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Sample records for shrews mammalia soricidae

  1. Molecular phylogenetics of shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae) reveal timing of transcontinental colonizations

    E-print Network

    Salamin, Nicolas

    Molecular phylogenetics of shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae) reveal timing of transcontinentalB in shrews taxa (Eulipotyphla, family Soricidae). The aim was to study the relationships at higher taxonomic of such taxa (e.g., Beerli and Edwards, 2002). This is particularly true with shrews (Soricidae, Eulipotyphla

  2. Biogeographic origin and radiation of the Old World crocidurine shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes

    E-print Network

    Salamin, Nicolas

    Biogeographic origin and radiation of the Old World crocidurine shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae a c t The crocidurine shrews include the most speciose genus of mammals, Crocidura. The origin of mitochon- drial and nuclear DNA to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis for the evolution of Old World shrews

  3. Functional skeletal morphology and its implications for locomotory behavior among three genera of myosoricine shrews (Mammalia: Eulipotyphla: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Stabile, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Myosoricinae is a small clade of shrews (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) that is currently restricted to the African continent. Individual species have limited distributions that are often associated with higher elevations. Although the majority of species in the subfamily are considered ambulatory in their locomotory behavior, species of the myosoricine genus Surdisorex are known to be semifossorial. To better characterize variation in locomotory behaviors among myosoricines, we calculated 32 morphological indices from skeletal measurements from nine species representing all three genera that comprise the subfamily (i.e., Congosorex, Myosorex, Surdisorex) and compared them to indices calculated for two species with well-documented locomotory behaviors: the ambulatory talpid Uropsilus soricipes and the semifossorial talpid Neurotrichus gibbsii. We summarized the 22 most complete morphological variables by 1) calculating a mean percentile rank for each species and 2) using the first principal component from principal component analysis of the indices. The two methods yielded similar results and indicate grades of adaptations reflecting a range of potential locomotory behaviors from ambulatory to semifossorial that exceeds the range represented by the two talpids. Morphological variation reflecting grades of increased semifossoriality among myosoricine shrews is similar in many respects to that seen for soricines, but some features are unique to the Myosoricinae.

  4. Functional skeletal morphology and its implications for locomotory behavior among three genera of myosoricine shrews (Mammalia: Eulipotyphla: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Woodman, Neal; Stabile, Frank A

    2015-05-01

    Myosoricinae is a small clade of shrews (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) that is currently restricted to the African continent. Individual species have limited distributions that are often associated with higher elevations. Although the majority of species in the subfamily are considered ambulatory in their locomotory behavior, species of the myosoricine genus Surdisorex are known to be semifossorial. To better characterize variation in locomotory behaviors among myosoricines, we calculated 32 morphological indices from skeletal measurements from nine species representing all three genera that comprise the subfamily (i.e., Congosorex, Myosorex, Surdisorex) and compared them to indices calculated for two species with well-documented locomotory behaviors: the ambulatory talpid Uropsilus soricipes and the semifossorial talpid Neurotrichus gibbsii. We summarized the 22 most complete morphological variables by 1) calculating a mean percentile rank for each species and 2) using the first principal component from principal component analysis of the indices. The two methods yielded similar results and indicate grades of adaptations reflecting a range of potential locomotory behaviors from ambulatory to semifossorial that exceeds the range represented by the two talpids. Morphological variation reflecting grades of increased semifossoriality among myosoricine shrews is similar in many respects to that seen for soricines, but some features are unique to the Myosoricinae. PMID:25678028

  5. Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest.

  6. Skeletal morphology of the forefoot in shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae) of the genus Cryptotis, as revealed by digital x-rays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Morgan, J.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Variation in the forefoot skeleton of small-eared shrews (family Soricidae, genus Cryptotis) has been previously documented, but the paucity of available skeletons for most taxa makes assessment of the degrees of intraspecific and interspecific variation difficult. We used a digital X-ray system to extract images of the forefoot skeleton from 101 dried skins of eight taxa (seven species, including two subspecies of one species) of these shrews. Lengths and widths of each of the four bones of digit III were measured directly from the digital images, and we used these data to quantify variation within and among taxa. Analysis of the images and measurements showed that interspecific variation exceeds intraspecific variation. In fact, most taxa could be distinguished in multivariate and some bivariate plots. Our quantitative data helped us define a number of specific forefoot characters that we subsequently used to hypothesize evolutionary relationships among the taxa using the exhaustive search option in PAUP, a computer program for phylogenetic analysis. The resulting trees generally concur with previously published evolutionary hypotheses for small-eared shrews. Cryptotis meridensis, a taxon not previously examined in recent phylogenies, is rooted at the base of the branch leading to the C. mexicana group of species. The position of this species suggests that the mostly South American C. thomasi group shares an early ancestor with the C. mexicana group.

  7. At the foot of the shrew: manus morphology distinguishes closely-related Cryptotis goodwini and Cryptotis griseoventris (Mammalia: Soricidae) in Central America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Stephens, Ryan B.

    2010-01-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae) of the New World genus Cryptotis are distributed from eastern North America to the northern Andes of South America. One well-defined clade in this genus is the Central American Cryptotis mexicana group, whose members are set off from other species in the genus by their variably broader fore feet and more elongate and broadened fore claws. Two species in the C. mexicana group, Cryptotis goodwini Jackson and Cryptotis griseoventris Jackson, inhabit highlands in Guatemala and southern Mexico and are presumed to be sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger body size of C. goodwini. To better characterize these species and confirm the identification of recently-collected specimens, we obtained digital X-ray images of the manus from large series of dried skins of both species. Measurements of the metacarpals and phalanges successfully separated most specimens of C. goodwini and C. griseoventris. These measurements also show that the fore feet of C. griseoventris from Chiapas, Mexico, are morphologically distinct from those of members of the species inhabiting Guatemala. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses indicate that fore foot characters are more conservative within species of the C. mexicana group than are cranio-mandibular characters. Patterns of evolution of fore foot characters that superficially appear to be linear gradations are actually more complex, illustrating individual evolutionary trajectories.

  8. Patterns of morphological variation amongst semifossorial shrews in the highlands of Guatemala, with the description of a new species (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Cryptotis goldmani group of small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae) represent a clade within the genus that is characterized by modifications of the forelimb that include broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened foreclaws, and massive humeri with enlarged processes. These modifications are consistent with greater adaptation to their semifossorial habits than other members of the genus. The species in this group occur discontinuously in temperate highlands from southern Tamaulipas, Mexico, to Honduras. In Guatemala, there are three species: the relatively widespread Cryptotis goodwini and two species (Cryptotis lacertosus, Cryptotis mam) endemic to highland forests in the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes of western Guatemala. Ongoing studies focusing on the relationships of variation in cranial and postcranial skeletal morphology have revealed a fourth species from remnant cloud forest in the Sierra de Yalijux, central Guatemala. In this paper, I describe this new species and characterize its morphology relative to other species in the C. goldmani group and to other species of Cryptotis in Guatemala. In addition, I summarize available details of its habitat and ecology.

  9. Taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of Phillips’ small-eared shrew, Cryptotis phillipsii (Schaldach, 1966), from Oaxaca, Mexico (Mammalia: Insectivora: Soricidae)

    E-print Network

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    2000-07-01

    The name Cryptotis peregrina (Merriam, 1895) previously encompassed two separate populations of a small-eared shrew of the Cryptotis mexicana group inhabiting the Sierra de Cuatro Venados and the Sierra de Miahuatlán in Oaxaca, Mexico. Analysis...

  10. A new species of small-eared shrew from Colombia and Venezuela (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Genus Cryptotis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of small-eared shrews inhabiting the northern Cordillera Oriental of Colombia and adjoining Venezuelan highlands in the vicinity of Paramo de Tama have been referred alternatively to Cryptotis thomssi or Cryptotis meridensis. Morphological and morphometrical study of this population indicates that it belongs to neither taxon, but represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species. I describe this new species as Cryptotis tamensis and redescribe C. meridensis. Recognition of the population at Paramo de Tama as a separate taxon calls into question the identities of populations of shrews currently represented only by single specimens from Cerro Pintado in the Sierra de Perija, Colombia, and near El Junquito in the coastal highlands of Venezuela.

  11. A new small-eared shrew of the Cryptotis nigrescens-group from Colombia (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2003-01-01

    Cryptotis colombiana Woodman & Timm, 1993 previously was known from few specimens from two isolated regions in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. Recent collecting in the northern Cordillera Central and review of older collections from the central Cordillera Oriental in the vicinity of Bogota yielded additional specimens that permit reevaluation of the two geographic populations of these small-eared shrews. Morphological and morphometrical studies indicate that the population inhabiting the Cordillera Oriental represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species that I describe herein as Cryptotis brachyonyx. Study of 54 specimens of shrews from the Cordillera Oriental in systematic collections in North America, South America, and Europe yielded only four specimens of the new species, all collected before 1926. The paucity of modern specimens suggests that C. brachyonyx may be extremely restricted in distribution, or possibly extinct.

  12. Fossil shrews from Honduras and their significance for late glacial evolution in body size (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Croft, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Our study of mammalian remains excavated in the 1940s from McGrew Cave, north of Copan, Honduras, yielded an assemblage of 29 taxa that probably accumulated predominantly as the result of predation by owls. Among the taxa present are three species of small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis. One species, Cryptotis merriami, is relatively rare among the fossil remains. The other two shrews, Cryptotis goodwini and Cryptotis orophila, are abundant and exhibit morpho metrical variation distinguishing them from modern populations. Fossils of C. goodwini are distinctly and consistently smaller than modern members of the species. To quantify the size differences, we derived common measures of body size for fossil C. goodwini using regression models based on modern samples of shrews in the Cryptotis mexicana-group. Estimated mean length of head and body for the fossil sample is 72-79 mm, and estimated mean mass is 7.6-9.6 g. These numbers indicate that the fossil sample averaged 6-14% smaller in head and body length and 39-52% less in mass than the modern sample and that increases of 6-17% in head and body length and 65-108% in mass occurred to achieve the mean body size of the modern sample. Conservative estimates of fresh (wet) food intake based on mass indicate that such a size increase would require a 37-58% increase in daily food consumption. In contrast to C. goodwini, fossil C. orophila from the cave is not different in mean body size from modern samples. The fossil sample does, however, show slightly greater variation in size than is currently present throughout the modern geographical distribution of the taxon. Moreover, variation in some other dental and mandibular characters is more constrained, exhibiting a more direct relationship to overall size. Our study of these species indicates that North American shrews have not all been static in size through time, as suggested by some previous work with fossil soricids. Lack of stratigraphic control within the site and our failure to obtain reliable radiometric dates on remains restrict our opportunities to place the site in a firm temporal context. However, the morphometrical differences we document for fossil C. orophila and C. goodwini show them to be distinct from modern populations of these shrews. Some other species of fossil mammals from McGrew Cave exhibit distinct size changes of the magnitudes experienced by many northern North American and some Mexican mammals during the transition from late glacial to Holocene environmental conditions, and it is likely that at least some of the remains from the cave are late Pleistocene in age. One curious factor is that, whereas most mainland mammals that exhibit large-scale size shifts during the late glacial/postglacial transition experienced dwarfing, C. goodwini increased in size. The lack of clinal variation in modern C. goodwini supports the hypothesis that size evolution can result from local selection rather than from cline translocation. Models of size change in mammals indicate that increased size, such as that observed for C. goodwini, are a likely consequence of increased availability of resources and, thereby, a relaxation of selection during critical times of the year.

  13. Distributional records of shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae) from Northern Central America with the first record of Sorex from Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Matson, John O.; McCarthy, Timothy J.; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Bulmer, Walter; Ordonez-Garza, Nicte

    2012-01-01

    Short term surveys for small mammals in Guatemala and Honduras during 1992–2009 provided important new records for 12 taxa of shrews from 24 localities. These locality records expand the known geographic distributions for five species and for the genus Sorex Linnaeus, 1758: the geographic range of Cryptotis goodwini Jackson, 1933, now includes the Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala, and several isolated highlands in western Honduras; the known distribution of Cryptotis mayensis (Merriam, 1901) is increased with the first definite modern record for this shrew from Guatemala; Cryptotis merriami Choate, 1970, is now known to occur in the Sierra de las Minas and the Sierra del Merendon, Guatemala, as well as the isolated Sierra de Omoa and Montana de La Muralla in Honduras, and its documented elevational range (600–1720 m) is expanded; records of Sorex veraepacis Alston, 1877, expand the known distribution of this species to include the Sierra de Yalijux, Guatemala; and discovery of Sorex salvini Merriam, 1897, at Celaque, Honduras (1825–3110 m), represents a considerable extension of the geographic range of the species, and it is the first record of the genus Sorex from Honduras. In addition, the first record of potential syntopy among C. goodwini, C merriami, and Cryptotis orophilus (J.A. Allen, 1895), is reported at an elevation of 1430 m in the Sierra de Celaque, Honduras. Information associated with these records contributes substantially to knowledge of habitat use, elevational distributions, reproductive patterns, diet, and parasites of the species encountered. General patterns include the first evidence that Neotropical species of soricids have smaller litters than their temperate congeners.

  14. Geographic variation and evolutionary relationships among broad-clawed shrews of the Cryptotis goldmani–group (Mammalia: Insectivora: Soricidae)

    E-print Network

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    The Cryptotis goldmani group of small-eared shrews consists of species that occupy high elevation (>1000 m) habitats in Mexico and northern Central America. Previously, this group was viewed as consisting of only two species (Cryptotis goldmani...Resumen--Las musarañas de orejas pequeñas del grupo de especies Cryptotis goldmani ocurren en hábitats de altas elevaciones (> 1000 msnm) en México y el norte de Centroamérica. Anteriormente, se consideraba que este grupo se constaba de solamente dos especies (Cryptotis goldmani y Cryptotis goodwinii) que se caracterizaban por la agrandación excesiva de las patas y las uñas delanteras. Filogenéticamente C. goldmani y C. goodwini se encontraban en el grupo de especies Cryptotis mexicana sensu Choate (1970), un grupo que además incluía solomente C. mexicana con cuatro subespecies. Nuestra revisión de estas musarañas indica que las subespecies de C. mexicana son taxones bien diferenciados que reconocemos como especies distintas (Cryptotis mexicana, Cryptotis nelsoni, Cryptotis obscura, y Cryptotis peregrina). El grupo de especies C. goldmani consta de por lo menos cuatro especies distintas: Cryptotis alticola, en Colima, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Puebla y el Distrito Federal de México; C. goldmani, en la Sierra Madre del Sur en Guerrero y Oaxaca; C. goodwini, en Chiapas, Guatemala, El Salvador, y Honduras; y Cryptotis griseoventris, en las montañas del norte de Chiapas y Guatemala. Un ejemplar único de C. goodwini muestra la presencia de tal en Honduras, fuera de la distribución anteriormente conocida para el grupo de especies C. mexicana. Este espécimen nuevo tiene características que sugieren que la población hondureña es filogenéticamente distinta a los demás C. goodwini; por lo tanto, se lo describe aquí como una nueva subespecie de C. goodwini. Nuestro análisis morfológico muestra que la agrandación de las patas y las uñas delanteras es una tendencia presente en todo el grupo C. mexicana, y que alcanza su desarrollo máximo en las especies del grupo C. goldmani. Tal tendencia se relaciona con modificaciones funcionales del esqueleto del miembro delantero. Nuestro análisis filogenético, basado en 29 carácteres, indica que el grupo C. mexicana es un cIado bien definido y justifica la posición del grupo C. goldmani dentro del grupo anterior. La topología de cada uno de los arboles filogenéticos más cortos demuestra que las especies anteriormente tratadas como subespecies de C. mexicana son parafiléticas con respecto al grupo de especies C. goldmani....

  15. The complete mitogenome of Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qun; Wang, Qiong; Chen, Guiying; Fu, Changkun; Chen, Shunde

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes belongs to the family Soricidae, and widely distributes in central and southern China, northern and south Burma, east India, northern Vietnam and Thailand. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Anourosorex squamipes was determined. The mitogenome is 17,121 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region, with base composition of 34.0% A, 31.3% T, 22.0% C, and 12.7% G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage did not differ significantly from those of other shrews. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Chinese Mole Shrew Anourosorex squamipes. PMID:24708118

  16. The complete mitogenome of Asian House Shrews, Suncus murinus (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shunde; Wei, Haixue; Peng, Hongyuan; Yong, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The Asian House Shrew, Suncus murinus belongs to the family Soricidae, and widely distributes in East, Southeast and South Asia, Southwest Island in the Pacific Ocean and East Africa. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Suncus murinus was determined. The mitogenome is 17,240?bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region, with a base composition of 33.0% A, 32.7% T, 21.2% C and 13.1% G. The present study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of S. murinus, and may facilitate further investigation of the molecular evolution of Soricidae. PMID:24976048

  17. A new species of small-eared shrew, genus Cryptotis (Insectivora: Soricidae), from Honduras.

    E-print Network

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    1992-03-01

    We describe a new species of small-eared shrew, Cryptotis hondurensis (Insectivora: Soricidae), from high elevation pine forest on the western slope of Cerro Uyuca, Francisco Morazán Province, southcentral Honduras. The new shrew is most similar... distribución de C. gracilis a Costa Rica y Panamá y la remueve de la fauna de Honduras. Las otras especies de Cryptotis que habitan en Honduras son C. nigrescens merriami y C. parva orophila....

  18. This shrew is a jumping mouse (Mammalia, Dipodidae): Sorex dichrurus Rafinesque 1833 is a synonym of Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann 1780)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Constantine S. Rafinesque described Sorex dichrurus as a shrew in 1833, based on a specimen he found in a proprietary museum near Niagara Falls on the New York/Ontario border. The name subsequently has been ignored by the scientific community. By describing this specimen as a shrew and ascribing it to the genus Sorex, Rafinesque clearly indicated that his species should be considered a member of the taxonomic family now recognized as the Soricidae (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla). Yet, the description of the animal, and its comparison to ‘‘Gerbillus,’’ clearly identify it as a dipodid rodent, specifically Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780); S. dichrurus should be treated as a junior subjective synonym of that taxon. Based on its type locality of Goat Island, New York, this name is also a junior synonym of the subspecies Z. hudsonius canadensis (Davies, 1798).

