints at the importance of vicariance in the early history of Placentalia. Dispersal has also been important including the origins of Madagascar's endemic mammal fauna. Further studies will benefit from increased taxon sampling and the application of new ancestral area reconstruction methods. PMID:21807730

Springer, Mark S.; Meredith, Robert W.; Janecka, Jan E.; Murphy, William J.

2011-01-01

225

Photoreceptor types and distributions in the retinae of insectivores.  

PubMed

The retinae of insectivores have been rarely studied, and their photoreceptor arrangements and expression patterns of visual pigments are largely unknown. We have determined the presence and distribution of cones in three species of shrews (common shrew Sorex araneus, greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula, dark forest shrew Crocidura poensis; Soricidae) and in the lesser hedgehog tenrec Echinops telfairi (Tenrecidae). Special cone types were identified and quantified in flattened whole retinae by antisera/antibodies recognizing the middle-to-long-wavelength-sensitive (M/L-)cone opsin and the short-wavelength-sensitive (S-)cone opsin, respectively. A combination of immunocytochemistry with conventional histology was used to assess rod densities and cone/rod ratios. In all four species the rods dominate at densities of about 230,000-260,000/mm2. M/L- and S-cones are present, comprising between 2% of the photoreceptors in the nocturnal Echinops telfairi and 13% in Sorex araneus that has equal diurnal and nocturnal activity phases. This suggests dichromatic color vision like in many other mammals. A striking feature in all four species are dramatically higher S-cone proportions in ventral than in dorsal retina (0.5% vs. 2.5-12% in Sorex, 5-15% vs. 30-45% in Crocidura poensis, 3-12% vs. 20-50% in Crocidura russula, 10-30% vs. 40-70% in Echinops). The functional and comparative aspects of these structural findings are discussed. PMID:11193110

Peichl, L; Künzle, H; Vogel, P

2000-01-01

226

Broad-spectrum antiemetic potential of the L-type calcium channel antagonist nifedipine and evidence for its additive antiemetic interaction with the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist palonosetron in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).  

PubMed

Cisplatin-like chemotherapeutics cause vomiting via release of multiple neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), or substance P (SP)) from the gastrointestinal enterochromaffin cells and/or the brainstem via a calcium dependent process. Diverse channels in the plasma membrane allow extracellular Ca(2+) entry into cells for the transmitter release process. Agonists of 5-HT3 receptors increase calcium influx through both 5-HT3 receptors and L-type Ca(2+) channels. We envisaged that L-type calcium agonists such as FPL 64176 should cause vomiting and corresponding antagonists such as nifedipine would behave as broad-spectrum antiemetics. Administration of FPL 64176 did cause vomiting in the least shrew in a dose-dependent fashion. Nifedipine and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist palonosetron, potently suppressed FPL 64176-induced vomiting, while a combination of ineffective doses of these antagonists was more efficacious. Subsequently, we investigated the broad-spectrum antiemetic potential of nifedipine against diverse emetogens including agonists of serotonergic 5-HT3- (e.g. 5-HT or 2-Me-5-HT), SP tachykinin NK1- (GR73632), dopamine D2- (apomorphine or quinpirole), and cholinergic M1- (McN-A-343) receptors, as well as the non-specific emetogen, cisplatin. Nifedipine by itself suppressed vomiting in a potent and dose-dependent manner caused by the above emetogens except cisplatin. Moreover, low doses of nifedipine potentiated the antiemetic efficacy of non-effective or semi-effective doses of palonosetron against vomiting caused by either 2-Me-5-HT or cisplatin. Thus, our findings demonstrate that activation of L-type calcium channels causes vomiting, whereas blockade of these ion channels by nifedipine-like antagonists not only provides broad-spectrum antiemetic activity but can also potentiate the antiemetic efficacy of well-established antiemetics such as palonosetron. L-type calcium channel antagonists should also provide antiemetic activity against drug-induced vomiting as well as other emetogens including bacterial and viral proteins. PMID:24513517

Darmani, Nissar A; Zhong, Weixia; Chebolu, Seetha; Vaezi, Mariam; Alkam, Tursun

2014-01-01

227

Automating analog design: Taming the shrew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pace of progress in the design of integrated circuits continues to amaze observers inside and outside of the industry. Three decades ago, a 50 transistor chip was a technological wonder. Fifteen year later, a 5000 transistor device would 'wow' the crowds. Today, 50,000 transistor chips will earn a 'not too bad' assessment, but it takes 500,000 to really leave an impression. In 1975 a typical ASIC device had 1000 transistors, took one year to first samples (and two years to production) and sold for about 5 cents per transistor. Today's 50,000 transistor gate array takes about 4 months from spec to silicon, works the first time, and sells for about 0.02 cents per transistor. Fifteen years ago, the single most laborious and error prone step in IC design was the physical layout. Today, most IC's never see the hand of a layout designer: and automatic place and route tool converts the engineer's computer captured schematic to a complete physical design using a gate array or a library of standard cells also created by software rather than by designers. CAD has also been a generous benefactor to the digital design process. The architect of today's digital systems creates the design using an RTL or other high level simulator. Then the designer pushes a button to invoke the logic synthesizer-optimizer tool. A fault analyzer checks the result for testability and suggests where scan based cells will improve test coverage. One obstinate holdout amidst this parade of progress is the automation of analog design and its reduction to semi-custom techniques. This paper investigates the application of CAD techniques to analog design.

Barlow, A.

1990-01-01

228

LUNG PARASITES OF SHREWS FROM PENNSYLVANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRA(:T: We exarnimied lmmngparasites of three species of soricids, Sore.? cinereus (ii = 58), Sorexfirneus (in = 23) and Blarina brevicauda (in = 45) collected from Penmnsvhvania (USA), fromnn 1990 to 1995. Yeast-like cells of Histoplasina capsulatuin var. capsulatuin were found innInning sections stained with Grocott's nnnodificationof Gonnnori's mniethenamnnine silver,periodic acid-Schiff, Giemnisa, and hematoxylin-eosin in two (3%) S. cinereus, eight

Juha Laakkonen; Voitto Haukisalmi; Joseph F. Merritt

229

Arthritis in a Glyptodont (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata)  

PubMed Central

Arthritic lesions have been frequently diagnosed in the fossil record, with spondyloarthropathy (a type of erosive and pan-mammalian arthritis) being one of the most common types described to date for mammals, though not restricted to this group. Here, we identify spondyloarthropathy in fossil bones from the late Pleistocene in Brazil assignable to a large glyptodont individual. Bone erosions in the peripheral joints (viz., the ulna, radius, left femur and tibiae-fibulae) associated with osteosclerosis allow the diagnosis of spondyloarthropathy. The presence of osteophytes in seven bones of the forelimbs (viz., the ulna and radius) and hind limbs (viz., the tibiae-fibulae, left femur and patellae) and a subchondral cyst in one element (viz., the left femur) indicate secondary osteoarthritis. A calcified deposition on the articular surface of the left patella indicates the presence of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, which, like the observed osteoarthritic alterations, likely represents a complication of spondyloarthropathy. This is the first report of spondyloarthropathy for xenarthrans. PMID:24551126

Barbosa, Fernando Henrique de Souza; Porpino, Kleberson de Oliveira; Fragoso, Ana Bernadete Lima; Oliveira, Edison Vicente

2014-01-01

230

Arthritis in a glyptodont (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata).  

PubMed

Arthritic lesions have been frequently diagnosed in the fossil record, with spondyloarthropathy (a type of erosive and pan-mammalian arthritis) being one of the most common types described to date for mammals, though not restricted to this group. Here, we identify spondyloarthropathy in fossil bones from the late Pleistocene in Brazil assignable to a large glyptodont individual. Bone erosions in the peripheral joints (viz., the ulna, radius, left femur and tibiae-fibulae) associated with osteosclerosis allow the diagnosis of spondyloarthropathy. The presence of osteophytes in seven bones of the forelimbs (viz., the ulna and radius) and hind limbs (viz., the tibiae-fibulae, left femur and patellae) and a subchondral cyst in one element (viz., the left femur) indicate secondary osteoarthritis. A calcified deposition on the articular surface of the left patella indicates the presence of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, which, like the observed osteoarthritic alterations, likely represents a complication of spondyloarthropathy. This is the first report of spondyloarthropathy for xenarthrans. PMID:24551126

Barbosa, Fernando Henrique de Souza; Porpino, Kleberson de Oliveira; Fragoso, Ana Bernadete Lima; Oliveira, Edison Vicente

2014-01-01

231

Body size of Smilodon (Mammalia: Felidae).  

PubMed

The body masses of the three large saber-toothed machairodontines, Smilodon gracilis, S. fatalis, and S. populator, were estimated on the basis of 36 osteological variables from the appendicular skeleton of extant felids. A new model is introduced that takes the reliability of the predictor equations into account, since mass estimates are more reliable when computed from multiple variables per bone. At a body mass range of 55-100 kg, S. gracilis was comparable in size to extant jaguars, and S. fatalis was found to be somewhat lighter than previously assumed, with a body mass range of 160-280 kg, similar to that of the largest extant felid, the Siberian tiger. Smilodon populator was substantially heavier and larger than any extant felid, with a body mass range of 220-360 kg. Particularly large specimens of S. populator almost certainly exceeded 400 kg in body mass. The differences from previous estimates are most likely caused by differences in the databases used for mass estimation. PMID:16235255

Christiansen, Per; Harris, John M

2005-12-01

232

Molecular evidence for multiple origins of Insectivora and for a new order of endemic African insectivore mammals  

PubMed Central

The traditional views regarding the mammalian order Insectivora are that the group descended from a single common ancestor and that it is comprised of the following families: Soricidae (shrews), Tenrecidae (tenrecs), Solenodontidae (solenodons), Talpidae (moles), Erinaceidae (hedgehogs and gymnures), and Chrysochloridae (golden moles). Here we present a molecular analysis that includes representatives of all six families of insectivores, as well as 37 other taxa representing marsupials, monotremes, and all but two orders of placental mammals. These data come from complete sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, tRNA-Valine, and 16S rRNA genes (2.6 kb). A wide range of different methods of phylogenetic analysis groups the tenrecs and golden moles (both endemic to Africa) in an all-African superordinal clade comprised of elephants, sirenians, hyracoids, aardvark, and elephant shrews, to the exclusion of the other four remaining families of insectivores. Statistical analyses reject the idea of a monophyletic Insectivora as well as traditional concepts of the insectivore suborder Soricomorpha. These findings are supported by sequence analyses of several nuclear genes presented here: vWF, A2AB, and ?-? hemoglobin. These results require that the order Insectivora be partitioned and that the two African families (golden moles and tenrecs) be placed in a new order. The African superordinal clade now includes six orders of placental mammals. PMID:9707584

Stanhope, Michael J.; Waddell, Victor G.; Madsen, Ole; de Jong, Wilfried; Hedges, S. Blair; Cleven, Gregory C.; Kao, Diana; Springer, Mark S.

1998-01-01

233

Diversification processes in an island radiation of shrews  

E-print Network

drawn much motivaton from their enthusiasm 6 and intelct. The chapters contained herein have been co-authored variously by Rafe 7 Brown, San Mr, Carl Oliveros, and Robert Tim, and mny others have provided 8 insghtful and encouraging suggestions. I... (Mindanao Stae University); Chris Conroy, Eilen Lacey, and Jim Paton (Museum of 1 Vertbrat Zoology, Unirsity of California); Nncy Sions and Drrin Lunde 2 (Amrican Museum of Natural History); Joe Cook (Museum of Southwestrn Biology); 3 Luis Ruedas...

Esselstyn, Jacob Aaron

2010-04-22

234

HABITS OF THE SHORT-TAILED SHREW, BLARINA BREVICAUDA (SAY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following notes are presented in the hopes that they may be of interest to students of the smaller mammals. The observations submitted here have been made over a period of six years, commencing in 1924 and continued as time permitted. MOLTING. Molting appears to take place without regard to season, and specimens taken in December and June alike show

W. J. HAMILTON

235

Blarina hylophaga (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) CODY W. THOMPSON, JERRY R. CHOATE*, HUGH H. GENOWAYS, AND ELMER J. FINCK  

E-print Network

Blarina brevicauda hulophaga Elliot, 1899:287. Type locality ``Dougherty, Indian Territory.'' (5 Dougherty, Murray Co., Oklahoma, USA). Blarina [(Blarina)] brevicauda hylophaga Elliot, 1905:461. Justified emendation of Blarina brevicauda hulophaga Elliot, 1899:287. Blarina brevicauda carolinensis: Blair, 1939

Hayssen, Virginia

236

Postcanine Dental Form in the Mustelidae and Viverridae (Carnivora: Mammalia)  

E-print Network

morphology of mustelid and viverrid postcanine dentitions corresponds with differences in diet. For each. Principal components analysis distinguishes species according to morphological differences in the dentition are more likely to be corre- spondingly specialized in the dentition and species with varied food sources

Meyers, Ron

237

Evolutionary Morphology of the Tenrecoidea (Mammalia) Forelimb Skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional morphology of the mammalian forelimb skeleton and the details of its joints have been explored and discussed in\\u000a great depth relative to other postcranial regions, despite potential difficulties with interpreting the morphology of this\\u000a region. The mammalian forelimb performs a variety of biological roles, including postural, locomotor, feeding, exploratory,\\u000a grooming, and defense related behaviors. Detailed morphology might therefore reflect

Justine A. Salton; Eric J. Sargis

238

Enamel microstructure in Lemuridae (Mammalia, Primates): assessment of variability.  

PubMed

This study describes the molar enamel microstructure of seven lemurid primates: Hapalemur griseus, Varecia variegata, Lemur catta, Lemur macaco, Lemur fulvus rufus, Lemur fulvus fulvus, and Lemur fulvus albifrons. Contrary to earlier accounts, which reported little or no prism decussation in lemurid enamel, both Lemur and Varecia molars contain a prominent inner layer of decussating prisms (Hunter-Schreger bands), in addition to an outer radial prism layer, and a thin, nonprismatic enamel surface layer. In contrast, Hapalemur enamel consists entirely of radial and, near the surface, nonprismatic enamel. In addition, for all species, prism packing patterns differ according to depth from the tooth surface, and for all species but Varecia (which also has the thinnest enamel of any lemurid), average prism area increases from the enamel-dentine junction to the surface; this may be a developmental solution to the problem of accommodating a larger outer surface area with enamel deposited from a fixed number of cells. Finally, contradicting some previous reports, Pattern 1 prisms predominate only in the most superficial prismatic enamel. In the deeper enamel, prism cross-sections include both closed (Pattern 1) and arc-shaped (Pattern 2 or, most commonly, Pattern 3). This sequence of depth-related pattern change is repeated in all taxa. It should also be emphasized that all taxa can exhibit all three prism patterns in their mature enamel. The high degree of quantitative and qualitative variation in prism size, shape, and packing suggests that these features should be used cautiously in phylogenetic studies. Hapalemur is distinguished from the other lemurids by unique, medially constricted or rectangular prism cross-sections at an intermediate depth and the absence of prism decussation, but, without further assessment of character polarity, these differences do not clarify lemurid phylogenetic relations. Some characters of enamel microstructure may represent synapomorphies of Lemuridae, or of clades within Lemuridae, but homoplasty is likely to be common. Homoplasy of enamel characters may reflect functional constraints. PMID:7802097

Maas, M C

1994-10-01

239

Generic names of northern and southern fur seals (Mammalia: Otariidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have resolved a nomenclatural problem discovered during research on the northern fur seal that concerns the correct generic name for this taxon and for fur seals of the Southern Hemisphere. The unfortunate practice by some 19th century authors to use names in their Latinized form, but to date them from their first appearance as French common names led to the use of Arctocephalus for southern fur seals when the name correctly applies to the northern fur seal, known today as Callorhinus ursinus. However, Arctocephalus and Callorhinus are antedated by Otoes G. Fischer, 1817, which is the earliest available generic for the fur seal of the northern Pacific. The earliest available generic name for southern fur seals is Halarctus Gill, 1866. To avoid the confusion that would result from replacing the currently used generic names with those required by strict adherence to the Principle of Priority, we have petitioned the International Commission on Zoological nomenclature to preserve Arctocephalus and Callorhinus for the southern and northern fur seals, respectively.

Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

1998-01-01

240

Molecular evolution of Holarctic martens (genus Martes, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bering Land Bridge has served as a major corridor of interchange between the northern continents for many organisms. We investigated the phylogeny of all extant species of Martes (except for Martes gwatkinsi from India) to infer evolutionary relationships and characterize the extent of trans-Beringian movements. Analyses of complete sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and partial sequences of

Karen D. Stone; Joseph A. Cook

2002-01-01

241

Breaking constraint: axial patterning in Trichechus (Mammalia: Sirenia).  

PubMed

Meristic variation is often limited in serially homologous systems with high internal differentiation and high developmental modularity. The mammalian neck, an extreme example, has a fixed (at seven) count of diversely specialized segments. Imposition of the mammalian cervical constraint has been tentatively linked to the origin of the diaphragm, which is muscularized by cells that migrate from cervical somites during development. With six cervical vertebrae, the genus Trichechus (manatee) has apparently broken this constraint, although the mechanism of constraint escape is unknown. Hypotheses for the developmental origin of Trichechus cervical morphology include cervical rib 7 repatterning, a primaxial/abaxial patterning shift, and local homeosis at the cervical/thoracic boundary. We tested predictions of these hypotheses by documenting vertebral morphology, axial ossification patterns, regionalization of the postcranial skeleton, and the relationship of thoracic ribs to sternal subunits in a large data set of fetal and adult Trichechus and Dugong specimens. These observations forced rejection of all three hypotheses. We propose alternatively that a global slowing of the rate of somitogenesis reduced somite count and disrupted alignment of Hox-generated anatomical markers relative to somite (and vertebral) boundaries throughout the Trichechus column. This hypothesis is consistent with observations of the full range of traditional cervical morphologies in the six cervical vertebrae, conserved postcranial proportions, and column-wide reduction in count relative to its sister taxon, Dugong. It also suggests that the origin of the mammalian cervical constraint lies in patterning, not in count, and that Trichechus and the tree sloths have broken the constraint using different developmental mechanisms. PMID:25339599

Buchholtz, Emily A; Wayrynen, Kaisa L; Lin, Iris W

2014-11-01

242

Chromosome complement of tenrecs, Centetes ecaudatus (Order Insectivora, Class Mammalia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Dans les leucoyctes en culture de 7 TenrecsCentetes ecaudatus (4 mâles et 3 femelles) provenant de la République Malgache, l'auteur a compté 38 chromosomes et constaté que les sexes ont un caryocyte distinct. C'est la première étude faite sur les chromosomes d'un représentant de la famille des Tenrecidae (Insectivores).

D. S. Borgaonkar; E. Gould

1965-01-01

243

[Comparative morphology of the cerebellum of the seal (Pinnipedia, Mammalia)].  

PubMed

The work describes the anatomical structure of the cerebellum of the caspian seal (Pusa caspica Gmelin) and Greenland seal (Pagophoca groenlandica Erxleben). The shape of the cerebellum, the disposition of the main lobes and convolutions are characterized. The schemes of three projections of the cerebellum of both species are presented. The figures of the cerebellum size, its absolute and relative weight and the surface of the cerebellum and its portions in seals have been obtained. The well-developmed flocculo-nodular portions and paraflocculuses and relatively poorly developed lobulus paramedianus are pointed to be one of the characteristic features of the structure of the seal cerebellum. An attempt is made to explain great dimensions of the flocculo-nodullar portion and paraflocculuses by specific features of the seal locomotion in water. PMID:1191041

Leshko, A A; Nikitenko, M F

1975-04-01

244

A phylogenetic estimate for golden moles (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Chrysochloridae)  

E-print Network

_pres, 40 occiput / 0_90angle 1_mushroom, 41 sinus_canal_AH47 / 0_pres 1_abs, 42 sinus_canal_foramen_AH48 / 0_confl_sphenorb_fissure '1_betw_sphenorb-ethmoid' 2_confl_ethmoid, 43 frontal_proportions_AH61 / 0_elongate 1_similar_parietal 2_shorter...

Asher, Robert J; Maree, Sarita; Bronner, Gary; Bennett, Nigel C; Bloomer, Paulette; Czechowski, Paul; Meyer, Matthias; Hofreiter, Michael

2010-03-09

245

Identification of Ebola virus sequences present as RNA or DNA in organs of terrestrial small mammals of the Central African Republic.  

PubMed

The life cycle of the Ebola (EBO) virus remains enigmatic. We tested for EBO virus in the organs of 242 small mammals captured during ecological studies in the Central African Republic. EBO virus glycoprotein or polymerase gene sequences were detected by reverse transcription PCR in RNA extracts of the organs of seven animals and by PCR in DNA extract of one animal. Neither live virus nor virus antigen was detected in any organ sample. Direct sequencing of amplicons identified the virus as being of the Zaire/Gabon subtype. Virus-like nucleocapsids were observed by electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of the spleen cells of one animal. The animals belonged to two genera of rodents (Muridae; Mus setulosus, Praomys sp1 and P. sp2) and one species of shrew (Soricidae; Sylvisorex ollula). These preliminary results provide evidence that common terrestrial small mammals living in peripheral forest areas have been in contact with the EBO virus and demonstrate the persistence of EBO virus RNA and DNA in the organs of the animals. Our findings should lead to better targeting of research into the life cycle of the EBO virus. PMID:10580275

Morvan, J M; Deubel, V; Gounon, P; Nakouné, E; Barrière, P; Murri, S; Perpète, O; Selekon, B; Coudrier, D; Gautier-Hion, A; Colyn, M; Volehkov, V

1999-12-01

246

Long-term effects of precommercial thinning on small mammals in northern Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Precommercial thinning (PCT) is being practiced increasingly throughout the Acadian forest of eastern North America to meet silvicultural objectives; however, effects of this practice on wildlife, both immediately and several years post-treatment are not well understood. Forest dependent small mammals have ecological roles as prey for numerous avian and mammalian predators, dispersers of seeds, fruit, and spores, and contribute to nutrient cycling. Researchers in the northwestern USA have suggested that thinning of young, regenerating clearcuts may increase the abundance and diversity of some forest-dependent small mammals by increasing rates of forest development and enhancing the ecological representation of mid-successional stands across managed landscapes. We examined the effects of PCT within conifer-dominated forest stands 1-, 6-, 11-, and 16-years post-treatment, on abundances of mice, voles, and shrews, and on within-stand structure in the commercially managed, Acadian forests of northern Maine. We live-trapped small mammals on 24 herbicide-treated clearcuts treated with PCT and on 13 similar, unthinned stands during summers of 2000 and 2001. Thinning of mid-successional conifer stands resulted in increased abundances, (red-backed voles, Clethrionomys gapperi, P = 0.008; masked shrews, Sorex cinereus, P < 0.001) or had no detectable effect on (deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, P = 0.544; short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda, P = 0.517) the 4 most common species of Muridae and Soricidae in northern Maine. In general, abundance of deer mice responded more positively to increasing development class and to the number of years since thinning than other species of small mammals. Several within-stand habitat characteristics associated with stand maturity, such as larger stem diameters and a partially open canopy, occurred in thinned stands. Thus, PCT may accelerate the development of habitat attributes typical of mid-successional conifer stands in intensively managed stands within the Acadian Forest. PCT may increase abundances of small mammal species associated with mid-seral forest conditions at the scale of the forest stand. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Homyack, J.A.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.

2005-01-01

247

DOI 10.1515/mammalia-2011-0138Mammalia 2013; 77(1): 2130 Arielle Waldstein Parsons*, Theodore R. Simons, Allan F. O'Connell Jr. and  

E-print Network

of an isolated, unmanaged raccoon Procyon lotor (Procyonidae, Carnivora) population on the Outer Banks of North Carolina Abstract: Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are highly adapt- able meso-carnivores that inhabit many-carnivore; Procyon lotor; raccoon. *Corresponding author: Arielle Waldstein Parsons, US Geological Survey, North

Simons, Theodore R.

