Sample records for shrews mammalia soricidae

  1. Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest.

  2. Patterns of morphological variation amongst semifossorial shrews in the highlands of Guatemala, with the description of a new species (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Cryptotis goldmani group of small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae) represent a clade within the genus that is characterized by modifications of the forelimb that include broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened foreclaws, and massive humeri with enlarged processes. These modifications are consistent with greater adaptation to their semifossorial habits than other members of the genus. The species in this group occur discontinuously in temperate highlands from southern Tamaulipas, Mexico, to Honduras. In Guatemala, there are three species: the relatively widespread Cryptotis goodwini and two species (Cryptotis lacertosus, Cryptotis mam) endemic to highland forests in the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes of western Guatemala. Ongoing studies focusing on the relationships of variation in cranial and postcranial skeletal morphology have revealed a fourth species from remnant cloud forest in the Sierra de Yalijux, central Guatemala. In this paper, I describe this new species and characterize its morphology relative to other species in the C. goldmani group and to other species of Cryptotis in Guatemala. In addition, I summarize available details of its habitat and ecology.

  3. Geographic variation and evolutionary relationships among broad-clawed shrews of the Cryptotis goldmani–group (Mammalia: Insectivora: Soricidae)

    E-print Network

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    The Cryptotis goldmani group of small-eared shrews consists of species that occupy high elevation (>1000 m) habitats in Mexico and northern Central America. Previously, this group was viewed as consisting of only two ...

  4. Biogeographical and Evolutionary Relationships Among Central American Small-Eared Shrews of the Genus Cryptotis (Mammalia: Insectivora: Soricidae)

    E-print Network

    Woodman, Neal

    1992-09-09

    Small-eared shrews of the genus Cryptotis have a distribution that extends from southernmost Ontario and across much of the eastern half of the United States south to the northern Andean highlands. The genus attains its ...

  5. A new species of small-eared shrew from Colombia and Venezuela (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Genus Cryptotis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of small-eared shrews inhabiting the northern Cordillera Oriental of Colombia and adjoining Venezuelan highlands in the vicinity of Paramo de Tama have been referred alternatively to Cryptotis thomssi or Cryptotis meridensis. Morphological and morphometrical study of this population indicates that it belongs to neither taxon, but represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species. I describe this new species as Cryptotis tamensis and redescribe C. meridensis. Recognition of the population at Paramo de Tama as a separate taxon calls into question the identities of populations of shrews currently represented only by single specimens from Cerro Pintado in the Sierra de Perija, Colombia, and near El Junquito in the coastal highlands of Venezuela.

  6. A new small-eared shrew of the Cryptotis nigrescens-group from Colombia (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2003-01-01

    Cryptotis colombiana Woodman & Timm, 1993 previously was known from few specimens from two isolated regions in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. Recent collecting in the northern Cordillera Central and review of older collections from the central Cordillera Oriental in the vicinity of Bogota yielded additional specimens that permit reevaluation of the two geographic populations of these small-eared shrews. Morphological and morphometrical studies indicate that the population inhabiting the Cordillera Oriental represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species that I describe herein as Cryptotis brachyonyx. Study of 54 specimens of shrews from the Cordillera Oriental in systematic collections in North America, South America, and Europe yielded only four specimens of the new species, all collected before 1926. The paucity of modern specimens suggests that C. brachyonyx may be extremely restricted in distribution, or possibly extinct.

  7. Revision of the extant taxa of the genus Notiosorex (Mammalia: Insectivora: Soricidae)

    E-print Network

    Carraway, Leslie N.; Timm, Robert M.

    2000-04-01

    We evaluated the taxonomic status of three specimens of gray shrews, Notiosorex (Insectivora: Soricidae), collected in isolated mountain valleys in Tamaulipas, Mexico, with specimens referable to the Recent taxa N. crawfordi crawfordi (n = 229...

  8. The complete mitogenome of Stripe-Backed Shrew, Sorex cylindricauda (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shunde; Tu, Feiyun; Zhang, Xiuyue; Li, Wei; Chen, Guiying; Zong, Hao; Wang, Qiong

    2015-06-01

    The Stripe-Backed Shrew, Sorex cylindricauda belongs to the family Soricidae, and distributes in northwestern Yunnan, central Sichuan, southern Gansu and Shaanxi. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of S. cylindricauda was determined. The mitogenome is 17,191?bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region, with a base composition of 33.2% A, 30.2% T, 23.8% C and 12.8% G. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Stripe-Backed Shrew Sorex cylindricauda. PMID:24409903

  9. The Stephen H. Long Expedition (1819?1820), Titian R. Peale?s field illustrations, and the lost holotypes of the North American shrews Sorex brevicaudus Say and Sorex parvus Say (Mammalia: Soricidae) from the Philadelphia Museum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2009-01-01

    While encamped for the winter of 1819?1820 at Engineer Cantonment along the Missouri River in present-day eastern Nebraska, members of Major Stephen Harriman Long?s Expedition to the Rocky Mountains collected a number of animals that were previously unknown. Among the mammals were two soricids that were subsequently described by Thomas Say as Sorex brevicaudus (Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda) and Sorex parvus (Least Shrew, Cryptotis parvus). The holotypes of these species were deposited and placed on public exhibit in the Philadelphia Museum, the predominant North American systematic collection of the early nineteenth century. Like most private museums of that era, the Philadelphia Museum eventually went out of business, and its collections were dispersed and, for the most part, lost. Fortunately, Titian R. Peale made a detailed field sketch of the two specimens soon after their capture and subsequently executed a watercolor based on that sketch. In addition, an engraving of the holotypes was published in the decade following the discovery of the two species. Illustrations of holotypes are taxonomically useful when they depict diagnostic characters of species. They take on added taxonomic significance in the absence of the holotypes. In the cases of Sorex brevicaudus and Sorex parvus, pictures provide strong confirmation of the taxonomic identities of these two species, as well as recording the early history of the specimens.

  10. Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

  11. First evidence of poisonous shrews with an envenomation apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria Cuenca-Bescós; Juan Rofes

    2007-01-01

    Herein, we report evidence of an envenomation apparatus (EA) in two different species of extinct “giant” shrews, Beremendia and an indeterminate soricine (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae), documented by very well preserved fossil specimens recovered\\u000a from two Early Pleistocene cave deposits of the Sierra de Atapuerca in Burgos, Spain. The two soricine taxa from Atapuerca\\u000a have evolved specialized teeth as EAs, which

  12. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to

    E-print Network

    communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra are, to varying degrees, specialized for a cold climate, as exemplified by the tundra community

  13. Natural hybridization between extremely divergent chromosomal races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus, Soricidae, Soricomorpha): hybrid zone in European Russia.

    PubMed

    Bulatova, N; Jones, R M; White, T A; Shchipanov, N A; Pavlova, S V; Searle, J B

    2011-03-01

    The Moscow and Seliger chromosomal races of the common shrew differ by Robertsonian fusions and possibly whole-arm reciprocal translocations (WARTs) such that their F? hybrids produce a chain-of-eleven configuration at meiosis I and are expected to suffer substantial infertility. Of numerous hybrid zones that have been described in the common shrew, those between the Moscow and Seliger races involve the greatest chromosomal difference. We collected 211 individuals from this zone to generate a total dataset of 298 individuals from 187 unique global positioning system (GPS) locations within the vicinity of interracial contact. We used a geographic information system (GIS) to map the location of the hybrid zone, which follows a direct route between two lakes, as would be anticipated from tension zone theory. Even within the central area of the hybrid zone, there is a much higher frequency of pure race individuals than hybrid, making this a clear example of a bimodal zone in the sense of Jiggins & Mallet (2000). The zone runs through good habitat for common shrews, but nevertheless it is very narrow (standard cline widths: 3-4 km), as would be anticipated from low hybrid fitness. There is clear potential for an interruption to gene flow and build-up of reproductive isolation. As found in some other hybrid zones, there is a high frequency of novel genetic variants, in this case, new chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we report a de novo Robertsonian fission and a de novo reciprocal translocation, both for the first time in the common shrew. There is an extraordinarily high frequency of de novo mutations recorded in F? hybrids in the zone and we discuss how chromosomal instability may be associated with such hybrids. The occurrence of a de novo Robertsonian fission is of considerable significance because it provides missing evidence that fissions are the basis of the novel acrocentric forms found and apparently selected for in certain common shrew hybrid zones. PMID:21159004

  14. Phylogeography of the dusky shrew, Sorex monticolus (Insectivora, Soricidae): insight into deep and shallow history in northwestern North America.

    PubMed

    Demboski, J R; Cook, J A

    2001-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the dusky shrew (Sorexmonticolus) and eight related species (S. bairdi, S. bendirii, S. neomexicanus, S.ornatus, S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. sonomae and S.vagrans) were assessed using sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (801 bp). Analyses using parsimony and maximum likelihood revealed significant molecular variation not reflected in previous morphological studies of these species. Conversely, three morphologically defined species (S.bairdi, S.neomexicanus and S.pacificus) were poorly differentiated. Sorexornatus and S.vagrans represented basal taxa for a more inclusive group that included: (i) a widespread Continental clade containing S.monticolus (Arizona to Alaska, including S. neomexicanus); (ii) a Coastal clade containing S.monticolus (Oregon to south-east Alaska, including S. bairdi and S. pacificus); (iii) the semiaquatic species (S. bendirii and S. palustris); and (iv) S.sonomae. Additional subdivision was observed within the Continental clade corresponding to populations from the northern and southern Rocky Mountains. Average uncorrected sequence divergence between the Coastal and Continental clades was 5.3% (range 4.5-6.2%), which exceeds many interspecific comparisons within this species complex and within the genus Sorex. Lack of resolution of internal nodes within topologies suggests a deep history of rapid diversification within this group. Late Pleistocene/Holocene glacial perturbations are reflected in the shallow phylogeographic structure within these clades in western North America. Our results suggest also that S. monticolus is not monophyletic under current taxonomic nomenclature. This perspective on phylogeographic history was developed within a growing comparative framework for other organisms in western North America. PMID:11380879

  15. White-toothed shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Crocidura) of coastal islands of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Abramov, Alexei V.; Bannikova, Anna A.; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract New findings of the white-toothed shrews (Crocidura spp.) from offshore islands of Vietnam are reported. The species identifications have been confirmed by the analysis of complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). Crocidura phuquocensis is the only species found in the Phu Quoc Island. Crocidura fuliginosa has been recorded from two islands of the Con Dao Archipelago (Con Son and Bai Canh). The occurrence of Crocidura fuliginosa in Vietnam has been genetically confirmed for the first time. Crocidura attenuata has been collected from the Cat Ba Island for the first time, and this finding corresponds well with the proposal that the species’ distribution is confined to the north and east of the Red River only. PMID:22855639

  16. Short Report: Phylogenetically Distinct Hantaviruses in the Masked Shre w( Sorex cinereus) and Dusky Shrew (Sorex monticolus) in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru Arai; Shannon N. Bennett; Laarni Sumibcay; Joseph A. Cook; Jin-Won Song; Andrew Hope; Cheryl Parmenter; Vivek R. Nerurkar; Terry L. Yates; Richard Yanagihara

    2008-01-01

    A limited search for hantaviruses in lung and liver tissues of Sorex shrews (family Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) revealed phylogenetically distinct hantaviruses in the masked shrew (Sorex cinereus) from Minnesota and in the dusky shrew (Sorex monticolus) from New Mexico and Colorado. The discovery of these shrew-borne hantaviruses, named Ash River virus and Jemez Springs virus, respectively, challenges the long-held dogma

  17. Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from insectivores. III. Seven new species in shrews (Soricidae: Soricinae) from Canada, Japan, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Hertel, L A; Duszynski, D W

    1987-02-01

    Since May 1979, 458 shrews (Blarina sp. and Sorex spp.) representing 20 species collected in Canada, Japan, and the United States were examined for coccidia; 110 (24%) had oocysts in their feces, including 8 of 21 (38%) B. brevicauda from Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Vermont; 2 of 7 (29%) S. caecutiens from Hokkaido and Honshu; 14 of 63 (22%) S. cinereus from Colorado, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Manitoba, and Ontario; 3 of 7 (43%) S. fontinalis from Pennsylvania; 11 of 16 (69%) S. fumeus from Massachusetts, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Ontario; 1 of 4 (25%) S. haydeni from Minnesota; 6 of 8 (75%) S. longirostris from Florida and Virginia; 1 of 2 (50%) S. ornatus from California; 5 of 12 (42%) S. pacificus from California and Oregon; 13 of 41 (32%) S. palustris from California, Colorado, and New Mexico; 1 of 2 (50%) S. tenellus from California; 11 of 105 (10%) S. trowbridgii from California, Oregon, and Washington; 10 of 48 (21%) S. unguiculatus from Hokkaido; and 24 of 112 (21%) S. vagrans from Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Oregon, and Washington. The following coccidians were identified from infected shrews: Eimeria brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; Eimeria fumeus n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. pacificus, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans; Eimeria inyoni n. sp. from S. tenellus; Eimeria palustris n. sp. from S. cinereus, S. fontinalis, S. fumeus, S. haydeni, S. longirostris, S. ornatus, S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. tenellus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Eimeria vagrantis n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Isospora brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; and Isospora palustris n. sp. from S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. trowbridgii, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans. The world literature on coccidian parasites of shrews (16 eimerians and 3 isosporans exclusive of the 7 new species described here) is reviewed. PMID:3572649

  18. Evolution of mtDNA D-loop sequences and their use in phylogenetic studies of shrews in the subgenus Otisorex (Sorex: Soricidae: Insectivora).

    PubMed

    Stewart, D T; Baker, A J

    1994-03-01

    mtDNA D-loop sequences were examined in shrews of the genus Sorex. All specimens possessed an array of tandem repeats in which each repeat was 78 to 80 base pairs (bp) in length. Each specimen also possessed a 76-bp imperfect copy of the tandem repeats. Three observations are consistent with the tandem repeats being the product of concerted evolution: (1) the repeats are capable of forming secondary structures; (2) there was minimal sequence divergence between tandem repeats within individuals; and (3) although the tandem repeats and the imperfect repeat presumably arose due to a duplication event in an ancestor of the shrews, the imperfect repeat per se was not copied in any of the specimens observed. Interspecific homology can therefore be assumed for the imperfect repeat. Furthermore, given the apparent high rate of concerted evolution within a genome, tandem repeats in different individuals may be compared as though only a single copy were present. By including data from the imperfect repeat, the last tandem repeat, and the surrounding unique sequence cladistic and genetic distance approaches to phylogeny reconstruction indicated two sister groups within the subgenus Otisorex. One group was composed of Sorex fumeus and the S. cinereus species complex and the other group was composed of S. hoyi, S. monticolus, S. vagrans, and S. palustris. Resolution of relationships among recently evolved taxa demonstrated the usefulness of selected regions of the D-loop for molecular systematic studies. PMID:8025728

  19. Short Report: Phylogenetically Distinct Hantaviruses in the Masked Shrew (Sorex cinereus) and Dusky Shrew (Sorex monticolus) in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Satoru; Bennett, Shannon N.; Sumibcay, Laarni; Cook, Joseph A.; Song, Jin-Won; Hope, Andrew; Parmenter, Cheryl; Nerurkar, Vivek R.; Yates, Terry L.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A limited search for hantaviruses in lung and liver tissues of Sorex shrews (family Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) revealed phylogenetically distinct hantaviruses in the masked shrew (Sorex cinereus) from Minnesota and in the dusky shrew (Sorex monticolus) from New Mexico and Colorado. The discovery of these shrew-borne hantaviruses, named Ash River virus and Jemez Springs virus, respectively, challenges the long-held dogma that rodents are the sole reservoir hosts and forces a re-examination of their co-evolutionary history. Also, studies now underway are aimed at clarifying the epizootiology and pathogenicity of these new members of the genus Hantavirus. PMID:18256444

  20. Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allyson G. Hindle; John M. Lawler; Kevin L. Campbell; Markus Horning

    2010-01-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free-radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18months) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed

  1. Bones and genes: resolution problems in three Vietnamese species of Crocidura (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae) and the description of an additional new species

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Paulina D.; Abramov, Alexei V.; Bannikova, Anna A.; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Recent investigations of Southeast Asian white toothed shrews belonging to the genus Crocidura have revealed discrepancies between the results of morphological and molecular studies. The following study concerns three species of Crocidura occurring in Vietnam, namely Crocidura attenuata, Crocidura tanakae and Crocidura wuchihensis, and an undescribed fourth species revealed by molecular analysis. For many years Crocidura attenuata has been known to occur in Vietnam but, until very recently, the morphologically similar and comparably sized Crocidura tanakae was believed to be restricted to Taiwan. Following several molecular studies over the last few years, this species is now believed to be considerably more widespread and recognised as occuring also in Vietnam. The results of one of these recent molecular studies also revealed the presence of an undescribed species of Crocidura, similar in size and morphology to Crocidura wuchihensis, which is herein described. Data are provided on geographical variation in Vietnam and the problems of defining morphologically similar yet molecularly disparate species are discussed. PMID:23840165

  2. Phylogeny and Taxonomy of the Round-Eared Sengis or Elephant-Shrews, Genus Macroscelides (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Macroscelidea)

    PubMed Central

    Dumbacher, John P.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Smit, Hanneline A.; Eiseb, Seth J.

    2012-01-01

    The round-eared sengis or elephant-shrews (genus Macroscelides) exhibit striking pelage variation throughout their ranges. Over ten taxonomic names have been proposed to describe this variation, but currently only two taxa are recognized (M. proboscideus proboscideus and M. p. flavicaudatus). Here, we review the taxonomic history of Macroscelides, and we use data on the geographic distribution, morphology, and mitochondrial DNA sequence to evaluate the current taxonomy. Our data support only two taxa that correspond to the currently recognized subspecies M. p. proboscideus and M. p. flavicaudatus. Mitochondrial haplotypes of these two taxa are reciprocally monophyletic with over 13% uncorrected sequence divergence between them. PCA analysis of 14 morphological characters (mostly cranial) grouped the two taxa into non-overlapping clusters, and body mass alone is a relatively reliable distinguishing character throughout much of Macroscelides range. Although fieldworkers were unable to find sympatric populations, the two taxa were found within 50 km of each other, and genetic analysis showed no evidence of gene flow. Based upon corroborating genetic data, morphological data, near sympatry with no evidence of gene flow, and differences in habitat use, we elevate these two forms to full species. PMID:22479325

  3. Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

    2010-04-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free-radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18months) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2x higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

  4. Muscle Aging and Oxidative Stress in Wild-Caught Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Lawler, John M.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Horning, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18 month) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2× higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

  5. Nomenclatural notes and identification of small-eared shrews (Mammalia: genus Cryptotis) from Cobán, Guatemala, in The Natural History Museum, London

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    A small series of shrews collected in Guatemala and registered in the British Museum between 1843 and 1907 includes parts of type series for three species: Corsira tropicalis Gray (1843), Sorex micrurus Tomes (1862), and Blarina tropicalis Merriam (1895). These three names are now considered equivalent, but my recent review of the specimens comprising the series indicates that they include three distinct species: Cryptotis merriami Choate (1970), Cryptotis oreoryctes Woodman (2011), and Cryptotis tropicalis (Merriam 1895). I review the taxonomic history of these specimens, provide current identifications tied directly to museum register numbers, describe how to distinguish the three species, and provide revised synonymies for these species.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of caucasian shrew Sorex satunini Ogn. (Mammalia) in the superspecies Sorex araneus inferred from the data of karyological analysis and the mtDNA cyt b gene sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Orlov; A. E. Balakirev; Yu. M. Borisov

    2011-01-01

    Using the data of karyological analysis, the phylogenetic relationships of Caucasian shrew Sorex satunini and the cryptic species of superspecies Sorex araneus were examined. In the population of Sorex satunini from the plain of North Ciscaucasia two deeply radiated cytochrome b genes (A and B) were identified. Genetic distance between haplotype A and B groups constituted 0.0675 ± 0.008, which

  7. Leptospira spp. in Rodents and Shrews in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C.; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified. PMID:25062275

  8. Characterization of Imjin Virus, a Newly Isolated Hantavirus from the Ussuri White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura lasiura)?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jin-Won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N.; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-Chul; O'Guinn, Monica L.; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews' clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans. PMID:19357167

  9. American Society of Mammalogists A New Species of Shrew (Soricidae, Insectivora) from Alaska

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Jack

    to be widespread, but scarce, from Scandinavia to the Bering Strait. In September 1993, a single speci- men of tiny with an Eurasian affiliation on the eastern side of the Bering Strait. The recent biota on either side of the Bering Strait, originating in the Pleistocene glacial refug- ium known as Beringia (Chernyavsky, 1984

  10. The life cycle of Opisthioglyphe locellus Kossack 1910 (Trematoda, plagiorchiidae), a parasite of shrews (Soricidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Bock; Universitfit Ulm; Oberer Eselsberg

    1982-01-01

    The life cycle ofOpisthioglyphe locellus Kossack 1910 is elucidated for the first time in Europe. For the experiments xiphidiocercariae and metacercariae were taken from a pond near Ulm (Federal Republic of Germany). The first intermediate host is the freshwater snailPlanorbarius corneus L. while freshwater snails and larvae of Anisoptera andDytiscus marginalis L. were found to be the second intermediate hosts.

  11. Novel Hantavirus in the Flat-Skulled Shrew (Sorex roboratus)

    E-print Network

    Novel Hantavirus in the Flat-Skulled Shrew (Sorex roboratus) Hae Ji Kang,1 Satoru Arai,2 Andrew G (Sorex minutissimus), 12 flat-skulled shrews (Sorex roboratus), and 18 tundra shrews (Sorex tundrensis, was detected in a flat-skulled shrew. Sequence analysis of the full-length S and partial M and L segments

  12. Shrews — Small Insectivores with Polyphasic Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph F. Merritt; Stephen H. Vessey

    \\u000a Daily activity patterns of shrews are controlled by metabolic requirements commensurate with their diminutive body mass and\\u000a resultant high surfaceto-mass ratios: they must forage often to avoid exhaustion of their energy stores. To remain homeothermic,\\u000a shrews must partition a 24-h period into multiple bouts of foraging, rest, and sleep.

  13. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  14. Active Touch During Shrew Prey Capture

    PubMed Central

    Munz, Martin; Brecht, Michael; Wolfe, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Although somatosensation in multiple whisker systems has been studied in considerable detail, relatively little information is available regarding whisker usage and movement patterns during natural behaviors. The Etruscan shrew, one of the smallest mammals, relies heavily on its whisker system to detect and kill its highly mobile insect prey. Here, we tracked whisker and body motion during prey capture. We found that shrews made periodic whisker movements (whisking) with frequencies ranging from 12 to 17?Hz. We compared shrew and rat whisking and found that shrew whisking was smaller amplitude and higher frequency than rat whisking, but that the shrew and rat whisking cycle were similar in that the velocity was higher during retraction than protraction. We were able to identify four phases during the shrew hunting behavior: (i) an immobile phase often preceding hunting, (ii) a search phase upon the initiation of hunting, (iii) a contact phase defined by whisker-to-cricket contact, and (iv) an attack phase, characterized by a rapid head movement directed toward the cricket. During the searching phase, whisking was generally rhythmic and whiskers were protracted forward. After prey contact, whisking amplitude decreased and became more variable. The final strike was associated with an abrupt head movement toward the prey with high head acceleration. Prey capture proceeded extremely fast and we obtained evidence that shrews can initiate corrective maneuvers with a minimal latency <30?ms. While the shrew's rostrum is straight and elongated during most behaviors, we show for the first time that shrews bend their rostrum during the final strike and grip their prey with a parrot beak shaped snout. PMID:21283557

  15. Active touch during shrew prey capture.

    PubMed

    Munz, Martin; Brecht, Michael; Wolfe, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Although somatosensation in multiple whisker systems has been studied in considerable detail, relatively little information is available regarding whisker usage and movement patterns during natural behaviors. The Etruscan shrew, one of the smallest mammals, relies heavily on its whisker system to detect and kill its highly mobile insect prey. Here, we tracked whisker and body motion during prey capture. We found that shrews made periodic whisker movements (whisking) with frequencies ranging from 12 to 17?Hz. We compared shrew and rat whisking and found that shrew whisking was smaller amplitude and higher frequency than rat whisking, but that the shrew and rat whisking cycle were similar in that the velocity was higher during retraction than protraction. We were able to identify four phases during the shrew hunting behavior: (i) an immobile phase often preceding hunting, (ii) a search phase upon the initiation of hunting, (iii) a contact phase defined by whisker-to-cricket contact, and (iv) an attack phase, characterized by a rapid head movement directed toward the cricket. During the searching phase, whisking was generally rhythmic and whiskers were protracted forward. After prey contact, whisking amplitude decreased and became more variable. The final strike was associated with an abrupt head movement toward the prey with high head acceleration. Prey capture proceeded extremely fast and we obtained evidence that shrews can initiate corrective maneuvers with a minimal latency <30?ms. While the shrew's rostrum is straight and elongated during most behaviors, we show for the first time that shrews bend their rostrum during the final strike and grip their prey with a parrot beak shaped snout. PMID:21283557

  16. Shrews in Managed Northern Hardwood Stands in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia

    E-print Network

    . Capture frequency of masked shrews (Sorex cinereus), smoky shrews (S. fumeus), and northern short (S. dispar) and pygmy shrews (S. hoyi), both habitat specialists that our survey did not target, were

  17. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D.; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang’ombe, Bernard M.; Mweene, Aaron S.; Ito, Kimihito

    2015-01-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife. PMID:26079728

  18. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife. PMID:26079728

  19. Bioenergetics and thermal physiology of American water shrews ( Sorex palustris )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Gusztak; R. A. MacArthur; K. L. Campbell

    2005-01-01

    Rates of O 2 consumption and CO 2 production, telemetered body temperature ( T b) and activity level were recorded from adult and subadult water shrews ( Sorex palustris) over an air temperature ( T a) range of 3–32°C. Digesta passage rate trials were conducted before metabolic testing to estimate the minimum fasting time required for water shrews to achieve

  20. Tactile experience shapes prey-capture behavior in Etruscan shrews

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Farzana; Brecht, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A crucial role of tactile experience for the maturation of neural response properties in the somatosensory system is well established, but little is known about the role of tactile experience in the development of tactile behaviors. Here we study how tactile experience affects prey capture behavior in Etruscan shrews, Suncus etruscus. Prey capture in adult shrews is a high-speed behavior that relies on precise attacks guided by tactile Gestalt cues. We studied the role of tactile experience by three different approaches. First, we analyzed the hunting skills of young shrews' right after weaning. We found that prey capture in young animals in most, but not all, aspects is similar to that of adults. Second, we performed whisker trimming for 3–4 weeks after birth. Such deprivation resulted in a lasting disruption of prey capture even after whisker re-growth: attacks lacked precise targeting and had a lower success rate. Third, we presented adult shrews with an entirely novel prey species, the giant cockroach. The shape of this roach is very different from the shrew's normal (cricket) prey and the thorax—the preferred point of attack in crickets—is protected by a heavy cuticle. Initially shrews attacked giant roaches the same way they attack crickets and targeted the thoracic region. With progressive experience, however, shrews adopted a new attack strategy targeting legs and underside of the roaches while avoiding other body parts. Speed and efficiency of attacks improved. These data suggest that tactile experience shapes prey capture behavior. PMID:22701408

  1. Barrelettes without barrels in the American water shrew.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C; Catania, Elizabeth H; Sawyer, Eva K; Leitch, Duncan B

    2013-01-01

    Water shrews (Sorex palustris) depend heavily on their elaborate whiskers to navigate their environment and locate prey. They have small eyes and ears with correspondingly small optic and auditory nerves. Previous investigations have shown that water shrew neocortex is dominated by large representations of the whiskers in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 and S2). Flattened sections of juvenile cortex processed for cytochrome oxidase revealed clear borders of the whisker pad representation in S1, but no cortical barrels. We were therefore surprised to discover prominent barrelettes in brainstem of juvenile water shrews in the present investigation. These distinctive modules were found in the principal trigeminal nucleus (PrV), and in two of the three spinal trigeminal subnuclei (interpolaris--SpVi and caudalis--SpVc). Analysis of the shrew's whisker pad revealed the likely relationship between whiskers and barrelettes. Barrelettes persisted in adult water shrew PrV, but barrels were also absent from adult cortex. Thus in contrast to mice and rats, which have obvious barrels in primary somatosensory cortex and less clear barrelettes in the principal nucleus, water shrews have clear barrelettes in the brainstem and no barrels in the neocortex. These results highlight the diverse ways that similar mechanoreceptors can be represented in the central nervous systems of different species. PMID:23755296

  2. Barrelettes without Barrels in the American Water Shrew

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.; Catania, Elizabeth H.; Sawyer, Eva K.; Leitch, Duncan B.

    2013-01-01

    Water shrews (Sorex palustris) depend heavily on their elaborate whiskers to navigate their environment and locate prey. They have small eyes and ears with correspondingly small optic and auditory nerves. Previous investigations have shown that water shrew neocortex is dominated by large representations of the whiskers in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 and S2). Flattened sections of juvenile cortex processed for cytochrome oxidase revealed clear borders of the whisker pad representation in S1, but no cortical barrels. We were therefore surprised to discover prominent barrelettes in brainstem of juvenile water shrews in the present investigation. These distinctive modules were found in the principal trigeminal nucleus (PrV), and in two of the three spinal trigeminal subnuclei (interpolaris – SpVi and caudalis – SpVc). Analysis of the shrew's whisker pad revealed the likely relationship between whiskers and barrelettes. Barrelettes persisted in adult water shrew PrV, but barrels were also absent from adult cortex. Thus in contrast to mice and rats, which have obvious barrels in primary somatosensory cortex and less clear barrelettes in the principal nucleus, water shrews have clear barrelettes in the brainstem and no barrels in the neocortex. These results highlight the diverse ways that similar mechanoreceptors can be represented in the central nervous systems of different species. PMID:23755296

  3. ANCYLOTHERIUM PENTELICUM (PERISSODACTYLA, MAMMALIA) FROM THE UPPER MIOCENE OF CENTRAL AND WESTERN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ANCYLOTHERIUM PENTELICUM (PERISSODACTYLA, MAMMALIA) FROM THE UPPER MIOCENE OF CENTRAL AND WESTERN (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the Upper Miocene of central and western Turkey. Ancylotherium pentelicum, before its extinction. KEYWORDS: CHALICOTHERIIDAE, ANCYLOTHERIUM, LATE MIOCENE, PALEOENVIRONMENT, TURKEY

  4. 2002 Mammal Society, Mammal Review, 32, 6670 A bibliography of elephant-shrews or sengis (Macroscelidea)

    E-print Network

    .woodall@mailbox.uq.edu.au Keywords: bibliography, elephant-shrews, Macroscelidea, sengis INTRODUCTION The phylogenetic relationships© 2002 Mammal Society, Mammal Review, 32, 66­70 A bibliography of elephant-shrews or sengis of the elephant-shrews or sengis, a purely African order of small mammals, have long been uncertain (Patterson

  5. Water shrews detect movement, shape, and smell to find prey underwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth C. Catania; James F. Hare; Kevin L. Campbell

    2008-01-01

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that feed on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic prey. They often forage at night, diving into streams and ponds in search of food. We investigated how shrews locate submerged prey using high-speed videography, infrared lighting, and stimuli designed to mimic prey. Shrews attacked brief water movements, indicating motion is an important

  6. Intraspecific and interspecific variation in the Cryptotis nigrescens species complex of small-eared shrews (Insectivora: Soricidae), with the description of a new species from Colombia

    E-print Network

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    1993-09-01

    inhabits conterminous highIands in Costa Rica and Panama; C. mera is known from two isolated mountaintops along the Panama/Colombia border; and we describe a new species from the Central Cordillera of Colombia, which extends the known distribution... discontinua desde Chiapas en México hasta el norte de Costa Rica. La especie C. nigrescens habita en las cordilleras de Costa Rica y Panamá. Se sabe que C. mera vive en las cimas de dos montañas aisladas en la frontera entre Panamá y Colombia. La última es...

  7. Phylogenetic relationships among Nearctic shrews of the genus Sorex (Insectivora, Soricidae) inferred from combined cytochrome b and inter-SINE fingerprint data using Bayesian analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron B. A. Shafer; Donald T. Stewart

    2007-01-01

    The field of molecular systematics has relied heavily on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis since its inception. Despite the obvious utility of mtDNA, such data inevitably only presents a limited (i.e., single genome) perspective on species evolution. A combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers is essential for reconstructing more robust phylogenetic trees. To evaluate the utility of one category of nuclear

  8. Phylogenetic relationships among Nearctic shrews of the genus Sorex (Insectivora, Soricidae) inferred from combined cytochrome b and inter-SINE fingerprint data using Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Aaron B A; Stewart, Donald T

    2007-07-01

    The field of molecular systematics has relied heavily on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis since its inception. Despite the obvious utility of mtDNA, such data inevitably only presents a limited (i.e., single genome) perspective on species evolution. A combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers is essential for reconstructing more robust phylogenetic trees. To evaluate the utility of one category of nuclear marker (short interspersed elements or SINEs) for resolving phylogenetic relationships, we constructed an inter-SINE fingerprint for nine putative species of the genus Sorex. In addition, we analyzed 1011 nucleotides of the cytochrome b gene. Traditional neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony analyses were applied to the individual cytochrome b and inter-SINE fingerprint data sets, along with Bayesian analysis to the combined data sets. We found inter-SINE fingerprinting to be an effective species level marker; however, we were unable to reconstruct deeper branching patterns within the Sorex genus using these data. The combined data analyzed under a Bayesian analysis showed higher levels of structuring within the Otisorex subgenus, most notably recognizing a monophyletic group consisting of sister-taxa S. palustris and S. monticolus, S. cinereus and S. haydeni, and S. hoyi. An additional noteworthy result was the detection of an historic mitochondrial introgression event between S. monticolus and S. palustris. When combining disparate data sets, we emphasize researcher diligence as certain types of data and processes may overly influence the analysis. However, there is considerable phylogenetic potential stemming from inter-SINE fingerprinting. PMID:17275347

  9. Boginia virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Guided by decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in European Russia, we employed RT-PCR to analyze lung tissues of soricine shrews, captured in Boginia, Huta D?utowska and Kurowice in central Poland during September 2010, 2011 and 2012. Findings In addition to Seewis virus (SWSV), which had been previously found in Eurasian common shrews elsewhere in Europe, a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), was detected in Eurasian water shrews captured in each of the three villages. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that BOGV formed a separate lineage distantly related to SWSV. Conclusions Although the pathogenic potential of BOGV and other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses is still unknown, clinicians should be vigilant for unusual febrile diseases and clinical syndromes occurring among individuals reporting exposures to shrews. PMID:23693084

  10. Bioenergetics and thermal physiology of American water shrews (Sorex palustris).

    PubMed

    Gusztak, R W; Macarthur, R A; Campbell, K L

    2005-02-01

    Rates of O(2) consumption and CO(2) production, telemetered body temperature (T(b)) and activity level were recorded from adult and subadult water shrews (Sorex palustris) over an air temperature (T(a)) range of 3-32 degrees C. Digesta passage rate trials were conducted before metabolic testing to estimate the minimum fasting time required for water shrews to achieve a postabsorptive state. Of the 228 metabolic trials conducted on 15 water shrews, 146 (64%) were discarded because the criteria for inactivity were not met. Abdominal T(b) of S. palustris was independent of T(a) and averaged 38.64 +/- 0.07 degrees C. The thermoneutral zone extended from 21.2 degrees C to at least 32 degrees C. Our estimate of the basal metabolic rate for resting, postabsorptive water shrews (96.88 +/- 2.93 J g(-1) h(-1) or 4.84 +/- 0.14 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) was three times the mass-predicted value, while their minimum thermal conductance in air (0.282 +/- 0.013 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) concurred with allometric predictions. The mean digesta throughput time of water shrews fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) or ground meat was 50-55 min. The digestibility coefficients for metabolizable energy (ME) of water shrews fed stickleback minnows (Culaea inconstans) and dragonfly nymphs (Anax spp. and Libellula spp.) were 85.4 +/- 1.3% and 82.8 +/- 1.1%, respectively. The average metabolic rate (AMR) calculated from the gas exchange of six water shrews at 19-22 degrees C (208.0 +/- 17.0 J g(-1) h(-1)) was nearly identical to the estimate of energy intake (202.9 +/- 12.9 J g(-1) h(-1)) measured for these same animals during digestibility trials (20 degrees C). Based on 24-h activity trials and our derived ME coefficients, the minimum daily energy requirement of an adult (14.4 g) water shrew at T(a) = 20 degrees C is 54.0 kJ, or the energetic equivalent of 14.7 stickleback minnows. PMID:15592850

  11. Cortical organization in shrews: evidence from five species.

    PubMed

    Catania, K C; Lyon, D C; Mock, O B; Kaas, J H

    1999-07-19

    Cortical organization was examined in five shrew species. In three species, Blarina brevicauda, Cryptotis parva, and Sorex palustris, microelectrode recordings were made in cortex to determine the organization of sensory areas. Cortical recordings were then related to flattened sections of cortex processed for cytochrome oxidase or myelin to reveal architectural borders. An additional two species (Sorex cinereus and Sorex longirostris) with visible cortical subdivisions based on histology alone were analyzed without electrophysiological mapping. A single basic plan of cortical organization was found in shrews, consisting of a few clearly defined sensory areas located caudally in cortex. Two somatosensory areas contained complete representations of the contralateral body, corresponding to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2). A small primary visual cortex (V1) was located closely adjacent to S1, whereas auditory cortex (A1) was located in extreme caudolateral cortex, partially encircled by S2. Areas did not overlap and had sharp, histochemically apparent and electrophysiologically defined borders. The adjacency of these areas suggests a complete absence of intervening higher level or association areas. Based on a previous study of corticospinal connections, a presumptive primary motor cortex (M1) was identified directly rostral to S1. Apparently, in shrews, the solution to having extremely little neocortex is to have only a few small cortical subdivisions. However, the small areas remain discrete, well organized, and functional. This cortical organization in shrews is likely a derived condition, because a wide range of extant mammals have a greater number of cortical subdivisions. PMID:10397395

  12. Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allyson G. Hindle; John M. Lawler; Kevin L. Campbell; Markus Horning

    2009-01-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile\\/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda

  13. New Views on Tree Shrews: The Role of Tupaiids in Primate Supraordinal Relationships

    E-print Network

    Sargis, Eric J.

    ARTICLES New Views on Tree Shrews: The Role of Tupaiids in Primate Supraordinal Relationships ERIC J. SARGIS "[I]t is certain that the tree shrews represent a highly important group of mammals, and relatives of primates, their precise phylogenetic relation- ships are not clear. Both taxa are fre- quently

  14. Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews Allyson G. Hindle a,

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin L.

    January 2010 Keywords: Senescence Antioxidant Breath-hold diving Redox Apoptosis Sorex palustris Blarina- related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed

  15. Keywords American water shrew Æ Metabolism Æ Digestive efficiency Æ Thermoregulation Æ Bioenergetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Gusztak; Æ R. A. MacArthur; K. L. Campbell

    Rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production, telemetered body temperature (Tb) and activity level were recorded from adult and subadult water shrews (Sorex palustris) over an air temperature (Ta) range of 3- 32? C. Digesta passage rate trials were conducted before metabolic testing to estimate the minimum fasting time required for water shrews to achieve a postabsorptive state. Of the

  16. Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Bulgaria DENIS GERAADS, Paris, and NIKOLA SPASSOV, Sofia

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Bulgaria DENIS GERAADS, Paris, and NIKOLAÏ Europa. Abstract We describe the remains of Rhinocerotidae from about 10 Late Miocene localities e y - w o r d s : Rhinocerotidae, Mammalia, Late Miocene, Bulgaria, Balkans S c h l ü s s e l w ö r

  17. Beitr. Palont., 26:195, Wien 2001 Gulo gulo (Mustelidae, Mammalia) im Jungpleistozn

    E-print Network

    Döppes, Doris

    Beitr. Paläont., 26:1­95, Wien 2001 Gulo gulo (Mustelidae, Mammalia) im Jungpleistozän Mitteleuropas von Doris DÖPPES*) DÖPPES, D., 2001. Gulo gulo (Mustelidae, Mammalia) im Jungpleistozän Mitteleuropas. -- Beitr. Paläont., 26:1­95, Wien. Inhalt 1. Biologie des rezenten Gulo gulo (LINNAEUS, 1758

  18. The humerus of Cryptotis colombiana and its bearing on the species? phylogenetic relationships (Soricomorpha: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Cuartas-Calle, C.A.; Delgado-V., C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Colombian small-eared shrew, Cryptotis colombiana Woodman and Timm, was described from the Colombian Andes in 1993. Its original allocation to the Cryptotis nigrescens-group recently was questioned based on several cranial characters the species appeared to share with some members of the Cryptotis thomasi-group. We review characteristics of the C. nigrescens- and C. thomasi-groups, and we describe the humerus of C. colombiana and the humerus and manus of Cryptotis medellinia. The morphology of the humerus joins the suite of characters that supports the hypotheses that C. colombiana is not a member of the C. thomasi-group and that all remaining South American species form a cohesive, definable set that is probably monophyletic.

  19. Water shrews detect movement, shape, and smell to find prey underwater

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.; Hare, James F.; Campbell, Kevin L.

    2008-01-01

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that feed on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic prey. They often forage at night, diving into streams and ponds in search of food. We investigated how shrews locate submerged prey using high-speed videography, infrared lighting, and stimuli designed to mimic prey. Shrews attacked brief water movements, indicating motion is an important cue used to detect active or escaping prey. They also bit, retrieved, and attempted to eat model fish made of silicone in preference to other silicone objects showing that tactile cues are important in the absence of movement. In addition, water shrews preferentially sniffed model prey fish and crickets underwater by exhaling and reinhaling air through the nostrils, suggesting olfaction plays an important role in aquatic foraging. The possibility of echolocation, sonar, or electroreception was investigated by testing for ultrasonic and audible calls above and below water and by presenting electric fields to foraging shrews. We found no evidence for these abilities. We conclude that water shrews detect motion, shape, and smell to find prey underwater. The short latency of attacks to water movements suggests shrews may use a flush-pursuit strategy to capture some prey. PMID:18184804

  20. Water shrews detect movement, shape, and smell to find prey underwater.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C; Hare, James F; Campbell, Kevin L

    2008-01-15

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that feed on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic prey. They often forage at night, diving into streams and ponds in search of food. We investigated how shrews locate submerged prey using high-speed videography, infrared lighting, and stimuli designed to mimic prey. Shrews attacked brief water movements, indicating motion is an important cue used to detect active or escaping prey. They also bit, retrieved, and attempted to eat model fish made of silicone in preference to other silicone objects showing that tactile cues are important in the absence of movement. In addition, water shrews preferentially sniffed model prey fish and crickets underwater by exhaling and reinhaling air through the nostrils, suggesting olfaction plays an important role in aquatic foraging. The possibility of echolocation, sonar, or electroreception was investigated by testing for ultrasonic and audible calls above and below water and by presenting electric fields to foraging shrews. We found no evidence for these abilities. We conclude that water shrews detect motion, shape, and smell to find prey underwater. The short latency of attacks to water movements suggests shrews may use a flush-pursuit strategy to capture some prey. PMID:18184804

  1. Host switch during evolution of a genetically distinct hantavirus in the American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N.; Dizney, Laurie; Sumibcay, Laarni; Arai, Satoru; Ruedas, Luis A.; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Oxbow virus (OXBV), was detected in tissues of an American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii), captured in Gresham, Oregon, in September 2003. Pairwise analysis of full-length S- and M- and partial L-segment nucleotide and amino acid sequences of OXBV indicated low sequence similarity with rodent-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, and host-parasite evolutionary comparisons, showed that OXBV and Asama virus, a hantavirus recently identified from the Japanese shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides), were related to soricine shrew-borne hantaviruses from North America and Eurasia, respectively, suggesting parallel evolution associated with cross-species transmission. PMID:19394994

  2. Carving out turf in a biodiversity hotspot: multiple, previously unrecognized shrew species co-occur on

    E-print Network

    Evans, Ben J.

    sequenced portions of nine unlinked genes in 100­117 specimens of Javan shrews and incorporated homologous Wiley & Sons Ltd Molecular Ecology (2013) doi: 10.1111/mec.12450 #12;et al. 2007; Heaney et al. 2009

  3. Hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor expression in the tree shrew: Regulation by psychosocial conflict

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf JiJhren; Gabriele Fiiigge; Eberhard Fuchs

    1994-01-01

    Summary 1. This study was conducted to determine whether chronic psychosocial conflict alters the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA in the hippocampus of male tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

  4. Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Seewis virus in the Eurasian common shrew in Finland and Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Recent identification of a newfound hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in Switzerland, corroborates decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from Russia. To ascertain the spatial or geographic variation of SWSV, archival liver tissues from 88 Eurasian common shrews, trapped in Finland in 1982 and in Hungary during 1997, 1999 and 2000, were analyzed for hantavirus RNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. SWSV RNAs were detected in 12 of 22 (54.5%) and 13 of 66 (19.7%) Eurasian common shrews from Finland and Hungary, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and L-segment sequences of SWSV strains, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, revealed geographic-specific genetic variation, similar to the phylogeography of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing hantavirus-host co-evolutionary adaptation. PMID:19930716

  5. Short-tailed shrews: Toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence J. Blus

    1978-01-01

    Experiments involving dietary toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin were conducted with short-tailed\\u000a shrews. Dietary concentrations of DDT dissolved in vegetable oils were usually more toxic than diets containing comparable\\u000a amounts of powdered DDT. Younger shrews, particularly females, were more tolerant of powdered DDT than older animals; yet,\\u000a there were no conspicuous age differences in toxicity of

  6. Acoustical expression of arousal in conflict situations in tree shrews ( Tupaia belangeri)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Schehka; Karl-Heinz Esser; Elke Zimmermann

    2007-01-01

    Empirical research on human and non-human primates suggests that communication sounds express the intensity of an emotional\\u000a state of a signaller. In the present study, we have examined communication sounds during induced social interactions of a\\u000a monogamous mammal, the tree shrew. To signal their unwillingness to mate, female tree shrews show defensive threat displays\\u000a towards unfamiliar males paralleled by acoustically

  7. Growth, development and maintenance of American water shrews (Sorex palustris) in captivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman W. Gusztak; Kevin L. Campbell

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents a cost-effective method for the long-term housing and main- tenance of water shrews. Wild-caught American water shrews (Sorex palustris) were success- fully maintained in this set up for up to 2 years, suggesting a maximum lifespan of 28 months for this species in captivity. In addition, we describe the postnatal growth and development of S. palustris based

  8. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool. PMID:19152713

  9. Molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus in the Japanese shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides)

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Satoru; Ohdachi, Satoshi D.; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Kang, Hae Ji; Mocz, Gabor; Arikawa, Jiro; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Yanagihara, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Recent molecular evidence of genetically distinct hantaviruses in shrews, captured in widely separated geographical regions, corroborates decades-old reports of hantavirus antigens in shrew tissues. Apart from challenging the conventional view that rodents are the principal reservoir hosts, the recently identified soricid-borne hantaviruses raise the possibility that other soricomorphs, notably talpids, similarly harbor hantaviruses. In analyzing RNA extracts from lung tissues of the Japanese shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides), captured in Japan between February and April 2008, a hantavirus genome, designated Asama virus (ASAV), was detected by RT-PCR. Pairwise alignment and comparison of the S-, M-, and L-segment nucleotide and amino acid sequences indicated that ASAV was genetically more similar to hantaviruses harbored by shrews than by rodents. However, the predicted secondary structure of the ASAV nucleocapsid protein was similar to that of rodent- and shrew-borne hantaviruses, exhibiting the same coiled-coil helix at the amino terminus. Phylogenetic analyses, using the maximum-likelihood method and other algorithms, consistently placed ASAV with recently identified soricine shrew-borne hantaviruses, suggesting a possible host-switching event in the distant past. The discovery of a mole-borne hantavirus enlarges our concepts about the complex evolutionary history of hantaviruses. PMID:18854415

  10. Chemoarchitecture of layer 4 isocortex in the American water shrew (Sorex palustris).

    PubMed

    Leitch, Duncan B; Gauthier, Danielle; Sarko, Diana K; Catania, Kenneth C

    2011-01-01

    We examined the chemoarchitecture of layer 4 isocortex and the number of myelinated nerve fibers of selected cranial nerves in the American water shrew (Sorex palustris). This study took advantage of the opportunity to examine juvenile brain tissue, which often reveals the most distinctive cortical modules related to different sensory representations. Flattened cortical sections were processed for the metabolic enzyme cytochrome oxidase, revealing a number of modules and septa. Subdivisions related to sensory representations were tentatively identified by performing microelectrode recordings in a single adult shrew in this study, combined with microelectrode recordings and anatomical findings from a previous investigation. Taken together, these results suggest that characteristic chemoarchitectonic borders in the shrew neocortex can be used to delineate and quantify cortical areas. The most obvious subdivisions in the water shrew include a relatively small primary visual cortex which responded to visual stimuli, a larger representation of vibrissae in the primary somatosensory cortex, and a prominent representation of oral structures apparent in the more rostral-lateral cortex. A presumptive auditory area was located in the far caudal cortex. These findings for the cortex are consistent with counts from optic, auditory and trigeminal nerves, suggesting that somatosensory inputs dominate the shrew's senses whereas visual and auditory inputs play a small role in navigation and in finding prey. More generally, we find that shrews share unusual features of cortical organization with moles, supporting their close taxonomic relationship. PMID:21985842

  11. The Chronic Psychosocial Stress Paradigm in Male Tree Shrews: Evaluation of a Novel Animal Model for Depressive

    E-print Network

    , the anxiolytic diazepam was ineffective. Although the chronic psychosocial stress model in tree shrews requires; Clomipramine; Diazepam; Cortisol; Behaviour; Drug metabolism INTRODUCTION Depressive disorders are among

  12. The effect of feeding immature Karoo paralysis ticks Ixodes rubicundus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the metabolic rate of the rock elephant shrew

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes S. du Toit; Leon J. Fourie

    1994-01-01

    The effect of feeding immature Karoo paralysis ticks (Ixodes rubicundus) on the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of their principal natural host, the rock elephant shrew (Elephantulus myurus), was investigated under laboratory conditions. The elephant shrews were artificially infested with numbers of ticks simulating\\u000a natural burdens. The RMR of the elephant shrews was quantified by measuring the oxygen consumption in an

  13. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet

    PubMed Central

    Czajka, Jessica L.; McCay, Timothy S.; Garneau, Danielle E.

    2012-01-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards. PMID:25379219

  14. [Analysis of the molecular characteristics and cloning of full-length coding sequence of interleukin-2 in tree shrews].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ming-Li; Xu, Juan; Gao, Yue-Dong; Wang, Wen-Guang; Yin, An-Guo; Li, Xiao-Fei; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Xia, Xue-Shan; Dai, Jie-Jie

    2013-04-01

    While the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an excellent animal model for studying the mechanisms of human diseases, but few studies examine interleukin-2 (IL-2), an important immune factor in disease model evaluation. In this study, a 465 bp of the full-length IL-2 cDNA encoding sequence was cloned from the RNA of tree shrew spleen lymphocytes, which were then cultivated and stimulated with ConA (concanavalin). Clustal W 2.0 was used to compare and analyze the sequence and molecular characteristics, and establish the similarity of the overall structure of IL-2 between tree shrews and other mammals. The homology of the IL-2 nucleotide sequence between tree shrews and humans was 93%, and the amino acid homology was 80%. The phylogenetic tree results, derived through the Neighbour-Joining method using MEGA5.0, indicated a close genetic relationship between tree shrews, Homo sapiens, and Macaca mulatta. The three-dimensional structure analysis showed that the surface charges in most regions of tree shrew IL-2 were similar to between tree shrews and humans; however, the N-glycosylation sites and local structures were different, which may affect antibody binding. These results provide a fundamental basis for the future study of IL-2 monoclonal antibody in tree shrews, thereby improving their utility as a model. PMID:23572362

  15. Drug Target Mining and Analysis of the Chinese Tree Shrew for Pharmacological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lee, Wen-hui; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new drugs requires the development of improved animal models for drug testing. The Chinese tree shrew is considered to be a realistic candidate model. To assess the potential of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing, we performed drug target prediction and analysis on genomic and transcriptomic scales. Using our pipeline, 3,482 proteins were predicted to be drug targets. Of these predicted targets, 446 and 1,049 proteins with the highest rank and total scores, respectively, included homologs of targets for cancer chemotherapy, depression, age-related decline and cardiovascular disease. Based on comparative analyses, more than half of drug target proteins identified from the tree shrew genome were shown to be higher similarity to human targets than in the mouse. Target validation also demonstrated that the constitutive expression of the proteinase-activated receptors of tree shrew platelets is similar to that of human platelets but differs from that of mouse platelets. We developed an effective pipeline and search strategy for drug target prediction and the evaluation of model-based target identification for drug testing. This work provides useful information for future studies of the Chinese tree shrew as a source of novel targets for drug discovery research. PMID:25105297

  16. [Genome-wide prediction of interferon family members of tree shrew and their molecular characteristics analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Li; Tian, Wei-Wei; Gao, Yue-Dong; Guo, Yan; Huang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Hua-Tang

    2012-02-01

    Interferons (IFNs) represent proteins with antiviral activities that are secreted from cells in response to a variety of stimuli. In addition to antiviral, antibacterial and anti-parasitic host-defense functions they are now also recognized as crucial regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and death as well as activators of specialized cell functions particularly in the immune system and play important roles in infectious and inflammatory diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) were found to be susceptible to several human viruses and therefore are widely regarded as good models for analyzing mechanism of human diseases. In this report, we have forecasted the interferon family members of tree shrew from its genome mainly using the methods like Blast (whole genome shotgun sequence) and gene prediction. Our data show that tree shrew interferon system includes: type I IFN: ? (five subtypes), ?, ?, ?, epsilon, ?; type II IFN: ?; type III IFN: ?1, ?2/3. Furthermore, the predicted structures of ? and ? have similar character with those of other mammals. However, there are some differences in cysteine position and N-glycosylation numbers between human and Tree shrew IFNs. These results provide fundamental basis for further molecular cloning and function analysis of tree shrew IFNs in future. PMID:22345011

  17. Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-10-22

    Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions. PMID:24150169

  18. Palaeoreas lindermayeri (Wagner, 1848) (Mammalia, Bovidae) from the upper Miocene of Bulgaria, and a revision of the species

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Palaeoreas lindermayeri (Wagner, 1848) (Mammalia, Bovidae) from the upper Miocene of Bulgaria in the upper Miocene of Hadjidimovo-1 by what may be the largest known sample of a fossil Bovid species from saurait être rattaché à une tribu moderne. KEY-WORDS : Late Miocene, Bulgaria, Mammalia, Bovidae

  19. Muscle Senescence in Short-Lived Wild Mammals, the Soricine Shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris

    PubMed Central

    HINDLE, ALLYSON G.; LAWLER, JOHN M.; CAMPBELL, KEVIN L.; HORNING, MARKUS

    2015-01-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H0: shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n = 17) and second-year (n = 17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: ~50%; B. brevicauda: ~60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris (~50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

  20. Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

    2009-06-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H(0): shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n=17) and second-year (n=17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: approximately 50%; B. brevicauda: approximately 60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris ( approximately 50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

  1. [Cloning of full-length coding sequence of tree shrew CD4 and prediction of its molecular characteristics].