  19. A new species of Cryptotis (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) from the Sierra de Perijá, Venezuelan-Colombian Andes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quiroga-Carmona, Marcial; Woodman, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The Sierra de Perijá is the northern extension of the Cordillera Oriental of the Andes and includes part of the border between Colombia and Venezuela. The population of small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae, Cryptotis) inhabiting the Sierra de Perijá previously was known from only a single skull from an individual collected in Colombia in 1989. This specimen had been referred to alternatively as C. thomasi and C. meridensis, but more precise definition of the known Colombian and Venezuelan species of Cryptotis has since excluded the Sierra de Perijá population from any named species. The recent collection of a specimen from the Venezuelan slope of Sierra de Perijá, prompted us to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of this population and determine its relationship with other Andean shrews. Our examination of the available specimens revealed that they possess a unique suite of morphological and morphometrical characters, and we describe the Sierra de Perijá population as a new species in the South American C. thomasi species group. Recognition of this new species adds to our knowledge of this genus in South America and to the biodiversity of the Sierra de Perijá.

  20. The complete mitogenome of Stripe-Backed Shrew, Sorex cylindricauda (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shunde; Tu, Feiyun; Zhang, Xiuyue; Li, Wei; Chen, Guiying; Zong, Hao; Wang, Qiong

    2015-06-01

    The Stripe-Backed Shrew, Sorex cylindricauda belongs to the family Soricidae, and distributes in northwestern Yunnan, central Sichuan, southern Gansu and Shaanxi. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of S. cylindricauda was determined. The mitogenome is 17,191?bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region, with a base composition of 33.2% A, 30.2% T, 23.8% C and 12.8% G. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Stripe-Backed Shrew Sorex cylindricauda. PMID:24409903

  1. The Stephen H. Long Expedition (1819?1820), Titian R. Peale?s field illustrations, and the lost holotypes of the North American shrews Sorex brevicaudus Say and Sorex parvus Say (Mammalia: Soricidae) from the Philadelphia Museum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2009-01-01

    While encamped for the winter of 1819?1820 at Engineer Cantonment along the Missouri River in present-day eastern Nebraska, members of Major Stephen Harriman Long?s Expedition to the Rocky Mountains collected a number of animals that were previously unknown. Among the mammals were two soricids that were subsequently described by Thomas Say as Sorex brevicaudus (Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda) and Sorex parvus (Least Shrew, Cryptotis parvus). The holotypes of these species were deposited and placed on public exhibit in the Philadelphia Museum, the predominant North American systematic collection of the early nineteenth century. Like most private museums of that era, the Philadelphia Museum eventually went out of business, and its collections were dispersed and, for the most part, lost. Fortunately, Titian R. Peale made a detailed field sketch of the two specimens soon after their capture and subsequently executed a watercolor based on that sketch. In addition, an engraving of the holotypes was published in the decade following the discovery of the two species. Illustrations of holotypes are taxonomically useful when they depict diagnostic characters of species. They take on added taxonomic significance in the absence of the holotypes. In the cases of Sorex brevicaudus and Sorex parvus, pictures provide strong confirmation of the taxonomic identities of these two species, as well as recording the early history of the specimens.

  2. Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

  3. Unique regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism during fasting in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus, Insectivora: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoko; Suzuki, Daisuke; Oda, Sen-Ichi; Refetoff, Samuel; Seki, Koji; Tsunekawa, Katsuhiko; Kasahara, Takayuki; Murakami, Masami; Murata, Yoshiharu

    2006-05-01

    The active hormone, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) is derived from thyroxine (T4) by the action of iodothyronine 5'-deiodinases (5'-D). By now two types of 5'-D have been identified; Type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2). A relative contribution of these isotypes to the circulating T3 levels in the human remains to be determined whereas a number of reports indicate that, under physiological conditions, D1 plays a major role in maintaining circulating T3 levels in rodents. In both human and rodents, sickness and starvation reduce serum T3 concentration mainly through decrease in D1 activity. Recently, we found that the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus, Insectivora: Soricidae) has a different tissue distribution of D1 activity. Because compared to rodents D1 activity in the shrew was found only in liver at a much reduced level, D2 rather than D1 may play a role in the maintenance of serum T3. Therefore, we questioned how D1 and D2 activities change in fasted shrews and how these changes affect circulating thyroid hormone levels. We thus starved shrews for 24, 48 or 72 h and measured changes in serum concentration of T3, T4, and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T3, rT3) and D1 activities as well as its mRNA expression in liver. D2 activities were also measured in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and cerebral cortex of shrews. Unlike in human and rodents, T3 levels in shrews remained constant during fasting while T4 levels tended to decrease, resulting in an increase in its T3/T4 ratio. On the other hand, changes in rT3 levels were similar to those in human and rodents, being elevated with fasting. D1 mRNA and its activity were significantly reduced in the liver whereas D2 activities in BAT and cerebral cortex were increased by fasting. These results indicated that fasting in shrews also reduced hepatic D1 activity but it did not affect circulating T3 levels. The increased T3/T4 ratio together with increased D2 activity in BAT and cerebral cortex with fasting suggest that D2 rather than D1 is responsible for the maintenance of T3 levels in the house musk shrew. PMID:16426605

  4. Molecular Phylogeny Supports Repeated Adaptation to Burrowing within Small-Eared Shrews Genus of Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae)

    PubMed Central

    He, Kai; Woodman, Neal; Boaglio, Sean; Roberts, Mariel; Supekar, Sunjana; Maldonado, Jesús E.

    2015-01-01

    Small-eared shrews of the New World genus Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) comprise at least 42 species that traditionally have been partitioned among four or more species groups based on morphological characters. The Cryptotis mexicana species group is of particular interest, because its member species inhibit a subtly graded series of forelimb adaptations that appear to correspond to locomotory behaviors that range from more ambulatory to more fossorial. Unfortunately, the evolutionary relationships both among species in the C. mexicana group and among the species groups remain unclear. To better understand the phylogeny of this group of shrews, we sequenced two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. To help interpret the pattern and direction of morphological changes, we also generated a matrix of morphological characters focused on the evolutionarily plastic humerus. We found significant discordant between the resulting molecular and morphological trees, suggesting considerable convergence in the evolution of the humerus. Our results indicate that adaptations for increased burrowing ability evolved repeatedly within the genus Cryptotis. PMID:26489020

  5. The complete mitogenome of Asiatic Short-tailed Shrew Blarinella quadraticauda (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Fu, Changkun; Chen, Shunde; Yong, Bin; Chen, Guiying; Zong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic Short-tailed Shrew, Blarinella quadraticauda, is an endemic shrew to China, and is only distributed in Sichuan. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of B. quadraticauda was determined. The mitogenome is 17,014 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region, with a base composition of 33.3 % A, 31.8% T, 22.3% C and 12.6% G. This study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of the Asiatic Short-tailed Shrew, B. quadraticauda. PMID:24660918

  6. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, V.B.; Goropashnaya, A.V.; Talbot, Sandra; Cook, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes.

  7. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, A.G.; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, V.B.; Goropashnaya, A.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Hope, Andrew G; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, Vadim B; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Talbot, Sandra L; Cook, Joseph A

    2011-10-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes. PMID:21919986

  9. [Description of Hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) and first general considerations on the fauna of cestode parasites of the pygmy shrew Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Insectivora: Soricidae)].

    PubMed

    Mas-Coma, S; Fons, R; Galan-Puchades, M T; Valero, M A

    1986-01-01

    Description and differentiation of the adult stage of Hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), an intestinal parasite of the Pygmy white-toothed shrew, Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Insectivora: Soricidae: Crocidurinae) in the region of Banyuls-sur-Mer and Cerbère (Oriental Pyrenees, France). The new species is characterized by the size of the gravid specimens and by the presence of 18-21 rostellar hooks of 18.5-20 micron and of filaments around the embryophore. The general composition of the fauna of Cyclophyllidea parasitizing S. etruscus is analysed. There are three less specialised Hymenolepis species with a scolex of the same type and one Pseudhymenolepis species, with the absence of unarmed species lacking a rostrum. The oioxenous character of the Cestodes parasitizing Suncus species sustains the validity of the genus Suncus. The resemblance of the Cestodefaunas suggests a narrow phyletic relationship between the genera Suncus and Crocidura. PMID:3813424

  10. A new species of small-eared shrew (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guevara, Lázaro; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; León-Paniagua, Livia; Woodman, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and distribution of mammals in the American tropics remain incompletely known. We describe a new species of small-eared shrew (Soricidae, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Chiapas, southern Mexico. The new species is distinguished from other species of Cryptotis on the basis of a unique combination of pelage coloration, size, dental, cranial, postcranial, and external characters, and genetic distances. It appears most closely related to species in the Cryptotis nigrescens species group, which occurs from southern Mexico to montane regions of Colombia. This discovery is particularly remarkable because the new species is from a low-elevation habitat (approximately 90 m), whereas most shrews in the region are restricted to higher elevations, typically > 1,000 m. The only known locality for the new shrew is in one of the last areas in southern Mexico where relatively undisturbed tropical vegetation is still found. The type locality is protected by the Mexican government as part of the Yaxchilán Archaeological Site on the border between Mexico and Guatemala.

  11. Natural hybridization between extremely divergent chromosomal races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus, Soricidae, Soricomorpha): hybrid zone in European Russia.

    PubMed

    Bulatova, N; Jones, R M; White, T A; Shchipanov, N A; Pavlova, S V; Searle, J B

    2011-03-01

    The Moscow and Seliger chromosomal races of the common shrew differ by Robertsonian fusions and possibly whole-arm reciprocal translocations (WARTs) such that their F? hybrids produce a chain-of-eleven configuration at meiosis I and are expected to suffer substantial infertility. Of numerous hybrid zones that have been described in the common shrew, those between the Moscow and Seliger races involve the greatest chromosomal difference. We collected 211 individuals from this zone to generate a total dataset of 298 individuals from 187 unique global positioning system (GPS) locations within the vicinity of interracial contact. We used a geographic information system (GIS) to map the location of the hybrid zone, which follows a direct route between two lakes, as would be anticipated from tension zone theory. Even within the central area of the hybrid zone, there is a much higher frequency of pure race individuals than hybrid, making this a clear example of a bimodal zone in the sense of Jiggins & Mallet (2000). The zone runs through good habitat for common shrews, but nevertheless it is very narrow (standard cline widths: 3-4 km), as would be anticipated from low hybrid fitness. There is clear potential for an interruption to gene flow and build-up of reproductive isolation. As found in some other hybrid zones, there is a high frequency of novel genetic variants, in this case, new chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we report a de novo Robertsonian fission and a de novo reciprocal translocation, both for the first time in the common shrew. There is an extraordinarily high frequency of de novo mutations recorded in F? hybrids in the zone and we discuss how chromosomal instability may be associated with such hybrids. The occurrence of a de novo Robertsonian fission is of considerable significance because it provides missing evidence that fissions are the basis of the novel acrocentric forms found and apparently selected for in certain common shrew hybrid zones. PMID:21159004

  12. Eimeria cryptotis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the least shrew, Cryptotis parva (Insectivora: Soricidae), in north-central Texas.

    PubMed

    McAllister, C T; Upton, S J

    1989-04-01

    From March through November 1987, 14 least shrews, Cryptotis parva (Say), were collected in portions of north-central Texas and examined for coccidian parasites; only 1 (7.1%) was found to be passing oocysts. Eimeria cryptotis n. sp. is described herein as new and represents the only coccidian reported thus far from C. parva. Sporulated oocysts are subspherical, 16.4 x 15.3 (14-18 x 13-17) microns; shape index 1.1 (1.0-1.2) microns. A micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. The sporocysts are ovoid, 10.6 x 7.0 (9-11 x 6-8) microns; shape index 1.5 (1.4-1.8) microns. Stieda and substieda bodies and a sporocyst residuum are present. The sporozoites are elongate and only 2 could be observed well enough to measure (11.2 x 2.4 and 8.8 x 2.4 microns) because they are normally obscured by the sporocyst residuum. Sporozoites lack refractile bodies and contain a centrally located nucleus. The new species can be distinguished from the majority of insectivore coccidia on the basis of oocyst size. PMID:2926589

  13. The identity of the enigmatic "Black Shrew" (Sorex niger Ord, 1815)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The scientific name Sorex niger Ord, 1815 (Mammalia, Soricidae) was originally applied to a North American species that George Ord called the “Black Shrew.” The origin of the name “Black Shrew,” however, was obscure, and Samuel Rhoads subsequently wrote that the species represented by this name could not be determined. The names Sorex niger Ord and Black Shrew have since been mostly forgotten. Two of Ord's contemporaries, however, noted that Ord's use of these names probably alluded to Benjamin Smith Barton's Black Shrew, whose discovery near Philadelphia was announced by Barton in 1806. Examination of two unpublished illustrations of the Black Shrew made by Barton indicates that the animal depicted is Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1822). Had the connection between Ord's and Barton's names been made more clearly, one of the most common mammals in eastern North America would bear a different scientific name today. This connection also would have affected the validity of Sorex niger Horsfield, 1851. While Sorex niger Ord remains a nomen nudum, the animal it referenced can now be identified.

  14. Biogeographical and Evolutionary Relationships Among Central American Small-Eared Shrews of the Genus Cryptotis (Mammalia: Insectivora: Soricidae)

    E-print Network

    Woodman, Neal

    1992-09-09

    . parva group or the C. thomasi group. Within the C. nigrescens group C. magna has a sister group relationship with C. mayensis and C. merriami. Biogeography of the genus Cryptotis is complex, and it appears that ancestral patterns of divergence have been...

  15. [Respiratory function of blood and relative weight of certain organs in two species of shrew: Crocidura russula and Suncus etruscus (Soricidae mammals)].

    PubMed

    Bartels, H; Bartels, R; Baumann, R; Fons, R; Jürgens, K D; Wright, P

    1978-04-24

    A high oxygen capacity combined with a low oxygen affinity and a large Bohr effect achieve a high oxygen transport capacity in small shrews. The high metabolic rate (Suncus estruscus: 100 to 350 ml O2/kg. min) can be explained by the combination of the favorable blood parameters with a high relative heart weight (1,2% of body weight) and heart frequencies of 1,000 to 1,350 per minute. PMID:27314

  16. Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews Allyson G. Hindle a,

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin L.

    Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews Allyson G. Hindle a, , John M. Lawler b brevicauda Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine- related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex

  17. Contraction parameters, myosin composition and metabolic enzymes of the skeletal muscles of the etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus and of the common European white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula (Insectivora: soricidae).

    PubMed

    Peters, T; Kubis, H P; Wetzel, P; Sender, S; Asmussen, G; Fons, R; Jürgens, K D

    1999-09-01

    In the Etruscan shrew, the isometric twitch contraction times of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles are shorter than in any other mammal, allowing these muscles to contract at outstandingly high contraction frequencies. This species has the highest mass-specific metabolic rate of all mammals and requires fast skeletal muscles not only for locomotion but also for effective heat production and for an extremely high ventilation rate. No differences could be detected in the fibre type pattern, the myosin heavy and light chain composition, or in the activity of the metabolic enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase of the two limb muscles, the EDL and the soleus, which in larger mammalian species exhibit distinct differences in contractile proteins and metabolic enzymes. All properties determined in EDL and soleus muscles of Suncus etruscus, as well as in the larger Crocidura russula, are typical for fast-oxidative fibres, and the same holds for several other skeletal muscles including the diaphragm muscle of S. etruscus. Nevertheless, the EDL and soleus muscles showed different mechanical properties in the two shrew species. Relaxation times and, in C. russula, time to peak force are shorter in the EDL than in the soleus muscle. This is in accordance with the time course of the Ca(2+) transients in these muscles. Such a result could be due to different parvalbumin concentrations, to a different volume fraction of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the two muscles or to different Ca(2+)-ATPase activities. Alternatively, the lower content of cytosolic creatine kinase (CK) in the soleus compared with the EDL muscle could indicate that the observed difference in contraction times between these shrew muscles is due to the CK-controlled activity of their sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. PMID:10460733

  18. [Genetic Structure of the Common Shrew Sorex araneus L. 1758 (Mammalia, Lipotyphla) in Continuous and Fragmented Areas].

    PubMed

    Grigoryeva, O O; Borisova, Yu M; Stakheev, V V; Balakirev, A E; Krivonogov, D M; Orlov, V N

    2015-06-01

    In this work the genetic variability of the common shrew populations Sorex araneus L. in Eastern Europe was studied via sequencing of the mitochondrial gene cyt b. A total of 82 sequences of the mitochondrial gene cyt b with a length of 953 basepairs were analyzed, including five chromosome races in a continuous area of the species in forest zone and two races in fragmented area in the steppe zone. Phylogeographic subdivision of the common shrew was not expressed, and there was no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances in continuous areas. We did not acquire convincing evidence of the influence of narrow hybrid zones between chromosome races on the flow of neutral alleles. A significant p-distance (0.69 ± 0.27%) of geographically close populations of the chromosome race Neroosa indicates the formation of the karyotype of this race in the Pliocene or Pleistocene. In our work, the phylogeographic structure was determined more by species area fragmentation than by its karyotypic features. PMID:26310034

  19. Development and characterization of 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew, Sorex ugyunak (Mammalia: Sorcidae), through next-generation sequencing, and cross-species amplification in the masked shrew, S. cinereus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Sage, G.K.; Fowler, M.; Hope, A.G.; Cook, J.A.; Talbot, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    We used next generation shotgun sequencing to develop 21 novel microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew (Sorex ugyunak), which were polymorphic among individuals from northern Alaska. The loci displayed moderate allelic diversity (averaging 6.81 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 70 %). Two loci deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) due to heterozygote deficiency. While the population did not deviate from HWE overall, it showed significant linkage disequilibrium suggesting this population is not in mutation-drift equilibrium. Nineteen of 21 loci were polymorphic in masked shrews (S. cinereus) from interior Alaska and exhibited linkage equilibrium and HWE overall. All loci yielded sufficient variability for use in population studies.