248

Morphological diversity and ecological similarity: versatility of muscular and skeletal morphologies enables ecological convergence in shrews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Ecological convergence in morphology among taxa of distinct evolutionary histories is a common illustration of the efficacy of natural selection. Ecological convergence is often enabled by functional redundancy of complex morphological structures, such that modification of existing morphologies in response to similar functional requirements can lead to the devel- opment and evolution of morphological diversity. Thus, studies of

Rebecca L. Young; Michael J. Sweeney; Alexander V. Badyaev

2009-01-01

249

Differential effects of chronic stress on memory processes in the tree shrew  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unpredictable and uncontrollable stressful events have been shown to affect cognitive processes. Interestingly, only hippocampus-mediated memory processes are thought to be sensitive to the effects of chronic stress. In contrast, the hippocampus-independent memory processes have been shown to be resistant to chronic stressful experiences. A central feature of the stress response is the activation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA)-axis, resulting in

Frauke Ohl; Eberhard Fuchs

1999-01-01

250

Noradrenalin induces thermogenesis in a phylogenetically ancient eutherian mammal, the rock elephant shrew, Elephantulus myurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of endothermy is thought to have been facilitated by the advent of endothermic energy sources such as brown\\u000a adipose tissue (BAT), the principal site of non-shivering thermogenesis (NST). In marsupials, heat is primarily produced through\\u000a shivering and NST in skeletal muscle because BAT is either absent or appears to be non-functional. The most basal group of\\u000a the eutherian

Nomakwezi Mzilikazi; Barry G. Lovegrove

2006-01-01

251

DESCRIPTION AND MOLECULAR DIFFERENTIATION OF A NEW STAPHYLOCYSTOIDES (CYCLOPHYLLIDEA: HYMENOLEPIDIDAE) FROM THE DUSKY SHREW SOREX  

E-print Network

, and Joseph A. Cook* Department of Biology, University of North Dakota, 10 Cornell Street, Grand Forks, North, and Staphylocystoides sphenomorphus Locker and Rausch, 1952 (Gulyaev et al., 2007; Kinsella and Tkach, 2009). To date, only S. sphenomorphus and S. serrula have been reported from Alaska (Voge and Rausch, 1955; Dunagan

252

Calretinin immunoreactivity in the prenatally developing olfactory systems of the tree shrew Tupaia belangeri.  

PubMed

The prenatal patterns of calretinin immunoreactivity were studied in the olfactory systems of Tupaia belangeri. We investigated the peripheral and primary central parts of the vomeronasal system and of the main olfactory system from the 19th to the 43rd (last) day of gestation and compared the findings with the known calretinin immunoreactivity patterns in adult T. belangeri and the published data on other mammals. The onset of calretinin immunoreactivity was noted in the main olfactory system on the 23rd day of gestation and, in the vomeronasal system, on the 25th day of gestation: single precursors of receptor cells with calretinin immunoreactive perikarya and processes were observed in both epithelia. Their neuronal identity was proven by olfactory marker protein immunoreactivity. On the 42nd day of gestation, almost all receptor cells and nerve fibers, many interneurons and projecting cells were calretinin immunoreactive in the main olfactory and in the vomeronasal systems. In contrast to the intensive calretinin labeling previously observed in virtually all vomeronasal epithelial cells of adult T. belangeri, among developing receptor cells a population of intensively labeled, basally located perikarya was distinguishable from a population of less intensively stained, more apically located ones. In the main olfactory epithelium of fetal T. belangeri, calretinin immunoreactive receptor cells occurred in the middle layers. Whereas in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium differently reacting layers of receptor cells might represent the two known subfamilies of receptor cells, in the main olfactory epithelium the differing calretinin expression in the layers of the epithelium, most probably, did not reflect known subfamilies of odour receptor cells. Transiently, ectopic calretinin immunoreactive receptor cells were observed in the future non-sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ. PMID:12021911

Malz, Cordula R; Knabe, Wolfgang; Kuhn, Hans-Jürg

2002-05-01

253

Rhombomere-specific patterns of apoptosis in the tree shrew Tupaia belangeri.  

PubMed

Whether rhombomere-specific patterns of apoptosis exist in the developing hindbrain of vertebrates is under debate. We have investigated the sequence of apoptotic events in three-dimensionally reconstructed hindbrains of Tupaia belangeri (8- to 19-somite embryos). Apoptotic cells were identified by structural criteria and by applying an in situ tailing technique to visualize DNA fragmentation. Seven rhombomeres originated from three pro-rhombomeres. Among pre-migratory neural crest cells in the dorsal thirds of the neural folds, the earliest apoptotic concentrations appeared in the developing third rhombomere (r3). Dorsal apoptotic maxima then persisted in r3, extended from r3 to r2, and also arose in r5. Transverse apoptotic bands increased the total amount of apoptotic cells in odd-numbered rhombomeres first in r3 and, with a delay, also in r5. This sequence of apoptotic events was paralleled by an approximate rostrocaudal sequence of neural crest cell delamination from the even-numbered rhombomeres. Thus, large-scale apoptosis in r3 and r5 helped to establish crest-free zones that segregated streams of migrating neural crest cells adjacent to r2, r4, and r6. The sequence of apoptotic events observed in the dorsal thirds of rhombomeres matches that reported for the chick embryo. Other shared features are apoptotic peaks in the position of a circumscribed ventricular protrusion of fusing parts of the neural folds in r1 and r2, and Y-shaped apoptotic patterns composed of apoptotic maxima in the dorsal and lateral thirds of r1, r2, and r3. These rhombomere-specific patterns of apoptosis may therefore represent a conserved character, at least in amniotes. PMID:14986099

Knabe, Wolfgang; Washausen, Stefan; Brunnett, Guido; Kuhn, Hans-Jürg

2004-04-01

254

The use of albendazole for the treatment of trematodiasis in two tree shrews (Tupala glis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Albendazole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic of the benzimidazole group which has been tested in several rodents and domestic animals. Albendazole has been used effectively to treat trematodes in sheep, cattle, dogs, and cats. The use of this anthelmintic in exotic small mammals has not been reported to the authors' knowledge.

Beehler, B.A.; Tuggle, B.N.

1983-01-01

255

Fine structure of the parotid gland in tree shrew (Tupaia glis).  

PubMed

The parotid glands of Tupaia glis were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The acinar cells were seromucous in nature, and contained many acidophilic granules with strong affinity for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and weak affinity for alcian blue (AB). These granules consisted of a fine granular matrix of moderate density in which a denser corpuscles or semilunar materials were present. Intercalated duct cells had a few fine vesicles, vacuoles and very few dense granules in the apical region. In occasional epithelial cells, acidophilic, PAS-positive and AB-negative bodies with moderate density were observed in the supranuclear region. The striated ducts consisted of columnar light and dark cells containing round or small ovoid granules of moderate density and did not show the granular duct as seen in the parotid glands of kobe mole and tenrec which are placed in the order insectivora. PMID:8575539

Suzuki, S; Mifune, H; Nishida, T; Obara, T; Kamimura, R; Sakamoto, H; Mohammad Abdul, A; Nishinakagawa, H

1995-10-01

256

Species interactions during diversification and community assembly in an island radiation of shrews.  

E-print Network

modern islands in the Philippines [56–61]. When sea levels were low (2120 m) six major islands were formed, here termed greater Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros–Panay, Palawan, and Sulu (Fig. 1). We refer to these as Pleistocene Aggregate Island Complexes... further consideration. Among the remaining nine species, at least seven are members of an endemic Philippine clade that occurs throughout the country, from Calayan in the north, to Palawan, Balabac, and Mindanao in the south (Fig. 1; Table 1) [41]. One...

Brown, Rafe M.

2011-01-01

257

Scleral gene expression during recovery from myopia compared with expression during myopia development in tree shrew  

PubMed Central

Purpose During postnatal refractive development, the sclera receives retinally generated signals that regulate its biochemical properties. Hyperopic refractive error causes the retina to produce “GO” signals that, through the direct emmetropization pathway, cause scleral remodeling that increases the axial elongation rate of the eye, reducing the hyperopia. Myopia causes the retina to generate “STOP” signals that produce scleral remodeling, slowing the axial elongation rate and reducing the myopia. Our aim was to compare the pattern of gene expression produced in the sclera by the STOP signals with the GO gene expression signature we described previously. Methods The GO gene expression signature was produced by monocular –5 diopter (D) lens wear for 2 days (ML-2) or 4 days (ML-4); an additional “STAY” condition was examined after eyes had fully compensated for a –5 D lens after 11 days of lens wear (ML-11). After 11 days of ?5 D lens wear had produced full refractive compensation, gene expression in the STOP condition was examined during recovery (without the lens) for 2 days (REC-2) or 4 days (REC-4). The untreated contralateral eyes served as a control in all groups. Two age-matched normal groups provided a comparison with the treated groups. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA levels for 55 candidate genes. Results The STAY group compensated fully for the lens (treated eye versus control eye, –5.1±0.2 D). Wearing the lens, the hyperopic signal for elongation had dissipated (–0.3±0.3 D). In the STOP groups, the refraction in the recovering eyes became less myopic relative to the control eyes (REC-2, +1.3±0.3 D; REC-4, +2.6±0.4 D). In the STAY group, three genes showed significant downregulation. However, many genes that were significantly altered in GO showed smaller, nonsignificant, expression differences in the same direction in STAY, suggesting the gene expression signature in STAY is a greatly weakened form of the GO signature. In the STOP groups, a different gene expression pattern was observed, characterized by mostly upregulation with larger fold differences after 4 days than after 2 days of recovery. Eleven of the 55 genes examined showed significant bidirectional GO/STOP regulation in the ML-2 and REC-2 groups, and 13 genes showed bidirectional regulation in the ML-4 and REC-4 groups. Eight of these genes (NPR3, CAPNS1, NGEF, TGFB1, CTGF, NOV, TIMP1, and HS6ST1) were bidirectionally regulated at both time points in the GO and STOP conditions. An additional 15 genes showed significant regulation in either GO or STOP conditions but not in both. Conclusions Many genes are involved in scleral remodeling and the control of axial length. The STOP (recovery) gene expression signature in the sclera involves some of the same genes, bidirectionally regulated, as the GO signature. However, other genes, regulated in GO, are not differentially regulated in STOP, and others show differential regulation only in STOP. PMID:25540576

Guo, Lin; Frost, Michael R.; Siegwart, John T.

2014-01-01

258

Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 31 (2003) 739750 www.elsevier.com/locate/biochemsyseco  

E-print Network

-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda, southern short-tailed shrew Blarina carolinensis, and least shrew Cryptotis morphologically very similar species of Blarina. The mean heterozygosity values for B. brevicauda and S. hoyi were samples of pygmy shrews Sorex hoyi Baird, northern short-tailed shrews Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1823

Sanderson, Mike

259

Cranial anatomy of Paleocene and Eocene Labidolemur kayi (Mammalia: Apatotheria), and the relationships of  

E-print Network

incisor. The lower dentition of apatemyids also typically includes a wedge-shaped, blade-like p2 (1987) suggested these fingers were used with the enlarged anterior dentition for foraging for wood). The combination of their rather strange dentition and derived postcranium makes them one of the most specialized

Houde, Peter

260

[Water and energy metabolism in representatives of the genus Martes and Mustela (Mammalia: Mustelidae)].  

PubMed

The quantities of consumed food and water, quantity and moisture content of faeces, as well as quantity and concentration of excreted urine were determined in representatives of Martes--marten (M. martes) and sable (M. zibellina)--as well as in polecat (Mustela putorius). Under the same cage conditions and free access to food, all three species had similar energy value of the daily diet. However, the level of drinking water consumption and the ratio between the quantities of arriving water and energy was reliably higher in both Martes species than in polecat. In addition, both marten and sable featured a much higher rate of evaporation loss in the overall water balance and, consequently, a higher quantity of heat dissipated with evaporation as compared to polecat. Comparison of the obtained and previous data (Sokolov et al., 1995; Rozhnov, 1991) allowed us to propose that the mentioned differences can be specific for representatives of Martes and Mustela genera irrespective of ecological specialization of particular species. PMID:12942756

Meshcherski?, I G; Rozhnov, V V; Na?denko, S V

2003-01-01

261

Postcranial anatomy of Viverravus (Mammalia, Carnivora) and implications for substrate use in basal Carnivora  

Microsoft Academic Search

A postcranial skeleton of the viverravid carnivoran, Viverravus acutus from the early Eocene of Wyoming, is described and compared to contemporary carnivorans (the viverravid Didymictis, and the miacids Miacis and Vulpavus), and to extant taxa belonging to the families Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Canidae, Viverridae, and Herpestidae. Based on humeral and femoral midshaft diameters, body mass for this animal is estimated to

Ronald E. Heinrich; Peter Houde

2006-01-01

262

A tubulidentate suiform lineage (Tayassuidae, Mammalia) from the Early Miocene of Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small suiform artiodactyls from Moheda, Loranca and Corcolés, Spain, possess tubulidentate microstructure in their cheek tooth roots. The oldest specimens from Moheda (MN 2a) have a few scattered tubules near the apices of the molar roots, those from Loranca (MN 2b) have numerous tubules of various diameters in contact with each other, but oriented at various angles, while specimens from Corcolés (MN 4) are completely tubulidentate with well developed, sub-parallel tubules of sub-equal diameter running the entire length of the roots. The same series of fossils shows that with the passage of geological time the roots of this tayassuid lineage became more hypsorhizic and fusion of the roots increased, while the crowns of the teeth became simpler and thinner enamelled. Selection in this lineage was therefore focused upon increasing the longevity and wear resistance of the roots, while the role of the crowns of the teeth in mastication was de-emphasised. It is hypothesised that, as in Tubulidentata and Edentata, this suiform lineage was ingesting food items which contained significant quantities of adhérant earth. Whether the diet also contained ants and termites is not known.

Pickford, Martin; Morales, Jorge

1998-08-01

263

Population structure of the gomphothere Stegomastodon waringi (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae) from the Pleistocene of Brazil.  

PubMed

The Quaternary fossil record of Águas de Araxá (Q AA) is represented mainly by an accumulation of skeletal elements of several sizes, which are assigned to a population of Stegomastodon waringi. We analyzed 97 molars according to the ear stages of Simpson and Paula-Couto (1957), and developed a morphometric ear index. The population structure (proportion of immature, subadult, adult, mature adult and senile adult individuals) was identified, and these five age classes were compared to those of extant elephant populations and defined with social implications. The analysis made possible to establish that the population is largely composed of adults: 14.89% are immature individuals, 23.04% subadults, 27.65% adults, 17.21% mature adults and another 17.21% senile adults. Based on population structure, we do not discard the possibility that the fossil population was stable or in recovery, and/or was experiencing a high-predation period on younger individuals. The number of individuals composing the past population studied here could suggest that the occupied environment was open due to comparisons to populations of extant elephants. We consider this population as an aggregation of family units, which suggests a time of low environmental humidity. Based on literature and our findings, their extinction appears to be regional and probably related to a catastrophic event. PMID:21152772

Mothé, Dimila; Avilla, Leonardo S; Winck, Gisele R

2010-12-01

264

Reexamination of the morphological evidence for the cohort Epitheria (Mammalia, Eutheria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novacek and co-workers recognized a monophyletic clade Epitheria, comprising all eutherians except edentates and the extinct palaeoryctoids, on the basis of two synapomorphies: a stirrupshaped stapes and a foramen ovale enclosed within the alisphenoid. To evaluate this phylogenetic hypothesis, we reexamined the distributions of stapedial morphologies and positions of the foramen ovale across Recent and extinct mammals and nonmammalian cynodonts.

Timothy J. Gaudin; John R. Wible; James A. Hopson; William D. Turnbull

1996-01-01

265

Home range and social behavior of three species of European Pitymys (Mammalia, Rodentia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habits, home range, and social behavior of three species of voles of the genus Pitymys, P. multiplex, P. subterraneus, and P. savii, were studied in Tessin (Switzerland) by radioactive tagging. P. multiplex and P. savii are fossorial and often use the burrow systems of moles (Talpa); P. subterraneus moves around on the surface under dense vegetation. Males and females of

Marco Salvioni

1988-01-01

266

Phenotypic Convergence in Genetically Distinct Lineages of a Rhinolophus Species Complex (Mammalia, Chiroptera)  

PubMed Central

Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the convergence. Instead, the striking similarity in morphology and sensory biology are probably the result of neutral evolutionary processes, resulting in the independent evolution of similar phenotypes. PMID:24312666

Jacobs, David S.; Babiker, Hassan; Bastian, Anna; Kearney, Teresa; van Eeden, Rowen; Bishop, Jacqueline M.

2013-01-01

267

Karyology of eight species of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Hainan Island, China  

PubMed Central

Karyotypes and chromosomal data are presented for eight bat species representing two families (Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) from Hainan Island, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus lepidus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. pusillus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. affinis (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. sinicus (2n = 36, FN = 60), Myotis horsfieldi (2n = 44, FN = 52), Pipistrellus abramus (2n = 26, FN = 44), Miniopterus australis (2n = 46, FN = 50) and M. schreibersii (2n = 46, FN = 50). The karyotype of Rhinolophus lepidus is reported for the first time. PMID:19847322

Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Li, Yu-Chun; Harada, Masashi; Chen, Zhong; Lin, Liang-Kong

2009-01-01

268

The Influence of Modularity on Cranial Morphological Disparity in Carnivora and Primates (Mammalia)  

PubMed Central

Background Although variation provides the raw material for natural selection and evolution, few empirical data exist about the factors controlling morphological variation. Because developmental constraints on variation are expected to act by influencing trait correlations, studies of modularity offer promising approaches that quantify and summarize patterns of trait relationships. Modules, highly-correlated and semi-autonomous sets of traits, are observed at many levels of biological organization, from genes to colonies. The evolutionary significance of modularity is considerable, with potential effects including constraining the variation of individual traits, circumventing pleiotropy and canalization, and facilitating the transformation of functional structures. Despite these important consequences, there has been little empirical study of how modularity influences morphological evolution on a macroevolutionary scale. Here, we conduct the first morphometric analysis of modularity and disparity in two clades of placental mammals, Primates and Carnivora, and test if trait integration within modules constrains or facilitates morphological evolution. Principal Findings We used both randomization methods and direct comparisons of landmark variance to compare disparity in the six cranial modules identified in previous studies. The cranial base, a highly-integrated module, showed significantly low disparity in Primates and low landmark variance in both Primates and Carnivora. The vault, zygomatic-pterygoid and orbit modules, characterized by low trait integration, displayed significantly high disparity within Carnivora. 14 of 24 results from analyses of disparity show no significant relationship between module integration and morphological disparity. Of the ten significant or marginally significant results, eight support the hypothesis that integration within modules constrains morphological evolution in the placental skull. Only the molar module, a highly-integrated and functionally important module, showed significantly high disparity in Carnivora, in support of the facilitation hypothesis. Conclusions This analysis of within-module disparity suggested that strong integration of traits had little influence on morphological evolution over large time scales. However, where significant results were found, the primary effect of strong integration of traits was to constrain morphological variation. Thus, within Primates and Carnivora, there was some support for the hypothesis that integration of traits within cranial modules limits morphological evolution, presumably by limiting the variation of individual traits. PMID:20209089

Goswami, Anjali; Polly, P. David

2010-01-01

269

Chromosome painting among Proboscidea, Hyracoidea and Sirenia: Support for Paenungulata (Afrotheria, Mammalia) but not Tethytheria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite marked improvements in the interpretation of systematic relationships within Eutheria, particular nodes, including Paenungulata (Hyracoidea, Sirenia and Proboscidea), remain ambiguous. The combination of a rapid radiation, a deep divergence and an extensive morphological diversification has resulted in a limited phylogenetic signal confounding resolution within this clade both at the morphological and nucleotide levels. Cross-species chromosome painting was used to delineate regions of homology between Loxodonta africana (2n = 56), Procavia capensis (2n=54), Trichechus manatus latirostris (2n = 48) and an outgroup taxon, the aardvark (Orycteropus afer, 2n = 20). Changes specific to each lineage were identified and although the presence of a minimum of 11 synapomorphies confirmed the monophyly of Paenungulata, no change characterizing intrapaenungulate relationships was evident. The reconstruction of an ancestral paenungulate karyotype and the estimation of rates of chromosomal evolution indicate a reduced rate of genomic repatterning following the paenungulate radiation. In comparison to data available for other mammalian taxa, the paenungulate rate of chromosomal evolution is slow to moderate. As a consequence, the absence of a chromosomal character uniting two paenungulates (at the level of resolution characterized in this study) may be due to a reduced rate of chromosomal change relative to the length of time separating successive divergence events. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

Pardini, A.T.; O'Brien, P. C. M.; Fu, B.; Bonde, R.K.; Elder, F.F.B.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Yang, F.; Robinson, T.J.

2007-01-01

270

Phylogeography, population history and conservation genetics of jaguars (Panthera onca, Mammalia, Felidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jaguar ( Panthera onca ), the largest felid in the American Continent, is currently threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation and human persecution. We have investigated the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of jaguars across their geographical range by analysing 715 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and 29 microsatellite loci in ? ? ?

Eduardo Eizirik; Jae-Heup Kim; Marilyn Menotti-Raymond; Peter G. Crawshaw JR.; Stephen J. O'Brien; Warren E. Johnson

2001-01-01

271

Complete mitochondrial genome of the sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys atys (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae).  

PubMed

Abstract The sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys atys) is an Old World monkey belonging to family Cercopithecidae. It has recently been widely used as an important animal model for researches related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS. In this study, the mitochondrial genome sequence of this species is determined and described for the first time. It is 16,536?bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 putative control region (CR). The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage are similar to those reported from other monkey mitochondrial genomes. The descending order of the base composition on heavy strand is 32.5% A, 29.5% C, 25.8% T, and 12.2% G, with a relatively lower level of G and a slightly A+T bias of 58.3%. All genes are distributed on the H-strand except for the ND6 subunit gene and seven tRNA genes, which are encoded on the L-strand. This mitochondrial genome data are potentially important for the study of molecular evolution, conservation genetics and disease infection in C. a. atys. PMID:25489780

Chang, Pengcheng; Li, Yanping; Zhang, Zhao; Hwang, Daejoon

2014-12-01

272

Chromosomes of some squirrels (mammalia — sciuridae) from the genera Sciurus and Glaucomys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Analyse der mitotischen Chromosomen beiSciurus carolinensis, S. niger undS. aberti ergibt die diploide Zahl 40 und gleichartige Karyotypen.S. griseus, 2n 40, hat einzigeY Chromosomen und sekundäre Konstriktionen in 4 Autosomen.Glaucomys sabrinus undG. volans, 2n 48, zeigten kleinere Unterschiede der Karyotypen. Taxonomische Bezeichnungen vonSciurus, Glaucomys undTamiasciurus werden erörtert.

C. F. Nadler; D. A. Sutton

1967-01-01

273

Histological patterns of the intestinal attachment of Corynosoma australe (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) in Arctocephalus australis (Mammalia: Pinnipedia).  

PubMed

The mucosal attachment pattern of Corynosoma australe in the intestines of Arctocephalus australis is described. Normal and abnormal tissue were sampled from 32 hosts to be submitted to histological routine protocol to embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in balsam. Corynosoma australe shows three different degrees of body depth intestinal attachment (BDINA-1-3). BDINA-1: it is exclusive of the small intestine and the parasite attaches on the villi; BDINA-2: parasite affects the Lieberkühn crypts in several depth levels and, BDINA-3: the parasite reaches the submucosa. These attachment patterns alter the mucosa by degeneration and dysfunction due to necrosis of mucosal structure, great quantities of cellular debris and significant reduction of the mucosal thickness. Other aspects are crater-like concave holes (CLCHs) as sites where C. australe could be attached-detached several times according to adult migratory processes within luminal intestine space. The submucosa shows edema probably due to the local mucosal alterations resulting in homeostatic break. There is no severe inflammatory response by host but BDINA-1 to BDINA-3 and CLCH could represent foci to secondary opportunistic infections and significant areas of malabsorption in severally infected hosts contributing to increase clinical signs of preexistent pathologies. PMID:25320494

Silva, Renato Z; Pereira, Joaber; Cousin, João Carlos B

2014-12-01

274

Skull evolution in the rhinocerotidae (Mammalia, Perissodactyla): Cartesian transformations and functional interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cartesian transformation, applied as a landmark morphometric method, is used to investigate some of the evolutionary shape changes leading to the skulls of the modern rhinoceroses. The early Oligocene genusSubhyracodon serves as the primitive shape from which the extant genera (Dicerorhinus, Rhinocerso, Diceros, andCeratotherium) have been transformed. Coordinate data for 21 landmarks, defined in lateral view, are analyzed by the

Gerald S. Bales

1996-01-01

275

Sphiggurus vestitus pruinosus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Erethizontidae): The Karyotype and its Phylogenetic Implications, Descriptive Notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sphiggurus vestitus pruinosus, a porcupine from western Venezuela, has a karyotype with a diploid number (2n) of 42, and a fundamental number (FN) of 76. The autosomes consist of 34 metacentric and submetacentric, 2 subacrocentric, and 4 acrocentric chromosomes. The X?chromosome is submetacentric, and the Y?chromosome is acrocentric. This karyotype is identical in gross morphology to that of the North

J. L. Concepcion; J. Molinari

1991-01-01

276

The first occurrence of a toxodont (Mammalia, Notoungulata) in the United States  

E-print Network

variation in the stratigraphy of the Deweyville between the two sections. Wood samples collected at depths of 1.0 and 3.5 m below the Deweyville surface yielded AMS radiocarbon ages of 17,080 ± 90 (ISGS-A1513) and 23,730 ± 100 (ISGS-A1183) yr B...