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei-Wei; Gao, Yue-Dong; Guo, Yan; Huang, Jing-Fei; Xiao, Chang; Li, Zuo-Sheng; Zhang, Hua-Tang

    2012-02-01

    The tree shrews, as an ideal animal model receiving extensive attentions to human disease research, demands essential research tools, in particular cellular markers and monoclonal antibodies for immunological studies. In this paper, a 1 365 bp of the full-length CD4 cDNA encoding sequence was cloned from total RNA in peripheral blood of tree shrews, the sequence completes two unknown fragment gaps of tree shrews predicted CD4 cDNA in the GenBank database, and its molecular characteristics were analyzed compared with other mammals by using biology software such as Clustal W2.0 and so forth. The results showed that the extracellular and intracellular domains of tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence are conserved. The tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence showed a close genetic relationship with Homo sapiens and Macaca mulatta. Most regions of the tree shrews CD4 molecule surface showed positive charges as humans. However, compared with CD4 extracellular domain D1 of human, CD4 D1 surface of tree shrews showed more negative charges, and more two N-glycosylation sites, which may affect antibody binding. This study provides a theoretical basis for the preparation and functional studies of CD4 monoclonal antibody. PMID:22345010

  2. The Bicolored White-Toothed Shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) Is an Indigenous Host of Mammalian Borna Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV. PMID:24699636

  3. Characterization of a MAVS ortholog from the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Yu, Dandan; Peng, Li; Fan, Yu; Chen, Jiaqi; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Wang, Chen; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2015-09-01

    Human mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (hMAVS, also known as IPS-1, VISA, or Cardif) is essential for antiviral innate immunity. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinenses), a close relative of primates, is emerging as a potential animal model for investigating viral infection. However, there is a lack of biological knowledge about the antiviral innate immunity of the tree shrew. In this study, we identified and characterized the function of the Chinese tree shrew MAVS gene (tMAVS). The cDNA of tMAVS was 2771 bp in length and encoded a polypeptide of 501 amino acids. Phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences revealed a closer affinity of tMAVS with those of primates. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that tMAVS mRNA was constitutively expressed in all seven tissues analyzed in this study. The tMAVS mRNA expression was rapidly and significantly increased after RNA virus infections. Ectopic-expression of tMAVS significantly potentiated the virus-triggered activation of IRF3, NF-?B and interferon-? (IFN-?), whereas knockdown of tMAVS displayed the opposite effect. Furthermore, tMAVS mutants lacking the caspase activation and recruitment (CARD) domains or the transmembrane (TM) domain were unable to induce IFN-?. Similar with hMAVS, mitochondrial localization of tMAVS was dependent on its domain. Collectively, this study revealed evolutionary conservation of the MAVS antiviral signaling pathway in the Chinese tree shrew. PMID:25931429

  4. Pliocene and Pleistocene diversiWcation and multiple refugia in a Eurasian shrew (Crocidura suaveolens group)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Dubey; Mikhail Zaitsev; Jean-François Cosson; Ablimit Abdukadier; Peter Vogel

    We sequenced 998 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b and 799 bp of nuclear gene BRCA1 in the Lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens group) over its geographic range from Portugal to Japan. The aims of the study were to identify the main clades within the group and respective refugia resulting from Pleistocene glaciations. Analyses revealed the Asian lesser

  5. Correlates of reproductive success within alternative mating tactics of the common shrew

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Stockley; Jeremy B. Searle; David W. Macdonald; Catherine S. Jones

    1996-01-01

    Male common shrews (Sorex araneus) adopt two discrete mating tactics. The most successful males, in terms of number of offspring fathered, are those that establish large overlapping home ranges in areas of high female density early in the breeding season. An alternative, less successful mating tactic is to travel long distances in search of mating opportunities. This study is an

  6. The neurobiology and behavior of the American water shrew (Sorex palustris).

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2013-06-01

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that dive into streams and ponds to find prey at night. They do not use eyesight for capturing fish or for discriminating shapes. Instead they make use of vibrissae to detect and attack water movements generated by active prey and to detect the form of stationary prey. Tactile investigations are supplemented with underwater sniffing. This remarkable behavior consists of exhalation of air bubbles that spread onto objects and are then re-inhaled. Recordings for ultrasound both above and below water provide no evidence for echolocation or sonar, and presentation of electric fields and anatomical investigations provide no evidence for electroreception. Counts of myelinated fibers show by far the largest volume of sensory information comes from the trigeminal nerve compared to optic and cochlear nerves. This is in turn reflected in the organization of the water shrew's neocortex, which contains two large somatosensory areas and much smaller visual and auditory areas. The shrew's small brain with few cortical areas may allow exceptional speed in processing sensory information and producing motor output. Water shrews can accurately attack the source of a water disturbance in only 50 ms, perhaps outpacing any other mammalian predator. PMID:23397460

  7. Mitochondrial DNA variation in water shrews (Sorex palustris, Sorex bendirii) from western

    E-print Network

    Baker, Robert J.

    Mitochondrial DNA variation in water shrews (Sorex palustris, Sorex bendirii) from western North of Sorex palustris Richardson, 1828 and 6 specimens of Sorex bendirii (Merriam, 1884) from 20 locations the Coastal and the Cordilleran clades was 3.1%. Sorex palustris brooksi, a subspecies endemic to Vancouver

  8. Evolutionary biogeography of water shrews ( Neomys spp.) in the western Palaearctic Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Krystufek; A. Davison; H. I. Griffiths

    2000-01-01

    We studied the morphology, DNA sequence, and Recent and Pleistocene distributions of three species of the water shrew genus Neomys (N. fodiens, N. anomalus, and N. teres) represented by samples from the Balkans and Asia Minor. Adaptations to semi-aquatic life (large body size, fringes of stiff hairs bordering the hind foot, and a tail keel) were most developed in N.

  9. Chemoarchitecture of Layer 4 Isocortex in the American Water Shrew (Sorex palustris)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duncan B. Leitch; Danielle Gauthier; Diana K. Sarko; Kenneth C. Catania

    2011-01-01

    We examined the chemoarchitecture of layer 4 isocortex and the number of myelinated nerve fibers of selected cranial nerves in the American water shrew (Sorex palustris). This study took advantage of the opportunity to examine juvenile brain tissue, which often reveals the most distinctive cortical modules related to different sensory representations. Flattened cortical sections were processed for the metabolic enzyme

  10. Evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 peroxisomal and mitochondrial targeting. A survey of its subcellular distribution in the livers of various representatives of the classes Mammalia, Aves and Amphibia.

    PubMed

    Danpure, C J; Fryer, P; Jennings, P R; Allsop, J; Griffiths, S; Cunningham, A

    1994-08-01

    As part of a wider study on the molecular evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) intracellular compartmentalization, we have determined the subcellular distribution of immunoreactive AGT1, using postembedding protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, in the livers of various members of the classes Mammalia, Aves, and Amphibia. As far as organellar distribution is concerned, three categories could be distinguished. In members of the first category (type I), all, or nearly all, of the immunoreactive AGT1 was concentrated within the peroxisomes. In the second category (type II), AGT1 was found more evenly distributed in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. In the third category (type III), AGT1 was localized mainly within the mitochondria with much lower, but widely variable, amounts in the peroxisomes. Type I animals include the human, two great apes (gorilla, orangutan), two Old World monkeys (anubis baboon, Japanese macaque), a New World monkey (white-faced Saki monkey), a lago, morph (European rabbit), a bat (Seba's short-tailed fruit bat), two caviomorph rodents (guinea pig, orange-rumped agouti), and two Australian marsupials (koala, Bennett's wallaby). Type II animals include two New World monkeys (common marmoset, cotton-top tamarin), three prosimians (brown lemur, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, pygmy slow loris), five rodents (a hybrid crested porcupine, Colombian ground squirrel, laboratory rat, laboratory mouse, golden hamster), an American marsupial (grey short-tailed opossum), and a bird (raven). Type III animals include the large tree shrew, three insectivores (common Eurasian mole, European hedgehog, house shrew), four carnivores (domestic cat, ocelot, domestic dog, polecat ferret), and an amphibian (common frog). In addition to these categories, some animals (e.g. guinea pig, common frog) possessed significant amounts of cytosolic AGT1. Whereas the subcellular distribution of AGT1 in some orders (e.g. Insectivora and Carnivora) did not appear to vary markedly between the different members, in other orders (e.g. Primates, Rodentia and Marsupialia) it fluctuated widely between the different species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the subcellular distribution of AGT1 has changed radically on numerous occasions during the evolution of mammals. The new observations presented in this paper are compatible with our previous demonstration of a relationship between AGT1 subcellular distribution and either present or putative ancestral dietary habit, and our previous suggestion that the molecular evolution of the AGT gene has been markedly influenced by dietary selection pressure. PMID:7813517

  11. The Taming of the Shrew: Mitigating Low-Rate TCP-Targeted Attack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-wei Chang; Seungjoon Lee; Bill Lin; Jia Wang

    2009-01-01

    A Shrew attack, which uses a low-rate burst carefully designed to exploit TCP's retransmission timeout mechanism, can throttle the bandwidth of a TCP flow in a stealthy manner. While such an attack can significantly degrade the perfor- mance of all TCP-based protocols and services including Internet routing (e.g., BGP), no existing scheme clearly solves the problem in real network scenarios.

  12. Effect of cannabinoids on lithium-induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A. Parker; Magdalena Kwiatkowska; Page Burton; Raphael Mechoulam

    2004-01-01

    RationaleMarijuana has been reported to interfere with nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients. The principal cannabinoids found in marijuana include the psychoactive compound ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive compound cannabidiol (CBD). The experiments reported here evaluated the potential of THC and CBD to interfere with vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew) produced by lithium chloride (LiCl), which is

  13. Pliocene and Pleistocene diversification and multiple refugia in a Eurasian shrew ( Crocidura suaveolens group)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Dubey; Mikhail Zaitsev; Jean-François Cosson; Ablimit Abdukadier; Peter Vogel

    2006-01-01

    We sequenced 998 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b and 799bp of nuclear gene BRCA1 in the Lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens group) over its geographic range from Portugal to Japan. The aims of the study were to identify the main clades within the group and respective refugia resulting from Pleistocene glaciations. Analyses revealed the Asian lesser white-toothed

  14. Risk-sensitive foraging behaviour of the round-eared elephant shrew ( Macroscelides proboscideus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Lawes; M. R. Perrin

    1995-01-01

    We examined the risk-sensitive foraging behaviour of the round-eared elephant shrew by open-economy choice experiments, in which animals were deprived of food immediately prior to experiments but given food ad libitum afterwards, to test the energy budget rule. The energy budget rule states that if an animal's (daily) energy budget is negative it should behave in a risk-prone manner. A

  15. Habitat Associations of Vancouver Island Water Shrews in Restored and Natural Stream Habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VANESSA J. CRAIG; STEVEN F. WILSON

    The Vancouver Island water shrew (Sorex palustris brooksi)1 is a rare subspecies found only on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. It is a riparian specialist, specially adapted to a semi-aquatic lifestyle and strongly associated with the land\\/water interface. Human-related activities on Vancouver Island have resulted in the loss or degradation of habitat for S. p. brooksi. Mitigation efforts aimed at stream

  16. Early-life nutritional environment and spatial navigation in the water shrew, Sorex palustris (Insectivora).

    PubMed

    Punzo, F

    2004-10-01

    Studies were conducted to study the effects of early-life nutritional environment on spatial navigation ability in the water shrew (Sorex palustris), as well as to provide information on life history traits and husbandry. The mean longevity of males and females in captivity was 652.3 +/- 33.8 SD and 616.2 +/- 22.5 days, respectively. Litter sizes ranged from 5 to 8 and neonatal mass ranged from 0.71 to 0.83 g. Spatial navigation was examined by use of the Morris water apparatus, where animals were required to locate the position of an escape platform in a circular tank of water. The platform was visible (proximal cue version of the task) in some tests. In other tests it was hidden beneath the surface (distal cue version) by making the water opaque using a non-toxic white dye. The tank was divided into 4 quadrants and the position of the plafform in any quadrant could be fixed for any subject or varied between subjects. Early-life under-nutrition was achieved by maintaining some shrews on a restricted diet (received half the amount of food as did controls). Under-nutrition was found to have an adverse effect on spatial navigation. Regardless of nutritional status, shrews were able to locate a hidden plafform that was placed at the center of a given quadrant more rapidly (escape latency) when it was visible (44 to 69 sec) than when it was hidden (83 to 164 sec). Results also showed that these shrews utilize both proximal and distal cues in this spatial task. Control subjects spent more time at a location where the platform had been in a previous test (69% of the trial period) than their undernourished counterparts (45 to 51%). This is the first experimental analysis of spatial navigation and the effects of early-life under-nutrition on this task, for S. palustris. PMID:15907068

  17. Development of deciduous and permanent dentitions in the upper jaw of the house shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yasui, Kinya; Sonomura, Takahiro; Iwai, Haruki; Uemura, Masanori

    2010-04-01

    The diphyodont tooth replacement in mammals is characterized by a single replacement of a deciduous dentition by a permanent dentition. Despite its significance in mammalian biology and paleontology, little is known about the developmental mechanisms regulating the diphyodont replacement. Because the mouse never replaces its teeth, this study used the house shrew, Suncus murinus, as a model to investigate the control of the diphyodont replacement of a deciduous dentition by successions and additions of permanent teeth. Using morphological and gene expression analyses of serial sections, we have demonstrated the development of the upper dentition of the house shrew. In this species, the deciduous tooth germs are formed but soon become vestigial, whereas the successional and accessional (molar) germs are subsequently formed and developed. There are distinct Shh expression domains in the deciduous, successional, and accessional tooth germs, and those of the latter two germs are identified from the appearance of their primary enamel knots. The developmental sequence of tooth germs in the house shrew indicates that two adjacent primary enamel knots of the successional and accessional germs do not develop simultaneously, but with a constant time lag. We suggest that this mode of tooth succession and accession can be explained by a sequential inhibitory cascade model in which the timing of initiation and the spacing of tooth development are determined by the inhibition from the primary enamel knots of developmentally preceding adjacent tooth germs. PMID:20303065

  18. Daily metabolic patterns of short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic, continuous-flow gas analysis system was used to determine daily metabolic patterns of individual short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes in eastern Tennessee. Average daily metabolic rates (ADMR) were lowest in the summer (0.426 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/), approximately doubled under winter conditions (0.810 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) but were the highest under fall conditions (1.110 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) possibly due to incomplete acclimatization of the shrews. The shape of the daily metabolic pattern for Blarina does not change seasonally; however, summer metabolic rates are the least variable and are lower than most values previously reported in the literature. Polynomial multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative influence of body mass, ambient temperature, and time of day on metabolic rates; only ambient temperature was significant in predicting metabolic rates of this shrew. Average daily metabolic rates of Blarina observed under summer and winter conditions further substantiate the general predictive equations of metabolic rates formulated for small mammals by French et al. (1976). Comparisons of metabolic patterns of Blarina with those of Peromyscus leucopus observed under nearly identical conditions indicate similar rates with strong seasonal influences.

  19. PROBOSCIDEA (MAMMALIA) DU PLIOCENE FINAL D'AHL AL OUGHLAM (CASABLANCA, MAROC)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PROBOSCIDEA (MAMMALIA) DU PLIOCENE FINAL D'AHL AL OUGHLAM (CASABLANCA, MAROC) Denis GERAADS et Florence METZ-MULLER Résumé Les Proboscidiens d'Ahl al Oughlam sont illustrés par des restes dentaires évolutifs, comme en Afrique Orientale. Abstract The Proboscidean remains of Ahl al Oughlam consist of limb

  20. New specimens of Propotamochoerus (Suidae, Mammalia) from the late Miocene of the Balkans

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    New specimens of Propotamochoerus (Suidae, Mammalia) from the late Miocene of the Balkans Denis;Abstract: We describe new remains of the small Suidae Propotamochoerus from the late Miocene of Macedonia, probably distinct from the P. palaeochoerus - P. provincialis lineage. Key words: late Miocene, Turolian

  1. NEW CHALICOTHERIIDAE (PERISSODACTYLA, MAMMALIA) FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF DENIS GERAADS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 NEW CHALICOTHERIIDAE (PERISSODACTYLA, MAMMALIA) FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF BULGARIA DENIS GERAADS 1 Miocene of Europe, increasing the diversity of the family, and providing the first definite evidence, to revive Anisodon Lartet for middle Miocene forms, and to suggest the extension of Kalimantsia

  2. NEW HIPPOTRAGINI (BOVIDAE, MAMMALIA) FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF TOROS-MENALLA (CHAD)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 NEW HIPPOTRAGINI (BOVIDAE, MAMMALIA) FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF TOROS-MENALLA (CHAD) DENIS GERAADS.--HIPPOTRAGINI FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF CHAD hal-00265413,version1-20Nov2009 Author manuscript, published in "Journal of the bovid tribe Hippotragini was rather poor. We describe here two new taxa from the late Miocene of Toros

  3. Sinotragus (Bovidae, Mammalia) from Turkey, and the Late Miocene Middle Asiatic Province Denis Geraads -Paris

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sinotragus (Bovidae, Mammalia) from Turkey, and the Late Miocene Middle Asiatic Province Denis Geraads - Paris Erksin Güleç - Ankara and Tanju Kaya - Izmir Abstract: The Late Miocene Yataan Formation in Late Miocene times. The discovery of Sinotragus in Turkey thus confirms an idea already put forward 50

  4. Topografia do cone medular no ratão-do-banhado ( Myocastor coypus Molina, 1782 - Rodentia: Mammalia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilberto Valente Machado; Josy Alvarenga Cal; Arlei José Birck

    Topography of the medullar cone in nutria (Myocastor coypus Molina, 1782 - Rodentia: Mammalia). Aiming to investigate the topography of the medullar cone, ten adult nutria (Myocastor coypus), eight male and two female, were previously fixed in 10% aqueous formalin solution, maintained in similar solution and dissected. After the dissection the following data were noted: a) the medullar cone apex

  5. The ear region of edentates and the phylogeny of the Tardigrada (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Gaudin

    1995-01-01

    A cladistic investigation of the phylogenetic relationships among 21 extinct and extant genera of sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Tardigrada) was performed on the basis of characteristics of the bony anatomy of the auditory region. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate specific hypotheses of relationship within the group. Questions of particular interest include the relationship among the three traditional family

  6. NEW SKULLS OF KOLPOCHOERUS PHACOCHOEROIDES (SUIDAE, MAMMALIA) FROM THE LATE PLIOCENE OF AHL AL OUGHLAM,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 NEW SKULLS OF KOLPOCHOERUS PHACOCHOEROIDES (SUIDAE, MAMMALIA) FROM THE LATE PLIOCENE OF AHL AL dgeraads@ivry.cnrs.fr #12;2 ABSTRACT. The discovery of two male skulls of Kolpochoerus phacochoeroides specimens are two virtually complete male skulls: AaO-3655, in very good condition, and AaO-3656, which

  7. Alternative reproductive tactics in male common shrews: relationships between mate-searching behaviour, sperm production, and reproductive success as revealed by DNA fingerprinting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Stockley; J. B. Searle; D. W. Macdonald; C. S. Jones

    1994-01-01

    The common shrew (Sorex araneus) is a solitary small mammal with a promiscuous mating system. Previous studies of this species suggest that females typically mate multiply, and that males may adopt alternative mate-searching tactics. We studied two generations of common shrews in a population near Oxford, England. Males were found to adopt two different mate-searching tactics. Those classed as type

  8. [Some physiological and biochemical indicators of underyearling Laxman's shrews (Sorex cecutiens Laxmann) and even-toothed shrews (Sorex isodon Turov) under conditions of different population densities].

    PubMed

    Kiselev, S V; Lazutkin, A N; Yamborko, A V

    2013-01-01

    Based on the results of a study conducted in 2006-2010 in the Buyunda River basin (a feeder of the Kolyma River), the influence of the population density of common shrews (Sorex) on some of the physiological and biochemical parameters (glycogen and lipids in the liver, the relative weight of the spleen, the white and brown adipose tissue cellularity of bone and brain tissue) was investigated. The content of energy reserve substances was correlated with the number of animals (fat deposits had a negative correlation; the glycogen content in the liver had a direct correlation). For the rest of the physiological-biochemical parameters, no significant correlation with the population density was detected, although for the content of brown fat and cellularity of bone marrow tissue in Sorex isodon, as well as the relative weight of the spleen in both species of shrews, a trend was observed. We suggest that the identified physiological changes indicate irregular feeding of animals in years with higher population densities. PMID:24459854

  9. Establishment of the tree shrew as an alcohol-induced Fatty liver model for the study of alcoholic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Xing, Huijie; Jia, Kun; He, Jun; Shi, Changzheng; Fang, Meixia; Song, Linliang; Zhang, Pu; Zhao, Yue; Fu, Jiangnan; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs) is not clear. As a result, there is no effective treatment for ALDs. One limitation is the lack of a suitable animal model for use in studying ALDs. The tree shrew is a lower primate animal, characterized by a high-alcohol diet. This work aimed to establish a fatty liver model using tree shrews and to assess the animals' suitability for the study of ALDs. Tree shrews were treated with alcohol solutions (10% and 20%) for two weeks. Hemophysiology, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolic enzymes and hepatic pathology were checked and assayed with an automatic biochemical analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and oil red O staining, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the normal group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly enhanced in alcohol-treated tree shrews. However, the activity of reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined. Notable changes in alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH1), aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH2), CYP2E1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were observed. HE and oil red O staining showed that hepatocyte swelling, hydropic degeneration, and adipohepatic syndrome occurred in the tree shrews. Alcohol can induce fatty liver-like pathological changes and result in alterations in liver function, oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolism enzymes and Nrf2. Therefore, the established fatty liver model of tree shrews induced by alcohol should be a promising tool for the study of ALDs. PMID:26030870

  10. Establishment of the Tree Shrew as an Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver Model for the Study of Alcoholic Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Huijie; Jia, Kun; He, Jun; Shi, Changzheng; Fang, Meixia; Song, Linliang; Zhang, Pu; Zhao, Yue; Fu, Jiangnan; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs) is not clear. As a result, there is no effective treatment for ALDs. One limitation is the lack of a suitable animal model for use in studying ALDs. The tree shrew is a lower primate animal, characterized by a high-alcohol diet. This work aimed to establish a fatty liver model using tree shrews and to assess the animals’ suitability for the study of ALDs. Tree shrews were treated with alcohol solutions (10% and 20%) for two weeks. Hemophysiology, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolic enzymes and hepatic pathology were checked and assayed with an automatic biochemical analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and oil red O staining, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the normal group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly enhanced in alcohol-treated tree shrews. However, the activity of reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined. Notable changes in alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH1), aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH2), CYP2E1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were observed. HE and oil red O staining showed that hepatocyte swelling, hydropic degeneration, and adipohepatic syndrome occurred in the tree shrews. Alcohol can induce fatty liver-like pathological changes and result in alterations in liver function, oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolism enzymes and Nrf2. Therefore, the established fatty liver model of tree shrews induced by alcohol should be a promising tool for the study of ALDs. PMID:26030870

  11. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus): acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

    PubMed

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals. PMID:25390304

  12. Musk shrews selectively bred for motion sickness display increased anesthesia-induced vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Charles C.; Meyers, Kelly; Oberlies, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibility to motion sickness is a predictor of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and studies in humans suggest that genetic factors determine sensitivity to motion sickness. The aim of the current study was to determine if a preclinical model could be selectively bred for motion-induced emesis and to assess a potential relationship to anesthesia-induced emesis. Musk shrews were tested for motion-induced emesis using a shaker plate (10 min, 1 Hz, and 4 cm of lateral displacement). Animals were rank ordered for motion-induced emesis and selectively bred to produce high and low response strains. Shrews were also tested with nicotine (5 mg/kg, sc), copper sulfate (CuSO4; 120 mg/kg, ig), and isoflurane anesthesia (10 min; 3%) to determine responses to a panel of emetic stimuli. High response strain shrews demonstrated significantly more emetic responses to motion exposure compared to low response strain animals in the F1 and F2 generations. In F2 animals, there were no significant differences in total emetic responses or emetic latency between strains after nicotine or CuSO4 injection. However, isoflurane exposure stimulated more emesis in F1 and F2 high versus low strain animals, which suggests a relationship between vestibular- and inhalational anesthesia-induced emesis. Overall, these results indicate genetic determinants of motion sickness in a preclinical model and a potential common mechanism for motion sickness and inhalational anesthesia-induced emesis. Future work may include genetic mapping of potential “emetic sensitivity genes” to develop novel therapies or diagnostics for patients with high risk of nausea and vomiting. PMID:24239993

  13. Body temperature and behavior of tree shrews and flying squirrels in a thermal gradient.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, R

    1998-02-15

    The daily rhythms of body temperature, temperature selection, and locomotor activity of tree shrews and flying squirrels were studied in a thermal gradient. In accordance with previous observations in other mammalian species, the rhythm of temperature selection was found to be 180 degrees out of phase with the body temperature rhythm in both species. Comparison of the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm in the presence and absence of the ambient temperature gradient indicated that behavioral temperature selection reduces the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm. This provides support for the hypothesis that the homeostatic control of body temperature opposes-rather than facilitates-the circadian oscillation in body temperature. PMID:9523893

  14. Tree shrew models: a chronic social defeat model of depression and a one-trial captive conditioning model of learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Tian, Men; Yang, Yue-Xiong; Xu, Lin

    2011-02-01

    Recent genome studies indicate that tree shrew is in the order or a closest sister of primates, and thus may be one of the best animals to model human diseases. In this paper, we report on a social defeat model of depression in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). Two male tree shrews were housed in a pair-cage consisting of two independent cages separated by a wire mesh partition with a door connecting the two cages. After one week adaptation, the connecting door was opened and a brief fighting occurs between the two male tree shrews and this social conflict session consisted of 1 h direct conflict (fighting) and 23 h indirect influence (e.g. smell, visual cues) per day for 21 days. The defeated tree shrew was considered the subordinate. Compared with naive animals, subordinate tree shrews at the final week of social conflict session showed alterations in body weight, locomotion, avoidance behavior and urinary cortisol levels. Remarkably, these alterations persisted for over two weeks. We also report on a novel captive conditioning model of learning and memory in tree shrew. An automatic trapping cage was placed in a small closed room with a freely-moving tree shrew. For the first four trials, the tree shrew was not trapped when it entered the cage and ate the bait apple, but it was trapped and kept in the cage for 1 h on the fifth trial. Latency was defined as the time between release of the tree shrew and when it entered the captive cage. Latencies during the five trials indicated adaptation. A test trial 24 h later was used to measure whether the one-trial trapping during the fifth trial could form captive memory. Tree shrews showed much longer trapping latencies in the test trial than the adaptation trials. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.), known to prevent the formation of memory, did not affect latencies in the adaptation trails, but did block captive memory as it led to much shorter trapping latencies compared to saline treatment in the test trial. These results demonstrate a chronic social defeat model of depression and a novel one-trial captive conditioning model for learning and memory in tree shrews, which are important for mechanism studies of depression, learning, memory, and preclinical evaluation for new antidepressants. PMID:21341381

  15. Short-term response of shrews to prescribed fire and mechanical fuel reduction in a Southern Appalachian upland hardwood forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Stanlee Miller; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2007-01-01

    As part of the multidisciplinary National Fire and Fire Surrogate study, we used drift fences with pitfall traps from May to September 2003 and 2004 to determine how three fuel reduction techniques affected shrews in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Ground-dwelling macroarthropods also were collected from a subset of pitfall traps to assess relative prey availability among the

  16. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews. PMID:23124770

  17. Molecular Ecology (2001) 10, 12271240 2001 Blackwell Science Ltd

    E-print Network

    2001-01-01

    Phylogeography of the dusky shrew, Sorex monticolus (Insectivora, Soricidae): insight into deep and shallow 99775­6960, USA Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among the dusky shrew (Sorex monticolus) and eight related species (S. bairdi, S. bendirii, S. neomexicanus, S. ornatus, S. pacificus, S. palustris, S

  18. Effect of land cover, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    1. Because effects of habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbance on native animals have been relatively little studied in arid areas and in insectivores, we investigated the roles of different land covers, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, in southern California. 2. Notiosorex crawfordi was the numerically dominant species (trap-success rate 0.52) occurring in 21 of the 22 study sites in 85% of the 286 pitfall arrays used in this study. Sorex ornatus was captured in 14 of the sites, in 52% of the arrays with a total trap-success rate of 0.2. Neither of the species was found in one of the sites. 3. The population dynamics of the two shrew species were relatively synchronous during the 4-5-year study; the peak densities usually occurred during the spring. Precipitation had a significant positive effect, and maximum temperature a significant negative effect on the trap-success rate of S. ornatus. 4. Occurrence and abundance of shrews varied significantly between sites and years but the size of the landscape or the study site had no effect on the abundance of shrews. The amount of urban edge had no significant effect on the captures of shrews but increased edge allows invasion of the Argentine ants, which had a highly significant negative impact on the abundance of N. crawfordi. 5. At the trap array level, the percentage of coastal sage scrub flora had a significant positive, and the percentage of other flora had a significant negative effect on the abundance of N. crawfordi. The mean canopy height and the abundance of N. crawfordi had a significant positive effect on the occurrence of S. ornatus. 6. Our study suggests that the loss of native coastal sage scrub flora and increasing presence of Argentine ant colonies may significantly effect the distribution and abundance of N. crawfordi. The very low overall population densities of both shrew species in most study sites make both species susceptible to extinction in isolated habitat fragments due to environmental stochasticity, and anthropogenic disturbance.

  19. Domestication of the Watase's shrew, Crocidura horsfieldi watasei, for a laboratory animal.

    PubMed

    Hattori, S; Noboru, Y; Yamanouchi, K

    1986-04-01

    The Watase's shrew (Crocidura horsfieldi watasei), which is the native in the Nansei Islands in Japan, was entrapped, kept and mated in laboratory with the object of domestication. For the trapping of the animals hand-made traps were utilized, whereas pit-fall and Sherman trap were unsuitable. Keeping was easy in any types of cages which have no hole; through the holes the animals being able to escape. The animals were fed live insect or dry pelleted diet. Breeding was made by monogamous pair-mating, hand-mating or harem-mating method in the wooden cage. A total of 19 litters including 47 young were obtained from 5 monogamous pairs thus far. The litter size was 2.5 and the gestation period was estimated about 30 days. PMID:3735728

  20. Nuclear DNA phylogeny of the squirrels (Mammalia: Rodentia) and the evolution of arboreality from c-myc and RAG1

    E-print Network

    Steppan, Scott

    Nuclear DNA phylogeny of the squirrels (Mammalia: Rodentia) and the evolution of arboreality from c-myc nuclear genes (c-myc and RAG1) comprising approximately 4500 bp of data (most in exons) are applied squirrel lineages. C-myc indels corroborate the sequence-based topologies. The common ancestor of extant

  1. ON SOME SPIRAL-HORNED ANTELOPES (MAMMALIA : ARTIODACTYLA : BOVIDAE) FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF TURKEY, WITH REMARKS ON THEIR DISTRIBUTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ON SOME SPIRAL-HORNED ANTELOPES (MAMMALIA : ARTIODACTYLA : BOVIDAE) FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF TURKEY-409" #12;ABSTRACT Examination of some collections from several late Miocene Turkish localities allows us. During the first part of the late Miocene, several endemic species are restricted to central Anatolia

  2. A SKULL OF ANCYLOTHERIUM (CHALICOTHERIIDAE, MAMMALIA) FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF THERMOPIGI (SERRES, N.GREECE), AND THE RELATIONSHIPS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A SKULL OF ANCYLOTHERIUM (CHALICOTHERIIDAE, MAMMALIA) FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF THERMOPIGI (SERRES has yielded a well- preserved skull of Ancylotherium pentelicum, among a rich collection of late Miocene mammals. It is the most complete Ancylotherium skull ever reported, and lack of crushing makes

  3. Solar Radiation during Rewarming from Torpor in Elephant Shrews: Supplementation or Substitution of Endogenous Heat Production?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michelle L.; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C.; McKechnie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external heat), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic heat production. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total heat production capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of heat during rewarming from heterothermy. PMID:25853244

  4. Bioaccumulation of metals and effects of landfill pollution in small mammals. Part I. The greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Sánchez-Chardi; Jacint Nadal

    2007-01-01

    Here we quantified the bioaccumulation of metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, iron, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and chromium) and assessed several morphological (RI, relative weights) and genotoxic parameters as biomarkers of pollution from the landfill of Garraf (Barcelona, NE Spain). Specimens of Crocidura russula (Insectivora, Mammalia) from the landfill site showed increased Pb, Cd, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Cr concentrations

  5. Complete genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet’s musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Yanagihara, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of the molecular phylogeny of shrew-borne hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the lack of full-length viral genomes. In this report, we present the complete genome analysis of a newfound hantavirus, designated Bowé virus, detected in ethanol-fixed intercostal muscle of a Doucet’s musk shrew (Crocidura douceti), captured in southwestern Guinea in February 2012. Full-length amino acid sequence comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment gene products revealed that Bowé virus differed by 24.1–53.4%, 17.0–59.9% and 14.6–39.7%, respectively, from all other representative rodent-, shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+? model of evolution, showed that Bowé virus shared a common ancestry with Tanganya virus, a hantavirus detected in the Therese’s shrew (Crocidura theresae) in Guinea. Whole genome analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are needed to better clarify how the radiation of African shrews might have contributed to the phylogeography of hantaviruses. PMID:23994121

  6. Modulation of Glycosaminoglycan Levels in Tree Shrew Sclera during Lens-Induced Myopia Development and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Moring, Anisha G.; Baker, John R.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose In juvenile tree shrews, positioning a negative-power lens in front of an eye produces a hyperopic shift in refractive state and causes a compensatory increase in axial length over several days so that the eye is myopic when the lens is removed. During negative lens compensation, the scleral extracellular matrix is remodeled. A biomechanical property of the sclera, creep rate, increases; during recovery from induced myopia, the creep rate decreases below normal levels. Changes in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels, including those of hyaluronan, may participate in these changes in creep rate and, in turn, participate in controlling the axial length and refractive state. This study investigated the unsulfated and sulfated GAG composition of the sclera during compensation for a -5 diopter (D) lens and during recovery. Methods Capillary electrophoresis was used to assess the relative levels (ng/mg dry scleral weight) of unsulfated GAGs (hyaluronan [HA] and chondroitin [C0S]), sulfated GAGs (chondroitin-4-sulfate [C4S], chondroitin-6-sulfate [C6S], and dermatan sulfate [DS]) in the sclera of groups of tree shrews (n = 5 per group) that wore a monocular -5 D lens for 1, 2, 4, or 11 days or had 11 days of -5 D lens wear followed by 1, 2, or 4 days of recovery from lens wear. The fellow eye served as an untreated control. Groups of normal and plano lens-treated animals provided age-matched values. Results Expressed as a fraction of dry weight, levels of HA were lower after 1, 4, and 11 days of -5 D lens wear. Levels of C0S, C6S, and C4S were significantly lower after 4 and 11 days of lens wear. After 1 and 2 days of recovery, GAG levels in the treated eyes were not significantly different from those in control eyes. After 4 recovery days, HA levels were lower, but the levels of all other GAGs were not different in the recovering and control eyes. Some binocular changes also occurred. Conclusions The rapid differential decrease in HA levels during negative lens compensation and the absence of any difference after just 1 day of recovery suggest that HA levels may play a previously unrecognized early role in regulating the biomechanical property (creep rate) of the sclera. The reduced levels of the other GAGs, which occur when creep rate is at its peak elevation, and their rapid return to normal after 1 day of recovery suggest that they may also participate in regulating this biomechanical property of the sclera. PMID:17591859

  7. A climate for speciation: rapid spatial diversification within the Sorex cinereus complex of shrews

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Speer, Kelly A.; Demboski, John R.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic climate regime of the late Quaternary caused dramatic environmental change at high latitudes. Although these events may have been brief in periodicity from an evolutionary standpoint, multiple episodes of allopatry and divergence have been implicated in rapid radiations of a number of organisms. Shrews of the Sorex cinereus complex have long challenged taxonomists due to similar morphology and parapatric geographic ranges. Here, multi-locus phylogenetic and demographic assessments using a coalescent framework were combined to investigate spatiotemporal evolution of 13 nominal species with a widespread distribution throughout North America and across Beringia into Siberia. For these species, we first test a hypothesis of recent differentiation in response to Pleistocene climate versus more ancient divergence that would coincide with pre-Pleistocene perturbations. We then investigate the processes driving diversification over multiple continents. Our genetic analyses highlight novel diversity within these morphologically conserved mammals and clarify relationships between geographic distribution and evolutionary history. Demography within and among species indicates both regional stability and rapid expansion. Ancestral ecological differentiation coincident with early cladogenesis within the complex enabled alternating and repeated episodes of allopatry and expansion where successive glacial and interglacial phases each promoted divergence. The Sorex cinereus complex constitutes a valuable model for future comparative assessments of evolution in response to cyclic environmental change.

  8. [Soricinia sawadai sp. n. (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae), a new cestode species from the shrews of Sakhalin Island].

    PubMed

    Zubova, O A; Guliaev, V D; Kornienko, S A

    2010-01-01

    A new species Soricinia sawadai sp. n. parasitizing shrews of Sakhalin Island (Sores unguiculatus and S. caecutiens) is described. The new species differs from other species of the genus Soricinia Spassky et Spasskaja, 1954 in having specific armament and size of the cirrus. Soricinia sawadai sp. n. differs from S. aurita (Irzhavsky et al., 2005) in having half size of the ovary (0.076-0.08 x 0.03-0.038 versus 0.135-0.14 x 0.037-0.04) and the cirrus bursa extending into the aporal fraction of the middle part of segment. The new species differs from S. quarta (Karpenko, 1983) in having half size of the cirrus (0.025-0.026 versus 0.05-0.055) and half number of hexacants in uterine segments (20-22 versus 40-45). The new species differs from S. infirma (Zarnowski, 1955) in having other cirrus armament, larger number of segments and lesser number of hexacants. The species Insectivorolepis macracetobulosa Sawada et Koyasu, 1991 parasitizing Sorex unguiculatus on Hokkaido Island is synonymized with Soricinia quarta. The species Insectivorolepis macracetobulosa sensu Sawada et Harada, 1993 parasitizing Sorex shinto shinto on Honshu Island is described as a separate species Soricinia haradai sp. n. PMID:20795487

  9. Affinities of `hyopsodontids' to elephant shrews and a Holarctic origin of Afrotheria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, Shawn P.; Penkrot, Tonya A.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Rose, Kenneth D.

    2005-03-01

    Macroscelideans (elephant shrews or sengis) are small-bodied (25-540g), cursorial (running) and saltatorial (jumping), insectivorous and omnivorous placental mammals represented by at least 15 extant African species classified in four genera. Macroscelidea is one of several morphologically diverse but predominantly African placental orders classified in the superorder Afrotheria by molecular phylogeneticists. The distribution of modern afrotheres, in combination with a basal position for Afrotheria within Placentalia and molecular divergence-time estimates, has been used to link placental diversification with the mid-Cretaceous separation of South America and Africa. Morphological phylogenetic analyses do not support Afrotheria and the fossil record favours a northern origin of Placentalia. Here we describe fossil postcrania that provide evidence for a close relationship between North American Palaeocene-Eocene apheliscine `hyopsodontid' `condylarths' (early ungulates or hoofed mammals) and extant Macroscelidea. Apheliscine postcranial morphology is consistent with a relationship to other ungulate-like afrotheres (Hyracoidea, Proboscidea) but does not provide support for a monophyletic Afrotheria. As the oldest record of an afrothere clade, identification of macroscelidean relatives in the North American Palaeocene argues against an African origin for Afrotheria, weakening support for linking placental diversification to the break-up of Gondwana.

  10. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described. PMID:21878767

  11. [Comparative volumetry of brains from wild and captive tree shrews (Tupaia)].

    PubMed

    Frahm, H; Stephan, H

    1976-01-01

    The changes in brain weight and composition during captivity were investigated in two groups of tree-shrews (Tupaia). One group consisted of wild animals whose brains were dissected and weighed immediately after trapping in Thailand. The second group (F1) consisted of animals reared in captivity whose parents originated from the same populations of Thailand animals as the first group. Wild- and F1-animals showed no significanct differences in body weight; however, the brain weight was significantly greater in F1-animals. This is in clear contrast to the results of former investigations of other species, in which the brain size became reduced in captivity. Of the various brain parts, the absolute volumes of the cerebellum and the telencephalon, and, within the latter, those of the striatum, schizocortex, neocortex, and area striata were enlarged significantly in animals reared in captivity. A significant decrease was observed in the complex of paleocortex + amygdala, and a possible decrease in the hippocampus. An attempt to interpret the changes was made with regard to differences in age-composition between the two groups, different nutrition and motor activities, heterochronies in the ontogenetic development, and, finally, different environmental influences during ontogeny. PMID:828661

  12. Mathevolepis alpina sp. n. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) from an alpine shrew: the first record of the genus in Europe.

    PubMed

    Binkiene, Rasa; Kontrimavicius, Leonas

    2012-12-01

    Mathevolepis alpina sp. n. is described from an alpine shrew, Sorex alpinus, from the Carpathian Region of the Slovak Republic. The new species differs from other species of the genus by the morphology of the male copulatory apparatus, especially the cirrus, which is characterised by asymmetrical parabasal swelling. The new species represents the first record of cestodes of the genus Mathevolepis Spassky, 1948 in Europe, i.e. the western part of the Palaearctic Region. The geographical distribution of species of Mathevolepis is reviewed. PMID:23327011

  13. Dental and Mandibular Morphologies of Arboroharamiya (Haramiyida, Mammalia): A Comparison with Other Haramiyidans and Megaconus and Implications for Mammalian Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jin; Bi, Shundong; Wang, Yuanqing; Zheng, Xiaoting; Wang, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    Background Two recent studies published in the same issue of Nature reached conflicting conclusions regarding the phylogeny of early mammals: One places the clade containing haramiyidans and multituberculates within the Mammalia and the other separates haramiyidans from multituberculates and places the former outside of the Mammalia. These two contrasting results require that the minimally oldest divergence time of the Mammalia was within the Late Triassic or the Middle Jurassic, respectively. Morphological descriptions of the species named in the two papers were brief, and no comparisons between the newly named species were possible. Principal Findings Here we present a detailed description of the dentary bone, teeth, occlusal and wear patterns of the haramiyidan Arboroharamiya and compare it with other haramiyidans and Megaconus. Using this new information, we suggest that tooth identifications and orientations of several previously described haramiyidan species are incorrect, and that previous interpretations of haramiyidan occlusal pattern are problematic. We propose that the published upper tooth orientation of Megaconus was problematic and question the number of upper molars, the length of dentition and mandible, and presence of the mandibular middle ear in Megaconus. Conclusions The additional morphological descriptions and comparisons presented here further support the view that Arboroharamiya, as a derived haramiyidan, shows similarity to multituberculates in tooth and mandible morphologies. Our comparison also suggests that Megaconus lacks many diagnostic features for the family Eleutherodontidae and that its close affinity with multituberculates cannot be ruled out. The detailed morphological data demonstrate that haramiyidans are more similar to multituberculates than to any other mammaliaforms. PMID:25494181

  14. Prevalence of rabies virus and Hantaan virus infections in commensal rodents and shrews trapped in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Kantakamalakul, Wannee; Siritantikorn, Sontana; Thongcharoen, Prasert; Singchai, Chantra; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2003-11-01

    Five hundred rodents and shrews (Rattus norvegicus: 458, Rattus rattus: 28, Rattus exulans: 5, Mus musculus: 4 and Suncus murine: 5) trapped from the fresh food markets around Bangkok area were investigated for rabies virus and Hantaan virus infections. No rabies viral antigens in the animals' brains were detected by direct immunofluorescence. On the other hand, antibodies to Hantaan virus were demonstrated in the sera of 7 (1.53%) R. norvegicus caught in various markets using a particle agglutination technique. Further determination of the viral genome in rat lung tissue was performed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR, 3 (0.66%) out of 7 were positive. HindIII and HifI restriction enzyme analyses showed the pattern of the Hantaan virus genome in 2 samples and that of the Seoul virus genome in the other. The results of the present study suggest that rodents from Bangkok's fresh food markets did not carry rabies. Thus, getting rid of rabies in dogs or cats in the Bangkok area may be easier than anticipated because there are no sources of asymptomatic reservoirs. This may result in the low incidence of rabies patients observed in Bangkok. On the contrary, the presence of antibodies and the Hantaan virus genome and Seoul virus genome in R. norvegicus will definitely provide evidence for physicians to be aware of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and other clinical settings of Hantaan/Seoul virus disease in patients with a history of having contact with rats or their excreta. PMID:14696782

  15. Comparative morphology and morphometry of the nasal fossae of four species of North American shrews (Soricinae).

    PubMed

    Larochelle, R; Baron, G

    1989-11-01

    The present study compares the morphology of the nasal conchae and the relative development (i.e., surface area and neurosensory cell number) of the olfactory epithelium between four species of shrews occupying different ecotopes (Blarina brevicauda, Sorex cinereus, S. fumeus, S. palustris). The number of olfactory cells was corrected for split cell error. Data were analyzed by using size indices based on the allometric method. The convoluted shape of the maxilloturbinal in Blarina, with large respiratory epithelial surface area, could not be related with certainty to the subterranean ecotope. From the comparison between Soricinae and Crocidurinae, one major difference concerned the shape and attachment of ectoturbinal 3. Differences in the relative development of the olfactory organ are discussed with regard to differences in the use of chemical signals. The semi-fossorial B. brevicauda, with the more developed olfactory organ, is reported to possess more scent-glands and to manifest active scent-marking behaviors and fecal deposits associated with territoriality. The two terrestrial species, S. cinereus and S. fumeus, have olfactory epithelia showing an intermediate development. Published accounts of fewer scent-glands and a lack of active scent-marking behavior indicate a lesser use of olfactory communication in these two species where mutual avoidance seems the rule. Indication of an even more reduced use of olfactory signals in social interactions by the semiaquatic S. palustris is suggested by its least-developed olfactory epithelium. The comparison between Soricinae and Crocidurinae supports a relationship between the development of the olfactory organ and the relative use of olfactory communication known to occur in social interactions. PMID:2618929

  16. Análise das mordidas de tubarões-charuto, Isistius spp. (Squaliformes: Dalatiidae) em cetáceos (Mammalia: Cetacea) no litoral da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano Raimundo; Alardo Souto; Janete Gomes; Abrão Oliveira; Costa Nunes; Rodrigo Maia-Nogueira; Cláudio L. S. Sampaio

    Analysis of Cookiecutter shark Isistius spp. (Squaliformes; Dalatiidae) bites in cetaceans (Mammalia; Cetacea) on the Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil. Few studies have registered signs of mutilation on cetaceans in Brazil, especially from shark attacks. This work describes interactions between cookiecutter sharks Isistius spp. and cetaceans through the analysis of bite records for cetacean carcasses washed ashore on the Bahia coast

  17. Synergy between cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid, and ??-tetrahydrocannabinol in the regulation of emesis in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew).

    PubMed

    Rock, Erin M; Parker, Linda A

    2015-06-01

    Smoked marijuana contains over 100 different cannabinoids, including the psychoactive compound ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). THC, CBD, and its acidic precursor, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), have all been shown to have antiemetic properties in the Suncus murinus (S. murinus; house musk shrew). Here we show that when subthreshold antiemetic doses of CBD (2.5 mg/kg ip) or CBDA (0.05 mg/kg ip) are combined with a subthreshold antiemetic dose of THC (1 mg/kg ip) in the S. murinus, both lithium-chloride-induced vomiting and abdominal retching are dramatically suppressed. These results suggest that combined effects of these compounds may lead to better control of vomiting with fewer side effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26030435

  18. Agomelatine in the tree shrew model of depression: effects on stress-induced nocturnal hyperthermia and hormonal status.