  20. Muscle Aging and Oxidative Stress in Wild-Caught Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Lawler, John M.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Horning, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18 month) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2× higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

  1. Nomenclatural notes and identification of small-eared shrews (Mammalia: genus Cryptotis) from Cobán, Guatemala, in The Natural History Museum, London

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    A small series of shrews collected in Guatemala and registered in the British Museum between 1843 and 1907 includes parts of type series for three species: Corsira tropicalis Gray (1843), Sorex micrurus Tomes (1862), and Blarina tropicalis Merriam (1895). These three names are now considered equivalent, but my recent review of the specimens comprising the series indicates that they include three distinct species: Cryptotis merriami Choate (1970), Cryptotis oreoryctes Woodman (2011), and Cryptotis tropicalis (Merriam 1895). I review the taxonomic history of these specimens, provide current identifications tied directly to museum register numbers, describe how to distinguish the three species, and provide revised synonymies for these species.

  2. Distribution and coexistence of shrews in patchy landscapes: A field test of multiple hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortelliti, Alessio; Boitani, Luigi

    2009-11-01

    Despite the important role of shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) in the functioning of ecosystems, as predators and prey, the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on this guild of mammals are still unclear. We studied the distribution of 5 species (the greater white toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon; the lesser white toothed shrew Crocidura suaveolens; the pigmy shrew Sorex minutus; the Appennine shrew Sorex samniticus and the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus) in a fragmented landscape in central Italy. Shrews were trapped with pitfall traps made from plastic water bottles, the number of traps increased with patch size. A total of 170 individuals, of 5 species of shrews were captured. Shrews were widely distributed in our study area, however patch occupancy was determined mainly by vegetation and geometrical characteristics of the patches. Our data supports the hypotheses that patterns of habitat selection and the dynamics of seasonal abundance (habitat and temporal partitioning between similarly sized species) reduce competitive pressure, thus allowing coexistence of shrews in relatively species-rich assemblages, for such small amounts of habitat. The most important outcome of our results is the crucial role played by vegetation structure in determining distribution patterns. These results strongly suggest that measurements of the vegetation structure of habitat patches should always be included as explanatory variables when studying the distribution of shrews in fragmented landscapes.

  3. Life cycle of Renylaima capensis, a brachylaimid trematode of shrews and slugs in South Africa: two-host and three-host transmission modalities suggested by epizootiology and DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The life cycle of the brachylaimid trematode species Renylaima capensis, infecting the urinary system of the shrew Myosorex varius (Mammalia: Soricidae: Crocidosoricinae) in the Hottentots Holland Nature Reserve, South Africa, has been elucidated by a study of its larval stages, epizootiological data in local snails and mammals during a 34-year period, and its verification with mtDNA sequencing. Methods Parasites obtained from dissected animals were mounted in microscope slides for the parasitological study and measured according to standardized methods. The mitochondrial DNA cox1 gene was sequenced by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Results The slugs Ariostralis nebulosa and Ariopelta capensis (Gastropoda: Arionidae) act as specific first and second intermediate hosts, respectively. Branched sporocysts massively develop in A. nebulosa. Intrasporocystic mature cercariae show differentiated gonads, male terminal duct, ventral genital pore, and usually no tail, opposite to Brachylaimidae in which mature cercariae show a germinal primordium and small tail. Unencysted metacercariae, usually brevicaudate, infect the kidney of A. capensis and differ from mature cercariae by only a slightly greater size. The final microhabitats are the kidneys and ureters of the shrews, kidney pelvis and calyces in light infections and also kidney medulla and cortex in heavy infections. Sporocysts, cercariae, metacercariae and adults proved to belong to R. capensis by analysis of a 437-bp-long cox1 fragment, which was identical except for three mutations in metacercariae, of which only one silent. Epizootiological studies showed usual sporocyst infection in A. nebulosa and very rare metacercarial infection in A. capensis, which does not agree with high prevalences and intensities in the shrews. Conclusions The presence of monotesticular adult forms and larval prevalences and intensities observed suggest that R. capensis may use two transmission strategies, a two-host life cycle by predation of A. nebulosa harbouring intrasporocystic cercariae may be the normal pattern, whereas a second mollusc host is just starting to be introduced. In shrews, a tissue-traversing, intraorganic migration followed by an interorganic migration to reach and penetrate the outer surface of either of both kidneys should occur. For first slug infection, the fluke takes advantage of the phenomenon that M. varius always urinate during defaecation. Consequently, in Brachylaimidae, the second intermediate mollusc host should evolutionarily be seen as a last addition to the cycle and their present adult stage microhabitat restricted to digestive tract and related organs as a loss of the tissue-traversing capacity of the metacercaria. PMID:22889081

  4. Variation in the myosoricine hand skeleton and its implications for locomotory behavior (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Stabile, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Substrate use and locomotory behavior of mammals are typically reflected in external characteristics of the forefeet, such as the relative proportions of the digits and claws. Although skeletal anatomy of the forefeet can be more informative than external characters, skeletons remain rare in systematic collections. This is particularly true for the Myosoricinae (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), a small clade of African shrews that includes both ambulatory forest shrews (Myosorex) and semifossorial mole shrews (Surdisorex). Most species in this subfamily have restricted distributions, and their behavior and ecology are mostly unstudied. To better understand the potential range of locomotory behavior among myosoricines, we used digital x-rays to image and facilitate measuring the forefoot skeletons of 9 species. As a gauge of potential variation, we compared them with the ambulatory talpid Uropsilus (Talpidae) and the semifossorial talpid Neurotrichus. The hand morphologies of myosoricines show a graded range of potential substrate use between ambulatory and semifossorial. Some of these shrews exhibit adaptations for increased burrowing efficiency that are similar to those seen in talpids and other mammals, such as longer, broader distal phalanges and claws and shorter, wider metacarpals and proximal and middle phalanges. They also, however, have characteristics that are distinct from talpids, such as maintenance of forefoot asymmetry and an increased emphasis of ray III.

  5. Leptospira spp. in rodents and shrews in Germany.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified. PMID:25062275

  6. Leptospira spp. in Rodents and Shrews in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C.; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified. PMID:25062275

  7. Dietary heavy metal uptake by the least shrew, Cryptotis parva

    SciTech Connect

    Brueske, C.C.; Barrett, G.W. )

    1991-12-01

    Heavy metals from sewage sludge have been reported to concentrate in producers, in primary consumers, and in detritivores. Little research, however, has focused on the uptake of heavy metals from sewage sludge by secondary consumers. The Family Soricidae represents an ideal mammalian taxonomic group to investigate rates of heavy metal transfer between primary and secondary consumers. The least shrew (Cryptotis parva) was used to evaluate the accumulation of heavy metals while maintained on a diet of earthworms collected from long-term sludge-treated old-field communities. This secondary consumer is distributed widely through the eastern United States and its natural diet includes earthworms which makes it a potentially good indicator of heavy metal transfer in areas treated with municipal sludge.

  8. Stammerinema hyalinum n. comb. for Filaria hyalina von Linstow, 1890 and its recognition as a senior synonym of Stammerinema rhopalocephalum (So?tys, 1952) (Spirurida: Acuariidae), a parasite of shrews.

    PubMed

    Mutafchiev, Yasen; Mariaux, Jean; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2015-01-01

    Based on a re-examination of type-specimens of Filaria hyalina von Linstow, 1890 from Sorex araneus L. (Mammalia: Soricidae) and morphological studies (light and scanning electron microscopy) of specimens collected from the same host species in Bulgaria and previously identified as Stammerinema rhopalocephalum (So?tys, 1952), both these forms are considered to be conspecific. Accordingly, F. hyalina is transferred to the genus Stammerinema Osche, 1955 as Stammerinema hyalinum n. comb. and the species originally described as Synhimantus rhopalocephalus So?tys, 1952 is considered its junior synonym. PMID:25557751

  9. Designation of the type species of Musaraneus Pomel, 1848 (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2004-01-01

    The genus name Musaraneus often is attributed to Brisson (1762), however, most of Brisson's names are unavailable. Pomel (1848) subsequently made the name Musaraneus available, but did not designate a type species. The 18 species that Pomel listed under Musaraneus currently are distributed among five modern genera, two of which (Cryptotis Pomel, 1848 and Diplomesodon Brandt, 1852) are predated by Musaraneus. Because Cryptotis and Diplomesodon potentially could be considered junior synonyms of Musaraneus, I propose Sorex leucodon Hermann, 1780 (= Crocidura leucodon) as the type species for Musaraneus, thereby establishing Musaraneus as a junior synonym of Crocidura Wagler, 1832.

  10. Reproduction in the arctic shrew, Sorex arcticus

    E-print Network

    Baird, Donna Day; Timm, Robert M.; Nordquist, Gerda E.

    1983-05-01

    . Kings Highway, P.O. Box 14871, St. Louis, MO 63178). Submitted 3 May 1982. Accepted 10 October 1982. J. Mamm., 64(2):298-301, 1983 REPRODUCTION IN THE ARCTIC SHREW, SOREX ARCTICUS The arctic shrew, Sorex arcticus, is found in northern boreal...; Nagorsen and Jones, 1981). Arctic shrews are found in a variety of habitats, but populations generally are highest in nonforested areas, either marshes or grassy clearings within forests. The ecology and life history of arctic shrews have been reported...

  11. KARYOTYPE EVOLUTION OF SHREW MOLES (SORICOMORPHA: TALPIDAE)

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin L.

    KARYOTYPE EVOLUTION OF SHREW MOLES (SORICOMORPHA: TALPIDAE) SHIN-ICHIRO KAWADA,* SONG LI, YING and Urotrichus talpoides) shrew moles in size, appearance, and ecological habits, yet it has traditionally been of Scaptonyx and the Japanese shrew moles. These differences cannot be explained by simple chromosomal

  12. A Mitochondrial Phylogeny and Biogeographical Scenario for Asiatic Water Shrews of the Genus Chimarrogale: Implications for Taxonomy and Low-Latitude Migration Routes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shou-Li; Jiang, Xue-Long; Li, Zhen-Ji; He, Kai; Harada, Masashi; Oshida, Tatsuo; Lin, Liang-Kong

    2013-01-01

    The six species and three subspecies in the genus Chimarrogale (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) are commonly referred to as Asiatic water shrews. The Chimarrogale are the most widely distributed group of Nectogaline shrews, extending throughout the Oriental region and Japan. Because of the limited numbers of specimens available for study, the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical history of this genus have not been comprehensively discussed. We used mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences to estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among four Chimarrogale species, including all three subspecies of Chimarrogale himalayica. We also conducted a species delimitation analysis and tested two alternative migration scenarios in Asia through species distribution modeling and a reconstruction of the ancestral distribution. Here, we present the first proposed hypothesis regarding the Asiatic water shrew phylogeny and reveal ten putative species within the four recognized species. Distinct phylogenetic statuses of Chimarrogale phaeura, Chimarrogale platycephala, and Chimarrogale styani were confirmed. Chimarrogale himalayica was strongly supported as paraphyletic. We suggest that three subspecies of Chimarrogale himalayica should be reconsidered as distinct species. However, these suggestions must be considered with caution because only a single locus of a mtDNA gene was used. Four additional putative species, possibly distributed in central southwestern China and Taiwan, are currently undescribed; therefore, comprehensive morphological analyses are warranted to test their taxonomic statuses. The estimated molecular divergence times indicated that rapid speciation occurred during the early Pliocene, and current distribution patterns may have been affected by global cooling during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Reconstruction of the ancestral distribution and species distribution modeling for Asiatic water shrews revealed a low-latitude migration route over which ancestral Chimarrogale migrated from Europe via Central Asia to their current distribution. Our results demonstrated that Asiatic water shrews could have evolved throughout the low-latitude migration route from Europe to East and Southeast Asia. PMID:24124605

  13. Comparative Morphology of the Papillae Linguales and their Connective Tissue Cores in the Tongue of the Greater Japanese Shrew-mole, Urotrichus talpoides

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, K; Shindo, J; Kageyama, I

    2013-01-01

    The external morphology of the papillae linguales (papillae filiformes, papillae fungiformes and papillae vallatae) and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) of the greater Japanese shrew-mole (Urotrichus talpoides) were analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Papillae filiformes were distributed over the dorsal surface of the apex linguae, and on the rostral and caudal regions of the corpus linguae but were less numerous in the mid-region. They were absent from the radix linguae. A pair of oval papillae vallatae was situated at the border between the corpus linguae and the radix linguae. Papillae foliatae were absent. The epithelial surface of each papilla filiformis consisted of a circular concavity, a ring-like wall and either a single thumb-like process or 2–3 slender pointed processes, depending on their location. The morphology of the CTCs of the papillae filiformes also varied regionally. The papillae linguales of the Japanese shrew-mole were morphologically similar to those of other Talpidae and Soricidae, including the common shrew, particularly with respect to the papillae filiformes in the mid- and caudal regions of the corpus linguae. PMID:22571539

  14. Genomic Characterization of Yogue, Kasokero, Issyk-Kul, Keterah, Gossas, and Thiafora Viruses: Nairoviruses Naturally Infecting Bats, Shrews, and Ticks.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Widen, Steven G; Firth, Cadhla; Blasdell, Kim R; Wood, Thomas G; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2015-11-01

    The genus Nairovirus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses includes the important emerging human pathogen, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), as well as Nairobi sheep disease virus and many other poorly described viruses isolated from mammals, birds, and ticks. Here, we report genome sequence analysis of six nairoviruses: Thiafora virus (TFAV) that was isolated from a shrew in Senegal; Yogue (YOGV), Kasokero (KKOV), and Gossas (GOSV) viruses isolated from bats in Senegal and Uganda; Issyk-Kul virus (IKV) isolated from bats in Kyrgyzstan; and Keterah virus (KTRV) isolated from ticks infesting a bat in Malaysia. The S, M, and L genome segments of each virus were found to encode proteins corresponding to the nucleoprotein, polyglycoprotein, and polymerase protein of CCHFV. However, as observed in Leopards Hill virus (LPHV) and Erve virus (ERVV), polyglycoproteins encoded in the M segment lack sequences encoding the double-membrane-spanning CCHFV NSm protein. Amino acid sequence identities, complement-fixation tests, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses cluster into three groups comprising KKOV, YOGV, and LPHV from bats of the suborder Yingochiroptera; KTRV, IKV, and GOSV from bats of the suborder Yangochiroptera; and TFAV and ERVV from shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae). This reflects clade-specific host and vector associations that extend across the genus. PMID:26324724

  15. Blarina hylophaga (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) CODY W. THOMPSON, JERRY R. CHOATE*, HUGH H. GENOWAYS, AND ELMER J. FINCK

    E-print Network

    Hayssen, Virginia

    (Elliot, 1899) is a soricid commonly called Elliot's short-tailed shrew. A short-legged, robust shrew geographic range. Key words: Elliot's short-tailed shrew, insectivore, North America, shrew, venomous mammal.1644/878.1 w w w . m a m m a l o g y . o r g Blarina hylophaga (Elliot, 1899) Elliot's Short-tailed Shrew

  16. The Taming of the Shrew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, M.

    1996-11-01

    Considering the extreme complexity of the turbulence problem in general and the unattainability of first-principles analytical solutions in particular, it is not surprising that controlling a turbulent flow remains a challenging task, mired in empiricism and unfulfilled promises and aspirations. Brute force suppression, or taming, of turbulence via active control strategies is always possible, but the penalty for doing so often exceeds any potential savings. The artifice is to achieve a desired effect with minimum energy expenditure. Spurred by the recent developments in chaos control, microfabrication and neural networks, efficient reactive control of turbulent flows, where the control input is optimally adjusted based on feedforward or feedback measurements, is now in the realm of the possible for future practical devices. But regardless of how the problem is approached, combating turbulence is always as arduous as the taming of the shrew. The former task will be emphasized during the oral presentation, but for this abstract we reflect on a short verse from the latter. From William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Curtis (Petruchio's servant, in charge of his country house): Is she so hot a shrew as she's reported? Grumio (Petruchio's personal lackey): She was, good Curtis, before this frost. But thou know'st winter tames man, woman, and beast; for it hath tamed my old master, and my new mistress, and myself, fellow Curtis.

  17. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25-30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  18. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  19. Active Touch During Shrew Prey Capture

    PubMed Central

    Munz, Martin; Brecht, Michael; Wolfe, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Although somatosensation in multiple whisker systems has been studied in considerable detail, relatively little information is available regarding whisker usage and movement patterns during natural behaviors. The Etruscan shrew, one of the smallest mammals, relies heavily on its whisker system to detect and kill its highly mobile insect prey. Here, we tracked whisker and body motion during prey capture. We found that shrews made periodic whisker movements (whisking) with frequencies ranging from 12 to 17?Hz. We compared shrew and rat whisking and found that shrew whisking was smaller amplitude and higher frequency than rat whisking, but that the shrew and rat whisking cycle were similar in that the velocity was higher during retraction than protraction. We were able to identify four phases during the shrew hunting behavior: (i) an immobile phase often preceding hunting, (ii) a search phase upon the initiation of hunting, (iii) a contact phase defined by whisker-to-cricket contact, and (iv) an attack phase, characterized by a rapid head movement directed toward the cricket. During the searching phase, whisking was generally rhythmic and whiskers were protracted forward. After prey contact, whisking amplitude decreased and became more variable. The final strike was associated with an abrupt head movement toward the prey with high head acceleration. Prey capture proceeded extremely fast and we obtained evidence that shrews can initiate corrective maneuvers with a minimal latency <30?ms. While the shrew's rostrum is straight and elongated during most behaviors, we show for the first time that shrews bend their rostrum during the final strike and grip their prey with a parrot beak shaped snout. PMID:21283557

  20. Rediscovery of Enders’s small-eared shrew, Cryptotis endersi (Insectivora: Soricidae), with a redescription of the species

    E-print Network

    Pine, Ronald H.; Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    2002-12-01

    stream_size 66541 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Cendersi.pdf.txt stream_source_info Cendersi.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 C77C97C109C109C46 C98C105C111C108C...46 C54C55 C40C50C48C48C50C41 C51C55C50C177C51C55C55 C77C97C109C109C97C108C105C97C110 C66C105C111C108C111C103C121 C227 C85C114C98C97C110 C38 C70C105C115C99C104C101C114 C86C101C114C108C97C103 C104C116C116C112C58C47C47C119C119C119C46C117C114C98C97C110C...