Lundelius, Ernest; Bryant, Vaughn M.; Mandel, Rolfe; Thies, Kenneth J.; Thoms, Alston

2013-01-08

277

Checklist of the mites (Arachnida: Acari) associated with bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the British Isles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 16 species of bats that occur in the British Isles are all protected under current legislation, and their conservation is the subject of much scientific research and public concern. Of the many arthropod parasites carried by these bats, mites have colonized the greatest range of niches. This paper presents an annotated list of the 64 species of mite taken

ANNE S. BAKER; JENNY C. CRAVEN

278

A time-calibrated species-level phylogeny of bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia)  

PubMed Central

Despite their obvious utility, detailed species-level phylogenies are lacking for many groups, including several major mammalian lineages such as bats. Here we provide a cytochrome b genealogy of over 50% of bat species (648 terminal taxa). Based on prior analyzes of related mammal groups, cytb emerges as a particularly reliable phylogenetic marker, and given that our results are broadly congruent with prior knowledge, the phylogeny should be a useful tool for comparative analyzes. Nevertheless, we stress that a single-gene analysis of such a large and old group cannot be interpreted as more than a crude estimate of the bat species tree. Analysis of the full dataset supports the traditional division of bats into macro- and microchiroptera, but not the recently proposed division into Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. However, our results only weakly reject the former and strongly support the latter group, and furthermore, a time calibrated analysis of a pruned dataset where most included taxa have the entire 1140bp cytb sequence finds monophyletic Yinpterochiroptera. Most bat families and many higher level groups are supported, however, relationships among families are in general weakly supported, as are many of the deeper nodes of the tree. The exceptions are in most cases apparently due to the misplacement of species with little available data, while in a few cases the results suggest putative problems with current classification, such as the non-monophyly of Mormoopidae. We provide this phylogenetic hypothesis, and an analysis of divergence times, as tools for evolutionary and ecological studies that will be useful until more inclusive studies using multiple loci become available. PMID:21327164

Agnarsson, Ingi; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M.; Flores-Saldana, Nadia Paola; May-Collado, Laura J.

2011-01-01

279

Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor) (Mammalia, Felidae).  

PubMed

The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species' molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America. PMID:24385863

Matte, Eunice M; Castilho, Camila S; Miotto, Renata A; Sana, Denis A; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; de Freitas, Thales R O; Eizirik, Eduardo

2013-12-01

280

Placentation and fetal membrane development in the South American coati, Nasua nasua (Mammalia, Carnivora, Procyonidae)  

PubMed Central

Background Placental research in carnivores has concentrated on domestic species, which have zonary, labyrinthine placentas with an endotheliochorial barrier. Although the coati, Nasua nasua, is a widely distributed species in South America, data on the development of the placenta and the fetal membranes in this species are very sparse. Findings Four placentas from mid-gestation to near term were collected from wild individuals and were investigated based on gross morphology, histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The available data support the concept that the ancestral condition of placentation in carnivores is phylogenetically characterized by a zonary and labyrinthine placental type with an endotheliochorial fetomaternal barrier, comprising extended epitheliochorial and haemochorial zones, such as hemophagous organs for iron supply and histiotrophe uptake and a yolk sac placenta. Conclusions Because of the foundational mechanisms that lead to the considerable complexity of fetomaternal contact zones in carnivores have not been studied, carnivores are interesting animal models for interhaemal barrier differentiation. PMID:24969476

2014-01-01

281

Cranial functional morphology of fossil dogs and adaptation for durophagy in Borophagus and Epicyon (Carnivora, Mammalia).  

PubMed

Morphological specialization is a complex interplay of adaptation and constraint, as similarly specialized features often evolve convergently in unrelated species, indicating that there are universally adaptive aspects to these morphologies. The evolutionary history of carnivores offers outstanding examples of convergent specialization. Among larger predators, borophagine canids were highly abundant during the tertiary of North America and are regarded as the ecological vicars of Afro-Eurasian hyenas. Borophaginae is an extinct group of 60+ species, the largest forms evolving robust skulls with prominently domed foreheads, short snouts, and hypertrophied fourth premolars. These specializations have been speculated to enhance bone cracking. To test the extent that the skulls of derived borophagines were adapted for producing large bite forces and withstanding the mechanical stresses associated with bone cracking relative to their nonrobust sister clades, we manipulated muscle forces in models of six canid skulls and analyzed their mechanical response using 3D finite element analysis. Performance measures of bite force production efficiency and deformation minimization showed that skulls of derived borophagines Borophagus secundus and Epicyon haydeni are particularly strong in the frontal region; maximum stresses are lower and more evenly distributed over the skull than in other canids. Frontal strength is potentially coupled with a temporalis-driven bite to minimize cranial stress during biting in the two derived genera, as tensile stress incurred by contracting temporalis muscles is dissipated rostro-ventrally across the forehead and face. Comparison of estimated masticatory muscle cross section areas suggests that the temporalis-masseter ratio is not strongly associated with morphological adaptations for bone cracking in Borophagus and Epicyon; larger body size may explain relatively larger temporalis muscles in the latter. When compared with previous studies, the overall cranial mechanics of the derived borophagines is more similar to bone-cracking hyaenids and percrocutids than to their canid relatives, indicating convergence in both morphological form and functional capability. PMID:20799339

Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Wang, Xiaoming

2010-11-01

282

Late Pleistocene carnivores (Carnivora: Mammalia) from a cave sedimentary deposit in northern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Brazilian Quaternary terrestrial Carnivora are represented by the following families: Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae Mephitidae and Mustelidae. Their recent evolutionary history in South America is associated with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, and which enabled the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Here we present new fossil records of Carnivora found in a cave in Aurora do Tocantins, Tocantins, northern Brazil. A stratigraphical controlled collection in the sedimentary deposit of the studied cave revealed a fossiliferous level where the following Carnivora taxa were present: Panthera onca, Leopardus sp., Galictis cuja, Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Arctotherium wingei. Dating by Electron Spinning Resonance indicates that this assemblage was deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), at least, 22.000 YBP. The weasel, G. cuja, is currently reported much further south than the record presented here. This may suggest that the environment around the cave was relatively drier during the LGM, with more open vegetation, and more moderate temperatures than the current Brazilian Cerrado. PMID:25590705

Rodrigues, Shirlley; Avilla, Leonardo S; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Bernardes, Camila

2014-12-01

283

Nucleolus organizer regions and B-chromosomes of wood mice (mammalia, rodentia, Apodemus)  

SciTech Connect

Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (=A. microps), A. fulvipectus (=A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 53). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Boeskorov, G.G. [Yakutia Institute of Biology, Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Kartavtseva, I.V. [Biological Soil Institute, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zagorodnyuk, I.V. [Shmal`gausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine); Belyanin, A.N. [Saratov State Univ. (Russian Federation); Lyapunova, E.A. [Kol`tsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-02-01

284

Revision of the Wind River faunas, early Eocene of central Wyoming. X - Bunophorus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on the holotypes and large collections of the species of Wasatchia and Bunophorus is reviewed. It is concluded that Bunophorus is a senior synonym of Wasatchia and includes six valid species, namely, B. etsagicus, B. grangeri, B. pattersoni, B. macropternus, B. sinclairi, and B. robustus. B. sinclairi includes two penecontemporaneous geographic variants: B.s. sinclairi from the Wind River, Piceance and Green River basins, and B.s. robinsoni, n. ssp., from the Huerfano Basin.

Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard

1990-01-01

285

Evolution and development of gas exchange structures in Mammalia: the placenta and the lung.  

PubMed

Appropriate oxygen supply is crucial for organisms. Here we examine the evolution of structures associated with the delivery of oxygen in the pre- and postnatal phases in mammals. There is an enormous structural and functional variability in the placenta that has facilitated the evolution of specialized reproductive strategies, such as precociality. In particular the cell layers separating fetal and maternal blood differ markedly: a non-invasive epitheliochorial placenta, which increases the diffusion distance, represents a derived state in ungulates. Rodents and their relatives have an invasive haemochorial placental type as optimum for the diffusion distance. In contrast, lung development is highly conserved and differences in the lungs of neonates can be explained by different developmental rates. Monotremes and marsupials have altricial stages with lungs at the early saccular phase, whereas newborn eutherians have lungs at the late saccular or alveolar phase. In conclusion, the evolution of exchange structures in the pre- and postnatal periods does not follow similar principles. PMID:20083237

Mess, Andrea M; Ferner, Kirsten J

2010-08-31

286

A new species of Murina (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from peninsular Thailand.  

PubMed

A new species of Murina belonging to 'suilla-group' is described based on two specimens collected with harp traps in lowland evergreen forest in the southernmost part of peninsular Thailand. Morphology and molecular (mitochondrial COI) data suggest that the new species is most closely related to M. eleryi, which is currently known from Indochina. The new species, however, can be distinguished by the size and shape of the upper canine, the shape of the upper and lower premolars, and the colour of the ventral pelage. Additional data on bacular morphology, echolocation, ecology, and distribution are included. PMID:25113497

Soisook, Pipat; Karapan, Sunate; Satasook, Chutamas; Bates, Paul J J

2013-01-01

287

Morphology and function of the hyoid apparatus of fossil xenarthrans (mammalia).  

PubMed

The analysis of the hyoid apparatus of fossil xenarthrans provides insight on the form of the tongue and its function in food intake and intraoral processing. The hyoid apparatus of xenarthrans is notable for fusion among its elements. The presence of a V-bone, a complex consisting of fused basihyal and thyrohyal bones, is a consistent and probably synapomorphic feature of xenarthrans. Fusion of other elements is variable in fossil xenarthrans. Most fossil sloths retain independent elements, as in living dasypodids and mammals generally. Among nothrotheriids, the elements are slender and their articular surfaces indicate considerable mobility, and the relatively long and horizontal orientation of the geniohyoid muscle suggests considerable tongue protrusion. Among mylodontines, such as Paramylodon and Glossotherium, the elements indicate relatively mobile articulations, except between the stylo- and epihyals. The relatively posterior placement of the apparatus and the length and alignment of the geniohyoid muscle indicate considerable capacity for tongue protrusion. Scelidotherium, however, had rigidly articulated stylohyal and epihyal, and the apparatus lies farther anteriorly, which together with the elongated, steeply inclined mandibular symphysis, indicates a relatively shorter geniohyoid muscle and thus more limited capacity for tongue protrusion. A similar situation is indicated for Megatherium, casting doubt on the classical reconstruction of this sloth as having a long prehensile tongue. Among cingulates Prozaedyus resembles living dasypodids, indicating considerable tongue protrusion important in food acquisition and intake. More extensive fusion of hyoid elements occurs in the cingulates Glyptodon and Proeutatus, in which the stylohyal and epihyal at least, are fused into a single element termed the sigmohyal. The presence of this element supports recent proposals of a sister-group relationship between glyptodonts and eutatines. The rigidity of the apparatus suggests limited tongue protrusion, but the tongue, in glyptodonts at least, was a powerful structure important for intraoral manipulation of food. PMID:20730924

Pérez, Leandro M; Toledo, Néstor; De Iuliis, Gerardo; Bargo, M Susana; Vizcaíno, Sergio F

2010-09-01

288

An anatomical study of the brains of Dipodomys (Mammalia: Rodentia: Heteromyidae).  

PubMed

Whole brains and Nissl-stained serial sections of 3 species of kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis, D. ordii, D. merriami) were compared for interspecific differences. Neuroanatomical variations were conservative in nature. Examination of the cerebellum revealed possible differences in locomotion and ecology. Dipodomys ordii exhibited more neurological evidence for increased specialization of the hindlimbs, while D. merriami had the least differentiated cerebellar surface, thereby suggesting more stereotyped movements of the hindlimbs. Dipodomys spectabilis had abilities that lie somewhere between those of D. ordii and D. merriami. Stereological analysis demonstrated little difference in the percent of total brain volume comprising the telencephalon, diencephalon, cerebellum, and brain stem; and it revealed the relative position of the cranial nerve nuclei. PMID:507367

Dressler, J B

1979-01-01

289

Bone Inner Structure Suggests Increasing Aquatic Adaptations in Desmostylia (Mammalia, Afrotheria)  

PubMed Central

Background The paleoecology of desmostylians has been discussed controversially with a general consensus that desmostylians were aquatic or semi-aquatic to some extent. Bone microanatomy can be used as a powerful tool to infer habitat preference of extinct animals. However, bone microanatomical studies of desmostylians are extremely scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the histology and microanatomy of several desmostylians using thin-sections and CT scans of ribs, humeri, femora and vertebrae. Comparisons with extant mammals allowed us to better understand the mode of life and evolutionary history of these taxa. Desmostylian ribs and long bones generally lack a medullary cavity. This trait has been interpreted as an aquatic adaptation among amniotes. Behemotops and Paleoparadoxia show osteosclerosis (i.e. increase in bone compactness), and Ashoroa pachyosteosclerosis (i.e. combined increase in bone volume and compactness). Conversely, Desmostylus differs from these desmostylians in displaying an osteoporotic-like pattern. Conclusions/Significance In living taxa, bone mass increase provides hydrostatic buoyancy and body trim control suitable for poorly efficient swimmers, while wholly spongy bones are associated with hydrodynamic buoyancy control in active swimmers. Our study suggests that all desmostylians had achieved an essentially, if not exclusively, aquatic lifestyle. Behemotops, Paleoparadoxia and Ashoroa are interpreted as shallow water swimmers, either hovering slowly at a preferred depth, or walking on the bottom, and Desmostylus as a more active swimmer with a peculiar habitat and feeding strategy within Desmostylia. Therefore, desmostylians are, with cetaceans, the second mammal group showing a shift from bone mass increase to a spongy inner organization of bones in their evolutionary history. PMID:23565143

Hayashi, Shoji; Houssaye, Alexandra; Nakajima, Yasuhisa; Chiba, Kentaro; Ando, Tatsuro; Sawamura, Hiroshi; Inuzuka, Norihisa; Kaneko, Naotomo; Osaki, Tomohiro

2013-01-01

290

Arthropods (Acari, Mallophaga, Siphonaptera) collected from Procyon lotor (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia, Carnivora, Procyonidae) in Poland.  

PubMed

From 9 specimens of Procyon lotor collected in vicinity of Dobroszyn and Górzyca (Lubuskie province) 61 arthropods of 6 species were obtained: Siphonaptera (one specimen), Acari (3 species), Phthiraptera (one specimen--Trichodectes octomaculatus; new species to fauna of Poland) and one specimen of Psocoptera. PMID:19579787

Haitlinger, Ryszard; ?upicki, Dariusz

2009-01-01

291

Definition, Diagnosis, and Origin of Mammalia Author(s): Timothy Rowe  

E-print Network

Paleontology, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1988), pp. 241-264 Published by: The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Paleontology is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. http://www.jstor.org #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;

Sullivan, Jack

292

A new middle eocene whale (Mammalia: Cetacea: Archaeoceti) and associated biota from Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A shallow-marine fossil biota was recovered from the Blue Bluff unit (formerly part of the McBean Formation) in the Upper Coastal Plain of eastern Georgia. Biochronologically significant mollusks (e.g., Turritella nasuta, Cubitostrea sellaeformis, Pteropsella lapidosa) and calcareous nannoplankton (e.g., Chiasmolithus solitus, Reticulofenestra umbilica, Cribocentrum reticulatum) indicate a latest Lutetian-earliest Bartonian age, or about 40 to 41 Ma. Georgiacetus vogtlensis new genus and species is described from a well-preserved, partial skeleton. Georgiacetus is the oldest known whale with a true pterygoid sinus fossa in its basicranium and a pelvis that did not articulate directly with the sacral vertebrae, two features whose acquisitions were important steps toward adaptation to a fully marine existence. The posterior four cheek teeth of G. vogtlensis form a series of carnassial-like shearing blades. These teeth also bear small, blunt accessory cusps, which are regarded as being homologous with the larger, sharper accessory cusps of basilosaurid cheek teeth.

Hulbert, R.C., Jr.; Petkewich, R.M.; Bishop, G.A.; Bukry, D.; Aleshire, D.P.

1998-01-01

293

The proboscis of tapirs (Mammalia: Perissodactyla): a case study in novel narial anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trunk-like proboscis of tapirs provides a prime case study in the evolution of anatomical novelty. Morphological study of this unique structure was undertaken employing several specimens and a combination of analytical techniques: gross anatomical dissection, radiographic imaging and histological sectioning. Evolution of the proboscis of tapirs entailed wholesale transformation of the narial apparatus and facial architecture relative to perissodactyl

Lawrence M. Witmer; Scott D. Sampson; Nikos Solounias

1999-01-01

294

New genus of tapir (Mammalia: Tapiridae) from the Arikareean (earliest Miocene) of the Texas Coastal Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nearly complete dentition of the rare tapirid Miotapirus marslandensis was recovered from the recently discovered late Arikareean Toledo Bend Local Fauna, Newton County, Texas. The species was previously known from only two associated upper molars found near Marsland, Nebraska, in 1917. The Nebraska molars, together with the Toledo Bend material and additional specimens from the Monroe Creek Formation, South

L. Barry Albright

1998-01-01

295

The Endemic Insular and Peninsular Species Chaetodipus spinatus (Mammalia, Heteromyidae) Breaks Patterns for Baja California  

PubMed Central

The Baja California peninsula is the second longest, most geographically isolated peninsula on Earth. Its physiography and the presence of many surrounding islands has facilitated studies of the underlying patterns and drivers of genetic structuring for a wide spectrum of organisms. Chaetodipus spinatus is endemic to the region and occurs on 12 associated islands, including 10 in the Gulf of California and two in the Pacific Ocean. This distribution makes it a model species for evaluating natural historical barriers. We test hypotheses associated with the relationship between the range of the species, patterns in other species, and its relationship to Pleistocene-Holocene climatic changes. We analyzed sequence data from mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and III (COIII) in 26 populations including all 12 islands. The matrilineal genealogy, statistical parsimony network and Bayesian skyline plot indicated an origin of C. spinatus in the southern part of the peninsula. Our analyses detected several differences from the common pattern of peninsular animals: no mid-peninsula break exists, Isla Carmen hosts the most divergent population, the population on an ancient southern Midriff island does not differ from peninsular populations, and a mtDNA peninsular discordance occurs near Loreto. PMID:25542029

Álvarez-Castañeda, Sergio Ticul; Murphy, Robert W.

2014-01-01

296

The Phylogeny of the Myrmecophagidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Vermilingua) and the Relationship of Eurotamandua to the Vermilingua  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cladistic investigation of the phylogenetic relationships among the three extant anteater genera and the three undoubted extinct myrmecophagid genera is performed based upon osteological characteristics of the skull and postcranial skeleton. One hundred seven discrete morphological characters are analyzed using the computer program PAUP. Characters are polarized via comparison to the successive xenarthran outgroups Tardigrada (represented by the living

Timothy J. Gaudin; Daniel G. Branham

1998-01-01

297

Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).  

PubMed

Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil. PMID:12563481

Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

2002-12-01

298

Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

2013-01-01

299

Evolution and taxonomy of the wild species of the genus Ovis (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Bovidae).  

PubMed

New insights for the systematic and evolution of the wild sheep are provided by molecular phylogenies inferred from Maximum parsimony, Bayesian, Maximum likelihood, and Neighbor-Joining methods. The phylogeny of the wild sheep was based on cytochrome b sequences of 290 samples representative of most of the sub-species described in the genus Ovis. The result was confirmed by a combined tree based on cytochrome b and nuclear sequences for 79 Ovis samples representative of the robust clades established with mitochondrial data. Urial and mouflon, which are either considered as a single or two separate species, form two monophyletic groups (O. orientalis and O. vignei). Their hybrids appear in one or the other group, independently from their geographic origin. The European mouflon O. musimon is clearly in the O. orientalis clade. The others species, O. dalli, O. canadensis, O. nivicola, and O. ammon are monophyletic. The results support an Asiatic origin of the genus Ovis, followed by a migration to North America through North-Eastern Asia and the Bering Strait and a diversification of the genus in Eurasia less than 3 million years ago. Our results show that the evolution of the genus Ovis is a striking example of successive speciation events occurring along the migration routes propagating from the ancestral area. PMID:19897045

Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naderi, Saeid; Chintauan-Marquier, Ioana Cristina; Taberlet, Pierre; Virk, Amjad Tahir; Naghash, Hamid Reza; Rioux, Delphine; Kaboli, Mohammad; Pompanon, François

2010-02-01

300

Thermal energetics and torpor in the common pipistrelle bat, Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Vespertilionidae: Mammalia).  

PubMed

Rate of metabolism and body temperature were studied between -6°C and 38°C in the common pipistrelle bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Vespertilionidae), a European species lying close to the lower end of the mammalian size range (body mass 4.9±0.8g, N=28). Individuals maintained only occasionally a normothermic body temperature averaging 35.4±1.1°C (N=4) and often showed torpor during metabolic runs. The thermoneutral zone was found above 33°C, and basal rate of metabolism averaged 7.6±0.8mL O(2)h(-1) (N=28), which is 69% of the value predicted on the basis of body mass. Minimal wet thermal conductance was 161% of the expected value. During torpor, the rate of metabolism was related exponentially to body temperature with a Q(10) value of 2.57. Torpid bats showed intermittent ventilation, with the frequency of ventilatory cycles increasing exponentially with body temperature. Basal rate of metabolism (BMR) varied significantly with season and body temperature, but not with body mass. It was lower before the hibernation period than during the summer. The patterns observed are generally consistent with those exhibited by other vespertilionids of temperate regions. However, divergences occur with previous measurements on European pipistrelles, and the causes of the seasonal variation in BMR, which has only rarely been searched for among vespertilionids, remain to be examined. PMID:21736950

Genoud, Michel; Christe, Philippe

2011-10-01

301

Island history affects faunal composition: the treeshrews (Mammalia: Scandentia: Tupaiidae) from the  

E-print Network

; Wilting et al., 2012); there are ten endemic rodents (four murids, three squirrels, and three flying Islands) and Tanahbala (Batu Islands) with the geographically adjacent species from the southern Mentawai squirrels), five primates (two macaques, two

Olson, Link

302

A new genus of Tayassuidae (Mammalia) from the Middle Miocene of Uganda and Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collections of fossils from Moroto, Uganda, contain remains of a small lophodont suoid unlike any of the known species from Africa or Eurasia. The specimens are more complete than previously described material from Muruyur, Maboko and Kirimun (Kenya) and allow the affinities of this suoid to be determined with reasonable confidence. It is concluded that the fossils represent a new

Martin Pickford

1998-01-01

303

Protadelomys maximini nov. sp. (Rodentia, Mammalia): Apport à la connaissance du genre Protadelomys et implications biochronologiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Middle Eocene primitive theridomyid, Protadelomys maximini nov. sp. from the karstic Saint-Maximin locality (Gard, South of France), is described. By its primitive morphology, this new species could be at the origin of the P. alsaticus-P. cartieri-P. lugdunensis lineage. The evolution of the genus Protadelomys, analysed in the light of those new data, and other observations, lead

Gilles Escarguel

1998-01-01

304

[Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia) from Yurubí National Park, Venezuela: taxonomic list and community study].  