    PubMed

    Schmelting, Barthel; Corbach-Söhle, Silke; Kohlhause, Susan; Schlumbohm, Christina; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2014-03-01

    The antidepressive drug agomelatine combines the properties of an agonist of melatonergic receptors 1 and 2 with an antagonist of the 5-HT2C receptor. We analyzed the effects of agomelatine in psychosocially stressed male tree shrews, an established preclinical model of depression. Tree shrews experienced daily social stress for a period of 5 weeks and were concomitantly treated with different drugs daily for 4 weeks. The effects of agomelatine (40 mg/kg/day) were compared with those of the agonist melatonin (40 mg/kg/day), the inverse 5-HT2C antagonist S32006 (10mg/kg/day), and the SSRI fluoxetine (15 mg/kg/day). Nocturnal core body temperature (CBT) was recorded by telemetry, and urinary norepinephrine and cortisol concentrations were measured. Chronic social stress induced nocturnal hyperthermia. Agomelatine normalized the CBT in the fourth week of the treatment (T4), whereas the other drugs did not significantly counteract the stress-induced hyperthermia. Agomelatine also reversed the stress-induced reduction in locomotor activity. Norepinephrine concentration was elevated by the stress indicating sympathetic hyperactivity, and was normalized in the stressed animals treated with agomelatine or fluoxetine but not in those treated with melatonin or S32006. Cortisol concentration was elevated by stress but returned to basal levels by T4 in all animals, irrespective of the treatment. These observations show that agomelatine has positive effects to counteract stress-induced physiological processes and to restore the normal rhythm of nocturnal CBT. The data underpin the antidepressant properties of agomelatine and are consistent with a distinctive profile compared to its constituent pharmacological components and other conventional agents. PMID:23978391

  19. Effect of chronic psychosocial stress and long-term cortisol treatment on hippocampus-mediated memory and hippocampal volume: a pilot-study in tree shrews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ohl; T. Michaelis; G. K. Vollmann-Honsdorf; C. Kirschbaum; E. Fuchs

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the impact of chronic psychosocial stress and long-term cortisol treatment on hippocampus-mediated memory processes and hippocampal volume in male tree shrews. By combining cognitive tests on a hole board, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and saliva cortisol analysis, we were able to follow in individual animals the stress- and cortisol-induced temporal effects on HPA axis activity and the hippocampus

  20. New murid (Mammalia, Rodentia) fossils from a late Pliocene (2.4 Ma) locality, Hadar A.L. 894, Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denné N. Reed

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new assemblage of fossil murids (Mammalia: Rodentia) from an Oldowan archeological site, Hadar, A.L. 894. The dates for the site are well constrained to between 2.35 and 2.9 Ma and the site itself has an estimated age of 2.4 Ma. The A.L. 894 assemblage is the first described from the younger Busidima Formation at Hadar and

  1. Distributions of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 in the visual system of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Balaram, P; Isaamullah, M; Petry, H M; Bickford, M E; Kaas, J H

    2015-08-15

    Vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) proteins regulate the storage and release of glutamate from synapses of excitatory neurons. Two isoforms, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, are found in most glutamatergic projections across the mammalian visual system, and appear to differentially identify subsets of excitatory projections between visual structures. To expand current knowledge on the distribution of VGLUT isoforms in highly visual mammals, we examined the mRNA and protein expression patterns of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), superior colliculus, pulvinar complex, and primary visual cortex (V1) in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), which are closely related to primates but classified as a separate order (Scandentia). We found that VGLUT1 was distributed in intrinsic and corticothalamic connections, whereas VGLUT2 was predominantly distributed in subcortical and thalamocortical connections. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 were coexpressed in the LGN and in the pulvinar complex, as well as in restricted layers of V1, suggesting a greater heterogeneity in the range of efferent glutamatergic projections from these structures. These findings provide further evidence that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 identify distinct populations of excitatory neurons in visual brain structures across mammals. Observed variations in individual projections may highlight the evolution of these connections through the mammalian lineage. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:1792-1808, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25521420

  2. Feeding mechanics and dietary implications in the fossil sloth Neocnus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Megalonychidae) from Haiti.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Robert K

    2011-10-01

    Haitian species of the extinct ground sloth genus Neocnus (Mammalia: Pilosa: Megalonychidae) have previously been hypothesized to have a much reduced jugal bone and a correspondingly reduced masseter musculature but a paucity of specimens has prevented further investigation of this hypothesis. Recent discovery of jugal bones belonging to Haitian specimens of Neocnus within the University of Florida Museum collections enables the element to be more accurately described. The discovery also makes it possible to explore mastication in these sloths. Osteological characters related to feeding were examined, along with comparative estimations of bite force with the extant tree sloths, Bradypus and Choloepus, and their known dietary habits as a means to infer aspects of the paleodiet of Neocnus. There is a significant difference in moment arm calculations for m. masseter between predicted and actual jugals, but the overall significance for bite force is lost and hampered by small sample size. Neocnus demonstrates a variety of characters that are similar to those of Bradypus and not to Choloepus, which is a close phylogenetic relative. The masticatory musculature of Neocnus enabled a chewing cycle emphasizing a grinding combination of mesiodistal and linguobuccal movements of the molariform dentition. The orientations of m. masseter and m. temporalis are estimated to produce relatively high bite force ratios that imply a masticatory system with stronger versus faster components. Because of the similarity of bite forces and jaw mechanics to those of Bradypus, in addition to a number of osteological adaptations indicative of herbivorous grazers (elevated mandibular condyle, large and complex masseter, and robust angular process), the Haitian forms of Neocnus are considered to have been selective feeders with a folivorous diet. PMID:21638306

  3. Mechanism of ghrelin-induced gastric contractions in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew): involvement of intrinsic primary afferent neurons.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Anupom; Aizawa, Sayaka; Sakata, Ichiro; Goswami, Chayon; Oda, Sen-ichi; Sakai, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Here, we have reported that motilin can induce contractions in a dose-dependent manner in isolated Suncus murinus (house musk shrew) stomach. We have also shown that after pretreatment with a low dose of motilin (10(-10) M), ghrelin also induces gastric contractions at levels of 10(-10) M to 10(-7) M. However, the neural mechanism of ghrelin action in the stomach has not been fully revealed. In the present study, we studied the mechanism of ghrelin-induced contraction in vitro using a pharmacological method. The responses to ghrelin in the stomach were almost completely abolished by hexamethonium and were significantly suppressed by the administration of phentolamine, prazosin, ondansetron, and naloxone. Additionally, N-nitro-l-arginine methylester significantly potentiated the contractions. Importantly, the mucosa is essential for ghrelin-induced, but not motilin-induced, gastric contractions. To evaluate the involvement of intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs), which are multiaxonal neurons that pass signals from the mucosa to the myenteric plexus, we examined the effect of the IPAN-related pathway on ghrelin-induced contractions and found that pretreatment with adenosine and tachykinergic receptor 3 antagonists (SR142801) significantly eliminated the contractions and GR113808 (5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 antagonist) almost completely eliminated it. The results indicate that ghrelin stimulates and modulates suncus gastric contractions through cholinergic, adrenergic, serotonergic, opioidergic neurons and nitric oxide synthases in the myenteric plexus. The mucosa is also important for ghrelin-induced gastric contractions, and IPANs may be the important interneurons that pass the signal from the mucosa to the myenteric plexus. PMID:23565235

  4. Transformation of Receptive Field Properties from Lateral Geniculate Nucleus to Superficial V1 in the Tree Shrew

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Arani; Rhodes, Heather J.; Culp, Julie H.; Fitzpatrick, David

    2013-01-01

    Tree shrew primary visual cortex (V1) exhibits a pronounced laminar segregation of inputs from different classes of relay neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). We examined how several receptive field (RF) properties were transformed from LGN to V1 layer 4 to V1 layer 2/3. The progression of RF properties across these stages differed markedly from that found in the cat. V1 layer 4 cells are largely similar to the the LGN cells that provide their input, being dominated by a single sign (ON or OFF) and being strongly modulated by sinusoidal gratings. Some layer 4 neurons, notably those near the edges of layer 4, exhibited increased orientation selectivity, and most layer 4 neurons exhibited a preference for lower temporal frequencies. Neurons in cortical layer 2/3 differ significantly from those in the LGN; most exhibited strong orientation tuning and both ON and OFF responses. The strength of orientation selectivity exhibited a notable sublaminar organization, with the strongest orientation tuned neurons in the most superficial parts of layer 2/3. Modulation indexes provide evidence for simple and complex cells in both layer 4 and layer 2/3. However, neurons with high modulation indexes were heterogenous in the spatial organization of ON and OFF responses, with many of them exhibiting unbalanced ON and OFF responses rather than well-segregated ON and OFF subunits. When compared to the laminar organization of V1 in other mammals, these data show that the process of natural selection can result in significantly altered structure/function relationships in homologous cortical circuits. PMID:23843520

  5. Thottapalayam virus is genetically distant to the rodent-borne hantaviruses, consistent with its isolation from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus)

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Pragya D; Vincent, Martin J; Nichol, Stuart T

    2007-01-01

    Thottapalayam (TPM) virus belongs to the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. The genomes of hantaviruses consist of three negative-stranded RNA segments (S, M and L) encoding the virus nucleocapsid (N), glycoprotein (Gn, Gc), and polymerase (L) proteins, respectively. The genus Hantavirus contains predominantly rodent-borne viruses, with the prominent exception of TPM virus which was isolated in India in 1964 from an insectivore, Suncus murinus, commonly referred to as the Asian house shrew or brown musk shrew. Analysis of the available TPM virus S (1530 nt) RNA genome segment sequence and the newly derived M (3621 nt) and L (6581 nt) segment sequences demonstrate that the entire TPM virus genome is very unique. Remarkably high sequence differences are seen at the nucleotide (up to S – 47%, M – 49%, L – 38%) and protein (up to N – 54%, Gn/Gc – 57% and L – 39%) levels relative to the rodent-borne hantaviruses, consistent with TPM virus having a unique host association. PMID:17711577

  6. The Sahara as a vicariant agent, and the role of Miocene climatic events, in the diversification of the mammalian order Macroscelidea (elephant shrews)

    PubMed Central

    Douady , Christophe J.; Catzeflis, François; Raman, Jaishree; Springer , Mark S.; Stanhope , Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Although the Sahara is a major geographical feature of the African continent, its role in the diversification of animal species is not well understood. We present here a molecular phylogeny for members of the endemic African mammalian order Macroscelidea (elephant shrews) with molecular-clock calculations; this molecular phylogeny provides convincing evidence that the genus Elephantulus is diphyletic. Elephantulus rozeti, the only elephant shrew species that resides north of the Sahara, is the sister group of a species from a different genus (Petrodromus tetradactylus), which resides just south of the Sahara. The split between these taxa coincided with major Miocene climatic events, which triggered the cooling and aridification of midlatitude continental regions, and a shift in the Sahara from a tropical to an arid environment. Thus, the North African distribution of E. rozeti is not the result of dispersion from an eastern species of the genus, but instead the result of a vicariant event involving the formation of the Sahara. The splitting events involved with most Elephantulus species in our analysis appear to coincide with these climatic events. This coincidence suggests that the environmental consequences associated with this period played an important role in the radiation of this order of mammals. The strongly supported phylogeny provides compelling evidence for a complex history of mosaic evolution, including pronounced bradytelic morphological evolution in some lineages, accelerated morphological evolution in others, and a remarkably slow rate of evolution of the male reproductive structure. PMID:12821774

  7. Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

  8. Neoskrjabinolepis nuda n. sp. from shrews on Sakhalin Island, Russia, with a taxonomic review of Neoskrjabinolepis Spasskii, 1947 (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae).

    PubMed

    Kornienko, Svetlana A; Gulyaev, Vladimir D; Mel'nikova, Yulia A; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2008-06-01

    Neoskrjabinolepis (Neoskrjabinolepidoides) nuda n. sp. is described from the shrews Sorex unguiculatus (type-host), S. gracillimus, S. isodon and S. caecutiens on Sakhalin Island, Russia. The new species is characterised by: rostellar hooks 40-44 microm long and provided with small epiphyseal thickening of the handle; a long (95-100 microm) cirrus consisting of basal region with claw-shaped spines, a parabasal region with thin needle-shaped spines and an unarmed distal region; a cirrus-sac extending well into the median field; and 15-22 eggs per gravid uterus. A review of the species of Neoskrjabinolepis Spasskii, 1947 is presented. Currently, this genus includes nine species and is divided in two subgenera on the basis of strobilar development, which is gradual in the subgenus Neoskrjabinolepis (four species) and serial in the subgenus Neoskrjabinolepidoides Kornienko, Gulyaev & Mel'nikova, 2006 (five species). An amended generic diagnosis and an identification key to Neoskrjabinolepis spp. are presented. PMID:18427960

  9. A mongoose remain (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments, Myanmar and its significance in evolutionary history of Asian herpestids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egi, Naoko; Thaung-Htike; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Maung-Maung; Nishioka, Yuichiro; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Ogino, Shintaro; Takai, Masanaru

    2011-11-01

    A tooth of a mongoose (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae) was discovered from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments in central Myanmar. The age of the fauna is not older than the mid-Pliocene. It is identified as a right first upper molar of a small species of Urva (formally included in the genus Herpestes) based on its size and shape. The present specimen is the first carnivoran from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments and is the first record of mongooses in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Asia. It confirms that mongooses had already dispersed into Southeast Asia by the late Pliocene, being consistent with the previous molecular phylogenetic analyses. The fossil may belong to one of the extant species, but an assignment to a specific species is difficult due to the fragmentary nature of the specimen and the small interspecific differences in dental shape among the Asian mongooses. The size of the tooth suggests that the Irrawaddy specimen is within or close to the clade of Urva auropunctata + javanica + edwardsii, and this taxonomic assignment agrees with the geographical distribution.

  10. Patterns of mRNA and protein expression during minus-lens compensation and recovery in tree shrew sclera

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong; Frost, Michael R.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To increase our understanding of the mechanisms that remodel the sclera during the development of lens-induced myopia, when the sclera responds to putative “go” signals of retinal origin, and during recovery from lens-induced myopia, when the sclera responds to retinally-derived “stop” signals. Methods Seven groups of tree shrews were used to examine mRNA levels during minus lens compensation and recovery. Starting 24 days after eye opening (days of visual experience [VE]) lens compensation animals wore a monocular –5D lens for 1, 4, or 11 days. Recovery animals wore the –5D lens for 11 days, which was then removed for 1 or 4 days. Normal animals were examined at 24 and 38 days of VE. All groups contained 8 animals. Scleral mRNA levels were examined in the treated and contralateral control eyes with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for 27 genes divided into four categories: 1) signaling molecules, 2) matricellular proteins, 3) metalloproteinases (MPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and 4) cell adhesion and other proteins. Four groups (n=5 per group) were used to examine protein levels. One group wore a –5D lens for 4 days. A second group recovered for 4 days after 11 days of ?5D lens treatment. Two groups were used to examine age-matched normal protein levels at 28 and 39 days of VE. The levels of six scleral proteins that showed differential mRNA expression were examined with quantitative western blots. Results Nineteen of the genes showed differential (treated eye versus control eye) expression of mRNA levels in at least one group of animals. Which genes showed differential expression differed after 1 and 4 days of compensation and after 1 or 4 days of recovery. The mRNA level for one gene, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1), was upregulated in the treated eyes after 1 day of compensation. After 4 days, transforming growth factor beta receptor 3 (TGFBR3), transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI), and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) mRNA levels were upregulated. Downregulated were mRNA levels for transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1), transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGFB2), thrombospondin 1 (THBS1), tenascin (TNC), osteonectin (SPARC), osteopontin (SPP1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3), and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS5). After 11 days of lens wear, there was no differential expression. During recovery, after 1 day, treated-eye mRNA downregulation was found for TGFB2, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFBR3, SPARC, ADAMTS1, ADAMTS5, syndecan 4 (SDC4), and collagen type VI, alpha 1 (COL6A1). After 4 days, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, THBS2, and TIMP3 mRNA levels were upregulated in the recovering eye. Significant downregulation, relative to normal eyes, was found in both the control and treated eyes for most genes after 1 day of compensation; a similar decrease was found, compared to lens-compensated eyes, after one day of recovery. Protein levels for THBS1 showed positive correlation with the differential mRNA levels and TGFBR3 showed a negative correlation. No differential protein expression was found for TGFB2, TGFBI, MMP14, and TIMP3. Conclusions The different patterns of differential mRNA expression during minus lens compensation (hyperopia) and recovery (myopia) show that scleral fibroblasts distinguish between “go” and “stop” conditions. There is evidence of binocular global downregulation of genes at the start of both lens wear and recovery. As additional information accumulates about changes in gene expression that occur during compensation and recovery the “signature” of differential changes may help us to understand in more detail how the sclera responds in “go” and “stop” conditions. PMID:21541268

  11. [The fossil record of the Eurasian Neogene insectivores (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) : Part I \\/ L.W. van den Hoek Ostende, C.S. Doukas and J.W.F. Reumer (editors)]: Bulgaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Rzebik-Kowalska; V. V. Popov

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Research on Bulgarian fossil small mammals had a relatively late start and it was researchers from neighbouring countries who published the first few studies. The first fossil shrew, Crocidura sp., was mentioned by Jakubowski & Kraszewski (1972). It was found in the southeastern part of Bulgaria at Sarafovo, a locality of probably Pliocene age. A decade later, Rzebik-Kowalska (1982)

  12. L-type calcium channels contribute to 5-HT3-receptor-evoked CaMKII? and ERK activation and induction of emesis in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Tarun E; Zhong, Weixia; Chebolu, Seetha; Wilson, Sean M; Darmani, Nissar A

    2015-05-15

    Activation of serotonergic 5-HT3 receptors by its selective agonist 2-methyl serotonin (2-Me-5-HT) induces vomiting, which is sensitive to selective antagonists of both 5-HT3 receptors (palonosetron) and L-type calcium channels (LTCC) (amlodipine or nifedipine). Previously we demonstrated that 5-HT3 receptor activation also causes increases in a palonosetron-sensitive manner in: i) intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, ii) attachment of calmodulin (CaM) to 5-HT3 receptor, and iii) phosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II? (CaMKII?) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Here, we investigate the role of the short-acting LTCC blocker nifedipine on 2-Me-5-HT-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) increase and on downstream intracellular emetic signaling, which have been shown to be coupled with 2-Me-5-HT?s emetic effects in the least shrew. Using the cell-permeant Ca(2+) indicator fluo-4 AM, here we present evidence for the contribution of Ca(2+) influx through LTCCs (sensitive to nifedipine) in 2-Me-5-HT (1µM) -evoked rise in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in least shrew brainstem slices. Nifedipine pretreatment (10mg/kg, s.c.) also suppressed 2-Me-5-HT-evoked interaction of 5-HT3 receptors with CaM as well as phosphorylation of CaMKII? and ERK1/2 in the least shrew brainstem, and 5-HT3 receptors -CaM colocalization in jejunum of the small intestine. In vitro exposure of isolated enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine to 2-Me-5-HT (1µM) caused CaMKII? phosphorylation, which was also abrogated by nifedipine pretreatment (0.1µM). In addition, pretreatment with the CaMKII inhibitor KN62 (10mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed emesis and also the activation of CaMKII?, and ERK in brainstem caused by 2-Me-5-HT (5mg/kg, i.p.). This study provides further mechanistic explanation for our published findings that nifedipine can dose-dependently protect shrews from 2-Me-5-HT-induced vomiting. PMID:25748600

  13. High Levels of Antimicrobial Resistance among Escherichia coli Isolates from Livestock Farms and Synanthropic Rats and Shrews in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nhung, N. T.; Cuong, N. V.; Campbell, J.; Hoa, N. T.; Bryant, J. E.; Truc, V. N. T.; Kiet, B. T.; Jombart, T.; Trung, N. V.; Hien, V. B.; Thwaites, G.; Baker, S.

    2014-01-01

    In Mekong Delta farms (Vietnam), antimicrobials are extensively used, but limited data are available on levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Escherichia coli isolates. We performed a structured survey of AMR in E. coli isolates (n = 434) from 90 pig, chicken, and duck farms. The results were compared with AMR among E. coli isolates (n = 234) from 66 small wild animals (rats and shrews) trapped on farms and in forests and rice fields. The isolates were susceptibility tested against eight antimicrobials. E. coli isolates from farmed animals were resistant to a median of 4 (interquartile range [IQR], 3 to 6) antimicrobials versus 1 (IQR, 1 to 2) among wild mammal isolates (P < 0.001). The prevalences of AMR among farmed species isolates (versus wild animals) were as follows: tetracycline, 84.7% (versus 25.6%); ampicillin, 78.9% (versus 85.9%); trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 52.1% (versus 18.8%); chloramphenicol, 39.9% (versus 22.5%); amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 36.6% (versus 34.5%); and ciprofloxacin, 24.9% (versus 7.3%). The prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) (resistance against three or more antimicrobial classes) among pig isolates was 86.7% compared to 66.9 to 72.7% among poultry isolates. After adjusting for host species, MDR was ?8 times greater among isolates from wild mammals trapped on farms than among those trapped in forests/rice fields (P < 0.001). Isolates were assigned to unique profiles representing their combinations of susceptibility results. Multivariable analysis of variance indicated that AMR profiles from wild mammals trapped on farms and those from domestic animals were more alike (R2 range, 0.14 to 0.30) than E. coli isolates from domestic animals and mammals trapped in the wild (R2 range, 0.25 to 0.45). The results strongly suggest that AMR on farms is a key driver of environmental AMR in the Mekong Delta. PMID:25398864

  14. Biomic Specialization and Speciation Rates in Ruminants (Cetartiodactyla, Mammalia): A Test of the Resource-Use Hypothesis at the Global Scale

    PubMed Central

    Cantalapiedra, Juan L.; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Morales, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The resource-use hypothesis proposed by E.S. Vrba predicts that specialist species have higher speciation and extinction rates than generalists because they are more susceptible to environmental changes and vicariance. In this work, we test some of the predictions derived from this hypothesis on the 197 extant and recently extinct species of Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla, Mammalia) using the biomic specialization index (BSI) of each species, which is based on its distribution within different biomes. We ran 10000 Monte Carlo simulations of our data in order to get a null distribution of BSI values against which to contrast the observed data. Additionally, we drew on a supertree of the ruminants and a phylogenetic likelihood-based method (QuaSSE) for testing whether the degree of biomic specialization affects speciation rates in ruminant lineages. Our results are consistent with the predictions of the resource-use hypothesis, which foretells a higher speciation rate of lineages restricted to a single biome (BSI?=?1) and higher frequency of specialist species in biomes that underwent high degree of contraction and fragmentation during climatic cycles. Bovids and deer present differential specialization across biomes; cervids show higher specialization in biomes with a marked hydric seasonality (tropical deciduous woodlands and schlerophyllous woodlands), while bovids present higher specialization in a greater variety of biomes. This might be the result of divergent physiological constraints as well as a different biogeographic and evolutionary history. PMID:22174888

  15. Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor-Mediated Vomiting Occurs via the Activation of Ca2+/CaMKII-Dependent ERK1/2 Signaling in the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Weixia; Hutchinson, Tarun E.; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2014-01-01

    Stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) by 2-methylserotonin (2-Me-5-HT), a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, can induce vomiting. However, downstream signaling pathways for the induced emesis remain unknown. The 5-HT3R channel has high permeability to extracellular calcium (Ca2+) and upon stimulation allows increased Ca2+ influx. We examined the contribution of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II? (Ca2+/CaMKII?), interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling to 2-Me-5-HT-induced emesis in the least shrew. Using fluo-4 AM dye, we found that 2-Me-5-HT augments intracellular Ca2+ levels in brainstem slices and that the selective 5-HT3R antagonist palonosetron, can abolish the induced Ca2+ signaling. Pre-treatment of shrews with either: i) amlodipine, an antagonist of L-type Ca2+ channels present on the cell membrane; ii) dantrolene, an inhibitor of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) Ca2+-release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); iii) a combination of their less-effective doses; or iv) inhibitors of CaMKII (KN93) and ERK1/2 (PD98059); dose-dependently suppressed emesis caused by 2-Me-5-HT. Administration of 2-Me-5-HT also significantly: i) enhanced the interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin in the brainstem as revealed by immunoprecipitation, as well as their colocalization in the area postrema (brainstem) and small intestine by immunohistochemistry; and ii) activated CaMKII? in brainstem and in isolated enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine as shown by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. These effects were suppressed by palonosetron. 2-Me-5-HT also activated ERK1/2 in brainstem, which was abrogated by palonosetron, KN93, PD98059, amlodipine, dantrolene, or a combination of amlodipine plus dantrolene. However, blockade of ER inositol-1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptors by 2-APB, had no significant effect on the discussed behavioral and biochemical parameters. This study demonstrates that Ca2+ mobilization via extracellular Ca2+ influx through 5-HT3Rs/L-type Ca2+ channels, and intracellular Ca2+ release via RyRs on ER, initiate Ca2+-dependent sequential activation of CaMKII? and ERK1/2, which contribute to the 5-HT3R-mediated, 2-Me-5-HT-evoked emesis. PMID:25121483

  16. Lipotyphla limb myology comparison.

    PubMed

    Neveu, Pauline; Gasc, Jean-Pierre

    2002-05-01

    Fore- and hindlimb muscles were dissected in four species of Lipotyphla: the western European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus (Erinaceidae, Erinaceinae); the moonrat Echinosorex gymnura (Erinaceidae, Hylomyinae or Galericinae); the tailless tenrec Tenrec ecaudatus (Tenrecidae, Tenrecinae); and the common European white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula (Soricidae, Soricinae). This work completely reviews the limb musculature of these walking mammals. Twelve myological characters were evaluated in order to disclose phylogenetic relationships. The cladogram obtained supported previous ones based on cranial and dental characters. This study shows that myological characters are valuable in phylogenetic analyses. PMID:11921044

  17. The phylogenetic position of the Talpidae within eutheria based on analysis of complete mitochondrial sequences.

    PubMed

    Mouchaty, S K; Gullberg, A; Janke, A; Arnason, U

    2000-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the mole Talpa europaea was sequenced and included in phylogenetic analyses together with another lipotyphlan (insectivore) species, the hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus, and 22 other eutherian species plus three outgroup taxa (two marsupials and a monotreme). The phylogenetic analyses reconstructed a sister group relationship between the mole and fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis (order Chiroptera). The Talpa/Artibeus clade constitutes a sister clade of the cetferungulates, a clade including Cetacea, Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, and Carnivora. A monophyletic relationship between the hedgehog and the mole was significantly rejected by maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood. Consistent with current systematic schemes, analyses of complete cytochrome b genes including the shrew Sorex araneus (family Soricidae) revealed a close relationship between Talpidae and Soricidae. The analyses of complete mtDNAs, along with the findings of other insectivore studies, challenge the maintenance of the order Lipotyphla as a taxonomic unit and support the elevation of the Soricomorpha (with the families Talpidae and Soricidae and possibly also the Solenodontidae and Tenrecidae) to the level of an order, as previously proposed in some morphological studies. PMID:10666706

  18. Evolutionary Insights from a Genetically Divergent Hantavirus Harbored by the European Common Mole (Talpa europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N.; Sumibcay, Laarni; Arai, Satoru; Hope, Andrew G.; Mocz, Gabor; Song, Jin-Won; Cook, Joseph A.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background The discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in shrews (Order Soricomorpha, Family Soricidae) from widely separated geographic regions challenges the hypothesis that rodents (Order Rodentia, Family Muridae and Cricetidae) are the primordial reservoir hosts of hantaviruses and also predicts that other soricomorphs harbor hantaviruses. Recently, novel hantavirus genomes have been detected in moles of the Family Talpidae, including the Japanese shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides) and American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii). We present new insights into the evolutionary history of hantaviruses gained from a highly divergent hantavirus, designated Nova virus (NVAV), identified in the European common mole (Talpa europaea) captured in Hungary. Methodology/Principal Findings Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the full-length S- and L-genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity of 54–65% and 46–63% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, between NVAV and representative rodent- and soricid-borne hantaviruses. Despite the high degree of sequence divergence, the predicted secondary structure of the NVAV nucleocapsid protein exhibited the characteristic coiled-coil domains at the amino-terminal end, and the L-segment motifs, typically found in hantaviruses, were well conserved. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV formed a distinct clade that was evolutionarily distant from all other hantaviruses. Conclusions Newly identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles support long-standing virus-host relationships and suggest that ancestral soricomorphs, rather than rodents, may have been the early or original mammalian hosts. PMID:19582155

  19. Reproduction in the arctic shrew, Sorex arcticus

    E-print Network

    Baird, Donna Day; Timm, Robert M.; Nordquist, Gerda E.

    1983-05-01

    outwash sand. Trapping was conducted from 1973 to 1977, in a wet, grass-sedge meadow. The vegetation was dominated by reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea). Patches of reed grass (Calamagrostis canadensis) and sedges (Carex spp.) grew...

  20. Molecular evidence for multiple origins of Insectivora and for a new order of endemic African insectivore mammals

    PubMed Central

    Stanhope, Michael J.; Waddell, Victor G.; Madsen, Ole; de Jong, Wilfried; Hedges, S. Blair; Cleven, Gregory C.; Kao, Diana; Springer, Mark S.

    1998-01-01

    The traditional views regarding the mammalian order Insectivora are that the group descended from a single common ancestor and that it is comprised of the following families: Soricidae (shrews), Tenrecidae (tenrecs), Solenodontidae (solenodons), Talpidae (moles), Erinaceidae (hedgehogs and gymnures), and Chrysochloridae (golden moles). Here we present a molecular analysis that includes representatives of all six families of insectivores, as well as 37 other taxa representing marsupials, monotremes, and all but two orders of placental mammals. These data come from complete sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, tRNA-Valine, and 16S rRNA genes (2.6 kb). A wide range of different methods of phylogenetic analysis groups the tenrecs and golden moles (both endemic to Africa) in an all-African superordinal clade comprised of elephants, sirenians, hyracoids, aardvark, and elephant shrews, to the exclusion of the other four remaining families of insectivores. Statistical analyses reject the idea of a monophyletic Insectivora as well as traditional concepts of the insectivore suborder Soricomorpha. These findings are supported by sequence analyses of several nuclear genes presented here: vWF, A2AB, and ?-? hemoglobin. These results require that the order Insectivora be partitioned and that the two African families (golden moles and tenrecs) be placed in a new order. The African superordinal clade now includes six orders of placental mammals. PMID:9707584

  1. Arthritis in a glyptodont (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Fernando Henrique de Souza; Porpino, Kleberson de Oliveira; Fragoso, Ana Bernadete Lima; Oliveira, Edison Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Arthritic lesions have been frequently diagnosed in the fossil record, with spondyloarthropathy (a type of erosive and pan-mammalian arthritis) being one of the most common types described to date for mammals, though not restricted to this group. Here, we identify spondyloarthropathy in fossil bones from the late Pleistocene in Brazil assignable to a large glyptodont individual. Bone erosions in the peripheral joints (viz., the ulna, radius, left femur and tibiae-fibulae) associated with osteosclerosis allow the diagnosis of spondyloarthropathy. The presence of osteophytes in seven bones of the forelimbs (viz., the ulna and radius) and hind limbs (viz., the tibiae-fibulae, left femur and patellae) and a subchondral cyst in one element (viz., the left femur) indicate secondary osteoarthritis. A calcified deposition on the articular surface of the left patella indicates the presence of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, which, like the observed osteoarthritic alterations, likely represents a complication of spondyloarthropathy. This is the first report of spondyloarthropathy for xenarthrans. PMID:24551126

  2. EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS IN MACROTUS (MAMMALIA: CHIROPTERA) : BIOCHEMICAL

    E-print Network

    Baker, Robert J.

    - vespertilionid bats, Pipistrellus hsperus edge of changing patterns of genotype and Myotis californicus were of the New World populations of Myotis velifer (a vesper- leaf-nosed bats of the genus Macrotus by tilionid estimates of of Macrotus californicus (a phyllostomatid genic heterozygosity in vertebrate popula- #12

  3. Ecological correlates to cranial morphology in Leporids (Mammalia, Lagomorpha).

    PubMed

    Kraatz, Brian P; Sherratt, Emma; Bumacod, Nicholas; Wedel, Mathew J

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian order Lagomorpha has been the subject of many morphometric studies aimed at understanding the relationship between form and function as it relates to locomotion, primarily in postcranial morphology. The leporid cranial skeleton, however, may also reveal information about their ecology, particularly locomotion and vision. Here we investigate the relationship between cranial shape and the degree of facial tilt with locomotion (cursoriality, saltation, and burrowing) within crown leporids. Our results suggest that facial tilt is more pronounced in cursors and saltators compared to generalists, and that increasing facial tilt may be driven by a need for expanded visual fields. Our phylogenetically informed analyses indicate that burrowing behavior, facial tilt, and locomotor behavior do not predict cranial shape. However, we find that variables such as bullae size, size of the splenius capitus fossa, and overall rostral dimensions are important components for understanding the cranial variation in leporids. PMID:25802812

  4. Über die Feinstruktur der Arachnoidea und Dura mater von Mammalia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Hermann Andres

    1967-01-01

    Meninges of young and adult dogs and cats were fixed with glutaraldehyde in situ by perfusion technic. Only in this way the fine structure of arachnoidea and dura mater will be fixed without any artifact. The subarachnoid space is lined by a flat mesothelium which shows rarely little pores of 0.25 to 1 nm in diameter. The cells of this

  5. Molecular evolution of Holarctic martens (genus Martes, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Stone, Karen D; Cook, Joseph A

    2002-08-01

    The Bering Land Bridge has served as a major corridor of interchange between the northern continents for many organisms. We investigated the phylogeny of all extant species of Martes (except for Martes gwatkinsi from India) to infer evolutionary relationships and characterize the extent of trans-Beringian movements. Analyses of complete sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and partial sequences of the nuclear aldolase C gene (241bp) suggested that the genus Martes may be paraphyletic with respect to Gulo gulo. These data supported the fossil record's indication that early radiations gave rise to two subgenera (Pekania and Charronia) and that a more recent, possibly rapid, radiation gave rise to species of the third subgenus (Martes). Two colonizations of North America are evident, one by members of the subgenus Pekania and another by member of the subgenus Martes. Contrary to hypotheses based on morphological evidence, the "americana" and "caurina" subspecies groups of Martes americana are not the result of independent colonizations of North America. The phylogenetic analyses of cytochrome b data were consistent with the recognition of these subspecies groups as monophyletic clades; however, variation in the aldolase C sequences indicated that these generally parapatric groups may interbreed in a region of limited geographic overlap. PMID:12144754

  6. A Reexamination of the Carnivora Malleus (Mammalia, Placentalia)

    PubMed Central

    Wible, John R.; Spaulding, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Authoritative anatomical references depict domestic dogs and cats as having a malleus with a short rostral (anterior) process that is connected via a ligament to the ectotympanic of the auditory bulla. Similar mallei have been reported for representatives of each of the 15 extant families of Carnivora, the placental order containing dogs and cats. This morphology is in contrast to a malleus with a long rostral process anchored to the ectotympanic that is considered to be primitive for mammals. Our reexamination of extant carnivorans found representatives from 12 families that possess an elongate rostral process anchored to the ectotympanic. Consequently, the malleus also is a component of the bulla. In a subset of our carnivoran sample, we confirmed that the elongate rostral process on the ectotympanic is continuous with the rest of the malleus through a thin osseous lamina. This morphology is reconstructed as primitive for Carnivora. Prior inaccurate descriptions of the taxa in our sample having mallei continuous with the bulla were based on damaged mallei. In addition to coupling to the ectotympanic, the rostral process of the malleus was found to have a hook-like process that fits in a facet on the skull base in representatives from seven families (felids, nandiniids, viverrids, canids, ursids, procyonids, and mustelids); its occurrence in the remaining families could not be ascertained. This feature is named herein the mallear hook and is likewise reconstructed to be primitive for Carnivora. We also investigated mallei in one additional placental order reported to have mallei not connected to the ectotympanic, Pholidota (pangolins), the extant sister group of Carnivora. We found pholidotans to also have anchored mallei with long rostral processes, but lacking mallear hooks. In light of our results, other mammals previously reported to have short rostral processes should be reexamined. PMID:23209753

  7. Postcanine Dental Form in the Mustelidae and Viverridae (Carnivora: Mammalia)

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Ron

    morphology of mustelid and viverrid postcanine dentitions corresponds with differences in diet. For each. Principal components analysis distinguishes species according to morphological differences in the dentition are more likely to be corre- spondingly specialized in the dentition and species with varied food sources

  8. A phylogenetic estimate for golden moles (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Chrysochloridae)

    E-print Network

    Asher, Robert J; Maree, Sarita; Bronner, Gary; Bennett, Nigel C; Bloomer, Paulette; Czechowski, Paul; Meyer, Matthias; Hofreiter, Michael

    2010-03-09

    _post_edge_posterior_antorbit, 62 antlat_process_pmax / 0_abs 1_pres, 63 size_upper_dentition_AH66 / '0_anterior-most_enlarged' 1_similar, 64 premax_dentition_AH67 / 0_zero 1_one 2_two 3_three 4_five, 65 inter_I1_gap_AH126 / 0_narrow 1_wide, 66 upper... _AH80 / '0_lingual-adjacent_paracone' 1_buccal, 83 M3_shape / 0_as_M2 1_half_M2, 84 lower_ant_dentition_AH81 / 0_larger_adjacent_teeth 1_similar_adjacent_teeth 2_smaller_adjacent_teeth, 85 lower_antemolars_AH82 / 0_eight 1_seven 2_six 3_five 4_three, 86...

  9. Generic names of northern and southern fur seals (Mammalia: Otariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    We have resolved a nomenclatural problem discovered during research on the northern fur seal that concerns the correct generic name for this taxon and for fur seals of the Southern Hemisphere. The unfortunate practice by some 19th century authors to use names in their Latinized form, but to date them from their first appearance as French common names led to the use of Arctocephalus for southern fur seals when the name correctly applies to the northern fur seal, known today as Callorhinus ursinus. However, Arctocephalus and Callorhinus are antedated by Otoes G. Fischer, 1817, which is the earliest available generic for the fur seal of the northern Pacific. The earliest available generic name for southern fur seals is Halarctus Gill, 1866. To avoid the confusion that would result from replacing the currently used generic names with those required by strict adherence to the Principle of Priority, we have petitioned the International Commission on Zoological nomenclature to preserve Arctocephalus and Callorhinus for the southern and northern fur seals, respectively.

  10. Vertebral anomaly in fossil sea cows (Mammalia, Sirenia).

    PubMed

    Voss, Manja; Asbach, Patrick; Hilger, André

    2011-06-01

    Four incompletely preserved caudal vertebrae lacking the neural arches of two fossil sirenian individuals of Halitherium schinzii (Oligocene) from the Rhine area in Germany and northern Belgium reveal osteological alterations. The caudal vertebrae possess a transverse process with growth retardation. This asymmetry indicates that the affected transverse processes are less developed than their counterparts and, consequently, deviate from the norm. Computed tomography (CT) scans reveal osteosclerotic patterns, a morphological feature that characterizes sea cows and supports the nonpathological state of the vertebrae. Additionally, no indications of vertebral fractures or any other occurrences due to external factors are present. This is the oldest documentation of such an anomaly in any sirenian and is interpreted here as hypoplasia, the underdevelopment of an organ or parts of it that might cause a functional deficiency. PMID:21538937

  11. Comparative osteology of early Tertiary tapiromorphs (Mammalia, Perissodactyla)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUKE T HOLBROOK

    2001-01-01

    Characters of cranial and postcranial osteology provide important data for examining the interordinal relationships of mammals. Understanding variation in the cranial and postcranial skeleton is necessary for adequately representing ancestral character states for each mammalian order. This paper provides a comprehensive description and discussion of cranial and postcranial osteology in one of the major perissodactyl lineages, the Tapiromorpha, the lineage

  12. Evolutionary Morphology of the Tenrecoidea (Mammalia) Hindlimb Skeleton

    E-print Network

    Sargis, Eric J.

    of traits appear to be phylogenetically constrained, particularly at the upper ankle joint (Salton of function-based form in other mammals corre- spond with tenrecoid skeletal features? 2. Are there posture- netic relationships within Tenrecoidea (e.g., the relationship of Geogale and Limnogale to other taxa

  13. The Proboscidea (Mammalia) from the Miocene of Sandelzhausen (southern Germany)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula B. Göhlich

    2010-01-01

    Presented here is the complete proboscidean assemblage from the vertebrate locality of Sandelzhausen (southern Germany), dated\\u000a to the Early\\/Middle Miocene boundary, early middle MN5. The material is preserved as mostly isolated and disarticulated remains\\u000a and is composed of about 200 dental remains (cheek teeth and tusks), cranial fragments, and postcrania. The main part of this\\u000a assemblage is identified as belonging

  14. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. Anat Rec, 298:1327-1335, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25869730

  15. Evolution of chromosomal variation in cottontails, genus Sylvilagus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Robinson; F. F. B. Elder; J. A. Chapman

    1984-01-01

    Chromosomes from cultured fibroblasts of four cottontail species (Sylvilagus audubonii, 2n = 42; S. idahoensis, 2n = 44; S. nuttallii, 2n = 42; and S. palustris, 2n = 38) were analyzed using G- and C-banding techniques. The evolutionary restructuring of the genomes of these species was traced by comparing their banded chromosomes to those of Lepus saxatilis, a species of

  16. Molecular evolution of Holarctic martens (genus Martes, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen D. Stone; Joseph A. Cook

    2002-01-01

    The Bering Land Bridge has served as a major corridor of interchange between the northern continents for many organisms. We investigated the phylogeny of all extant species of Martes (except for Martes gwatkinsi from India) to infer evolutionary relationships and characterize the extent of trans-Beringian movements. Analyses of complete sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and partial sequences of

  17. The Musk Shrew (Suncus murinus): A Model Species for Studies of Nutritional Regulation of Reproduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Temple

    2004-01-01

    Reproduction is the most energetically costly process that most female mammals ever undergo. When nutritional re- sources are scarce, and there is a high probability that fe- males will be unable to cope with this energetic challenge, reproductive processes are inhibited. This process is highly conserved and likely adaptive and reversible when nutri- tional resources become available. Although the nutritional

  18. Evolutionary biogeography of water shrews (Neomys spp.) in the western Palaearctic Region

    E-print Network

    Davison, Angus

    not differ significantly in relative braincase size. The three Neomys species clearly differed in glans penis body size, fringes of stiff hairs bordering the hind foot, and a tail keel) were most developed in N

  19. Rhombomere-specific patterns of apoptosis in the tree shrew Tupaia belangeri.

    PubMed

    Knabe, Wolfgang; Washausen, Stefan; Brunnett, Guido; Kuhn, Hans-Jürg

    2004-04-01

    Whether rhombomere-specific patterns of apoptosis exist in the developing hindbrain of vertebrates is under debate. We have investigated the sequence of apoptotic events in three-dimensionally reconstructed hindbrains of Tupaia belangeri (8- to 19-somite embryos). Apoptotic cells were identified by structural criteria and by applying an in situ tailing technique to visualize DNA fragmentation. Seven rhombomeres originated from three pro-rhombomeres. Among pre-migratory neural crest cells in the dorsal thirds of the neural folds, the earliest apoptotic concentrations appeared in the developing third rhombomere (r3). Dorsal apoptotic maxima then persisted in r3, extended from r3 to r2, and also arose in r5. Transverse apoptotic bands increased the total amount of apoptotic cells in odd-numbered rhombomeres first in r3 and, with a delay, also in r5. This sequence of apoptotic events was paralleled by an approximate rostrocaudal sequence of neural crest cell delamination from the even-numbered rhombomeres. Thus, large-scale apoptosis in r3 and r5 helped to establish crest-free zones that segregated streams of migrating neural crest cells adjacent to r2, r4, and r6. The sequence of apoptotic events observed in the dorsal thirds of rhombomeres matches that reported for the chick embryo. Other shared features are apoptotic peaks in the position of a circumscribed ventricular protrusion of fusing parts of the neural folds in r1 and r2, and Y-shaped apoptotic patterns composed of apoptotic maxima in the dorsal and lateral thirds of r1, r2, and r3. These rhombomere-specific patterns of apoptosis may therefore represent a conserved character, at least in amniotes. PMID:14986099

  20. The Taming of the Shrew: Why Is It so Difficult to Control Turbulence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Gad-el-Hak

    In the present chapter I shall emphasize the frontiers of the field of flow control, pondering mostly the control of turbulent\\u000a flows. I shall review the important advances in the field that took place during the past few years and are anticipated to\\u000a dominate progress in the future. By comparison with laminar flow control or separation prevention, the control of

  1. Modulation of emesis by fentanyl and opioid receptor antagonists in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew).

    PubMed

    Rudd, J A; Cheng, C H; Naylor, R J; Ngan, M P; Wai, M K

    1999-06-11

    The anti-emetic mechanism of action of fentanyl to inhibit nicotine (5 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced emesis was investigated in Suncus murinus. The anti-emetic action of fentanyl (40 microg/kg, s.c.) was antagonised by the opioid receptor antagonists naltrexone (1 mg/kg, s.c.), naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c.), M8008 (16S-methylcyprenorphine; 1 mg/kg, s.c.) and MR 2266 (5,9-diethyl-2-(3-furylmethyl)2'-hydroxy-7,7-benzomorphan; 1 mg/kg) but not by naloxone methylbromide (1 mg/kg, s.c.), naloxone methyliodide (1 mg/kg, s.c.), naltrindole (1 mg/kg, s.c.), DIPPA (2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-[1S)-1-(3-isothiocyanatophenyl)-2-(1- pyrrolidinyl)-ethyl]acetamide; 3 mg/kg, i.p.) or naloxonazine (35 mg/kg, i.p.). This indicates an involvement of mu2-opioid receptors within the brain to mediate the anti-emetic effect of fentanyl. In other studies, naloxone 10-60 mg/kg, s.c. induced dose-related emesis but naltrexone was only emetic at 60 mg/kg, s.c. and naloxone methylbromide failed to induce emesis at doses up to 60 mg/kg, s.c. The emesis induced by a high dose of naloxone 60 mg/kg, s.c. was antagonized by CP-99,994 ((+)-(2S,3S)-3-(2-methoxybenzylamino)-2-phenylpiperidine; 3-30 mg/kg, i.p.), 8-OH-DPAT, ((+/-)-8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin; 0.003-0.3 mg/kg, s.c.), buspirone (3 mg/kg, s.c.) and fluphenazine (1-3 mg/kg, i.p.) but not by naltrexone (1-30 mg/kg, s.c.), metoclopramide (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.p.), sulpiride (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.p.), domperidone (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.p.), ondansetron (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.p.), granisetron (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.p.), scopolamine (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.p.) or promethazine (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.p.). The data is discussed in relation to opioid receptor mechanisms moderating emesis and the identification of potential sites of drug action available to inhibit the emetic reflex. PMID:10422643

  2. Modulation of emesis by fentanyl and opioid receptor antagonists in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A Rudd; Celine H. K Cheng; Robert J Naylor; Man P Ngan; Man K Wai

    1999-01-01

    The anti-emetic mechanism of action of fentanyl to inhibit nicotine (5 mg\\/kg, s.c.)-induced emesis was investigated in Suncus murinus. The anti-emetic action of fentanyl (40 ?g\\/kg, s.c.) was antagonised by the opioid receptor antagonists naltrexone (1 mg\\/kg, s.c.), naloxone (1 mg\\/kg, s.c.), M8008 (16S-methylcyprenorphine; 1 mg\\/kg, s.c.) and MR 2266 (5,9-diethyl-2-(3-furylmethyl)2?-hydroxy-7,7-benzomorphan; 1 mg\\/kg) but not by naloxone methylbromide (1 mg\\/kg,

  3. TOXICITY EVALUATION OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE (TNB) IN SHREWS (CRYPTOTIS PARVA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TNB has been detected as an environmental contaminant of soil and water at certain Army installations and production waste disposal sites. At present there are no toxicity data on TNB in small wild mammals that might be used for ecological risk assessment. Therefore, a 14-day to...

  4. DESCRIPTION AND MOLECULAR DIFFERENTIATION OF A NEW STAPHYLOCYSTOIDES (CYCLOPHYLLIDEA: HYMENOLEPIDIDAE) FROM THE DUSKY SHREW SOREX

    E-print Network

    to Staphylocystoides parvissima and Staphylocystoides asketus. The uterus in S. gulyaevi n. sp. develops much more rapidly, and a well-developed uterus appears abruptly after it is barely visible in a previous proglottid. In S. parvissima the uterus grows gradually, and its early development is seen in several proglottids

  5. V A T shrew in Montana dreams big, falls short, as it

    E-print Network

    Badyaev, Alex

    jaws. UNITED AGAINST THEIR COMMa a Harris's antelope squirrel (middle) and a rock squirrel mob awestern Badyaev. For a study of predator-prey interactions, he photographed not only squirrel mobbing behavior

  6. Unusual distribution pattern of telomeric repeats in the shrews Sorex araneus and Sorex granarius.

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, Natalia S; Karamisheva, Tatjana V; Minina, Julia; Astakhova, Natalia M; Lansdorp, Peter; Kammori, Makoto; Rubtsov, Nikolai B; Searle, Jeremy B

    2005-01-01

    Sorex araneus and Sorex granarius are sibling species within the Sorex araneus group with karyotypes composed of almost identical chromosome arms. S. granarius has a largely acrocentric karyotype, while, in S. araneus, various of these acrocentrics have combined together by Robertsonian (Rb) fusions to form metacentrics, with the numbers and types of metacentrics differing between chromosomal races. Our studies on telomeric sequences in S. araneus and S. granarius revealed differences between chromosomes and between species. In S. araneus (the Novosibirsk race), hybridization signals were present on the telomeres of all the chromosomes after FISH with a PCR-generated telomeric probe. In addition, hybridization signals were observed at high frequencies in the pericentric regions of some but not all metacentrics formed by Rb fusion. There were fewer signals on those metacentrics formed earlier in the evolution of S. araneus. This suggests that S. araneus chromosomes retain at least some telomeric repeats during Rb fusion, but that these repeats are lost or modified over time. These results are critical for the interpretation of the well-studied hybrid zones between chromosomal races of S. araneus, given that Rb fission has been postulated in such hybrid zones and that the likelihood of Rb fission will relate to presence/absence of telomeric sequences at the centromeres of metacentrics. In S. granarius, there were strong signals at the proximal (centromeric) telomeres of the acrocentrics after FISH with a DNA telomeric probe. FISH with a PNA telomeric probe on S. granarius acrocentrics showed that the proximal telomeres were 213 kb on average, while the length of the distal telomeres was 3.8 kb on average. Two-colour FISH, using a telomeric DNA probe and a microdissected probe generated from the pericentric regions of the S. granarius chromosomes a and b, revealed regions on distinct chromatin fibres where telomeric and microdissected probes were colocalized or localized sequentially. The proximal telomeres of S. granarius are highly unusual both in their large size and their heterogeneous structure relative to the telomeres of other mammals. PMID:16170626

  7. An evaluation of the impacts of aging on skeletal muscle performance in several mammalian divers

    E-print Network

    Hindle, Allyson Gayle

    2009-05-15

    for divers. This study examines three aspects of aging in representative diving mammals. First, gracilis muscle morphology was analyzed for old/young shrews (water shrew, Sorex palustris (diver); short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda (non...

  8. DOI 10.1515/mammalia-2011-0138Mammalia 2013; 77(1): 2130 Arielle Waldstein Parsons*, Theodore R. Simons, Allan F. O'Connell Jr. and

    E-print Network

    Simons, Theodore R.

    of an isolated, unmanaged raccoon Procyon lotor (Procyonidae, Carnivora) population on the Outer Banks of North Carolina Abstract: Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are highly adapt- able meso-carnivores that inhabit many-carnivore; Procyon lotor; raccoon. *Corresponding author: Arielle Waldstein Parsons, US Geological Survey, North

  9. Trees of the "Madsen" data set Morphological topology

    E-print Network

    Pupko, Tal

    Rat Capybara Rabbit Elephant Shrew Hedgehog Mole Sloth Opossum Kangaroo #12;Mitochondrial topology Aardvark Elephant Shrew Sloth Tree Shrew Rabbit Human Galago Flying Lemur Capybara Rat Opossum Kangaroo Sloth Hyrax Dugong Elephant Aardvark Elephant Shrew Opossum Kangaroo #12;Nuclear topology based

  10. Effects of different land cover, habitat fragmentation, and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Eggs or empty shells of the American woodcockwere collected from 10 states in 1971and shell thickness (mean of clutch means) was compared with that of eggs collected from 16 states during the years 1859-1939. The 1971 shells (n = 91) from hatched eggs or those containing fully developed embryos were about i0 percent thinner (P<0.001) than both unembryonated shells (n = 26) from the same year and the 1859-1939 shells (n = 169) from essentially unembryonated eggs. The difference is attributed to the transfer of calcium from the shells to the embryos and not to environmental pollutants.

  11. Vocal development during postnatal growth and ear morphology in a shrew that generates seismic vibrations, Diplomesodon pulchellum

    E-print Network

    Zaytseva, Alexandra S.; Volodin, Ilya A.; Mason, Matthew J.; Frey, Roland; Fritsch, Guido; Ilchenko, Olga G.; Volodina, Elena V.

    2015-06-04

    between pulse rate of loud trilled calls and the performance of trunk muscles 403 (external obliques) was demonstrated using high -speed video and electromyography (EMG) in 404 vivo in two related species of North American gray tree frogs (Girgenrath... -producing components of the vocal 445 apparatus (Morton 1977; Fitch and Hauser 2002; Matrosova et al. 2007). A descending f0 during 446 postnatal development was found in primates (Inoue 1988; Hammerschmidt et al. 2000, 2001; 447 Pistorio et al. 2006; Ey et al...

  12. Selective Regulation of MMP and TIMP mRNA Levels in Tree Shrew Sclera during Minus Lens Compensation and Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Siegwart; Thomas T. Norton

    2005-01-01

    front of the eye produces increased axial elongation and a myopic shift in refractive state that compensates for the power of the lens. Scleral tissue remodeling and modulation of the mechanical properties of the sclera occur during lens compen- sation. In this study, the time course of changes in scleral mRNA levels of three MMPs and three TIMPs during compen-

  13. Mitochondrial DNA variation in water shrews ( Sorex palustris , Sorex bendirii ) from western North America: implications for taxonomy and phylogeography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. O'Neill; D. W. Nagorsen; R. J. Baker

    2005-01-01

    Inter- and intra-specific variations in cytochrome b (Cytb) sequence were assessed in 22 specimens of Sorex palustris Richardson, 1828 and 6 specimens of Sorex bendirii (Merriam, 1884) from 20 locations in western North America. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinct clades: Boreal (S. p. palustris), Cordilleran (S. p. brooksi, S. p. navigator), and Coastal (S. b. palmeri, S. b. bendirii). Sequence

  14. Postcranial anatomy of Viverravus (Mammalia, Carnivora) and implications for substrate use in basal Carnivora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald E. Heinrich; Peter Houde

    2006-01-01

    A postcranial skeleton of the viverravid carnivoran, Viverravus acutus from the early Eocene of Wyoming, is described and compared to contemporary carnivorans (the viverravid Didymictis, and the miacids Miacis and Vulpavus), and to extant taxa belonging to the families Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Canidae, Viverridae, and Herpestidae. Based on humeral and femoral midshaft diameters, body mass for this animal is estimated to

  15. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  16. Bovidae (Mammalia) du Pliocène final d’Ahl al Oughlam, Casablanca, Maroc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Geraads; Fethi Amani

    1998-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract  Only seven bovid species are present at Ahl al Oughlam: aTragelaphus (rare), a Bovine close toPelorovis ? praeafricanus but mostly known by teeth, a new species of kob (perhaps of an endemic lineage), aParmularius slightly more primitive than at Olduvai,Beatragus (mentioned for the first time in North Africa),Gazella thomasi, and a new species of gazelle noticeable by its nasal region.

  17. Phosphatherium escuillieidu Thanétien du Bassin des Ouled Abdoun (Maroc), plus ancien proboscidien (Mammalia) d'Afrique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Gheerbrant; Jean Sudre; Henri Cappetta; Gérard Bignot

    1998-01-01

    We detail here the study of Phosphatherium escuilliei from the Paleocene of the Ouled Abdoun Basin, 040 Morocco. This fossil is both the oldest proboscidean and the oldest modern ungulate. The species, known by two specimens, is dated as Thanetian on the basis of the foraminifera and the selachians identified in the matrix. P. escuilliei shows several derived proboscidean features,

  18. Rongeurs et insectivores (Mammalia)du Pliocene final de Ahl Al Oughlam (Casablanca, Maroc)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Geraads

    1995-01-01

    Late Pliocene Rodents from Ahl al Oughlam (Morocco) are known by several thousands of teeth, but include only 6 species. Hystrix and the Ctenodactylid Irhoudia are very rare; the Murids Paraethomys, Praomys and Mus are slightly more primitive than at Irhoud Ocre. A new species of Gerbillus is similar to G. campestris, despite its early age. Insectivora belong chiefly to

  19. Rodents and lagomorphs (Mammalia) from the Hemphillian (late Miocene) of Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korth, W.W.; De Blieux, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    Four species of rodents (two heteromyids and two cricetids) and one lagomorph are identified from the late Tertiary Sevier River Formation of Utah. The heteromyids include a new genus and species of heteromyine, Metaliomys sevierensis, which is intermediate in morphology between the Clarendonian and early Hemphillian Diprionomys Kellogg and the extant genera Liomys and Heteromys. A single specimen is referred to Diprionomys sp., cf. D. minimus (Kellogg). The cricetid Paronychomys lemredfieldi Jacobs is known from the Hemphillian of Arizona. The second cricetid is referred to a new genus Basirepomys. Peromyscus pliocenicus Wilson from the Hemphillian of California is designated as the type species of the new genus, to which the new species B. robertsi from Utah is referred. Basirepomys is viewed as intermediate between Peromyscus and the basal neotomyine Repomys May from the late Hemphillian and Blancan. The only lagomorph in the fauna is Hypolagus vetus (Kellogg). Four of the taxa recognized from the Sevier River Formation (Diprionomys, Paronychomys lemredfieldi, Basirepomys, and Hypolagus vetus) are elsewhere known from the Hemphillian of North America. However, it is not possible at this time to determine whether the fauna is early or late Hemphillian. ?? 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

  20. Predicting the potential distribution of Vexillata (Nematoda: Ornithostrongylidae) and its hosts (Mammalia: Rodentia) within America.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salazar, E A; Escalante, T; Linaje, M; Falcón-Ordaz, J

    2013-12-01

    Species distribution modelling has been a powerful tool to explore the potential distribution of parasites in wildlife, being the basis of studies on biogeography. Vexillata spp. are intestinal nematodes found in several species of mammalian hosts, such as rodents (Geomyoidea) and hares (Leporidae) in the Nearctic and northern Neotropical regions. In the present study, we modelled the potential distribution of Vexillata spp. and their hosts, using exclusively species from the Geomyidae and Heteromyidae families, in order to identify their distributional patterns. Bioclimatic and topographic variables were used to identify and predict suitable habitats for Vexillata and its hosts. Using these models, we identified that temperature seasonality is a significant environmental factor that influences the distribution of the parasite genus and its host. In particular, the geographical distribution is estimated to be larger than that predicted for its hosts. This suggests that the nematode has the potential to extend its geographical range and also its spectrum of host species. Increasing sample size and geographical coverage will contribute to recommendations for conservation of this host-parasite system. PMID:23046734

  1. Pliocene Carnivora (Mammalia) from the Hadar Formation at Dikika, Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraads, Denis; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Bobe, René; Reed, Denné

    2015-07-01

    We report here on further study of the Carnivora collected by the Dikika Research Project at Dikika, in the Hadar Formation south of the type locality since 2000. The Canidae and the otter Enhydriodon have been described elsewhere, so we focus here on the other Mustelidae and on the Felidae and Hyaenidae. All Hyaenidae are referred to Crocuta, but differences in size and tooth proportions suggest two species that might belong to distinct lineages. An associated set of upper and lower teeth is made the type of a new species of Lutra that must be close to the divergence of Lutra palaeindica, Lutra lutra, and Hydrictis maculicollis. Sample size is still small, but the Dikika assemblage differs from others of similar age in the abundance of hyenas relative to felids.