  1. ORIGINAL PAPER Inbreeding and competitive ability in the common shrew

    E-print Network

    Hanski, Ilkka

    ORIGINAL PAPER Inbreeding and competitive ability in the common shrew (Sorex araneus) Kaisa December 2006 / Published online: 11 January 2007 # Springer-Verlag 2007 Abstract Common shrews (Sorex performance of young common shrews. The experiment involved pairs of individuals originating from small island

  2. Neuropeptide alterations in the tree shrew hypothalamus during volatile anesthesia

    E-print Network

    Neuropeptide alterations in the tree shrew hypothalamus during volatile anesthesia Laetitia-depth characterization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides of the tree shrew during volatile isoflurane/nitrous oxide spectral analysis, we first identified 85 peptides from the tree shrew hypothalamus. Differential analysis

  3. Arsenic speciation, distribution, and bioaccessibility in shrews and their food.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Maeve M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2012-04-01

    Shrews (Sorex cinereus) collected at a historic mine in Nova Scotia, Canada, had approximately twice the arsenic body burden and 100 times greater daily intake of arsenic compared with shrews from a nearby uncontaminated background site. Shrews store arsenic as inorganic and simple methylated arsenicals. Much of the arsenic associated with their primary food source, i.e., small invertebrates, may be soil adsorbed to their exoskeletons. A physiologically based extraction test estimated that 47 ± 2% of invertebrate arsenic is bioaccessible in the shrew gastrointestinal tract. Overall, shrews appear to be efficient at processing and excreting inorganic arsenic. PMID:21986782

  4. Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe

    E-print Network

    Horacek, Ivan

    Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe Ivan Hora´cek1, Nadachowski A (2013) Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe. PLo

  5. Recombinogenic Telomeres in Diploid Sorex granarius (Soricidae, Eulipotyphla) Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Draskovic, I.; Minina, J. M.; Karamysheva, T. V.; Novo, C. L.; Liu, W.-Y.; Porreca, R. M.; Gibaud, A.; Zvereva, M. E.; Skvortsov, D. A.; Rubtsov, N. B.

    2014-01-01

    The telomere structure in the Iberian shrew Sorex granarius is characterized by unique, striking features, with short arms of acrocentric chromosomes carrying extremely long telomeres (up to 300 kb) with interspersed ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat blocks. In this work, we investigated the telomere physiology of S. granarius fibroblast cells and found that telomere repeats are transcribed on both strands and that there is no telomere-dependent senescence mechanism. Although telomerase activity is detectable throughout cell culture and appears to act on both short and long telomeres, we also discovered that signatures of a recombinogenic activity are omnipresent, including telomere-sister chromatid exchanges, formation of alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT)-associated PML-like bodies, production of telomere circles, and a high frequency of telomeres carrying marks of a DNA damage response. Our results suggest that recombination participates in the maintenance of the very long telomeres in normal S. granarius fibroblasts. We discuss the possible interplay between the interspersed telomere and rDNA repeats in the stabilization of the very long telomeres in this organism. PMID:24842907

  6. Recombinogenic telomeres in diploid Sorex granarius (Soricidae, Eulipotyphla) fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, N S; Draskovic, I; Minina, J M; Karamysheva, T V; Novo, C L; Liu, W-Y; Porreca, R M; Gibaud, A; Zvereva, M E; Skvortsov, D A; Rubtsov, N B; Londoño-Vallejo, A

    2014-08-01

    The telomere structure in the Iberian shrew Sorex granarius is characterized by unique, striking features, with short arms of acrocentric chromosomes carrying extremely long telomeres (up to 300 kb) with interspersed ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat blocks. In this work, we investigated the telomere physiology of S. granarius fibroblast cells and found that telomere repeats are transcribed on both strands and that there is no telomere-dependent senescence mechanism. Although telomerase activity is detectable throughout cell culture and appears to act on both short and long telomeres, we also discovered that signatures of a recombinogenic activity are omnipresent, including telomere-sister chromatid exchanges, formation of alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT)-associated PML-like bodies, production of telomere circles, and a high frequency of telomeres carrying marks of a DNA damage response. Our results suggest that recombination participates in the maintenance of the very long telomeres in normal S. granarius fibroblasts. We discuss the possible interplay between the interspersed telomere and rDNA repeats in the stabilization of the very long telomeres in this organism. PMID:24842907

  7. A Novel Embedded Accelerator for Online Detection of Shrew DDoS Attacks

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yu

    A Novel Embedded Accelerator for Online Detection of Shrew DDoS Attacks Hao Chen, Yu Chen realize its existence. They are also referred as shrew attacks [13], or pulsing attacks [14] in literatures. In this paper, we will use the term "shrew attacks" for simplicity. Shrew attacks take

  8. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife. PMID:26079728

  9. Tactile guidance of prey capture in Etruscan shrews.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Farzana; Turni, Hendrik; Mulder, Paul G H; van der Burg, Johannes; Brecht, Michael

    2006-10-31

    Whereas visuomotor behaviors and visual object recognition have been studied in detail, we know relatively little about tactile object representations. We investigate a new model system for the tactile guidance of behavior, namely prey (cricket) capture by one of the smallest mammals, the Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus. Because of their high metabolic rate and nocturnal lifestyle, Etruscan shrews are forced to detect, overwhelm, and kill prey in large numbers in darkness. Crickets are exquisitely mechanosensitive, fast-moving prey, almost as big as the shrew itself. Shrews succeed in hunting by lateralized, precise, and fast attacks. Removal experiments demonstrate that both macrovibrissae and microvibrissae are required for prey capture, with the macrovibrissae being involved in attack targeting. Experiments with artificial prey replica show that tactile shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Prey representations are motion- and size-invariant. Shrews distinguish and memorize prey features. Corrective maneuvers and cricket shape manipulation experiments indicate that shrew behavior is guided by Gestalt-like prey descriptions. Thus, tactile object recognition in Etruscan shrews shares characteristics of human visual object recognition, but it proceeds faster and occurs in a 20,000-times-smaller brain. PMID:17060642

  10. Tactile guidance of prey capture in Etruscan shrews

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Farzana; Turni, Hendrik; Mulder, Paul G. H.; van der Burg, Johannes; Brecht, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Whereas visuomotor behaviors and visual object recognition have been studied in detail, we know relatively little about tactile object representations. We investigate a new model system for the tactile guidance of behavior, namely prey (cricket) capture by one of the smallest mammals, the Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus. Because of their high metabolic rate and nocturnal lifestyle, Etruscan shrews are forced to detect, overwhelm, and kill prey in large numbers in darkness. Crickets are exquisitely mechanosensitive, fast-moving prey, almost as big as the shrew itself. Shrews succeed in hunting by lateralized, precise, and fast attacks. Removal experiments demonstrate that both macrovibrissae and microvibrissae are required for prey capture, with the macrovibrissae being involved in attack targeting. Experiments with artificial prey replica show that tactile shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Prey representations are motion- and size-invariant. Shrews distinguish and memorize prey features. Corrective maneuvers and cricket shape manipulation experiments indicate that shrew behavior is guided by Gestalt-like prey descriptions. Thus, tactile object recognition in Etruscan shrews shares characteristics of human visual object recognition, but it proceeds faster and occurs in a 20,000-times-smaller brain. PMID:17060642

  11. Tactile experience shapes prey-capture behavior in Etruscan shrews

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Farzana; Brecht, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A crucial role of tactile experience for the maturation of neural response properties in the somatosensory system is well established, but little is known about the role of tactile experience in the development of tactile behaviors. Here we study how tactile experience affects prey capture behavior in Etruscan shrews, Suncus etruscus. Prey capture in adult shrews is a high-speed behavior that relies on precise attacks guided by tactile Gestalt cues. We studied the role of tactile experience by three different approaches. First, we analyzed the hunting skills of young shrews' right after weaning. We found that prey capture in young animals in most, but not all, aspects is similar to that of adults. Second, we performed whisker trimming for 3–4 weeks after birth. Such deprivation resulted in a lasting disruption of prey capture even after whisker re-growth: attacks lacked precise targeting and had a lower success rate. Third, we presented adult shrews with an entirely novel prey species, the giant cockroach. The shape of this roach is very different from the shrew's normal (cricket) prey and the thorax—the preferred point of attack in crickets—is protected by a heavy cuticle. Initially shrews attacked giant roaches the same way they attack crickets and targeted the thoracic region. With progressive experience, however, shrews adopted a new attack strategy targeting legs and underside of the roaches while avoiding other body parts. Speed and efficiency of attacks improved. These data suggest that tactile experience shapes prey capture behavior. PMID:22701408

  12. Tactile experience shapes prey-capture behavior in Etruscan shrews.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Farzana; Brecht, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A crucial role of tactile experience for the maturation of neural response properties in the somatosensory system is well established, but little is known about the role of tactile experience in the development of tactile behaviors. Here we study how tactile experience affects prey capture behavior in Etruscan shrews, Suncus etruscus. Prey capture in adult shrews is a high-speed behavior that relies on precise attacks guided by tactile Gestalt cues. We studied the role of tactile experience by three different approaches. First, we analyzed the hunting skills of young shrews' right after weaning. We found that prey capture in young animals in most, but not all, aspects is similar to that of adults. Second, we performed whisker trimming for 3-4 weeks after birth. Such deprivation resulted in a lasting disruption of prey capture even after whisker re-growth: attacks lacked precise targeting and had a lower success rate. Third, we presented adult shrews with an entirely novel prey species, the giant cockroach. The shape of this roach is very different from the shrew's normal (cricket) prey and the thorax-the preferred point of attack in crickets-is protected by a heavy cuticle. Initially shrews attacked giant roaches the same way they attack crickets and targeted the thoracic region. With progressive experience, however, shrews adopted a new attack strategy targeting legs and underside of the roaches while avoiding other body parts. Speed and efficiency of attacks improved. These data suggest that tactile experience shapes prey capture behavior. PMID:22701408

  13. Diversification processes in an island radiation of shrews

    E-print Network

    Esselstyn, Jacob Aaron

    2010-04-22

    and tree shape analyses to explore the tempo and mode of diversification in Southeast Asian shrews (Soricomorpha: Crocidura), and to consider a set of geological, climatic, and ecological forces that my have shaped current patterns of diversity. I find...

  14. Evolutionary biogeography of water shrews (Neomys spp.) in the western Palaearctic Region

    E-print Network

    Davison, Angus

    Evolutionary biogeography of water shrews (Neomys spp.) in the western Palaearctic Region B and Pleistocene distributions of three species of the water shrew genus Neomys (N. fodiens, N. anomalus, and N into the phylogeography of the Palaearctic water shrew genus Neomys, the three extant species of which inhabit the Balkano

  15. The tree shrews: adjuncts and alternatives to primates as models for biomedical

    E-print Network

    The tree shrews: adjuncts and alternatives to primates as models for biomedical research Introduction The tree shrews (family Tupaiidae) are non-rodent, primate-like animals and are classified Ptilocercinae with a single genus, pen-tailed tree shrew Ptilocercus. The geographical distribution of the tree

  16. MOLECULAR EVIDENCE FOR GENETIC SUBDIVISIONS IN THE DESERT SHREW, NOTIOSOREX CRAWFORDI

    E-print Network

    Baker, Robert J.

    MOLECULAR EVIDENCE FOR GENETIC SUBDIVISIONS IN THE DESERT SHREW, NOTIOSOREX CRAWFORDI L. REX--Examination of cytochrome-b DNA sequences from specimens of Notiosorex crawfordi, the desert shrew, indicate that within haplotypes and genetic subdivision in shrews defined as N. crawfordi by Carraway and Timm (2000). Baker

  17. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of moles, shrew moles, and desmans from the new and old worlds

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin L.

    Molecular phylogenetic relationships of moles, shrew moles, and desmans from the new and old worlds and physiological specializations has enabled members of the family Talpidae (moles, shrew moles, and desmans for a mononphyletic Talpidae, and suggest that the 12 genera are clustered into seven major clades; (1) Asiatic shrew

  18. Paper #1568965962 1 Abstract--The shrew Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yu

    Paper #1568965962 1 Abstract--The shrew Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are periodic, there is a pressing need to effectively detect such attacks in real-time. Unfortunately, effective detection of shrew. In the literature, this kind of attacks is referred to as shrew attacks [17] or Reduction of Quality (RoQ) attacks

  19. Collaborative Defense against Periodic Shrew DDoS Attacks in Frequency Domain

    E-print Network

    Hwang, Kai

    - 1 - Collaborative Defense against Periodic Shrew DDoS Attacks in Frequency Domain YU CHEN, KAI: The shrew or pulsing DDoS (Distributed Denial-of-Service) attacks, also known as RoQ (Reduction of Quality) attacks, are stealthy, periodic, and low-rate in volume. The shrew attacks could be even more detrimental

  20. EXTREME MALE-BIASED INFECTIONS OF MASKED SHREWS BY BLADDER NEMATODES

    E-print Network

    Shutler, Dave

    EXTREME MALE-BIASED INFECTIONS OF MASKED SHREWS BY BLADDER NEMATODES KRYSTYNA M. COWAN, DAVE) intensity in Nova Scotian masked shrews (Sorex cinereus) was related to these variables. We collected a total of 117 shrews on 8 different sampling occasions between mid-May and mid-August. Univariate

  1. The Visual Pulvinar in Tree Shrews I. Multiple Subdivisions Revealed through

    E-print Network

    The Visual Pulvinar in Tree Shrews I. Multiple Subdivisions Revealed through Acetylcholinesterase, Vanderbilt University, 301 Wilson Hall, Nashville, Tennessee 37203 ABSTRACT Tree shrews are highly visual. These architectonic results demonstrate that the pulvinar complex of tree shrews is larger and has more subdivisions

  2. Filtering Shrew DDoS Attacks Using A New Frequency-Domain Approach

    E-print Network

    Hwang, Kai

    - 1 - Filtering Shrew DDoS Attacks Using A New Frequency-Domain Approach Yu Chen, Yu-Kwong Kwok, and Kai Hwang1 University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA Abstract--The stealthy shrew more detrimental than the more widely known flooding DDoS assaults. The reason is that such shrew

  3. An Optimized Design of Reconfigurable PSD Accelerator for Online Shrew DDoS Attacks Detection

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yu

    An Optimized Design of Reconfigurable PSD Accelerator for Online Shrew DDoS Attacks Detection Hao, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan Abstract Shrew Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks are stealthy, concealing their malicious activities in normal traffic. Although it is difficult to detect shrew DDo

  4. 1 Broad characterization of endogenous peptides in the tree 2 shrew visual system

    E-print Network

    U N C O R R E C T E D P R O O F 1 Broad characterization of endogenous peptides in the tree 2 shrew geniculate 23 nucleus (LGN) and superior colliculus (SC). Our study is performed in the tree shrew, a 24-MS/MS based neuropeptidomics; we identified a total of 52 peptides from the 26 tree shrew visual system

  5. Population dynamics of the northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda: insights from a 25-year

    E-print Network

    Oli, Madan K.

    Population dynamics of the northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda: insights from a 25-year demography of the northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1823), was studied for 25 years-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1823), is one of the more common small mammals in east- ern North

  6. Adoption of a nestling house mouse by a female short-tailed shrew

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Johnson, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    A nursing female short-tailed shrew adopted a nestling house mouse. The mouse was observed in the nest with the female and her litter of shrews three days after it was introduced into the aluminum box containing the shrews, but it was found dead in the nest four days later.

  7. Anita. Behav., 1987,35, 1215-1224 Search paths of foraging common shrews Sorex araneus

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Graham

    Anita. Behav., 1987,35, 1215-1224 Search paths of foraging common shrews Sorex araneus GRAHAM J behaviour of common shrews, Sorex araneus, was observed as they foraged for prey hidden in a grid of wells. The shrews searched more efficiently than a random (neutral) model, and were approkimately as efficient

  8. Species Interactions during Diversification and Community Assembly in an Island Radiation of Shrews

    E-print Network

    Harms, Kyle E.

    Species Interactions during Diversification and Community Assembly in an Island Radiation of Shrews: Using a combination of tools, we test the hypothesis that the distributions of shrew (Crocidura) species in body size may prevent co-occurrence in Philippine shrews and that competitive exclusion among

  9. Mammals of Queen's University Biological Station Mark Andrew Conboyand Frank Phelan

    E-print Network

    Martin, Paul R.