PubMed

Bats represent a key component in the dynamics of many terrestrial ecosystems, and one of the groups of mammals with the highest levels of diversification in the Neotropics. Here we describe the results of a study of the bat fauna from Yurubí National Park (mountain area in Northern Venezuela), that includes a taxonomic list and the characterization of some community attributes in forested areas. Data was collected from zoological collections and diversified sampling methods from February to July of 2009 in an altitudinal gradient (100-1 500m), with three principal ecological units: semideciduous, evergreen and cloud forests. We recorded 64 species grouped in five families (63% of the bats known from La Cordillera de la Costa), of which Phyllostomidae was the dominant taxa (42 species; 66% of total), followed by Vespertilionidae, Molossidae, Emballonuridae and Mormoopidae. The community with the highest taxonomic diversification was found in the lowest elevation range, while the lowest number of species was found at the highest range. Eleven trophic guilds were identified; the insectivorous guild was the richest, whereas the frugivorous was the most abundant. Our results allow us to indicate these forest ecosystems have an appropriate conservation status, taking into account the presence of a relatively high proportion of species from the subfamily Phyllostominae, as well as the presence of other species with conservation priorities. All these aspects, and the fact that this represents a reservoir of the biological diversity of the forest ecosystems of La Cordillera de la Costa, make this protected area of an essential conservation value, in a highly endangered bioregion by neighboring socio-economic growth. PMID:22208091

Delgado-Jaramillo, Mariana; Machado, Marjorie; García, Franger J; Ochoa, José

2011-12-01

305

Rodents and lagomorphs (Mammalia) from the Hemphillian (late Miocene) of Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four species of rodents (two heteromyids and two cricetids) and one lagomorph are identified from the late Tertiary Sevier River Formation of Utah. The heteromyids include a new genus and species of heteromyine, Metaliomys sevierensis, which is intermediate in morphology between the Clarendonian and early Hemphillian Diprionomys Kellogg and the extant genera Liomys and Heteromys. A single specimen is referred to Diprionomys sp., cf. D. minimus (Kellogg). The cricetid Paronychomys lemredfieldi Jacobs is known from the Hemphillian of Arizona. The second cricetid is referred to a new genus Basirepomys. Peromyscus pliocenicus Wilson from the Hemphillian of California is designated as the type species of the new genus, to which the new species B. robertsi from Utah is referred. Basirepomys is viewed as intermediate between Peromyscus and the basal neotomyine Repomys May from the late Hemphillian and Blancan. The only lagomorph in the fauna is Hypolagus vetus (Kellogg). Four of the taxa recognized from the Sevier River Formation (Diprionomys, Paronychomys lemredfieldi, Basirepomys, and Hypolagus vetus) are elsewhere known from the Hemphillian of North America. However, it is not possible at this time to determine whether the fauna is early or late Hemphillian. ?? 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

Korth, W.W.; De Blieux, D. D.

2010-01-01

306

The highly specialized vocal tract of the male Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa Pallas, 1777 – Mammalia, Bovidae)  

PubMed Central

The entire head and neck of a wild adult male Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa) was dissected with special reference to its enlarged larynx. Two additional adult male specimens taken from the wild were analysed by computer tomography. The sternomandibularis, omohyoideus, thyrohyoideus and hyoepiglotticus muscles are particularly enlarged and improve laryngeal suspension and stabilization. The epiglottis is exceptionally large. A permanent laryngeal descent is associated with the evolution of an unpaired palatinal pharyngeal pouch. A certain momentary descent seems to occur during vocalization. The high lateral walls of the thyroid cartilage are ventrally connected by a broad keel. The large thyroarytenoid muscle is divided into two portions: a rostral ventricularis and a caudal vocalis muscle. A paired lateral laryngeal ventricle projects between these two muscles. The massive vocal fold is large and lacks any rostrally directed flexible structures. It is supported by a large cymbal-like fibroelastic pad. Vocal tract length was measured in the course of dissection and in computer tomographic images. Two representative spectrograms, one of an adult male and one of a juvenile, recorded in the natural habitat of the Mongolian gazelle are presented. In the spectrograms, the centre frequency of the lowest band is about 500 Hz in the adult male and about 790 Hz in the juvenile. The low pitch of the adult male's call is ascribed to the evolutionary mass increase and elongation of the vocal folds. In the habitat of P. gutturosa a call with a low pitch and, thus, with an almost homogeneous directivity around the head of the vocalizing animal may be optimally suited for multidirectional advertisement calls during the rut. The signal range of an adult male's call in its natural habitat can therefore be expected to be larger than the high-pitched call of a juvenile. PMID:14635800

Frey, R; Gebler, A

2003-01-01

307

Morphological variation in the ear region of pleistocene elephantimorpha (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from central Texas.  

PubMed

A large sample of isolated elephantimorph petrosal bones was recovered from Pleistocene deposits in Friesenhahn Cave, Bexar County, Texas. Morphology of the middle and inner ear of the elephantimorphs is described and variation within the sample is identified. Observed variations occur in the stapedial ratio, morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii, and connection of the crista interfenestralis to the tympanohyal on the posterior portion of the petrosal to form a foramen for passage of the stapedius muscle. The morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii supports an ontogenetic explanation for some variation, and a sequence of ossification surrounding the aquaeductus Fallopii, from the anterior end of the canal to the posterior, is hypothesized. The stapedial ratio varies to a high degree across the sample, and such variation should be considered when the ratio is used in phylogenetic analyses. Within the inner ear, the absence of the secondary lamina suggests evolution of low-frequency hearing in extinct proboscideans, which is known for extant elephants. The morphology of the petrosals from Friesenhahn Cave is compared to published descriptions of the ear regions of other extinct proboscideans, and the distribution and evolution of morphologic characters are discussed. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21284018

Ekdale, Eric G

2011-04-01

308

Comparative study of notoungulate (Placentalia, Mammalia) bony labyrinths and new phylogenetically informative inner ear characters.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships of notoungulates, an extinct group of predominantly South American herbivores, remain poorly resolved with respect to both other placental mammals and among one another. Most previous phylogenetic analyses of notoungulates have not included characters of the internal cranium, not least because few such features, including the bony labyrinth, have been described for members of the group. Here we describe the inner ears of the notoungulates Altitypotherium chucalensis (Mesotheriidae), Pachyrukhos moyani (Hegetotheriidae) and Cochilius sp. (Interatheriidae) based on reconstructions of bony labyrinths obtained from computed tomography imagery. Comparisons of the bony labyrinths of these taxa with the basally diverging notoungulate Notostylops murinus (Notostylopidae), an isolated petrosal from Itaboraí, Brazil, referred to Notoungulata, and six therian outgroups, yielded an inner ear character matrix of 25 potentially phylogenetically informative characters, 14 of them novel to this study. Two equivocally optimized character states potentially support a pairing of Mesotheriidae and Hegetotheriidae, whereas four others may be diagnostic of Notoungulata. Three additional characters are potentially informative for diagnosing more inclusive clades: one for crown Placentalia; another for a clade containing Kulbeckia, Zalambdalestes, and Placentalia; and a third for Eutheria (crown Placentalia plus stem taxa). Several other characters are apomorphic for at least one notoungulate in our study and are of potential interest for broader taxonomic sampling within Notoungulata to clarify currently enigmatic interrelationships. Measures of the semicircular canals were used to infer agility (e.g. capable of quick movements vs. lethargic movements) of these taxa. Agility scores calculated from these data generally corroborate interpretations based on postcranial remains of these or closely related species. We provide estimates of the low-frequency hearing limits in notoungulates based on the ratio of radii of the apical and basal turns of the cochlea. These limits range from 15?Hz in Notostylops to 149?Hz in Pachyrukhos, values comparable to the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) when hearing in air, respectively. PMID:24102069

Macrini, Thomas E; Flynn, John J; Ni, Xijun; Croft, Darin A; Wyss, André R

2013-11-01

309

Phylogeny and divergence of the pinnipeds (Carnivora: Mammalia) assessed using a multigene dataset  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogenetic comparative methods are often improved by complete phylogenies with meaningful branch lengths (e.g., divergence dates). This study presents a dated molecular supertree for all 34 world pinniped species derived from a weighted matrix representation with parsimony (MRP) supertree analysis of 50 gene trees, each determined under a maximum likelihood (ML) framework. Divergence times were determined by mapping the same sequence data (plus two additional genes) on to the supertree topology and calibrating the ML branch lengths against a range of fossil calibrations. We assessed the sensitivity of our supertree topology in two ways: 1) a second supertree with all mtDNA genes combined into a single source tree, and 2) likelihood-based supermatrix analyses. Divergence dates were also calculated using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock with rate autocorrelation to test the sensitivity of our supertree results further. Results The resulting phylogenies all agreed broadly with recent molecular studies, in particular supporting the monophyly of Phocidae, Otariidae, and the two phocid subfamilies, as well as an Odobenidae + Otariidae sister relationship; areas of disagreement were limited to four more poorly supported regions. Neither the supertree nor supermatrix analyses supported the monophyly of the two traditional otariid subfamilies, supporting suggestions for the need for taxonomic revision in this group. Phocid relationships were similar to other recent studies and deeper branches were generally well-resolved. Halichoerus grypus was nested within a paraphyletic Pusa, although relationships within Phocina tend to be poorly supported. Divergence date estimates for the supertree were in good agreement with other studies and the available fossil record; however, the Bayesian relaxed molecular clock divergence date estimates were significantly older. Conclusion Our results join other recent studies and highlight the need for a re-evaluation of pinniped taxonomy, especially as regards the subfamilial classification of otariids and the generic nomenclature of Phocina. Even with the recent publication of new sequence data, the available genetic sequence information for several species, particularly those in Arctocephalus, remains very limited, especially for nuclear markers. However, resolution of parts of the tree will probably remain difficult, even with additional data, due to apparent rapid radiations. Our study addresses the lack of a recent pinniped phylogeny that includes all species and robust divergence dates for all nodes, and will therefore prove indispensable to comparative and macroevolutionary studies of this group of carnivores. PMID:17996107

Higdon, Jeff W; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf RP; Beck, Robin MD; Ferguson, Steven H

2007-01-01

310

Volatile components in dorsal gland secretions of the collared peccary,Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae, mammalia).  

PubMed

Secretions of the dorsal gland of free-ranging adult male and female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both sexes contain (2E,6E,10E)-geranylgeraniol; squalene (allE isomer); and the following isomers of springene, a diterpene homolog of ?-farnesene: (3E,6E,10E)-?-springene, (3Z,6E,10E)-?-springene, and (6E,10E)-?-springene. A diterpene alcohol and an additional isomer each of squalene and springene also were observed. Straight- and branched-chain esters abound in the secretions of females, but they were not detected in males. PMID:24226086

Waterhouse, J S; Ke, J; Pickett, J A; Weldon, P J

1996-07-01

311

Pelvic peritoneum in male armadillo and anteater (Xenarthra, Mammalia): a comparative survey.  

PubMed

The literature supports the hypothesis that the pelvic excavation is the bottom of the abdominal cavity, which is covered by the peritoneal serous membrane in order to promote visceral dynamics. We studied the peritoneum in eight specimens of Xenarthra (Euphractus sexcinctus, Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla). The animals were fixed in formaldehyde (10%). For description and analyzes of the pelvic peritoneum, dissection and photo documentation were performed. We saw that the parietal serous membrane reflected, involving the pelvic viscera. The urorectal septum is the floor of the higher pelvis as a serosa reflection between the bladder and the rectum. The bladder and gonads are completely peritonized in adult armadillo. In anteaters and young armadillos, the testicles are in a position analogous to the uterus, joined by the conjunctive septum at the midline and along with the bladder, they partially project to the higher and lower pelvis. In Myrmecophagidae, vesicogenital, rectogenital and sacrorectal recesses were observed. In Dasypodidae, the recesses are similar to those of other recent vertebrates. PMID:23317367

Rezende, Lorenna Cardoso; Ferreira, Jussara Rocha

2013-01-01

312

Spermatogenesis is seasonal in the large hairy armadillo, Chaetophractus villosus (Dasypodidae, Xenarthra, Mammalia).  

PubMed

Very little is known about the distinct reproductive biology of armadillos. Very few studies have investigated armadillo spermatogenesis, with data available only for Euphractus sexcinctus and Dasypus novemcinctus. In the present study, we analysed male germ cell differentiation in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus throughout the year, describing a cycle of the seminiferous epithelium made of eight different stages. Evaluation of the testis/body mass ratio, analysis of the architecture of the seminiferous epithelium and the frequency of defective seminiferous tubules allowed identification of a temporal interruption of spermatogenesis during the period between mid-May to July (mid-end autumn) in correlation with very low testosterone levels. Overall, these results suggest that spermatogenesis is seasonal in C. villosus. PMID:22951275

Luaces, Juan P; Rossi, Luis F; Merico, Valeria; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Redi, Carlo A; Solari, Alberto J; Merani, Maria S; Garagna, Silvia

2013-01-01

313

Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia)  

PubMed Central

The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM) muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors. PMID:25024917

Faulkes, Chris G.

2014-01-01

314

A new rabbit species (Sylvilagus, Mammalia: Leporidae) from the lowlands of Venezuela.  

PubMed

A new species of Venezuelan rabbit of the genus Sylvilagus from Fundo Millano (08 degrees 46'N and 69 degrees 56'W) and Chorrosco Bajo (08 degrees 05'N and 69 degrees 18'W), between 190 and 120 masl, state of Barinas, is described based on: 1. Body and skull measurements. 2. Coloration patterns of the pelage. 3. Arrangement and length of the color hair bands of dorsal, lateral, ventral nuchal, and gular patches. Body and cranial measurements, and some color patterns of the new species, Sylvilagus varynaensis, were compared with those of the closest relative groups such as S. brasiliensis (from Venezuela and Brazil), S. b. meridensis from the Venezuelan paramos, and three of the most representative groups of S. floridanus (S. f. continentis, S. f. orinoci, and S. f. valenciae). Most of the values recorded for these parameters were significantly higher for the new species (P < 0.005; Student "t" test). Cluster and principal components analysis of the data recorded for cranial characteristics indicated that S. varynaensis is the largest and darkest of the known Venezuelan rabbits, with a broader elongated skull and a different arrangement of the color hair bands. PMID:11795167

Durant, P; Guevara, M A

2001-03-01

315

Desmodus rotundus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Since the 1990s, attacks by hematophagous bats on humans and domestic animals have been reported both on the continent and on the islands on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The density of vampire bats was investigated based on percentage of captures during control of Desmodus rotundus samplings and during bat diversity research. In the present work, 203 individuals of D. rotundus were captured from 1993 to 2009, which corresponds to 11.88% of all bat captures carried out for species control in local villages and 1.58% of all captures in faunistic inventories. The density of D. rotundus is high even on the recently occupied islands where domestic animals have been introduced. It is probable that this species dispersed from the continent to the islands due to the introduction of domestic animals. PMID:21881799

Costa, L M; Esbérard, C E L

2011-08-01

316

First isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).  

PubMed

There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans. PMID:23200751

Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J

2013-03-31

317

C-banded karyotype of Myocastor coypus (Molina, 1782) from Turkey (Mammalia: Rodentia).  

PubMed

The present study reports the C-band patterns of chromosomes of Myocastor coypus from Turkey. The karyotype of M. coypus is comprised of (2n) 42 chromosomes, the number of chromosomal arms (FN) was 83 and the number of autosomal arms (FNa) was 80. The X chromosome was a medium-sized metacentric and the Y chromosome was acrocentric and the smallest in the set. Two metacentric chromosomes have secondary constrictions. Most autosomes in this species were centromeric C-positive and some autosomes had telomeric C-bands. The X chromosome has centromeric heterochromatin, while the Y chromosome appeared to be entirely heterochromatic. PMID:19459458

Iliker, Ay?egül; Arslan, Atilla; Pamuko?lu, Nahit; Albayrak, Irfan

2009-01-01

318

Landscape correlates of the distribution of coypu Myocastor coypus (Rodentia, Mammalia) in Argentinean Pampas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coypu is a rodent indigenous to aquatic habitats in southern South America, which is considered a pest where it has been introduced and a valuable furbearer resource within its native range. The objective of this study was to identify the main landscape correlates of coypu distribution in the Pampas. Previous studies provided two non-exclusive hypotheses: (1) if hunting pressure

L. R. Leggieri; M. L. Guichón; M. H. Cassini

2011-01-01

319

La captura comercial del coypo Myocastor coypus (Mammalia: Myocastoridae) en Laguna Adela, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analize commercial harvest of coypus Myocastor coypus in Laguna Adela, Argentina, during 1988. A total of 217 animals was trapped from April to October (?. = 31 per month), with a capture effort of 1768 night?traps (? = 255.57 per month). The capture increased up to a peak in August ? September and was inversely correlated with capture effort.

M. Gorostiague; H. A. Regidor

1993-01-01

320

Comparative Morphology of Premolar Foramen in Lagomorphs (Mammalia: Glires) and Its Functional and Phylogenetic Implications  

PubMed Central

Lagomorphs (a group that consists of pikas, hares, rabbits and allies) are notable for their conservative morphology retained for most of their over 50 million years evolutionary history. On the other hand, their remarkable morphological uniformity partly stems from a considerable number of homoplasies in cranial and dental structures that hamper phylogenetic analyses. The premolar foramen, an opening in the palate of lagomorphs, has been characterized as an important synapomorphy of one clade, Ochotonidae (pikas). Within Lagomorpha, however, its phylogenetic distribution is much wider, the foramen being present not only in all ochotonids but also in leporids and stem taxa; its morphology and incidence also varies considerably across the order, even intraspecifically. In this study, we provide a broad survey of the taxonomic distribution of the premolar foramen in extant and fossil Lagomorpha and describe in detail the morphological variation of this character within the group. Micro-computed tomography was used to examine the hard palate and infraorbital groove morphology in Poelagus (Leporidae) and Ochotona. Scans revealed the course and contacts of the canal behind the premolar foramen and structural differences between the two crown clades. We propose that the premolar foramen has evolved independently in several lineages of Lagomorpha, and we discuss development and function of this foramen in the lagomorph skull. This study shows the importance of comprehensive studies on phylogenetically informative non-dental characters in Lagomorpha. PMID:24278178

Fostowicz-Frelik, ?ucja; Meng, Jin

2013-01-01

321

Signature information and individual recognition in the isolation calls of Amazonian manatees, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic signals are assumed to form the basis of manatee communication. Empirical evidence of individual vocal recognition has been reported. If manatees can recognize one another by acoustical means, it should be possible to identify individual vocal patterns. We recorded vocalizations of 14 individually housed Amazonian manatees and then digitized selected vocalizations, allowing seven variables to be measured and subjected

Renata S. Sousa-Lima; Adriano P. Paglia; Gustavo A. B. Da Fonseca

2002-01-01

322

Urinary parameters of Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia, Sirenia): reference values for the Amazonian Manatee.  

PubMed

The Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Natterer 1883) is endemic to the Amazon Basin and is currently considered a vulnerable species. In order to establish normality ranges of urinary parameters to help monitor the health of this species in captivity, chemical urinalyses were performed on twelve males and nine females of various age groups. Urine was collected once a month for twelve months in the tanks just after being drained, by placing stainless steel containers under the genital slit of females and applying abdominal massages to males in order to stimulate urination. Quantitative data of glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid and amylase levels were obtained using colorimetric spectrophotometry. Dip strips were also useful for routine analyses, despite only providing qualitative results. Normal range to glucose levels, regardless of sex or age class, was 3.0 to 3.6 mgxdL-1, coinciding with qualitative values of glucose measured by dip strips. Statistical differences observed in some parameter levels suggest that some urine parameters analysed must take into consideration the sex and the age class of the animal studied, being these differences less remarkable in creatinine and amylase levels. To this last one, statistical difference was detected only in the calve's urine (7.0 to 11.5 mgxdL-1) compared to other age classes samples (4.1 to 5.3 mgxdL-1). The results presented here may be used as comparative data in future research on urinalysis in related species. PMID:20730348

Pantoja, T M A; Da Rosas, F C W; Dos Silva, V M F; Santos, A M F

2010-08-01

323

Reproductive anatomy of the female Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis Natterer, 1883 (Mammalia: Sirenia).  

PubMed

The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is uniparous and has a slow reproduction cycle due to a long gestation period and long interval between births. Even though protected by law, hunting remains one of the main causes hindering the natural population growth of this species in the wild. The histology and reproductive anatomy provide information on the history and reproductive status of the female and offer a tool for the conservation of the species. The present study describes the anatomy of the female reproductive tract in T. inunguis. It is based on materials from three reproductive tracts fixed in 10% buffered formalin. The ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia are described. The hymen presents two tiny openings separated by a segment that, upon rupturing during the first copulation, should make up a single vaginal opening. A still intact hymen and the absence of placental scars in the uterus were found in one specimen. Additionally, the presence of a hemorrhagic body and Graafian follicles on the right ovary were observed, as well as whitish scars and among them, possible corpora albicantia. These findings suggest that T. inunguis undergoes infertile estrus cycles before its first gestation. Macroscopically, counting of the whitish scars is hindered by the small diameter of these structures. It is not possible to differentiate between the scars resulting from ruptured (corpora albicantia) and nonruptured follicles (regressed corpora atretica). The presence of whitish scars on both ovaries of the same specimen suggests their bilateral function in T. inunguis. PMID:18383272

Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; Da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques; Lazzarini, Stella Maris

2008-05-01

324

The mammary glands of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia): morphological characteristics and microscopic anatomy.  

PubMed

The mammaries from carcasses of two female Amazonian manatees were examined. Trichechus inunguis possesses two axillary mammaries beneath the pectoral fins, one on each side of the body. Each papilla mammae has a small hole on its apex--the ostium papillare. The mammaries are covered by a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. The epithelium of the mammary ducts became thinner more deeply in the tissue and varied from stratified to simple cuboidal. There was no evidence of glandular activity or secretion into the ducts of the mammary glands. PMID:24920139

Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques

2014-08-01

325

Cope's rule and the evolution of body size in Pinnipedimorpha (Mammalia: Carnivora).  

PubMed

Cope's rule describes the evolutionary trend for animal lineages to increase in body size over time. In this study, we tested the validity of Cope's rule for a marine mammal clade, the Pinnipedimorpha, which includes the extinct Desmatophocidae, and extant Phocidae (earless seals), Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions), and Odobenidae (walruses). We tested for the presence of Cope's rule by compiling a large dataset of body size data for extant and fossil pinnipeds and then examined how body size evolved through time. We found that there was a positive relationship between geologic age and body size. However, this trend is the result of differences between early assemblages of small-bodied pinnipeds (Oligocene to early Miocene) and later assemblages (middle Miocene to Pliocene) for which species exhibited greater size diversity. No significant differences were found between the number of increases or decreases in body size within Pinnipedimorpha or within specific pinniped clades. This suggests that the pinniped body size increase was driven by passive diversification into vacant niche space, with the common ancestor of Pinnipedimorpha occurring near the minimum adult body size possible for a marine mammal. Based upon the above results, the evolutionary history of pinnipeds does not follow Cope's rule. PMID:25355195

Churchill, Morgan; Clementz, Mark T; Kohno, Naoki

2015-01-01

326

Functional implications of variation in tooth spacing and crown size in Pinnipedimorpha (Mammalia: Carnivora).  

PubMed

Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) show variation in tooth morphology that relates to ecology. However, crown size and spacing are two aspects of morphology that have not been quantified in prior studies. We measured these characters for nearly all extant pinnipeds and three fossil taxa and then determined the principal sources of variation in tooth size and spacing using principal components (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA showed that species sorted into three groups: taxa with small crowns and large diastemata, taxa with large crowns and small diastemata, and taxa that fell between these two extremes. We then performed discriminant function analysis (DFA) to determine if tooth morphology correlated with foraging strategy or diet. DFA results indicated weak correlation with diet, and stronger correlation with prey capture strategies. Tooth size and spacing were most strongly correlated with the importance of teeth in prey acquisition, with tooth size decreasing and tooth spacing increasing as teeth become less necessary in capturing food items. Taxa which relied on teeth for filtering prey from the water column or processing larger or tougher food items generally had larger crowns and smaller tooth spacing then taxa which swallowed prey whole. We found the fossil taxa Desmatophoca and Enaliarctos were most similar in tooth morphology to extant otariids, suggesting that both taxa were generalist feeders. This study established the relationship between tooth size and feeding behavior, and provides a new tool to explore the paleoecology of fossil pinnipeds and other aquatic tetrapods. Anat Rec, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25367223

Churchill, Morgan; Clementz, Mark T

2014-11-01

327

Microstructure of dental hard tissues in fossil and recent xenarthrans (Mammalia: Folivora and Cingulata).  