  2. Morphometric study of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in procyonid (mammalia: carnivora) endocasts.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Heather E

    2014-12-01

    Endocasts provide a proxy for brain morphology but are rarely incorporated in phylogenetic analyses despite the potential for new suites of characters. The phylogeny of Procyonidae, a carnivoran family with relatively limited taxonomic diversity, is not well resolved because morphological and molecular data yield conflicting topologies. The presence of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in the endocasts of procyonids will be determined using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Endocasts of seven ingroup species and four outgroup species were digitally rendered and 21 landmarks were collected from the endocast surface. Two phylogenetic hypotheses of Procyonidae will be examined using methods testing for phylogenetic signal in morphometric data. In analyses of all taxa, there is significant phylogenetic signal in brain shape for both the morphological and molecular topologies. However, the analyses of ingroup taxa recover a significant phylogenetic signal for the morphological topology only. These results indicate support for the molecular outgroup topology, but not the ingroup topology given the brain shape data. Further examination of brain shape using principal components analysis and wireframe comparisons suggests procyonids possess more developed areas of the brain associated with motor control, spatial perception, and balance relative to the basal musteloid condition. Within Procyonidae, similar patterns of variation are present, and may be associated with increased arboreality in certain taxa. Thus, brain shape derived from endocasts may be used to test for phylogenetic signal and preliminary analyses suggest an association with behavior and ecology. PMID:25066912

  3. Phylogeny and divergence of the pinnipeds (Carnivora: Mammalia) assessed using a multigene dataset

    PubMed Central

    Higdon, Jeff W; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf RP; Beck, Robin MD; Ferguson, Steven H

    2007-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic comparative methods are often improved by complete phylogenies with meaningful branch lengths (e.g., divergence dates). This study presents a dated molecular supertree for all 34 world pinniped species derived from a weighted matrix representation with parsimony (MRP) supertree analysis of 50 gene trees, each determined under a maximum likelihood (ML) framework. Divergence times were determined by mapping the same sequence data (plus two additional genes) on to the supertree topology and calibrating the ML branch lengths against a range of fossil calibrations. We assessed the sensitivity of our supertree topology in two ways: 1) a second supertree with all mtDNA genes combined into a single source tree, and 2) likelihood-based supermatrix analyses. Divergence dates were also calculated using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock with rate autocorrelation to test the sensitivity of our supertree results further. Results The resulting phylogenies all agreed broadly with recent molecular studies, in particular supporting the monophyly of Phocidae, Otariidae, and the two phocid subfamilies, as well as an Odobenidae + Otariidae sister relationship; areas of disagreement were limited to four more poorly supported regions. Neither the supertree nor supermatrix analyses supported the monophyly of the two traditional otariid subfamilies, supporting suggestions for the need for taxonomic revision in this group. Phocid relationships were similar to other recent studies and deeper branches were generally well-resolved. Halichoerus grypus was nested within a paraphyletic Pusa, although relationships within Phocina tend to be poorly supported. Divergence date estimates for the supertree were in good agreement with other studies and the available fossil record; however, the Bayesian relaxed molecular clock divergence date estimates were significantly older. Conclusion Our results join other recent studies and highlight the need for a re-evaluation of pinniped taxonomy, especially as regards the subfamilial classification of otariids and the generic nomenclature of Phocina. Even with the recent publication of new sequence data, the available genetic sequence information for several species, particularly those in Arctocephalus, remains very limited, especially for nuclear markers. However, resolution of parts of the tree will probably remain difficult, even with additional data, due to apparent rapid radiations. Our study addresses the lack of a recent pinniped phylogeny that includes all species and robust divergence dates for all nodes, and will therefore prove indispensable to comparative and macroevolutionary studies of this group of carnivores. PMID:17996107

  4. A Total Evidence Phylogeny of the Arctoidea (Carnivora: Mammalia): Relationships Among Basal Taxa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Finarelli

    2008-01-01

    A total evidence phylogenetic analysis was performed for 14 extant and 18 fossil caniform genera using a data matrix of 5.6 kbp\\u000a of concatenated sequence data from six independent loci and 80 morphological characters from the cranium and dentition. Maximum\\u000a parsimony analysis recovered a single most parsimonious cladogram (MPC). The topology of the extant taxa in the MPC agreed\\u000a with previous

  5. Histological patterns of the intestinal attachment of Corynosoma australe (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) in Arctocephalus australis (Mammalia: Pinnipedia).

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato Z; Pereira, Joaber; Cousin, João Carlos B

    2014-12-01

    The mucosal attachment pattern of Corynosoma australe in the intestines of Arctocephalus australis is described. Normal and abnormal tissue were sampled from 32 hosts to be submitted to histological routine protocol to embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in balsam. Corynosoma australe shows three different degrees of body depth intestinal attachment (BDINA-1-3). BDINA-1: it is exclusive of the small intestine and the parasite attaches on the villi; BDINA-2: parasite affects the Lieberkühn crypts in several depth levels and, BDINA-3: the parasite reaches the submucosa. These attachment patterns alter the mucosa by degeneration and dysfunction due to necrosis of mucosal structure, great quantities of cellular debris and significant reduction of the mucosal thickness. Other aspects are crater-like concave holes (CLCHs) as sites where C. australe could be attached-detached several times according to adult migratory processes within luminal intestine space. The submucosa shows edema probably due to the local mucosal alterations resulting in homeostatic break. There is no severe inflammatory response by host but BDINA-1 to BDINA-3 and CLCH could represent foci to secondary opportunistic infections and significant areas of malabsorption in severally infected hosts contributing to increase clinical signs of preexistent pathologies. PMID:25320494

  6. Cranial anatomy of Paleocene and Eocene Labidolemur kayi (Mammalia: Apatotheria), and the relationships of

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    incisor. The lower dentition of apatemyids also typically includes a wedge-shaped, blade-like p2 (1987) suggested these fingers were used with the enlarged anterior dentition for foraging for wood). The combination of their rather strange dentition and derived postcranium makes them one of the most specialized

  7. Phenotypic Convergence in Genetically Distinct Lineages of a Rhinolophus Species Complex (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David S.; Babiker, Hassan; Bastian, Anna; Kearney, Teresa; van Eeden, Rowen; Bishop, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the convergence. Instead, the striking similarity in morphology and sensory biology are probably the result of neutral evolutionary processes, resulting in the independent evolution of similar phenotypes. PMID:24312666

  8. First record of Dinofelis (Felidae, Mammalia) from North Africa Denis GERAADS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and cranial remains from the late Pliocene of Ahl al Oughlam in Morocco are referred to Dinofelis ZDANSKY. Zusammenfassung : Introduction The site of Ahl al Oughlam in the suburbs of Casablanca, Morocco, has been dated at a biogeographic crossroads. A large felid from Ahl al Oughlam was briefly described (GERAADS, 1997) as Panthera

  9. Desmodus rotundus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, L M; Esbérard, C E L

    2011-08-01

    Since the 1990s, attacks by hematophagous bats on humans and domestic animals have been reported both on the continent and on the islands on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The density of vampire bats was investigated based on percentage of captures during control of Desmodus rotundus samplings and during bat diversity research. In the present work, 203 individuals of D. rotundus were captured from 1993 to 2009, which corresponds to 11.88% of all bat captures carried out for species control in local villages and 1.58% of all captures in faunistic inventories. The density of D. rotundus is high even on the recently occupied islands where domestic animals have been introduced. It is probable that this species dispersed from the continent to the islands due to the introduction of domestic animals. PMID:21881799

  10. Sexual dimorphism of the internal mandibular chamber in Fayum Pliohyracidae (Mammalia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de Blieux, D.D.; Baumrind, M.R.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.; Meyer, G.E.; Attia, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    An internal mandibular fenestra and chamber are found in many fossil hyracoids. The internal mandibular fenestra is located on the lingual surface of the mandibular corpus and opens into a chamber within the mandible. The mandibular chamber is maximally developed in late Eocene Thyrohyrax meyeri and early Oligocene Thyrohyrax domorictus from the Fayum Province of Egypt. The function of this chamber is unknown as it is not found in extant hyraxes, nor is it known to occur in any other mammal. In Thyrohyrax, this feature appears to be sexually dimorphic because it is confined to roughly one half of the specimens that otherwise cannot be separated by dental characteristics or measurements. It has been suggested that the chamber is found in females based on the presumed distribution of this character in other fossil hyracoids. Fossils from Fayum Quarry L-41, preserving the sexually dimorphic anterior dentition, show that, in Thyrohyrax meyeri and Thyrohyrax domorictus, the internal mandibular chamber is found in males. In Thyrohyrax litholagus, an internal mandibular fenestra and inflated mandibular chamber occurs in males whereas females show the variable presence of an internal mandibular fossa or fenestra but lack an expanded chamber. Other genera show differing patterns of sexual variation in which some Fayum hyracoids have an internal mandibular fenestra in both sexes but with the greatest development of the mandibular chamber occurring in males. We review functions proposed for the internal mandibular chamber and suggest that it housed a laryngeal air sac that may have had a vocal function by acting as a resonating chamber. ?? 2006 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

  11. Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe

    E-print Network

    Horacek, Ivan

    -Holocene period. Rich Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil records both from Europe and China suggest rather continuous the discrepancy we reexamined a considerable part of the European fossil record of the genus (14 sites from MN15 in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

  12. Cope's rule and the evolution of body size in Pinnipedimorpha (Mammalia: Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Churchill, Morgan; Clementz, Mark T; Kohno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Cope's rule describes the evolutionary trend for animal lineages to increase in body size over time. In this study, we tested the validity of Cope's rule for a marine mammal clade, the Pinnipedimorpha, which includes the extinct Desmatophocidae, and extant Phocidae (earless seals), Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions), and Odobenidae (walruses). We tested for the presence of Cope's rule by compiling a large dataset of body size data for extant and fossil pinnipeds and then examined how body size evolved through time. We found that there was a positive relationship between geologic age and body size. However, this trend is the result of differences between early assemblages of small-bodied pinnipeds (Oligocene to early Miocene) and later assemblages (middle Miocene to Pliocene) for which species exhibited greater size diversity. No significant differences were found between the number of increases or decreases in body size within Pinnipedimorpha or within specific pinniped clades. This suggests that the pinniped body size increase was driven by passive diversification into vacant niche space, with the common ancestor of Pinnipedimorpha occurring near the minimum adult body size possible for a marine mammal. Based upon the above results, the evolutionary history of pinnipeds does not follow Cope's rule. PMID:25355195

  13. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia)

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM) muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors. PMID:25024917

  14. Chromosome painting among Proboscidea, Hyracoidea and Sirenia: Support for Paenungulata (Afrotheria, Mammalia) but not Tethytheria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardini, A.T.; O'Brien, P. C. M.; Fu, B.; Bonde, R.K.; Elder, F.F.B.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Yang, F.; Robinson, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite marked improvements in the interpretation of systematic relationships within Eutheria, particular nodes, including Paenungulata (Hyracoidea, Sirenia and Proboscidea), remain ambiguous. The combination of a rapid radiation, a deep divergence and an extensive morphological diversification has resulted in a limited phylogenetic signal confounding resolution within this clade both at the morphological and nucleotide levels. Cross-species chromosome painting was used to delineate regions of homology between Loxodonta africana (2n = 56), Procavia capensis (2n=54), Trichechus manatus latirostris (2n = 48) and an outgroup taxon, the aardvark (Orycteropus afer, 2n = 20). Changes specific to each lineage were identified and although the presence of a minimum of 11 synapomorphies confirmed the monophyly of Paenungulata, no change characterizing intrapaenungulate relationships was evident. The reconstruction of an ancestral paenungulate karyotype and the estimation of rates of chromosomal evolution indicate a reduced rate of genomic repatterning following the paenungulate radiation. In comparison to data available for other mammalian taxa, the paenungulate rate of chromosomal evolution is slow to moderate. As a consequence, the absence of a chromosomal character uniting two paenungulates (at the level of resolution characterized in this study) may be due to a reduced rate of chromosomal change relative to the length of time separating successive divergence events. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  15. Home range and social behavior of three species of European Pitymys (Mammalia, Rodentia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Salvioni

    1988-01-01

    Habits, home range, and social behavior of three species of voles of the genus Pitymys, P. multiplex, P. subterraneus, and P. savii, were studied in Tessin (Switzerland) by radioactive tagging. P. multiplex and P. savii are fossorial and often use the burrow systems of moles (Talpa); P. subterraneus moves around on the surface under dense vegetation. Males and females of

  16. Presence of antibodies against Leptospira serovars in Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae), La Pampa province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Fort, Marcelo; Delgado, Fernando; Bedotti, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of antibodies against 21 Leptospira reactive serovars in Chaetophractus villosus in La Pampa province, Argentina, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pathologic changes compatible with leptospirosis and in situ detection of the agent by immunohistochemistry were studied in 24 and 3 individuals respectively. Only 35/150 (23.3%) serum samples had antibodies against Leptospira sp. Six percent of the samples reacted with serovar Canicola, 4.7% with serovar Castellonis, 1.3% with serovar Icterohemorrhagieae and 0.7% with serovar Hardjo. Sixteen (10.6%) serum samples agglutinated with Castellonis-Icterohemorrhagiae and Canicola-Castellonis serovars, both with 4.7%, and Canicola-Hardjo and Castellonis-Canicola-Icterohemorrhagiae both with 0.6%. Fourteen animals had variable degrees of lesions, which were more severe in animals with higher serological titers (3200), and Leptospira sp. was detected in 3 animals by immunohistochemistry. These results represent the first record of the presence of Leptospira in C. villosus in La Pampa. PMID:25754485

  17. The Phylogeny of the Myrmecophagidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Vermilingua) and the Relationship of Eurotamandua to the Vermilingua

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Gaudin; Daniel G. Branham

    1998-01-01

    A cladistic investigation of the phylogenetic relationships among the three extant anteater genera and the three undoubted extinct myrmecophagid genera is performed based upon osteological characteristics of the skull and postcranial skeleton. One hundred seven discrete morphological characters are analyzed using the computer program PAUP. Characters are polarized via comparison to the successive xenarthran outgroups Tardigrada (represented by the living

  18. Pelvic peritoneum in male armadillo and anteater (Xenarthra, Mammalia): a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Lorenna Cardoso; Ferreira, Jussara Rocha

    2013-01-01

    The literature supports the hypothesis that the pelvic excavation is the bottom of the abdominal cavity, which is covered by the peritoneal serous membrane in order to promote visceral dynamics. We studied the peritoneum in eight specimens of Xenarthra (Euphractus sexcinctus, Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla). The animals were fixed in formaldehyde (10%). For description and analyzes of the pelvic peritoneum, dissection and photo documentation were performed. We saw that the parietal serous membrane reflected, involving the pelvic viscera. The urorectal septum is the floor of the higher pelvis as a serosa reflection between the bladder and the rectum. The bladder and gonads are completely peritonized in adult armadillo. In anteaters and young armadillos, the testicles are in a position analogous to the uterus, joined by the conjunctive septum at the midline and along with the bladder, they partially project to the higher and lower pelvis. In Myrmecophagidae, vesicogenital, rectogenital and sacrorectal recesses were observed. In Dasypodidae, the recesses are similar to those of other recent vertebrates. PMID:23317367

  19. Spermatogenesis is seasonal in the large hairy armadillo, Chaetophractus villosus (Dasypodidae, Xenarthra, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Luaces, Juan P; Rossi, Luis F; Merico, Valeria; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Redi, Carlo A; Solari, Alberto J; Merani, Maria S; Garagna, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the distinct reproductive biology of armadillos. Very few studies have investigated armadillo spermatogenesis, with data available only for Euphractus sexcinctus and Dasypus novemcinctus. In the present study, we analysed male germ cell differentiation in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus throughout the year, describing a cycle of the seminiferous epithelium made of eight different stages. Evaluation of the testis/body mass ratio, analysis of the architecture of the seminiferous epithelium and the frequency of defective seminiferous tubules allowed identification of a temporal interruption of spermatogenesis during the period between mid-May to July (mid-end autumn) in correlation with very low testosterone levels. Overall, these results suggest that spermatogenesis is seasonal in C. villosus. PMID:22951275

  20. The proboscis of tapirs (Mammalia: Perissodactyla): a case study in novel narial anatomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence M. Witmer; Scott D. Sampson; Nikos Solounias

    1999-01-01

    The trunk-like proboscis of tapirs provides a prime case study in the evolution of anatomical novelty. Morphological study of this unique structure was undertaken employing several specimens and a combination of analytical techniques: gross anatomical dissection, radiographic imaging and histological sectioning. Evolution of the proboscis of tapirs entailed wholesale transformation of the narial apparatus and facial architecture relative to perissodactyl

  1. New genus of tapir (Mammalia: Tapiridae) from the Arikareean (earliest Miocene) of the Texas Coastal Plain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Barry Albright

    1998-01-01

    The nearly complete dentition of the rare tapirid Miotapirus marslandensis was recovered from the recently discovered late Arikareean Toledo Bend Local Fauna, Newton County, Texas. The species was previously known from only two associated upper molars found near Marsland, Nebraska, in 1917. The Nebraska molars, together with the Toledo Bend material and additional specimens from the Monroe Creek Formation, South

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-1 is associated with life-history variation across Mammalia

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Eli M.; Dantzer, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Despite the diversity of mammalian life histories, persistent patterns of covariation have been identified, such as the ‘fast–slow’ axis of life-history covariation. Smaller species generally exhibit ‘faster’ life histories, developing and reproducing rapidly, but dying young. Hormonal mechanisms with pleiotropic effects may mediate such broad patterns of life-history variation. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is one such mechanism because heightened IGF-1 activity is related to traits associated with faster life histories, such as increased growth and reproduction, but decreased lifespan. Using comparative methods, we show that among 41 mammalian species, increased plasma IGF-1 concentrations are associated with fast life histories and altricial reproductive patterns. Interspecific path analyses show that the effects of IGF-1 on these broad patterns of life-history variation are through its direct effects on some individual life-history traits (adult body size, growth rate, basal metabolic rate) and through its indirect effects on the remaining life-history traits. Our results suggest that the role of IGF-1 as a mechanism mediating life-history variation is conserved over the evolutionary time period defining mammalian diversification, that hormone–trait linkages can evolve as a unit, and that suites of life-history traits could be adjusted in response to selection through changes in plasma IGF-1. PMID:24619435

  3. Phylogeographic Patterns and Evolution of the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region in Two Neotropical Cats (Mammalia, Felidae)

    E-print Network

    Eizirik, Eduardo

    Departamento de Gene´tica, Instituto de Biocie^ncias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 1998 Abstract. The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and mar- gay (L. wiedii) are sister. The mar- gay is smaller (2.5­4 kg) and is believed to prefer for- ested environments (Nowak 1991; Redford

  4. Comparative study of notoungulate (Placentalia, Mammalia) bony labyrinths and new phylogenetically informative inner ear characters.

    PubMed

    Macrini, Thomas E; Flynn, John J; Ni, Xijun; Croft, Darin A; Wyss, André R

    2013-11-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of notoungulates, an extinct group of predominantly South American herbivores, remain poorly resolved with respect to both other placental mammals and among one another. Most previous phylogenetic analyses of notoungulates have not included characters of the internal cranium, not least because few such features, including the bony labyrinth, have been described for members of the group. Here we describe the inner ears of the notoungulates Altitypotherium chucalensis (Mesotheriidae), Pachyrukhos moyani (Hegetotheriidae) and Cochilius sp. (Interatheriidae) based on reconstructions of bony labyrinths obtained from computed tomography imagery. Comparisons of the bony labyrinths of these taxa with the basally diverging notoungulate Notostylops murinus (Notostylopidae), an isolated petrosal from Itaboraí, Brazil, referred to Notoungulata, and six therian outgroups, yielded an inner ear character matrix of 25 potentially phylogenetically informative characters, 14 of them novel to this study. Two equivocally optimized character states potentially support a pairing of Mesotheriidae and Hegetotheriidae, whereas four others may be diagnostic of Notoungulata. Three additional characters are potentially informative for diagnosing more inclusive clades: one for crown Placentalia; another for a clade containing Kulbeckia, Zalambdalestes, and Placentalia; and a third for Eutheria (crown Placentalia plus stem taxa). Several other characters are apomorphic for at least one notoungulate in our study and are of potential interest for broader taxonomic sampling within Notoungulata to clarify currently enigmatic interrelationships. Measures of the semicircular canals were used to infer agility (e.g. capable of quick movements vs. lethargic movements) of these taxa. Agility scores calculated from these data generally corroborate interpretations based on postcranial remains of these or closely related species. We provide estimates of the low-frequency hearing limits in notoungulates based on the ratio of radii of the apical and basal turns of the cochlea. These limits range from 15?Hz in Notostylops to 149?Hz in Pachyrukhos, values comparable to the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) when hearing in air, respectively. PMID:24102069

  5. Phylogeny and divergence of the pinnipeds (Carnivora: Mammalia) assessed using a multigene dataset

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff W Higdon; Olaf RP Bininda-Emonds; Steven H Ferguson

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic comparative methods are often improved by complete phylogenies with meaningful branch lengths (e.g., divergence dates). This study presents a dated molecular supertree for all 34 world pinniped species derived from a weighted matrix representation with parsimony (MRP) supertree analysis of 50 gene trees, each determined under a maximum likelihood (ML) framework. Divergence times were determined by mapping the

  6. Discovery of the First Early Cenozoic Euprimate (Mammalia) from Inner Mongolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    XIJUN NI; K. CHRISTOPHER BEARD; JIN MENG; YUANQING WANG; DANIEL L. GEBO

    2007-01-01

    Although it is widely thought that euprimates originated in Asia, the fossil record of early euprimates remains sparse there. We describe herein a new omomyid euprimate, Baataromomys ulaanus, n. gen. et sp., based on an isolated right lower m2 from Bumbanian strata at Wulanboerhe in the Erlian Basin of Inner Mongolia, China. In terms of the size and proportions of

  7. Identification of Bacterial Specialists in Hosts belonging to Aves, Mammalia, and Pisces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Only a portion of bacteria found in animal guts are able to establish specific associations within animal hosts. Taxa that have formed these specialized relationships may have played a prominent role in host evolution and may also contribute significantly to current host physiolo...

  8. C-banded karyotype of Myocastor coypus (Molina, 1782) from Turkey (Mammalia: Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Iliker, Ay?egül; Arslan, Atilla; Pamuko?lu, Nahit; Albayrak, Irfan

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports the C-band patterns of chromosomes of Myocastor coypus from Turkey. The karyotype of M. coypus is comprised of (2n) 42 chromosomes, the number of chromosomal arms (FN) was 83 and the number of autosomal arms (FNa) was 80. The X chromosome was a medium-sized metacentric and the Y chromosome was acrocentric and the smallest in the set. Two metacentric chromosomes have secondary constrictions. Most autosomes in this species were centromeric C-positive and some autosomes had telomeric C-bands. The X chromosome has centromeric heterochromatin, while the Y chromosome appeared to be entirely heterochromatic. PMID:19459458

  9. Landscape correlates of the distribution of coypu Myocastor coypus (Rodentia, Mammalia) in Argentinean Pampas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Leggieri; M. L. Guichón; M. H. Cassini

    2011-01-01

    The coypu is a rodent indigenous to aquatic habitats in southern South America, which is considered a pest where it has been introduced and a valuable furbearer resource within its native range. The objective of this study was to identify the main landscape correlates of coypu distribution in the Pampas. Previous studies provided two non-exclusive hypotheses: (1) if hunting pressure

  10. La captura comercial del coypo Myocastor coypus (Mammalia: Myocastoridae) en Laguna Adela, Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gorostiague; H. A. Regidor

    1993-01-01

    We analize commercial harvest of coypus Myocastor coypus in Laguna Adela, Argentina, during 1988. A total of 217 animals was trapped from April to October (?. = 31 per month), with a capture effort of 1768 night?traps (? = 255.57 per month). The capture increased up to a peak in August ? September and was inversely correlated with capture effort.

  11. A new Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from India and the time of origin of whales

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Sunil; Gingerich, Philip D.

    1998-01-01

    Himalayacetus subathuensis is a new pakicetid archaeocete from the Subathu Formation of northern India. The type dentary has a small mandibular canal indicating a lack of auditory specializations seen in more advanced cetaceans, and it has Pakicetus-like molar teeth suggesting that it fed on fish. Himalayacetus is significant because it is the oldest archaeocete known and because it was found in marine strata associated with a marine fauna. Himalayacetus extends the fossil record of whales about 3.5 million years back in geological time, to the middle part of the early Eocene [?53.5 million years ago (Ma)]. Oxygen in the tooth-enamel phosphate has an isotopic composition intermediate between values reported for freshwater and marine archaeocetes, indicating that Himalayacetus probably spent some time in both environments. When the temporal range of Archaeoceti is calibrated radiometrically, comparison of likelihoods constrains the time of origin of Archaeoceti and hence Cetacea to about 54–55 Ma (beginning of the Eocene), whereas their divergence from extant Artiodactyla may have been as early as 64–65 Ma (beginning of the Cenozoic). PMID:9860991

  12. Early Eocene lagomorph (Mammalia) from Western India and the early diversification of Lagomorpha

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kenneth D; DeLeon, Valerie Burke; Missiaen, Pieter; Rana, R.S; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Lachham; Smith, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    We report the oldest known record of Lagomorpha, based on distinctive, small ankle bones (calcaneus and talus) from Early Eocene deposits (Middle Ypresian equivalent, ca 53?Myr ago) of Gujarat, west-central India. The fossils predate the oldest previously known crown lagomorphs by several million years and extend the record of lagomorphs on the Indian subcontinent by 35?Myr. The bones show a mosaic of derived cursorial adaptations found in gracile Leporidae (rabbits and hares) and primitive traits characteristic of extant Ochotonidae (pikas) and more robust leporids. Together with gracile and robust calcanei from the Middle Eocene of Shanghuang, China, also reported here, the Indian fossils suggest that diversification within crown Lagomorpha and possibly divergence of the family Leporidae were already underway in the Early Eocene. PMID:18285282

  13. Sphiggurus vestitus pruinosus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Erethizontidae): The Karyotype and its Phylogenetic Implications, Descriptive Notes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Concepcion; J. Molinari

    1991-01-01

    Sphiggurus vestitus pruinosus, a porcupine from western Venezuela, has a karyotype with a diploid number (2n) of 42, and a fundamental number (FN) of 76. The autosomes consist of 34 metacentric and submetacentric, 2 subacrocentric, and 4 acrocentric chromosomes. The X?chromosome is submetacentric, and the Y?chromosome is acrocentric. This karyotype is identical in gross morphology to that of the North

  14. The Phylogeny of Living and Extinct Pangolins (Mammalia, Pholidota) and Associated Taxa: A Morphology Based Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Gaudin; Robert J. Emry; John R. Wible

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to effect a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the order Pholidota, examining\\u000a seven of the eight currently recognized extant species (absent is Manis culionensis, formerly recognized as a subspecies of Manis javanica) and nearly all the well-known fossil taxa, and employing a wide range of osteological characters from the entire skeleton.\\u000a In addition, the

  15. Comparison of climate space and phylogeny of Marmota (Mammalia: Rodentia) indicates

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    for a relationship between phylogenetic distance and `climate distance' of species within a clade. There should and phylogenetic distance matrices, but this relationship explains only a small fraction of the variance phylogenetic relationships, modern range constraint by climate, and some connection between evolutionary

  16. New Mesotheriidae (Mammalia, Notoungulata, Typotheria), geochronology and tectonics of the Caragua area, northernmost Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, John J.; Croft, Darin A.; Charrier, Reynaldo; Wyss, André R.; Hérail, Gérard; García, Marcelo

    2005-05-01

    Few mammal fossils were known from the Altiplano or adjoining parts of northern Chile until recently. We report a partial mesotheriid palate from the vicinity of Caragua (Huaylas Formation) in northernmost Chile. The new material helps resolve contradictory taxonomic assignments (and age implications) of the two mesotheriid specimens previously reported from the area. Herein we refer all three mesotheriid specimens to a new taxon, Caraguatypotherium munozi, which is closely related to Plesiotypotherium, Typotheriopsis, Pseudotypotherium, and Mesotherium. This phylogenetic placement permits a revised biochronologic estimate of a post-Friasian/pre-Huayquerian (˜15-9 Ma) age for the Huaylas Formation, consistent with new radioisotopic dates from the upper Huaylas Formation and its bracketing stratigraphic units. Improved geochronologic control for the Huaylas Formation has important implications for the timing of tectonic events in the Precordillera/Altiplano of northern Chile. Structural, stratigraphic, and temporal data suggest the onset of rapid, progressive deformation shortly after the deposition of the older Zapahuira Formation, continuing at least partly through deposition of the Huaylas Formation. Deposition of the Huaylas Formation was short lived (between ˜10-12 Ma), possibly stemming from activity on the Copaquilla-Tignámar Fault in the eastern Precordillera. This deformation is associated with the development of the Oxaya Anticline and activity of the Ausipar Fault west of the study region on the frontal limb of the anticline in the westernmost Precordillera. Faulting and folding occurred rapidly, beginning at ˜11.4 Ma (shortly after deposition of the youngest extrusives of the Zapahuira Formation) and before ˜10.7 Ma (the age of the gently dipping horizons within the upper Huaylas Formation that overlie the mammal fossils and an intraformational unconformity). Mesotheriids are the only Tertiary fossil mammals known from the Precordillera of northernmost Chile thus far; the group is common and diverse in faunas from the Altiplano of Bolivia (and a fauna recently recovered from the Chilean Altiplano), in contrast to most higher-latitude and tropical assemblages. This distinctiveness indicates that intermediate latitudes may have been biogeographically distinct and served as a center of diversification for mesotheriids and other groups of indigenous South American mammals.

  17. The Phylogenetic Relationships and Biogeography of True Porpoises (Mammalia: Phocoenidae) Based On Morphological Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliana Fajardo-Mellor; Annalisa Berta; ROBERT L. BROWNELL JR; Claudia C. Boy; R. Natalie P. Goodall

    2006-01-01

    Prior studies of phylogenetic relationships among phocoenids based on morphology and molecular sequence data conflict and yield unresolved relationships among species. This study evaluates a comprehensive set of cranial, postcranial, and soft anatomical characters to infer interrelationships among extant species and several well-known fossil phocoenids, using two different methods to analyze polymorphic data: polymorphic coding and frequency step matrix. Our

  18. New Craniodental Material of Pronothodectes gaoi Fox (Mammalia, ``Plesiadapiformes'') and Relationships

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Doug M.

    and plesiadapiforms. Cladistic analysis of craniodental charac- ters is used to assess the hypothesis that P. gaoi. The basi- cranium of P. gaoi preserves a laterally placed bony canal for the internal carotid neurovascular

  19. A note on karyotypes of Sorex caecutiens (Mammalia, Insec- tivora) from Cheju Island, Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oshida Tatsuo; Satoshi Ohdachi; Ryuichi Masuda

    2005-01-01

    Karyotypes of Sorex caecutiens from Cheju Island of Korea were examined with conventional staining and G-banding by trypsin treatment stained with Giemsa (GTG). The diploid and fundamental autosomal arm num- bers were 42 and 66, respectively. The autosomal complement in the karyotype comprised six pairs of metacentrics, seven pairs of submetacentrics or subtelocentrics, and seven pairs of acrocentrics. The X

  20. On the Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica (Kerr, 1792) in Turkey (Mammalia: Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Arslan, Atilla

    2008-01-15

    This study presents some data about ecological, biological and taxonomical characteristics of Hystrix indica (Kerr, 1792) from Turkey. For this purpose characteristics of burrow, skull, tooth and measurements of external and cranial characters of two female H. indica from Turkey were investigated. It was concluded that our specimens are between the Middle East and Indian sub-region specimens in terms of morphometrical. It was also determined that there were roots in stomach contents of specimens. PMID:18817213

  1. The evolution of orbit orientation and encephalization in the Carnivora (Mammalia)

    PubMed Central

    Finarelli, John A; Goswami, Anjali

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary change in encephalization within and across mammalian clades is well-studied, yet relatively few comparative analyses attempt to quantify the impact of evolutionary change in relative brain size on cranial morphology. Because of the proximity of the braincase to the orbits, and the inter-relationships among ecology, sensory systems and neuroanatomy, a relationship has been hypothesized between orbit orientation and encephalization for mammals. Here, we tested this hypothesis in 68 fossil and living species of the mammalian order Carnivora, comparing orbit orientation angles (convergence and frontation) to skull length and encephalization. No significant correlations were observed between skull length and orbit orientation when all taxa were analysed. Significant correlations were observed between encephalization and orbit orientation; however, these were restricted to the families Felidae and Canidae. Encephalization is positively correlated with frontation in both families and negatively correlated with convergence in canids. These results indicate that no universal relationship exists between encephalization and orbit orientation for Carnivora. Braincase expansion impacts orbit orientation in specific carnivoran clades, the nature of which is idiosyncratic to the clade itself. PMID:19438762

  2. A time-calibrated species-level phylogeny of bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Agnarsson, Ingi; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M; Flores-Saldana, Nadia Paola; May-Collado, Laura J

    2011-01-01

    Despite their obvious utility, detailed species-level phylogenies are lacking for many groups, including several major mammalian lineages such as bats. Here we provide a cytochrome b genealogy of over 50% of bat species (648 terminal taxa). Based on prior analyzes of related mammal groups, cytb emerges as a particularly reliable phylogenetic marker, and given that our results are broadly congruent with prior knowledge, the phylogeny should be a useful tool for comparative analyzes. Nevertheless, we stress that a single-gene analysis of such a large and old group cannot be interpreted as more than a crude estimate of the bat species tree. Analysis of the full dataset supports the traditional division of bats into macro- and microchiroptera, but not the recently proposed division into Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. However, our results only weakly reject the former and strongly support the latter group, and furthermore, a time calibrated analysis of a pruned dataset where most included taxa have the entire 1140bp cytb sequence finds monophyletic Yinpterochiroptera. Most bat families and many higher level groups are supported, however, relationships among families are in general weakly supported, as are many of the deeper nodes of the tree. The exceptions are in most cases apparently due to the misplacement of species with little available data, while in a few cases the results suggest putative problems with current classification, such as the non-monophyly of Mormoopidae. We provide this phylogenetic hypothesis, and an analysis of divergence times, as tools for evolutionary and ecological studies that will be useful until more inclusive studies using multiple loci become available. PMID:21327164

  3. The vomeronasal organ of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Xenarthra, Mammalia): anatomy, histology and ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    CARMANCHAHI, P. D.; ALDANA MARCOS, H. J.; FERRARI, C. C.; AFFANNI, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a chemoreceptive structure that has not been extensively studied in the Xenarthran order. Tissue samples from the VNO of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus were prepared for light and electron microscopy. The VNO is located in the anterior part of the base of the nasal septum. It is tubular in shape, ? 18 mm in length and opens in the rostral region of the nasal cavity and with a blind caudal end. Its lumen is lined by sensory (SE) and nonsensory (NSE) epithelium. The SE shows sensory, supporting and basal cells whereas the NSE contains ciliated and nonciliated secretory cells and basal cells. At the ultrastructural level, the sensory cells appear as bipolar neurons with conspicuous microvilli on their free surface. The supporting cells of the SE contain numerous membrane-bound vesicles in their apical regions. A peculiar feature not found in other mammals, is the presence of concentric whorls of RER cisterns frequently observed in their basal expansions. Infiltrating plasma cells can be detected in the SE basal region close to the dorsal junctional area. This region also exhibits an unusual type of basal cell, probably responsible for the generation of new vomeronasal receptor neurons. The ciliated NSE cells exhibit numerous ovoids or irregularly shaped membranous protrusions projecting from the plasma membrane of the cilia. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the presence of this feature in ciliated NSE cells. The nonciliated cells are characterised by scarce large secretory granules and apical microvilli. The vomeronasal glands are compound-branched tubuloacinar glands with serous acinar cells. Four types of secretory granules are present. The ducts of these glands reach the lumen in the dorsolateral region between the NSE and SE. Hypolemmal nerve terminals were observed contacting secretory cells. Fenestrated and nonfenestrated capillaries constitute the vascular supply to these glands. Plasma cells, intimately associated with acinar cells, were frequently observed. PMID:10634697

  4. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).

    PubMed

    Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

    2002-12-01

    Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil. PMID:12563481

  5. A new species of hippopotamus Hexaprotodon lothagamensis (Mammalia: Hippopotamidae) from the late Miocene of Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Weston

    2000-01-01

    A new small to medium-sized hippopotamus, Hexaprotodon lothagamensis is described from the late Miocene of northern Kenya. The material was recovered from Lothagam, a site southwest of Lake Turkana. This narrow-muzzled hippopotamus differs from other Hexaprotodon species in terms of its small size and shallow symphysis. The six incisors are arranged in a straight line across the front of the

  6. Patterns of postnatal development in skulls of lynxes, genus Lynx (Mammalia: Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Perea, R

    1996-09-01

    Studies on ossification patterns and other ontogenetic events associated with postnatal cranial growth of wild felids are scarce. An analysis of developmental processes undergone by several cranial structures (presphenoidal and sphenooccipital synchondroses, temporal and sagittal crests, and deciduous and permanent teeth) during postnatal growth has been conducted on a sample of 336 specimens belonging to the four Recent species of lynxes (Lynx pardinus, Lynx lynx, Lynx rufus, and Lynx canadensis). Age has been estimated based on tooth replacement, skull size, and by counting the annual lines of cementum growth. Comparison of the results obtained for each of the four species reveal (1) a single pattern for both tooth replacement and ossification of the sphenooccipital synchondrosis, (2) two ossification patterns for the presphenoidal synchondrosis, (3) a common pattern for development of temporal ridges and sagittal crest showing different degrees of morphological expression, and (4) evidence suggesting the involvement of a heterochronic process, neoteny, in the morphological differentiation of several populations and species of the genus Lynx. These data also support the hypothesis that processes involved in the replacement of carnassials are based on functional requirements. PMID:8765807

  7. Callistoe vincei, a new Proborhyaenidae (Borhyaenoidea, Metatheria, Mammalia) from the Early Eocene of Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Judith Babot; Jaime E Powell; Christian de Muizon

    2002-01-01

    Callistoe vincei nov. gen., nov. sp. is a new South American carnivorous marsupial (Proborhyaenidae, Borhyaenoidea) from Salta Province (Argentina). It is preliminarily described and its phylogenetic relationships with other borhyaenoids are analyzed. The holotype is a complete skull with almost complete postcranial skeleton (missing the pelvis and the tail). It is from the Lumbrera Formation (Early Eocene of northwestern Argentina).

  8. First isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J

    2013-03-31

    There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans. PMID:23200751

  9. Phylogeographic Patterns and Evolution of the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region in Two Neotropical Cats (Mammalia, Felidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Eizirik; Sandro L. Bonatto; Warren E. Johnson; Peter G. Crawshaw Jr.; Jean Cristophe Vié; Dulce M. Brousset; Stephen J. O'Brien; Francisco M. Salzano

    1998-01-01

    .   The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and margay (L. wiedii) are sister-species of Neotropical cats which evolved from a lineage that migrated into South America during the formation\\u000a of the Panamanian land bridge 3–5 million years ago. Patterns of population genetic divergence of each species were studied\\u000a by phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences in individuals sampled across

  10. Revision of the Wind River faunas, early Eocene of central Wyoming. X - Bunophorus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    Research on the holotypes and large collections of the species of Wasatchia and Bunophorus is reviewed. It is concluded that Bunophorus is a senior synonym of Wasatchia and includes six valid species, namely, B. etsagicus, B. grangeri, B. pattersoni, B. macropternus, B. sinclairi, and B. robustus. B. sinclairi includes two penecontemporaneous geographic variants: B.s. sinclairi from the Wind River, Piceance and Green River basins, and B.s. robinsoni, n. ssp., from the Huerfano Basin.

  11. Nucleolus organizer regions and B-chromosomes of wood mice (mammalia, rodentia, Apodemus)

    SciTech Connect

    Boeskorov, G.G. [Yakutia Institute of Biology, Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Kartavtseva, I.V. [Biological Soil Institute, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zagorodnyuk, I.V. [Shmal`gausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine); Belyanin, A.N. [Saratov State Univ. (Russian Federation); Lyapunova, E.A. [Kol`tsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-02-01

    Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (=A. microps), A. fulvipectus (=A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 53). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Bat diversity of Ilha da Marambaia, Southern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Chiroptera, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, E C; Costa, L M; Silva, R M; Esbérard, C E L

    2010-08-01

    Few sites have been well sampled for bats, and samplings in islands are even scarcer. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were: (1) to list the bat species of Ilha da Marambaia; (2) to compare richness, abundance and biomass of bat guilds found there; (3) to analyse abundance patterns of bat species; and (4) to compare richness, abundance and composition of the bat fauna among different kinds of environment. To capture bats we used mist nets set in five different environments, totalising 3559.2 net-hours, during 37 nights between October 2006 and August 2008. A total of 1,133 captures were accomplished, comprising 34 species from five families. The most abundant species was Molossus molossus. Frugivorous bats exhibited higher richness, abundance and biomass if compared to other guilds. Most species (N = 22) exhibited abundances between 1 to 10% of all captures. Sixteen species were restricted to just one of the environments sampled. The high richness may be attributed to sampling carried out in several environments, and to the capture of insectivorous species over water bodies. PMID:20730337

  13. Physique in the infra-human mammalia: a factor analysis of body measurements of dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Tanner; A. W. A. BUIgT

    1954-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Fifteen body measurements have been made on 67 Dairy Shorthorn and 105 Ayrshire adult cows. Means and standard deviations\\u000a are given, and the differences between the breeds detailed. The measurements have been intercorrelated and factor analysed,\\u000a each breed separately.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a All correlations are positive, and a bipolar type of analysis yields in each instance a general size factor

  14. Phylogeography, population history and conservation genetics of jaguars (Panthera onca, Mammalia, Felidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Eizirik; Jae-Heup Kim; Marilyn Menotti-Raymond; Peter G. Crawshaw JR.; Stephen J. O'Brien; Warren E. Johnson

    2001-01-01

    The jaguar ( Panthera onca ), the largest felid in the American Continent, is currently threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation and human persecution. We have investigated the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of jaguars across their geographical range by analysing 715 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and 29 microsatellite loci in ? ? ?

  15. [Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia) from Yurubí National Park, Venezuela: taxonomic list and community study].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Jaramillo, Mariana; Machado, Marjorie; García, Franger J; Ochoa, José

    2011-12-01

    Bats represent a key component in the dynamics of many terrestrial ecosystems, and one of the groups of mammals with the highest levels of diversification in the Neotropics. Here we describe the results of a study of the bat fauna from Yurubí National Park (mountain area in Northern Venezuela), that includes a taxonomic list and the characterization of some community attributes in forested areas. Data was collected from zoological collections and diversified sampling methods from February to July of 2009 in an altitudinal gradient (100-1 500m), with three principal ecological units: semideciduous, evergreen and cloud forests. We recorded 64 species grouped in five families (63% of the bats known from La Cordillera de la Costa), of which Phyllostomidae was the dominant taxa (42 species; 66% of total), followed by Vespertilionidae, Molossidae, Emballonuridae and Mormoopidae. The community with the highest taxonomic diversification was found in the lowest elevation range, while the lowest number of species was found at the highest range. Eleven trophic guilds were identified; the insectivorous guild was the richest, whereas the frugivorous was the most abundant. Our results allow us to indicate these forest ecosystems have an appropriate conservation status, taking into account the presence of a relatively high proportion of species from the subfamily Phyllostominae, as well as the presence of other species with conservation priorities. All these aspects, and the fact that this represents a reservoir of the biological diversity of the forest ecosystems of La Cordillera de la Costa, make this protected area of an essential conservation value, in a highly endangered bioregion by neighboring socio-economic growth. PMID:22208091

  16. Karyotypes of two rare rodents, Hapalomys delacouri and Typhlomys cinereus (Mammalia, Rodentia), from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Abramov, Alexei V.; Aniskin, Vladimir M.; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Karyotypes of Hapalomys delacouri (Rodentia, Muridae) and Typhlomys cinereus (Rodentia, Platacanthomyidae) from Vietnam are described for the first time. The diploid karyotype of Hapalomys delacouri is 38 (NFa=48), consisting of six pairs of bi-armed and 12 pairs of acrocentric autosomes decreasing in size; plus a large metacentric X chromosome and Y chromosome, also metacentric, that is equal in size to the largest pair of acrocentric autosomes. The newly described karyotype differs significantly from that reported for Hapalomys delacouri from northern Thailand. The latter record very likely represents a different species of Hapalomys, possibly the taxon Hapalomys pasquieri described from north-central Laos.The diploid karyotype of Typhlomys cinereus is 38 (NF=48), consisting of five pairs of meta- to submetacentric and 14 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes varying in size from large to small; sex chromosomes were not defined. PMID:22328851

  17. The Endemic Insular and Peninsular Species Chaetodipus spinatus (Mammalia, Heteromyidae) Breaks Patterns for Baja California

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Castañeda, Sergio Ticul; Murphy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula is the second longest, most geographically isolated peninsula on Earth. Its physiography and the presence of many surrounding islands has facilitated studies of the underlying patterns and drivers of genetic structuring for a wide spectrum of organisms. Chaetodipus spinatus is endemic to the region and occurs on 12 associated islands, including 10 in the Gulf of California and two in the Pacific Ocean. This distribution makes it a model species for evaluating natural historical barriers. We test hypotheses associated with the relationship between the range of the species, patterns in other species, and its relationship to Pleistocene-Holocene climatic changes. We analyzed sequence data from mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and III (COIII) in 26 populations including all 12 islands. The matrilineal genealogy, statistical parsimony network and Bayesian skyline plot indicated an origin of C. spinatus in the southern part of the peninsula. Our analyses detected several differences from the common pattern of peninsular animals: no mid-peninsula break exists, Isla Carmen hosts the most divergent population, the population on an ancient southern Midriff island does not differ from peninsular populations, and a mtDNA peninsular discordance occurs near Loreto. PMID:25542029

  18. Definition, Diagnosis, and Origin of Mammalia Author(s): Timothy Rowe

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Jack

    Paleontology, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1988), pp. 241-264 Published by: The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Paleontology is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. http://www.jstor.org #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;

  19. A new middle eocene whale (Mammalia: Cetacea: Archaeoceti) and associated biota from Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hulbert, R.C., Jr.; Petkewich, R.M.; Bishop, G.A.; Bukry, D.; Aleshire, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    A shallow-marine fossil biota was recovered from the Blue Bluff unit (formerly part of the McBean Formation) in the Upper Coastal Plain of eastern Georgia. Biochronologically significant mollusks (e.g., Turritella nasuta, Cubitostrea sellaeformis, Pteropsella lapidosa) and calcareous nannoplankton (e.g., Chiasmolithus solitus, Reticulofenestra umbilica, Cribocentrum reticulatum) indicate a latest Lutetian-earliest Bartonian age, or about 40 to 41 Ma. Georgiacetus vogtlensis new genus and species is described from a well-preserved, partial skeleton. Georgiacetus is the oldest known whale with a true pterygoid sinus fossa in its basicranium and a pelvis that did not articulate directly with the sacral vertebrae, two features whose acquisitions were important steps toward adaptation to a fully marine existence. The posterior four cheek teeth of G. vogtlensis form a series of carnassial-like shearing blades. These teeth also bear small, blunt accessory cusps, which are regarded as being homologous with the larger, sharper accessory cusps of basilosaurid cheek teeth.

  20. The Hand of Cercopithecoides williamsi (Mammalia, Primates): Earliest Evidence for Thumb Reduction among Colobine Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Stephen R.; Gilbert, Christopher C.; Pugh, Kelsey D.; Guthrie, Emily H.; Delson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Thumb reduction is among the most important features distinguishing the African and Asian colobines from each other and from other Old World monkeys. In this study we demonstrate that the partial skeleton KNM-ER 4420 from Koobi Fora, Kenya, dated to 1.9 Ma and assigned to the Plio-Pleistocene colobine species Cercopithecoides williamsi, shows marked reduction of its first metacarpal relative to the medial metacarpals. Thus, KNM-ER 4420 is the first documented occurrence of cercopithecid pollical reduction in the fossil record. In the size of its first metacarpal relative to the medial metacarpals, C. williamsi is similar to extant African colobines, but different from cercopithecines, extant Asian colobines and the Late Miocene colobines Microcolobus and Mesopithecus. This feature clearly links the genus Cercopithecoides with the extant African colobine clade and makes it the first definitive African colobine in the fossil record. The postcranial adaptations to terrestriality in Cercopithecoides are most likely secondary, while ancestral colobinans (and colobines) were arboreal. Finally, the absence of any evidence for pollical reduction in Mesopithecus implies either independent thumb reduction in African and Asian colobines or multiple colobine dispersal events out of Africa. Based on the available evidence, we consider the first scenario more likely. PMID:25993410

  1. Comparative Morphology of Premolar Foramen in Lagomorphs (Mammalia: Glires) and Its Functional and Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Fostowicz-Frelik, ?ucja; Meng, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Lagomorphs (a group that consists of pikas, hares, rabbits and allies) are notable for their conservative morphology retained for most of their over 50 million years evolutionary history. On the other hand, their remarkable morphological uniformity partly stems from a considerable number of homoplasies in cranial and dental structures that hamper phylogenetic analyses. The premolar foramen, an opening in the palate of lagomorphs, has been characterized as an important synapomorphy of one clade, Ochotonidae (pikas). Within Lagomorpha, however, its phylogenetic distribution is much wider, the foramen being present not only in all ochotonids but also in leporids and stem taxa; its morphology and incidence also varies considerably across the order, even intraspecifically. In this study, we provide a broad survey of the taxonomic distribution of the premolar foramen in extant and fossil Lagomorpha and describe in detail the morphological variation of this character within the group. Micro-computed tomography was used to examine the hard palate and infraorbital groove morphology in Poelagus (Leporidae) and Ochotona. Scans revealed the course and contacts of the canal behind the premolar foramen and structural differences between the two crown clades. We propose that the premolar foramen has evolved independently in several lineages of Lagomorpha, and we discuss development and function of this foramen in the lagomorph skull. This study shows the importance of comprehensive studies on phylogenetically informative non-dental characters in Lagomorpha. PMID:24278178

  2. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 83 (2004) 33 RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF SMALL MAMMALS IN

    E-print Network

    2004-01-01

    the presence of deer mice (Pero- myscus maniculatus) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in cropland (Peromyscus spp.) (n = 5), northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) (n = 3), pygmy shrews (Sorex hoyi

  3. rl'.. RRAIN RESEARCH 277 REPRESENTATION OF THE VISUAL FIELD IN THE SUPERIOR

    E-print Network

    Allman, John M.

    OF THE GREY SQUIRREL (SCIURUS CAROLINENSIS) AND I THE TREE SHREW (TUPAIA GLIS) J· I RONALD H. LANE, JOHN M were obtained from 12 grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and 4 tree shrews (Tupaia gUs). Each animal

  4. A supermatrix analysis of genomic, morphological, and paleontological data from crown Cetacea

    E-print Network

    Geisler, Jonathan H; McGowen, Michael R; Yang, Guang; Gatesy, John

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among delphinid cetaceans based on full cytochrome b sequences. Mar Mammalphylogenetic relationships and biogeography of true porpoises (Mammalia: Phocoenidae) based on morphological data. Mar Mammal

  5. Expanded Host Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Hantaviruses in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Stanley, William T.; Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Gu, Se Hun

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of hantaviruses in shrews and bats in West Africa suggests that other genetically distinct hantaviruses exist in East Africa. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of newfound hantaviruses, detected in archival tissues from the Geata mouse shrew (Myosorex geata) and Kilimanjaro mouse shrew ( Myosorex zinki) captured in Tanzania, expands the host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses and suggests that ancestral shrews and/or bats may have served as the original mammalian hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24741077

  6. Funktionsanatomische untersuchungen an der kaumuskulatur des blauduckers Cephalophus monticola (Thunberg, 1789) (Mammalia, Bovidae) Investigations on the gross functional anatomy of the muscles of mastication in the blue duiker, Cephalophus monticola (Thunberg, 1789) (Mammalia, Bovidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Krapp

    1969-01-01

    The study of the masticating muscles of ruminants has been rather neglected. Two specimens (skinned head and skull) allowed for the study of the shape of the masticating muscles and their tendinous skeleton. The masseter conformed fairly well to the normal bovid type, the other three muscles very much less so. The outer ear has a special supporting osseous process.