    (7mc19@queensu.ca). Shrews Soricidae Masked Shrew Sorex cinereus Uncommon Smoky Shrew Sorex fumeus Uncommon Pygmy Shrew Sorex hoyi Rare (accidental) Water Shrew Sorex palustris Rare Northern Short-tailed Shrew Sorex brevicauda Common Moles Talpidae Hairy-tailed Mole Parascalops breweri Common Star

  10. Effects of late quaternary climate change on Palearctic shrews.

    PubMed

    Prost, Stefan; Klietmann, Johannes; van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Guralnick, Robert P; Waltari, Eric; Vrieling, Klaas; Stiller, Mathias; Nagel, Doris; Rabeder, Gernot; Hofreiter, Michael; Sommer, Robert S

    2013-06-01

    The Late Quaternary was a time of rapid climatic oscillations and drastic environmental changes. In general, species can respond to such changes by behavioral accommodation, distributional shifts, ecophenotypic modifications (nongenetic), evolution (genetic) or ultimately face local extinction. How those responses manifested in the past is essential for properly predicting future ones especially as the current warm phase is further intensified by rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Here, we use ancient DNA (aDNA) and morphological features in combination with ecological niche modeling (ENM) to investigate genetic and nongenetic responses of Central European Palearctic shrews to past climatic change. We show that a giant form of shrew, previously described as an extinct Pleistocene Sorex species, represents a large ecomorph of the common shrew (Sorex araneus), which was replaced by populations from a different gene-pool and with different morphology after the Pleistocene Holocene transition. We also report the presence of the cold-adapted tundra shrew (S. tundrensis) in Central Europe. This species is currently restricted to Siberia and was hitherto unknown as an element of the Pleistocene fauna of Europe. Finally, we show that there is no clear correlation between climatic oscillations within the last 50 000 years and body size in shrews and conclude that a special nonanalogous situation with regard to biodiversity and food supply in the Late Glacial may have caused the observed large body size. PMID:23505017

  11. The formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shujiang; Wang, Cong; Guo, Chengbing; Huang, Xu; Wang, Liecheng; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Fear is an emotion that is well-studied due to its importance for animal survival. Experimental animals, such as rats and mice, have been widely used to model fear. However, higher animals such as nonhuman primates have rarely been used to study fear due to ethical issues and high costs. Tree shrews are small mammals that are closely related to primates; they have been used to model human-related psychosocial conditions such as stress and alcohol tolerance. Here, we describe an experimental paradigm to study the formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews. We designed an experimental apparatus of a light/dark box with a voltage foot shock. We found that tree shrews preferred staying in the dark box in the daytime without stimulation and showed avoidance to voltage shocks applied to the footplate in a voltage-dependent manner. Foot shocks applied to the dark box for 5 days (10 min per day) effectively reversed the light–dark preference of the tree shrews, and this memory lasted for more than 50 days without any sign of memory decay (extinction) in the absence of further stimulation. However, this fear memory was reversed with 4 days of reverse training by applying the same stimulus to the light box. When reducing the stimulus intensity during the training period, a memory extinction and subsequently reinstatement effects were observed. Thus, our results describe an efficient method of monitoring fear memory formation and extinction in tree shrews. PMID:26283941

  12. Cytoarchitecture, areas, and neuron numbers of the Etruscan shrew cortex.

    PubMed

    Naumann, R K; Anjum, F; Roth-Alpermann, C; Brecht, M

    2012-08-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is one of the smallest mammals. Etruscan shrews can recognize prey shape with amazing speed and accuracy, based on whisker-mediated tactile cues. Because of its small size, quantitative analysis of the Etruscan shrew cortex is more tractable than in other animals. To quantitatively assess the anatomy of the Etruscan shrew's brain, we sectioned brains and applied Nissl staining and NeuN (neuronal nuclei) antibody staining. On the basis of these stains, we estimated the number of neurons of 10 cortical hemispheres by using Stereoinvestigator and Neurolucida (MBF Bioscience) software. On average, the neuron number per hemisphere was found to be ~1 million. We also measured cortical surface area and found an average of 11.1 mm² (n = 7) and an average volume of 5.3 mm³ (n = 10) per hemisphere. We identified 13 cortical regions by cytoarchitectonic boundaries in coronal, sagittal, and tangential sections processed for Nissl substance, myelin, cytochrome oxidase, ionic zinc, neurofilaments, and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2). The Etruscan shrew is a highly tactile animal with a large somatosensory cortex, which contains a barrel field, but the barrels are much less clearly defined than in rodents. The anatomically derived cortical partitioning scheme roughly corresponds to physiologically derived maps of neocortical sensory areas. PMID:22252518

  13. Cortical organization in the Etruscan shrew (Suncus etruscus).

    PubMed

    Roth-Alpermann, Claudia; Anjum, Farzana; Naumann, Robert; Brecht, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Cortical organization in the Etruscan shrew is of comparative interest because of its small size and because the Etruscan shrew is an amazing tactile hunter. Here we investigated cortical organization in Etruscan shrews by electrophysiological mapping. We developed an anesthesia protocol for this very small mammal in which we combined massive application of local anesthesia, very slow induction of general anesthesia, and passive cooling. Under this anesthesia regime, we characterized auditory, visual, and somatosensory cortical responses. We found that large parts of shrew cortex respond to such stimuli. Of the responsive sites, a small fraction (?14%) responded to visual stimuli in a caudally located region. Another small fraction of sites (?11%) responded to auditory stimuli in a centrally located region. The majority of sites (?75%) responded to tactile stimuli. We identified two topographically organized somatosensory areas with small receptive fields referred to as putative primary somatosensory cortex and putative secondary somatosensory cortex. In a posterior-lateral region that partially overlaps with piriform cortex, we observed large somatosensory receptive fields and often polysensory responses. In an anterior-lateral region that partially overlaps with piriform cortex, we observed large unimodal somatosensory receptive fields. Our findings demonstrate a remarkable degree of tactile specialization in Etruscan shrew cortex. PMID:20668271

  14. Boginia virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Guided by decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in European Russia, we employed RT-PCR to analyze lung tissues of soricine shrews, captured in Boginia, Huta D?utowska and Kurowice in central Poland during September 2010, 2011 and 2012. Findings In addition to Seewis virus (SWSV), which had been previously found in Eurasian common shrews elsewhere in Europe, a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), was detected in Eurasian water shrews captured in each of the three villages. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that BOGV formed a separate lineage distantly related to SWSV. Conclusions Although the pathogenic potential of BOGV and other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses is still unknown, clinicians should be vigilant for unusual febrile diseases and clinical syndromes occurring among individuals reporting exposures to shrews. PMID:23693084

  15. Microparasite assemblages of conspecific shrew populations in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The microparasite component communities of 2 species of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, were investigated for the first time in 2 isolated and 3 continuous landscapes in southern California. With microscopical examination, a total of 6 parasite species was found in N. crawfordi and 8 species in S. ornatus. The highest number (5) of parasite species was detected in the lungs. The corrected estimate of parasite species richness did not significantly correlate with the host abundance in either shrew species. Altitude, and also latitude in N. crawfordi, appeared to be significantly positively associated with the parasite species richness, but this could be due to a false association because of the rare occurrence of some of the parasites or the small altitude range (or both). No other landscape variable analyzed (location, size of the study site, disturbance) was significantly associated with the parasite species richness of the shrews. The parasite assemblages of the 2 shrew species were similar despite the fact that N. crawfordi has a lower metabolic rate than S. ornatus.

  16. Cortical organization in shrews: evidence from five species.

    PubMed

    Catania, K C; Lyon, D C; Mock, O B; Kaas, J H

    1999-07-19

    Cortical organization was examined in five shrew species. In three species, Blarina brevicauda, Cryptotis parva, and Sorex palustris, microelectrode recordings were made in cortex to determine the organization of sensory areas. Cortical recordings were then related to flattened sections of cortex processed for cytochrome oxidase or myelin to reveal architectural borders. An additional two species (Sorex cinereus and Sorex longirostris) with visible cortical subdivisions based on histology alone were analyzed without electrophysiological mapping. A single basic plan of cortical organization was found in shrews, consisting of a few clearly defined sensory areas located caudally in cortex. Two somatosensory areas contained complete representations of the contralateral body, corresponding to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2). A small primary visual cortex (V1) was located closely adjacent to S1, whereas auditory cortex (A1) was located in extreme caudolateral cortex, partially encircled by S2. Areas did not overlap and had sharp, histochemically apparent and electrophysiologically defined borders. The adjacency of these areas suggests a complete absence of intervening higher level or association areas. Based on a previous study of corticospinal connections, a presumptive primary motor cortex (M1) was identified directly rostral to S1. Apparently, in shrews, the solution to having extremely little neocortex is to have only a few small cortical subdivisions. However, the small areas remain discrete, well organized, and functional. This cortical organization in shrews is likely a derived condition, because a wide range of extant mammals have a greater number of cortical subdivisions. PMID:10397395

  17. Immunohistochemical mapping of neuropeptide Y in the tree shrew brain.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rong-Jun; Shu, Yu-Mian; Luo, Peng-Hao; Fang, Hui; Wang, Yu; Yao, Lei; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2015-02-15

    Day-active tree shrews are promising animals as research models for a variety of human disorders. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) modulates many behaviors in vertebrates. Here we examined the distribution of NPY in the brain of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) using immunohistochemical techniques. The differential distribution of NPY-immunoreactive (-ir) cells and fibers were observed in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalon of tree shrews. Most NPY-ir cells were multipolar or bipolar in shape with triangular, fusiform, and/or globular perikarya. The densest cluster of NPY-ir cells were found in the mitral cell layer of the main olfactory bulb (MOB), arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and pretectal nucleus of the thalamus. The MOB presented a unique pattern of NPY immunoreactivity. Laminar distribution of NPY-ir cells was observed in the MOB, neocortex, and hippocampus. Compared to rats, the tree shrews exhibited a particularly robust and widespread distribution of NPY-ir cells in the MOB, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala as well as the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus and pretectal nucleus of the thalamus. By contrast, a low density of neurons were scattered in the striatum, neocortex, polymorph cell layer of the dentate gyrus, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, and dorsal tegmental nucleus. These findings provide the first detailed mapping of NPY immunoreactivity in the tree shrew brain and demonstrate species differences in the distribution of this neuropeptide, providing an anatomical basis for the participation of the NPY system in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes. PMID:25327585

  18. Short-tailed shrews: Toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments involving dietary toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin were conducted with short-tailed shrews. Dietary concentrations of DDT dissolved in vegetable oils were usually more toxic than diets containing comparable amounts of powdered DDT. Younger shrews, particularly females, were more tolerant of powdered DDT than older animals; yet, there were no conspicuous age differences in toxicity of DDT dissolved in oils. In comparison to other mammals, short-tailed shrews are not unusually sensitive to DDT, dieldrin, or endrin on the basis of two-week feeding tests. The influence of age and sex on toxicity of DDT, endrin, and dieldrin was sometimes more important than body weight. Of those shrews of the same age and sex that were fed the same dietary dosage, heavier shrews were more tolerant than lighter individuals; and, heavier shrews tended to lose a greater percentage of body weight before death. There was a range of 15 to 105 DDT equivalents in brains of shrews dying on dietary dosages of DDT. Six shrews fed a high level of DDT seemed to have unusual metabolite capabilities and died with apparent lethal levels of DDD in their brains. Levels of dieldrin in brains of shrews that died on a dietary dosage of dieldrin ranged from 3.7 to 12.6 ppm. In the rates of gain and loss experiments where shrews were given diets containing 400 ppm DDT or 50 ppm dieldrin up to 17 days, high residues were noted in tissues of shrews after two weeks on a contaminated diet and a few died at that time. After shrews were placed on clean food, it was determined that >50% of the dieldrin residues in carcass and brain were lost in 50% of residues of DDT and metabolites in brains after 2 weeks on clean food; males lost nearly 50% of residues in carcasses after two weeks on clean food compared with a loss of only 11% in females.

  19. Why do shrews twitter? Communication or simple echo-based orientation

    PubMed Central

    Siemers, Björn M.; Schauermann, Grit; Turni, Hendrik; von Merten, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Shrews are very vocal animals. We tested behaviourally whether the high-pitched laryngeal ‘twittering’ calls of as-yet unclear function serve for communication or echo-based orientation. We used a representative species from each of the two largest phylogenetic groups of shrews. In both species, experimental manipulation of substrate density, but not of the likelihood of conspecific presence, affected the shrews' call rate when exploring an unknown environment. This adaptation of call rate to the degree of habitat clutter parallels bat echolocation and suggests that shrews may use the echoes and reverberations of their calls for identifying routes through their habitat or for probing habitat type. To assess the acoustic feasibility of shrew echo orientation, we ensonified shrew habitats in the field with an ‘artificial shrew’ (small speaker mounted close to a sensitive microphone). The data showed that shrew-like calls can indeed yield echo scenes useful for habitat assessment at close range, but beyond the range of the shrews' vibrissae. PMID:19535367

  20. The occurrence of Centrorhynchus (Acanthocephala) in shrews (Sorex araneus and Sorex minutus) in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ewald, J A; Crompton, D W; Johnson, I; Stoddart, R C

    1991-06-01

    Encysted acanthocephalans belonging to the genus Centrorhynchus were found in the body cavities of Sorex araneus (common shrew) and Sorex minutus (pygmy shrew) from Boxworth, Cambridgeshire, U.K. Fifty percent of the male S. araneus and 67% of the male S. minutus examined were found to be infected, with the mean intensity (+/-SD) being 54.3 +/- 91.3 and 14.7 +/- 18.4, respectively. The species of Centrorhynchus in the shrews may be Centrorhynchus aluconis, which is distributed widely in tawny owls, Strix aluco, in the United Kingdom. Shrews appear to serve as paratenic hosts for C. aluconis. PMID:2040960

  1. The least shrew (Cryptotis parva) as a laboratory animal.

    PubMed

    Mock, O B

    1982-04-01

    Wild least shrews, Cryptotis parva, have been maintained in the laboratory for 15 years. Animals were confined in small, open terraria with loam soil covering the floor. The shrews were fed mealworms and a mixture of ground meat and mink diet twice daily. Heterosexual pairing was the mating system most commonly employed. The gestation period was 21 to 22 days, and the mean litter size was 4.3 with a range of 1-9 offspring. The young were weaned at 18-20 days of age and were sexually mature prior to the age of 40 days. Periodontal disease was the only disease which threatened the colony, and it was controlled by adding oxytetracycline hydrochloride to the water. Maximum laboratory survival time was 889 days. PMID:7078086

  2. Neurochemical Characterization of the Tree Shrew Dorsal Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Matthew W.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Perez-Costas, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington’s, Tourette’s syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei), which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally) can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia) are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry), and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum. PMID:21887131

  3. Low-Rate TCP-Targeted Denial of Service Attacks (The Shrew vs. the Mice and Elephants)

    E-print Network

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    Low-Rate TCP-Targeted Denial of Service Attacks (The Shrew vs. the Mice and Elephants Fellowship, and by HP Laboratories.¡ A shrew is a small but aggressive mammal that ferociously attacks]). In this paper, we study low-rate DoS attacks, which we term "shrew attacks," that attempt to deny bandwidth

  4. Low-Rate TCP-Targeted Denial of Service Attacks (The Shrew vs. the Mice and Elephants)

    E-print Network

    Knightly, Edward W.

    Low-Rate TCP-Targeted Denial of Service Attacks (The Shrew vs. the Mice and Elephants) £ Ý, and by HP Laboratories. ÝA shrew is a small but aggressive mammal that ferociously attacks and kills much]). In this paper, we study low-rate DoS attacks, which we term "shrew attacks," that attempt to deny bandwidth

  5. On the Relation Between Receptive Field Structure and Stimulus Selectivity in the Tree Shrew Primary Visual Cortex

    E-print Network

    On the Relation Between Receptive Field Structure and Stimulus Selectivity in the Tree Shrew in V1 of the tree shrew, a close relative of primates. We find that spatial RF subfield segregation, a criterion for identifying simple cells, was exceedingly small in the tree shrew V1. In contrast, many

  6. Chronic psychosocial stress alters NPY system: Different effects in rat and tree shrew E. Zambello a,b,

    E-print Network

    Chronic psychosocial stress alters NPY system: Different effects in rat and tree shrew E. Zambello. Two different species were investigated: rat and tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri); the latter is regarded/kg for tree shrews) after the first week of stress. The results confirmed a major role for hippocampal

  7. | 46 | NATIONAL WILDLIFE DECEMBER/JANUARY 2009 | WWW.NWF.ORG | 47 | AN ADULT VAGRANT shrew in a

    E-print Network

    Badyaev, Alex

    | 46 | NATIONAL WILDLIFE DECEMBER/JANUARY 2009 | WWW.NWF.ORG | 47 | AN ADULT VAGRANT shrew in a Montana mountain bog makes a meal of a monarch butterfly. The bogs offer several species of shrews the complex habitat they need to find food without intense competition. THE MAIMING OF THE SHREW Our mandatory

  8. The Chronic Psychosocial Stress Paradigm in Male Tree Shrews: Evaluation of a Novel Animal Model for Depressive

    E-print Network

    The Chronic Psychosocial Stress Paradigm in Male Tree Shrews: Evaluation of a Novel Animal Model in patients. One promising model is the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in male tree shrews, which the chronic psychosocial stress model in tree shrews besides its "face validity" for depression also has

  9. Social organization in Eulipotyphla: evidence for a social shrew.

    PubMed

    Valomy, M; Hayes, L D; Schradin, C

    2015-11-01

    Shrews and their close relatives (order Eulipotyphla) are typically considered to be solitary. This impacts our understanding of mammalian social evolution: (i) the ancestor of mammals is believed to have been shrew-like, and even though Eulipotyphla are not more basal than other mammalian orders, this might have been one reason why the first mammals have been assumed to be solitary-living; (ii) Eulipotyphla are the third largest mammalian order, with hundreds of species entering comparative analyses. We review primary field studies reporting the social organization of Eulipotyphla, doing a literature research on 445 species. Primary literature was only available for 16 of the 445 species. We found 56% of the studied species to be social (38% were living in pairs), which is in sharp contrast to the 0.5 and 8% reported in other databases. We conclude that the available information indicates that shrews are more sociable than generally believed. An interesting alternative hypothesis is that the mammalian ancestor might have been pair-living. To understand the social evolution of mammals, comparative studies must be based on reliable and specific information, and more species of all orders must be studied in the field. PMID:26559515

  10. The lung of shrews: morphometric estimation of diffusion capacity.

    PubMed

    Gehr, P; Sehovic, S; Burri, P H; Claassen, H; Weibel, E R

    1980-04-01

    The lungs of 16 shrews from 8 species (Sorex minutus, Neomys fodiens, Suncus etruscus, Crocidura russula, C. juvenetae, C. poensis, C. flavescens, C. giffardi) ranging in body weight from 2.2 to 100 g were studied by morphometry in order to compare the structural diffusion capacity for oxygen. DL02, with the oxygen consumption, VO2, measured on the same animals. VO2 was determined by short term measurements using a respirometer. DLO2 was estimated morphometrically. Both parameters demonstrated good coincidence in their allometric behaviour, establishing further progress in structure-function relationship in the respiratory apparatus. Whereas VO2 as well as DLO2 of shrews with a body weight W greater than 5 g follow the same allometric function established for mammals in general, the values for shrews with W less than 5 g exhibit significantly higher values. It appears that the pulmonary gas exchange parenchyma of these smallest mammals is well suited to supply the organism with the comparatively high levels of O2 required by the high metabolic rates, exhibiting a structural adaptation of the lung to higher VO2. PMID:7394364

  11. Brain Mass and Cranial Nerve Size in Shrews and Moles

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, Duncan B.; Sarko, Diana K.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between body size, brain size, and fibers in selected cranial nerves in shrews and moles. Species include tiny masked shrews (S. cinereus) weighing only a few grams and much larger mole species weighing up to 90 grams. It also includes closely related species with very different sensory specializations – such as the star-nosed mole and the common, eastern mole. We found that moles and shrews have tiny optic nerves with fiber counts not correlated with body or brain size. Auditory nerves were similarly small but increased in fiber number with increasing brain and body size. Trigeminal nerve number was by far the largest and also increased with increasing brain and body size. The star-nosed mole was an outlier, with more than twice the number of trigeminal nerve fibers than any other species. Despite this hypertrophied cranial nerve, star-nosed mole brains were not larger than predicted from body size, suggesting that magnification of their somatosensory systems does not result in greater overall CNS size. PMID:25174995

  12. Brain mass and cranial nerve size in shrews and moles.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Duncan B; Sarko, Diana K; Catania, Kenneth C

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between body size, brain size, and fibers in selected cranial nerves in shrews and moles. Species include tiny masked shrews (S. cinereus) weighing only a few grams and much larger mole species weighing up to 90 grams. It also includes closely related species with very different sensory specializations - such as the star-nosed mole and the common, eastern mole. We found that moles and shrews have tiny optic nerves with fiber counts not correlated with body or brain size. Auditory nerves were similarly small but increased in fiber number with increasing brain and body size. Trigeminal nerve number was by far the largest and also increased with increasing brain and body size. The star-nosed mole was an outlier, with more than twice the number of trigeminal nerve fibers than any other species. Despite this hypertrophied cranial nerve, star-nosed mole brains were not larger than predicted from body size, suggesting that magnification of their somatosensory systems does not result in greater overall CNS size. PMID:25174995

  13. NEARCTIC SHREWS, SOREX SPP., AS PARATENIC HOSTS OF SOBOLIPHYME BATURINI (NEMATODA: SOBOLIPHYMIDAE).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Third-stage larvae of Soboliphyme baturini were discovered for the first time in shrews, Sorex cinereus, and S. tundrensis from Alaska and the Nearctic. Shrews were found to be infected with L3 at Suloia Lake, southeastern Alaska, Togiak National Wildlife Refuge, southwestern Alaska and from the Y...