PubMed

A striking difference between xenarthrans and other mammals is the complete loss of tooth enamel in all members but the earliest armadillos. However, sloth and armadillo teeth show structured wear facets, which in all other mammals are formed by tooth enamel. How is that possible? Here, I report about an analysis of fossil and recent xenarthran dental hard tissue microstructure. It shows that osteodentine is not exclusive to fossil Cingulata, but also occurs in some recent taxa. Furthermore, I found profound modifications of orthodentine architecture in comparison to other mammals. Remarkable features are (a) a larger proportion of the highly mineralized, collagen-free peritubular dentine, and (b) a modified architecture of the odontoblastic process with frequent interconnections between the extensions and unusually intensive branching of the extensions forming a complex meshwork, penetrating the intertubular dentine matrix. The orthodentine microstructural build-up is unique in Folivora and Cingulata. PMID:21456028

Kalthoff, Daniela C

2011-06-01

328

Identification of Bacterial Specialists in Hosts belonging to Aves, Mammalia, and Pisces  

EPA Science Inventory

Only a portion of bacteria found in animal guts are able to establish specific associations within animal hosts. Taxa that have formed these specialized relationships may have played a prominent role in host evolution and may also contribute significantly to current host physiolo...

329

Helminths of the Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana (Mammalia: Didelphidae) in Mexico.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to provide further information about helminth parasites of Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana Kerr, 1792 from Mexico. During routine faunal investigations between 1958 and 2001, 101 opossum were necropsied. Nineteen taxa of helminths were collected, representing 13 genera from hosts in 27 localities from Mexico. There are 58 new locality records, with 6 species recorded in Mexico for the first time: Brachylaima virginiana Dickerson, 1930; Cruzia americana Mapleston, 1930; Didelphonema longispiculata (Hill, 1939); Didelphostrongylus hayesi Prestwood, 1976; Viannaia didelphis Travassos, 1914; and Viannaia viannai Travassos, 1914. This increases the number of helminth taxa previously known for this host in Mexico to 28. PMID:15856909

Monet-Mendoza, Anne; Osorio-Sarabia, David; García-Prieto, Luis

2005-02-01

330

An evaluation of the impacts of aging on skeletal muscle performance in several mammalian divers  

E-print Network

for divers. This study examines three aspects of aging in representative diving mammals. First, gracilis muscle morphology was analyzed for old/young shrews (water shrew, Sorex palustris (diver); short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda (non...

Hindle, Allyson Gayle

2009-05-15

331

The Insect Eaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information about insectivores, including definitions and characteristics of shrews, moles, hedgehogs, and tenrecs. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Little Starnose" and "You and a Shrew." A reproducible worksheet is provided for use in "You and a Shrew." (TW)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

332

Trees of the "Madsen" data set Morphological topology  

E-print Network

Rat Capybara Rabbit Elephant Shrew Hedgehog Mole Sloth Opossum Kangaroo #12;Mitochondrial topology Aardvark Elephant Shrew Sloth Tree Shrew Rabbit Human Galago Flying Lemur Capybara Rat Opossum Kangaroo Sloth Hyrax Dugong Elephant Aardvark Elephant Shrew Opossum Kangaroo #12;Nuclear topology based

Pupko, Tal

333

Low-rate TCP-targeted denial of service attacks: the shrew vs. the mice and elephants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denial of Service attacks are presenting an increasing threat to the global inter-networking infrastructure. While TCP's congestion control algorithm is highly robust to diverse network conditions, its implicit assumption of end-system cooperation results in a well-known vulnerability to attack by high-rate non-responsive flows. In this paper, we investigate a class of low-rate denial of service attacks which, unlike high-rate attacks,

Aleksandar Kuzmanovic; Edward W. Knightly

2003-01-01

334

Effects of different land cover, habitat fragmentation, and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs or empty shells of the American woodcockwere collected from 10 states in 1971and shell thickness (mean of clutch means) was compared with that of eggs collected from 16 states during the years 1859-1939. The 1971 shells (n = 91) from hatched eggs or those containing fully developed embryos were about i0 percent thinner (P<0.001) than both unembryonated shells (n = 26) from the same year and the 1859-1939 shells (n = 169) from essentially unembryonated eggs. The difference is attributed to the transfer of calcium from the shells to the embryos and not to environmental pollutants.

Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

2001-01-01

335

State-space models for stochastic and seasonal fluctuations of vole and shrew populations in east-central Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small mammal populations fluctuate erratically and exhibit seasonal and multi-annual variations in abundance. The decomposition of population dynamics into seasonal fluctuations, stochastic trends, and residuals helps to quantify environmental stochasticity of population dynamics. We used basic structural model (BSM), a state-space time series model, to decompose and de-trend 25 years of monthly live-trapping data for Microtus ochrogaster, M. pennsylvanicus, and

Guiming Wang; Lowell L. Getz

2007-01-01

336

The differential antiemetic properties of GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39) in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew).  

PubMed

The use of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus is commonly associated with nausea and vomiting. Previous studies using Suncus murinus revealed that the GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, induces emesis via the brainstem and/or hypothalamus. The present study investigated the mechanism of exendin-4-induced emesis in more detail. Ondansetron (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and CP-99,994 (10 mg/kg, s.c) failed to reduce emesis induced by exendin-4 (3 nmol, i.c.v.), suggesting that 5-HT3 and NK1 receptors are not involved in the mechanism. In other studies, the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39), antagonised emesis and c-Fos expression in the brainstem and the paraventricular hypothalamus induced by the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin (30 mg/kg, i.p.; p < 0.05), but not the emesis induced by nicotine (5 mg/kg, s.c.; p > 0.05), or copper sulphate pentahydrate (120 mg/kg, p.o.; p > 0.05). GLP-1 receptors may therefore represent a potential target for drugs to prevent chemotherapy-induced emesis in situations where 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor antagonists fail. PMID:24726308

Chan, Sze Wa; Lu, Zengbing; Lin, Ge; Yew, David Tai Wai; Yeung, Chi Kong; Rudd, John A

2014-08-01

337

Generalism as a subsistence strategy: advantages and limitations of the highly flexible feeding traits of Pleistocene Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis (Rhinocerotidae, Mammalia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called Hundsheim rhinoceros, Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis, was a very common faunal element of the Early to early Middle Pleistocene period in the western Palaearctic. In this study, individuals from two different central European populations of the Hundsheim rhinoceros were analysed in order to determine whether their local dietary signals could reflect differing food availability between the two populations, and whether such information could provide a better understanding of the ecological role of S. hundsheimensis within corresponding faunal assemblages, and of its principal subsistence strategy in the western Palaearctic. The mesowear traits observed in the studied S. hundsheimensis populations have been interpreted as representing biome-specific signals, indicating grassland vegetation at the site of Süßenborn, and dense to open forests at Voigtstedt (both localities in Germany). The analyses performed on the fossil rhino material demonstrate the most pronounced dietary variability ever established for a single herbivorous ungulate species by mesowear studies. This variability ranges from an attrition dominated grazing regime, to a one of predominantly browsing, and characterises S. hundsheimensis as the most ecologically tolerant rhinoceros of the Palaearctic Plio-Pleistocene. Although such dietary flexibility proved an effective enough subsistence strategy over a period of 600-900 ka (1.4/1.2-0.6/0.5 Myr) in the western Palaearctic, the situation changed dramatically after 0.6 Myr BP, when the new species of rhinoceroses, Stephanorhinus hemitoechus and Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis, appeared and started to compete for both the grass and the browse. For the generalist S. hundsheimensis, this bilateral interference was detrimental to its success in all of its habitats. The successful competition of specialised forms of rhinoceroses, which might have originated as a result of the development of 100 ka periodicity in the global climatic record, is proposed as the main reason for the extinction of S. hundsheimensis during the early Middle Pleistocene.

Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich; Kaiser, Thomas M.

2011-08-01

338

A new African fossil caprin and a combined molecular and morphological Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of caprini (Mammalia: Bovidae).  

PubMed

Given that most species that have ever existed on Earth are extinct, no evolutionary history can ever be complete without the inclusion of fossil taxa. Bovids (antelopes and relatives) are one of the most diverse clades of large mammals alive today, with over a hundred living species and hundreds of documented fossil species. With the advent of molecular phylogenetics, major advances have been made in the phylogeny of this clade; however, there has been little attempt to integrate the fossil record into the developing phylogenetic picture. We here describe a new large fossil caprin species from ca. 1.9-Ma deposits from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. To place the new species phylogenetically, we perform a Bayesian analysis of a combined molecular (cytochrome b) and morphological (osteological) character supermatrix. We include all living species of Caprini, the new fossil species, a fossil takin from the Pliocene of Ethiopia (Budorcas churcheri), and the insular subfossil Myotragus balearicus. The combined analysis demonstrates successful incorporation of both living and fossil species within a single phylogeny based on both molecular and morphological evidence. Analysis of the combined supermatrix produces superior resolution than with either the molecular or morphological data sets considered alone. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the data set are also compared and shown to produce similar results. The combined phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new fossil species is nested within Capra, making it one of the earliest representatives of this clade, with implications for molecular clock calibration. Geographical optimization indicates no less than four independent dispersals into Africa by caprins since the Pliocene. PMID:22816969

Bibi, F; Vrba, E; Fack, F

2012-09-01

339

Skeletal ontogeny of Monodelphis domestica (Mammalia: Didelphidae) : quantifying variation, variability, and technique bias in ossification sequence reconstruction.  

E-print Network

??The field of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) focuses on understanding the evolution of ontogeny and mechanisms of evolutionary change. Recently, taxonomic comparisons of the sequence… (more)

Morris, Zachary Stephen

2014-01-01

340

Anchitherium aurelianense (Equidae, Mammalia): a brachydont “dirty browser” in the community of herbivorous large mammals from Sandelzhausen (Miocene, Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Anchitheriinae are an extinct subfamily of Equidae that first appeared in North America near the base of the Miocene. Anchitheriinae are found in subtropical to warm temperate habitats and were long considered to be adapted to eating browse. In Europe the genus Anchithe- rium first occurred in the MN3 mammal zone and became extinct in MN9. The assemblage from

Thomas M. Kaiser

2009-01-01

341

FAUNOLOGY, BIOLOGY, ECOLOGY AND PROTECTION STATUTGE OF THE MAMMALS (MAMMALIA) OF THE MÃCIN MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK (ROMANIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammals of Mãcin Mountains National Park have to face some extreme ecological conditions (compact soil, high temperatures, lack of precipitations), but, on the other side there are burrowing, amphibian, good climber species or large mammals (e.g. Cervus elaphus), adapted to the conditions of the compact forests of the Carpathians, with sufficient feeding, shelter, resting, reproduction places. Their biology is adapted

DUMITRU MURARIU

342

Chromosome painting and molecular dating indicate a low rate of chromosomal evolution in golden moles (Mammalia, Chrysochloridae).  

PubMed

Golden moles (Chrysochloridae) are poorly known subterranean mammals endemic to Southern Africa that are part of the superordinal clade Afrotheria. Using G-banding and chromosome painting we provide a comprehensive comparison of the karyotypes of five species representing five of the nine recognized genera: Amblysomus hottentotus, Chrysochloris asiatica, Chrysospalax trevelyani, Cryptochloris zyli and Eremitalpa granti. The species are karyotypically highly conserved. In total, only four changes were detected among them. Eremitalpa granti has the most derived karyotype with 2n = 26 and differs from the remaining species (all of whom have 2n = 30) by one centric and one telomere:telomere fusion. In addition, two intrachromosomal rearrangements were detected in A. hottentotus. The painting probes also suggest the presence of a unique satellite DNA family located on chromosomes 11 and 12 of both C. asiatica and C. zyli. This represents a synapomorphy linking these two sympatric species as sister taxa. A molecular clock was calibrated adopting a relaxed Bayesian approach for multigene data sets comprising publicly available sequences derived from five gene fragments representative of three golden moles and 39 other eutherian species. The data suggest that golden moles diverged from a common ancestor approximately 28.5 mya (95% credibility interval = 21.5-36.5 mya). Based on an inferred chrysochlorid ancestral karyotype of 2n = 30, the estimated rate of 0.7 rearrangements per 10 my (95% Credibility Interval = 0.54-0.93) differs from the 'default rate' of mammalian chromosomal evolution which has been estimated at one change per 10 million years, thus placing the Chrysochloridae among the slower-evolving chromosomal lineages thus far recorded. PMID:17180635

Gilbert, C; O'Brien, P C; Bronner, G; Yang, F; Hassanin, A; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Robinson, T J

2006-01-01

343

Island history affects faunal composition: the treeshrews (Mammalia: Scandentia: Tupaiidae) from the Mentawai and Batu Islands, Indonesia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mentawai and Batu Island groups off the west coast of Sumatra have a complicated geological and biogeographical history. The Batu Islands have shared a connection with the Sumatran ‘mainland’ during periods of lowered sea level, whereas the Mentawai Islands, despite being a similar distance from Sumatra, have remained isolated from Sumatra, and probably from the Batu Islands as well. These contrasting historical relationships to Sumatra have influenced the compositions of the respective mammalian faunas of these island groups. Treeshrews (Scandentia, Tupaiidae) from these islands have, at various times in their history, been recognized as geographically circumscribed populations of a broadly distributed Tupaia glis, subspecies, or distinct species. We used multivariate analyses of measurements from the skull and hands to compare the island populations from Siberut (Mentawai Islands) and Tanahbala (Batu Islands) with the geographically adjacent species from the southern Mentawai Islands (T.?chrysogaster) and Sumatra (T.?ferruginea). Results from both the skull and manus of the Siberut population show that it is most similar to T.?chrysogaster, whereas the Tanahbala population is more similar to T.?ferruginea, confirming predictions based on island history. These results are further corroborated by mammae counts. Based on these lines of evidence, we include the Siberut population in T.?chrysogaster and the Tanahbala population in T.?ferruginea. Our conclusions expand the known distributions of both the Mentawai and Sumatran species. The larger geographical range of the endangered T.?chrysogaster has conservation implications for this Mentawai endemic, so populations and habitat should be re-evaluated on each of the islands it inhabits. However, until such a re-evaluation is conducted, we recommend that the IUCN Red List status of this species be changed from ‘Endangered’ to ‘Data Deficient’.

Sargis, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Morningstar, Natalie C.; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

2014-01-01

344

Trypanosoma cruzi infection in neotropical wild carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora): at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.  

PubMed

Little is known on the role played by Neotropical wild carnivores in the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. We investigated T. cruzi infection in wild carnivores from three sites in Brazil through parasitological and serological tests. The seven carnivore species examined were infected by T. cruzi, but high parasitemias detectable by hemoculture were found only in two Procyonidae species. Genotyping by Mini-exon gene, PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I) and kDNA genomic targets revealed that the raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus) harbored TcI and the coatis (Nasua nasua) harbored TcI, TcII, TcIII-IV and Trypanosoma rangeli, in single and mixed infections, besides four T. cruzi isolates that displayed odd band patterns in the Mini-exon assay. These findings corroborate the coati can be a bioaccumulator of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTU) and may act as a transmission hub, a connection point joining sylvatic transmission cycles within terrestrial and arboreal mammals and vectors. Also, the odd band patterns observed in coatis' isolates reinforce that T. cruzi diversity might be much higher than currently acknowledged. Additionally, we assembled our data with T. cruzi infection on Neotropical carnivores' literature records to provide a comprehensive analysis of the infection patterns among distinct carnivore species, especially considering their ecological traits and phylogeny. Altogether, fifteen Neotropical carnivore species were found naturally infected by T. cruzi. Species diet was associated with T. cruzi infection rates, supporting the hypothesis that predator-prey links are important mechanisms for T. cruzi maintenance and dispersion in the wild. Distinct T. cruzi infection patterns across carnivore species and study sites were notable. Musteloidea species consistently exhibit high parasitemias in different studies which indicate their high infectivity potential. Mesocarnivores that feed on both invertebrates and mammals, including the coati, a host that can be bioaccumulator of T. cruzi DTU's, seem to take place at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain. PMID:23861767

Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; de Lima, Juliane Saab; Cheida, Carolina Carvalho; Lemos, Frederico Gemesio; de Azevedo, Fernanda Cavalcanti; Arrais, Ricardo Corassa; Bilac, Daniele; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Mourão, Guilherme; Jansen, Ana Maria

2013-01-01

345

Molecules, morphometrics and new fossils provide an integrated view of the evolutionary history of Rhinopomatidae (Mammalia: Chiroptera)  

PubMed Central

Background The Rhinopomatidae, traditionally considered to be one of the most ancient chiropteran clades, remains one of the least known groups of Rhinolophoidea. No relevant fossil record is available for this family. Whereas there have been extensive radiations in related families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae, there are only a few species in the Rhinopomatidae and their phylogenetic relationship and status are not fully understood. Results Here we present (a) a phylogenetic analysis based on a partial cytochrome b sequence, (b) new fossils from the Upper Miocene site Elaiochoria 2 (Chalkidiki, Greece), which represents the first appearance datum of the family based on the fossil record, and (c) discussion of the phylogeographic patterns in both molecular and morphological traits. We found deep divergences in the Rhinopoma hardwickii lineage, suggesting that the allopatric populations in (i) Iran and (ii) North Africa and the Middle East should have separate species status. The latter species (R. cystops) exhibits a shallow pattern of isolation by distance (separating the Middle East and the African populations) that contrasts with the pattern of geographic variation in the morphometrical traits. A deep genetic gap was also found in Rhinopoma muscatellum (Iran vs. Yemen). We found only minute genetic distance between R. microphyllum from the Levant and India, which fails to support the sub/species distinctness of the Indian form (R. microphyllum kinneari). Conclusion The mtDNA survey provided phylogenetic tree of the family Rhinopomatidae for the first time and revealed an unexpected diversification of the group both within R. hardwickii and R. muscatellum morphospecies. The paleobiogeographic scenario compiled in respect to molecular clock data suggests that the family originated in the region south of the Eocene Western Tethyan seaway or in India, and extended its range during the Early Miocene. The fossil record suggests a Miocene spread into the Mediterranean region, followed by a post-Miocene retreat. Morphological analysis compared with genetic data indicates considerable phenotypic plasticity in this group. PMID:17868440

Hulva, Pavel; Horá?ek, Ivan; Benda, Petr

2007-01-01

346

Relationships between abiotic variables and geographic variation in skulls of pumas ( Puma concolor : Mammalia, Felidae) in North and South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between patterns of geographic variation in cranial morphology and selected abiotic variables were studied in the puma (Puma concolorLinnaeus). Our dataset consisted of 11 cranial, 6 dental, and 2 mandibular measurements of 1700 adults, which were separated by gender and age class and analysed by univariate and multivariate statistical procedures. Variation in size was correlated with precipitation, but size

SAMANTHA W. GAY; TROY L. BEST

1996-01-01

347

Genetic variability of Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Panthera onca (Mammalia, Felidae) studied using Felis catus microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used four microsatellite loci (Fca08, Fca45, Fca77 and Fca96) from the domestic cat, Felis catus, to investigate genetic variability in specimens of Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi, otter cat, eyra), Puma concolor (cougar, mountain lion, puma) and Panthera onca (jaguar) held in various Brazilian zoos. Samples of DNA from the cats were PCR amplified and then sequenced before being analyzed using

Vanessa Roma Moreno; Alexéia Barufatti Grisolia; Francine Campagnari; Marcela Milazzotto; Cristina Harumi Adania; José Fernando Garcia; Edislane Barreiros de Souza

2006-01-01

348

Phylogeny and zoogeography of six squirrel species of the genus sciurus (mammalia, rodentia), inferred from cytochrome B gene sequences.  

PubMed

To investigate the phylogenetic relationships between the New World Sciurus and the Old World Sciurus and their biogeographic history, the partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences (1,040 base pairs) were analyzed on six Sciurus species: S. aberti, S. carolinensis, S. lis, S. niger, S. stramineus, and S. vulgaris. Phylogenetic trees (maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood methods) commonly showed two groups with high bootstrap values (73-100%): one consisting of the New World Sciurus and the other consisting of the Old World Sciurus. Genetic distances among the New World Sciurus species were remarkably larger than that between two Sciurus species of the Old World, suggesting the earlier radiation of the New World Sciurus than the Old World Sciurus. PMID:18494597

Oshida, T; Masuda, R

2000-04-01

349

Postglacial colonization of northwestern North America by the forest-associated American marten ( Martes americana , Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogeographic patterns were used to assess intraspecific diversification of American martens ( Martes americana ). Within martens, two morphological groups ( americana and caurina ) have been recognized, though the level of distinction between them has been debated. We examined mitochondrial cytochrome b gene haplotypes from 680 martens to explore the colonization history of the Pacific Northwest and found two

KAREN D. S TONE; R ODNEY W. F LYNN; JOSEPH A. C OOK

350

An overview of the host spectrum and distribution of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica): part 2-Mammalia (excluding Muroidea).  

PubMed

Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a globally distributed zoonotic nematode with low host specificity and a high affinity to the liver. Although murid rodents are the main definite hosts, various other mammals can be affected with hepatic capillariasis: non-murid rodents, Insectivora, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Hyracoidea, Marsupialia, Carnivora, and Primates. Overall, more than 180 mammalian species (including humans) are known as suitable hosts of this pathogen. This review gives an overview of the distribution and host spectrum of C. hepaticum in non-Muroidean mammals in wildlife and zoos as well as in domesticated and laboratory animals. Furthermore, the role of spurious infections in animals and the dissemination of C. hepaticum by mammalian and non-mammalian animals are summarized. PMID:24257974

Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

2014-02-01

351

The Effects of Feeding Unpredictability and Classical Conditioning on Pre-Release Training of White-Lipped Peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae)  

PubMed Central

Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3) and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled). The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2) than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3). The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1) and the following control phase (C2) than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2), also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild. PMID:24475072

Nogueira, Selene S. C.; Abreu, Shauana A.; Peregrino, Helderes; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L. G.

2014-01-01

352

Comparison of climate space and phylogeny of Marmota (Mammalia: Rodentia) indicates a connection between evolutionary history and climate preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaeobiologists have investigated the evolutionary responses of extinct organisms to climate change, and have also used extinct organisms to reconstruct palaeoclimates. There is evidence of a disconnection between climate change and evolution that suggests that organisms may not be accurate palaeoclimate indicators. Here, marmots (Marmota sp.) are used as a case study to examine whether similarity of climate preferences is

Edward Byrd Davis

2005-01-01

353

Cytogenetic evidence for the specific distinction of an Alaskan marmot, Marmota broweri Hall and Gilmore (Mammalia: Sciuridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic studies based upon somatic cells (bone marrow) have disclosed that the marmot hitherto designated Marmota caligata broweriHall and Gilmore, occurring in the Brooks Range of arctic Alaska, differs from M. c. caligata (Eschscholtz) in number of chromosomes (2n=36 as compared with 2n=42 in M. caligata) and in proportions of chromosomal types. Typical karyograms for the two species are presented.

Robert L. Rausch; Virginia R. Rausch

1965-01-01

354

Nuclear DNA phylogeny of the squirrels (Mammalia: Rodentia) and the evolution of arboreality from c-myc and RAG1  

E-print Network

squirrels (Pteromyinae) to subfamily status. Instead, flying squirrels are derived from one of the tree, whether gliding evolved more than once, and the relationships of flying squirrels to other groups. Until subfamilies: Sciurinae, the tree and ground squirrels, and Pteromyinae, the flying squirrels (Hoffmann et al

Steppan, Scott

355

Homeotic Evolution in the Mammalia: Diversification of Therian Axial Seriation and the Morphogenetic Basis of Human Origins  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the rising interest in homeotic genes, little has been known about the course and pattern of evolution of homeotic traits across the mammalian radiation. An array of emerging and diversifying homeotic gradients revealed by this study appear to generate new body plans and drive evolution at a large scale. Methodology/Principal Findings This study identifies and evaluates a set of homeotic gradients across 250 extant and fossil mammalian species and their antecedents over a period of 220 million years. These traits are generally expressed as co-linear gradients along the body axis rather than as distinct segmental identities. Relative position or occurrence sequence vary independently and are subject to polarity reversal and mirroring. Five major gradient modification sets are identified: (1)–quantitative changes of primary segmental identity pattern that appeared at the origin of the tetrapods ; (2)–frame shift relation of costal and vertebral identity which diversifies from the time of amniote origins; (3)–duplication, mirroring, splitting and diversification of the neomorphic laminar process first commencing at the dawn of mammals; (4)–emergence of homologically variable lumbar lateral processes upon commencement of the radiation of therian mammals and ; (5)–inflexions and transpositions of the relative position of the horizontal septum of the body and the neuraxis at the emergence of various orders of therian mammals. Convergent functional changes under homeotic control include laminar articular engagement with septo-neural transposition and ventrally arrayed lumbar transverse process support systems. Conclusion/Significance Clusters of homeotic transformations mark the emergence point of mammals in the Triassic and the radiation of therians in the Cretaceous. A cluster of homeotic changes in the Miocene hominoid Morotopithecus that are still seen in humans supports establishment of a new “hominiform” clade and suggests a homeotic origin for the human upright body plan. PMID:17925867

Filler, Aaron G.