  7. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla, from western Colombia and western Ecuador (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2007-01-01

    The twelve recognized species of nectar-feeding bats of the genus Lonchophylla occur in low- and middle-elevation, humid, Neotropical forests. Morphological and morphometrical analyses of specimens formerly lumped with Lonchophylla mordax O. Thomas (1903) support recognition of Lonchophylla concava Goldman (1914) as a separate species and reveal a third species from the western Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador that I describe herein as Lonchophylla jornicata. This new species is morphologically similar to Lonchophylla concava but is distinctively larger than that species. Tests for sexual dimorphism within these and other species of Lonchophyllini suggest a tendency for females to have slightly longer, narrower skulls, higher coronoid processes of the mandible, and longer forearms than males.

  8. Lectin histochemistry of snout skin and foot pads in the wolf and the domesticated dog (Mammalia: Canidae).

    PubMed

    Meyer, W; Tsukise, A

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and selectivity of complex carbohydrates in the snout skin and the foot pads of the wolf and the domesticated dog were studied by means of light-microscopic histochemical methods, particularly lectin histochemistry. In the snout, moderate to strong staining reactions were confined to intercellular substances among the epidermal cells, containing neutral glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids) with various saccharide residues (alpha-D-mannose, beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, beta-D-galactose). In the foot pads, distinct reactions were found in neutral glycoconjugates of intercellular substances of the stratum corneum, with alpha-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl and beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl residues, but only in the wolf, whereas in the dog such substances were concentrated in the spinosal and basal epidermal layers, additionally marked by D-galactose. The eccrine glands exhibited high amounts of mainly neutral glycoconjugates in the secretory portion, especially in the wolf. A clear spectrum of saccharide residues was demonstrable in the dark cells (alpha-D-mannose, beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, alpha-D-galactose), and in the clear cells which lacked mannose and contained beta-D-galactose. In contrast to the wolf, strong reactions for glycoconjugates were visible among intercellular substances of intradermal excretory duct cells in the dog. Only in the wolf did the periphery of the intracorneal excretory ducts and the outer surface of the foot pads show clearly positive reactions for glycoconjugates. The results obtained are discussed with regard to the specific functions of the body regions investigated and the behavioural biology of the Canidae. It is obvious that differences in amounts, quality, and localization of the glycoconjugates produced exist between the wolf and its domesticated descendant. PMID:7872496

  9. The action of post-dispersal beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on scats of Didelphis spp. (Mammalia: Didelphidae).

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; Monteiro-Filho, Emygdio L A

    2006-12-01

    A two year study of dung beetles and ants acting on scats of two species of opossum (Didelphis spp.) was carried out. Scats were left in the field in order to detect post-dispersal agents. A portion of each scat (30 %) was examined for seeds in the laboratory. Beetles were recovered from burrows (51% of 84 faecal samples left in the field) where they either buried scats of opossums or were attracted, together with ants, to pitfalls (N = 10) baited with opossum scats. Dung beetles were the main post-dispersal agents of seeds found in scats of opossums, rolling the scats away or burying then on the site of deposition. They buried faeces at 4 to 15 cm in depth (N = 22 tunnels). The main dung beetles identified (medium to large size) were Eurysternus (28.7 % in pitfalls) and Dichotomius (13.7 %), Coprophanaeus (seen only directly on faeces), besides small-bodied beetles (< 10 mm; 57.6 %). The ant Acromirmex sp. transported some seeds from scats. This species was present in 25.5 % of all Formicidae samples (pitfall). These post-dispersal agents contribute to avert scat seed predators such as rodents, and to accelerate seed bank formation. PMID:18457158

  10. The action of post-dispersal beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on scats of Didelphis spp. (Mammalia: Didelphidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilton Carlos Cáceres; Emygdio L. A. Monteiro-Filho

    A two year study of dung beetles and ants acting on scats of two species of opossum (Didelphis spp.) was carried out. Scats were left in the field in order to detect post-dispersal agents. A portion of each scat (30 %) was examined for seeds in the laboratory. Beetles were recovered from burrows (51 % of 84 faecal samples left

  11. Post-glacial colonization of northwestern North America by the forest-associated American marten (Martes americana, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Stone, Karen D; Flynn, Rodney W; Cook, Joseph A

    2002-10-01

    Phylogeographic patterns were used to assess intraspecific diversification of American martens (Martes americana). Within martens, two morphological groups (americana and caurina) have been recognized, though the level of distinction between them has been debated. We examined mitochondrial cytochrome b gene haplotypes from 680 martens to explore the colonization history of the Pacific Northwest and found two clades that correspond to the morphological groups. The widespread americana clade extends from interior Alaska south to Montana and eastward to Newfoundland and New England (i.e. northwestern, north-central and northeastern North America). The caurina clade occurs in western North America, minimally extending from Admiralty Island (southeastern Alaska) south to Oregon and Wyoming. Our data indicated two colonization events for the Pacific Northwest (one by members of each clade) and were consistent with the persistence of populations throughout past glacial periods in eastern and western refugia. Due to vegetational and geological history following the past deglaciation, we hypothesize that martens of the caurina clade spread along the North Pacific Coast, and into southeastern Alaska, earlier than martens of the americana clade. Mismatch distributions for the americana clade were indicative of populations that recently experienced demographic expansion, while mismatch distributions for the caurina clade suggested that populations were at equilibrium. These clades are reciprocally monophyletic and distinctive (interclade divergence ranged from 2.5 to 3.0% (uncorrected p), whereas, intraclade divergence was < 0.7%), and two regions of sympatry have been identified. Genetic signatures of past admixture in hybrid zones may have been extinguished during subsequent glacial periods when ranges contracted. This recurrent pattern of relatively restricted western, or Pacific coastal, lineages and more widespread eastern, or interior continental, lineages exists across broad taxonomic groups and suggests a shared biogeographical history. PMID:12296948

  12. The microstructure of enamel, dentine and cementum in advanced Taeniodonta (Mammalia) with comments on their dietary adaptations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wighart Von Koenigswald; Daniela C. Kalthoff; Gina M. Semprebon

    2010-01-01

    The cheek teeth of Ectoganus and Stylinodon, the most derived genera of Taeniodonta following recent phylogenies, show various morphological and microstructural characteristics that are unusual for herbivores of their size. Their continuously growing premolars and molars have blunt occlusal surfaces without shearing facets and enamel is restricted to the lingual and buccal sides of the teeth. The anterior and posterior

  13. Type I Sts Markers Are More Informative than Cytochrome b in Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Mustelidae (Mammalia: Carnivora)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus-Peter Koepfli; Robert K. Wayne

    2003-01-01

    We compared the utility of five nuclear gene segments amplified with type I sequence-tagged site (STS) primers versus the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene in resolving phylogenetic relationships within the Mustelidae, a large and ecomorphologically diverse family of mammalian carnivores. Maximum parsimony and likelihood analyses of separate and combined data sets were used to address questions regarding the

  14. Type I STS markers are more informative than cytochrome B in phylogenetic reconstruction of the Mustelidae (Mammalia: Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Wayne, Robert K

    2003-10-01

    We compared the utility of five nuclear gene segments amplified with type I sequence-tagged site (STS) primers versus the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene in resolving phylogenetic relationships within the Mustelidae, a large and ecomorphologically diverse family of mammalian carnivores. Maximum parsimony and likelihood analyses of separate and combined data sets were used to address questions regarding the levels of homoplasy, incongruence, and information content within and among loci. All loci showed limited resolution in the separate analyses because of either a low amount of informative variation (nuclear genes) or high levels of homoplasy (cyt b). Individually or combined, the nuclear gene sequences had less homoplasy, retained more signal, and were more decisive, even though cyt b contained more potentially informative variation than all the nuclear sequences combined. We obtained a well-resolved and supported phylogeny when the nuclear sequences were combined. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the total combined data (nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences) were able to better accommodate the high levels of homoplasy in the cyt b data than was an equally weighted maximum parsimony analysis. Furthermore, partition Bremer support analyses of the total combined tree showed that the relative support of the nuclear and mitochondrial genes differed according to whether or not the homoplasy in the cyt b gene was downweighted. Although the cyt b gene contributed phylogenetic signal for most major groupings, the nuclear gene sequences were more effective in reconstructing the deeper nodes of the combined tree in the equally weighted parsimony analysis, as judged by the variable-length bootstrap method. The total combined data supported the monophyly of the Lutrinae (otters), whereas the Melinae (badgers) and Mustelinae (weasels, martens) were both paraphyletic. The American badger, Taxidea taxus (Taxidiinae), was the most basal taxon. Because hundreds of type I STS primer sets spanning the complete genomes of the human and mouse have been published and thus represent many independently segregating loci, the potential utility of these markers for molecular systematics of mammals and other groups is enormous. PMID:14530127

  15. Histology, histochemistry and fine structure of the lacrimal and nictitans gland in the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Xenarthra, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Aldana Marcos, Hernán Javier; Cintia Ferrari, Carina; Cervino, Claudio; Affanni, Jorge Mario

    2002-12-01

    The anatomical, histological, histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of the lacrimal gland (LG) and nictitans gland (NG) of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus were described. The histochemical and histological features of both glands in male and female adult animals were compared. The tissues were processed with conventional techniques for light and transmission electron microscopy. Fixed specimens were submitted to a battery of tests for glycans, glycosaminglycans, glycoconjugates, proteins, and lipids. The LG of the armadillo may be considered within the set of glandulae lacrimales superior in which primates, carnivores, perisodactyls and artiodactyls are included. The localization of the NG was similar to that of other mammals. Lacrimal and NG were histologically and histochemically identical. The secretory endpieces consisted of three cell types: (1) Mucous cells (MC) with different types of mucous secretory granules with neutral and sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates (GCs). (2)Seromucous cells (SMC) showing a variety of moderately electron dense secretory granules with flocculent material with carboxylated acidic, neutral, and sialic acid-containing GCs. Intercellular canaliculi with junctional complexes and basolateral intercellular spaces were frequent. (3) Serous cells (SC) with electron dense secretory granules. Histochemically, they showed the strongest reaction for proteins and neutral, weakly acid and carboxylated acidic GCs. The epithelium of the intra- and inter-lobular excretory ducts showed secretory activity, junctional complexes, and wide basolateral intercellular spaces with lateral folds. The endpieces and ducts were surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The stroma was characterized by fenestrated endothelium, unmyelinated axons, and abundant plasma cells. MC, SMC, and the duct system were richly innervated by hypolemmal nerve terminals. PMID:12470975

  16. Mitochondrial DNA and karyotypic data confirm the presence of Mus indutus and Mus minutoides (Mammalia, Rodentia, Muridae, Nannomys) in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Molly M.; Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Ferguson, Adam W.; Lewis, Patrick J.; Tswiio, Matlhogonolo; Thies, Monte L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We use a combination of cytochrome b sequence data and karyological evidence to confirm the presence of Mus indutus and Mus minutoides in Botswana. Our data include sampling from five localities from across the country, including one site in northwestern Botswana where both species were captured in syntopy. Additionally, we find evidence for two mitochondrial lineages of M. minutoides in northwestern Botswana that differ by 5% in sequence variation. Also, we report that M. minutoides in Botswana have the 2n=34 karyotype with the presence of a (X.1) sex-autosome translocation. PMID:24363588

  17. A Systematic Study on Tooth Enamel Microstructures of Lambdopsalis bulla (Multituberculate, Mammalia) - Implications for Multituberculate Biology and Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Mao, Fangyuan; Wang, Yuanqing; Meng, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Tooth enamel microstructure is a reliable and widely used indicator of dietary interpretations and data for phylogenetic reconstruction, if all levels of variability are investigated. It is usually difficult to have a thorough examination at all levels of enamel structures for any mammals, especially for the early mammals, which are commonly represented by sparse specimens. Because of the random preservation of specimens, enamel microstructures from different teeth in various species are often compared. There are few examples that convincingly show intraspecific variation of tooth enamel microstructure in full dentition of a species, including multituberculates. Here we present a systematic survey of tooth enamel microstructures of Lambdopsalis bulla, a taeniolabidoid multituberculate from the Late Paleocene Nomogen Formation, Inner Mongolia. We examined enamel structures at all hierarchical levels. The samples are treated differently in section orientations and acid preparation and examined using different imaging methods. The results show that, except for preparation artifacts, the crystallites, enamel types, Schmelzmuster and dentition types of Lambdopsalis are relatively consistent in all permanent teeth, but the prism type, including the prism shape, size and density, may vary in different portions of a single tooth or among different teeth of an individual animal. The most common Schmelzmuster of the permanent teeth in Lambdopsalis is a combination of radial enamel in the inner and middle layers, aprismatic enamel in the outer layer, and irregular decussations in tooth crown area with great curvature. The prism seam is another comparably stable characteristic that may be a useful feature for multituberculate taxonomy. The systematic documentation of enamel structures in Lambdopsalis may be generalized for the enamel microstructure study, and thus for taxonomy and phylogenetic reconstruction, of multituberculates and even informative for the enamel study of other early mammals. PMID:26020958

  18. New data on recently described rodent species Paulina's Limestone Rat Saxatilomys paulinae Musser, Smith, Robinson & Lunde, 2005 (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nghia Xuan; Ngo, Tuong Xuan; Nguyen, Duy Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Paulina's Limestone Rat Saxatilomys paulinae Musser et al., 2005 was first discovered by Musser et al. (2005) based on specimens from the Khammouane Limestone National Biodiversity Conservation Area (NBCA) in Khammouane Province in central Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). This tower karst landscape is part of the Central Indochina Limestone massif, which extends eastward into north-central Vietnam in Quang Binh and Quang Tri Provinces. New information In April 2014, we conducted a rodent survey and collected four (4) whole specimens of Saxatilomys paulinae in Quang Binh province. This is the first record of Saxatilomys paulinae in Vietnam. External and craniodental characteristics of all specimens clearly exhibit the characters of Saxatilomys paulinae as described in Musser et al. (2005)?. The rats are of medium size (HB: 160.3 ± 2.03 mm, T: 192.3 ± 6.69 mm) with some specific morpological characteristics. The external and craniodental measurement of the specimens from Vietnam tend to be larger than those of specimens from Lao. However, this needs to be verified by more studies in future. The habitat of Saxatilomys paulinae in Vietnam is characterized by complicated terrain comprising low karst towers (around 400 m) with steep slopes covered under limestone humid evergreen forest. The forest has been affected by selected timber logging in the past, but still has a complex 4-layer structure. The population of Saxatilomys paulinae in Vietnam is threatened by rodent trapping/snaring and habitat disturbance. More status surveys should be conducted to assess the species distributional range and its population status for undertaking relevant conservation measures. PMID:26023285

  19. Community Analysis of Muridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) Diversity in Guinea: A Special Emphasis on Mastomys Species and Lassa Fever Distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lecompte; E. Calvet; M. D. Camara; A. Doré; K. Koulémou; F. Kourouma; B. Soropogui; O. Sylla; B. Allali-Kouadio; S. Kouassi-Kan; C. Akoua-Koffi; J. Meulen; L. Koivogui

    The Murid rodent diversity has been sampled following the 9th Meridian in the east of Guinea from the forest region to Sudanian savannas of southern Mali. This represents the first small\\u000a mammals survey in North Guinea. Murid diversity patterns have been researched using correspondence analysis and faunal comparisons.\\u000a A difference between southern forest communities and northern ones is observed. Mastomys

  20. Light and electron microscopy of the cardiac gland region of the stomach of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa – Suidae, Mammalia). 

    E-print Network

    Leus, Kristin; Macdonald, Alastair A; Goodall, Gordon P; Veitch, David; Mitchell, Steven; Bauwens, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the gross anatomical structure of the stomach of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) differs markedly from that of all other pigs. This light and scanning electron microscopic study revealed a previously unknown...

  1. Losses of mammals (Mammalia) and birds (Aves) on roads in the Slovak part of the Danube Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hell; R. Plavý; J. Slame?ka; J. Gašparík

    2005-01-01

    Mortality of mammals and birds due to traffic accidents was monitored in the Slovak part of the Danube Basin from September 2000 to December 2002. Monitored road length was 32 km. The route was inspected by vehicle or on foot 709 times (total of 22,677 km inspected). A total of 3,009 animal carcasses were found. Of these, 45.5% were mammals and 54.5%

  2. Mixed infection in the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla (Mammalia: Pilosa) from Pará State, Brazil: Trypanosoma cruzi, T. rangeli and Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    De Araújo, Vitor Antônio L; Boité, Mariana C; Cupolillo, Elisa; Jansen, Ana Maria; Roque, André Luiz R

    2013-04-01

    Some Trypanosoma and Leishmania species are multi-host parasites whose distribution overlaps in several parts of the Brazilian Amazon basin. Despite being a common trait among wild mammals, mixed infections and their consequences for the host's health and parasite transmission are still a poorly known phenomenon. Here we describe a triple mixed infection - Trypanosoma cruzi, T. rangeli and Leishmania infantum - in a bone marrow sample from an anteater Tamandua tetradactyla captured in a house backyard from the endemic Abaetetuba municipality in the Amazon basin. T. cruzi was also isolated from blood samples. The mini-exon multiplex PCR characterization detected the infection by T. rangeli and T. cruzi (TcI genotype), while L. infantum infection was confirmed by an ITS-PCR followed by amplicon sequencing. This is the first description of T. rangeli isolation from bone marrow and the first report of L. infantum infection in xenarthrans. The implications of this finding are discussed considering the influence of mixed infections in the role of this mammal species as a putative reservoir host of these 3 trypanosomatid species. PMID:23253893

  3. A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity.

    PubMed

    Góis, Flávio; González Ruiz, Laureano Raúl; Scillato-Yané, Gustavo Juan; Soibelzon, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene-lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene-lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age. PMID:26083486

  4. The clavicles of Smilodon fatalis and Panthera atrox (Mammalia: Felidae) from Rancho La Brea, Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Long, Ryan C; Farrell, Aisling B; Shaw, Christopher A

    2012-09-01

    The Rancho La Brea collections at the George C. Page Museum in Los Angeles, California, contain the largest single inventory of Smilodon fatalis remains representing virtually every bone in the skeleton. Eighteen clavicles of two distinctive shapes have been recovered from historical and recent excavations at Rancho La Brea. In this study, we identify these specimens to species through comparison of their morphology and morphological variability with clavicles found in modern felids. This study includes a reevaluation of clavicles that have been previously assigned to S. fatalis, which are more likely to be those of Panthera atrox, and the description of pantherine cat clavicles. A previously undescribed sample of clavicles not only includes some of the same pantherine morph but also 10 specimens, herein assigned to S. fatalis, which are morphologically distinctive and significantly smaller than the previously described specimens. In addition, we report unexpected variations between clavicles of Panthera leo and P. tigris: the clavicles of P. leo closely resemble those of the large Rancho La Brea clavicle morph-which presumably belongs to P. atrox-thus supporting a P. leo/P. atrox clade. We report distinctive morphology of the clavicles of Acinonyx jubatus. Possible functional and phylogenic significance of felid clavicles is suggested. PMID:22592918

  5. First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Sotnikova, Marina V; Foronova, Irina V

    2014-08-01

    A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznetsk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia). The find of P. fossilis first recorded in Asia considerably extends the current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions. The Siberian lion is geologically the oldest form and is dimensionally among the largest members of the group of fossil lions on the Eurasian continent. Although known by mandibular remains only, it is readily distinguished from Panthera (Leo) spelaea by a heavy built mandibular corpus with rectangular profile in the cheek teeth area, a deep, well-outlined and narrow anterior section of the masseteric fossa, and a large p4 supported by a big unreduced anterior root. The Siberian lion shares these features with the European Middle Pleistocene P. fossilis and the American Late Pleistocene P. (Leo) atrox, which suggests their close relationship. P. atrox originated from P. fossilis and was isolated in North America south of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This explains why the American lion has retained more primitive features than the coeval Eurasian cave lion P. (L.) spelaea. PMID:24382145

  6. Genetic differentiation and relationship of the dipodids Allactaga and Jaculus (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Egypt based on protein variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel A. Basyouny Shahin

    2003-01-01

    Genetic differentiation among 14 populations representing all Egyptian dipodid (jerboa) species and subspecies was examined\\u000a at 25 structural loci and interspecific relationships are discussed. Of the 25 loci, only 3 were monomorphic, with the same\\u000a allele fixed in all taxa, 9 loci were monomorphic, but demonstrated intertaxon variation, and only 13 loci were polymorphic.\\u000a The overall mean number of alleles

  7. Skeletogenesis and sequence heterochrony in rodent evolution, with particular emphasis on the African striped mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio (Mammalia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. B. Wilson; Carsten Schradin; Christian Mitgutsch; Fernando C. Galliari; Andrea Mess; Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra

    2010-01-01

    Data documenting skeletal development in rodents, the most species-rich ‘order’ of mammals, are at present restricted to a\\u000a few model species, a shortcoming that hinders exploration of the morphological and ecological diversification of the group.\\u000a In this study we provide the most comprehensive sampling of rodent ossification sequences to date, with the aim of exploring\\u000a whether heterochrony is ubiquitous in

  8. Chromosome painting and molecular dating indicate a low rate of chromosomal evolution in golden moles (Mammalia, Chrysochloridae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gilbert; P. C. O’Brien; G. Bronner; F. Yang; A. Hassanin; M. A. Ferguson-Smith; T. J. Robinson

    2006-01-01

    Golden moles (Chrysochloridae) are poorly known subterranean mammals endemic to Southern Africa that are part of the superordinal\\u000a clade Afrotheria. Using G-banding and chromosome painting we provide a comprehensive comparison of the karyotypes of five\\u000a species representing five of the nine recognized genera: Amblysomus hottentotus, Chrysochloris asiatica, Chrysospalax trevelyani, Cryptochloris zyli and Eremitalpa granti. The species are karyotypically highly conserved.

  9. First records of Trichodectes canis (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) from Darwin’s fox, Pseudalopex fulvipes (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel González-Acuña; Cristóbal Briceño; Armando Cicchino; Stephan M. Funk; Jaime Jiménez

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the dog biting louse, Trichodectes canis (De Geer, 1778; Ischnocera: Trichodectidae), is reported for the first time in the critically endangered Pseudalopex fulvipes (Martin, 1837) in Chiloé Island, south Chile.

  10. Padrão de divisão e distribuição das artérias mesentéricas no ratão-do-banhado (Myocastor coypus - Rodentia: Mammalia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilberto Valente Machado; Pedro Renato Gonçalves; Adelvino Parizzi

    celíaca (70%), ou em tronco comum com esta (30%); b) os ramos diretos da artéria mesentérica cranial são as artérias pancreaticoduodenal caudal (100%), cólica média (100%), duodenojejunal (90%), pancre- ática (10%), hepática (10%), cólica direita (100%), jejunais (100%), ileocólica (100%) e ileal (100%). A artéria mesentérica caudal surge da face ventral da aorta abdominal, imediatamente cranial à emergência das artérias

  11. Modelling the distribution of an introduced species: The coypu Myocastor coypus (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Piedmont region, NW Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bertolino; B. Ingegno

    2009-01-01

    Model?based analyses of species–habitat relationships can help to clarify which factors influence the establishment and spread of species. The coypu (Myocastor coypus) is a semi?aquatic rodent native to South America, which has been introduced worldwide, including Italy. We used logistic regression to analyse the species distribution according to habitat attributes of agro?ecosystems in Piedmont Region. The resulting model correctly predicted

  12. Invertebrate dispersal by aquatic mammals: a case study with nutria Myocastor coypus (Rodentia, Mammalia) in Southern France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aline Waterkeyn; Olivier Pineau; Patrick Grillas; Luc Brendonck

    2010-01-01

    Many freshwater invertebrates rely on vectors for their passive dispersal. A wide array of vectors has already been investigated,\\u000a but dispersal mediated by aquatic mammals remains largely unknown. Since nutria (Myocastor coypus Molina, 1782) live in a variety of aquatic habitats and frequently move around between these water bodies, they have the\\u000a opportunity to transport hitch-hiking aquatic invertebrates along with

  13. The northernmost record of Catagonus stenocephalus (Lund in Reinhardt, 1880) (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla) and its palaeoenvironmental and palaeobiogeographical significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avilla, Leonardo S.; Müller, Lisiane; Gasparini, German M.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Absolon, Bruno; Pêgo, Frederico Bonissoni; Silva, Rafael C.; Kinoshita, Angela; Graciano Figueiredo, Ana Maria; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2013-03-01

    During fieldwork carried out in January 2009 at Aurora do Tocantins (Tocantins State, northern Brazil), we recovered a fragmentary right maxilla (UNIRIO-PM 1006) of Catagonus stenocephalus from a sedimentary deposit of presumed late Pleistocene age in a karstic cave. This paper aims to: (1) provide the first record of C. stenocephalus in the northern region of Brazil (and consequently, also the northernmost one); (2) update the geographic distribution of C. stenocephalus; (3) present a date for the specimen; and (4) discuss the palaeoenvironmental and palaeobiogeographical implications of the finding. The species C. stenocephalus (Lund) is known from the Bonaerian (middle Pleistocene) and Lujanian (late Pleistocene to earliest Holocene) ages in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Bolivia. The new record presented here extends the geographical distribution of C. stenocephalus more than 1000 km north from the former northernmost record (caves of Lagoa Santa region). Peccaries of the genus Catagonus have several morphological features associated with cursorial habits in relatively open and dry environments. The new distributional range of C. stenocephalus is coincident with the Chacoan subregion, characterized by dry climates and open areas. As the studied material comes from the top of the carbonate layer, this may suggest that the deposition of the C. stenocephalus remains described here is synchronous with the onset of a wetter climate phase. This argument is also in accordance with the datation results, around 20 ky BP, just after the last glacial maximum. This increasingly wet climate, which may also be related to the climatic changes that occurred during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene, could be a factor in the extinction of C. stenocephalus in South America.

  14. Postnatal ontogenetic size and shape changes in the craniums of plateau pika and woolly hare (Mammalia: Lagomorpha).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Gui; Ge, De-Yan

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, postnatal ontogenetic size and shape changes in the cranium of two lagomorph species, the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) and woolly hare (Lepus oiostolus), were investigated by geometric morphometrics. The ontogenetic size and shape changes of their cranium exhibited different growth patterns in response to similar environmental pressures on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The overall size change in the cranium of the plateau pika was slower than that of the woolly hare. The percentage of ontogenetic shape variance explained by size in the woolly hare was greater than that in the plateau pika. The overall shape of the cranium was narrowed in both species, and morphological components in relation to neural maturity showed negative allometry, while those responsible for muscular development showed isometric or positive allometry. The most remarkable shape variations in the plateau pika were associated with food acquisition (temporalis development), though other remarkable shape variations in the incisive and palatal foramen in the ventral view were also observed. The most important shape change in the woolly hare was demonstrated by the elongation of the nasal bones, expansion of the supra-orbital process and shape variation of the neurocranium. PMID:25017747

  15. First record of Mylagaulid rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Olkhon Island, Baikal Lake, Irkutsk Region, Russia).

    PubMed

    Tesakov, A S; Lopatin, A V

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of rodent, Lamugaulus olkhonensis, belonging to the subfamily Promylagaulinae of the family Mylagaulidae, is described on the basis of isolated teeth from the Khalagay Formation of the Lower Miocene Tagay locality (Olkhon island, Lake Baikal, Irkutsk Region). This is the first record of mylagaulids in Eastern Siberia, significantly expanding the data on the distribution of this mainly North American group of rodents in Asia and showing its presence outside the Central Asian arid zone. PMID:25773245

  16. Intraordinal phylogenetics of treeshrews (Mammalia: Scandentia) based on evidence from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Link E. Olson; Eric J. Sargis; Robert D. Martin

    2005-01-01

    Despite their traditional and continuing prominence in studies of interordinal mammalian phylogenetics, treeshrews (order Scandentia) remain relatively unstudied with respect to their intraordinal relationships. At the same time, significant morphological variation among living treeshrews has been shown to have direct relevance to higher-level interpretations of character state change as reconstructed in traditional interordinal studies, which have often included only a

  17. Immunogenetic Evidence for the Phylogenetic Sister Group Relationship of Dogs and Bears (Mammalia, Carnivora: Canidae and Ursidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnd Schreiber; Klaus Eulenberger; Klausdieter Bauer

    1998-01-01

    Thirty-seven antigenic determinants were identified in the albumins, the immunoglobulin µ- and IgG(Fc) chains, and the C3 proteins of 51 carnivoran (sub)species from 31 genera, and in 12 noncarnivoran mammals. In addition to 19 determinants plesiomorphic for Carnivora as an order, 18 synapomorphic epitopes of carnivoran families revealed nine phylogenetic reaction groups: (1) canids, (2) ursids, (3) the racoon, (4)

  18. Evolutionary Patterns in the Dentition of Duplicidentata (Mammalia) and a Novel Trend in the Molarization of Premolars

    PubMed Central

    Kraatz, Brian P.; Meng, Jin; Weksler, Marcelo; Li, Chuankui

    2010-01-01

    Background The cusp homology of Lagomorpha has long been problematic largely because their teeth are highly derived relative to their more typically tribosphenic ancestors. Within this context, the lagomorph central cusp has been particularly difficult to homologize with other tribosphenic cusps; authors have previously considered it the paracone, protocone, metacone, amphicone, or an entirely new cusp. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present newly described fossil duplicidentates (Lagomorpha and Mimotonidae) in the context of a well-constrained phylogeny to establish a nomenclatural system for cusps based on the tribosphenic pattern. We show that the central cusp of lagomorphs is homologous with the metaconule of other mammals. We also show that the buccal acquisition of a second cusp on the premolars (molarization) within duplicidentates is atypical with respect to other mammalian lineages; within the earliest lagomorphs, a second buccal cusp is added mesially to an isolated buccal cusp. Conclusions/Significance The distal shift of the ‘ancestral’ paracone within early duplicidentates amounts to the changing of a paracone into a metacone in these lineages. For this reason, we support a strictly topological approach to cusp names, and suggest a discontinuity in nomenclature to capture the complexity of the interplay between evolutionary history and the developmental process that have produced cusp patterns in duplicidentates. PMID:20877465

  19. A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Scillato-Yané, Gustavo Juan; Soibelzon, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene–lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene–lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower–middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene–early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age. PMID:26083486

  20. Pattern and timing of diversification of Cetartiodactyla (Mammalia, Laurasiatheria), as revealed by a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Delsuc, Frédéric; Ropiquet, Anne; Hammer, Catrin; Jansen van Vuuren, Bettine; Matthee, Conrad; Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel; Catzeflis, François; Areskoug, Veronika; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Couloux, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    The order Cetartiodactyla includes cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) that are found in all oceans and seas, as well as in some rivers, and artiodactyls (ruminants, pigs, peccaries, hippos, camels and llamas) that are present on all continents, except Antarctica and until recent invasions, Australia. There are currently 332 recognized cetartiodactyl species, which are classified into 132 genera and 22 families. Most phylogenetic studies have focused on deep relationships, and no comprehensive time-calibrated tree for the group has been published yet. In this study, 128 new complete mitochondrial genomes of Cetartiodactyla were sequenced and aligned with those extracted from nucleotide databases. Our alignment includes 14,902 unambiguously aligned nucleotide characters for 210 taxa, representing 183 species, 107 genera, and all cetartiodactyl families. Our mtDNA data produced a statistically robust tree, which is largely consistent with previous classifications. However, a few taxa were found to be para- or polyphyletic, including the family Balaenopteridae, as well as several genera and species. Accordingly, we propose several taxonomic changes in order to render the classification compatible with our molecular phylogeny. In some cases, the results can be interpreted as possible taxonomic misidentification or evidence for mtDNA introgression. The existence of three new cryptic species of Ruminantia should therefore be confirmed by further analyses using nuclear data. We estimate divergence times using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock models. The deepest nodes appeared very sensitive to prior assumptions leading to unreliable estimates, primarily because of the misleading effects of rate heterogeneity, saturation and divergent outgroups. In addition, we detected that Whippomorpha contains slow-evolving taxa, such as large whales and hippos, as well as fast-evolving taxa, such as river dolphins. Our results nevertheless indicate that the evolutionary history of cetartiodactyls was punctuated by four main phases of rapid radiation during the Cenozoic era: the sudden occurrence of the three extant lineages within Cetartiodactyla (Cetruminantia, Suina and Tylopoda); the basal diversification of Cetacea during the Early Oligocene; and two radiations that involve Cetacea and Pecora, one at the Oligocene/Miocene boundary and the other in the Middle Miocene. In addition, we show that the high species diversity now observed in the families Bovidae and Cervidae accumulated mainly during the Late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene. PMID:22226162

  1. The fossil horses (Equidae, Mammalia)from the Plio-Pleistocene of Liventsovka near Rostov-Don, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Forsten

    1998-01-01

    A reanalysis and redescription of the fossil horses from Liventsovka is necessary for three reasons:their diversity may indicate faunal age heterogeneity, their taxonomic status indicates that the age of the fauna (or of part of it) is late rather than middle Villafranchian, and the references to Equus livenzovensisBaigusheva from Italy and Spain are erroneous.

  2. The taxonomic status of badgers (Mammalia, Mustelidae) from Southwest Asia based on cranial morphometrics, with the redescription of Meles canescens.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Alexei V; Puzachenko, Andrey Yu

    2013-01-01

    The Eurasian badgers (Meles spp.) are widespread in the Palaearctic Region, occurring from the British Islands in the west to the Japanese Islands in the east, including the Scandinavia, Southwest Asia and southern China. The morphometric variation in 30 cranial characters of 692 skulls of Meles from across the Palaearctic was here analyzed. This craniometric analysis revealed a significant difference between the European and Asian badger phylogenetic lineages, which can be further split in two pairs of taxa: meles - canescens and leucurus - anakuma. Overall, European badger populations are very similar morphologically, particularly with regards to the skull shape, but differ notably from those from Asia Minor, the Middle East and Transcaucasia. Based on the current survey of badger specimens available in main world museums, we have recognized four distinctive, parapatric species: Meles meles, found in most of Europe; Meles leucurus from continental Asia; M. anakuma from Japan; and M. canescens from Southwest Asia and the mountains of Middle Asia. These results are in agreement with those based on recent molecular data analyses. The morphological peculiarities and distribution range of M. canescens are discussed. The origin and evolution of Meles species, which is yet poorly understood, is also briefly discussed. PMID:25232583

  3. [Vector systems and rhythms in movements and orientation of elk (Alces alces L.) and other wild animals (Mammalia)].

    PubMed

    Za?tsev, V A

    2002-01-01

    The orientation of elk and other mammals studied in fields with visual and instrumental tracing has obviously hierarchical organization. Animals usually choose general direction headed for distant markers and then select short-distance landmarks. Movements of animals to distant and close landmarks is characterized by almost constant or regularly changing angles between main direction and movement vector. Fragments of trajectories represent left-side or right-side spirals with decreasing or increasing curvature according to the main direction. Three types of spirals differed by average values of initial angles are considered. Orientation to distant landmarks or along direction of movement possesses discrete reaction on the given landmarks and has some characters of iteration process. Special rhythms of activity (rhythms of orientation changing) participate in regulation of changing of movement directions and orientation reactions. They take part in formation of sinusoid, spiral and other trajectories. Rhythmic regulation involves great statistical variability of parameters (lengths, angles, time periods between consecutive orientations) that can be adaptive meaning. Lengths of orientation vectors and trajectory fragments are similar to some linear elements of landscape. Angular parameters of orientation are more variable. The main ones are similar to the angular parameters of Earth rotation. It looks, that orientation parameters evolved under the influence of Sun-Earth compass in inertial field of Earth rotation. PMID:12298181

  4. Reevaluation of several taxa of Chinese lagomorphs (Mammalia: Lagomorpha) described on the basis of pelage phenotype variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deyan Ge; Andrey A. Lissovsky; Lin Xia; Cheng Cheng; Andrew T. Smith; Yang Qisen

    Melanism is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. While the occurrence of melanism in lagomorphs has been less studied, this phenomenon has led to systematic confusion among different forms of pikas (Ochotona) and hares (Lepus). Within Ochotona, the Pianma black pika (O. nigritia) was established primarily based on its pelage phenotype variation compared with the sympatric Forrest's pika (O.

  5. Distribution and use of burrows and tunnels of Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Xenarthra) in the eastern Argentinean pampas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agustín M. Abba; Daniel E. Udrizar Sauthier; Sergio F. Vizcaíno

    2005-01-01

    Burrows and tunnels built byChaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804) (hairy armadillo) were studied in a farming area located in the Argentinean pampas, Buenos Aires Province,\\u000a Argentina. Fifty-six structures were selected and carefully excavated for this study. Data on diameter, form, and orientation\\u000a of the entrance, angle, length, and depth of the galleries, and spatial distribution of the structures were recorded. The

  6. Evolution of chromosomal variation in cottontails, genus Sylvilagus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha). II. Sylvilagus audubonii, S. idahoensis, S. nuttallii, and S. palustris.

    PubMed

    Robinson, T J; Elder, F F; Chapman, J A

    1984-01-01

    Chromosomes from cultured fibroblasts of four cottontail species (Sylvilagus audubonii, 2n = 42; S. idahoensis, 2n = 44; S. nuttallii, 2n = 42; and S. palustris, 2n = 38) were analyzed using G- and C-banding techniques. The evolutionary restructuring of the genomes of these species was traced by comparing their banded chromosomes to those of Lepus saxatilis, a species of hare in which the leporid ancestral karyotype is thought to have been conserved. Chromosomal evolution appears to have proceeded primarily through changes in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin and through fixation of Robertsonian fusions. Excluding heterochromatic differences, S. audubonii and S. nuttallii are karyotypically very similar, as are S. aquaticus and S. palustris (previously reported). The genome of the taxonomically controversial species S. idahoensis, compared to other cottontail species, is markedly impoverished in C-band material. These data and those of cottontail species previously described in the literature are incorporated in two alternative phylogenetic schemes. PMID:6510022

  7. Revision of the Wind River faunas, early Eocene of central Wyoming. IX - The oldest known hystricomorphous rodent (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Mary R.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Stucky, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    The rostral portion of the skull of a new genus and species of rodent, Armintomys tullbergi, from the earliest middle Eocene of the Wind River Basin (Wyoming) provides the geologically oldest known record of the hystricomorphous zygomasseteric structure. Armintomys also preserves the oldest known occurrence of incisor enamel that is transitional from pauciserial to uniserial. Other dental characters include: anteriorly grooved incisor, small premolars, and relatively primitive sciuravidlike molars. Analysis of this unique combination of characters implies that Armintomys is the oldest known myomorph rodent and the only known representative of a new family. Armintomyidae, which is referred, with question, to the myomorph superfamily Dipodoidea. Armintomys is more primitive, especially in premolar retention and structure, than the Bridgerian zapodid Elymys from Nevada, but adds to evidence from the latter for an early origin and radiation of dipodoid rodents.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Spotted Linsang, Prionodon pardicolor, the first representative from the family Prionodontidae (Mammalia, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Veron, Géraldine

    2014-06-17

    Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Spotted Linsang, Prionodon pardicolor, was sequenced using overlapping PCR products. The genome is 16,718 base pairs in length and contains the 37 genes found in a typical mammalian genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base composition on the L-strand is A: 32.4%, C: 25.0%, G: 13.9%, T: 28.7%. The control region of P. pardicolor includes both RS2 and RS3 tandem repeats. Phylogenetic analyses support a sister relationship with the Felidae. PMID:24937573

  9. Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in relation to human development in northern Paraná, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N

    2012-08-01

    Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human activities are endangering the future adaptability in natural ecosystems, which promotes the disappearance of low adaptive potential species. PMID:22990822

  10. A Systematic Study on Tooth Enamel Microstructures of Lambdopsalis bulla (Multituberculate, Mammalia) - Implications for Multituberculate Biology and Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Fangyuan; Wang, Yuanqing; Meng, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Tooth enamel microstructure is a reliable and widely used indicator of dietary interpretations and data for phylogenetic reconstruction, if all levels of variability are investigated. It is usually difficult to have a thorough examination at all levels of enamel structures for any mammals, especially for the early mammals, which are commonly represented by sparse specimens. Because of the random preservation of specimens, enamel microstructures from different teeth in various species are often compared. There are few examples that convincingly show intraspecific variation of tooth enamel microstructure in full dentition of a species, including multituberculates. Here we present a systematic survey of tooth enamel microstructures of Lambdopsalis bulla, a taeniolabidoid multituberculate from the Late Paleocene Nomogen Formation, Inner Mongolia. We examined enamel structures at all hierarchical levels. The samples are treated differently in section orientations and acid preparation and examined using different imaging methods. The results show that, except for preparation artifacts, the crystallites, enamel types, Schmelzmuster and dentition types of Lambdopsalis are relatively consistent in all permanent teeth, but the prism type, including the prism shape, size and density, may vary in different portions of a single tooth or among different teeth of an individual animal. The most common Schmelzmuster of the permanent teeth in Lambdopsalis is a combination of radial enamel in the inner and middle layers, aprismatic enamel in the outer layer, and irregular decussations in tooth crown area with great curvature. The prism seam is another comparably stable characteristic that may be a useful feature for multituberculate taxonomy. The systematic documentation of enamel structures in Lambdopsalis may be generalized for the enamel microstructure study, and thus for taxonomy and phylogenetic reconstruction, of multituberculates and even informative for the enamel study of other early mammals. PMID:26020958

  11. The taming of the shrew milk teeth Elina Jarvinen,a, Kaisa Valimaki,b Marja Pummila,a Irma Thesleff,a and Jukka Jernvalla

    E-print Network

    Merilä, Juha

    dentition is the evolutionary reduction of tooth number and replace- ment. Because mice do not replace teeth. In addition to limited tooth renewal, mamma- lian dentition is characterized by different teeth along the tooth row or heterodonty. The generalized mammalian dentition consists of anterior incisor and canine

  12. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History December 2007 Number 56:7285

    E-print Network

    Hlusko, Leslea J.

    , California 94720-3140 hlusko@berkeley.edu ABSTRACT The Colobinae (Mammalia: Primates) are relatively unknown OF PARACOLOBUS AND OTHER CERCOPITHECOIDEA (MAMMALIA: PRIMATES) FOSSILS FROM LEMUDONG'O, KENYA LESLEA J. HLUSKO they are unambiguous and fairly diverse taxonomically, geographically, and ecologically. The primate fauna from

  13. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 883 Creating and Maintaining Wildlife, Insect,

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    standing snag or the downed trunk, creates protective habitat for denning martens (Martes americana), fisher (M. pennanti), coyote (Canis latrans), and raccoon (Procyon lotor). Shrew-moles (Neurotrichus

  14. Delsuc et al. Molecular systematics of armadillos MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF ARMADILLOS (XENARTHRA, DASYPODIDAE): CONTRIBUTION OF

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    systematics of armadillos 2 ABSTRACT The thirty living species of armadillos, anteaters and sloths (Mammalia (armadillos, anteaters and sloths) has long been of special interest in attempts at understanding mammalian

  15. Le Sivatherium (Giraffidae, Mammalia) du Pliocène final d’Ahl al Oughlam (Casablanca, Maroc), et l’évolution du genre en Afrique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Geraads

    1996-01-01

    \\u000a Kurzfassung  Die oberpliozäne Lokalität Ahl al Oughlam bei Casablanca (Marokko) hat umfangreiches Material der GiraffeSivatherium maurusium geliefert. Die Dimensionen der Knochen liegen nicht zwischen denen der unterpliozänen und denen der pleistozänen Formen.\\u000a Die Entwicklung der Gattung in Afrika, obwohl wahrscheinlich anagenetisch, ist komplizierter als bisher angenommen. Die Größenreduktion\\u000a im Laufe des Pliozäns ist eine neue Ausnahme der Bergmann’schen Regel.

  16. Convergence analysis of a finite element skull model of Herpestes javanicus (Carnivora, Mammalia): implications for robust comparative inferences of biomechanical function.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Flynn, John J

    2015-01-21

    Predictions of skull biomechanical capability based on virtual models constitute a valuable data source for testing hypotheses about craniodental form and feeding behavior. Such comparative analyses also inform dietary reconstruction in extinct species. 3D modeling using Finite Element (FE) methods is a common technique applied to the comparative analysis of craniodental function in extinct and extant vertebrates. However, taxonomically diverse skull models in the literature often are not directly comparable to each other, in part because of distinctions in how boundary conditions are defined, but also because of substantial differences in the number of FEs composing the models. In this study, we test whether a conventional convergence test is adequate in identifying the minimum number of FEs needed to achieve internally stable results for a single species. We constructed a series of skull models of Herpestes javanicus, and simulated unilateral biting across the dentition; the models differed in the number of FEs, degrees of freedom at the joint and bite point constraints, and type of tetrahedral FEs used. We found that convergence patterns differed across constraint types, FE quantities, and bite position simulated. Four-noded tetrahedral (tet-4) FE models with relaxed constraints produced the most stable measurements compared to over-constrained tet-4 models and to relaxed tet-10 models. In absence of an optimal FE quantity from convergence testing, we propose a broadly applicable sub-sampling protocol, whereby average measurement values across multiple models per specimen are used for among-species comparisons. A regime of sampling three low FE quantity models produced the closest estimates of mean measurement values relative to larger model sets, being within the 95% bootstrap estimated confidence intervals. Future studies should focus on identifying sources of variation associated with other FE modeling protocols, so that they can be accounted for before biomechanical attributes from these simulations are used to infer form-function linkage. PMID:25445190

  17. [Dynamics of chromosome variation in mole voles Ellobius tancrei (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Pamiro-Alai in the period from 1982 to 2008].

    PubMed

    Liapunova, E A; Baklushinskaia, I Iu; Saidov, A S; Saidov, K Kh

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of a new karyological material of mole voles Ellobius tancrei from a zone of high chromosome variation (Pamiro-Alai) in comparison with the data obtained 25 years ago showed a slight shift of the chromosome numbers on the western border of the Robertsonian fan due to the expansion of the area of forms with a low chromosome number. In the central part of the fan zone, the process of active hybridization of forms with different chromosome numbers, but not of the original forms, is still going on. Some problems of speciation on the basis of Robertsonian translocations are discussed. PMID:20583600

  18. [Experimental hybridization of voies of the genus Microtus s.l. M. socialis with species of the group arvalis (Mammalia, Rodentia)].

    PubMed

    Koval'skaia, Iu M; Savinetskaia, L E; Aksenova, T G

    2014-01-01

    The results of interspecific crosses of the social vole Microtus socialis with the Altai vole M. obscurus, the East European vole M. rossiaemeridionalis, and the Transcaspian vole M. transcaspicus are presented. The role of the sperm head structure in the reproductive isolation of this species was studied. Hybrids were obtained in five of the six crossing combinations. It is established that significant differences in the sperm head shape in the social vole and in arvalis group species do not prevent fertilization. The sterility of hybrids indicates the existence of postcopulative mechanisms of reproductive isolation. PMID:25739313

  19. Description of a hair follicle mite (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitic in the earless seal family Phocidae (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the harbor seal Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford E. Desch; Murray D. Dailey; Pamela Tuomi

    2003-01-01

    Demodex phocidin. sp. is described (all life stages) from a captive Atlantic harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, from Seward, Alaska. This is the first description of a demodecid hair follicle mite from the earless seal family Phocidae. The mites reside in the sebaceous glands of the hair follicles and are associated with persistent areas of hyperkeratosis.

  20. Exploration of the taxonomy of some Pleistocene Cervini (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Cervidae) from Java and Sumatra (Indonesia): a geometric- and linear morphometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruwier, Ben; de Vos, John; Kovarovic, Kris

    2015-07-01

    Third molars of extant- and fossil Southeast Asian deer were metrically compared using a linear- and geometric morphometric approach and discussed in relation to known taxonomic information from the literature. Our analysis suggests the presence of medium sized deer of the genus Axis and large sized taxa of the genus Cervus s. l. in Java. Axis lydekkeri and Axis javanicus are considered valid taxa, with A. lydekkeri probably related to the subgenus Hyelaphus. The large deer, such as Cervus kendengensis, Cervus stehlini and Cervus problematicus are most likely of the subgenus Rusa, the former two closely related to extant Cervus timorensis. The Sumatran fossils are members of the subgenus Rusa, but not necessarily conspecific with extant Cervus (Rusa) unicolor.

  1. Vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 1-14 December 15, 2008 NEW PRIMATES (MAMMALIA) FROM THE EARLY AND MIDDLE EOCENE OF

    E-print Network

    Licciardi, Joseph M.

    Formation (latest Ypresian-earliest Lutetian; see Ginger- ich et al., 2001a,b). Contributions fromPaleontology,UniversityofMichigan,AnnArbor,Michigan, 48109-1079, USA(ggunnell@umich.edu; gingeric@umich.edu) 2Paleontology and Stratigraphy Branch, Geological Survey of Pakistan, Sariab Road, Quetta 3Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida

  2. Chromosome evolution in the subtribe Bovina (Mammalia, Bovidae): The karyotype of the Cambodian banteng ( Bos javanicus birmanicus ) suggests that Robertsonian translocations are related to interspecific hybridization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Ropiquet; Michèle Gerbault-Seureau; Jane L. Deuve; Clément Gilbert; Eva Pagacova; Norin Chai; Jiri Rubes; Alexandre Hassanin

    2008-01-01

    Three subspecies of banteng (Bos javanicus) have been described: B. j. javanicus in Java, B. j. lowi in Borneo, and B. j. birmanicus in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. In this paper we provide the first description of the karyotype of the\\u000a Cambodian banteng. The chromosomal complement of B. j. birmanicus differs from that of B. j. javanicus,

  3. The fossil Bovidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov, Israel: Out of Africa during the Early–Middle Pleistocene transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bienvenido Martínez-Navarro; Rivka Rabinovich

    2011-01-01

    We report the study of the collection of fossil bovid specimens from the Early–Middle Pleistocene Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov. This locality, situated in the Levantine Corridor (the bottleneck that connects Africa and Eurasia) is a key site to explain the faunal and human dispersals out of Africa during the Matuyama\\/Brunhes boundary around 0.8Ma. Two species of bovine (Bos

  4. The Dasypodidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Urso Fóssil Cave (Quaternary), Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil: paleoecological and taxonomic aspects.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paulo V; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Oliveira, Edison V; Viana, Maria Somália S

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with xenarthrans osteoderms assigned to Dasypus aff. D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cabassous sp. The material was collected in subsurface, from 0.10 to 0.60 m in the Urso Fóssil Cave, Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. The ages of sediment samples from levels 4 and 5 (depths of 0.40 and 0.50 m) were determined by thermoluminescence technique, and indicated ages of 8,000 and 8,200 years BP for each layer respectively. The presence in these layers of early Holocene xenarthrans taxa can contribute to the understanding of the biotic evolution of the northwest region of Ceará during the last 10,000 years. Two of the three identified taxa still occur in the region: Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus. The Dasypodidae fauna here reported includes animals with generalist feeding habits and current wide geographical distribution. It is suggested, therefore, that the climatic and environmental conditions in the early Holocene were very similar the actual ones, and that the absence of Cabassous may be conditioned to other factors, such as anthropogenic action and loss of habitat by fragmentation of the vegetation. PMID:24519005

  5. A new machairodont from the Palmetto Fauna (early Pliocene) of Florida, with comments on the origin of the Smilodontini (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae).