  14. Targeting of Transmembrane Protein Shrew-1 to Adherens Junctions Is Controlled by Cytoplasmic Sorting Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Viktor; Schreiner, Alexander; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2006-01-01

    We recently identified transmembrane protein shrew-1 and showed that it is able to target to adherens junctions in polarized epithelial cells. This suggested shrew-1 possesses specific basolateral sorting motifs, which we analyzed by mutational analysis. Systematic mutation of amino acids in putative sorting signals in the cytoplasmic domain of shrew-1 revealed three tyrosines and a dileucine motif necessary for basolateral sorting. Substitution of these amino acids leads to apical localization of shrew-1. By applying tannic acid to either the apical or basolateral part of polarized epithelial cells, thereby blocking vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, we obtained evidence that the apically localized mutants were primarily targeted to the basolateral membrane and were then redistributed to the apical domain. Further support for a postendocytic sorting mechanism of shrew-1 was obtained by demonstrating that ?1B, a subunit of the epithelial cell-specific adaptor complex AP-1B, interacts with shrew-1. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for a scenario where shrew-1 is primarily delivered to the basolateral membrane by a so far unknown mechanism. Once there, adaptor protein complex AP-1B is involved in retaining shrew-1 at the basolateral membrane by postendocytic sorting mechanisms. PMID:16707570

  15. Prevalence of SFTSV among Asian house shrews and rodents, China, January-August 2013.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Wei; Wen, Hong-Ling; Fang, Li-Zhu; Zhang, Zhen-Tang; He, Shu-Ting; Xue, Zai-Feng; Ma, Dong-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Tao; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Li; Yu, Xue-jie

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the role of small mammals as hosts of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), we tested serum samples from rodents and shrews in China, collected in 2013. SFTSV antibodies and RNA were detected, suggesting that rodents and shrews might be hosts for SFTSV. PMID:25418111

  16. Human and Tree Shrew Alpha-synuclein: Comparative cDNA Sequence and Protein Structure Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng-Cun; Huang, Zhang-Qiong; Jiang, Qin-Fang; Dai, Jie-Jie; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Jia-Hong; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Nai-Hong; Yuan, Yu-He; Li, Cong; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yun; Ma, Kai-Li

    2015-10-01

    The synaptic protein alpha-synuclein (?-syn) is associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and homology analyses among many species have been reported. Nevertheless, little is known about the cDNA sequence and protein structure of ?-syn in tree shrews, and this information might contribute to our understanding of its role in both health and disease. We designed primers to the human ?-syn cDNA sequence; then, tree shrew ?-syn cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR and sequenced. Based on the acquired tree shrew ?-syn cDNA sequence, both the amino acid sequence and the spatial structure of ?-syn were predicted and analyzed. The homology analysis results showed that the tree shrew cDNA sequence matches the human cDNA sequence exactly except at nucleotide positions 45, 60, 65, 69, 93, 114, 147, 150, 157, 204, 252, 270, 284, 298, 308, and 324. Further protein sequence analysis revealed that the tree shrew ?-syn protein sequence is 97.1 % identical to that of human ?-syn. The secondary protein structure of tree shrew ?-syn based on random coils and ?-helices is the same as that of the human structure. The phosphorylation sites are highly conserved, except the site at position 103 of tree shrew ?-syn. The predicted spatial structure of tree shrew ?-syn is identical to that of human ?-syn. Thus, ?-syn might have a similar function in tree shrew and in human, and tree shrew might be a potential animal model for studying the pathogenesis of ?-synucleinopathies. PMID:26265394

  17. Phylogeny and conservation priorities of afrotherian mammals (Afrotheria, Mammalia)

    E-print Network

    Agnarsson, Ingi

    and mammoths, dugong and manatees, hyraxes, tenrecs, golden moles, elephant shrews and aardvark. To date (hyraxes, dugongs, manatees and elephants) is supported, as is the monophyly of all afrotherian families conservation icons like Asian elephant, dugong and the three species of manatee. Conservation priority analyses

  18. Water shrews detect movement, shape, and smell to find prey underwater

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.; Hare, James F.; Campbell, Kevin L.

    2008-01-01

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that feed on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic prey. They often forage at night, diving into streams and ponds in search of food. We investigated how shrews locate submerged prey using high-speed videography, infrared lighting, and stimuli designed to mimic prey. Shrews attacked brief water movements, indicating motion is an important cue used to detect active or escaping prey. They also bit, retrieved, and attempted to eat model fish made of silicone in preference to other silicone objects showing that tactile cues are important in the absence of movement. In addition, water shrews preferentially sniffed model prey fish and crickets underwater by exhaling and reinhaling air through the nostrils, suggesting olfaction plays an important role in aquatic foraging. The possibility of echolocation, sonar, or electroreception was investigated by testing for ultrasonic and audible calls above and below water and by presenting electric fields to foraging shrews. We found no evidence for these abilities. We conclude that water shrews detect motion, shape, and smell to find prey underwater. The short latency of attacks to water movements suggests shrews may use a flush-pursuit strategy to capture some prey. PMID:18184804

  19. On the origin, homologies and evolution of primate facial muscles, with a particular focus on hominoids and a suggested unifying nomenclature for the facial muscles of the Mammalia

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, R; Wood, B A; Aziz, M A; Burrows, A

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian facial muscles are a subgroup of hyoid muscles (i.e. muscles innervated by cranial nerve VII). They are usually attached to freely movable skin and are responsible for facial expressions. In this study we provide an account of the origin, homologies and evolution of the primate facial muscles, based on dissections of various primate and non-primate taxa and a review of the literature. We provide data not previously reported, including photographs showing in detail the facial muscles of primates such as gibbons and orangutans. We show that the facial muscles usually present in strepsirhines are basically the same muscles that are present in non-primate mammals such as tree-shrews. The exceptions are that strepsirhines often have a muscle that is usually not differentiated in tree-shrews, the depressor supercilii, and lack two muscles that are usually differentiated in these mammals, the zygomatico-orbicularis and sphincter colli superficialis. Monkeys such as macaques usually lack two muscles that are often present in strepsirhines, the sphincter colli profundus and mandibulo-auricularis, but have some muscles that are usually absent as distinct structures in non-anthropoid primates, e.g. the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, levator labii superioris, nasalis, depressor septi nasi, depressor anguli oris and depressor labii inferioris. In turn, macaques typically lack a risorius, auricularis anterior and temporoparietalis, which are found in hominoids such as humans, but have muscles that are usually not differentiated in members of some hominoid taxa, e.g. the platysma cervicale (usually not differentiated in orangutans, panins and humans) and auricularis posterior (usually not differentiated in orangutans). Based on our observations, comparisons and review of the literature, we propose a unifying, coherent nomenclature for the facial muscles of the Mammalia as a whole and provide a list of more than 300 synonyms that have been used in the literature to designate the facial muscles of primates and other mammals. A main advantage of this nomenclature is that it combines, and thus creates a bridge between, those names used by human anatomists and the names often employed in the literature dealing with non-human primates and non-primate mammals. PMID:19531159

  20. Host switch during evolution of a genetically distinct hantavirus in the American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N.; Dizney, Laurie; Sumibcay, Laarni; Arai, Satoru; Ruedas, Luis A.; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Oxbow virus (OXBV), was detected in tissues of an American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii), captured in Gresham, Oregon, in September 2003. Pairwise analysis of full-length S- and M- and partial L-segment nucleotide and amino acid sequences of OXBV indicated low sequence similarity with rodent-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, and host-parasite evolutionary comparisons, showed that OXBV and Asama virus, a hantavirus recently identified from the Japanese shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides), were related to soricine shrew-borne hantaviruses from North America and Eurasia, respectively, suggesting parallel evolution associated with cross-species transmission. PMID:19394994

  1. Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Seewis virus in the Eurasian common shrew in Finland and Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Recent identification of a newfound hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in Switzerland, corroborates decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from Russia. To ascertain the spatial or geographic variation of SWSV, archival liver tissues from 88 Eurasian common shrews, trapped in Finland in 1982 and in Hungary during 1997, 1999 and 2000, were analyzed for hantavirus RNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. SWSV RNAs were detected in 12 of 22 (54.5%) and 13 of 66 (19.7%) Eurasian common shrews from Finland and Hungary, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and L-segment sequences of SWSV strains, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, revealed geographic-specific genetic variation, similar to the phylogeography of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing hantavirus-host co-evolutionary adaptation. PMID:19930716

  2. Flying lemurs - the "flying tree shrews"? Molecular cytogenetic evidence for a Scandentia-Dermoptera sister clade

    E-print Network

    Nie, Wenhui; Fu, Beiyuan; O'Brien, Patricia C. M.; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Tanomtong, Alongklod; Volobouev, Vitaly; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; Yang, Fengtang

    2008-05-01

    Research article Flying lemurs – The 'flying tree shrews'? Molecular cytogenetic evidence for a Scandentia-Dermoptera sister clade Wenhui Nie1, Beiyuan Fu2, Patricia CM O'Brien2, Jinhuan Wang1, Weiting Su1, Alongkoad Tanomtong3, Vitaly Volobouev4, Malcolm A... ]; (e) a closer relationship between Scandentia and Dermoptera [4-7,22]. Furthermore, based on some intriguing similarities in morphology and molecular data, a sister-group relationship between tree shrews (Scanden- tia) and lagomorphs (Lagomorpha) has...

  3. Biodiversity and evolution of Imjin virus and Thottapalayam virus in Crocidurinae shrews in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Zhou, Run-Hong; Fan, Fei-Neng; Ying, Xu-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Wen; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2014-08-30

    The recent discovery of numerous hantaviruses in insectivores has provided a new view of hantavirus biodiversity and evolution. To determine the presence and genetic diversity of Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in insectivores in Zhejiang Province, China, we captured and performed virus screening of 32 Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) and 105 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) in different coastal regions. Hantavirus genome (S, M, and L segments) sequences were successfully recovered from one Ussuri white-toothed shrew and seven Asian house shrews. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus carried by the Ussuri white-toothed shrew was most closely related to MJNV, but with >15% nucleotide sequence difference, suggesting that it represents a new subtype. The hantaviruses carried by Asian house shrews were closely related to the TPMV variants found in the same geographic area, but more distantly related to those sampled in India and Nepal. Additionally, the TPMV sequences obtained in this study, as well as those found previously in this area, could be divided into three lineages reflecting their geographic origins, indicative of largely allopatric evolution. Overall, our data highlights the high genetic diversity of insectivore-borne hantaviruses in China, suggesting that more may be discovered in the future. PMID:24874196

  4. Identification of the full-length ?-actin sequence and expression profiles in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Yun, Chenxia; Wang, Qihui; Smith, Wanli W; Leng, Jing

    2015-02-01

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) diverges from the primate order (Primates) and is classified as a separate taxonomic group of mammals - Scandentia. It has been suggested that the tree shrew can be used as an animal model for studying human diseases; however, the genomic sequence of the tree shrew is largely unidentified. In the present study, we reported the full-length cDNA sequence of the housekeeping gene, ?-actin, in the tree shrew. The amino acid sequence of ?-actin in the tree shrew was compared to that of humans and other species; a simple phylogenetic relationship was discovered. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis further demonstrated that the expression profiles of ?-actin, as a general conservative housekeeping gene, in the tree shrew were similar to those in humans, although the expression levels varied among different types of tissue in the tree shrew. Our data provide evidence that the tree shrew has a close phylogenetic association with humans. These findings further enhance the potential that the tree shrew, as a species, may be used as an animal model for studying human disorders. PMID:25516020

  5. Distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor in the tree shrew brain.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yu-Mian; Ni, Rong-Jun; Sun, Yun-Jun; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2015-08-27

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the brain plays an important role in regulations of physiological and behavioral processes, yet CRF distribution in tree shrew brain has not been thoroughly and systematically reported. Here we examined the distribution of CRF immunoreactivity in the brain of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) using immunohistochemical techniques. CRF-immunoreactive (-ir) cells and fibers were present in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon and myelencephalon of saline- and colchicine-treated tree shrews. Laminar distribution of CRF-ir cells was found in the main olfactory bulb and neocortex. Compared with saline-treated tree shrews, a larger number of CRF-ir cells in colchicine-treated tree shrews were found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, medial preoptic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, reuniens thalamic nucleus, inferior colliculus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, median raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, parabrachial nucleus, dorsal tegmental nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus, and inferior olive. CRF-ir fibers from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus projected toward and through the internal zone of the median eminence. In addition, density of CRF immunoreactivity is significantly different in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdaloid nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, median raphe nucleus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, locus coeruleus and inferior olive between tree shrews and rats after saline or colchicine treatment. Our findings provide, for the first time, the comprehensive description of CRF immunoreactivity and whole brain mapping of CRF in tree shrews, which is an anatomical basis for the participation of CRF system in the regulation of numerous behaviors. PMID:26074350

  6. Identification and Characterization of Liver MicroRNAs of the Chinese Tree Shrew via Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yue; Feng, Yue-Mei; Feng, Yang; Lu, Caixia; Liu, Li; Sun, Xiaomei; Dai, Jiejie; Xia, Xueshan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a small animal that possess many features, which are valuable in biomedical research, as experimental models. Currently, there are numerous attempts to utilize tree shrews as models for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Objectives: This study aimed to construct a liver microRNA (miRNA) data of the tree shrew. Materials and Methods: Three second filial generation tree shrews were used in this study. Total RNA was extracted from each liver of the tree shrew and equal quality mixed, then reverse-transcribed to complementary DNA (cDNA). The cDNAs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. Results: A total of 2060 conserved miRNAs were identified through alignment with the mature miRNAs in miRBase 20.0 database. The gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes analyses of the target genes of the miRNAs revealed several candidate miRNAs, genes and pathways that may involve in the process of HCV infection. The abundance of miR-122 and Let-7 families and their other characteristics provided us more evidences for the utilization of this animal, as a potential model for HCV infection and other related biomedical research. Moreover, 80 novel microRNAs were predicted using the software Mireap. The top 3 abundant miRNAs were validated in other tree samples, based on stem-loop quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Conclusions: According to the liver microRNA data of Chinese tree shrew, characteristics of the miR-122 and Let-7 families further highlight the suitability of tree shrew as the animal model in HCV research. PMID:26587035

  7. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet.

    PubMed

    Czajka, Jessica L; McCay, Timothy S; Garneau, Danielle E

    2012-09-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards. PMID:25379219

  8. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet

    PubMed Central

    Czajka, Jessica L.; McCay, Timothy S.; Garneau, Danielle E.

    2012-01-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards. PMID:25379219

  9. Layer 2/3 Synapses in Monocular and Binocular Regions of Tree Shrew Visual Cortex Express mAChR-Dependent Long-Term Depression

    E-print Network

    Layer 2/3 Synapses in Monocular and Binocular Regions of Tree Shrew Visual Cortex Express m TT, McMahon LL. Layer 2/3 synapses in mon- ocular and binocular regions of tree shrew visual cortex and memory, they are not easily extrapolated to more complex visual systems. Here we used tree shrews

  10. Neural response dynamics of spiking and local field potential activity depend on CRT monitor refresh rate in the tree shrew primary visual cortex

    E-print Network

    refresh rate in the tree shrew primary visual cortex Julia Veit,1,2 Anwesha Bhattacharyya,1,2 Robert Kretz of spiking and local field potential activity depend on CRT monitor refresh rate in the tree shrew primary timescale. Here we show that, in tree shrew V1, both spiking and local field potential activity are also

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL INSTABILITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT:DEVELOPMENTAL INSTABILITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT:DEVELOPMENTAL INSTABILITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT:DEVELOPMENTAL INSTABILITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT: WHY ARE SOME SPECIES OF SHREWS BETTER INDICATORSWHY ARE SOME SPECIES O

    E-print Network

    Badyaev, Alex

    :DEVELOPMENTAL INSTABILITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT:DEVELOPMENTAL INSTABILITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT: WHY ARE SOME SPECIES OF SHREWS BETTER INDICATORSWHY ARE SOME SPECIES OF SHREWS BETTER INDICATORSWHY ARE SOME SPECIES OF SHREWS BETTER INDICATORSWHY ARE SOME SPECIES OF SHREWS BETTER INDICATORS OF STRESS THAN OTHERS?OF STRESS THAN OTHERS?OF STRESS

  12. Factors influencing the variation in capture rates of shrews in southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the temporal variation in capture rates of shrews Notiosorex crawfordi (Coues, 1877) and Sorex ornatus (Merriam, 1895) in 20 sites representing fragmented and continuous habitats in southern California, USA. In N. crawfordi, the temporal variation was significantly correlated with the mean capture rates. Of the 6 landscape variables analyzed (size of the landscape, size of the sample area, altitude, edge, longitude and latitude), sample area was positively correlated with variation in capture rates of N. crawfordi. In S. ornatus, longitude was negatively correlated with variation in capture rates. Analysis of the effect of precipitation on the short- and long-term capture rates at 2 of the sites showed no correlation between rainfall and capture rates of shrews even though peak number of shrews at both sites were reached during the year of highest amount of rainfall. A key problem confounding capture rates of shrews in southern California is the low overall abundance of both shrew species in all habitats and seasons.