2007-01-01

356

Reconsidering the taxonomy of the Black-Faced Uacaris, Cacajao melanocephalus group (Mammalia: Pitheciidae), from the northern Amazon Basin.  

PubMed

The black-faced uacaris are a poorly known group of platyrrhine monkeys from the Rio Negro basin in northwestern Amazonia. Originally described as two distinct species-Cacajao melanocephalus (Humboldt 1812) and Cacajao ouakary (Spix 1823)-from opposite banks of the Negro, they were treated as a single species until the end of the twentieth century, when molecular studies reconfirmed their status as true species. One of these studies not only nominated a third (northern) species, Cacajao ayresi Boubli et al. 2008, but also identified C. ouakary as a junior synonym of C. melanocephalus, resulting in the introduction of a new nomen, Cacajao hosomi Boubli et al. 2008. In the present study, additional evidence on morphological and zoogeographic variables is analyzed, which indicates that C. ouakary should be reinstated, and supports the nomination of a neotype of C. melanocephalus. The molecular and zoogeographic data on the species status of the ayresi form are also re-assessed, leading to the conclusion that, on the basis of the evidence available at the present time, this form should be considered a subspecies of C. melanocephalus. A new taxonomic arrangement is proposed, which recognizes two species, C. ouakary and C. melanocephalus, the latter with two subspecies, C. m. melanocephalus and C. m. ayresi. PMID:25283664

Ferrari, Stephen F; Guedes, Patrícia G; Figueiredo-Ready, Wilsea M B; Barnett, Adrian A

2014-01-01

357

Merychippus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Equidae) from the Middle Miocene of state of Oaxaca, southeastern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexican material referable to Merychippus from two localities in eastern Oaxaca was described first nearly 50 years ago. Subsequent work there and in Central Oaxaca, spanning some 30 years, has allowed to establish the detail stratigraphy in both regions, and assembled a collection of merychippine material from the Matatlán (Central Oaxaca) and El Camarón (eastern Oaxaca) Formations, both K–Ar dated ~15 Ma (late

Victor Manuel Bravo-Cuevas; Ismael Ferrusquía-Villafranca

2006-01-01

358

Hares on ice: phylogeography and historical demographics of Lepus arcticus, L. othus, and L. timidus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha).  

PubMed

Phylogeographical investigations of arctic organisms provide spatial and temporal frameworks for interpreting the role of climate change on biotic diversity in high-latitude ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on 473 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region in 192 arctic hares (Lepus arcticus, Lepus othus, Lepus timidus) and two individual Lepus townsendii. The three arctic hare species are closely related. All L. othus individuals form one well-supported clade, L. arcticus individuals form two well-supported clades, and L. timidus individuals are scattered throughout the phylogeny. Arctic hare distribution was altered dramatically following post-Pleistocene recession of continental ice sheets. We tested for genetic signatures of population expansion for hare populations now found in deglaciated areas. Historical demographic estimates for 12 arctic hare populations from throughout their range indicate that L. arcticus and L. othus persisted in two separate North American arctic refugia (Beringia and High Canadian Arctic) during glacial advances of the Pleistocene, while the high genetic diversity in L. timidus likely reflects multiple Eurasian refugia. PMID:16101770

Waltari, Eric; Cook, Joseph A

2005-09-01

359

A new giant megatheriine ground sloth (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Megatheriidae) from the late Blancan to early Irvingtonian of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giant megatheriine ground sloth Eremotherium eomigrans is described based on remains from the late Blancan to early Irvingtonian (late Pliocene to early Pleistocene) of Florida. It resembles the other giant megatheriines E. laurillardi and Megatherium americanum in size, but is clearly distinguished by a pentadactyl manus. It is assigned to the genus Eremotherium based on two synapomorphies shared with

GERARDO DE IULIIS; CÁSTOR CARTELLE

1999-01-01

360

A new early species of the aquatic sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Late Miocene of Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalassocnus antiquus, sp. nov., is a marine nothrothere from the late Miocene Aguada de Lomas vertebrate horizon (ca. 7 to 8 Ma) of the Pisco Formation in the Sacaco area of the southern coast of Peru. It is similar to the slightly younger latest Miocene Thalassocnus natans, but smaller and distinctly more gracile. The sloping morphology of the lateral border

Christian De Muizon; H. Gregory Mcdonald; Rodolfo Salas; Mario Urbina

2003-01-01

361

Chewing through the Miocene: an examination of the feeding musculature in the ground sloth Hapalops from South America (Mammalia: Pilosa)  

PubMed Central

Hapalops, a smaller-sized and early sloth of the Megatheroidea, appeared in the middle Miocene Santa Cruz formation of Argentina. This genus is part of the group from which later, larger megatheroids arose, i.e., Nothrotheriops and Megatherium. Many cranial characters support this idea; however Hapalops is not merely a smaller antecedent of the later forms. Specifically, Hapalops retains short anterior caniniform teeth, and a temporomandibular joint elevated above the cheek tooth row; a combination distinct among sloths. An elevated temporomandibular joint occurs in Bradypus, a tree sloth with anterior chisel-shaped teeth instead of caniniforms, and the tree sloth Choloepus, which is aligned with the megalonychids, has anterior caniniforms. Hapalops has an elongated zygomatic ascending process that is reminiscent of that in Bradypus; however, the Bradypus skull is extremely foreshortened while that of Hapalops is elongated, as in nothrotheres, but not deepened as in megatheres. Previous work identified many sloth cranial character complexes, and functional limitations on skull feature combinations. The unique Hapalops character patterns indicate a selective feeder with a mediolaterally oriented grinding stroke during mastication. PMID:25075299

Naples, Virginia L.; McAfee, Robert K.

2014-01-01

362

The youngest species of the aquatic sloth Thalassocnus and a reassessment of the relationships of the nothrothere sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new specimens of the aquatic sloth Thalassocnus from the Pliocene of Peru are described, one of T. carolomartini McDonald and Muizon, 2002 and the other T. yaucensis, sp. nov. Comparisons with the type species of Thalassocnus, T. natans, demonstrates that T. carolomartini and T. yaucensis are more similar morphologically to each other than to other species of the genus

Christian De Muizon; H. Gregory Mcdonald; Rodolfo Salas; Mario Urbina

2004-01-01

363

Chewing through the Miocene: an examination of the feeding musculature in the ground sloth Hapalops from South America (Mammalia: Pilosa).  

PubMed

Hapalops, a smaller-sized and early sloth of the Megatheroidea, appeared in the middle Miocene Santa Cruz formation of Argentina. This genus is part of the group from which later, larger megatheroids arose, i.e., Nothrotheriops and Megatherium. Many cranial characters support this idea; however Hapalops is not merely a smaller antecedent of the later forms. Specifically, Hapalops retains short anterior caniniform teeth, and a temporomandibular joint elevated above the cheek tooth row; a combination distinct among sloths. An elevated temporomandibular joint occurs in Bradypus, a tree sloth with anterior chisel-shaped teeth instead of caniniforms, and the tree sloth Choloepus, which is aligned with the megalonychids, has anterior caniniforms. Hapalops has an elongated zygomatic ascending process that is reminiscent of that in Bradypus; however, the Bradypus skull is extremely foreshortened while that of Hapalops is elongated, as in nothrotheres, but not deepened as in megatheres. Previous work identified many sloth cranial character complexes, and functional limitations on skull feature combinations. The unique Hapalops character patterns indicate a selective feeder with a mediolaterally oriented grinding stroke during mastication. PMID:25075299

Naples, Virginia L; McAfee, Robert K

2014-01-01

364

A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla, from western Colombia and western Ecuador (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The twelve recognized species of nectar-feeding bats of the genus Lonchophylla occur in low- and middle-elevation, humid, Neotropical forests. Morphological and morphometrical analyses of specimens formerly lumped with Lonchophylla mordax O. Thomas (1903) support recognition of Lonchophylla concava Goldman (1914) as a separate species and reveal a third species from the western Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador that I describe herein as Lonchophylla jornicata. This new species is morphologically similar to Lonchophylla concava but is distinctively larger than that species. Tests for sexual dimorphism within these and other species of Lonchophyllini suggest a tendency for females to have slightly longer, narrower skulls, higher coronoid processes of the mandible, and longer forearms than males.

Woodman, N.

2007-01-01

365

Mixed infection in the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla (Mammalia: Pilosa) from Pará State, Brazil: Trypanosoma cruzi, T. rangeli and Leishmania infantum.  

PubMed

Some Trypanosoma and Leishmania species are multi-host parasites whose distribution overlaps in several parts of the Brazilian Amazon basin. Despite being a common trait among wild mammals, mixed infections and their consequences for the host's health and parasite transmission are still a poorly known phenomenon. Here we describe a triple mixed infection - Trypanosoma cruzi, T. rangeli and Leishmania infantum - in a bone marrow sample from an anteater Tamandua tetradactyla captured in a house backyard from the endemic Abaetetuba municipality in the Amazon basin. T. cruzi was also isolated from blood samples. The mini-exon multiplex PCR characterization detected the infection by T. rangeli and T. cruzi (TcI genotype), while L. infantum infection was confirmed by an ITS-PCR followed by amplicon sequencing. This is the first description of T. rangeli isolation from bone marrow and the first report of L. infantum infection in xenarthrans. The implications of this finding are discussed considering the influence of mixed infections in the role of this mammal species as a putative reservoir host of these 3 trypanosomatid species. PMID:23253893

De Araújo, Vitor Antônio L; Boité, Mariana C; Cupolillo, Elisa; Jansen, Ana Maria; Roque, André Luiz R

2013-04-01

366

The sweet spot of a biological hammer: the centre of percussion of glyptodont (Mammalia: Xenarthra) tail clubs  

PubMed Central

The importance of the centre of percussion (CP) of some hand-held sporting equipment (such as tennis rackets and baseball bats) for athletic performance is well known. In order to avoid injuries it is important that powerful blows are located close to the CP. Several species of glyptodont (giant armoured mammals) had tail clubs that can be modelled as rigid beams (like baseball bats) and it is generally assumed that these were useful for agonistic behaviour. However, the variation in tail club morphology among known genera suggests that a biomechanical and functional analysis of these structures could be useful. Here, we outline a novel method to determine the CP of the glyptodont tail clubs. We find that the largest species had the CP very close to the possible location of horny spikes. This is consistent with the inference that they were adapted to delivering powerful blows at that point. Our new analysis reinforces the case for agonistic use of tail clubs in several glyptodont species. PMID:19710060

Blanco, R. Ernesto; Jones, Washington W.; Rinderknecht, Andrés

2009-01-01

367

The sweet spot of a biological hammer: the centre of percussion of glyptodont (Mammalia: Xenarthra) tail clubs.  

PubMed

The importance of the centre of percussion (CP) of some hand-held sporting equipment (such as tennis rackets and baseball bats) for athletic performance is well known. In order to avoid injuries it is important that powerful blows are located close to the CP. Several species of glyptodont (giant armoured mammals) had tail clubs that can be modelled as rigid beams (like baseball bats) and it is generally assumed that these were useful for agonistic behaviour. However, the variation in tail club morphology among known genera suggests that a biomechanical and functional analysis of these structures could be useful. Here, we outline a novel method to determine the CP of the glyptodont tail clubs. We find that the largest species had the CP very close to the possible location of horny spikes. This is consistent with the inference that they were adapted to delivering powerful blows at that point. Our new analysis reinforces the case for agonistic use of tail clubs in several glyptodont species. PMID:19710060

Blanco, R Ernesto; Jones, Washington W; Rinderknecht, Andrés

2009-11-22

368

The Adaptive Significance of Enamel Loss in the Mandibular Incisors of Cercopithecine Primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): A Finite Element Modelling Study  

PubMed Central

In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits. PMID:24831704

Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

2014-01-01

369

A new microphallid (Digenea) species from Lontra provocax (Mammalia: Mustelidae) from freshwater environments of northwestern Patagonia (Argentina).  

PubMed

A new microphallid species of Maritrema is described from the native southern river otter, Lontra provocax (Thomas). A naturally infected otter was found dead in the Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina. Ovigerous adult worms were recovered from the anterior portion of the intestine. Specimens of Maritrema huillini n. sp. have an unarmed genital pore and glabrous cirrus. They can be distinguished from all other species in the genus by having a long intestinal ceca extending up to three-quarters of the testes length to the level of the posterior border of the testes and a metraterm composed of a proximal sphincter, a non-muscular sac, and a distal muscular portion. This microphallid is the first species recovered from a South American eutherian host and the first digenean recorded for L. provocax. PMID:22540416

Flores, Verónica R; Brugni, Norma L; Pozzi, Carla M

2012-10-01

370

Evolution of chromosomal variation in cottontails, genus Sylvilagus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha): S. aquaticus, S. floridanus, and S. transitionalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The banding patterns of mitotic chromosome from three cottontail species, Sylvilagus aquaticus (2n = 38), S. floridanus (2n = 42), and S. transitionalis (2n = 46), are presented and compared with those of the proposed leporid ancestral karyotype, the latter being reflected in a species of hare, Lepus saxatilis (2n = 48). The differences in the diploid numbers of the

T. J. Robinson; F. F. B. Elder; J. A. Chapman

1983-01-01

371

Evolution of chromosomal variation in cottontails, genus Sylvilagus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha): S. aquaticus, S. floridanus, and S. transitionalis.  

PubMed

The banding patterns of mitotic chromosome from three cottontail species, Sylvilagus aquaticus (2n = 38), S. floridanus (2n = 42), and S. transitionalis (2n = 46), are presented and compared with those of the proposed leporid ancestral karyotype, the latter being reflected in a species of hare, Lepus saxatilis (2n = 48). The differences in the diploid numbers of the cottontail species are primarily due to the fixation of Robertsonian fusions which have occurred during the evolution of their respective genomes. Of the eight fusion products identified, seven were species specific, while one, which is thought to reflect their more recent common ancestory, is shared by both S. aquaticus and S. floridanus. Other karyotypic differences include interspecific variation in the amount and distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, as well as the presence of two autosomal pairs in S. transitionalis which do not have apparent banding homologies either with the chromosomes of other cottontails or with those of the Lepus genome. The tendency for certain chromosomes in the ancestral karyotype to show a predisposition to undergo fusion events within the Leporidae is discussed. PMID:6861527

Robinson, T J; Elder, F F; Chapman, J A

1983-01-01

372

The clavicles of Smilodon fatalis and Panthera atrox (Mammalia: Felidae) from Rancho La Brea, Los Angeles, California.  

PubMed

The Rancho La Brea collections at the George C. Page Museum in Los Angeles, California, contain the largest single inventory of Smilodon fatalis remains representing virtually every bone in the skeleton. Eighteen clavicles of two distinctive shapes have been recovered from historical and recent excavations at Rancho La Brea. In this study, we identify these specimens to species through comparison of their morphology and morphological variability with clavicles found in modern felids. This study includes a reevaluation of clavicles that have been previously assigned to S. fatalis, which are more likely to be those of Panthera atrox, and the description of pantherine cat clavicles. A previously undescribed sample of clavicles not only includes some of the same pantherine morph but also 10 specimens, herein assigned to S. fatalis, which are morphologically distinctive and significantly smaller than the previously described specimens. In addition, we report unexpected variations between clavicles of Panthera leo and P. tigris: the clavicles of P. leo closely resemble those of the large Rancho La Brea clavicle morph-which presumably belongs to P. atrox-thus supporting a P. leo/P. atrox clade. We report distinctive morphology of the clavicles of Acinonyx jubatus. Possible functional and phylogenic significance of felid clavicles is suggested. PMID:22592918

Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Long, Ryan C; Farrell, Aisling B; Shaw, Christopher A

2012-09-01

373

Padrão de divisão e distribuição das artérias mesentéricas no ratão-do-banhado (Myocastor coypus - Rodentia: Mammalia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

celíaca (70%), ou em tronco comum com esta (30%); b) os ramos diretos da artéria mesentérica cranial são as artérias pancreaticoduodenal caudal (100%), cólica média (100%), duodenojejunal (90%), pancre- ática (10%), hepática (10%), cólica direita (100%), jejunais (100%), ileocólica (100%) e ileal (100%). A artéria mesentérica caudal surge da face ventral da aorta abdominal, imediatamente cranial à emergência das artérias

Gilberto Valente Machado; Pedro Renato Gonçalves; Adelvino Parizzi

374

Modelling the distribution of an introduced species: The coypu Myocastor coypus (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Piedmont region, NW Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model?based analyses of species–habitat relationships can help to clarify which factors influence the establishment and spread of species. The coypu (Myocastor coypus) is a semi?aquatic rodent native to South America, which has been introduced worldwide, including Italy. We used logistic regression to analyse the species distribution according to habitat attributes of agro?ecosystems in Piedmont Region. The resulting model correctly predicted

S. Bertolino; B. Ingegno

2009-01-01

375

Invertebrate dispersal by aquatic mammals: a case study with nutria Myocastor coypus (Rodentia, Mammalia) in Southern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many freshwater invertebrates rely on vectors for their passive dispersal. A wide array of vectors has already been investigated,\\u000a but dispersal mediated by aquatic mammals remains largely unknown. Since nutria (Myocastor coypus Molina, 1782) live in a variety of aquatic habitats and frequently move around between these water bodies, they have the\\u000a opportunity to transport hitch-hiking aquatic invertebrates along with

Aline Waterkeyn; Olivier Pineau; Patrick Grillas; Luc Brendonck

2010-01-01

376

Evolutionary Patterns in the Dentition of Duplicidentata (Mammalia) and a Novel Trend in the Molarization of Premolars  

PubMed Central

Background The cusp homology of Lagomorpha has long been problematic largely because their teeth are highly derived relative to their more typically tribosphenic ancestors. Within this context, the lagomorph central cusp has been particularly difficult to homologize with other tribosphenic cusps; authors have previously considered it the paracone, protocone, metacone, amphicone, or an entirely new cusp. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present newly described fossil duplicidentates (Lagomorpha and Mimotonidae) in the context of a well-constrained phylogeny to establish a nomenclatural system for cusps based on the tribosphenic pattern. We show that the central cusp of lagomorphs is homologous with the metaconule of other mammals. We also show that the buccal acquisition of a second cusp on the premolars (molarization) within duplicidentates is atypical with respect to other mammalian lineages; within the earliest lagomorphs, a second buccal cusp is added mesially to an isolated buccal cusp. Conclusions/Significance The distal shift of the ‘ancestral’ paracone within early duplicidentates amounts to the changing of a paracone into a metacone in these lineages. For this reason, we support a strictly topological approach to cusp names, and suggest a discontinuity in nomenclature to capture the complexity of the interplay between evolutionary history and the developmental process that have produced cusp patterns in duplicidentates. PMID:20877465

Kraatz, Brian P.; Meng, Jin; Weksler, Marcelo; Li, Chuankui

2010-01-01

377

Evolutionary and Biological Implications of Dental Mesial Drift in Rodents: The Case of the Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia, Mammalia)  

PubMed Central

Dental characters are importantly used for reconstructing the evolutionary history of mammals, because teeth represent the most abundant material available for the fossil species. However, the characteristics of dental renewal are presently poorly used, probably because dental formulae are frequently not properly established, whereas they could be of high interest for evolutionary and developmental issues. One of the oldest rodent families, the Ctenodactylidae, is intriguing in having longstanding disputed dental formulae. Here, we investigated 70 skulls among all extant ctenodactylid genera (Ctenodactylus, Felovia, Massoutiera and Pectinator) by using X-ray conventional and synchrotron microtomography in order to solve and discuss these dental issues. Our study clearly indicates that Massoutiera, Felovia and Ctenodactylus differ from Pectinator not only by a more derived dentition, but also by a more derived eruptive sequence. In addition to molars, their dentition only includes the fourth deciduous premolars, and no longer bears permanent premolars, conversely to Pectinator. Moreover, we found that these premolars are lost during adulthood, because of mesial drift of molars. Mesial drift is a striking mechanism involving migration of teeth allowed by both bone remodeling and dental resorption. This dental innovation is to date poorly known in rodents, since it is only the second report described. Interestingly, we noted that dental drift in rodents is always associated with high-crowned teeth favoring molar size enlargement. It can thus represent another adaptation to withstand high wear, inasmuch as these rodents inhabit desert environments where dust is abundant. A more accurate study of mesial drift in rodents would be very promising from evolutionary, biological and orthodontic points of view. PMID:23185576

Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Solé, Floréal; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Viriot, Laurent

2012-01-01

378

Cranial remain from Tunisia provides new clues for the origin and evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria) in Africa.  

PubMed

Sea cows (manatees, dugongs) are the only living marine mammals to feed solely on aquatic plants. Unlike whales or dolphins (Cetacea), the earliest evolutionary history of sirenians is poorly documented, and limited to a few fossils including skulls and skeletons of two genera composing the stem family of Prorastomidae (Prorastomus and Pezosiren). Surprisingly, these fossils come from the Eocene of Jamaica, while stem Hyracoidea and Proboscidea--the putative sister-groups to Sirenia--are recorded in Africa as early as the Late Paleocene. So far, the historical biogeography of early Sirenia has remained obscure given this paradox between phylogeny and fossil record. Here we use X-ray microtomography to investigate a newly discovered sirenian petrosal from the Eocene of Tunisia. This fossil represents the oldest occurrence of sirenians in Africa. The morphology of this petrosal is more primitive than the Jamaican prorastomids' one, which emphasizes the basal position of this new African taxon within the Sirenia clade. This discovery testifies to the great antiquity of Sirenia in Africa, and therefore supports their African origin. While isotopic analyses previously suggested sirenians had adapted directly to the marine environment, new paleoenvironmental evidence suggests that basal-most sea cows were likely restricted to fresh waters. PMID:23342128

Benoit, Julien; Adnet, Sylvain; El Mabrouk, Essid; Khayati, Hayet; Ben Haj Ali, Mustapha; Marivaux, Laurent; Merzeraud, Gilles; Merigeaud, Samuel; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Tabuce, Rodolphe

2013-01-01

379

Cranial Remain from Tunisia Provides New Clues for the Origin and Evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria) in Africa  

PubMed Central

Sea cows (manatees, dugongs) are the only living marine mammals to feed solely on aquatic plants. Unlike whales or dolphins (Cetacea), the earliest evolutionary history of sirenians is poorly documented, and limited to a few fossils including skulls and skeletons of two genera composing the stem family of Prorastomidae (Prorastomus and Pezosiren). Surprisingly, these fossils come from the Eocene of Jamaica, while stem Hyracoidea and Proboscidea - the putative sister-groups to Sirenia - are recorded in Africa as early as the Late Paleocene. So far, the historical biogeography of early Sirenia has remained obscure given this paradox between phylogeny and fossil record. Here we use X-ray microtomography to investigate a newly discovered sirenian petrosal from the Eocene of Tunisia. This fossil represents the oldest occurrence of sirenians in Africa. The morphology of this petrosal is more primitive than the Jamaican prorastomids’ one, which emphasizes the basal position of this new African taxon within the Sirenia clade. This discovery testifies to the great antiquity of Sirenia in Africa, and therefore supports their African origin. While isotopic analyses previously suggested sirenians had adapted directly to the marine environment, new paleoenvironmental evidence suggests that basal-most sea cows were likely restricted to fresh waters. PMID:23342128

Benoit, Julien; Adnet, Sylvain; El Mabrouk, Essid; Khayati, Hayet; Ben Haj Ali, Mustapha; Marivaux, Laurent; Merzeraud, Gilles; Merigeaud, Samuel; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Tabuce, Rodolphe

2013-01-01

380

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Servaline Genet, Genetta servalina, the first representative from the family Viverridae (Mammalia, Carnivora).  