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven C; Hulbert, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    South-central Florida's latest Hemphillian Palmetto Fauna includes two machairodontine felids, the lion-sized Machairodus coloradensis and a smaller, jaguar-sized species, initially referred to Megantereon hesperus based on a single, relatively incomplete mandible. This made the latter the oldest record of Megantereon, suggesting a New World origin of the genus. Subsequent workers variously accepted or rejected this identification and biogeographic scenario. Fortunately, new material, which preserves previously unknown characters, is now known for the smaller taxon. The most parsimonious results of a phylogenetic analysis using 37 cranio-mandibular characters from 13 taxa place it in the Smilodontini, like the original study; however, as the sister-taxon to Megantereon and Smilodon. Accordingly, we formally describe Rhizosmilodon fiteae gen. et sp. nov. Rhizosmilodon, Megantereon, and Smilodon ( = Smilodontini) share synapomorphies relative to their sister-taxon Machairodontini: serrations smaller and restricted to canines; offset of P3 with P4 and p4 with m1; complete verticalization of mandibular symphysis; m1 shortened and robust with widest point anterior to notch; and extreme posterior "lean" to p3/p4. Rhizosmilodon has small anterior and posterior accessory cusps on p4, a relatively large lower canine, and small, non-procumbent lower incisors; all more primitive states than in Megantereon and Smilodon. The former also differs from Megantereon and Smilodon gracilis by having a very small mandibular flange. Rhizosmilodon is the oldest known member of the Smilodontini, suggesting that the tribe originated in North America. Two more derived, similar-sized species evolved in parallel during the Blancan, Megantereon hesperus and Smilodon gracilis. The former is rarer, known only from the north-central and northwestern US, and presumably dispersed into the Old World. The latter is known from the eastern and southern US, and dispersed into South America. PMID:23516394

  6. Was grass more prevalent in the pronghorn past? An assessment of the dietary adaptations of Miocene to Recent Antilocapridae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gina M. Semprebon; Florent Rivals

    2007-01-01

    Molar teeth of both Tertiary and Quaternary representatives of the family Antilocapridae were examined using mesowear and light stereomicroscopy microwear. Taxa from the Central and Southern Great Plains and the Northern and Southern Great Basin were included in the analyses and results compared to those obtained on the modern pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Species included spanned from the early Miocene (late

  7. A New Species of Capromeryx (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) From the Taunton Local Fauna of Washington, and the Correlation with Other Blancan Faunas of Washington and Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Morgan; Neil H. Morgan

    1995-01-01

    A large new species of the antilocaprid genus Capromeryx has been recovered from Blancan sediments of the Taunton locality, southwestern Adams County, Washington. The complex history of the genus is briefly reviewed and Capromeryx tauntonensis, sp. nov., is described from cranial and dental elements. Intermediate in size between Capromeryx arizonensis Skinner and Antilocapra americana Ord, C. tauntonensis is the oldest

  8. First skull of Orthaspidotherium edwardsi (Mammalia, “Condylarthra”) from the late Paleocene of Berru (France) and phylogenetic affinities of the enigmatic European family Pleuraspidotheriidae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANDRINE LADEVÈZE; PIETER MISSIAEN; THIERRY SMITH

    2010-01-01

    Among the archaic ‘ungulates,’ pleuraspidotheriids are well documented by skulls and postcranial elements of Pleuraspidotherium from Berru and Cernay-lès-Reims (late Paleocene, Paris Basin, France). Nevertheless, the relationships of pleuraspidotheriids (i.e., Pleuraspidotherium, Orthaspidotherium, and Hilalia) to other ‘condylarths’ have not been conclusively settled. They have been related to the typically North American Meniscotheriidae, Phenacodontidae, and Mioclaenidae, and even to the modern

  9. A skull of Machairodus giganteus (Felidae, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Turkey Denis GERAADS -UPR 2147 CNRS, 44 rue de l'Amiral Mouchez, 75014 PARIS, France

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    recognition of well-defined clades, but suggests instead gradual acquisition of the cranial and dental elevated above the occlusal line. The root of the canine bulges out on the maxilla. It forms, together

  10. Presence of the 54-chromosome common vole (Mammalia) on Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, East Siberia, Russia), and the occurrence of an unusual X-chromosome variant.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, S V; Tchabovsky, A V

    2011-01-01

    We report a new finding of the 54-chromosome sibling species of the common vole in East Siberia - the first description from Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal). The karyotype of a male specimen revealed by routine staining and C-banding demonstrates the unambiguous presence of Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Ognev, 1924 (recently often regarded as as junior synonym of Microtus levis Miller, 1908). Comparison with conspecific specimens from the European part of the species range (from the left bank of the river Volga) shows that the vole of the island population has a smaller X-chromosome due to a reduced quantity of C-positive heterochromatin. This is just the third example of this type of X-chromosome variant with previous cases on an Arctic island (Svalbard) and the West Siberian lowland (Novosibirsk) and the only one on a lake island. Although Microtus rossiaemeridionalis is largely monomorphic in its karyotype, our data show that one specific type of X-chromosome variant is remarkably widespread, though rare. PMID:24260647

  11. Variation in body size, sexual dimorphism and age-specific survival in stoats, Mustela erminea (Mammalia: Carnivora), with fluctuating food supplies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROGER A. POWELL; CAROLYN M. KING

    1997-01-01

    Most hypotheses attempting to explain the evolution of pronounced sexual dimorphism in body size in the three species of weasels (Mustela erminea,M. frenata,M. nivalis) assume that sexual dimorphism is a long-term adaptation, associated with the different reproductive strategies of the two sexes. We here examine an auxiliary hypothesis which predicts that the degree of sexual dimorphism may also vary over

  12. A New Basal Caniform (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the Middle Eocene of North America and Remarks on the Phylogeny of Early Carnivorans

    PubMed Central

    Tomiya, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite a long history of research, the phylogenetic origin and initial diversification of the mammalian crown-group Carnivora remain elusive. Well-preserved fossil materials of basal carnivorans are essential for resolving these issues, and for constraining the timing of the carnivoran origin, which constitutes an important time-calibration point in mammalian phylogenetics. Methodology/Principal Findings A new carnivoramorphan from the middle Eocene of southern California, Lycophocyon hutchisoni, is described. The new taxon exhibits stages of dental and basicranial evolution that are intermediate between earlier carnivoramorphans and the earliest representatives of canoid carnivorans. The evolutionary affinity of the new taxon was determined by a cladistic analysis of previously-published and newly-acquired morphological data for 30 Paleogene carnivoramorphans. The most-parsimonious trees identified L. hutchisoni as a basal caniform carnivoran, and placed (1) Tapocyon robustus, Quercygale angustidens, “Miacis” sylvestris, “M.” uintensis, and “M.” gracilis inside or outside the Carnivora, (2) nimravids within the Feliformia, and (3) the amphicyonid Daphoenus outside the crown-group Canoidea. Parsimony reconstructions of ancestral character states suggest that loss of the upper third molars and development of well-ossified entotympanics that are firmly fused to the basicranium (neither condition is observed in L. hutchisoni) are not associated with the origin of the Carnivora as traditionally thought, but instead occurred independently in the Caniformia and the Feliformia. A discriminant analysis of the estimated body weight and dental ecomorphology predicted a mesocarnivorous diet for L. hutchisoni, and the postcranial morphology suggests a scansorial habit. Conclusions/Significance Lycophocyon hutchisoni illuminates the morphological evolution of early caniforms leading to the origin of crown-group canoids. Considerable uncertainty remains with respect to the phylogenetic origin of the Carnivora. The minimum date of caniform-feliform divergence is provisionally suggested to be either 47 million years ago or 38 million years ago, depending on the position of “Miacis” sylvestris within or outside the Carnivora, respectively. PMID:21935380

  13. The endocranial cast of an early miocene edentate, Hapalops indifferens Ameghino (Mammalia, Edentata, Tardigrada, Megatheriidae). Comparative study with brains of recent sloths.

    PubMed

    Dozo, M T

    1987-01-01

    A natural endocranial cast which represents a complete brain of a specimen of Hapalops indifferens is described. Comparing this cast to brains of actual Tardigrada, it shows a telencephalic morphology and a pattern of neocortical sulci that resemble more the brain of Bradypus rather than that of Choloepus. The neocortical sulci homologate the lateral or corono-lateral, suprasylvian and pseudosylvian sulci. Taking into account the studies of cortical maps in Bradypus and the notable similitude of the pattern of neocortical sulci between Bradypus and H. indifferens, the possible representation of the primary sensitive and motor somatic areas, secondary sensitive somatic area, visual and auditory areas are inferred. As in Bradypus, the primary sensitive and motor somatotopic organizations would be overlapped and would not be mirror images; they would show a predominance of the area of the forelimb. The relative brain size of H. indifferens is similar or higher than that of sloths of the genus Bradypus. The close resemblance between Bradypus and Hapalops, with respect to its brain morphology and relative brain size. is congruent with the current hypothesis of the phylogenetic relations between fossil and recent Tardigrada. PMID:3655331

  14. Bone-breaking bite force of Basilosaurus isis (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the late Eocene of Egypt estimated by finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Snively, Eric; Fahlke, Julia M; Welsh, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Bite marks suggest that the late Eocence archaeocete whale Basilosaurus isis (Birket Qarun Formation, Egypt) fed upon juveniles of the contemporary basilosaurid Dorudon atrox. Finite element analysis (FEA) of a nearly complete adult cranium of B. isis enables estimates of its bite force and tests the animal's capabilities for crushing bone. Two loadcases reflect different biting scenarios: 1) an intitial closing phase, with all adductors active and a full condylar reaction force; and 2) a shearing phase, with the posterior temporalis active and minimized condylar force. The latter is considered probable when the jaws were nearly closed because the preserved jaws do not articulate as the molariform teeth come into occulusion. Reaction forces with all muscles active indicate that B. isis maintained relatively greater bite force anteriorly than seen in large crocodilians, and exerted a maximum bite force of at least 16,400 N at its upper P3. Under the shearing scenario with minimized condylar forces, tooth reaction forces could exceed 20,000 N despite lower magnitudes of muscle force. These bite forces at the teeth are consistent with bone indentations on Dorudon crania, reatract-and-shear hypotheses of Basilosaurus bite function, and seizure of prey by anterior teeth as proposed for other archaeocetes. The whale's bite forces match those estimated for pliosaurus when skull lengths are equalized, suggesting similar tradeoffs of bite function and hydrodynamics. Reaction forces in B. isis were lower than maxima estimated for large crocodylians and carnivorous dinosaurs. However, comparison of force estimates from FEA and regression data indicate that B. isis exerted the largest bite forces yet estimated for any mammal, and greater force than expected from its skull width. Cephalic feeding biomechanics of Basilosaurus isis are thus consistent with habitual predation. PMID:25714832

  15. New ruminants (Mammalia) from the Pliocene of Kanapoi, Kenya, and a revision of previous collections, with a note on the Suidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraads, Denis; Bobe, René; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

    2013-09-01

    We describe here new ruminant material and revise previous collections from the Pliocene site of Kanapoi in northwestern Kenya, at c. 4 Ma., leading to substantial changes in the identifications and faunal list. Tragelaphins are the most common bovids; reduncins are quite rare if present; hippotragins are probably represented by a form previously unknown from Kenya; the alcelaphin Damalacra is represented by a new species; and an antilopin is possibly related to Dytikodorcas. We remove the suid Notochoerus cf. euilus from the list. Similarities with the South African site of Langebaanweg are more distant than previously implied, but the Kanapoi ruminant fauna bears no close relationship with other eastern African Pliocene assemblages.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the boky-boky, Mungotictis decemlineata, the first representative of the Malagasy carnivores (Mammalia, Carnivora, Eupleridae).

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Veron, Géraldine

    2014-06-17

    Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the boky-boky, Mungotictis decemlineata, was sequenced using overlapping PCRs. The genome is 16,910 base pairs in length and contains the 37 genes found in a typical mammalian genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base composition on the L-strand is A: 32.1%, C: 27.8%, G: 14.5%, T: 25.6%. The control region of M. decemlineata includes both RS2 and RS3 tandem repeats. PMID:24937575

  17. A skeleton of Mesoscalops (Mammalia, Insectivora) from the Miocene Deep River Formation, Montana, and a review of the proscalopid moles: evolutionary, functional, and stratigraphic relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony D. Barnosky

    1981-01-01

    A nearly complete and partially articulated skeleton of Mesoscalops, a genus of fossorial insectivore hitherto known only by isolated teeth and some bones of the forelimb, is described and compared with other proscalopids, talpids, and chrysochlorids. The skeleton (UWBM 54708) is more complete than that of any proscalopid known to date, and provides a basis for description of the previously

  18. Characters and phylogenetic relationships of nectar-feeding bats, with descriptions of new Lonchophylla from western South America (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Lonchophyllini)

    E-print Network

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    2006-12-01

    Bolivian specimens 4–7 mm in length, distinctly bicolored or indistinctly tricolored with pale (Light Drab) bases (ca. 60% of length); distal portions Dresden Brown on lower back to Prout’s Brown near head, sometimes with pale tips; venter obviously paler... on mean GLS, HB, and FA (Table 2). Dorsal pelage 5–7 mm long, distinctly bicolored with paler bases (75–80% of length) typically about Pale Pinkish Buff, but may approach Pale Ecru Drab, tips about Dresden Brown to Clove Brown (specimens from Bolivia have...

  19. Seasonal changes in isoform composition of giant proteins of thick and thin filaments and titin (connectin) phosphorylation level in striated muscles of bears (Ursidae, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Salmov, N N; Vikhlyantsev, I M; Ulanova, A D; Gritsyna, Yu V; Bobylev, A G; Saveljev, A P; Makariushchenko, V V; Maksudov, G Yu; Podlubnaya, Z A

    2015-03-01

    Seasonal changes in the isoform composition of thick and thin filament proteins (titin, myosin heavy chains (MyHCs), nebulin), as well as in the phosphorylation level of titin in striated muscles of brown bear (Ursus arctos) and hibernating Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus ussuricus) were studied. We found that the changes that lead to skeletal muscle atrophy in bears during hibernation are not accompanied by a decrease in the content of nebulin and intact titin-1 (T1) isoforms. However, a decrease (2.1-3.4-fold) in the content of T2 fragments of titin was observed in bear skeletal muscles (m. gastrocnemius, m. longissimus dorsi, m. biceps) during hibernation. The content of the stiffer N2B titin isoform was observed to increase relative to the content of its more compliant N2BA isoform in the left ventricles of hibernating bears. At the same time, in spite of the absence of decrease in the total content of T1 in the myocardium of hibernating brown bear, the content of T2 fragments decreased ~1.6-fold. The level of titin phosphorylation only slightly increased in the cardiac muscle of hibernating brown bear. In the skeletal muscles of brown bear, the level of titin phosphorylation did not vary between seasons. However, changes in the composition of MyHCs aimed at increasing the content of slow (I) and decreasing the content of fast (IIa) isoforms of this protein during hibernation of brown bear were detected. Content of MyHCs I and IIa in the skeletal muscles of hibernating Himalayan black bear corresponded to that in the skeletal muscles of hibernating brown bear. PMID:25761688

  20. Differences in Tooth Microwear of Populations of Caribou ( Rangifer tarandus , Ruminantia, Mammalia) and Implications to Ecology, Migration, Glaciations and Dental Evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florent Rivals; Nikos Solounias

    2007-01-01

    Tooth microwear was analyzed for a large sample of wild-shot barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) from the Kaminuriak population of eastern Canada. This sample was compared to the microwear of specimens from three Pleistocene\\u000a localities in North America (Alaska) and western Europe (Caune de l’Arago in France and Salzgitter in Germany). The results\\u000a show that the extant samples from eastern

  1. [Polymorphism of the mtDNA control region in wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) from the European part of Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranova, A I; Kholodova, M V; Davydov, A V; Rozhkov, Iu I

    2012-09-01

    Genetic diversity ofwild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting the European part of Russia, including Komi Republic, Arkhangelsk oblast, Murmansk oblast, and the Republic of Karelia was characterized using sequence polymorphism of the mtDNA control region. Despite of currently low population number of wild reindeer, they were characterized by a high level of genetic diversity (pi = 0.018; H= 0.872 to 0.914). Phylogenetic analysis showed close relationships between European reindeer and wild reindeer of Siberia. In reindeer from Murmansk oblast a haplotype in common with the wild reindeer form Southwestern Norway was described. The reindeer sample examined contained no haplotypes earlier described for the reindeer of Central Norway. It is suggested that in recent past wild reindeer from the European north of Russia formed one population with the reindeer from the north of the Asian part of Eurasia. PMID:23113338

  2. Présence de Pomelomeryx boulangeri (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) dans l'Oligocène supérieur de la région d'Ajaccio (Corse): étude paléontologique et conséquencesPresence of Pomelomeryx boulangeri (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) in the Late Oligocene of the region of Ajaccio (Corsica): palaeontological study and consequences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrandini, Michelle; Ginsburg, Léonard; Ferrandini, Jean; Rossi, Philippe

    2000-11-01

    The Vazzio basin (Ajaccio, Upper Corsica) is made up of a set of continental sedimentary deposits of the torrential type, generally equated to temporary fresh water environments. This set of deposits, which rests on the Hercynian granitic substratum, is locally covered by the marly Pliocene. An examination of upper jugal tooth tracks allowed us to identify a specimen of Pomelomeryx boulangeri and thus to date the deposits to the Upper Chattian stage. This mammal was part of the massive invasion of Moschidae in Europe originating from Asia during the Upper/Late Oligocene. The youngest samples correspond to the MN3 biozone. The Corsican specimen examined is morphologically very similar to that of Moissac-II, which corresponds to MP29. Thus, during the Upper Oligocene, the separation of Corsica from the continent was either only partial or very recent.

  3. Novel serological tools for detection of Thottapalayam virus, a Soricomorpha-borne hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Mathias; Tegshduuren, Erdenesaikhan; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Petraityte, Rasa; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Hammerschmidt, Bärbel; Friedrich, Robert; Mertens, Marc; Groschup, Martin H; Arai, Satoru; Endo, Rika; Shimizu, Kenta; Koma, Takaaki; Yasuda, Shumpei; Ishihara, Chiaki; Ulrich, Rainer G; Arikawa, Jiro; Köllner, Bernd

    2012-11-01

    We developed serological tools for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies and hantavirus antigens in shrews. The work was focussed to generate Thottapalayam virus (TPMV)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and anti-shrew immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. The mAbs against TPMV nucleocapsid (N) protein were produced after immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant TPMV N proteins expressed in Escherichia coli, baculovirus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-mediated expression systems. In total, six TPMV N-protein-specific mAbs were generated that showed a characteristic fluorescent pattern in indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using TPMV-infected Vero cells. Out of the six mAbs tested, five showed no cross-reaction to rodent-associated hantaviruses (Hantaan, Seoul, Puumala, Tula, Dobrava-Belgrade and Sin Nombre viruses) in IFA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), although one mAb reacted to Sin Nombre virus in IFA. None of the mAbs cross-reacted with an amino-terminal segment of the shrew-borne Asama virus N protein. Anti-shrew-IgG sera were prepared after immunization of rabbits and BALB/c-mice with protein-G-purified shrew IgG. TPMV-N-protein-specific sera were raised by immunisation of Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) with purified yeast-expressed TPMV N protein. Using these tools, an indirect ELISA was developed to detect TPMV-N-protein-specific antibodies in the sera of shrews. Using an established serological assay, high TPMV N protein specific antibody titres were measured in the sera of TPMV-N-protein-immunized and experimentally TPMV-infected shrews, whereas no cross-reactivity to other hantavirus N proteins was found. Therefore, the generated mAbs and the established ELISA system represent useful serological tools to detect TPMV, TPMV-related virus antigens or hantavirus-specific antibodies in hantavirus-infected shrews. PMID:22828778

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION New trapping method to survey for presence of the

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    of the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus is hard to prove where its predator, the barn owl Tyto alba, is absent to the barn owl Tyto alba. The pellets of this owl provide rich material for mammalogists and are used

  5. FEASIBILITY OF MICRONUCLEUS METHODS FOR MONITORING GENETIC DAMAGE IN TWO FERAL SPECIES OF SMALL MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse) and Cryptotis parva (least shrew) possess desirable attributes for biomonitoring contamination of terrestrial ecoystems, but few studies have examined the potential use of these species for monitoring exposure to genotoxic contaminants. Th...

  6. A new Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Austin, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Young, Ker Shun

    2011-08-04

    .............................................................................................................. x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION....................................................................................... 1 II MATERIALS AND METHODS ................................................................ 7 III RESULTS... ....................................................................................................16 6 Vertebrae of Elaphe bairdi...................................................................................18 7 Miscellaneous mammalian skeletal elements.......................................................21 8 Teeth of shrew...

  7. I think learning this material is easiest in small batches. The phylogeny above provides a natural means for breaking the 18 eutherian orders up into easily digested chunks.

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Jack

    orders. Don't worry about naming the clades, but one contains the elephants: Order Macroscelida (elephant shrews; "big posterior limbs" named for cursorial to pegs comprised of tubes of dentine). Order Afrosoricida (tenrecs & golden moles

  8. Leptospira and Rodents in Cambodia: Environmental Determinants of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Svilena; Herbreteau, Vincent; Blasdell, Kim; Chaval, Yannick; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; Morand, Serge

    2012-01-01

    We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were carriers of Leptospira according to the 16S ribosomal RNA marker used. Rodent infection was higher in low-slope locations, corresponding to rain-fed paddy fields, especially in the rainy season and in Kaev Seima. Rodents (Rattus exulans) and shrews (Suncus murinus) inhabiting households showed significantly low levels of infections, whereas rodents living in and near to forests (shrubby wasteland, orchards) showed high levels of infection. PMID:22665613

  9. BY E..GUS COTHRAN, MICHAEL H. SMITH, JERRY O. WOLFF AND JOHN B. GENTRY

    E-print Network

    Georgia, University of

    57 Sorex longirostris longirostris Bachman - Southeastern Shrew 58 Condylura cristata parva Paradiso)· Swamp Rabbit 67 Sylvilagus floridanus mallurus (Thomas) - Eastern Cottontail 68 Sylvilagus palustris palustris (Bachman) . Marsh Rabbi t 69 Neotoma floridana floridana (Ord) - Eastern WoodRat 70 Ochrotomys

  10. Deamination of 5-Methylcytosine Residues in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gromenko, E.V.; Spirin, P.V.; Kubareva, E.A.; Romanova, E.A.; Prassolov, V.S.; Shpanchenko, O.V.

    2009-01-01

    DNA demethylation in mammalia occurs after fertilization and during embryogenesis and accompanies cell aging and cancer transformation. With the help of the primer extension reaction, MALDI MS and DNA cleavage by thymine DNA glycosylase deamination of 5-methylcytosine residues has been shown to take place when the model methylated DNA duplexes are treated with nuclear extracts from the cell lines CHO, HeLa, and Skov3. The hypothesis that deamination of 5-methylcytosine is the first stage of demethylation in mammalia has been postulated. PMID:22649624

  11. Limb preference in the gallop of dogs and the half-bound of pikas on flat ground

    E-print Network

    Hackert, Rémi; Herbin, Marc; Abourachid, Anick; Libourel, P A

    2008-01-01

    During fast locomotion - gallop, half bound - of quadruped mammals, the ground contact of the limbs in each pair do not alternate symmetrically. Animals using such asymmetrical gait thus choose whether the left or the right limb will contact the ground first, and this gives rise to limb preference. Here, we report that dogs (Mammalia, Carnivora) and pikas (Mammalia, Lagomorpha) prefer one forelimb as trailing limb and use it as such almost twice as often as the other. We also show that this choice depends on the individual and is not a characteristic of the species, and that the strength of the preference was not dependent on the animal's running speed.

  12. Response of soricid populations to repeated fire and fuel reduction treatments in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte E. Matthews; Christopher E. Moorman; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2009-01-01

    Fuel hazards have increased in forests across the United States because of fire exclusion during the 20th century. Treatments used to reduce fuel buildup may affect wildlife, such as shrews, living on the forest floor, especially when treatments are applied repeatedly. From mid-May to mid-August 2006 and 2007, we used drift fences with pitfall traps to capture shrews in western

  13. Airoldi, J.-P. (1978). Study through capture and recapture of a population of water voles, Arvicola terrestris scherman Shaw (Mammalia, Rodentia). Terre et Vie 32 : 3-45. (In French,

    E-print Network

    Airoldi, Jean-Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Airoldi, J.-P. (1978). Study through capture and recapture of a population of water voles, Arvicola-isolated population of the fossorial form of the Water vole, Arvicola terrestris scherman Shaw, was studied individuals. Water voles live generally in pairs. Outside the breeding period, they often live in more complex

  14. Is parasite load dependent on host aggregation size? The case of the greater mouse-eared bat Myotis myotis (Mammalia: Chiroptera) and its parasitic mite Spinturnix myoti (Acari: Gamasida).

    PubMed

    Postawa, Tomasz; Szubert-Kruszy?ska, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    The risk of parasite infection grows with the size of host aggregations, which, in turn, may also depend on host sex and age and the quality of environmental resources. Herein, we studied the relationship between ectoparasitic infections with the wing mite (Spinturnix myoti) and the size of the breeding colonies, sex, age, and body condition index (BCI) of its host, the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis). The influence of environmental quality in the Carpathian Mountains (Poland) was also examined. We found significant differences in mite abundance and BCI between different breeding aggregations of the greater mouse-eared bat and also between the host sex/age categories. The most heavily infected bats were adult M. myotis females, while young males appeared to be the least infected. The BCI differed significantly between the sexes in young bats (males had a higher BCI than females) and also between colonies. No significant differences in the BCI were found for adult females. We did not find any relationship between the infestation rate of M. myotis, their colony size, the quality of environmental resources (percentage of forest cover around the colony), or the BCI. The prevalence of the various developmental stages of the mites did not differ between the host sex/age categories; however, differences were found in the sex ratios of deutonymphs and adult mites between adult M. myotis females. We predict that parasite load may not be dependent on colony size itself, but mainly on microclimatic factors, which are in turn directly correlated with colony size. PMID:24604385

  15. Deep barriers, shallow divergences: reduced phylogeographical structure in

    E-print Network

    Olson, Link

    in the collared pika (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: Ochotona collaris) Hayley C. Lanier* and Link E. Olson University Pikas (Ochotona spp.) are alpine specialists that show considerable mor- phological and genetic nucleotide diversity in O. collaris, O. princeps and O. curzoniae was compared, genetic diversity was found

  16. Biogeography Editor-in-Chief: Robert J. Whittaker

    E-print Network

    Olson, Link

    (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: Ochotona collaris) Hayley C. Lanier* and Link E. Olson University of Alaska Museum, 1109 Geddes Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. E-mail: hclanier@umich.edu ABSTRACT Aim Pikas (Ochotona diversity in O. collaris, O. princeps and O. curzoniae was compared, genetic diversity was found to decline

  17. Molecular Ecology (2002) 11, 20492063 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd

    E-print Network

    2002-01-01

    -glacial colonization of northwestern North America by the forest-associated American marten (Martes americana, Mammalia diversification of American martens (Martes americana). Within martens, two morphological groups (americana Northwest and found two clades that corre- spond to the morphological groups. The widespread americana clade

  18. Demythologizing Arctodus simus, the ‘short-faced’ long-legged and predaceous bear that never was

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Borja Figueirido; Juan A. Pérez-Claros; Vanessa Torregrosa; Alberto Martín-Serra; Paul Palmqvist

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we review the previous evidence on the paleobiology of the giant, ‘short-faced’ bear Arctodus simus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae) and contribute new ecomorphological inferences on the paleobiology of this enigmatic species. Craniodental variables are used in a comparative morphometric study across the families Felidae, Hyaenidae, Canidae, and Ursidae. Principal components analyses (PCAs) do not show an ecomorphological adaptation

  19. Bibliography of Archaeocete Cetaceans Mark D. Uhen

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    . The preparation, molding, casting, and mounting of Dorudon atrox (Mammalia, Archaeoceti). Journal of Vertebrate [Natural History] 7:25-26. Anonymous. 1939. A fossil whale from Australia. Nature 143:525. Anonymous. 1973:3. Applegate, S. P. 1969. Digging fossil whales in Mississippi with southern hospitality. Los Angeles County

  20. Rhinocerotidae from the Middle Miocene Hominoid Locality of andir (Turkey). 1 figure, 2 plates

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Rhinocerotidae from the Middle Miocene Hominoid Locality of Çandir (Turkey). 1 figure, 2 plates Miocene localities. More specimens of the 3 species identified by HEISSIG (1976), Beliajevina grimmi. Key-words: Middle Miocene, Turkey, Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Rhinocerotidae Introduction In 1976, K

  1. Ruminants, other than Giraffidae from the middle Miocene hominoid locality of andir 9 figures, 3 plates

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Ruminants, other than Giraffidae from the middle Miocene hominoid locality of Çandir (Turkey). 9 especially open. Key-words.- Middle Miocene, Turkey, Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Ruminantia Introduction The middle Miocene site of Çandir, 60 km N-E of Ankara, has long been known for having yielded the hominoid

  2. Chalicotheriidae from the middle Miocene hominoid locality of andir (Turkey). Denis GERAADS * & Gerek SARA **

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Chalicotheriidae from the middle Miocene hominoid locality of Çandir (Turkey). Denis GERAADS significance of the differences. Key-words.- Middle Miocene, Turkey, Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Chalicotheriidae hoofs, are represented in the Middle Miocene of Europe and Asia by their two subfamilies

  3. Ecomorphological study of large canids from the lower Pleistocene of southeastern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL PALMQVIST; ALFONSO ARRIBAS; BIENVENIDO MARTÍNEZ-NAVARRO

    2007-01-01

    An ecomorphological analysis of the skeletal remains of large canids, Canis ( Xenocyon ) falconeri and Canis etruscus (Mammalia, Carnivora, Canidae), preserved in an assemblage of large mam- mals from the lower Pleistocene site at Venta Micena (Guadix-Baza Basin, Orce, Granada, southeastern Spain) is reported. Mean body mass of adult individuals was estimated to be around 10 kg for C.

  4. A review of fossil rhinoceroses from the Neogene of Myanmar with description of new specimens from the Irrawaddy Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Masanaru Takai; Takehisa Tsubamoto; Naoko Egi; Thaung-Htike; Takeshi Nishimura; Maung-Maung; Zaw-Win

    2010-01-01

    Four genera and one indeterminate genus (total eight species) of fossil rhinoceroses (Mammalia; Perissodactyla; Rhinocerotidae) are recognized from the Neogene of central Myanmar. In the early Miocene, most area of central Myanmar were under the shallow marine condition, and no rhinocerotid remain has been documented yet. During the middle to late Miocene, the rhinocerotid remains are commonly found and are

  5. Modeling body size evolution in Felidae under alternative phylogenetic hypotheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho; João Carlos Nabout

    2009-01-01

    The use of phylogenetic comparative methods in ecological research has advanced during the last twenty years, mainly due to accurate phylogenetic reconstructions based on molecular data and computational and statistical ad- vances. We used phylogenetic correlograms and phylogenetic eigenvector regression (PVR) to model body size evolution in 35 worldwide Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora) species using two alternative phylogenies and published body

  6. The most ancient xenarthran petrosal: morphology and evolutionary significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Babot; Daniel A. García López; Timothy J. Gaudin

    2012-01-01

    In this study we describe an isolated petrosal from the middle Eocene of northwestern Argentina assigned to Dasypodinae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata). The specimen was recovered from the Geste Formation, Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca, Argentina. The material is an incomplete right petrosal preserving the pars cochlearis and the anterior third of the pars canalicularis. It is described in detail and

  7. Molecular Ecology 1996,5,807-810 S H O R T C O M M U N I C A T I O N

    E-print Network

    Avise, John

    (Cheng et al. 1994b;Li et al. 1995). Assays were focused primarily on armadillos (Mammalia, Edentata.5-1 pg)from the other armadillo species. The following cycling parameters were employed in 100pL reaction similarity across the armadillo species were noted. From the two longest of these regions (36 and 41 bp), 32

  8. Phylogenetical aspects of brain gangliosides in vertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hinrich Rahmann; Reinhard Hilbig

    1983-01-01

    The concentration and composition of brain gangliosides in 78 vertebrate species belonging to the classes of Agnathes, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia were investigated.1.An increase in the concentration of gangliosides takes place with anagenetic progress of nervous organization during phylogeny which is accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in the content of neuronal sialo-glycoproteins. This tendency can be observed

  9. Allantode,Amnios, Chorion, Cladogramme desVertbrs terrestres, Coeur quatre chambres, Ectotherme, Endotherme, Fcondation

    E-print Network

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    natatoire, squelette osseux Ceinture pelvienne et pectorale Tetrapoda Locomotion terrestre Amniota Oeuf avec Mammalia 4 Nombre d'espèces Vertebrata 4!600 9!000 7!000 4!200 24!600 Poissons Amphibia Reptilia Aves · Membres à angles droit · Mâchoires puissantes · Écailles 13 Locomotion · Lézards et crocodiles utilisent

  10. Estimation of Body Mass in Paleontology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Smith

    2002-01-01

    Body Mass in Cercopithecidae (Primates, Mammalia): Estimation and Scaling in Extinct and Extant Taxa By Eric Delson, Carl J. Terranova, William L. Jungers, Eric J. Sargis, Nina G. Jablonski, and Paul C. Dechow (2000). Anthropological Papers, Number 83. New York: American Museum of Natural History. 159 pp. $16.50 (paperback). ISSN 0065-9452.

  11. Douglas-fir forests in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Washington: is the abundance of small mammals related to stand age and moisture?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coen, P.S.; Bury, R.B.; Spies, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Red tree voles (Arborimus longicaudus) were the only small mammal strongly associated with old-growth forests, whereas vagrant shrews (Sorex vagrans) were most abundant in young forests. Pacific marsh shrews (S. bendirii) were most abundant in wet old-growth forests, but abundance of this species in young (wet) forests needs further study. Clearcuts had a mammalian fauna distinct from young forest stands. Abundance of several species was correlated to habitat features unique to naturally regenerated forests, indicated an urgent need to study the long-term effects of forest management to nongame wildlife.

  12. Vertebrate remains from the Wilson-Leonard site (41WM235), Williamson County, Texas: Holocene animal exploitation in central Texas prehistory 

    E-print Network

    Baker, Barry Wayne

    1994-01-01

    of the micro-fauna (rom Wilson-Leonard, thus providing specific paleoenvironmental data for the stte. Winkler (1990:204) reported pine/prairie vole, northern rice rat, and short-tailed shrew from the site, none of which currently live in the area. From...-lined ground squirrel. The presence of short-tailed shrew, tree squirrel, and vole reflect wooded areas. Sandy soils nearby the site are indicated by the presence of pocket gophers, grasshopper mice, pocket mice, and possibly spotted ground squirrels...

  13. Dugong dugon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Species profile of the dugong, Dugong dugon, including taxonomic classification, geographic range, biogeographic region, habitat, physical description, diet, behavior, reproduction, economic importance to humans and conservation status. Selected references and glossary are provided. Classification feature provides links to descriptions of each taxon, e.g. Animalia, Mammalia, Sirenia, etc., including images and details on anatomical features used in differentiating at each level. Appropriate for grades 7 and up.

  14. Postpartum endocrinology and sexual behavior relative to lactation in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) 

    E-print Network

    Franchek, Kathleen Mary

    1989-01-01

    , which live in patchy arboreal environments, e. g. , cotton-top tamarins, (French, 1983), common marmosets (Lunn and McNeilly, 1981; McNeilly et al. , 1981; French, 1983) and golden lion tamarins (Rothe, 1975; Wilson, 1978) exhibit a postpartum estrus.... Lactation does not seem to influence the interval from parturition to estrus in marmosets and tamarins (Table 1). TABLE 1. Comparative analysis of Orders within Class Mammalia to differentiate patterns of postpartum lactational inhibition. Species...

  15. A new arboreal haramiyid shows the diversity of crown mammals in the Jurassic period.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoting; Bi, Shundong; Wang, Xiaoli; Meng, Jin

    2013-08-01

    A major unsolved problem in mammalian evolution is the origin of Allotheria, including Multituberculata and Haramiyida. Multituberculates are the most diverse and best known Mesozoic era mammals and ecologically resemble rodents, but haramiyids are known mainly from isolated teeth, hampering our search for their phylogenetic relationships. Here we report a new haramiyid from the Jurassic period of China, which is, to our knowledge the largest reported so far. It has a novel dentition, a mandible resembling advanced multituberculates and postcranial features adapted for arboreal life. Our phylogenetic analysis places Haramiyida within crown Mammalia, suggesting the origin of crown Mammalia in the Late Triassic period and diversification in the Jurassic, which contrasts other estimated divergence times of crown Mammalia. The new haramiyid reveals additional mammalian features of the group, helps to identify other haramiyids represented by isolated teeth, and shows again that, regardless of various phylogenetic scenarios, a complex pattern of evolution involving many convergences and/or reversals existed in Mesozoic mammals. PMID:23925244

  16. Factors influencing amphibian and small mammal assemblages in central Appalachian forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph C. Mitchell; Sherry C. Rinehart; John F. Pagels; Kurt A. Buhlmann; Christopher A. Pague

    1997-01-01

    We studied terrestrial amphibian and small mammal assemblages with drift fences and pitfall traps in five forested stands during 1987–1988 on Shenandoah Mountain in the George Washington National Forest, Virginia, USA. Eleven species of salamanders, five frogs, five shrews, and seven rodents were monitored. Amphibians were significantly more abundant in forest stands consisting of mature hardwoods than in a recent

  17. Crystal Structure of ?-Crystallin:  Adaptation of a Class 1 Aldehyde Dehydrogenase for a New Role in the Eye Lens †

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. A. Bateman; A. G. Purkiss; R. van Montfort; C. Slingsby; C. Graham; G. Wistow

    2003-01-01

    Crystallin is a retinal dehydrogenase that has acquired a role as a structural protein in the eye lens of elephant shrews, members of an ancient order of mammals. While it retains some activity toward retinal, which is oxidized to retinoic acid, the protein has acquired a number of specific sequence changes that have presumably been selected to enhance the lens

  18. There is now a considerable body of literature supporting the conclusion that most endothermic divers sustain an

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin L.

    Ornithorynchus anatinus (Grant, 1984; Evans et al., 1994) and mink Mustela vison (Dunstone and O'Connor, 1979). With the exception of the European water shrew Neomys fodiens (Churchfield, 1985; Kohler, 1991), no published data and Kovacs, 1997). The average dive times of these moles rivalled those of the mink (Dunstone and O

  19. Complete Genome Sequences of Four European Subtype Strains of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus from Eastern Siberia, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Melnikova, Olga V.; Karan, Ludmila S.; Andaev, Evgeny I.; Balakhonov, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    Three tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strains were isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks, and one was isolated from a shrew in the territory of eastern Siberia (Russia). The level of sequence identity compared to Neudoerfl (the European prototype strain) is 97.2 to 97.3%. PMID:26089416

  20. 2000 Macmillan Magazines Ltd letters to nature

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    a bat. Nature 350, 383±384 (1991). 17. Gould, E. Evidence for echolocation in the Tenrecidae of Madagascar. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 109, 352± 360 (1965). 18. Tomasi, T. E. Echolocation by the short for echolocation in the common shrew, Sorex araneus. J. Zool. Lond. 216, 655±662 (1988). 20. Speakman, J. R & Racey

  1. ABOUT THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO Life at the University of Colorado at Boulder centers

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    rural style architecture with sandstone walls and red tile roofs that echo the drama and beauty in repertory: Taming ofthe Shrew, Measure for Measure, Love's Labour's Lost, and Richard II. For addi- tional - August 1) The 1998 festival features guest artists Urban Bush Women and David Dorfman Dance. This special

  2. Biodiversity Toolkit Why we DON'T DIG PEAT

    E-print Network

    Melham, Tom

    Biodiversity Toolkit Peat free Why we DON'T DIG PEAT The collegiate University is working to help the environment and wildlife by phasing out its use of products containing peat, such as compost and soil improver.admin.ox.ac.uk/estates/environment/biodiversity Cut your carbon emissions Wildlife living in peat bogs includes foxes, Irish hares, pygmy shrews, red

  3. On the Evolution of Myoglobin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Romero-Herrera; H. Lehmann; K. A. Joysey; A. E. Friday

    1978-01-01

    In previous studies, particularly of primates, a high degree of concordance was obtained between an evolutionary pattern based on comparative anatomy and another based on a reconstruction of the possible pathway of evolution of the myoglobin molecule. Accordingly, in extending our studies, we included species of uncertain evolutionary kinship, such as the tree shrew, and also increased the representation of

  4. THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY 19431-95 (1980) Representation of the Body Surface in Somatosensory

    E-print Network

    Sur, Mriganka

    1980-01-01

    , phylogenetic relationship to primates, and smooth, easily mapped cortex. A systematic representation. Overall features of somatotopic organization were similar to S-I of other mammals, S-I of prosimian to the foot representation. As in a number of other mammals, a large portion of S-I in tree shrews is devoted

  5. Biological monitors of pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Root, M.

    1990-02-01

    This article discusses the use of biological monitors to assess the biological consequences of toxicants in the environment, such as bioavailability, synergism, and bioaccumulation through the food web. Among the organisms discussed are fly larvae, worms, bees, shellfish, fishes, birds (starlings, owls, hawks, songbirds) and mammals (rabbits, field mice, shrews).

  6. Problem Set 4 for Biomath 213: Due March 5, 2011 1. Calculate the KortewegMoens velocity for the canine cardiovascular system,

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    for the canine cardiovascular system, given that the canine aorta has a vessel wall thickness of 2 mm, a radius this information, what value of R corresponds to |k|R=1 for a shrew? How does this answer compare to 2 c? c

  7. Intrinsic hand proportions of euarchontans and other mammals: Implications for the locomotor behavior of plesiadapiforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Christopher Kirk; Pierre Lemelin; Mark W. Hamrick; Doug M. Boyer; Jonathan I. Bloch

    2008-01-01

    Arboreal primates have distinctive intrinsic hand proportions compared with many other mammals. Within Euarchonta, platyrrhines and strepsirrhines have longer manual proximal phalanges relative to metacarpal length than colugos and terrestrial tree shrews. This trait is part of a complex of features allowing primates to grasp small-diameter arboreal substrates. In addition to many living and Eocene primates, relative elongation of proximal

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Molecular and physicochemical characterization of hemoglobin

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin L.

    the highest mass-specific rates of O2 consumption recorded among eutherian mammals, though surprisingly of white-toothed (crocidurine) shrews examined to date. The efficient exploitation of blood O2 reserves unloading is presumably further enhanced by a relatively high Bohr effect (DLog P50/DpH = -0.69) and marked

  9. Sex chromosome aneuploidy in wild small mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Searle; R. M. Jones

    2002-01-01

    We describe four examples of the XO condition in wild mammals. One XO house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) was caught in nature and subsequently gave birth to three litters in captivity, confirming for wild mice the fertility observed for XO laboratory mice. Two other XO house mice were produced from laboratory crosses of wild-caught mice. An immature XO common shrew

  10. Prolonged hematopoiesis in a primate bone marrow culture system: characteristics of stem cell production and hematopoietic microenvironment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. S. Moore; A. P. C. Sheridan; T. D. Allen; T. M. Dexter

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance of myelopoiesis and pluripo- tential stem cell production for prolonged periods in vitro hitherto has been limited to mouse bone marrow culture. In an effort to adapt the system for use in higher species, particularly in human and non-human primates, studies were undertaken using the prosimian species, Tupaia gus (tree shrew). In a number of experiments the duration of

  11. Trends in North American small mammals found in common barn-owl (Tyto alba) dietary studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bunck, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Data on mammals were compiled from published studies of common barn-owl (Tyto alba) pellets. Mammalian composition of pellet samples was analyzed within geographic regions in regard to year, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and number of individual mammals in the sample. Percentages of individuals in pellets that were shrews increased whereas the percentages of rodents decreased with greater mean annual precipitation, especially in northern and western areas of North America. From the 1920s through 1980s, in northern and eastern areas the percentage of species that was shrews decreased, and in northern and central areas the percentage of individuals that was murid rats and mice increased. Human alterations of habitats during these seven decades are postulated to have caused changes in available small mammals, leading to changes in the barn-owl diet.

  12. Vanguard: A New Detection Scheme for a Class of TCP-targeted Denial-of-Service Attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiapu Luo; Edmond W. W. Chan; Rocky K. C. Chang

    2006-01-01

    ó A few low-rate, TCP-targeted Denial-of- Service (DoS) attacks have been recently proposed, in- cluding the Shrew attack, Reduction of Quality (RoQ) attack, and Pulsing DoS (PDoS) attack. All of them use periodic attack pulses to throttle TCP o ws. These attacks could potentially become major threats to the Internet's stabiliity and therefore they have motivated the development of a

  13. Sex differences in cadmium accumulation in a laboratory population of a wild British insectivore, Sorex araneux

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds-Smith, M.E.; Johnson, M.S.; Thompson, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    A series of feeding trials using laboratory reared common shrews Sorex araneus were undertaken to examine the accumulation of Cd in a known trace metal accumulator. A significant sex difference in Cd accumulation in the liver and kidney was identified. The results are discussed in relation to data on traditional laboratory animals and field studies on wild populations of small mammals. 9 references, 3 figures.

  14. Test of the prey-base hypothesis to explain use of red squirrel midden sites by American martens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean E. Pearson; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2001-01-01

    We tested the prey-base hypothesis to determine whether selection of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) midden sites (cone caches) by American martens (Martes americana) for resting and denning could be attributed to greater abundance of small-mammal prey. Five years of livetrapping at 180 sampling stations in 2 drainages showed that small mammals, particularly red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi) and shrews (Sorex spp.),

  15. A Risk Assessment Approach to DDE Exposure Based on the Case of the Eastern ScreechOwl ( Megascops asio ) in Apple Orchards of Southern Quebec,Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. L. Richards; P. Mineau; D. M. Bird

    2005-01-01

    As part of a larger study assessing exposure of the Eastern screech-owl to pesticides in apple orchards from consumption of contaminated small-mammal prey, we evaluated the potential for owls in orchards of southern Quebec to be exposed to persistent contaminants with emphasis on DDE. Levels were highest in short-tailed shrews (0.94 to 26.29 ?g\\/g wet wt). Based on a worst-case

  16. Studies on biological and enzymatic activities of salivary glands from the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Mebs, D

    1999-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of salivary glands (Glandula submandibularis and G. parotis) from the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) exhibited neither lethal effect (intraperitoneal injection, mice), nor haemorrhagic and myonecrotic (mice) activity. Of the various enzymes tested (kallikrein, casein hydrolysis, phospholipase A2, acid and alkaline phosphatase, alpha-amylase), both glands possessed alkaline phosphatase and alpha-amylase activity only. These experiments suggest that toxic saliva in mammals is restricted to certain insectivores (shrews and solenodons) only. PMID:10482397

  17. Small mammal faunal stasis in Natural Trap Cave (Pleistocene-Holocene), Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming

    E-print Network

    Williams, Daniel Ryan

    2009-01-01

    ). Description?Spherical head, greater trochanter is slightly smaller than the lesser trochanter, larger than Lasiurus borealis. Comments?KUVP 148355 was compared to samples of Eastern Red Bat (Lasiurus borealis) and Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus) and was more... and the northern Great Plains. Herein, I reported several new additions to the Natural Trap Cave fauna including the shrews Sorex hoyi and S. nanus and the bats Lasiurus cinereus and Antrozous pallidus. New 20 materials of previously reported taxa...

  18. Comparison of antihemorrhagic activities in skeletal muscle extracts from various animals against Bothrops jararaca snake venom.

    PubMed

    Omori-Satoh, T; Takahashi, M; Nagaoka, Y; Mebs, D

    1998-02-01

    Antihemorrhagic activities of skeletal muscle extracts from various animals were compared in inhibiting the hemorrhagic activity of Bothrops jararaca venom. The muscle extracts of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) exhibited the strongest activity, followed by those of other insectivores such as the shrew (Crocidura russula) and mole (Talpa europaea). The antihemorrhagic activities of muscle extracts from experimental animals such as mice, rats, guinea-pigs, hamsters and rabbits were negligible. PMID:9620591

  19. Posture Does Not Matter! Paw Usage and Grasping Paw Preference in a Small-Bodied Rooting Quadrupedal Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Marine; Scheumann, Marina; Zimmermann, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent results in birds, marsupials, rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that phylogeny and ecological factors such as body size, diet and postural habit of a species influence limb usage and the direction and strength of limb laterality. To examine to which extent these findings can be generalised to small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammals, we studied trees shrews (Tupaia belangeri). Methodology/Principal Findings We established a behavioural test battery for examining paw usage comparable to small-bodied primates and tested 36 Tupaia belangeri. We studied paw usage in a natural foraging situation (simple food grasping task) and measured the influence of varying postural demands (triped, biped, cling, sit) on paw preferences by applying a forced-food grasping task similar to other small-bodied primates. Our findings suggest that rooting tree shrews prefer mouth over paw usage to catch food in a natural foraging situation. Moreover, we demonstrated that despite differences in postural demand, tree shrews show a strong and consistent individual paw preference for grasping across different tasks, but no paw preference at a population level. Conclusions/Significance Tree shrews showed less paw usage than small-bodied quadrupedal and arboreal primates, but the same paw preference. Our results confirm that individual paw preferences remain constant irrespective of postural demand in some small-bodied quadrupedal non primate and primate mammals which do not require fine motoric control for manipulating food items. Our findings suggest that the lack of paw/hand preference for grasping food at a population level is a universal pattern among those species and that the influence of postural demand on manual lateralisation in quadrupeds may have evolved in large-bodied species specialised in fine manipulations of food items. PMID:22666494

  20. Studies on hantavirus infection in small mammals captured in southern and central highland area of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Luan, Vu Dinh; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Endo, Rika; Taruishi, Midori; Huong, Vo Thi; Dat, Dang Tuan; Tien, Pham Cong; Shimizu, Kenta; Koma, Takaaki; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Nhi, Le; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Arikawa, Jiro

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the distribution of hantaviruses among animals in Southern and Central Highland area of Vietnam, a total of 1311 serum samples were obtained from rats and Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) captured at 11 locations between 2006 and 2009. A total of 1066 serum samples from rats were examined for IgG antibodies against Hantaan virus, and there were 30 antibody-positive serum samples from rats that had been captured mainly in a port area and urban area in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) (2.8%). All of the antibody-positive rats were Rattus norvegicus, and they had Seoul virus (SEOV) genome in their lungs. SEOV sequences detected from rats captured in Southern Vietnam belonged to the same lineage as those from rats captured at Haiphong Port and a market area in Hanoi City. SEOV strain CSG5 was isolated from a rat captured at Saigon Harbor. Strain CSG5 showed a cross-neutralization pattern almost the same as that of a representative strain of SEOV. A total of 245 Asian house shrews were captured in the Central Highland area and near HCMC. Sera were examined for IgG antibodies against Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), and 32 (13.1%) of the antibody-positive shrews were mainly from the Central Highland area and showed a neutralizing antibody against TPMV. These results indicated that SEOV is distributed among R. norvegicus inhabiting harbor and urban areas of Southern Vietnam and that TPMV or an antigenically related virus is distributed among Asian house shrews in Central Highland area. PMID:22673720

  1. A Terrestrial Food-Chain Bioaccumulation Model for POPs

    E-print Network

    Gobas, Frank

    A Terrestrial Food-Chain Bioaccumulation Model for POPs J A M E S M . A R M I T A G E A N D F R A N in terrestrial food-chains. We test the model for the soil-earthworm-shrew food-chain and apply the model bioaccumulative substances in piscivorous food-chains, recent studies demonstrate that several widely used

  2. Road network in an agrarian landscape: Potential habitat, corridor or barrier for small mammals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redon (de), Louis; Le Viol, Isabelle; Jiguet, Frédéric; Machon, Nathalie; Scher, Olivier; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    If the negative effects of road networks on biodiversity are now recognized, their role as barriers, habitats or corridors remain to be clarified in human altered landscapes in which road verges often constitute the few semi-natural habitats where a part of biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning may maintain. In human-dominated landscape, their roles are crucial to precise in comparison to other habitats for small mammal species considered as major natural actors (pests (voles) or biological control agents (shrew)). We studied these roles through the comparison of small mammal abundance captured (418 individuals belonging to 8 species) using non-attractive pitfall traps (n = 813) in 176 sampled sites distributed in marginal zones of road and crop, in natural areas and in fields. We examined the effect of roadside width and isolation of sites. We found the higher small mammal abundances in roadside verges and an effect of width margins for shrews. The significant effect of the distance to the next adjacent natural habitat at the same side of the road on the relative abundance of Sorex coronatus, and the absence of a significant effect of distance to the next natural habitat at the opposite side of road, suggest that highway and road verges could be used as corridor for their dispersal, but have also a barrier effect for shrews. Our results show that in intensive agricultural landscapes roadside and highway verges may often serve as refuge, habitat and corridor for small mammals depending on species and margin characteristics.

  3. [Hantaviruses in Germany: threat for zoo, pet, companion and farm animals?].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Rainer G; Imholt, Christian; Krüger, Detlev H; Krautkrämer, Ellen; Scheibe, Thomas; Essbauer, Sandra S; Pfeffer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses are so-called "emerging" and "re-emerging" viruses because of the new and sudden nature of their appearance. Human infections can lead to two distinct disease patterns, the Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome and the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome. All known human pathogenic hantaviruses are transmitted through rodent hosts. There are three rodent-associated hantaviruses in Germany. The bank vole-associated Puumala virus (PUUV) is responsible for most of the human hantavirus infections. The Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) associated with the striped field mouse is causing hantavirus disease in the North and Northeast of Germany. The human pathogenicity of Tula virus (TULV) is still controversially discussed--the virus has been mainly associated with the common vole as the reservoir, but was molecularly detected also in the field and the water vole. More recently, two shrew-borne hantaviruses were described in Germany, i. e. Seewis virus in the common shrew and Asikkala virus in the pygmy shrew. Systematic studies about hantavirus infections of zoo, pet, companion and farm animals are still lacking. Hence, the aim of this review article is to summarise the current knowledge on this topic and raise the attention of veterinarians to potentially overlooked clinical disease patterns. PMID:24511827

  4. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C

    2010-01-01

    Interest in insectivoran grade mammals has been reawakened by taxonomic changes that place tenrecs and golden moles in a new order and separate hedgehogs from moles, shrews and solenodons. This survey of their placentation shows there is great variation even within families. As an example three subfamilies of tenrec have been examined. The interhemal region is cellular hemomonochorial in Echinops and Microgale but endotheliochorial in Micropotamogale. Golden moles, which are placed in the same order, have hemodichorial placentation. Many insectivores have complex arrangements for histotrophic nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures in a separate order (Erinaceomorpha) is bolstered by the presence of interstitial implantation, amniogenesis by cavitation, a hemochorial barrier and a prominent spongy zone; these features do not occur in shrews, moles or solenodons (Soricomorpha). Three insectivoran grade mammals deserve close attention as they have been selected for genome sequencing. One of these, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), has not been studied with current methodology and renewed investigation of this or the closely related genus Atelerix should be a priority. PMID:19876821

  5. Differential and additive suppressive effects of 5-HT3 (palonosetron)- and NK1 (netupitant)-receptor antagonists on cisplatin-induced vomiting and ERK1/2, PKA and PKC activation.