  13. Shedding of Infectious Borna Disease Virus-1 in Living Bicolored White-Toothed Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Nobach, Daniel; Bourg, Manon; Herzog, Sibylle; Lange-Herbst, Hildburg; Encarnação, Jorge A.; Eickmann, Markus; Herden, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Background Many RNA viruses arise from animal reservoirs, namely bats, rodents and insectivores but mechanisms of virus maintenance and transmission still need to be addressed. The bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon) has recently been identified as reservoir of the neurotropic Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1). Principal Findings Six out of eleven wild living bicoloured white-toothed shrews were trapped and revealed to be naturally infected with BoDV-1. All shrews were monitored in captivity in a long-term study over a time period up to 600 days that differed between the individual shrews. Interestingly, all six animals showed an asymptomatic course of infection despite virus shedding via various routes indicating a highly adapted host-pathogen interaction. Infectious virus and viral RNA were demonstrated in saliva, urine, skin swabs, lacrimal fluid and faeces, both during the first 8 weeks of the investigation period and for long time shedding after more than 250 days in captivity. Conclusions The various ways of shedding ensure successful virus maintenance in the reservoir population but also transmission to accidental hosts such as horses and sheep. Naturally BoDV-1-infected living shrews serve as excellent tool to unravel host and pathogen factors responsible for persistent viral co-existence in reservoir species while maintaining their physiological integrity despite high viral load in many organ systems. PMID:26313904

  14. Body temperature patterns in two syntopic elephant shrew species during winter.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Justin G; Smit, Ben; Sole, Catherine L; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2012-01-01

    We measured body temperature (T(b)) in free-ranging individuals of two species of elephant shrews, namely western rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus rupestris) and Cape rock elephant shrews (E. edwardii), during winter in a winter-rainfall region of western South Africa. These syntopic species have similar ecologies and morphologies and thus potential for large overlaps in diet and habitat use. Unexpectedly, they displayed different T(b) patterns. Western rock elephant shrews were heterothermic, with all individuals decreasing T(b) below 30°C on at least 34% of nights. The level of heterothermy expressed was similar to other species traditionally defined as daily heterotherms and was inversely related to T(a), as is commonly seen in small heterothermic endotherms. In contrast, Cape rock elephant shrews rarely allowed their T(b) to decrease below 30°C. The level of heterothermy was similar to species traditionally defined as homeotherms and there was no relationship between the level of heterothermy expressed and T(a). In both species, the minimum daily T(b) was recorded almost exclusively at night, often shortly before sunrise, although in some individuals minimum T(b) occasionally occurred during the day. The interspecific variation in T(b) patterns among Elephantulus species recorded to date reiterates the importance of ecological determinants of heterothermy that interact with factors such as body mass and phylogeny. PMID:21964153

  15. Climate history, human impacts and global body size of Carnivora (Mammalia

    E-print Network

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    and for regions glaciated or not during the last Ice Age. Results Three-quarters of the variation in body size can. There is a moderately strong relationship between the human footprint and body size in glaciated regions, explaining 19ORIGINAL ARTICLE Climate history, human impacts and global body size of Carnivora (Mammalia

  16. Phylogeographic Patterns and Evolution of the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region in Two Neotropical Cats (Mammalia, Felidae)

    E-print Network

    Eizirik, Eduardo

    Phylogeographic Patterns and Evolution of the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region in Two Neotropical Cats (Mammalia, Felidae) Eduardo Eizirik,1, * Sandro L. Bonatto,1 Warren E. Johnson,2 Peter G. Crawshaw-species of Neotropical cats which evolved from a lineage that migrated into South America during the formation

  17. High shrew diversity on Alaska's Seward Peninsula: Community assembly and environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, 6 species of shrews (genus: Sorex) were collected at a single locality on the Seward Peninsula of Alaska. Such high sympatric diversity within a single mammalian genus is seldom realized. This phenomenon at high latitudes highlights complex Arctic community dynamics that reflect significant turnover through time as a consequence of environmental change. Each of these shrew species occupies a broad geographic distribution collectively spanning the entire Holarctic, although the study site lies within Eastern Beringia, near the periphery of all individual ranges. A review of published genetic evidence reflects a depauperate shrew community within ice-free Beringia through the last glaciation, and recent assembly of current diversity during the Holocene.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; He, Jin-Rong; Wang, Ke; Li, Ming-Hui; Cao, Jian-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Liu; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-02-01

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. PMID:25506671

  19. Etruscan shrew muscle: the consequences of being small.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Klaus D

    2002-08-01

    The skeletal muscles of the smallest mammal, the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus, are functionally and structurally adapted to the requirements of an enormously high energy turnover. Isometric twitch contractions of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles are shorter than in any other mammal, allowing these muscles to contract at outstandingly high frequencies. The skeletal muscles of S. etruscus contract at up to 900 min(-1) for respiration, up to 780 min(-1) for running and up to 3500 min(-1) for shivering. All skeletal muscles investigated lack slow-twitch type I fibres and consist only of fast-twitch type IID fibres. These fibres are optimally equipped with properties enabling a high rate of almost purely oxidative metabolism: they have a small diameter, their citrate synthase activity is higher and their lactate dehydrogenase activity is lower than in the muscles of any other mammal and they have a rapid shortening velocity. Differences in isometric twitch contraction times between different muscles are, at least in part, probably due to differences in cytosolic creatine kinase activities. PMID:12110649

  20. Ultrastructural localization of tyrosine hydroxylase in tree shrew nucleus accumbens core and shell

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, Lesley A.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2014-01-01

    Many behavioral, physiological, and anatomical studies utilize animal models to investigate human striatal pathologies. Although commonly used, rodent striatum may not present the optimal animal model for certain studies due to a lesser morphological complexity than that of non-human primates, which are increasingly restricted in research. As an alternative, the tree shrew could provide a beneficial animal model for studies of the striatum. The gross morphology of the tree shrew striatum resembles that of primates, with separation of the caudate and putamen by the internal capsule. The neurochemical anatomy of the ventral striatum, specifically the nucleus accumbens, has never been examined. This major region of the limbic system plays a role in normal physiological functioning and is also an area of interest for human striatal disorders. The current study uses immunohistochemistry of calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to determine the ultrastructural organization of the nucleus accumbens core and shell of the tree shrew (Tupaia glis belangeri). Stereology was used to quantify the ultrastructural localization of TH, which displays weaker immunoreactivity in the core and denser immunoreactivity in the shell. In both regions, synapses with TH-immunoreactive axon terminals were primarily symmetric and showed no preference for targeting dendrites versus dendritic spines. The results were compared to previous ultrastructural studies of TH and dopamine in rat and monkey nucleus accumbens. Tree shrew and monkey show no preference for the postsynaptic target in the shell, in contrast to rats which show a preference for synapsing with dendrites. Tree shrews have a ratio of asymmetric to symmetric synapses formed by TH-immunoreactive terminals that is intermediate between rats and monkey. The findings from this study support the tree shrew as an alternative model for studies of human striatal pathologies. PMID:24769226

  1. Muscle Senescence in Short-Lived Wild Mammals, the Soricine Shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris

    PubMed Central

    HINDLE, ALLYSON G.; LAWLER, JOHN M.; CAMPBELL, KEVIN L.; HORNING, MARKUS

    2015-01-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H0: shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n = 17) and second-year (n = 17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: ~50%; B. brevicauda: ~60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris (~50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

  2. New records of Merriam’s Shrew (Sorex merriami) from western North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    M. J.Shaughnessy Jr.; Woodman, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Despite having a broad geographic distribution, Merriam's Shrew (Sorex merriami Dobson 1890) is known from a relatively few, widely-scattered localities. In North Dakota, the species was known from only a single poorly-preserved specimen collected in 1913 near Medora. We recently collected two new specimens of Merriam's Shrew from Billings and McKenzie counties in the western quarter of the state. These specimens confirm the presence of S. merriami in North Dakota and better define the northeastern edge of the species' distribution.

  3. Molecular evolution of Azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior) in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tanganya virus (TGNV), the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-Saharan Africa, is harbored by the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae), and is phylogenetically distinct from Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) and Imjin virus (MJNV) in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura). The existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in Eurasia and North America would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple shrew lineages have evolved and diversified. Methods Lung tissues, collected in RNAlater®, from 39 Buettikofer's shrews (Crocidura buettikoferi), 5 Jouvenet's shrews (Crocidura jouvenetae), 9 West African pygmy shrews (Crocidura obscurior) and 21 African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri) captured in Côte d'Ivoire during 2009, were systematically examined for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Results A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Azagny virus (AZGV), was detected in the West African pygmy shrew. Phylogenetic analysis of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+? model of evolution, showed that AZGV shared a common ancestry with TGNV and was more closely related to hantaviruses harbored by soricine shrews than to TPMV and MJNV. That is, AZGV in the West African pygmy shrew, like TGNV in the Therese's shrew, did not form a monophyletic group with TPMV and MJNV, which were deeply divergent and basal to other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral distributions of each hantavirus lineage, reconstructed using Mesquite 2.74, suggested that the common ancestor of all hantaviruses was most likely of Eurasian, not African, origin. Conclusions Genome-wide analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are required to better understand how the biogeographic origin and radiation of African shrews might have contributed to, or have resulted from, the evolution of hantaviruses. PMID:21798050

  4. Evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 peroxisomal and mitochondrial targeting. A survey of its subcellular distribution in the livers of various representatives of the classes Mammalia, Aves and Amphibia.

    PubMed

    Danpure, C J; Fryer, P; Jennings, P R; Allsop, J; Griffiths, S; Cunningham, A

    1994-08-01

    As part of a wider study on the molecular evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) intracellular compartmentalization, we have determined the subcellular distribution of immunoreactive AGT1, using postembedding protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, in the livers of various members of the classes Mammalia, Aves, and Amphibia. As far as organellar distribution is concerned, three categories could be distinguished. In members of the first category (type I), all, or nearly all, of the immunoreactive AGT1 was concentrated within the peroxisomes. In the second category (type II), AGT1 was found more evenly distributed in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. In the third category (type III), AGT1 was localized mainly within the mitochondria with much lower, but widely variable, amounts in the peroxisomes. Type I animals include the human, two great apes (gorilla, orangutan), two Old World monkeys (anubis baboon, Japanese macaque), a New World monkey (white-faced Saki monkey), a lago, morph (European rabbit), a bat (Seba's short-tailed fruit bat), two caviomorph rodents (guinea pig, orange-rumped agouti), and two Australian marsupials (koala, Bennett's wallaby). Type II animals include two New World monkeys (common marmoset, cotton-top tamarin), three prosimians (brown lemur, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, pygmy slow loris), five rodents (a hybrid crested porcupine, Colombian ground squirrel, laboratory rat, laboratory mouse, golden hamster), an American marsupial (grey short-tailed opossum), and a bird (raven). Type III animals include the large tree shrew, three insectivores (common Eurasian mole, European hedgehog, house shrew), four carnivores (domestic cat, ocelot, domestic dog, polecat ferret), and an amphibian (common frog). In addition to these categories, some animals (e.g. guinea pig, common frog) possessed significant amounts of cytosolic AGT1. Whereas the subcellular distribution of AGT1 in some orders (e.g. Insectivora and Carnivora) did not appear to vary markedly between the different members, in other orders (e.g. Primates, Rodentia and Marsupialia) it fluctuated widely between the different species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the subcellular distribution of AGT1 has changed radically on numerous occasions during the evolution of mammals. The new observations presented in this paper are compatible with our previous demonstration of a relationship between AGT1 subcellular distribution and either present or putative ancestral dietary habit, and our previous suggestion that the molecular evolution of the AGT gene has been markedly influenced by dietary selection pressure. PMID:7813517

  5. Serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and activity of iodothyronine deiodinase in peripheral tissues of the house musk shrew, Suncus murinus.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, F; Muraki, T; Nomoto, T

    1990-04-01

    Serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and the properties of iodothyronine deiodinase in tissues of the house musk shrew, Suncus murinus, were examined and compared with those of the rat. Serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and 3,3',5'-tri-iodothyronine (rT3) were higher, while the serum concentration of 3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine (T3) was lower in the shrew than in the rat. Among liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, heart, brown adipose tissue (BAT), spleen, lung, testes and thymus homogenates of the shrew, T(4)5'-deiodinase (5'D) activity was highest in BAT, and rT3 5'D activity was highest in both the liver and BAT. Intermediate or low T3 5-deiodinase activity was noted in all tissues examined. Activity of 5'D for T4 and rT3 in liver and kidney was much lower, while that of BAT was much higher in the shrew than in the rat. Liver and kidney 5'D may be type-I and that of BAT may be type-II in the shrew, judging from its response to 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil and iopanoic acid and substrate preference. Thus 5'D of the shrew was similar to that of the rat in type, but was different with respect to its activity in some peripheral tissues. This difference may have relevance to the low T3 state of the shrew. PMID:2338528

  6. The Bicolored White-Toothed Shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) Is an Indigenous Host of Mammalian Borna Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV. PMID:24699636

  7. Multilocus phylogeography and systematic revision of North American water shrews (genus: Sorex)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Panter, Nicholas; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Nagorsen, David W.

    2014-01-01

    North American water shrews, which have traditionally included Sorex alaskanus, S. bendirii, and S. palustris, are widely distributed through Nearctic boreal forests and adapted for life in semiaquatic environments. Molecular mitochondrial signatures for these species have recorded an evolutionary history with variable levels of regional divergence, suggesting a strong role of Quaternary environmental change in speciation processes. We expanded molecular analyses, including more-comprehensive rangewide sampling of specimens representing North American water shrew taxa, except S. alaskanus, and sequencing of 4 independent loci from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We investigated relative divergence of insular populations along the North Pacific Coast, and newly recognized diversity from southwestern montane locations, potentially representing refugial isolates. Congruent independent genealogies, lack of definitive evidence for contemporary gene flow, and high support from coalescent species trees indicated differentiation of 4 major geographic lineages over multiple glacial cycles of the late Quaternary, similar to a growing number of boreal taxa. Limited divergence of insular populations suggested colonization following the last glacial. Characterization of southwestern montane diversity will require further sampling but divergence over multiple loci is indicative of a relictual sky-island fauna. We have reviewed and revised North American water shrew taxonomy including the recognition of 3 species within what was previously known as S. palustris. The possibility of gene flow between most distantly related North American water shrew lineages coupled with unresolved early diversification of this group and other sibling species reflects a complex but potentially productive system for investigating speciation processes.

  8. Characterization of a MAVS ortholog from the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Yu, Dandan; Peng, Li; Fan, Yu; Chen, Jiaqi; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Wang, Chen; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2015-09-01

    Human mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (hMAVS, also known as IPS-1, VISA, or Cardif) is essential for antiviral innate immunity. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinenses), a close relative of primates, is emerging as a potential animal model for investigating viral infection. However, there is a lack of biological knowledge about the antiviral innate immunity of the tree shrew. In this study, we identified and characterized the function of the Chinese tree shrew MAVS gene (tMAVS). The cDNA of tMAVS was 2771 bp in length and encoded a polypeptide of 501 amino acids. Phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences revealed a closer affinity of tMAVS with those of primates. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that tMAVS mRNA was constitutively expressed in all seven tissues analyzed in this study. The tMAVS mRNA expression was rapidly and significantly increased after RNA virus infections. Ectopic-expression of tMAVS significantly potentiated the virus-triggered activation of IRF3, NF-?B and interferon-? (IFN-?), whereas knockdown of tMAVS displayed the opposite effect. Furthermore, tMAVS mutants lacking the caspase activation and recruitment (CARD) domains or the transmembrane (TM) domain were unable to induce IFN-?. Similar with hMAVS, mitochondrial localization of tMAVS was dependent on its domain. Collectively, this study revealed evolutionary conservation of the MAVS antiviral signaling pathway in the Chinese tree shrew. PMID:25931429

  9. "The Taming of the Shrew." A Play Packet To Accompany "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engen, Barbara; Campbell, Joy

    Intended for use by elementary school teachers as a supplement to the book, "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare," or for use by itself to produce one Shakespeare play, this play packet contains ready-to-reproduce materials for the production of "The Taming of the Shrew." Materials include: staging suggestions for scenery, props, lighting, and…

  10. V A T shrew in Montana dreams big, falls short, as it

    E-print Network

    Badyaev, Alex

    . Not taught by their parents which prey to seek, young shrews are "clueless about what to eat and only learn Badyaev. For a study of predator-prey interactions, he photographed not only squirrel mobbing behavior volunteered at the city's zoo. "I was a very serious kid, very much into animals and biology," he says. He

  11. Chronic clomipramine treatment reverses core symptom of depression in subordinate tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Chai, Anping; Zhou, Qixin; Lv, Longbao; Wang, Liping; Yang, Yuexiong; Xu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference), unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression. PMID:24312510

  12. Water balance and kidney function in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David L; Newland, Stacy

    2004-09-01

    We assessed renal function in least shrews (Cryptotis parva, body mass 4.7 g) within the context of overall water balance. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of shrews with unlimited food and water was 2.4 ml/h, about 60% of the rate predicted from body mass. Of this, about 3% (0.075 ml/h) was excreted as urine with an osmolality of 1944 mmol/kg, 5.5 times plasma osmolality. Shrews had a total water turnover (5 ml/day) two to three times higher than expected from allometry for a small mammal of this size. Water influx was partitioned among preformed water from food (65%), drinking (16%), and metabolic water (20%). Water efflux was divided among urine flow (35%), fecal water loss (estimated as 23%), and evaporation (by difference, 42%). Least shrews had a high water turnover rate and relatively high urine flow rate (UFR); this likely reflects a combination of factors, including high metabolism, active lifestyle, and wet diet. PMID:15471683