PubMed

Abstract Here I report the complete mitochondrial genome of the Servaline Genet, Genetta servalina, as sequenced from overlapping PCR products. The genome is 16,938 base pairs in length and contains the 37 genes found in a typical mammalian genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The control region of G. servalina includes both RS2 and RS3 tandem repeats. The overall base composition on the L-strand is A: 32.8%, C: 25.5%, G: 13.5%, and T: 28.2%. PMID:24937571

Hassanin, Alexandre

2014-06-17

381

The complete mitochondrial genome of the African palm civet, Nandinia binotata, the only representative of the family Nandiniidae (Mammalia, Carnivora).  

PubMed

Abstract Here I report the complete mitochondrial genome of the African palm civet, (Nandinia binotata) as sequenced from overlapping PCR products. The genome is 17,103?bp in length and contains the 37 genes found in a typical mammalian genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The control region of N. binotata includes both RS2 and RS3 tandem repeats. The overall base composition on the L-strand is A: 33.6%, C: 27.3%, G: 13.0%, and T: 26.1%. PMID:24937569

Hassanin, Alexandre

2014-06-17

382

Boll. Mus. reg. Sci. nat.Torino Vol. 23 -N. 2 pp. 363-381 2006 Franco ANDREONE*, Paulina D. JENKINS**,  

E-print Network

Scienze Naturali,Torino ABSTRACT We present the catalogue of the tenrecs, shrews and rodents collected of tenrecs, two shrews and four rodents). The specimens are conserved in alcohol, and part of them

Andreone, Franco

383

1420 Emerging Infectious Diseases www.cdc.gov/eid Vol. 13, No. 9, September 2007 in Northern  

E-print Network

of northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) captured in Minnesota in August 1998. To our knowledge infection was found in the northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) (4). How- ever, virus isolation

384

Expanded Host Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Hantaviruses in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

The recent discovery of hantaviruses in shrews and bats in West Africa suggests that other genetically distinct hantaviruses exist in East Africa. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of newfound hantaviruses, detected in archival tissues from the Geata mouse shrew (Myosorex geata) and Kilimanjaro mouse shrew ( Myosorex zinki) captured in Tanzania, expands the host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses and suggests that ancestral shrews and/or bats may have served as the original mammalian hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24741077

Kang, Hae Ji; Stanley, William T.; Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Gu, Se Hun

2014-01-01

385

Expanded host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

The recent discovery of hantaviruses in shrews and bats in West Africa suggests that other genetically distinct hantaviruses exist in East Africa. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of newfound hantaviruses, detected in archival tissues from the Geata mouse shrew (Myosorex geata) and Kilimanjaro mouse shrew ( Myosorex zinki) captured in Tanzania, expands the host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses and suggests that ancestral shrews and/or bats may have served as the original mammalian hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24741077

Kang, Hae Ji; Stanley, William T; Esselstyn, Jacob A; Gu, Se Hun; Yanagihara, Richard

2014-07-01

386

Do riverine barriers, history or introgression shape the genetic structuring of a common  

E-print Network

structuring among common shrew (Sorex araneus) populations in the French Alps that was recently reportedDo riverine barriers, history or introgression shape the genetic structuring of a common shrew Biologie, UniversiteÃ? de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne-Dorigny, Switzerland The common shrew (Sorex araneus

Alvarez, Nadir

387

PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF MICROGALE BREVICAUDATA (TENRECIDAE) AND DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES FROM  

E-print Network

Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, USA (SMG) A new species of shrew tenrec (Microgale) is described fromDNA) divergences between the 2 species are on par with those observed in other closely related shrew tenrecs Thomas, 1882, or shrew tenrecs, in the subfamily Oryzorictinae. Over the course of the past 2 decades

Olson, Link

388

Current Biology 19, 19251931, December 1, 2009 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2009.09.022 Convergent Evolution of Novel Protein  

E-print Network

the salivary glands of the North American shrew Blarina brevicauda. Here, we examine the molecular changes in solenodons [4], Eurasian water shrews [5], and the American short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) [6, 7]. The initial characterization of the serine protease BLTX from B. brevicauda [1] provided the first evidence

Hoekstra, Hopi E.

389

Current Biology 19, 17, December 1, 2009 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2009.09.022 Convergent Evolution of Novel Protein  

E-print Network

glands of the North American shrew Blarina brevicauda. Here, we examine the molecular changes responsible in solenodons [4], Eurasian water shrews [5], and the American short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) [6, 7]. The initial characterization of the serine protease BLTX from B. brevicauda [1] provided the first evidence

Alwes, Frederike

390

The taming of the shrew milk teeth Elina Jarvinen,a, Kaisa Valimaki,b Marja Pummila,a Irma Thesleff,a and Jukka Jernvalla  

E-print Network

dentition is the evolutionary reduction of tooth number and replace- ment. Because mice do not replace teeth. In addition to limited tooth renewal, mamma- lian dentition is characterized by different teeth along the tooth row or heterodonty. The generalized mammalian dentition consists of anterior incisor and canine

Merilä, Juha

391

Experimental infection of three laboratory mouse stocks with a shrew origin Bartonella elizabethae strain: an evaluation of bacterial host switching potential  

PubMed Central

Background Bartonella elizabethae has been reported as a causative agent of human illnesses and strains of this bacterium are commonly isolated from commensal small mammals in Asia. Methods Since the zoonotic potential of a pathogen is often related to its host switching ability, we explored the capacity of a B. elizabethae strain to host switch by subcutaneously inoculating groups of Swiss Webster, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice with the bacteria at a range of doses. Results A low number of mice in each of the three groups showed susceptibility to infection at high doses (105 and 106 bacteria), and developed bacteremias of 6–8 weeks duration. Conclusion The capacity of this B. elizabethae strain to switch hosts can have important public health consequences for humans in areas of Asia where many small mammal populations have high bartonellae infection prevalences and live as commensals with humans. PMID:22957127

Colton, Leah; Kabeya, Hidenori; Kosoy, Michael

2012-01-01

392

Placental diversity in malagasy tenrecs: placentation in shrew tenrecs (Microgale spp.), the mole-like rice tenrec (Oryzorictes hova) and the web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus).  

PubMed

Placentation in tenrecs of the subfamily Oryzorictinae, family Tenrecidae, has not been described previously. The structure of the placenta of this group and especially of the genus Microgale was investigated to determine its similarity or dissimilarity to previously described placentas of the tenrec subfamilies Potamogalinae and Tenrecinae. Fifteen specimens of the genus Microgale ranging from an early yolk sac stage to near term were available for study. Placentation in Microgale was found to be different from other tenrecids in that there is an early simple lateral rather than central haemophagous region. In addition, a more villous portion of the placental disk forms before the formation of a more compact labyrinth. Although the definitive placenta is cellular haemomonochorial, it lacks the spongy zone found in the Tenrecinae. Neither does it resemble the endotheliochorial condition found in the Potamogalinae. Of the two genera of the subfamily Oryzorictinae represented by single specimens, the placenta of Limnogale resembled that of the Microgale but Oryzorictes had several differences including a lobulated placental disk. It is concluded that there is more variation in placentation both within the subfamily Oryzorictinae and within the family Tenrecidae than would ordinarily be expected. PMID:17113148

Enders, A C; Blankenship, T N; Goodman, S M; Soarimalala, V; Carter, A M

2007-07-01

393

Placental Diversity in Malagasy Tenrecs: Placentation in Shrew Tenrecs ( Microgale spp.), The Mole-Like Rice Tenrec ( Oryzorictes hova) and The Web-Footed Tenrec ( Limnogale mergulus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placentation in tenrecs of the subfamily Oryzorictinae, family Tenrecidae, has not been described previously. The structure of the placenta of this group and especially of the genus Microgale was investigated to determine its similarity or dissimilarity to previously described placentas of the tenrec subfamilies Potamogalinae and Tenrecinae. Fifteen specimens of the genus Microgale ranging from an early yolk sac stage

A. C. Enders; T. N. Blankenship; S. M. Goodman; V. Soarimalala; A. M. Carter

2007-01-01

394

New ruminants (Mammalia) from the Pliocene of Kanapoi, Kenya, and a revision of previous collections, with a note on the Suidae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe here new ruminant material and revise previous collections from the Pliocene site of Kanapoi in northwestern Kenya, at c. 4 Ma., leading to substantial changes in the identifications and faunal list. Tragelaphins are the most common bovids; reduncins are quite rare if present; hippotragins are probably represented by a form previously unknown from Kenya; the alcelaphin Damalacra is represented by a new species; and an antilopin is possibly related to Dytikodorcas. We remove the suid Notochoerus cf. euilus from the list. Similarities with the South African site of Langebaanweg are more distant than previously implied, but the Kanapoi ruminant fauna bears no close relationship with other eastern African Pliocene assemblages.

Geraads, Denis; Bobe, René; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

2013-09-01

395

La distribuzione delle due sottospecie di Donnola Mustela nivalis nivalis eMustela nivalis vulgaris (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae) nella Val Bregaglia svizzera (Canton Grigioni, Svizzera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIASSUNTO - Nel presente lavoro viene indagata la distribuzione delle due sottospecie di Donnola Mustela nivalis nivalis Linnaeus, 1766 e Mustela niva- lis vulgaris Erxleben, 1777 nella Val Bregaglia svizzera (Canton Grigioni). Dai dati raccolti in oltre 35 anni risulta che M. n. nivalis è stata rinvenuta\\/osservata tra 800 e 2580 m, mentre M. n. vulgaris tra 770 e 1490

REMO MAURIZIO

396

Proviverrine hyaenodontids (Creodonta: Mammalia) from the Eocene of Myanmar and a phylogenetic analysis of the proviverrines from the Para?Tethys area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent expeditions in the Pondaung Formation have revealed an assemblage of hyaen?odontid creodonts from the late middle Eocene of Myanmar. Among the three proviverrines known from the fauna, Kyawdawia lupina gen. et sp. nov. is represented by the most complete dental materials. Kyawdawia is similar to the proviverrines known from the Eocene and middle Miocene of India?Pakistan and from the

Naoko Egi; Patricia A. Holroyd; Takehisa Tsubamoto; Aung Naing Soe; Masanaru Takai; Russell L. Ciochon

2005-01-01

397

A New Basal Caniform (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the Middle Eocene of North America and Remarks on the Phylogeny of Early Carnivorans  

PubMed Central

Background Despite a long history of research, the phylogenetic origin and initial diversification of the mammalian crown-group Carnivora remain elusive. Well-preserved fossil materials of basal carnivorans are essential for resolving these issues, and for constraining the timing of the carnivoran origin, which constitutes an important time-calibration point in mammalian phylogenetics. Methodology/Principal Findings A new carnivoramorphan from the middle Eocene of southern California, Lycophocyon hutchisoni, is described. The new taxon exhibits stages of dental and basicranial evolution that are intermediate between earlier carnivoramorphans and the earliest representatives of canoid carnivorans. The evolutionary affinity of the new taxon was determined by a cladistic analysis of previously-published and newly-acquired morphological data for 30 Paleogene carnivoramorphans. The most-parsimonious trees identified L. hutchisoni as a basal caniform carnivoran, and placed (1) Tapocyon robustus, Quercygale angustidens, “Miacis” sylvestris, “M.” uintensis, and “M.” gracilis inside or outside the Carnivora, (2) nimravids within the Feliformia, and (3) the amphicyonid Daphoenus outside the crown-group Canoidea. Parsimony reconstructions of ancestral character states suggest that loss of the upper third molars and development of well-ossified entotympanics that are firmly fused to the basicranium (neither condition is observed in L. hutchisoni) are not associated with the origin of the Carnivora as traditionally thought, but instead occurred independently in the Caniformia and the Feliformia. A discriminant analysis of the estimated body weight and dental ecomorphology predicted a mesocarnivorous diet for L. hutchisoni, and the postcranial morphology suggests a scansorial habit. Conclusions/Significance Lycophocyon hutchisoni illuminates the morphological evolution of early caniforms leading to the origin of crown-group canoids. Considerable uncertainty remains with respect to the phylogenetic origin of the Carnivora. The minimum date of caniform-feliform divergence is provisionally suggested to be either 47 million years ago or 38 million years ago, depending on the position of “Miacis” sylvestris within or outside the Carnivora, respectively. PMID:21935380

Tomiya, Susumu

2011-01-01

398

A New Machairodont from the Palmetto Fauna (Early Pliocene) of Florida, with Comments on the Origin of the Smilodontini (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae)  

PubMed Central

South-central Florida’s latest Hemphillian Palmetto Fauna includes two machairodontine felids, the lion-sized Machairodus coloradensis and a smaller, jaguar-sized species, initially referred to Megantereon hesperus based on a single, relatively incomplete mandible. This made the latter the oldest record of Megantereon, suggesting a New World origin of the genus. Subsequent workers variously accepted or rejected this identification and biogeographic scenario. Fortunately, new material, which preserves previously unknown characters, is now known for the smaller taxon. The most parsimonious results of a phylogenetic analysis using 37 cranio-mandibular characters from 13 taxa place it in the Smilodontini, like the original study; however, as the sister-taxon to Megantereon and Smilodon. Accordingly, we formally describe Rhizosmilodon fiteae gen. et sp. nov. Rhizosmilodon, Megantereon, and Smilodon (?=? Smilodontini) share synapomorphies relative to their sister-taxon Machairodontini: serrations smaller and restricted to canines; offset of P3 with P4 and p4 with m1; complete verticalization of mandibular symphysis; m1 shortened and robust with widest point anterior to notch; and extreme posterior “lean” to p3/p4. Rhizosmilodon has small anterior and posterior accessory cusps on p4, a relatively large lower canine, and small, non-procumbent lower incisors; all more primitive states than in Megantereon and Smilodon. The former also differs from Megantereon and Smilodon gracilis by having a very small mandibular flange. Rhizosmilodon is the oldest known member of the Smilodontini, suggesting that the tribe originated in North America. Two more derived, similar-sized species evolved in parallel during the Blancan, Megantereon hesperus and Smilodon gracilis. The former is rarer, known only from the north-central and northwestern US, and presumably dispersed into the Old World. The latter is known from the eastern and southern US, and dispersed into South America. PMID:23516394

Wallace, Steven C.; Hulbert, Richard C.

2013-01-01

399

An X-radiographic and SEM study of the osseous inner ear of multituberculates and monotremes (Mammalia): implications for mammalian phylogeny and evolution of hearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multituberculate petrosals with well-preserved, three-dimensional internal anatomy from the Late Cretaceous\\/early Paleocene Bug Creek Anthills, Montana, U.S.A., are described from X-radiographic and SEM images, as well as from conventional visual observations, and are compared with the anatomy of the osseous inner ear in monotremes and in primitive non-therian and therian mammals. Results of this study indicate that: (1) the cochlea

RICHARD C. FOX; JIN MENG

1997-01-01

400

Myiasis by screw worm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a wild maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (Mammalia: Canidae), in Brasília, Brazil.  

PubMed

In April 2009, a wild maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, was captured in an area of cerrado in Brasília, DF, Brazil, with screw worm maggots in external wounds. Fifty larvae were bred in the laboratory and eight adults of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) emerged 10 days after pupation. This is the first report of a myiasis by C. hominivorax in a free-living maned wolf in Brazil. PMID:21437499

Cansi, E R; Bonorino, R; Ataíde, H S; Pujol-Luz, J R

2011-01-01

401

The earliest immigration of woolly rhinoceros ( Coelodonta tologoijensis, Rhinocerotidae, Mammalia) into Europe and its adaptive evolution in Palaearctic cold stage mammal faunas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cold adapted larger mammal faunas of Pleistocene Eurasia (the so-called Mammuthus- Coelodonta faunas) were mainly composed of autochthonous Palaearctic elements. Whereas the history of the immigration and evolution of European woolly mammoths has been exhaustively studied, comparable investigations for woolly rhinoceroses are lacking. Referring to the remains of European and Asian Coelodonta in general and the first skull to be found of a European woolly rhinoceros of early Middle Pleistocene age (from Bad Frankenhausen, Germany) in particular, the occurrence, dispersal, morphological evolution and ecological adaptation of early Coelodonta are reviewed. Coelodonta originated around 2.5 Myr BP north of the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift. The genus was restricted in its range to different types of steppe landscapes of continental Asia for more than two million years and it wasn't until MIS 12, when extended phases of low temperature and aridity prevailed in western Eurasia that woolly rhinoceroses comparable to Coelodonta tologoijensis spread westward towards Central Europe for the first time. Coelodonta entered Central and, in several cases, Western Europe during all of the subsequent Middle to Late Pleistocene cold stages. Morphological evolution, in particular, the elongation and narrowing of the head and successively its lower and more inclined posture, the shift of the orbits towards the rear of the skull, and changes in the position and morphology of the tooth row concurrently indicate progressive adaptations to an efficient grazer. During the course of their Plio-/Pleistocene evolution, Coelodonta rhinoceroses changed strikingly from cursorial mixed feeders of central Asian origin to graviportal, highly specialised grazers, inhabiting huge belts of tundra-steppe-like environments during dry and cool to cold periods, and thus becoming the only rhinocerotid to join the Eurasian mammoth faunas. The Bad Frankenhausen Coelodonta record dates the initial formation of a pan-Eurasian Mammuthus- Coelodonta faunal complex to about 460 kyr BP.

Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich; Lacombat, Frédéric

2008-11-01

402

First report of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two threatened carnivores: the Marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna and the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Mammalia: Mustelidae)  

PubMed Central

Background Lyme disease is a widespread cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by species belonging to the genus Borrelia. It is transmitted from animal reservoir hosts to humans through hard - ticks of genus Ixodes which are vectors of the disease. Case presentation Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was identified in a marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna, and two European minks, Mustela lutreola, from Romania, by PCR. RFLP revealed the presence of a single genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Conclusions This is the first report of the Lyme disease spirochetes in the two mentioned hosts. PMID:22901862

2012-01-01

403

Variation in body size, sexual dimorphism and age-specific survival in stoats, Mustela erminea (Mammalia: Carnivora), with fluctuating food supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most hypotheses attempting to explain the evolution of pronounced sexual dimorphism in body size in the three species of weasels (Mustela erminea,M. frenata,M. nivalis) assume that sexual dimorphism is a long-term adaptation, associated with the different reproductive strategies of the two sexes. We here examine an auxiliary hypothesis which predicts that the degree of sexual dimorphism may also vary over

ROGER A. POWELL; CAROLYN M. KING

1997-01-01

404

Description of a hair follicle mite (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitic in the earless seal family Phocidae (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the harbor seal Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demodex phocidin. sp. is described (all life stages) from a captive Atlantic harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, from Seward, Alaska. This is the first description of a demodecid hair follicle mite from the earless seal family Phocidae. The mites reside in the sebaceous glands of the hair follicles and are associated with persistent areas of hyperkeratosis.

Clifford E. Desch; Murray D. Dailey; Pamela Tuomi

2003-01-01

405

Differences in Tooth Microwear of Populations of Caribou ( Rangifer tarandus , Ruminantia, Mammalia) and Implications to Ecology, Migration, Glaciations and Dental Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tooth microwear was analyzed for a large sample of wild-shot barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) from the Kaminuriak population of eastern Canada. This sample was compared to the microwear of specimens from three Pleistocene\\u000a localities in North America (Alaska) and western Europe (Caune de l’Arago in France and Salzgitter in Germany). The results\\u000a show that the extant samples from eastern

Florent Rivals; Nikos Solounias

2007-01-01

406

[Polymorphism of the mtDNA control region in wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) from the European part of Russia].  

PubMed

Genetic diversity ofwild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting the European part of Russia, including Komi Republic, Arkhangelsk oblast, Murmansk oblast, and the Republic of Karelia was characterized using sequence polymorphism of the mtDNA control region. Despite of currently low population number of wild reindeer, they were characterized by a high level of genetic diversity (pi = 0.018; H= 0.872 to 0.914). Phylogenetic analysis showed close relationships between European reindeer and wild reindeer of Siberia. In reindeer from Murmansk oblast a haplotype in common with the wild reindeer form Southwestern Norway was described. The reindeer sample examined contained no haplotypes earlier described for the reindeer of Central Norway. It is suggested that in recent past wild reindeer from the European north of Russia formed one population with the reindeer from the north of the Asian part of Eurasia. PMID:23113338

Baranova, A I; Kholodova, M V; Davydov, A V; Rozhkov, Iu I

2012-09-01

407

Chronological context of the first hominin occurrence in southern Europe: the Allophaiomys ruffoi (Arvicolinae, Rodentia, Mammalia) from Pirro 13 (Pirro Nord, Apulia, southwestern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the arvicoline from the Pirro 13 fissure are described (Pirro Nord, Apulia, southwestern Italy). Due to their wide geographical distributions and rapid evolutionary rates, arvicolines are especially useful for biochronological purposes. The Pirro 13 fissure has yielded one arvicoline species: Allophaiomys ruffoi. The presence of this vole species, along with a comparison of our data with those of other Early Pleistocene sites such as Sierra de Atapuerca and Orce, allows us to determine the age of Pirro 13, which is shown to range from 1.3 to 1.6 Ma, making Pirro 13 the most ancient locality with human evidence currently known in Western Europe.

López-García, Juan Manuel; Luzi, Elisa; Berto, Claudio; Peretto, Carlo; Arzarello, Marta

2015-01-01

408

Mammalia (2006): 160162 2006 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York. DOI 10.1515/MAMM.2006.026 Article in press -uncorrected proof  

E-print Network

) to cougar (Puma concolor) attacks Comportement du mouflon d'Amerique (Ovis canadensis) lors d'attaques par le cougar (Puma concolor) Fanie Pelletier*,a , Yannick Gendreau and Chiarastella Feder De´ partement et al. 1989; Lingle 2002; Robinson et al. 2002). Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and cougars (Puma

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

409

Presence of the 54-chromosome common vole (Mammalia) on Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, East Siberia, Russia), and the occurrence of an unusual X-chromosome variant  

PubMed Central

Abstract We report a new finding of the 54-chromosome sibling species of the common vole in East Siberia - the first description from Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal). The karyotype of a male specimen revealed by routine staining and C-banding demonstrates the unambiguous presence of Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Ognev, 1924 (recently often regarded as as junior synonym of Microtus levis Miller, 1908). Comparison with conspecific specimens from the European part of the species range (from the left bank of the river Volga) shows that the vole of the island population has a smaller X-chromosome due to a reduced quantity of C-positive heterochromatin. This is just the third example of this type of X-chromosome variant with previous cases on an Arctic island (Svalbard) and the West Siberian lowland (Novosibirsk) and the only one on a lake island. Although Microtus rossiaemeridionalis is largely monomorphic in its karyotype, our data show that one specific type of X-chromosome variant is remarkably widespread, though rare. PMID:24260647

Pavlova, S.V.; Tchabovsky, A.V.

2011-01-01

410

Characters and phylogenetic relationships of nectar-feeding bats, with descriptions of new Lonchophylla from western South America (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Lonchophyllini)  

E-print Network

(Fig. 8). Variable Correlations PC 1 PC 2 PC 3 PC 4 GLS 20.445 20.197 0.002 20.179 PL 20.342 20.458 20.057 20.147 PO 20.148 0.404 0.023 20.802 ZB 20.362 0.206 20.155 0.336 BB 20.290 0.462 20.076 0.141 MB 20.375 0.296 20.176 20.018 TR 20.299 20.363 0...

Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

2006-12-01

411

Coccidial dispersion across New World marsupials: Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia).  

PubMed

Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 is a primitive coccidian parasite reported from the New World marsupials Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus) and Marmosa demerarae (Thomas). The current work describes K. tejerai from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) in Southeastern Brazil, evidencing the coccidial dispersion across opossums of the same family. The sporocysts recovered from urine samples were ellipsoidal, 20.4 × 12.7 µm, with sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules and c.13 sporozoites per sporocyst, with refractile bodies and nucleus. Macrogametes, microgametes, sporonts, sporoblasts/sporocysts were identified within parasitophorous vacuoles of epithelial cells located near the renal corticomedullary junction. Didelphis marsupialis should not have transmitted K. tejerai to D. aurita because they are not sympatric; however M. demerarae is sympatric with D. marsupialis and D. aurita. Therefore, D. aurita becomes the third host species for K. tejerai in South America. PMID:25079818

Dos Santos, Caroline Spitz; Berto, Bruno Pereira; do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Filho, Walter Leira Teixeira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

2014-09-01

412

The endocranial cast of an early miocene edentate, Hapalops indifferens Ameghino (Mammalia, Edentata, Tardigrada, Megatheriidae). Comparative study with brains of recent sloths.  