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Zhong, Weixia; Chebolu, Seetha; Mercadante, Frank

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the anti-emetic profile of the 5-HT3 (palonosetron)- and the tachykinin NK1 (netupitant) -receptor antagonists, either alone or in combination, we evaluated the effects of palonosetron and/or netupitant pretreatment on cisplatin-evoked vomiting and changes in the phosphorylation of brainstem kinases such as the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase C alpha/beta (PKC?/?), and protein kinase A (PKA) in the least shrew. Our results demonstrate that cisplatin (10mg/kg, i.p.) causes emesis in the least shrew over 40h with respective peak early- and delayed-phases occurring at 1 - 2 and 32 - 34h post-injection. During the early phase (0 - 16h post cisplatin), palonosetron (0.1mg/kg, s.c.) significantly protected shrews from vomiting with a near complete suppression of vomit frequency. Palonosetron also significantly protected shrews from vomiting during the delayed phase (27 - 40h post cisplatin), but the reduction in mean vomit frequency failed to achieve significance. On the other hand, netupitant (5mg/kg, i.p.) totally abolished vomiting during the delayed phase, and tended to suppress the mean vomit frequency during the acute phase. The combined treatment protected shrews almost completely from vomiting during both phases. Brainstem pERK1/2 levels were significantly elevated at all time-points except at 40h post-cisplatin administration. PKA phosphorylation tended to be elevated throughout the delayed phase, but a significant increase only occurred at 33h. Brainstem pPKC?/? levels were enhanced during acute-phase with a significant elevation at 2h. Palonosetron, netupitant or their combination had no effect on elevated pERK1/2 levels during acute phase, but the combination reversed ERK1/2 phosphorylation at 33h post-cisplatin treatment. In addition, only the combined regimen prevented the cisplatin-induced PKC?/? phosphorylation observed at the acute phase. On the other hand, palonosetron and netupitant, either alone or in combination, were effective in reducing the induced elevated pPKA levels during the delayed phase. These effects on cisplatin-related emetic signals downstream of 5-HT3- and NK1-receptors help us to better understand the intracellular basis of cisplatin-induced vomiting. PMID:25687374

  6. Ultrastructural characteristics associated with the anchoring of corneal epithelium in several classes of vertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, R C

    1983-01-01

    The electron microscopic examination of the basal cells of corneal epithelium certain species of Mammalia, Avia, Reptilia, Amphibia and Pisces was directed particularly towards the hemidesmosomes. Sections cut normal to the basal lamina and sections cut parallel to it were studied in order to establish the number, shape and distribution of the hemidesmosomes. Four basic types of hemidesmosome distribution were recognised among a limited representation of the classes studied. (1) Linear chains of hemidesmosomes (Mammalia, Rana, Bufo). (2) Rosette arrangement of hemidesmosomes surrounding pockets of basal plasma membrane (Avia, Anolis, Xenopus). (3) Punctate hemidesmosomes with no arrangement (Thamnophis). (4) Absence of hemidesmosomes (Carassius). All animals showed a basal lamina, basal pinocytotic vesicles, anchoring filaments, tonofilaments, and interdigitating foot-processes. It is suggested that anchoring filaments deserve to be studied more thoroughly in certain other types of epithelia which do not have focal hemidesmosomes, but require firm anchorage to a basal lamina. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:6668251

  7. Evolutional analysis in determining pathogenic versus nonpathogenic mutations of ATPase 6 in human mitochondriopathy.

    PubMed

    Tzen, Chin-Yuan; Wu, Tsu-Yen

    2005-05-01

    Because mitochondrial ATPase 6 plays an important role in ATP synthesis, mutations affecting ATPase 6 can undoubtedly cause human diseases. In contrast, the ATPase 6 gene is known to be a fast-evolving gene and has generated enough polymorphisms to allow identity investigation for forensic casework. To investigate these seemingly opposite views, we analyzed amino acid sequences of ATPase 6 in at least 1,266 humans, 102 mammals, and 213 vertebrates. The result showed that the amino acids of human ATPase 6 could be divided into the following four groups. Amino acid residue 192 (affected by alteration at nt 9101) and 79 other residues were variable, and therefore substitutions of these residues would not be pathogenic. Amino acid residue 156 (affected by alteration at nt 8993) and 93 other residues were conserved in Homo sapiens, but not in Mammalia. Therefore, they were potentially pathogenic if altered. Function studies would be necessary to confirm their role in pathogenesis. Amino acid residue 217 (affected by alteration at nt 9176) and 9 other residues were conserved across all species, including S. cerevisiae and E. coli. Mutations involving these residues would be pathogenic, some of which might even be life threatening. The remainder (42 residues) were conserved in Mammalia, but not in yeast and E. coli. They were probably pathogenic if mutated. The classification proposed in this study may, therefore, provide an algorithm for a diagnostic approach when a newly identified change of ATPase 6 is suspected for human mitochondriopathy. PMID:15965041

  8. Structural insights into the assembly of the human and archaeal signal recognition particles.

    PubMed

    Wild, Klemens; Bange, Gert; Bozkurt, Gunes; Segnitz, Bernd; Hendricks, Astrid; Sinning, Irmgard

    2010-03-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) is a conserved ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that co-translationally targets membrane and secretory proteins to membranes. The assembly of the particle depends on the proper folding of the SRP RNA, which in mammalia and archaea involves an induced-fit mechanism within helices 6 and 8 in the S domain of SRP. The two helices are juxtaposed and clamped together upon binding of the SRP19 protein to their apices. In the current assembly paradigm, archaeal SRP19 causes the asymmetric loop of helix 8 to bulge out and expose the binding platform for the key player SRP54. Based on a heterologous archaeal SRP19-human SRP RNA structure, mammalian SRP19 was thought not to be able to induce this change, thus explaining the different requirements of SRP19 for SRP54 recruitment. In contrast, the crystal structures of a crenarchaeal and the all-human SRP19-SRP RNA binary complexes presented here show that the asymmetric loop is bulged out in both binary complexes. Differences in SRP assembly between mammalia and archaea are therefore independent of SRP19 and are based on differences in SRP RNA itself. A new SRP-assembly scheme is presented. PMID:20179341

  9. Acarine ectoparasites of Panti Forest Reserve in Johore, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mariana, A; Mohd, Kulaimi B; Halimaton, I; Suhaili, ZA; Shahrul-Anuar, MS; Nor, Zalipah M; Ho, TM

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify the presence of acarine ectoparasites and determine whether there is any potential public health risk in Panti Forest Reserve, Johore, Malaysia. Methods Trapping of animals and avifauna was conducted simultaneously along 5 expedition trails using 150 wire traps, 10 harp traps and 30 mist nets for 6 consecutive nights. A total of 140 animals consisting of 7 species of birds, 19 species of bats, 6 species of rodents and 1 species of tree-shrew as well as 8 myriapods were examined. Results Infestation rates of ticks, mesostigmatid mites and chiggers on animals examined were 24.3%, 28.6% and 27.9%, respectively. Infestation on bats was low (1.5%) and none occurred on birds. Majority of ticks extracted were at immature stages (78.9%). Genera of ticks on animals were Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis and Ixodes. Ixodes granulatus was the only species of ticks identified from the animals. Examination of ticks under vegetation revealed 54% adults leading to identification of 3 species of ticks. A total of 7 species of mesostigmatid mites were found. 6 species were on rodent, Maxomys surifer and another one species, Laelaps nuttalli was found only on Leopoldamys sabanus. Laelaps sanguisugus was the only mesostigmatid found infesting tree-shrews. Seven genera of chiggers were identified. From this, 5 genera were on rodents, 4 genera on tree-shrews and 1 genus on a bat. Conclusions A total of 16 genera, 2 sub-genus and 14 species of acarine ectoparasites were found in this area. Findings of the survey demonstrate the presence of three spesies of acarine ectoparasites which have potential health risk i.e. Ixodes granulatus, Laelaps nuttalli and Leptotrombidium deliense. PMID:23569714

  10. On being the right size: heart design, mitochondrial efficiency and lifespan potential.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Geoffrey P

    2003-08-01

    1. From the smallest shrew or bumble-bee bat to the largest blue whale, heart size varies by over seven orders of magnitude (from 12 mg to 600 kg). This study reviews the scaling relationships between heart design, cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial efficiencies in mammals of different body sizes. 2. The [31P]-nuclear magnetic resonance-derived [phosphocreatine]/[ATP] ratio in hearts of smaller mammals is significantly higher (2.7 +/- 0.3 for mouse; n = 22) than in larger mammals (1.6 +/- 0.3 for humans; n = 13). 3. The inverse of the free myocardial cytosolic [ADP] concentration and the cytosolic phosphorylation ratio ([ATP]/[ADP][Pi]) scales with heart size and with absolute mitochondrial and myofibrillar volumes, close to a quarter-power (from -0.22 to -0.28; r = 0.99). 4. Assuming a similar mitochondrial P/O ratio and the same maximal amount of work required to convert 1 mol NADH to 0.5 mol O2 (i.e. 212.25 kJ/mol), the higher [ATP]/[ADP][Pi] ratios or cellular driving forces (DeltaG'ATP) in hearts of smaller mammals imply greater mitochondrial efficiencies in coupling ATP production to electron transport as body size decreases. For a P/O ratio of 2.5, the mitochondrial efficiency in the heart of a shrew, mouse, human and whale is 84, 82, 71 and 65%, respectively. 5. Higher cytosolic ATP]/[ADP][Pi] ratios and DeltaG'ATP values imply that the hearts of smaller mammals operate further from equilibrium than hearts of larger mammals. 6. As a consequence of scaling relationships, a number of remarkable invariants emerge when comparing heart function from the smallest shrew to the largest whale; the total volume of blood pumped by each heart in a lifetime is approximately 200 million L/kg heart and the total number of heart beats is approximately 1.1 billion per lifetime. 7. Similarly, the metabolic potential (total O2 consumed during adult lifespan per g bodyweight) for a 2 g shrew or a 100000 kg blue whale is approximately 38 L O2 consumed or 8.5 mol ATP/g body mass per lifetime. 8. The importance of quarter-power scaling relationships linking structural, metabolic and bioenergetic design to the natural ageing process and maximum lifespan potential is discussed. PMID:12890185

  11. Education in Cambridge

    E-print Network

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2013-08-07

    , as with a conjuror's trick, there is a feeling that, in a flash of movement too quick for the eye to register, the true experience has been missed.'#2; The poet Tom Gunn wrote of the magic of performing The Taming of the Shrew in a College Garden: 'In... of Italian opera, dusts the knick-knacks on the mantelpiece. Some start and stop dead upon the hour and are marmoreally silent banquets of the mind. Some take place in panelled, gilded chambers where one sits on antique chairs sipping sherry and eyeing...

  12. Hantavirus species in India: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chandy, S; Okumura, M; Yoshimatsu, K; Ulrich, R G; John, G T; Abraham, P; Arikawa, J; Sridharan, G

    2009-01-01

    Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Europe and Asia. There are about 20 documented hantavirus species and newer species are being described worldwide, especially in non-rodent reservoirs, i.e shrews. Focus reduction neutralization test is the classical serotyping technique for hantavirus. However, this study employs a previously established serotyping ELISA, to retrospectively analyze known hantavirus IgG reactive samples for infecting serotypes. The result suggests presence of Thailand virus- like and Hantaan virus -like strains in India. PMID:19736405

  13. The influence of prescribed burning on small mammal populations of the Texas Gulf Coastal Prairie 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Wennona Ann

    1977-01-01

    ) . A shi t in suer! ca ccmposi t' cn wee c~v3 dance'd wz [h cotton rats ond sh rt-tail shrews being excluded from the burned areas, Pygmy mouse population densities were . higher on the burned area. Harvest mice densities were initially higher... to the presence of cotton rats. The con- trol grid was dominated by cotton rats vIhile pygmy mice were found to generally dominate the burned areas. Harvest mice wer. the usual secondary dominant on all grids. Sex ratios and reproductive cycles were unaffected...

  14. Olfaction: underwater 'sniffing' by semi-aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2006-12-21

    Terrestrial species that forage underwater face challenges because their body parts and senses are adapted for land--for example, it is widely held that mammals cannot use olfaction underwater because it is impossible for them to inspire air (sniff) to convey odorants to the olfactory epithelium. Here I describe a mechanism for underwater sniffing used by the semi-aquatic star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata) and water shrew (Sorex palustris). While underwater, both species exhale air bubbles onto objects or scent trails and then re-inspire the bubbles to carry the smell back through the nose. This newly described behaviour provides a mechanism for mammalian olfaction underwater. PMID:17183311

  15. Reinforcement in the sixteenth century: Was the bard a behaviorist?

    PubMed Central

    Dougan, James D.

    1987-01-01

    Shakespeare's play The Taming of the Shrew is described in terms of behavior analysis. Changes in the behavior of the character Kate result from her husband Petruchio's manipulation of environmental contingencies. Aspects of behavior analysis found in the play include the identification of target behavior, the establishment of events as reinforcers, the arrangement of contigencies between responses and reinforcers, and the assessment of post-intervention responding. Several aspects of Shakespeare's description are related to current issues in behavior analysis bearing on theory, cultural practices, and public relations. PMID:22477977

  16. Regulation of the mammalian elongation cycle by subunit rolling: a eukaryotic-specific ribosome rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Budkevich, Tatyana V; Giesebrecht, Jan; Behrmann, Elmar; Loerke, Justus; Ramrath, David J F; Mielke, Thorsten; Ismer, Jochen; Hildebrand, Peter W; Tung, Chang-Shung; Nierhaus, Knud H; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Spahn, Christian M T

    2014-07-01

    The extent to which bacterial ribosomes and the significantly larger eukaryotic ribosomes share the same mechanisms of ribosomal elongation is unknown. Here, we present subnanometer resolution cryoelectron microscopy maps of the mammalian 80S ribosome in the posttranslocational state and in complex with the eukaryotic eEF1A?Val-tRNA?GMPPNP ternary complex, revealing significant differences in the elongation mechanism between bacteria and mammals. Surprisingly, and in contrast to bacterial ribosomes, a rotation of the small subunit around its long axis and orthogonal to the well-known intersubunit rotation distinguishes the posttranslocational state from the classical pretranslocational state ribosome. We term this motion "subunit rolling." Correspondingly, a mammalian decoding complex visualized in substates before and after codon recognition reveals structural distinctions from the bacterial system. These findings suggest how codon recognition leads to GTPase activation in the mammalian system and demonstrate that in mammalia subunit rolling occurs during tRNA selection. PMID:24995983

  17. Host-defense peptides of the skin with therapeutic potential: From hagfish to human.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael

    2015-05-01

    It is now well established that peptides that were first identified on the basis of their ability to inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi are multifunctional and so are more informatively described as host-defense peptides. In some cases, their role in protecting the organism against pathogenic microorganisms, although of importance, may be secondary. A previous article in the journal (Peptides 2014; 57:67-77) assessed the potential of peptides present in the skin secretions of frogs for development into anticancer, antiviral, immunomodulatory and antidiabetic drugs. This review aims to extend the scope of this earlier article by focusing upon therapeutic applications of host-defense peptides present in skin secretions and/or skin extracts of species belonging to other vertebrate classes (Agnatha, Elasmobranchii, Teleostei, Reptilia, and Mammalia as represented by the human) that supplement their potential role as anti-infectives for use against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. PMID:25794853

  18. Three new Jurassic euharamiyidan species reinforce early divergence of mammals.

    PubMed

    Bi, Shundong; Wang, Yuanqing; Guan, Jian; Sheng, Xia; Meng, Jin

    2014-10-30

    The phylogeny of Allotheria, including Multituberculata and Haramiyida, remains unsolved and has generated contentious views on the origin and earliest evolution of mammals. Here we report three new species of a new clade, Euharamiyida, based on six well-preserved fossils from the Jurassic period of China. These fossils reveal many craniodental and postcranial features of euharamiyidans and clarify several ambiguous structures that are currently the topic of debate. Our phylogenetic analyses recognize Euharamiyida as the sister group of Multituberculata, and place Allotheria within the Mammalia. The phylogeny suggests that allotherian mammals evolved from a Late Triassic (approximately 208 million years ago) Haramiyavia-like ancestor and diversified into euharamiyidans and multituberculates with a cosmopolitan distribution, implying homologous acquisition of many craniodental and postcranial features in the two groups. Our findings also favour a Late Triassic origin of mammals in Laurasia and two independent detachment events of the middle ear bones during mammalian evolution. PMID:25209669

  19. The evolutions of large brain size in mammals: the 'over-700-gram club quartet'.

    PubMed

    Manger, Paul R; Spocter, Muhammad A; Patzke, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The current paper details our developing understanding of the evolution of large brains in mammals. In order to do this, we first define brains that we consider to be large--those that have passed the apparent 700-gram ceiling on brain mass evolution in the class Mammalia. The over-700-gram club includes certain species within the genus Homo, order Cetacea, order Proboscidea, and suborder Pinnipedia. Our analysis suggests that selection for body size appears to be the most important factor in the evolution of large brain size, but there also appear to be internal morphophysiological constraints on large brain size evolution that need to be overcome in order for brains to break the 700-gram barrier. These two aspects appear to be common themes in the evolution of large brains. This significantly diminishes the explanatory value of selection for greater cognitive capacities as a principal factor in the evolution of enlarged brain sizes above the 700-gram threshold. PMID:23979457

  20. The lengthening of a giant protein: when, how, and why?

    PubMed

    Meiniel, Olivier; Meiniel, Robert; Lalloué, Fabrice; Didier, Robert; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile; Meiniel, Annie; Petit, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Subcommissural organ (SCO)-spondin is a giant glycoprotein of more than 5000 amino acids found in Vertebrata, expressed in the central nervous system and constitutive of Reissner's fiber. For the first time, in situ hybridization performed on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos shows that the gene encoding this protein is expressed transitionally in the floor plate, the ventral midline of the neural tube, and later in the diencephalic third ventricle roof, the SCO. The modular organization of the protein in Echinodermata (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), Urochordata (Ciona savignyi and C. intestinalis), and Vertebrata (Teleostei, Amphibia, Aves and Mammalia) is also described. As the thrombospondin type 1 repeat motifs represent an increasingly large part of the protein during Deuterostomia evolution, the duplication mechanisms leading to this complex organization are examined. The functional significance of the particularly well-preserved arrangement of the series of SCO-spondin repeat motifs and thombospondin type 1 repeats is discussed. PMID:18046595

  1. Mammalian specific mouse genes are evolving faster than mouse genes conserved across other eukaryotic lineages.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Iti; Hlaing, Mya Myintzu; Sing, Lim Chu; Sakharkar, Kishore R; Sakharkar, Meena Kishore

    2007-01-01

    Positive selection is usually considered in the context of a higher rate of substitutions in non-synonymous as compared to synonymous sites in complete coding sequences of genes or individual positions. We show that genes conserved in eukaryota, coelomata, and bilateria, that is, proteins that arose earlier in evolution as compared to mammalia specific genes evolve slowly and are subjected to negative selection. This finding supports the notion that evolutionary rates progressively diminish with the age of a gene. The data suggests that in both intron-containing and intronless genes synonymous sites may be subject to some degree of selection that is indicative of a relative acceleration of amino-acid substitution, which could be due to a relaxation of functional constraints and/or directional selection. PMID:17485306

  2. A review of experimental and natural infections of animals with monkeypox virus between 1958 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Scott; Buller, R Mark

    2013-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was discovered in 1958 during an outbreak in an animal facility in Copenhagen, Denmark. Since its discovery, MPXV has revealed a propensity to infect and induce disease in a large number of animals within the mammalia class from pan-geographical locations. This finding has impeded the elucidation of the natural host, although the strongest candidates are African squirrels and/or other rodents. Experimentally, MPXV can infect animals via a variety of multiple different inoculation routes; however, the natural route of transmission is unknown and is likely to be somewhat species specific. In this review we have attempted to compile and discuss all published articles that describe experimental or natural infections with MPXV, dating from the initial discovery of the virus through to the year 2012. We further discuss the comparative disease courses and pathologies of the host species. PMID:23626656

  3. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Tian, Jun-Hua; Cong, Mei-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. PMID:23408889

  4. Phylogeny and Origins of Hantaviruses Harbored by Bats, Insectivores, and Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C.; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. PMID:23408889

  5. Life history dictates fluorosis risk in a small mammal community

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, D.P.; Faulkner, B.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Qualls, C.W. Jr.; McBee, K. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Dental lesions, due to fluorosis, previously have been reported in wild, male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) on an abandoned oil refinery located at the Oklahoma Refining Company in Cyril, Oklahoma. This study was expanded to include examinations of the fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), house mouse (Mus musculus), prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius), least shrew (Cryptotis parva), shorttailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), and deer mouse (Peromyscus spp.) at this same site. A sample of each species was collected form the contaminated refining site and a reference site with no known contamination. The authors grossly scored dentition of lower and upper incisors, microscopically examined cellular aberrations in ameloblasts and ondontoblasts, and quantified femur fluoride levels. Alterations in the lower and upper incisors were common in prairie voles, whose incisors possessed striations and erosion of the enamel and appeared chalky white. Incisors of animals taken from the reference site were normal. Patterns in occurrence of fluorosis and degree of enamel erosion was examined relative to the life history characteristics of the species.

  6. Hantaviruses: Rediscovery and New Beginnings

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Richard; Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Kang, Hae Ji; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-01-01

    Virus and host gene phylogenies, indicating that antigenically distinct hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) segregate into clades, which parallel the molecular evolution of rodents belonging to the Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae subfamilies, suggested co-divergence of hantaviruses and their rodent reservoirs. Lately, this concept has been vigorously contested in favor of preferential host switching and local host-specific adaptation. To gain insights into the host range, spatial and temporal distribution, genetic diversity and evolutionary origins of hantaviruses, we employed reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction to analyze frozen, RNAlater®-preserved and ethanol-fixed tissues from 1,546 shrews (9 genera, 47 species), 281 moles (8 genera, 10 species) and 520 bats (26 genera and 53 species), collected in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America during 1980–2012. Thus far, we have identified 24 novel hantaviruses in shrews, moles and bats. That these newfound hantaviruses are geographically widespread and genetically more diverse than those harbored by rodents suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously conjectured. Phylogenetic analyses indicate four distinct clades, with the most divergent comprising hantaviruses harbored by the European mole and insectivorous bats, with evidence for both co-divergence and host switching. Future studies will provide new knowledge about the transmission dynamics and pathogenic potential of these newly discovered, still-orphan, non-rodent-borne hantaviruses. PMID:24412714

  7. Early Tertiary mammals from North Africa reinforce the molecular Afrotheria clade.

    PubMed

    Tabuce, Rodolphe; Marivaux, Laurent; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha; Hartenberger, Jean-Louis; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Tafforeau, Paul; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2007-05-01

    The phylogenetic pattern and timing of the radiation of mammals, especially the geographical origins of major crown clades, are areas of controversy among molecular biologists, morphologists and palaeontologists. Molecular phylogeneticists have identified an Afrotheria clade, which includes several taxa as different as tenrecs (Tenrecidae), golden moles (Chrysochloridae), elephant-shrews (Macroscelididae), aardvarks (Tubulidentata) and paenungulates (elephants, sea cows and hyracoids). Molecular data also suggest a Cretaceous African origin for Afrotheria within Placentalia followed by a long period of endemic evolution on the Afro-Arabian continent after the mid-Cretaceous Gondwanan breakup (approx. 105-25 Myr ago). However, there was no morphological support for such a natural grouping so far. Here, we report new dental and postcranial evidence of Eocene stem hyrax and macroscelidid from North Africa that, for the first time, provides a congruent phylogenetic view with the molecular Afrotheria clade. These new fossils imply, however, substantial changes regarding the historical biogeography of afrotheres. Their long period of isolation in Africa, as assumed by molecular inferences, is now to be reconsidered inasmuch as Eocene paenungulates and elephant-shrews are here found to be related to some Early Tertiary Euramerican 'hyopsodontid condylarths' (archaic hoofed mammals). As a result, stem members of afrotherian clades are not strictly African but also include some Early Paleogene Holarctic mammals. PMID:17329227

  8. Response to enrichment, type and timing: small mammals vary in their response to a springtime cicada but not a carbohydrate pulse.

    PubMed

    Vandegrift, Kurt J; Hudson, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    1. Masting events in the autumn provide a carbohydrate-rich pulse of resources that can influence the dynamics of small mammals and their natural enemies. Similar patterns are observed with the periodical cicada emergence which provides a protein-rich pulse in the spring, but comparisons are confounded by timing and food type. 2. We compared the influence of a naturally occurring spring pulse of cicadas with an experimental spring pulse of carbohydrate-rich seeds. We used a replicated population level field experiment and capture-mark-recapture techniques to record the vital rates, demographics, and abundance of Peromyscus leucopus (the white-footed mouse), as well as other small mammals and their parasites. 3. The density of P. leucopus on grids where cicadas emerged was 55% higher than controls as a consequence of early breeding. This was followed by an increase in the prevalence of the nematode Pterygodermatities peromysci, reduced breeding and decreased recruitment rates. Other small mammals including Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk) and Blarina brevicauda (short-tailed shrew), increased in density, but there was no affect on Sorex cinereus (masked shrew). 4. In contrast to the presence of cicadas, there was no influence of sunflower seed supplementation on small mammal density, vital rates, or reproduction with the exception of an increase in B. brevicauda density. The response of small mammals to seasonal pulses depends on timing, food type, and species. PMID:18684131

  9. Small mammal abundance and habitat relationships on deciduous forested sites with different susceptibility to gypsy moth defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahner, Richard H.; Smith, Harvey R.

    1991-01-01

    Small mammals are important predators of gypsy moths ( Lymantria dispar L.), which are major defoliators of deciduous forests in the northeastern United States. Abundance and habitat relationships of small mammals were studied during summers 1984 and 1985 on forested sites at Moshannon and Rothrock state forests in two physiographic regions of Pennsylvania (Allegheny High Plateaus Province and Valley and Ridge Province, respectively) that varied in potential susceptibility to defoliation. The white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus), which is a major vertebrate predator of gypsy moths, was the most common small mammal on all sites. Of the four common species, northern short-tailed shrews ( Blarina brevicauda), southern red-backed voles ( Clethrionomys gapperi), and white-footed mice were more abundant at Moshannon compared to Rothrock State Forest, but masked shrews ( Sorex cinereus) were more abundant at Rothrock. Elevation was a major factor affecting abundance and distribution of small mammals. Because of the greater abundance of small mammals and more suitable physiographic features at Moshannon compared to Rothrock State Forest, small mammals may be more effective as predators on gypsy moths in the Allegheny High Plateaus than the Valley and Ridge Province of Pennsylvania.

  10. Early Tertiary mammals from North Africa reinforce the molecular Afrotheria clade

    PubMed Central

    Tabuce, Rodolphe; Marivaux, Laurent; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha; Hartenberger, Jean-Louis; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Tafforeau, Paul; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The phylogenetic pattern and timing of the radiation of mammals, especially the geographical origins of major crown clades, are areas of controversy among molecular biologists, morphologists and palaeontologists. Molecular phylogeneticists have identified an Afrotheria clade, which includes several taxa as different as tenrecs (Tenrecidae), golden moles (Chrysochloridae), elephant-shrews (Macroscelididae), aardvarks (Tubulidentata) and paenungulates (elephants, sea cows and hyracoids). Molecular data also suggest a Cretaceous African origin for Afrotheria within Placentalia followed by a long period of endemic evolution on the Afro-Arabian continent after the mid-Cretaceous Gondwanan breakup (approx. 105–25?Myr ago). However, there was no morphological support for such a natural grouping so far. Here, we report new dental and postcranial evidence of Eocene stem hyrax and macroscelidid from North Africa that, for the first time, provides a congruent phylogenetic view with the molecular Afrotheria clade. These new fossils imply, however, substantial changes regarding the historical biogeography of afrotheres. Their long period of isolation in Africa, as assumed by molecular inferences, is now to be reconsidered inasmuch as Eocene paenungulates and elephant-shrews are here found to be related to some Early Tertiary Euramerican ‘hyopsodontid condylarths’ (archaic hoofed mammals). As a result, stem members of afrotherian clades are not strictly African but also include some Early Paleogene Holarctic mammals. PMID:17329227

  11. Four new mitochondrial genomes and the increased stability of evolutionary trees of mammals from improved taxon sampling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsin; McLenachan, Patricia A; Gore, Alicia R; Phillips, Matthew J; Ota, Rissa; Hendy, Michael D; Penny, David

    2002-12-01

    We have sequenced four new mitochondrial genomes to improve the stability of the tree for placental mammals; they are two insectivores (a gymnure, Echinosorex gymnurus and Formosan shrew Soriculus fumidus); a Formosan lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus monoceros); and the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri). A revision to the hedgehog sequence (Erinaceus europaeus) is also reported. All five are from the Laurasiatheria grouping of eutherian mammals. On this new data set there is a strong tendency for the hedgehog and its relative, the gymnure, to join with the other Laurasiatherian insectivores (mole and shrews). To quantify the stability of trees from this data we define, based on nuclear sequences, a major four-way split in Laurasiatherians. This ([Xenarthra, Afrotheria], [Laurasiatheria, Supraprimates]) split is also found from mitochondrial genomes using either protein-coding or RNA (rRNA and tRNA) data sets. The high similarity of the mitochondrial and nuclear-derived trees allows a quantitative estimate of the stability of trees from independent data sets, as detected from a triplet Markov analysis. There are significant changes in the mutational processes within placental mammals that are ignored by current tree programs. On the basis of our quantitative results, we expect the evolutionary tree for mammals to be resolved quickly, and this will allow other problems to be solved. PMID:12446798

  12. Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Bolognini, D; Rock, EM; Cluny, NL; Cascio, MG; Limebeer, CL; Duncan, M; Stott, CG; Javid, FA; Parker, LA; Pertwee, RG

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose To evaluate the ability of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) to reduce nausea and vomiting and enhance 5-HT1A receptor activation in animal models. Experimental Approach We investigated the effect of CBDA on (i) lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned gaping to a flavour (nausea-induced behaviour) or a context (model of anticipatory nausea) in rats; (ii) saccharin palatability in rats; (iii) motion-, LiCl- or cisplatin-induced vomiting in house musk shrews (Suncus murinus); and (iv) rat brainstem 5-HT1A receptor activation by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and mouse whole brain CB1 receptor activation by CP55940, using [35S]GTP?S-binding assays. Key Results In shrews, CBDA (0.1 and/or 0.5 mg·kg?1 i.p.) reduced toxin- and motion-induced vomiting, and increased the onset latency of the first motion-induced emetic episode. In rats, CBDA (0.01 and 0.1 mg·kg?1 i.p.) suppressed LiCl- and context-induced conditioned gaping, effects that were blocked by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635 (0.1 mg·kg?1 i.p.), and, at 0.01 mg·kg?1 i.p., enhanced saccharin palatability. CBDA-induced suppression of LiCl-induced conditioned gaping was unaffected by the CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (1 mg·kg?1 i.p.). In vitro, CBDA (0.1–100 nM) increased the Emax of 8-OH-DPAT. Conclusions and Implications Compared with cannabidiol, CBDA displays significantly greater potency at inhibiting vomiting in shrews and nausea in rats, and at enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation, an action that accounts for its ability to attenuate conditioned gaping in rats. Consequently, CBDA shows promise as a treatment for nausea and vomiting, including anticipatory nausea for which no specific therapy is currently available. PMID:23121618

  13. [Structure of populations and ecological nishes of ectoparasites in the parasite communities of small forest mammals].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S; Bochkov, A V; Vashchenok, V S; Grigor'eva, L A; Staniukovich, M K; Tret'iakov, K A

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports the results of eight-year investigations on the ectoparasites of rodents and insectivores carried out in southern taiga of the Ilmen-Volkhov lowland (Novgorod Region) and Kurgolovsky reserve (Leningrad Region). Twelve species of small mammals were captured including three dominate species--bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (2722 specimens), common shrew Sorex araneus (1658 specimens), and wood mouse Apodemus uralensis (367 specimens). Parasite community of the bank vole comprises 34 species of mites, ticks, and insects, the community of common shrew comprises 25 species, and the community of A. uralensis includes 28 species. Taxonomic diversity of the ectoparasite communities was shown to be based on the diversity of types of parasitism and ecological nishes of the host body. Permanent ectoparasites are found to be represented by 2 species of lie and 14 species of acariform mites. The group of temporary parasites includes 13 species of fleas, 10 species of gamasid mites. 3 ixodid species and 1 Trombiculidae. There is a common pool of temporary parasites of small mammals in the ecological system of taiga. Significance of different shrew and rodent species as hosts were found to be dependent on the population density in possible hosts and many other factors. Species diversity in the parasite communities of different small mammal species is dependent on the number of possible ecological nishes in the host body. Actual infill of these nishes by ectoparasites is usually lesser than potential one. Species composition of temporary parasites, their occurrence and abundance changes according to season. Interspecific competition in the temporary parasite species can decrease because of the seasonal disjunction of their population peaks. Diversification of the ecological niches of ectoparasites allow simultaneous feeding of more parasite individuals on one host, than in the case of parasitising of single species or several species with similar ecological nishes. The distribution of parasites on their hosts was also studied. The aggregative distribution has been found in ixodid larvae only, and the distribution of fleas was close to the Poisson distribution. Deviations from the aggregative distribution can be an effect of several independent factors, including limited ability of small mammals for providing numerous parasites with food. On the most part of hosts simultaneous parasitizing of no more than 1-3 individuals of each tick, mite, and flea species was registered. Excessive infestation by ectoparasites may probably be limited by effective reactions of self-purification in the mammal hosts. PMID:18052001

  14. Phylogenetic analysis at deep timescales: unreliable gene trees, bypassed hidden support, and the coalescence/concatalescence conundrum.

    PubMed

    Gatesy, John; Springer, Mark S

    2014-11-01

    Large datasets are required to solve difficult phylogenetic problems that are deep in the Tree of Life. Currently, two divergent systematic methods are commonly applied to such datasets: the traditional supermatrix approach (= concatenation) and "shortcut" coalescence (= coalescence methods wherein gene trees and the species tree are not co-estimated). When applied to ancient clades, these contrasting frameworks often produce congruent results, but in recent phylogenetic analyses of Placentalia (placental mammals), this is not the case. A recent series of papers has alternatively disputed and defended the utility of shortcut coalescence methods at deep phylogenetic scales. Here, we examine this exchange in the context of published phylogenomic data from Mammalia; in particular we explore two critical issues - the delimitation of data partitions ("genes") in coalescence analysis and hidden support that emerges with the combination of such partitions in phylogenetic studies. Hidden support - increased support for a clade in combined analysis of all data partitions relative to the support evident in separate analyses of the various data partitions, is a hallmark of the supermatrix approach and a primary rationale for concatenating all characters into a single matrix. In the most extreme cases of hidden support, relationships that are contradicted by all gene trees are supported when all of the genes are analyzed together. A valid fear is that shortcut coalescence methods might bypass or distort character support that is hidden in individual loci because small gene fragments are analyzed in isolation. Given the extensive systematic database for Mammalia, the assumptions and applicability of shortcut coalescence methods can be assessed with rigor to complement a small but growing body of simulation work that has directly compared these methods to concatenation. We document several remarkable cases of hidden support in both supermatrix and coalescence paradigms and argue that in most instances, the emergent support in the shortcut coalescence analyses is an artifact. By referencing rigorous molecular clock studies of Mammalia, we suggest that inaccurate gene trees that imply unrealistically deep coalescences debilitate shortcut coalescence analyses of the placental dataset. We document contradictory coalescence results for Placentalia, and outline a critical conundrum that challenges the general utility of shortcut coalescence methods at deep phylogenetic scales. In particular, the basic unit of analysis in coalescence analysis, the coalescence-gene, is expected to shrink in size as more taxa are analyzed, but as the amount of data for reconstruction of a gene tree ratchets downward, the number of nodes in the gene tree that need to be resolved ratchets upward. Some advocates of shortcut coalescence methods have attempted to address problems with inaccurate gene trees by concatenating multiple coalescence-genes to yield "gene trees" that better match the species tree. However, this hybrid concatenation/coalescence approach, "concatalescence," contradicts the most basic biological rationale for performing a coalescence analysis in the first place. We discuss this reality in the context of recent simulation work that also suggests inaccurate reconstruction of gene trees is more problematic for shortcut coalescence methods than deep coalescence of independently segregating loci is for concatenation methods. PMID:25152276

  15. Thottapalayam Virus, a Prototype Shrewborne Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jin-Won; Baek, Luck Ju; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2007-01-01

    Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) has been placed in the genus Hantavirus of the family Bunyaviridae by virtue of its morphologic features and overall genetic similarities to well-characterized rodentborne hantaviruses. This virus has been isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus); however, whether TPMV is naturally harbored by an insectivore host or represents spillover from a rodent reservoir host is unknown. Our analysis of published and unpublished data on the experimental host range, genetics, and molecular phylogeny of TPMV supports coevolution of TPMV with its nonrodent reservoir host. Future studies on the epizootiology of TPMV and investigations of new shrewborne hantaviruses will provide additional insights into the evolutionary origin of hantaviruses in their rodent and insectivore reservoir hosts. Such investigations may also provide clues about determinants of hantavirus pathogenicity and virulence. PMID:18214168

  16. The biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    MIURA, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    The author focuses on the biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids. Early studies revealed that there is a subsidiary pathway for ?-oxidation of fatty acids when ?-oxidation is blocked. Many studies demonstrated that the ?-oxidation serves to provide succinyl-CoA for the citric acid cycle and for gluconeogenesis under conditions of starvation and diabetes. Acylglucosylceramides which are composed of linoleic acid, long chain ?-hydroxy fatty acids, eicosasphingenine (or trihydroxyeicosasphingenine) and glucose, are responsible for normal epidermal permeability function in the skin. It is observed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids are related to energy metabolism in some laboratory animals such as musk shrews and Mongolian gerbils. Studies confirmed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids play crucial roles in the production of insect pheromones of honeybees and in the formation of biopolyesters of higher plants. In addition, the biological significance of ?-oxidation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes is described. PMID:24126285

  17. Tupaia Belangeri as an Experimental Animal Model for Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2014-01-01

    Tupaias, or tree shrews, are small mammals that are similar in appearance to squirrels. The morphological and behavioral characteristics of the group have been extensively characterized, and despite previously being classified as primates, recent studies have placed the group in its own family, the Tupaiidae. Genomic analysis has revealed that the genus Tupaia is closer to humans than it is to rodents. In addition, tupaias are susceptible to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. The only other experimental animal that has been demonstrated to be sensitive to both of these viruses is the chimpanzee, but restrictions on animal testing have meant that experiments using chimpanzees have become almost impossible. Consequently, the development of the tupaia for use as an animal infection model could become a powerful tool for hepatitis virus research and in preclinical studies on drug development. PMID:25048261

  18. Comparative uptake of uranium, thorium, and plutonium by biota inhabiting a contaminated Tennessee floodplain

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Bondietti, E.A.; Walker, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    The uptake of /sup 238/U, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 239/Pu from soil by fescue, grasshoppers, and small mammals was compared at the contaminated White Oak Creek floodplain in East Tennessee. Comparisons of actinide uptake were based on analyses of radionuclide ratios (U/Pu and Th/Pu) in soil and biota. U:Pu ratios in small mammal carcasses (shrews, mice, and rats) and bone samples from larger mammals (rabbit, woodchuck, opossum, and raccoon) were significantly greater (P less than or equal to 0.05) than U/Pu ratios in soil (based on 8M HNO/sub 3/ extractable). There was no significant difference between Th/Pu ratios in animals and soil. The order of actinide accumulation by biota from the site relative to contaminated soil was U > Th approx. = Pu.

  19. And There's the Humor of it: Shakespeare and the Four Humors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-14

    William Shakespeare was happy to write about blood, bile, melancholy, and phlegm at length. During his time, balances of these four humors were thought to affect physical and mental health, along with defining individual personalities. These humors bred the emotions of anger, grief, hope, and fear, all of which can be found in Shakespeare's works in varying intensities. This digital exhibit from the U.S. National Library of Medicine explores the portrayal of the humors in Shakespeare's work by looking at plays such as Hamlet and the Merchant of Venice. Using materials from the Folger Shakespeare Library, the site examines the temperaments of several classic Shakespeare characters like Katherine Minola of "The Taming of the Shrew" and the melancholy Ophelia of "Hamlet." The site also includes educational materials, such as the "Changing Explanations in Mind-Body Medicine" module created by Professor Ted Brown of the University of Rochester and lesson plans for middle or high school classes.

  20. Reservoir competence of wildlife host species for Babesia microti.

    PubMed

    Hersh, Michelle H; Tibbetts, Michael; Strauss, Mia; Ostfeld, Richard S; Keesing, Felicia

    2012-12-01

    Human babesiosis is an increasing health concern in the northeastern United States, where the causal agent, Babesia microti, is spread through the bite of infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. We sampled 10 mammal and 4 bird species within a vertebrate host community in southeastern New York to quantify reservoir competence (mean percentage of ticks infected by an individual host) using real-time PCR. We found reservoir competence levels >17% in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda), and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and <6% but >0% in all other species, including all 4 bird species. Data on the relative contributions of multiple host species to tick infection with B. microti and level of genetic differentiation between B. microti strains transmitted by different hosts will help advance understanding of the spread of human babesiosis. PMID:23171673

  1. Host associations of the tick, Ixodes angustus (Acari: Ixodidae), on Alaskan mammals.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Brian P; Durden, Lance A; Cook, Joseph A

    2003-09-01

    Infestation parameters are presented for 227 ticks, all Ixodes angustus Neumann, collected from individual mammals (n = 531) in southeastern and south-central Alaska from 1996 to 1999. This tick was recovered from 12 of the 19 mammal species examined, with four species of shrews (Sorex spp.), two species of voles [Clethrionomys gapperi (Vigors) and Clethrionomys rutilus (Pallas)], one species of mouse [Peromyscus keeni (Rhoads)], and the red squirrel [Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Erxleben)] being the most frequently parasitized hosts. Larvae (n = 146) of I. angustus were collected most often, followed by nymphs (n = 50), females (n = 30), and a single male. The leptinid mammal-nest beetle Leptinus occidentamericanus Peck (1 male, 5 females) was also recovered from five individual small mammals; three of these were C. rutilus. PMID:14596283

  2. Reservoir Competence of Wildlife Host Species for Babesia microti

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, Michael; Strauss, Mia; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Keesing, Felicia

    2012-01-01

    Human babesiosis is an increasing health concern in the northeastern United States, where the causal agent, Babesia microti, is spread through the bite of infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. We sampled 10 mammal and 4 bird species within a vertebrate host community in southeastern New York to quantify reservoir competence (mean percentage of ticks infected by an individual host) using real-time PCR. We found reservoir competence levels >17% in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda), and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and <6% but >0% in all other species, including all 4 bird species. Data on the relative contributions of multiple host species to tick infection with B. microti and level of genetic differentiation between B. microti strains transmitted by different hosts will help advance understanding of the spread of human babesiosis. PMID:23171673

  3. A risk assessment approach to DDE exposure based on the case of the eastern screech-owl (Megascops asio) in apple orchards of southern Quebec,Canada.

    PubMed

    Richards, N L; Mineau, P; Bird, D M

    2005-10-01

    As part of a larger study assessing exposure of the Eastern screech-owl to pesticides in apple orchards from consumption of contaminated small-mammal prey, we evaluated the potential for owls in orchards of southern Quebec to be exposed to persistent contaminants with emphasis on DDE. Levels were highest in short-tailed shrews (0.94 to 26.29 microg/g wet wt). Based on a worst-case scenario, it is possible that consumption of small-mammal prey in orchards of the study area may result in exposure to DDE at a level associated with significant eggshell thinning; however, consumption of other prey, (e.g., robins) may represent a more important threat. Other organochlorines and persistent contaminants such as trace metals and PCBs, reported elsewhere, were found at negligible levels only. Based on an evaluation of the data used, we identify critical information required to enhance the proposed risk assessment. PMID:16132415

  4. Comparative neurohistological observations on the pancreatic duct in certain birds and mammals as revealed by cholinesterase technique.

    PubMed

    Purwar, R S

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study of pancreatic duct innervation of Francolinus pondicerianus (grey partridge or safed teeter) and Suncus murinus (Indian musk shrew) as revealed by cholinesterase technique has been done for investigation. In Suncus pancreas, the AChE-positive ganglia, elongated and irregularly shaped, medium and large-sized, were recorded either on the periphery of the excretory duct or on the wall of the duct. No ganglia were recorded on the periphery, although the fibres of the ganglia were in close association with the periductular plexus and the fibres of the peri-insular plexus in Francolinus. In Suncus, multipolar and AChE-positive ganglia of various shapes, arranged in chain-like fashion on the duct, were recorded, whereas in Francolinus the multipolar ganglia of AChE-positive nature and of various shapes, arranged in chain-like fashion, were observed in the duct region. PMID:645332

  5. Study of acetylcholinesterase distribution in the various tissues of birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Purwar, R S

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of AChE activity in the various tissues was studied, in female Funambulus pennanti (five banded squirrel), female Francolinus pondicerianus (grey partridge of safed teeter), female Perdicula asiatica (jungle bush quail or lowwa), female Gallus domesticus (white leghorn), and female Suncus murinus (Indian musk shrew) by the use of cholinesterase technique, under different temperatures, incubation periods and pH values. The distribution of AChE activity in the nerve cells, their fibres and nerve bundles as well as in muscle spindles was variable. Periphery of the nerve cells showed strong positive reaction as compared with the central portion of the cell (Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4). Some of the ganglia and nerve bundles showed strong positive AChE reaction (Fig. 1, 5, 6). PMID:744541

  6. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 55 chemicals on six representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, white-footed mouse, cottontail ink, red fox, and whitetail deer) and eight avian wildlife species (American robin, woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, Cooper`s hawk, and redtailed hawk) (scientific names are presented in Appendix C). These species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. The benchmarks presented in this report are values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species.

  7. Small mammals from the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matson, Jason O.; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté; Woodman, Neal; Bulmer, Walter; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Hanson, J. Delton

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the small mammals of remnant mixed hardwood-coniferous cloud forest at elevations ranging from 2,100–2,300 m in the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Removal-trapping using a combination of live traps, snap traps, and pitfall traps for 6 days in January 2007 resulted in 175 captures of 15 species of marsupials, shrews, and rodents. This diversity of small mammals is the highest that we have recorded from a single locality of the 10 visited during eight field seasons in the highlands of Guatemala. Based on captures, the most abundant species in the community of small mammals is Peromyscus grandis (n = 50), followed by Handleyomys rhabdops (n = 27), Heteromys desmarestianus(n = 18), Reithrodontomys mexicanus (n = 17), Handleyomys saturatior (n = 16), Sorex veraepacis (n = 15), and Scotinomys teguina (n = 13). The remaining eight species were represented by one to five individuals.

  8. Motilin stimulates pepsinogen secretion in Suncus murinus.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Chayon; Tanaka, Toru; Jogahara, Takamichi; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    Motilin and ghrelin are gastrointestinal hormones that stimulate the migrating motor complex (MMC) of gastrointestinal motility during the fasting state. In this study, we examined the effect of motilin and ghrelin on pepsinogen secretion in anesthetized suncus (house musk shrew, Suncus murinus), a ghrelin- and motilin-producing mammal. By using a gastric lumen-perfusion system, we found that the intravenous administration of carbachol and motilin stimulated pepsinogen secretion, the latter in a dose-dependent manner, whereas ghrelin had no effect. We then investigated the pathways of motilin-induced pepsinogen secretion using acetylcholine receptor antagonists. Treatment with atropine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, completely inhibited both carbachol and motilin-induced pepsinogen secretion. Motilin-induced pepsinogen secretion was observed in the vagotomized suncus. This is the first report demonstrating that motilin stimulates pepsinogen secretion, and suggest that this effect occurs through a cholinergic pathway in suncus. PMID:25957475

  9. Centrorhynchus aluconis (Acanthocephala) and other helminth species in tawny owls (Strix aluco) in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Ewald, J A; Crompton, D W

    1993-12-01

    Observations on the distribution of Centrorhynchus aluconis (Acanthocephala) and 6 other species of helminths in the definitive host Strix aluco, in tawny owl, are presented. Infected owls were collected from 16 sites ranging from Tarbet, Strathclyde, Scotland, to Ewhurst, Surrey, in the south of England. In addition, unidentified cyclophyllidean cestodes were found in the alimentary tract of the tawny owls. Centrorhynchus aluconis was the most prevalent helminth found and had the highest intensity. It appears that C. aluconis is widely distributed in the tawny owls of Great Britain. Porrocaecum spirale (Nematoda) was the second most prevalent species of helminth. This species and C. aluconis are believed to be dependent on shrews (Sorex araneus and Sorex minutus) for their transmission to owls. PMID:8277390

  10. Hunter-gatherers and other primates as prey, predators, and competitors of snakes.

    PubMed

    Headland, Thomas N; Greene, Harry W

    2011-12-27

    Relationships between primates and snakes are of widespread interest from anthropological, psychological, and evolutionary perspectives, but surprisingly, little is known about the dangers that serpents have posed to people with prehistoric lifestyles and nonhuman primates. Here, we report ethnographic observations of 120 Philippine Agta Negritos when they were still preliterate hunter-gatherers, among whom 26% of adult males had survived predation attempts by reticulated pythons. Six fatal attacks occurred between 1934 and 1973. Agta ate pythons as well as deer, wild pigs, and monkeys, which are also eaten by pythons, and therefore, the two species were reciprocally prey, predators, and potential competitors. Natural history data document snake predation on tree shrews and 26 species of nonhuman primates as well as many species of primates approaching, mobbing, killing, and sometimes eating snakes. These findings, interpreted within the context of snake and primate phylogenies, corroborate the hypothesis that complex ecological interactions have long characterized our shared evolutionary history. PMID:22160702

  11. The biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    The author focuses on the biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids. Early studies revealed that there is a subsidiary pathway for ?-oxidation of fatty acids when ?-oxidation is blocked. Many studies demonstrated that the ?-oxidation serves to provide succinyl-CoA for the citric acid cycle and for gluconeogenesis under conditions of starvation and diabetes. Acylglucosylceramides which are composed of linoleic acid, long chain ?-hydroxy fatty acids, eicosasphingenine (or trihydroxyeicosasphingenine) and glucose, are responsible for normal epidermal permeability function in the skin. It is observed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids are related to energy metabolism in some laboratory animals such as musk shrews and Mongolian gerbils. Studies confirmed that ?- and (?-1)-oxidation of fatty acids play crucial roles in the production of insect pheromones of honeybees and in the formation of biopolyesters of higher plants. In addition, the biological significance of ?-oxidation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes is described. PMID:24126285

  12. Testing the inhibitory cascade model in Mesozoic and Cenozoic mammaliaforms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Much of the current research in the growing field of evolutionary development concerns relating developmental pathways to large-scale patterns of morphological evolution, with developmental constraints on variation, and hence diversity, a field of particular interest. Tooth morphology offers an excellent model system for such ‘evo-devo’ studies, because teeth are well preserved in the fossil record, and are commonly used in phylogenetic analyses and as ecological proxies. Moreover, tooth development is relatively well studied, and has provided several testable hypotheses of developmental influences on macroevolutionary patterns. The recently-described Inhibitory Cascade (IC) Model provides just such a hypothesis for mammalian lower molar evolution. Derived from experimental data, the IC Model suggests that a balance between mesenchymal activators and molar-derived inhibitors determines the size of the immediately posterior molar, predicting firstly that molars either decrease in size along the tooth row, or increase in size, or are all of equal size, and secondly that the second lower molar should occupy one third of lower molar area. Here, we tested the IC Model in a large selection of taxa from diverse extant and fossil mammalian groups, ranging from the Middle Jurassic (~176 to 161 Ma) to the Recent. Results Results show that most taxa (~65%) fell within the predicted areas of the Inhibitory Cascade Model. However, members of several extinct groups fell into the regions where m2 was largest, or rarely, smallest, including the majority of the polyphyletic “condylarths”. Most Mesozoic mammals fell near the centre of the space with equality of size in all three molars. The distribution of taxa was significantly clustered by diet and by phylogenetic group. Conclusions Overall, the IC Model was supported as a plesiomorphic developmental system for Mammalia, suggesting that mammal tooth size has been subjected to this developmental constraint at least since the divergence of australosphenidans and boreosphenidans approximately 180 Ma. Although exceptions exist, including many ‘condylarths’, these are most likely to be secondarily derived states, rather than alternative ancestral developmental models for Mammalia. PMID:23565593

  13. Evolution of the relaxin-like peptide family

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Tracey N; Speed, Terence P; Tregear, Geoffrey W; Bathgate, Ross AD

    2005-01-01

    Background The relaxin-like peptide family belongs in the insulin superfamily and consists of 7 peptides of high structural but low sequence similarity; relaxin-1, 2 and 3, and the insulin-like (INSL) peptides, INSL3, INSL4, INSL5 and INSL6. The functions of relaxin-3, INSL4, INSL5, INSL6 remain uncharacterised. The evolution of this family has been contentious; high sequence variability is seen between closely related species, while distantly related species show high similarity; an invertebrate relaxin sequence has been reported, while a relaxin gene has not been found in the avian and ruminant lineages. Results Sequence similarity searches of genomic and EST data identified homologs of relaxin-like peptides in mammals, and non-mammalian vertebrates such as fish. Phylogenetic analysis was used to resolve the evolution of the family. Searches were unable to identify an invertebrate relaxin-like peptide. The published relaxin cDNA sequence in the tunicate, Ciona intestinalis was not present in the completed C. intestinalis genome. The newly discovered relaxin-3 is likely to be the ancestral relaxin. Multiple relaxin-3-like sequences are present in fugu fish (Takifugu rubripes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), but these appear to be specific to the fish lineage. Possible relaxin-1 and INSL5 homologs were also identified in fish and frog species, placing their emergence prior to mammalia, earlier than previously believed. Furthermore, estimates of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates (dN/dS) suggest that the emergence of relaxin-1, INSL4 and INSL6 during mammalia was driven by positive Darwinian selection, hence these peptides are likely to have novel and in the case of relaxin-1, which is still under positive selection in humans and the great apes, possibly still evolving functions. In contrast, relaxin-3 is constrained by strong purifying selection, demonstrating it must have a highly conserved function, supporting its hypothesized important neuropeptide role. Conclusions We present a phylogeny describing the evolutionary history of the relaxin-like peptide family and show that positive selection has driven the evolution of the most recent members of the family. PMID:15707501

  14. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; Kimball, Bruce A; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R; Yates, Bill J; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236

  15. Risk indicators for the tick Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, T G T; Eisen, L; Comstedt, P; Mejlon, H A; Lindgren, E; Bergström, S; Olsen, B

    2009-09-01

    The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden. It is therefore important to determine which environmental factors are most useful to assess risk of human exposure to this tick and its associated pathogens. The geographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden was analysed with respect to vegetation zones and climate. The northern limit of I. ricinus and B. burgdorferi s.l. in Sweden corresponds roughly to the northern limit of the southern boreal vegetation zone, and is characterized climatically by snow cover for a mean duration of 150 days and a vegetation period averaging 170 days. The zoogeographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden can be classified as southerly-central, with the centre of the distribution south of the Limes Norrlandicus. Ixodes ricinus nymphs from 13 localities in different parts of Sweden were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. and found to be infected with Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii. Tick sampling localities were characterized on the basis of the density of Borrelia-infected I. ricinus nymphs, presence of specific mammals, dominant vegetation and climate. Densities of I. ricinus nymphs and Borrelia-infected nymphs were significantly correlated, and nymphal density can thus serve as a general indicator of risk for exposure to Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes. Analysis of data from this and other studies suggests that high densities of Borrelia-infected nymphs typically occur in coastal, broadleaf vegetation and in mixed deciduous/spruce vegetation in southern Sweden. Ixodes ricinus populations consistently infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. can occur in: (a) biotopes with shrews, rodents, hares and birds; (b) biotopes with shrews, rodents, hares, deer and birds, and (c) island locations where the varying hare (Lepus timidus) is the only mammalian tick host. PMID:19712153

  16. Molecular compartmentalization of lateral geniculate nucleus in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).