PubMed

A natural endocranial cast which represents a complete brain of a specimen of Hapalops indifferens is described. Comparing this cast to brains of actual Tardigrada, it shows a telencephalic morphology and a pattern of neocortical sulci that resemble more the brain of Bradypus rather than that of Choloepus. The neocortical sulci homologate the lateral or corono-lateral, suprasylvian and pseudosylvian sulci. Taking into account the studies of cortical maps in Bradypus and the notable similitude of the pattern of neocortical sulci between Bradypus and H. indifferens, the possible representation of the primary sensitive and motor somatic areas, secondary sensitive somatic area, visual and auditory areas are inferred. As in Bradypus, the primary sensitive and motor somatotopic organizations would be overlapped and would not be mirror images; they would show a predominance of the area of the forelimb. The relative brain size of H. indifferens is similar or higher than that of sloths of the genus Bradypus. The close resemblance between Bradypus and Hapalops, with respect to its brain morphology and relative brain size. is congruent with the current hypothesis of the phylogenetic relations between fossil and recent Tardigrada. PMID:3655331

Dozo, M T

1987-01-01

413

New Specimens of the Rare Taeniodont Wortmania (Mammalia: Eutheria) from the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Comments on the Phylogeny and Functional Morphology of “Archaic” Mammals  

PubMed Central

Background Taeniodonta is a clade of Late Cretaceous – Paleogene mammals remarkable for their relatively extreme cranial, dental, and postcranial adaptations and notable for being among the first mammals to achieve relatively large size following the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Previous workers have hypothesized that taeniodonts can be divided into two clades: Conoryctidae, a group of small-bodied taeniodonts with supposedly “generalized” postcranial skeletons, and Stylinodontidae, a group of large-bodied, robust animals with massive forelimbs and claws adapted for scratch-digging. However, many taeniodont taxa are poorly known and few are represented by postcranial material, leaving many details about their anatomy, biology, and evolution ambiguous. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we describe three new specimens of the rare taxon Wortmaniaotariidens from the early Paleocene (Puercan) of New Mexico. Among these specimens is one that includes remarkably complete cranial and dental material, including associated upper and lower teeth, and another that consists of partial forelimbs. These specimens allow for an updated anatomical description of this unusual taxon, supply new data for phylogenetic analyses, and enable a more constrained discussion of taeniodont biology and functional morphology. Conclusions/Significance The new specimen of Wortmania that includes associated upper and lower teeth indicates that previous interpretations of the upper dentition of this taxon were not accurate and the taxon Robertschochiasullivani is a junior synonym of W. otariidens. New specimens that include partial forelimbs indicate that Wortmania is very similar to later, large-bodied taeniodonts, with marked and distinctive adaptations for scratch-digging. Comparisons with other taeniodont taxa that include postcranial material suggest that all taeniodonts may have had scratch-digging adaptations. A phylogenetic analysis shows that Schowalteria and Onychodectes are basal taeniodonts, Stylinodontidae (including Wortmania) is monophyletic, and a monophyletic Conoryctidae (but not including Onychodectes) is only recovered when certain characters are ordered. PMID:24098738

Williamson, Thomas E.; Brusatte, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

414

Observations and larval descriptions of fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, Ctenophthalmidae, Ishnopsyllidae) of the southern flying squirrel, little brown bat, and Brazilian free-tailed bat (Mammalia: Rodentia, Chiroptera).  

PubMed

Larvae of the four fleas infesting nests of the southern flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans colans (L.) [Conorhinopsylla stanfordi Stewart, Epitedia faceta (Rothschild), Opisodasys pseudarctomys (Baker), and Orchopeas howardi (Baker)], and of the bat fleas Myodopsylla insignis (Rothschild) and Sternopsylla distincta texana (C. Fox), associated with the bats Myotis lcifuigus (Le Conte) and Tadarida brasiliensis (I. Geof. St. Hilaire), respectively, are described. C. stanfordi has the second posterior-row seta on abdominal segments 1-5 at most one fourth the length of the first and third setae, but it is unique among the Leptopsyllini with five short setae in abdominal segment 9 anterior row. E. faceta has the straight line of anterior-row setae 2-5 on abdominal segment 1, which is diagnostic for Phalacropsyllini. O. howardi and O. pseudarctomys have three anterior-row setae on the anal comb, three ventrolateral setae on the anal segment (abdominal segment 10), and a narrow mandible with five or more teeth as other Ceratopyllinae, but O. pseudarctomys is distinguishable from O. howardi because the first setae on the posterior row of the head is long (greater than one half the length of the third posterior-row setae), the ventral setae on abdominal segment 7 are different sizes, and the third anterior-row setae on abdominal segment 8 does not extend past the spiracle posterior to it. Bat flea larvae have six posterior-row setae on abdominal segments 1-9 with the anal comb anterior row with two or more setae; M. insignis has eight mandible teeth and S. distincta texana three to four. PMID:18047188

Elbel, Robert E; Bossard, Robert L

2007-11-01

415

First record of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in the Quaternary of Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais State), Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the occurrence of Pleistocene mammals is abundant in many localities of Minas Gerais State (e.g., Lagoa Santa, Janaúba, Bambuí, Cordisburgo, Patos de Minas, Araxá), there are no references at present of Quaternary megafauna in Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro, southeastern Brazil. This region is traditionally recognized for its taxonomically diverse fauna of the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group. In 2006, fossil material attributed to giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Xenarthra, Megatheriidae), a typical taxon of the Brazilian Pleistocene, was discovered in the Uberaba City (Minas Gerais State). The specimen (CPP 1122) which is here described consists of several cranial and postcranial bones of a single individual. The material was confined to a small alluvial deposit, yielding in the Córrego da Saudade stream, which due its restricted area distribution it is not represented in geological maps.

Martinelli, Agustín G.; Ferraz, Patrícia Fonseca; Cunha, Gabriel Cardoso; Cunha, Isabella Cardoso; de Souza Carvalho, Ismar; Borges Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Francisco Macedo; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia

2012-08-01

416

Was grass more prevalent in the pronghorn past? An assessment of the dietary adaptations of Miocene to Recent Antilocapridae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molar teeth of both Tertiary and Quaternary representatives of the family Antilocapridae were examined using mesowear and light stereomicroscopy microwear. Taxa from the Central and Southern Great Plains and the Northern and Southern Great Basin were included in the analyses and results compared to those obtained on the modern pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Species included spanned from the early Miocene (late

Gina M. Semprebon; Florent Rivals

2007-01-01

417

A New Species of Capromeryx (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) From the Taunton Local Fauna of Washington, and the Correlation with Other Blancan Faunas of Washington and Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large new species of the antilocaprid genus Capromeryx has been recovered from Blancan sediments of the Taunton locality, southwestern Adams County, Washington. The complex history of the genus is briefly reviewed and Capromeryx tauntonensis, sp. nov., is described from cranial and dental elements. Intermediate in size between Capromeryx arizonensis Skinner and Antilocapra americana Ord, C. tauntonensis is the oldest

James K. Morgan; Neil H. Morgan

1995-01-01

418

Characters and phylogenetic relationships of nectar-feeding bats, with descriptions of new Lonchophylla from western South America (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Lonchophyllini)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Neotropical Lonchophyllini (Chiropter: Phyllostomidae) currently comprise four genera and thirteen species of nectar-feeding bats. These species often are separated into larger-bodied (eight species) and smaller-bodied (five species) forms to aid in identification. Our morphological and morphometrical analyses of the smaller Lonchophyllini revealed the existence of two distinctive, previously undescribed species of bats of the genus Lonchophylla from western South America. We describe a new form from Amazonian Peru as Lonchophylla pattoni and one from western Colombia as Lonchophylla cadenai. Phyllogenetic analysis of the Lonchophyllini based primarily on morphological characters indicates that these two new species are closely related to Lonchophylla thomasi.

Woodman, N.; Timm, R.M.

2006-01-01

419

The Dasypodidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Urso Fóssil Cave (Quaternary), Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil: paleoecological and taxonomic aspects.  

PubMed

This paper deals with xenarthrans osteoderms assigned to Dasypus aff. D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cabassous sp. The material was collected in subsurface, from 0.10 to 0.60 m in the Urso Fóssil Cave, Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. The ages of sediment samples from levels 4 and 5 (depths of 0.40 and 0.50 m) were determined by thermoluminescence technique, and indicated ages of 8,000 and 8,200 years BP for each layer respectively. The presence in these layers of early Holocene xenarthrans taxa can contribute to the understanding of the biotic evolution of the northwest region of Ceará during the last 10,000 years. Two of the three identified taxa still occur in the region: Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus. The Dasypodidae fauna here reported includes animals with generalist feeding habits and current wide geographical distribution. It is suggested, therefore, that the climatic and environmental conditions in the early Holocene were very similar the actual ones, and that the absence of Cabassous may be conditioned to other factors, such as anthropogenic action and loss of habitat by fragmentation of the vegetation. PMID:24519005

Oliveira, Paulo V; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Oliveira, Edison V; Viana, Maria Somália S

2014-03-01

420

Boltimys broomi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Rodentia, Mammalia), nouveau Muridae d'affinité incertaine du Pliocène inférieur d'Afrique du Sud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boltimys broomi gen. nov., sp. nov., a Muridae of uncertain affinity in the Early Pliocene of South Africa. Boltimys broomi gen. nov., sp. nov. is reported from the Early Pliocene fauna of Waypoint 160, a fossiliferous locality in the area of Bolt's Farm (Province of Gauteng) near Krugersdorp in South Africa. The occlusal surface of the jugal teeth is characterized by a basin-shaped aspect due to the coalescence of the cusps which make the lobes of the molars. An accessory inner cusp is present on the first and second upper molars. A faint longitudinal crest is present only in the first lower molar. The new rodent is tentatively referred to the subfamily Myocricetodontinae.

Sénégas, Frank; Michaux, Jacques

2000-04-01

421

Petrosal anatomy and inner ear structures of the Late Jurassic Henkelotherium (Mammalia, Cladotheria, Dryolestoidea): insight into the early evolution of the ear region in cladotherian mammals  

PubMed Central

The petrosal anatomy and inner ear structure of Jurassic cladotherian mammals represent the ancestral morphological conditions (groundplan) from which modern therian mammals (marsupials and placentals) have evolved. We present the reconstruction of the petrosal and inner ear features of the Late Jurassic dryolestoid mammal Henkelotherium guimarotae from high-resolution computed tomography and three-dimensional imaging analysis. This study of Henkelotherium revealed a combination of derived and primitive features, including: cladotherian apomorphies, such as the promontorial sulcus for the internal carotid artery and reduced lateral trough; trechnotherian characters, such as an enclosed cochlear canaliculus for the perilymphatic duct, post-promontorial tympanic sinus and caudal tympanic process; in addition to plesiomorphic mammalian features, such as the cavum supracochleare and prootic canal. The inner ear of Henkelotherium shows a division between the utricle and saccule, a cochlear canal coiled through at least 270°, a distinctive primary bony lamina for the basilar membrane, and a secondary bony lamina. The development of the primary and secondary bony laminae in the cochlear canal is suggested here to be correlated with the concurrent coiling of the bony canal and membranous duct of the inner ear cochlea, apomorphies of the more inclusive cladotherian clade that also represent the ancestral morphotype of modern therian mammals. Because these features are crucial for high-frequency hearing in extant therian mammals, their early appearance in Late Jurassic cladotherians suggests a more ancient origination for high-frequency hearing in mammalian history than previously thought. PMID:19438763

Ruf, Irina; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Wible, John R; Martin, Thomas

2009-01-01

422

Effect of six antiretroviral drugs (delavirdine, stavudine, lamivudine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and lopinavir/ritonavir in association) on albino pregnant rats (Rattus norvegicus Albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia): biological assay.  

PubMed

Objective: To compare the chronic effects of antiretrovirals (lamivudine, stavudine, delavirdine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and an association of lopinavir/ritonavir) on albino pregnant rats.Design: Review.Setting: Department of Obstetrics, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.Methods: This was a comparative retrospective study formed by 18 groups of 10 pregnant rats each, which were nearly three months of age and weighed 200 g. All of them were medicated every day using a stomach probe, while the control group was given 1 mL of distilled water. The study groups received lamivudine (at 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg/day); stavudine (at 1, 3 and 9 mg/kg/day); nelfinavir (at 40, 120 and 360 mg/kg/day); amprenavir (at 46, 138 and 414 mg/kg/day); lopinavir/ritonavir (at 12.8/3.2, 38.4/9.6 and 115/28.8 mg/kg/day) and delavirdine (at 20 and 60 mg/kg/day). These represented 1, 3 and 9 times the human therapeutic dose, except for the last drug, for which the 9-times dose was not used. Maternal, litter and placental weights, implantation and reabsorption numbers, major external fetal malformations and fetal and maternal deaths were evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative variables and the chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables.Results: At all three doses, stavudine increased the maternal weight (p=0.001), while lamivudine at 3- and 9-times doses reduced it (p<0.001). Amprenavir at all of the doses, and lopinavir/ritonavir at 3- and 9-times doses, caused higher rates of maternal death (p<0.001). Regarding the fetuses, none of the antiretroviral drugs studied were harmful with regard to implantation, reabsorption, teratogenity and mortality (p>0.05). Stavudine at all doses reduced the litter weights (p<0.001); however, lamivudine at the usual and 3-times doses, delavirdine at 3-times dose, and amprenavir at 3-times dose increased the litter weight (p<0.001).Conclusion: In the maternal compartment, we observed lethal toxicity in the pregnant rats that received amprenavir and ritonavir/lopinavir; and maternal weight change with lamivudine and stavudine. In the fetal compartment, adverse effects were observed in relation to litter weight from stavudine, lamivudine, delavirdine and amprenavir.Keywords: pregnant rats, antiretroviral drugs, teratology, biological assay. PMID:25398151

Nakamura, M U; Araujo, E Júnior; Simões, J M; Oliveria, R M Filho; Kulay, L Júnior

2014-01-01

423

Orofacial morphology and feeding behaviour of the dugong, Amazonian, West African and Antillean manatees (Mammalia: Sirenia): functional morphology of the muscular-vibrissal complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external orofacial morphology, perioral bristle distribution and feeding behaviour ofDugongdugon,Trichechus inunguis, T. senegalensis and T. manatus are described. Despite their differing orofacial morphology, dugongs and trichechids possess six similar regions: the oral disk, orofacial ridge, supradisk, chin and upper and lower bristle (modified vibrissae) pads. All living sirenians possess six discrete fields of bristles: four on the upper lip

Christopher D. Marshall; Hiroshi Maeda; Matsumitsu Iwata; Masami Furuta; Shiro Asano; Fernando Rosas; Roger L. Reep

2003-01-01

424

Roles of Different Types of Excretions in Mediated Communication by Scent Marks of the Common Palm Civet, Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Pallas, 1777 (Mammalia, Carnivora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied scent-marking behavior, olfactory response to various excretions (secretion of the perineal gland, urine, and feces), as well as the information content of these excretions in the common palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Pallas, 1777). Six forms of scent-marking behavior have been described. The activity and proportion of forms of such behavior differ in males and females. Dragging the perineal

V. V. Rozhnov; Yu. V. Rozhnov

2003-01-01

425

United States Department of t.he Int.erior, Douglas HcKay, Secretary Fish and \\Vild1ife Service, John L. Farley, Director  

E-print Network

.ls as whales and porpoises are often popularly thought of as fish. Scientifically, houever, these belong to the Class Mammalia that comprises animals which have a backbone, breathe by means of I-mgs and the females

426

Delsuc et al. Molecular systematics of armadillos MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF ARMADILLOS (XENARTHRA, DASYPODIDAE): CONTRIBUTION OF  

E-print Network

systematics of armadillos 2 ABSTRACT The thirty living species of armadillos, anteaters and sloths (Mammalia (armadillos, anteaters and sloths) has long been of special interest in attempts at understanding mammalian

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

427

Morfologia do sistema reprodutor masculino da preguiça-de-coleira (Bradypus torquatus, Illiger, 1811).  

E-print Network

??Os Bichos-Preguiça são mamíferos (Classe Mammalia) da ordem Xenarthra (ou Edentata) Utilizamos nesta pesquisa preguiças-de-coleira (Bradypus torquatus) sendo seis machos e uma fêmea de diferentes… (more)

Daniele dos Santos Martins

2003-01-01

428

BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION Origin and Evolution of Animals  

E-print Network

Species Mammalia Aves Primates Carnivora Hominidae Hylobatidae Homo Hylobates sapiens antecessor Chordata (arthropods) Nematoda Priapula Mollusca (mollusks) Annelida Platyhelminthes Brachiopoda Chordata (chordates Vertebrates: sometimes considered a subphylum of Chordata, but sometimes considered a phylum by itself

Cooper, Brenton G.

429

Science Programming Secondary School Ages 15-18  

E-print Network

kaempferi Classification #12;Hammerhead Shark (Case 17) Chordata Chondrichthyes Carchariformes Sphyrna zygaena Alligator (Case 20) Chordata Reptilia Crocodilia Alligator mississipiensis Golden Eagle (Case 23) Chordata Aves Falconiformes Aquila chrysaetos Cow (Floor) Chordata Mammalia Artiodactyla Bos taurus Silk

Brierley, Andrew

430

Intérêt biochronologique des Kubanochoerinae (Mammalia, Suidae) et étude de nouveaux restes de Megalochoerus khinzikebirus et Libycochoerus massai du KenyaThe biochronological importance of Kubanochoerine (Mammalia, Suidae), together with a description of new material of Megalochoerus khinzikebirus and Libycochoerus massai from Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kubanochoerine suids underwent such rapid increase in size from Early to Middle Miocene times that they can be used for biochronology. Megalochoerus khinzikebirus, a gigantic suid occurs at Gebel Zelten, Libya, and at two sites in Kenya dated about 15 Ma. Even larger suids of the same lineage ( Megalochoerus homungous) are known from younger deposits in Kenya, Pakistan, Libya and Turkey. The smaller species, Megalochoerus marymuunguae occurs in earlier strata in Kenya (ca 17.2 Ma) and it is, in its turn, larger than older species such as Libycochoerus jeanneli (17-17.8 Ma), Kenyasus rusingensis (17.8 Ma) and Nguruwe kijivium (ca 20 Ma) from East Africa. A record of Libycochoerus massai from the Tugen hills, Kenya (ca 15.5 Ma) provides further evidence in support of the usefulness of this lineage for geochronology.

Pickford, Martin

2001-02-01

431

USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 883 Creating and Maintaining Wildlife, Insect,  

E-print Network

standing snag or the downed trunk, creates protective habitat for denning martens (Martes americana), fisher (M. pennanti), coyote (Canis latrans), and raccoon (Procyon lotor). Shrew-moles (Neurotrichus

Standiford, Richard B.

432

Occasional PapersMuseum of Texas Tech University Number 323 17 April 2014  

E-print Network

unrecognized mammal species, including a Texas pocket gopher and an Arizona shrew, were described from); Alton Wade (Geology; Antarctic research); Sankar Chatterjee (Geology; vertebrate paleontology); Marilyn

Baker, Robert J.

433

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 95, pp. 99679972, August 1998  

E-print Network

), Talpidae (moles), Erinaceidae (hedgehogs and gymnures), and Chrysochloridae (golden moles). Here we present (shrews), Tenrecidae (tenrecs), Solenodontidae (solenodons), Talpidae (moles), Erinaceidae (hedgehogs

Hedges, Blair

434

ORIGINAL PAPER R. W. Gusztak R. A. MacArthur K. L. Campbell  

E-print Network

temperature (Tb) and activity level were recorded from adult and subadult water shrews (Sorex palustris) over an air temperature (Ta) range of 3­ 32°C. Digesta passage rate trials were conducted before metabolic with allometric predictions. The mean digesta through- put time of water shrews fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor

Campbell, Kevin L.

435

0042.6989 S.l S; WI I 0 00 Copnghi ; I%-! Perysmon Press Ltd  

E-print Network

measured for 3 tree shrews. Our two- alternative forced-choice discrimination paradigm required the animals shrew retina is composed almost exclusively of cones and contains no foveate specialization. This may and one female, raised from birth in our breeding colony, were selected for study. Prior to training

436

RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF SMALL MAMMALS IN NATIVE AND RESTORED TALLGRASS PRAIRIE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative abundance was assessed for small mammals captured on native and restored tallgrass prairie habitats. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) (n = 30), meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) (n = 4), deer mice (Peromyscus spp.) (n = 5), northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) (n = 3), pygmy shrews (Sorex hoyi) (n = 2), and thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Citellus tridecemlineatus) (n = 3)

Samuel J. Kezar; Jonathan A. Jenks

2004-01-01

437

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 84 (2005) 157 RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF SMALL MAMMALS  

E-print Network

of the sagebrush steppe community, such as the sage- brush vole (Lemmiscus curtatus), and Merriam's shrew (Sorex, Artemisia, rodents, steppe, deer mice, sagebrush vole, Lemmiscus curtatus, Merriam's shrew, Sorex merriami), northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides), and the sagebrush vole (Lemmiscus curtatus), join with members

438

Maximizing survivorship in cold: thermogenic profiles of non-hibernating mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter-active small mammals residing in seasonal environments employ many different behavioral, anatomical and physiological\\u000a mechanisms to cope with cold. Herein we review research on survival mechanisms in cold employed by small mammals with emphasis\\u000a on the families Soricidae, Muridae and Sciuridae. The focus of this review is on research delineating the role of seasonal\\u000a changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR),

Joseph F. Merritt; David A. Zegers

2002-01-01

439

Limb preference in the gallop of dogs and the half-bound of pikas on flat ground  

E-print Network

During fast locomotion - gallop, half bound - of quadruped mammals, the ground contact of the limbs in each pair do not alternate symmetrically. Animals using such asymmetrical gait thus choose whether the left or the right limb will contact the ground first, and this gives rise to limb preference. Here, we report that dogs (Mammalia, Carnivora) and pikas (Mammalia, Lagomorpha) prefer one forelimb as trailing limb and use it as such almost twice as often as the other. We also show that this choice depends on the individual and is not a characteristic of the species, and that the strength of the preference was not dependent on the animal's running speed.

Hackert, Rémi; Herbin, Marc; Abourachid, Anick; Libourel, P A

2008-01-01

440

Dietary variation and overlap in Central and Northwest European Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and S. hemitoechus (Rhinocerotidae, Mammalia) influenced by habitat diversity. "You'll have to take pot luck!" (proverb)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To trace the dietary evolution of the two abundant Middle to Late Pleistocene rhinoceros species Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and Stephanorhinus hemitoechus in Europe over several climatic cycles, we examined comprehensive material of stratigraphically well-defined palaeopopulations from different regions and interglacials. Using morphometrics and mesowear analysis, these reconstructions of Stephanorhinus diets indicate that habitat diversity and interspecific competition with closely related rhinoceros species induced variation in feeding behaviour. Although anatomical features of both species suggest significantly higher dietary specializations compared to the Early to early Middle Pleistocene Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis, their mesowear signals are characteristic of a mixed feeder diet, similar to that of extant mammal species in relatively open habitats. Both species retained a degree of dietary flexibility, enabling them to survive in a range of environments. Although each of these rhinoceroses preferred different habitats, species identity alone is not sufficient to establish the real dietary traits of a Stephanorhinus palaeopopulation. As a consequence, their occurrence in a faunal assemblage alone cannot be taken to indicate a specific habitat. S. kirchbergensis and S. hemitoechus were embedded in a dynamic process of temporo-spatial replacements and interspecific differentiation of rhinoceroses in the western Palaearctic. However, dietary specialization in these Middle to Late Pleistocene European rhinoceroses was not the result of a directed time-transgressive evolution. Rather, within the range of each species' ecological tolerance, it was controlled by environmental parameters, with habitat variability as the main factor.

van Asperen, Eline N.; Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich

2015-01-01

441

Zoomorphology (1991) 110:339-345 Zoomorphology  

E-print Network

1936; Fish 1984; Williams 1987; Fish et al. 1988). Few studies have examined adaptations which affect of differences in bone density among terrestrial and aquatic genera in the family Mustelidae (Mammalia) F.E. Fish to buoyancy and the degree of morphological adaptation to a semiaquatic existence, we examined limb-bone den

Fish, Frank