    PubMed

    Felch, Daniel L; Van Hooser, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the three physiologically defined relay cell-types in mammalian lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)-called parvocellular (P), magnocellular (M), and koniocellular (K) cells in primates and X, Y, and W cells in other mammals-each express a unique combination of cell-type marker proteins. However, some of the relationships among physiological classification and protein expression found in primates, prosimians, and tree shrews do not apply to carnivores and murid rodents. It remains unknown whether these are exceptions to a common rule for all mammals, or whether these relationships vary over a wide range of species. To address this question, we examined protein expression in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), a highly visual rodent. Unlike many rodents, squirrel LGN is well laminated, and the organization of X-like, Y-like, and W-like cells relative to the LGN layers has been characterized physiologically. We labeled tissue sections through visual thalamus with antibodies to calbindin and parvalbumin, the antibody Cat-301, and the lectin WFA. Calbindin expression was found in W-like cells in LGN layer 3, just adjacent to the optic tract. These results suggest that calbindin is a common marker for the konicellular pathway in mammals. However, while parvalbumin expression characterizes P and M cells in primates and X and Y cells in tree shrews, here it identifies only about half of the X-like cells in LGN layers 1 and 2. Putative Y/M cell markers did not differentiate relay cells in this animal. Together, these results suggest that protein expression patterns among LGN relay cell classes are variable across mammals. PMID:22514523

  17. Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C

    2004-01-01

    Based on the number of tissues separating maternal from fetal blood, placentas are classified as epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or hemochorial. We review the occurrence of these placental types in the various orders of eutherian mammals within the framework of the four superorders identified by the techniques of molecular phylogenetics. The superorder Afrotheria diversified in ancient Africa and its living representatives include elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvark, elephant shrews and tenrecs. Xenarthra, comprising armadillos, anteaters and sloths, diversified in South America. All placentas examined from members of these two oldest superorders are either endotheliochorial or hemochorial. The superorder Euarchontoglires includes two sister groups, Glires and Euarchonta. The former comprises rodents and lagomorphs, which typically have hemochorial placentas. The most primitive members of Euarchonta, the tree shrews, have endotheliochorial placentation. Flying lemurs and all higher primates have hemochorial placentas. However, the lemurs and lorises are exceptional among primates in having epitheliochorial placentation. Laurasiatheria, the last superorder to arise, includes several orders with epitheliochorial placentation. These comprise whales, camels, pigs, ruminants, horses and pangolins. In contrast, nearly all carnivores have endotheliochorial placentation, whilst bats have endotheliochorial or hemochorial placentas. Also included in Laurasiatheria are a number of insectivores that have many conserved morphological characters; none of these has epitheliochorial placentation. Consideration of placental type in relation to the findings of molecular phylogenetics suggests that the likely path of evolution in Afrotheria was from endotheliochorial to hemochorial placentation. This is also a likely scenario for Xenarthra and the bats. We argue that a definitive epitheliochorial placenta is a secondary specialization and that it evolved twice, once in the Laurasiatheria and once in the lemurs and lorises. PMID:15236656

  18. Why Can’t Rodents Vomit? A Comparative Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Charles C.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R.; Yates, Bill J.; Andrews, Paul L. R.

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity–key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236

  19. Directional mapping of DNA nicking in ejaculated and cauda epididymidal spermatozoa of the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus: Monotremata).

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; López-Fernández, C; Gosálbez, A; Holt, W V; Gosálvez, J

    2009-01-01

    Prototherian spermatozoa are unique amongst the Mammalia in terms of their filiform morphology, tandem arrangement of chromosomes and formation of sperm bundles. In the present study, we provide observations of echidna spermatozoa and note that the superstructure of the bundle is engineered around the shape of the individual sperm head and that this in turn may be a consequence of the unusual circumferential and helicoidal condensation of the DNA during spermiogenesis. Frozen-thawed ejaculated echidna spermatozoa were incubated and examined for the presence of non-typical DNA conformation by means of in situ labelling of DNA breaks using Klenow polymerase and via alkaline single-cell comet assays for detection of fragmented DNA. Both techniques successfully revealed the presence of what appeared to be directional DNA nicking, co-localised with the presence of highly sensitive alkali sites along the length of the sperm nucleus. It was not possible to define whether these alternative DNA configurations were associated with a failure of the sperm nucleus to condense appropriately during spermiogenesis or were evidence of DNA fragmentation following post-thaw incubation or a sequential structural chromatin rearrangement necessary for fertilisation. PMID:19874725

  20. Superfamily Gondwanatherioidea: a previously unrecognized radiation of multituberculate mammals in South America.

    PubMed Central

    Krause, D W; Bonaparte, J F

    1993-01-01

    Multituberculates were the longest-lived order of the Class Mammalia and, during the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic, were among the most diverse and abundant representatives of the class. However, until the recent discovery of two Cretaceous teeth, one from South America and one from Africa, they were known only from northern continents. Additional material of the South American form Ferugliotherium has confirmed its multituberculate affinities and indicates that it may be a derived member of the Suborder Plagiaulacoidea. New specimens provide evidence that two other South American forms, Gondwanatherium and Sudamerica, are also multituberculates and that they are closely related to Ferugliotherium. Gondwanatherium and Sudamerica, each possessing highly specialized hypsodont molars, were previously thought to be the earliest known representatives of the Edentata, to be involved in the origin of edentates, or to represent a previously unknown higher taxon of mammals. However, there are detailed similarities in gross dental morphology, enamel microstructure, and inferred direction of jaw movement among Ferugliotherium, Gondwanatherium, and Sudamerica. All three genera are here regarded as representatives of a highly derived, endemic radiation of South American multituberculates and are allocated to the superfamily Gondwanatherioidea. Multituberculates were therefore more common elements of Late Cretaceous and early Paleocene mammalian faunas of South America than previously recognized. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8415710

  1. Differential changes in atrial natriuretic peptide and vasopressin receptor bindings in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, T.; Mitsui, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Katayama, E.; Ota, Z.; Ogawa, N.

    1987-01-19

    To elucidate the role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and vasopressin (VP) in a hypertensive state, ANP and VP receptor bindings in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) kidney were analyzed using the radiolabeled receptor assay (RRA) technique. Systolic blood pressure of SHR aged 12 weeks was statistically higher than that of age-matched Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of (/sup 125/I)-ANP binding to the SHR kidney membrane preparations was statistically lower than that of WKY rats, but dissociation constant (Kd) was not significantly different. On the other hand, Bmax of (/sup 3/H)-VP binding to the SHR kidney membrane preparations was statistically higher than that of WKY rats, but Kd were similar. Since the physiological action of ANP is natriuresis and VP is the most important antidiuretic hormone in mammalia, these opposite changes of ANP and VP receptor bindings in SHR kidney suggested that these peptides may play an important role in the pathophysiology of the hypertensive state, although it has not been confirmed as yet.

  2. Revising the recent evolutionary history of equids using ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Ludovic; Metcalf, Jessica L.; Alberdi, Maria T.; Telles-Antunes, Miguel; Bonjean, Dominique; Otte, Marcel; Martin, Fabiana; Eisenmann, Véra; Mashkour, Marjan; Morello, Flavia; Prado, Jose L.; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Shockey, Bruce J.; Wrinn, Patrick J.; Vasil'ev, Sergei K.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Cherry, Michael I.; Hopwood, Blair; Male, Dean; Austin, Jeremy J.; Hänni, Catherine; Cooper, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The rich fossil record of the family Equidae (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) over the past 55 MY has made it an icon for the patterns and processes of macroevolution. Despite this, many aspects of equid phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy remain unresolved. Recent genetic analyses of extinct equids have revealed unexpected evolutionary patterns and a need for major revisions at the generic, subgeneric, and species levels. To investigate this issue we examine 35 ancient equid specimens from four geographic regions (South America, Europe, Southwest Asia, and South Africa), of which 22 delivered 87–688 bp of reproducible aDNA mitochondrial sequence. Phylogenetic analyses support a major revision of the recent evolutionary history of equids and reveal two new species, a South American hippidion and a descendant of a basal lineage potentially related to Middle Pleistocene equids. Sequences from specimens assigned to the giant extinct Cape zebra, Equus capensis, formed a separate clade within the modern plain zebra species, a phenotypicically plastic group that also included the extinct quagga. In addition, we revise the currently recognized extinction times for two hemione-related equid groups. However, it is apparent that the current dataset cannot solve all of the taxonomic and phylogenetic questions relevant to the evolution of Equus. In light of these findings, we propose a rapid DNA barcoding approach to evaluate the taxonomic status of the many Late Pleistocene fossil Equidae species that have been described from purely morphological analyses. PMID:20007379

  3. Evolutionary and structural insights into the multifaceted glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) superfamily.

    PubMed

    Toppo, Stefano; Vanin, Stefano; Bosello, Valentina; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2008-09-01

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is a widespread protein superfamily found in many organisms throughout all kingdoms of life. Although it was initially thought to use only glutathione as reductant, recent evidence suggests that the majority of GPxs have specificity for thioredoxin. We present a thorough in silico analysis performed on 724 sequences and 12 structures aimed to clarify the evolutionary, structural, and sequence determinants of GPx specificity. Structural variability was found to be limited to only two regions, termed oligomerization loop and functional helix, which modulate both reduced substrate specificity and oligomerization state. We show that mammalian GPx-1, the canonic selenocysteine-based tetrameric glutathione peroxidase, is a recent "invention" during evolution. Contrary to common belief, cysteine-based thioredoxin-specific GPx, which we propose the TGPx, are both more common and more ancient. This raises interesting evolutionary considerations regarding oligomerization and the use of active-site selenocysteine residue. In addition, phylogenetic analysis has revealed the presence of a novel member belonging to the GPx superfamily in Mammalia and Amphibia, for which we propose the name GPx-8, following the present numeric order of the mammalian GPxs. PMID:18498225

  4. Description of a new bat species of the tribe Scotonycterini (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) from Southwestern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2014-02-01

    The tribe Scotonycterini is currently composed of three fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae (Mammalia, Chiroptera) characterized by white fur patches on the head, specifically around the nose and behind the eyes: Scotonycteris zenkeri, S. ophiodon and Casinycteris argynnis. Herein a new species is described, Casinycteris campomaanensis sp. nov., based on female specimen collected in 2007 near the village Nkoélon-Mvini close to the Campo-Ma'an National Park, southwestern Cameroon. It is readily distinguished from the three other species of Scotonycterini by its body size and craniodental characteristics. Molecular analyses based on the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene indicate that the new species is the sister-group to C. argynnis and that the holotype of S. ophiodon is more closely related to Casinycteris than to S. zenkeri, rendering the genus Scotonycteris paraphyletic. Based on these results, morphological characters within the tribe Scotonycterini were reassessed and a new classification is proposed, in which the new species and S. ophiodon are placed in the genus Casinycteris. PMID:24581808

  5. A novel association between Rhodnius neglectus and the Livistona australis palm tree in an urban center foreshadowing the risk of Chagas disease transmission by vectorial invasions in Monte Alto City, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Danila B; Almeida, Carlos E; Rocha, Cláudia S; Gardim, Sueli; Mendonça, Vagner J; Ribeiro, Aline R; Alves, Zulimar C P V T; Ruellas, Kellem T; Vedoveli, Alan; da Rosa, João A

    2013-10-18

    After several public notifications of domiciliary invasions, palm trees were investigated in downtown Monte Alto City, São Paulo State, Brazil, in proximity to the city hall building, the main church, condominiums and marketing establishments. One hundred seventy four palm trees of 10 species were investigated, in which 72 specimens of Rhodnius neglectus, a potential Chagas disease vector, were captured via manual methods. All insects were collected from dead leaves, organic debris and bird nests in the only three Livistona australis palm trees in the central park square. This was the first record of R. neglectus colonizing this palm species. Although no Trypanosoma cruzi was found by abdominal compression followed by light microscopy, the poor nutritional status of the bugs hampered the examination of gut contents for parasite detection. Furthermore, the central crowns of the trees, which shelter bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia), could not be carefully searched for insects due to difficult access. This new finding highlights the sudden alteration in insect behavior, probably as a result of man's interference. This report aims to warn those involved in the health system about this new threat, justifying detailed research of the area to evaluate the magnitude of this emerging public health issue. PMID:24145156

  6. Drawing the tree of eukaryotic life based on the analysis of 2,269 manually annotated myosins from 328 species

    PubMed Central

    Odronitz, Florian; Kollmar, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background The evolutionary history of organisms is expressed in phylogenetic trees. The most widely used phylogenetic trees describing the evolution of all organisms have been constructed based on single-gene phylogenies that, however, often produce conflicting results. Incongruence between phylogenetic trees can result from the violation of the orthology assumption and stochastic and systematic errors. Results Here, we have reconstructed the tree of eukaryotic life based on the analysis of 2,269 myosin motor domains from 328 organisms. All sequences were manually annotated and verified, and were grouped into 35 myosin classes, of which 16 have not been proposed previously. The resultant phylogenetic tree confirms some accepted relationships of major taxa and resolves disputed and preliminary classifications. We place the Viridiplantae after the separation of Euglenozoa, Alveolata, and Stramenopiles, we suggest a monophyletic origin of Entamoebidae, Acanthamoebidae, and Dictyosteliida, and provide evidence for the asynchronous evolution of the Mammalia and Fungi. Conclusion Our analysis of the myosins allowed combining phylogenetic information derived from class-specific trees with the information of myosin class evolution and distribution. This approach is expected to result in superior accuracy compared to single-gene or phylogenomic analyses because the orthology problem is resolved and a strong determinant not depending on any technical uncertainties is incorporated, the class distribution. Combining our analysis of the myosins with high quality analyses of other protein families, for example, that of the kinesins, could help in resolving still questionable dependencies at the origin of eukaryotic life. PMID:17877792

  7. Large Cretaceous sphenodontian from Patagonia provides insight into lepidosaur evolution in Gondwana.

    PubMed

    Apesteguía, Sebastián; Novas, Fernando E

    2003-10-01

    Sphenodontian reptiles successfully radiated during Triassic and Jurassic times, but were driven almost to extinction during the Cretaceous period. The sparse Early Cretaceous record of sphenodontians has been interpreted as reflecting the decline of the group in favour of lizards, their suspected ecological successors. However, recent discoveries in Late Cretaceous beds in Patagonia partially modify this interpretation. Numerous skeletons of a new sphenodontian, Priosphenodon avelasi gen. et sp. nov., were collected from a single locality in the Cenomanian-Turonian Candeleros Formation, where it is more abundant than any other tetrapod group recorded in the quarry (for example, Crocodyliformes, Serpentes, Dinosauria and Mammalia). Adult specimens of Priosphenodon reached one metre in length, larger than any previously known terrestrial sphenodontian. Here we propose, using available evidence, that sphenodontians were not a minor component of the Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems of South America, and that their ecological replacement by squamates was delayed until the early Tertiary. The new discovery helps to bridge the considerable gap in the fossil record (around 120 million years) that separates the Early Cretaceous sphenodontians from their living relatives (Sphenodon). PMID:14534584

  8. Effect of serum from various animal species on erythrocyte attachment of endotoxins and other bacterial antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Praino, M; Neter, E

    1977-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide O antigens (endotoxins) and other bacterial antigens readily attach to erythrocytes in vitro. This attachment is prevented by certain mammalian and avian sera. In this study, the inhibitory capacity of sera from lower animals was compared with that of higher animals for a total of 30 species. Antigens and the corresponding antisera included both crude O antigens and purified lipopolysaccharide preparations, the common enterobacterial antigen from Escherichia coli O14, the Vi antigen from Citrobacter ballerup, the polyribose-phosphate antigen from Haemophilus influenzae type b, and the crude teichoic acid antigen from Staphylococcus aureus. Antigen and serum mixtures were incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 min and used for erythrocyte modification; failure of hemagglutination by homologous bacterial antiserum provided evidence of inhibitory capacity. Sera from the classes Mammalia and Aves were very strong inhibitors; those of Reptilia and Osteichthyes were moderate in activity, displaying variation within the classes; those of Amphibia and Chondrichthyes were minimal inhibitors; and those of Merostomata, Crustacea, and Lamellibranchiata displayed questionable or no inhibitory capacity. Inhibitory sera were active with all antigens tested. The findings suggest evolution of inhibitory factors consistent with the theory of two diverging lines of animal phylogeny based on embryological criteria and closely parallel the observations of an endotoxin-altering capacity in vertebrate sera that is not found in invertebrate sera or hemolymph. PMID:591059

  9. Reproductive technologies relevant to the genome resource bank in Carnivora.

    PubMed

    Amstislavsky, S; Lindeberg, H; Luvoni, Gc

    2012-02-01

    Carnivora is one of the most species-rich order of Mammalia. Some species, e.g. domestic cats, dogs and ferrets, are among the most popular pets; others, such as minks and farmed foxes, have economic value for the fur breeding industry. Still others, such as tigers, bears and other top predators, have great impact on the health of natural ecosystems. Most if not all Carnivora species have great cultural and aesthetic importance for man. There are enormous differences between mammalian species in reproductive physiology, and it is not surprising that reproductive technologies can be used with high efficiency with some animal groups, e.g. most farm animals and laboratory rodents, but are very laborious when used with Carnivora species, which often possess unique reproductive traits. The efficiency of assisted reproductive technology (ART) applied to semi-domestic, non-domestic and especially to endangered species of Carnivora remains extremely low in most cases, and often the first positive result reported is the only instance when ART has been successful with that species. Although there are approximately 270 species in the Carnivora order, to the best of our knowledge, successful published attempts to apply ART have been reported for only four families: Mustelidae, Felidae, Canidae and Ursidae. The main achievements in ART, embryo technology in particular, for these families of Carnivora, together with challenges and problems, are reviewed in the relevant sections. PMID:21883515

  10. Mammals on the EDGE: Conservation Priorities Based on Threat and Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Nick J.B.; Turvey, Samuel T.; Collen, Ben; Waterman, Carly; Baillie, Jonathan E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation priority setting based on phylogenetic diversity has frequently been proposed but rarely implemented. Here, we define a simple index that measures the contribution made by different species to phylogenetic diversity and show how the index might contribute towards species-based conservation priorities. We describe procedures to control for missing species, incomplete phylogenetic resolution and uncertainty in node ages that make it possible to apply the method in poorly known clades. We also show that the index is independent of clade size in phylogenies of more than 100 species, indicating that scores from unrelated taxonomic groups are likely to be comparable. Similar scores are returned under two different species concepts, suggesting that the index is robust to taxonomic changes. The approach is applied to a near-complete species-level phylogeny of the Mammalia to generate a global priority list incorporating both phylogenetic diversity and extinction risk. The 100 highest-ranking species represent a high proportion of total mammalian diversity and include many species not usually recognised as conservation priorities. Many species that are both evolutionarily distinct and globally endangered (EDGE species) do not benefit from existing conservation projects or protected areas. The results suggest that global conservation priorities may have to be reassessed in order to prevent a disproportionately large amount of mammalian evolutionary history becoming extinct in the near future. PMID:17375184

  11. The interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein gene in therian mammals: Implications for higher level relationships and evidence for loss of function in the marsupial?mole

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Mark S.; Burk, Angela; Kavanagh, John R.; Waddell, Victor G.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    The subclass Theria of Mammalia includes marsupials (infraclass Metatheria) and placentals (infraclass Eutheria). Within each group, interordinal relationships remain unclear. One limitation of many studies is incomplete ordinal representation. Here, we analyze DNA sequences for part of exon 1 of the interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein gene, including 10 that are newly reported, for representatives of all therian orders. Among placentals, the most robust clades are Cetartiodactyla, Paenungulata, and an expanded African clade that includes paenungulates, tubulidentates, and macroscelideans. Anagalida, Archonta, Altungulata, Hyracoidea + Perissodactyla, Ungulata, and the “flying primate” hypothesis are rejected by statistical tests. Among marsupials, the most robust clade includes all orders except Didelphimorphia. The phylogenetic placement of the monito del monte and the marsupial mole remains unclear. However, the marsupial mole sequence contains three frameshift indels and numerous stop codons in all three reading frames. Given that the interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein gene is a single-copy gene that functions in the visual cycle and that the marsupial mole is blind with degenerate eyes, this finding suggests that phenotypic degeneration of the eyes is accompanied by parallel changes at the molecular level as a result of relaxed selective constraints. PMID:9391099

  12. A Three-Dimensional Analysis of Morphological Evolution and Locomotor Performance of the Carnivoran Forelimb

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Serra, Alberto; Figueirido, Borja; Palmqvist, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three-dimensional landmark-based methods of geometric morphometrics are used for estimating the influence of phylogeny, allometry and locomotor performance on forelimb shape in living and extinct carnivorans (Mammalia, Carnivora). The main objective is to investigate morphological convergences towards similar locomotor strategies in the shape of the major forelimb bones. Results indicate that both size and phylogeny have strong effects on the anatomy of all forelimb bones. In contrast, bone shape does not correlate in the living taxa with maximum running speed or daily movement distance, two proxies closely related to locomotor performance. A phylomorphospace approach showed that shape variation in forelimb bones mainly relates to changes in bone robustness. This indicates the presence of biomechanical constraints resulting from opposite demands for energetic efficiency in locomotion –which would require a slender forelimb– and resistance to stress –which would be satisfied by a robust forelimb–. Thus, we interpret that the need of maintaining a trade-off between both functional demands would limit shape variability in forelimb bones. Given that different situations can lead to one or another morphological solution, depending on the specific ecology of taxa, the evolution of forelimb morphology represents a remarkable “one-to-many mapping” case between anatomy and ecology. PMID:24454891

  13. Regulation of the mammalian elongation cycle by subunit rolling: a eukaryotic-specific ribosome rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Budkevich, Tatyana V.; Giesebrecht, Jan; Behrmann, Elmar; Loerke, Justus; Ramrath, David J.F.; Mielke, Thorsten; Ismer, Jochen; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Tung, Chang-Shung; Nierhaus, Knud H.; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.; Spahn, Christian M.T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The extent to which bacterial ribosomes and the significantly larger eukaryotic ribosomes share the same mechanisms of ribosomal elongation is unknown. Here, we present sub-nanometer resolution cryo-electron microscopy maps of the mammalian 80S ribosome in the post-translocational state and in complex with the eukaryotic eEF1A•Val-tRNA•GMPPNP ternary complex, revealing significant differences in the elongation mechanism between bacteria and mammals. Surprisingly, and in contrast to bacterial ribosomes, a rotation of the small subunit around its long axis and orthogonal to the well-known intersubunit rotation distinguishes the post-translocational state from the classical pre-translocational state ribosome. We term this motion “subunit rolling”. Correspondingly, a mammalian decoding complex visualized in sub-states before and after codon recognition reveals structural distinctions from the bacterial system. These findings suggest how codon recognition leads to GTPase activation in the mammalian system and demonstrate that in mammalia subunit rolling occurs during tRNA selection. PMID:24995983

  14. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  15. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  16. Species-specific functional evolution of neuroglobin.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Keisuke; Takahashi, Nozomu; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Seiji

    2011-09-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered vertebrate heme protein that is expressed in the brain and can reversibly bind oxygen. Human Ngb is involved in neuroprotection under oxidative stress conditions such as ischemia and reperfusion. We previously demonstrated that, on the one hand, human ferric Ngb binds to the ?-subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins (G?(i)) and acts as a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) for G?(i). On the other hand, zebrafish Ngb does not exhibit GDI activity. By using wild-type and Ngb mutants, we demonstrated that the GDI activity of human Ngb is tightly correlated with its neuroprotective activity. The crucial residues for both GDI and neuroprotective activity, corresponding to Glu53, Arg97, Glu118, and Glu151 of human Ngb, are conserved among boreotheria of mammalia. Recently, we found that zebrafish, but not human, Ngb can translocate into cells and clarified that module M1 of zebrafish Ngb is important for protein transduction. By performing site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that Lys7, Lys9, Lys21, and Lys23 of zebrafish Ngb are crucial for protein transduction activity. Because these residues are conserved among fishes, but not among mammals, birds, reptilians, or amphibians, the ability to penetrate cell membranes may be a unique characteristic of fish Ngb proteins. Moreover, we clarified that zebrafish Ngb interacts with negatively charged cell-surface glycosaminoglycan. Taken together, these results suggest that the function of Ngb proteins has been changing dynamically throughout the evolution of life. PMID:21867964

  17. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at nightmare range, a high elevation military training area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People's Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  18. Living in a Box or Call of the Wild? Revisiting Lifetime Inactivity and Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Allyson

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Significance The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Critical Issues Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1?]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. Recent Advances While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1?, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In addition, aging shrews displayed a remarkable ability to upregulate antioxidant enzymes (copper, zinc isoform of superoxide dismutase, manganese isoform of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). Future Directions It is possible that in healthy populations requiring daily activity to thrive, fibrosis and weakness, more than atrophy, may be the predominant phenotype of muscle aging until senescence. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which lifetime inactivity contributes to sarcopenia and chronic disease will be critical in managing the quality of life and health costs associated with our aging population. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2529–2541. PMID:21539480

  19. Phylogeography of the dark fruit-eating bat Artibeus obscurus in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Wallax Augusto Silva; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; Rodrigues-Antunes, Symara; de Andrade, Fernanda Atanaena Gonçalves; Aguiar, Gilberto Ferreira de Souza; de Sousa e Silva-Junior, José; Marques-Aguiar, Suely Aparecida; Harada, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Artibeus obscurus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) is endemic to South America, being found in at least 18 Brazilian states. Recent studies revealed that different populations of this genus present distinct phylogeographic patterns; however, very little is known on the population genetics structure of A. obscurus in the Amazon rainforest. Here, using a fragment (1010bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b from 87 samples, we investigated patterns of genetic divergence among populations of A. obscurus from different locations in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest and compared them with other Brazilian and South American regions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), fixation index (Fst) analysis, and phylogeographic patterns showed divergence between two major monophyletic groups, each one corresponding to a geographic region associated with the Atlantic and Amazon forest biomes. The Atlantic forest clusters formed a monophyletic group with a high bootstrap support and a fragmented distribution that follows the pattern predicted by the Refuge Theory. On the other hand, a different scenario was observed for the Amazon forest, where no fragmentation was identified. The AMOVA results revealed a significant geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of genetic variation, with 70% found within populations across the studied populations (Fst values ranging from 0.05864 to 0.09673; ?ST = 0.55). The intrapopulational analysis revealed that one population (Bragança) showed significant evidence of population expansion, with the formation of 2 distinct phylogroups, suggesting the occurrence of a subspecies or at least a different population in this region. These results also suggest considerable heterogeneity for A. obscurus in the Amazon region. PMID:24127548

  20. High EGFR_1 Inside-Out Activated Inflammation-Induced Motility through SLC2A1-CCNB2-HMMR-KIF11-NUSAP1-PRC1-UBE2C

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huilei; Wang, Lin; Huang, Juxiang; Jiang, Minghu; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Liyuan; Wang, Yangming; Jiang, Zhenfu; Zhang, Zhongjie

    2015-01-01

    48 different Pearson mutual-positive-correlation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR_1)-activatory molecular feedback, up- and down-stream network was constructed from 171 overlapping of 366 GRNInfer and 223 Pearson under EGFR_1 CC ?0.25 in high lung adenocarcinoma compared with low human normal adjacent tissues. Our identified EGFR_1 inside-out upstream activated molecular network showed SLC2A1 (solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 1), CCNB2 (cyclin B2), HMMR (hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM)), KIF11 (kinesin family member 11), NUSAP1 (nucleolar and spindle associated protein 1), PRC1 (protein regulator of cytokinesis 1), UBE2C (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C) in high lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR_1 inside-out upstream activated terms network includes intracellular, membrane fraction, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, integral to membrane, basolateral plasma membrane, transmembrane transport, nucleus, cytosol, cell surface; T cell homeostasis, inflammation; microtubule cytoskeleton, embryonic development (sensu Mammalia), cell cycle, mitosis, thymus development, cell division, regulation of cell cycle, Contributed--cellular process--Hs cell cycle KEGG, cytokinesis, M phase, M phase of mitotic cell cycle, estrogen-responsive protein Efp controls cell cycle and breast tumors growth, cell motility, locomotion, locomotory behavior, neoplasm metastasis, spindle pole, spindle microtubule, microtubule motor activity, microtubule-based movement, mitotic spindle organization and biogenesis, mitotic centrosome separation, spindle pole body organization and biogenesis, microtubule-based process, microtubule, cytokinesis after mitosis, mitotic chromosome condensation, establishment of mitotic spindle localization, positive regulation of mitosis, mitotic spindle elongation, spindle organization and biogenesis, positive regulation of exit from mitosis, regulation of cell proliferation, positive regulation of cell proliferation based on integrative GO, KEGG, GenMAPP, BioCarta and disease databases in high lung adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we propose high EGFR_1 inside-out activated inflammation-induced motility through SLC2A1-CCNB2-HMMR-KIF11-NUSAP1-PRC1-UBE2C in lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26000042

  1. Distribution, adaptation and physiological meaning of thiols from vertebrate hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Reischl, Evaldo; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo

    2007-01-01

    In the present review, the sequences of hemoglobins (Hb) of 267 adult vertebrate species belonging to eight major vertebrate taxa are examined for the presence and location of cysteinyl residues in an attempt at correlation with their ecophysiology. Essentially, all vertebrates have surface cysteinyl residues in Hb molecules whereby their thiol groups may become highly reactive. Thiol-rich Hbs may display eight or more thiols per tetramer. In vertebrates so far examined, the cysteinyl residues occur in 44 different sequence positions in alpha chains and 41 positions in beta chains. Most of them are conservatively located and occur in only a few positions in Teleostei, Aves and Mammalia, whereas they are dispersed in Amphibia. The internal cysteinyl residue alpha104 is ubiquitous in vertebrates. Residue beta93 is highly conserved in reptiles, birds and mammals. The number of cysteine residues per tetramer with solvent access varies in vertebrates, mammalians and bony fish having the lowest number of external residues, whereas nearly all external cysteine residues in Aves and Lepidosauria are of the surface crevice type. In cartilaginous fish, amphibians, Crocodylidae and fresh water turtles, a substantial portion of the solvent accessible thiols are of the totally external type. Recent evidence shows that some Hb thiol groups are highly reactive and undergo extensive and reversible S-thiolation, and that they may be implicated in interorgan redox equilibrium processes. Participation of thiol groups in nitric oxide ((*)NO) metabolism has also been proved. The evidence argues for a new physiologically relevant role for Hb via involvement in free radical and antioxidant metabolism. PMID:17368111

  2. Joint Loads in Marsupial Ankles Reflect Habitual Bipedalism versus Quadrupedalism

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Kristian J.; Jashashvili, Tea; Houghton, Kimberley; Westaway, Michael C.; Patel, Biren A.

    2013-01-01

    Joint surfaces of limb bones are loaded in compression by reaction forces generated from body weight and musculotendon complexes bridging them. In general, joints of eutherian mammals have regions of high radiodensity subchondral bone that are better at resisting compressive forces than low radiodensity subchondral bone. Identifying similar form-function relationships between subchondral radiodensity distribution and joint load distribution within the marsupial postcranium, in addition to providing a richer understanding of marsupial functional morphology, can serve as a phylogenetic control in evaluating analogous relationships within eutherian mammals. Where commonalities are established across phylogenetic borders, unifying principles in mammalian physiology, morphology, and behavior can be identified. Here, we assess subchondral radiodensity patterns in distal tibiae of several marsupial taxa characterized by different habitual activities (e.g., locomotion). Computed tomography scanning, maximum intensity projection maps, and pixel counting were used to quantify radiodensity in 41 distal tibiae of bipedal (5 species), arboreal quadrupedal (4 species), and terrestrial quadrupedal (5 species) marsupials. Bipeds (Macropus and Wallabia) exhibit more expansive areas of high radiodensity in the distal tibia than arboreal (Dendrolagus, Phascolarctos, and Trichosurus) or terrestrial quadrupeds (Sarcophilus, Thylacinus, Lasiorhinus, and Vombatus), which may reflect the former carrying body weight only through the hind limbs. Arboreal quadrupeds exhibit smallest areas of high radiodensity, though they differ non-significantly from terrestrial quadrupeds. This could indicate slightly more compliant gaits by arboreal quadrupeds compared to terrestrial quadrupeds. The observed radiodensity patterns in marsupial tibiae, though their statistical differences disappear when controlling for phylogeny, corroborate previously documented patterns in primates and xenarthrans, potentially reflecting inferred limb use during habitual activities such as locomotion. Despite the complex nature of factors contributing to joint loads, broad observance of these patterns across joints and across a variety of taxa suggests that subchondral radiodensity can be used as a unifying form-function principle within Mammalia. PMID:23554931

  3. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

  4. Modeling hippocampal neurogenesis across the lifespan in seven species.

    PubMed

    Lazic, Stanley E

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the number of new cells and neurons added to the dentate gyrus across the lifespan, and to compare the rate of age-associated decline in neurogenesis across species. Data from mice (Mus musculus), rats (Rattus norvegicus), lesser hedgehog tenrecs (Echinops telfairi), macaques (Macaca mulatta), marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), and humans (Homo sapiens) were extracted from 21 data sets published in 14 different reports. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), exponential, Weibull, and power models were fit to the data to determine which best described the relationship between age and neurogenesis. Exponential models provided a suitable fit and were used to estimate the relevant parameters. The rate of decrease of neurogenesis correlated with species longevity (r = 0.769, p = 0.043), but not body mass or basal metabolic rate. Of all the cells added postnatally to the mouse dentate gyrus, only 8.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0% to 14.7%) of these will be added after middle age. In addition, only 5.7% (95% CI 0.7% to 9.9%) of the existing cell population turns over from middle age and onward. Thus, relatively few new cells are added for much of an animal's life, and only a proportion of these will mature into functional neurons. PMID:21621300

  5. The spectral transmission of ocular media suggests ultraviolet sensitivity is widespread among mammals.

    PubMed

    Douglas, R H; Jeffery, G

    2014-04-01

    Although ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity is widespread among animals it is considered rare in mammals, being restricted to the few species that have a visual pigment maximally sensitive (?max) below 400 nm. However, even animals without such a pigment will be UV-sensitive if they have ocular media that transmit these wavelengths, as all visual pigments absorb significant amounts of UV if the energy level is sufficient. Although it is known that lenses of diurnal sciurid rodents, tree shrews and primates prevent UV from reaching the retina, the degree of UV transmission by ocular media of most other mammals without a visual pigment with ?max in the UV is unknown. We examined lenses of 38 mammalian species from 25 families in nine orders and observed large diversity in the degree of short-wavelength transmission. All species whose lenses removed short wavelengths had retinae specialized for high spatial resolution and relatively high cone numbers, suggesting that UV removal is primarily linked to increased acuity. Other mammals, however, such as hedgehogs, dogs, cats, ferrets and okapis had lenses transmitting significant amounts of UVA (315-400 nm), suggesting that they will be UV-sensitive even without a specific UV visual pigment. PMID:24552839

  6. Development and embryonic staging in non-model organisms: the case of an afrotherian mammal.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Tzika, Athanasia C; Hautier, Lionel; Asher, Robert J; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Studies of evolutionary developmental biology commonly use 'model organisms' such as fruit flies or mice, and questions are often functional or epigenetic. Phylogenetic investigations, in contrast, typically use species that are less common and mostly deal with broad scale analyses in the tree of life. However, important evolutionary transformations have taken place at all taxonomic levels, resulting in such diverse forms as elephants and shrews. To understand the mechanisms underlying morphological diversification, broader sampling and comparative approaches are paramount. Using a simple, standardized protocol, we describe for the first time the development of soft tissues and some parts of the skeleton, using ?CT-imaging of developmental series of Echinops telfairi and Tenrec ecaudatus, two tenrecid afrotherian mammals. The developmental timing of soft tissue and skeletal characters described for the tenrecids is briefly compared with that of other mammals, including mouse, echidna, and the opossum. We found relatively few heterochronic differences in development in the armadillo vs. tenrec, consistent with a close relationship of Xenarthra and Afrotheria. Ossification in T. ecaudatus continues well into the second half of overall gestation, resembling the pattern seen in other small mammals and differing markedly from the advanced state of ossification evident early in the gestation of elephants, sheep, and humans. PMID:22537021

  7. Human seroprevalence indicating hantavirus infections in tropical rainforests of Côte d'Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Leendertz, Siv A J; Auste, Brita; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Schubert, Grit; Klempa, Boris; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Leendertz, Fabian H; Krüger, Detlev H

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing. Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687) and 2.4% (7/295), respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d'Ivoire and the DR Congo. In Côte d'Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required. PMID:26052326

  8. [Yersinia pestis and plague - an update].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-12-01

    The plague of man is a severe, systemic bacterial infectious disease. Without antibacterial therapy, the disease is associated with a high case fatality rate, ranging from 40% (bubonic plague) to nearly 100% (septicemic and pneumonic plague). The disease is caused by Yersinia pestis, a non-motile, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. In nature, Y. pestis has been found in several rodent species and some other small animals such as shrews. Within its reservoir host, Y. pestis circulates via flea bites. Transmission of Y. pestis to humans occurs by the bite of rat fleas, other flea vectors or by non vectorial routes, e. g., handling infected animals or consumption of contaminated food. Human-to-human transmission of the pathogen occurs primarily through aerosol droplets. Compared to the days when plague was a pandemic scourge, the disease is now relatively rare and limited to some rural areas of Africa. During the last ten years, however, plague outbreaks have been registered repea- tedly in some African regions. For treatment of plague, streptomycin is still considered the drug of choice. Chloramphenicol, doxycycline, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin are also promising drugs. Recombinant vaccines against plague are in clinical development. PMID:25643450

  9. A comparative survey of the mast cells of the mammalian brain.

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, J A

    1976-01-01

    A search for mast cells has been made in the brains of 18 mammalian species in 13 families in the orders Insectivora, Primates, Rodentia and Carnivora. In the larger animals, only the diencephalon and olfactory bulbs were examined. Mast cells were identified by virtue of their heparin-containing granules, which are stained by Alcian blue 8GX and, metachromatically, by toluidine blue 0. Within the cerebral parenchyma, mast cells were confined to the dorsal diencephalon of Erinaceus europaeus (hedgehog), Tupaia glis (tree-shrew) and Nycticebus coucang (slow loris). Some cells were next to capillaries; others were not. Mast cells were sometimes found, though rarely, in the intracerebral perivascular connective tissue leptomeninges and choroid plexuses of some of the other species examined. It is concluded that pericapillary cells (pericytes), which have been called mast cells by some investigators, are not in fact mast cells since there is no evidence for the presence of heparin. The functions of mast cells in the brain are unknown. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:819404

  10. Occurrence and transmission efficiencies of Borrelia burgdorferi ospC types in avian and mammalian wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Holly B.; Canham, Charles D.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Brisson, Dustin; Morin, Peter J.; Smouse, Peter E.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., the bacterium that causes Lyme disease in North America, circulates among a suite of vertebrate hosts and their tick vector. The bacterium can be differentiated at the outer surface protein C (ospC) locus into 25 genotypes. Wildlife hosts can be infected with a suite of ospC types but knowledge on the transmission efficiencies of these naturally infected hosts to ticks is still lacking. To evaluate the occupancy and detection of ospC types in wildlife hosts, we adapted a likelihood-based species patch occupancy model to test for the occurrence probabilities (? – “occupancy”) and transmission efficiencies (? – “detection”) of each ospC type. We detected differences in ospC occurrence and transmission efficiencies from the null models with HIS (human invasive strains) types A and K having the highest occurrence estimates, but both HIS and non-HIS types having high transmission efficiencies. We also examined ospC frequency patterns with respect to strains known to be invasive in humans across the host species and phylogenetic groups. We found that shrews and to a lesser extent, birds, were important host groups supporting relatively greater frequencies of HIS to non-HIS types. This novel method of simultaneously assessing occurrence and transmission of ospC types provides a powerful tool in assessing disease risk at the genotypic level in naturally infected wildlife hosts and offers the opportunity to examine disease risk at the community level. PMID:24382473

  11. Survival of male Tengmalm's owls increases with cover of old forest in their territory.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Harri; Korpimäki, Erkki; Laaksonen, Toni; Nikula, Ari; Suorsa, Petri

    2008-03-01

    The loss and fragmentation of forest habitats have been considered to pose a worldwide threat to the viability of forest-dwelling animals, especially to species that occupy old forests. We investigated whether the annual survival of sedentary male Tengmalm's owls Aegolius funereus was associated with the cover of old coniferous forests in Finland. Survival and recapture probabilities varied annually with density changes in populations of the main prey (Microtus voles). When this variation was controlled for, and relationships between survival and proportions of the three different forest age classes (old-growth, middle-aged, and young) were modeled separately, the old-growth model was the most parsimonious. Survival increased with the cover of old forest, although the extent of old forest within owl territories was relatively small (mean approximately 12%, range 2-37%). This association, however, varied among years and appeared especially in years of increasing vole abundance. At such times, old forests may sustain high populations of bank voles Clethrionomys glareolus, shrews and small passerines. In addition, old forests may serve as refuges against large avian predator species, such as Ural owls Strix uralensis and goshawks Accipiter gentilis. Our results suggest that changes in habitat quality created by agriculture and forestry may have the potential to reduce adult survival, an essential component of fitness and population viability. PMID:18080142

  12. Rickettsial infections of fleas collected from small mammals on four islands in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Kathryn A; Farzeli, Arik; Ibrahim, Ima N; Antonjaya, Ungke; Yunianto, Andre; Winoto, Imelda; Ester; Perwitasari, Dian; Widjaya, Susana; Richards, Allen L; Williams, Maya; Blair, Patrick J

    2010-11-01

    Ectoparasites were sampled from small mammals collected in West Java, West Sumatra, North Sulawesi, and East Kalimantan, Indonesia, in 2007-2008 and were screened for evidence of infection from bacteria in the Rickettsaceae family. During eight trap nights at eight sites, 208 fleas were collected from 96 of 507 small mammals trapped from four orders (379 Rodentia; 123 Soricomorpha; two Carnivora; three Scandentia). Two species of fleas were collected: Xenopsylla cheopis (n = 204) and Nosopsyllus spp. (n = 4). Among the 208 fleas collected, 171 X. cheopis were removed from rats (Rattus spp.) and 33 X. cheopis from shrews (Suncus murinus). X. cheopis were pooled and tested for DNA from rickettsial agents Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia felis, and spotted fever group rickettsiae. R. typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was detected in X. cheopis collected from small mammals in West Java and East Kalimantan. R. felis was detected in X. cheopis collected from small mammals in Manado, North Sulawesi. R. felis and spotted fever group rickettsiae were detected in a pool of X. cheopis collected from an animal in East Kalimantan. Sixteen percent of the X. cheopis pools were found positive for Rickettsia spp.; four (10.8%) R. typhi, one (2.7%) R. felis, and one (2.7%) codetection of R. felis and a spotted fever group rickettsia. These data suggest that rickettsial infections remain a threat to human health across Indonesia. PMID:21175069

  13. Development and embryonic staging in non-model organisms: the case of an afrotherian mammal

    PubMed Central

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Tzika, Athanasia C; Hautier, Lionel; Asher, Robert J; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Studies of evolutionary developmental biology commonly use ‘model organisms’ such as fruit flies or mice, and questions are often functional or epigenetic. Phylogenetic investigations, in contrast, typically use species that are less common and mostly deal with broad scale analyses in the tree of life. However, important evolutionary transformations have taken place at all taxonomic levels, resulting in such diverse forms as elephants and shrews. To understand the mechanisms underlying morphological diversification, broader sampling and comparative approaches are paramount. Using a simple, standardized protocol, we describe for the first time the development of soft tissues and some parts of the skeleton, using ?CT-imaging of developmental series of Echinops telfairi and Tenrec ecaudatus, two tenrecid afrotherian mammals. The developmental timing of soft tissue and skeletal characters described for the tenrecids is briefly compared with that of other mammals, including mouse, echidna, and the opossum. We found relatively few heterochronic differences in development in the armadillo vs. tenrec, consistent with a close relationship of Xenarthra and Afrotheria. Ossification in T. ecaudatus continues well into the second half of overall gestation, resembling the pattern seen in other small mammals and differing markedly from the advanced state of ossification evident early in the gestation of elephants, sheep, and humans. PMID:22537021

  14. Tula virus infections in the Eurasian water vole in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Mathias; Kindler, Eveline; Essbauer, Sandra S; Wolf, Ronny; Thiel, Jörg; Groschup, Martin H; Heckel, Gerald; Oehme, Rainer M; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2012-06-01

    Recent reports of novel hantaviruses in shrews and moles and the detection of rodent-borne hantaviruses in different rodent species raise important questions about their host range and specificity, evolution, and host adaptation. Tula virus (TULV), a European hantavirus, is believed to be slightly or non-pathogenic in humans and was initially detected in the common vole Microtus arvalis, the East European vole M. levis (formerly rossiaemeridionalis), and subsequently in other Microtus species. Here we report the first multiple RT-PCR detection and sequence analyses of TULV in the Eurasian water vole Arvicola amphibius from different regions in Germany and Switzerland. Additional novel TULV S-, M-, and L-segment sequences were obtained from M. arvalis and M. agrestis trapped in Germany at sites close to trapping sites of TULV-RT-PCR-positive water voles. Serological investigations using a recombinant TULV nucleocapsid protein revealed the presence of TULV-reactive antibodies in RT-PCR-positive and a few RT-PCR-negative water voles. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a geographical clustering of the novel S-, M-, and L-segment sequences from A. amphibius with those of M. arvalis- and M. agrestis-derived TULV lineages, and may suggest multiple TULV spillover or a potential host switch to A. amphibius. Future longitudinal studies of sympatric Microtus and Arvicola populations and experimental infection studies have to prove the potential of A. amphibius as an additional TULV reservoir host. PMID:22225425

  15. Prevalence and Diversity of Small Mammal-Associated Bartonella Species in Rural and Urban Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Jo E. B.; Knobel, Darryn L.; Agwanda, Bernard; Bai, Ying; Breiman, Robert F.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Kosoy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species are human pathogens but little is known about their epidemiology. We trapped rodents and shrews around human habitations at two sites in Kenya (rural Asembo and urban Kibera) to determine the prevalence of Bartonella infection. Bartonella were detected by culture in five of seven host species. In Kibera, 60% of Rattus rattus were positive, as compared to 13% in Asembo. Bartonella were also detected in C. olivieri (7%), Lemniscomys striatus (50%), Mastomys natalensis (43%) and R. norvegicus (50%). Partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene of isolates showed that Kibera strains were similar to reference isolates from Rattus trapped in Asia, America, and Europe, but that most strains from Asembo were less similar. Host species and trapping location were associated with differences in infection status but there was no evidence of associations between host age or sex and infection status. Acute febrile illness occurs at high incidence in both Asembo and Kibera but the etiology of many of these illnesses is unknown. Bartonella similar to known human pathogens were detected in small mammals at both sites and investigation of the ecological determinants of host infection status and of the public health significance of Bartonella infections at these locations is warranted. PMID:25781015

  16. The phylogenetic relationships of insectivores with special reference to the lesser hedgehog tenrec as inferred from the complete sequence of their mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Masato; Cao, Ying; Okada, Norihiro; Hasegawa, Masami

    2003-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of a lesser hedgehog tenrec Echinops telfairi was determined in this study. It is an endemic African insectivore that is found specifically in Madagascar. The tenrec's back is covered with hedgehog-like spines. Unlike other spiny mammals, such as spiny mice, spiny rats, spiny dormice and porcupines, lesser hedgehog tenrecs look amazingly like true hedgehogs (Erinaceidae). However, they are distinguished morphologically from hedgehogs by the absence of a jugal bone. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of a lesser hedgehog tenrec and analyzed the results phylogenetically to determine the relationships between the tenrec and other insectivores (moles, shrews and hedgehogs), as well as the relationships between the tenrec and endemic African mammals, classified as Afrotheria, that have recently been shown by molecular analysis to be close relatives of the tenrec. Our data confirmed the afrotherian status of the tenrec, and no direct relation was recovered between the tenrec and the hedgehog. Comparing our data with those of others, we found that within-species variations in the mitochondrial DNA of lesser hedgehog tenrecs appear to be the largest recognized to date among mammals, apart from orangutans, which might be interesting from the view point of evolutionary history of tenrecs on Madagascar. PMID:12655143

  17. Projections of the superior colliculus to the pulvinar in prosimian galagos (Otolemur garnettii) and VGLUT2 staining of the visual pulvinar

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Balaram, Pooja; Kaas, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the organization of the pulvinar complex in prosimian primates has been somewhat elusive due to the lack of clear architectonic divisions. In the current study, we revealed features of the organization of the pulvinar complex in galagos by examining superior colliculus (SC) projections to this structure and comparing them with staining patterns of the vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT2. Cholera toxin subunit ? (CTB), fluroruby (FR) and wheat germ agglutinin conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were placed in topographically different locations within the SC. Our results showed multiple topographically organized patterns of projections from the SC to several divisions of the pulvinar complex. At least two topographically distributed projections were found within the lateral region of the pulvinar complex, and two less obvious topographical projection patterns were found within the caudomedial region, in zones that stain darkly for VGLUT2. The results, considered in relation to recent observations in tree shrews and squirrels, suggest that parts of the organizational scheme of the pulvinar complex in primates are present in rodents and other mammals. PMID:23124867

  18. Superior colliculus connections with visual thalamus in gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): evidence for four subdivisions within the pulvinar complex.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wong, Peiyan; Reed, Jamie L; Kaas, Jon H

    2011-04-15

    As diurnal rodents with a well-developed visual system, squirrels provide a useful comparison of visual system organization with other highly visual mammals such as tree shrews and primates. Here, we describe the projection pattern of gray squirrel superior colliculus (SC) with the large and well-differentiated pulvinar complex. Our anatomical results support the conclusion that the pulvinar complex of squirrels consists of four distinct nuclei. The caudal (C) nucleus, distinct in cytochrome oxidase (CO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 (VGluT2) preparations, received widespread projections from the ipsilateral SC, although a crude retinotopic organization was suggested. The caudal nucleus also received weaker projections from the contralateral SC. The caudal nucleus also projects back to the ipsilateral SC. Lateral (RLl) and medial (RLm) parts of the previously defined rostral lateral pulvinar (RL) were architectonically distinct, and each nucleus received its own retinotopic pattern of focused ipsilateral SC projections. The SC did not project to the rostral medial (RM) nucleus of the pulvinar. SC injections also revealed ipsilateral connections with the dorsal and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei, nuclei of the pretectum, and nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus and bilateral connections with the parabigeminal nuclei. Comparisons with other rodents suggest that a variously named caudal nucleus, which relays visual inputs from the SC to temporal visual cortex, is common to all rodents and possibly most mammals. RM and RL divisions of the pulvinar complex also appear to have homologues in other rodents. PMID:21344403

  19. Comparative sensitivity of small mammals to micronucleus induction in bone marrow cells by clastogenic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J.R.; Wernsing, P.; Daniel, F.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The bone marrow micronucleus assay is the most widely used method for detecting genetic damage in vivo, but this assay has received little attention for its possible application to biomonitoring terrestrial environments. The present study compared the responsiveness of three small mammalian species, Cryptotus parva (least shrew), Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse), and strain CD-1 Mus musculus (house mouse), to the clastogen, methylmethanesulfonate (MMS). Five animals of each sex of each species were exposed for 24 h to four concentrations of MMS ranging from 0 to 50 mg/kg. Bone marrow cells were flushed from the femurs, and smears were stained with acridine orange and examined using fluorescence microscopy. The slides were scored for evidence of acute bone marrow toxicity (polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocyte ratio, PCE:NCE) and frequency of micronucleated PCE. PCE:NCE was depressed at 50 mg/kg in P. leucopus, but not in the other species. Dose-related increases in micronucleated PCE were observed in all three species, with males being more sensitive for P. leucopus and M. musculus, and females being more sensitive for C. parva. For both sexes, the two feral species, P. leucopus and C. parva, were more sensitive than M. musculus. These studies demonstrate the successful application of the bone marrow micronucleus assay to species other than standard laboratory strains of mice. The results also demonstrate heretofore unrecognized species differences in responsiveness.

  20. Occurrence of Enterococci in Animals in a Wild Environment1

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, J. Orvin

    1963-01-01

    Enterococci were obtained from the feces of 71% of 216 mammals, 86% of 70 reptiles, and 32% of 22 birds sampled in a truly wild environment, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Patterns of food dependence and also of species dependence were observed. Among the lower classes of the primarily herbivorous mammals, the enterococci occurred sporadically; however, of the six species of Sciuridae, the gray squirrel, and of four species of Cricetidae, the red-backed mouse, the enterococci appear to be natural hosts. The enterococci were not obtained from most specimens of moles, shrews, or rabbits but they were obtained from most specimens of bats and from the carnivorous mammals, such as fox, bear, raccon, skunk, and boar. Streptococcus faecalis was obtained from 12 reptiles, and a caseolytic variant was obtained from 37 specimens of the reptiles. The strongly reducing, tellurite-tolerant species, S. faecalis, its caseolytic variant, and S. faecalis var. zymogenes were isolated from 127 or 41% of 308 specimens cultured. S. faecium was recovered from 87 or 28% of the animals, chiefly from the wild boar (60 of 64 trials) and the black bear. S. zymogenes was obtained from 1 of 31 bats, 3 of 12 raccoons, and 1 of 3 owls. PMID:13936610