  13. Colonization of Ireland: revisiting ‘the pygmy shrew syndrome' using mitochondrial, Y chromosomal and microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, A D; Vega, R; Rambau, R V; Yannic, G; Herman, J S; Hayden, T J; Searle, J B

    2011-01-01

    There is great uncertainty about how Ireland attained its current fauna and flora. Long-distance human-mediated colonization from southwestern Europe has been seen as a possible way that Ireland obtained many of its species; however, Britain has (surprisingly) been neglected as a source area for Ireland. The pygmy shrew has long been considered an illustrative model species, such that the uncertainty of the Irish colonization process has been dubbed ‘the pygmy shrew syndrome'. Here, we used new genetic data consisting of 218 cytochrome (cyt) b sequences, 153 control region sequences, 17 Y-intron sequences and 335 microsatellite multilocus genotypes to distinguish between four possible hypotheses for the colonization of the British Isles, formulated in the context of previously published data. Cyt b sequences from western Europe were basal to those found in Ireland, but also to those found in the periphery of Britain and several offshore islands. Although the central cyt b haplotype in Ireland was found in northern Spain, we argue that it most likely occurred in Britain also, from where the pygmy shrew colonized Ireland as a human introduction during the Holocene. Y-intron and microsatellite data are consistent with this hypothesis, and the biological traits and distributional data of pygmy shrews argue against long-distance colonization from Spain. The compact starburst of the Irish cyt b expansion and the low genetic diversity across all markers strongly suggests a recent colonization. This detailed molecular study of the pygmy shrew provides a new perspective on an old colonization question. PMID:21673740

  14. Genetic Diversity of Thottapalayam Virus, a Hantavirus Harbored by the Asian House Shrew (Suncus murinus) in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Shrestha, Mrigendra P.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recent discovery of genetically divergent hantaviruses in shrews of multiple species in widely separated geographic regions, data are unavailable about the genetic diversity and phylogeography of Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a hantavirus originally isolated from an Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) captured in southern India more than four decades ago. To bridge this knowledge gap, the S, M, and L segments of hantavirus RNA were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from archival lung tissues of Asian house shrews captured in Nepal from January to September 1996. Pair-wise alignment and comparison revealed approximately 80% nucleotide and > 94% amino acid sequence similarity to prototype TPMV. Phylogenetic analyses, generated by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed geographic-specific clustering of TPMV, similar to that observed for rodent- and soricid-borne hantaviruses. These findings confirm that the Asian house shrew is the natural reservoir of TPMV and suggest a long-standing virus–host relationship. PMID:21896819

  15. Do geological or climatic processes drive speciation in dynamic archipelagos? The tempo and mode of diversification in Southeast Asian shrews

    E-print Network

    Esselstyn, Jacob Aaron; Timm, Robert M.; Brown, Rafe M.

    2009-10-01

    of Southeast Asian shrews (Crocidura) to examine geographic and temporal processes of diversification. In general, diversification has taken place in allopatry following the colonization of new areas. Sulawesi provides an exception, where we cannot reject...

  16. Vocal development during postnatal growth and ear morphology in a shrew that generates seismic vibrations, Diplomesodon pulchellum.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Alexandra S; Volodin, Ilya A; Mason, Matthew J; Frey, Roland; Fritsch, Guido; Ilchenko, Olga G; Volodina, Elena V

    2015-09-01

    The ability of adult and subadult piebald shrews (Diplomesodon pulchellum) to produce 160Hz seismic waves is potentially reflected in their vocal ontogeny and ear morphology. In this study, the ontogeny of call variables and body traits was examined in 11 litters of piebald shrews, in two-day intervals from birth to 22 days (subadult), and ear structure was investigated in two specimens using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Across ages, the call fundamental frequency (f0) was stable in squeaks and clicks and increased steadily in screeches, representing an unusual, non-descending ontogenetic pathway of f0. The rate of the deep sinusoidal modulation (pulse rate) of screeches increased from 75Hz at 3-4 days to 138Hz at 21-22 days, probably relating to ontogenetic changes in contraction rates of the same muscles which are responsible for generating seismic vibrations. The ear reconstructions revealed that the morphologies of the middle and inner ears of the piebald shrew are very similar to those of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens), which are not known to produce seismic signals. These results suggest that piebald shrews use a mechanism other than hearing for perceiving seismic vibrations. PMID:26112702

  17. Isolation and identification of symbiotic bacteria from the skin, mouth, and rectum of wild and captive tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui; Lai, Ren; Duan, Gang; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Ye; Liu, Huang; Xiang, Xun

    2014-11-18

    Endosymbionts influence many aspects of their hosts' health conditions, including physiology, development, immunity, metabolism, etc. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses due to their close relationship with primates. To clarify the situation of symbiotic bacteria from their body surface, oral cavity, and anus, 12 wild and 12 the third generation of captive tree shrews were examined. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as the 16S rDNA full sequence analysis, 12 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from the wild tree shrews: body surface: Bacillus subtilis (detection rate 42%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%), Staphlococcus aureus (33%), S. Epidermidis (75%), Micrococcus luteus (25%), Kurthia gibsonii (17%); oral cavity: Neisseria mucosa (58%), Streptococcus pneumonia (17%); anus: Enterococcus faecalis (17%), Lactococus lactis (33%), Escherichia coli (92%), Salmonella typhosa (17%); whereas, four were indentified from the third generation captive tree shrews: body surface: S. epidermidis (75%); oral cavity: N.mucosa (67%); anus: L. lactis (33%), E. coli (100%). These results indicate that S. epidermidis, N. mucosa, L. lactis and E. coli were major bacteria in tree shrews, whereas, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. gibsonii, E. faecalis and S. typhosa were species-specific flora. This study facilitates the future use of tree shrews as a standard experimental animal and improves our understanding of the relationship between endosymbionts and their hosts. PMID:25465085

  18. Metagenomic analysis of the shrew enteric virome reveals novel viruses related to human stool-associated viruses.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Ueno, Keisuke; Ishii, Akihiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    Shrews are small insectivorous mammals that are distributed worldwide. Similar to rodents, shrews live on the ground and are commonly found near human residences. In this study, we investigated the enteric virome of wild shrews in the genus Crocidura using a sequence-independent viral metagenomics approach. A large portion of the shrew enteric virome was composed of insect viruses, whilst novel viruses including cyclovirus, picornavirus and picorna-like virus were also identified. Several cycloviruses, including variants of human cycloviruses detected in cerebrospinal fluid and stools, were detected in wild shrews at a high prevalence rate. The identified picornavirus was distantly related to human parechovirus, inferring the presence of a new genus in this family. The identified picorna-like viruses were characterized as different species of calhevirus 1, which was discovered previously in human stools. Complete or nearly complete genome sequences of these novel viruses were determined in this study and then were subjected to further genetic characterization. Our study provides an initial view of the diversity and distinctiveness of the shrew enteric virome and highlights unique novel viruses related to human stool-associated viruses. PMID:25381053

  19. The Timing of the Shrew: Continuous Melatonin Treatment Maintains Youthful Rhythmic Activity in Aging Crocidura russula

    PubMed Central

    Magnanou, Elodie; Attia, Joël; Fons, Roger; Boeuf, Gilles; Falcon, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Background Laboratory conditions nullify the extrinsic factors that determine the wild expected lifespan and release the intrinsic or potential lifespan. Thus, wild animals reared in a laboratory often show an increased lifespan, and consequently an increased senescence phase. Senescence is associated with a broad suite of physiological changes, including a decreased responsiveness of the circadian system. The time-keeping hormone melatonin, an important chemical player in this system, is suspected to have an anti-aging role. The Greater White-toothed shrew Crocidura russula is an ideal study model to address questions related to aging and associated changes in biological functions: its lifespan is short and is substantially increased in captivity; daily and seasonal rhythms, while very marked the first year of life, are dramatically altered during the senescence process which starts during the second year. Here we report on an investigation of the effects of melatonin administration on locomotor activity of aging shrews. Methodology/Principal Findings 1) The diel fluctuations of melatonin levels in young, adult and aging shrews were quantified in the pineal gland and plasma. In both, a marked diel rhythm (low diurnal concentration; high nocturnal concentration) was present in young animals but then decreased in adults, and, as a result of a loss in the nocturnal production, was absent in old animals. 2) Daily locomotor activity rhythm was monitored in pre-senescent animals that had received either a subcutaneous melatonin implant, an empty implant or no implant at all. In non-implanted and sham-implanted shrews, the rhythm was well marked in adults. A marked degradation in both period and amplitude, however, started after the age of 14–16 months. This pattern was considerably delayed in melatonin-implanted shrews who maintained the daily rhythm for significantly longer. Conclusions This is the first long term study (>500 days observation of the same individuals) that investigates the effects of continuous melatonin delivery. As such, it sheds new light on the putative anti-aging role of melatonin by demonstrating that continuous melatonin administration delays the onset of senescence. In addition, the shrew appears to be a promising mammalian model for elucidating the precise relationships between melatonin and aging. PMID:19526053

  20. Divergent ancestral lineages of newfound hantaviruses harbored by phylogenetically related crocidurine shrew species in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Satoru; Gu, Se Hun; Baek, Luck Ju; Tabara, Kenji; Bennett, Shannon; Oh, Hong-Shik; Takada, Nobuhiro; Kang, Hae Ji; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by the recent isolation of a novel hantavirus, named Imjin virus (MJNV), from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), targeted trapping was conducted for the phylogenetically related Asian lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura shantungensis). Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the S, M and L segments of a newfound hantavirus, designated Jeju virus (JJUV), indicated remarkably low nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarity with MJNV. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed divergent ancestral lineages for JJUV and MJNV, despite the close phylogenetic relationship of their reservoir soricid hosts. Also, no evidence of host switching was apparent in tanglegrams, generated by TreeMap 2.0?. PMID:22230701

  1. Binding sites of atrial natriuretic peptide in tree shrew adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, E.; Shigematsu, K.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Adrenal gland binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126) (ANP) were quantitated in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) by incubation of adrenal sections with (3-(/sup 125/I)-iodotyrosyl28) atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126), followed by autoradiography with computerized microdensitometry. In the adrenal glands, there are three types of ANP binding sites. One is located in the zona glomerulosa (BMax 84 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein; Kd 122 +/- 9 pM); the second in the zona fasciculata and reticularis (BMax 29 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein; Kd 153 +/- 6 pM) and the third in the adrenal medulla (BMax 179 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein; Kd 70 +/- 2 pM). Besides the influence of ANP on the regulation of adrenocortical mineralcorticoid and glucocorticoid secretion our findings raise the possibility for a local site of action of atrial natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adrenomedullary catecholamines in the tree shrew, primates and man.

  2. [Racial and population variability of phenotypic (cranial) characters in the common shrew Sorex araneus L., 1758].

    PubMed

    Shchipanov, N A; Bobretsov, A V; Kupriianova, I F; Pavlova, S V

    2011-01-01

    Variability of the cranial properties of chromosomal races Serov, Manturovo and Pechora of the common shrew were studied. A consistent increase of scull size in the Serov race with moving from the plain to highlands and a skull size decrease from low to high latitudes was detected. Interpopulation variability among different races was shown to be comparable with interracial variability or to exceed it. This suggests microevolution at the level of local populations. PMID:21446185

  3. High density lipoproteins and prevention of experimental atherosclerosis with special reference to tree shrews.

    PubMed

    She, M P; Xia, R Y; Ran, B F; Wong, Z L

    1990-01-01

    According to data obtained from epidemiological and experimental survey, serum HDL level is known to be correlated conversely with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Experimental data collected in this article explained part of its mechanism, which is described in four parts as follows: 1. The result of 3 successive experiments on experimental atherosclerosis in tree shrews (total of 96 animals available including 40 as the controls) showed that the serum HDL level had been kept persistantly to 69-88% of the total serum lipoproteins even after a high cholesterol intake for 32 weeks. The incidence of atheromatous lesions developed was only 0-9%, but the incidence of gall stone was very high, 48-84% by gross examination by the end of these experiments. 2. HDL are also capable of (1) promotion of monocyte migration activity; (2) enhancement of cholesterol clearance rate of aortic smooth muscle cells originally isolated from either rabbits or tree shrews; (3) inhibition of 20% of LDL degradation but with no inhibitory effect obtained on Ac-LDL degradation in the endothelial cells; (4) presence of specific binding sites for apo E free HDL on the surface of aortic smooth muscle cells from either rabbits or tree shrews which recognizes apo A1 as a ligand. 3. Data from 2 successive experiments in rabbits showed that HDL lipoproteins (mainly apo A1) possess an inhibitory effect on the development of atheromatous plaques, but not a very strong one. 4. The colesterol clearance effect of smooth muscle cells was markedly enhanced by apo A1/phospholipid liposomes (the apo A1 used was isolated from either rabbit's or tree shrew's serum) in vitro. PMID:2123379

  4. Histomorphology and immunohistochemistry of the lower esophageal sphincter of the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S; Khamas, Wael; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A

    2013-01-01

    The biochemical and histopathological changes in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease have gained interest. The least shrew is able to vomit in response to emetogens and provides a good model to study the histology of this phenomenon relative to the published reports in the commonly used but vomit-incompetent laboratory species. The LES is located at the junction of the esophagus and stomach. It typically closes at rest and opens in response to swallowing. Our findings demonstrate that the least shrew does not have a well-defined LES, lacks esophageal glands and has a mucosal valve-like projection from the terminal end of the esophagus before joining the gastric epithelium at the lesser curvature. In addition, the least shrew has thoracic and abdominal components prior to joining the gastric epithelium. The mucosal lining of the esophagus is folded, becoming clearly convoluted and forming a bucket-like structure at the level of the esophageocardiac junction (ECJ). No significant differences are to be found between the structure and thickness of the wall before and after the ECJ. Thus, the ECJ forming the LES is relatively less complex than those of other mammals including man. The distribution of enterochromaffin (EC) cells is confined to the lamina propria of the junction and is not associated with the cardiac glands, suggesting its functional involvement with the smooth muscle in and around the ECJ. In conclusion, the least shrew's anatomical sphincter appears ill-defined and is replaced by a less sturdy valve-like mucosal flap. PMID:24662490

  5. Daily metabolic patterns of short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic, continuous-flow gas analysis system was used to determine daily metabolic patterns of individual short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes in eastern Tennessee. Average daily metabolic rates (ADMR) were lowest in the summer (0.426 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/), approximately doubled under winter conditions (0.810 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) but were the highest under fall conditions (1.110 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) possibly due to incomplete acclimatization of the shrews. The shape of the daily metabolic pattern for Blarina does not change seasonally; however, summer metabolic rates are the least variable and are lower than most values previously reported in the literature. Polynomial multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative influence of body mass, ambient temperature, and time of day on metabolic rates; only ambient temperature was significant in predicting metabolic rates of this shrew. Average daily metabolic rates of Blarina observed under summer and winter conditions further substantiate the general predictive equations of metabolic rates formulated for small mammals by French et al. (1976). Comparisons of metabolic patterns of Blarina with those of Peromyscus leucopus observed under nearly identical conditions indicate similar rates with strong seasonal influences.

  6. How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mascheretti, Silvia; Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Gündüz, Islam; Fredga, Karl; Searle, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to how Ireland attained its present fauna; we help to inform this debate with a molecular study of one species. A 1110 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in 74 specimens of the pygmy shrew, Sorex minutus, collected from throughout its western Palaearctic range. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed several well-supported lineages. Most of the 65 haplotypes belonged to a northern lineage, which ranged from Britain in the west to Lake Baikal in the east. The other lineages were largely limited to Iberia, Italy and the Balkans. One exception, however, was a lineage found in both Ireland and Andorra. This affinity, and the large difference between the mitochondrial sequences of Irish and British individuals, suggest that pygmy shrews did not colonize Ireland via a land connection from Britain, as has been previously supposed, but instead were introduced by boat from southwest continental Europe. All the Irish pygmy shrews analysed were identical or very similar in cytochrome b sequence, suggesting an extreme founding event. PMID:12908980

  7. Tree shrew lavatories: a novel nitrogen sequestration strategy in a tropical pitcher plant

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Charles M.; Bauer, Ulrike; Lee, Ch'ien C.; Tuen, Andrew A.; Rembold, Katja; Moran, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are typically carnivorous, producing pitchers with varying combinations of epicuticular wax crystals, viscoelastic fluids and slippery peristomes to trap arthropod prey, especially ants. However, ant densities are low in tropical montane habitats, thereby limiting the potential benefits of the carnivorous syndrome. Nepenthes lowii, a montane species from Borneo, produces two types of pitchers that differ greatly in form and function. Pitchers produced by immature plants conform to the ‘typical’ Nepenthes pattern, catching arthropod prey. However, pitchers produced by mature N. lowii plants lack the features associated with carnivory and are instead visited by tree shrews, which defaecate into them after feeding on exudates that accumulate on the pitcher lid. We tested the hypothesis that tree shrew faeces represent a significant nitrogen (N) source for N. lowii, finding that it accounts for between 57 and 100 per cent of foliar N in mature N. lowii plants. Thus, N. lowii employs a diversified N sequestration strategy, gaining access to a N source that is not available to sympatric congeners. The interaction between N. lowii and tree shrews appears to be a mutualism based on the exchange of food sources that are scarce in their montane habitat. PMID:19515656

  8. Ultrastructure of the myocardium of the least shrew, Cryptotis parva Say.

    PubMed

    Forbes, M S; Mock, O B; Van Niel, E E

    1990-01-01

    The heart of the least shrew, Cryptotis parva Say, is an extremely active organ, capable of achieving rates of 800-1,200 beats/minute. The general features of myocardial cell ultrastructure in this insectivore are much like those of other small mammals; no single striking feature of fine structure is present to which the physiological properties of this heart might necessarily be attributed. Still there exist in these myocardial cells a number of atypical properties. These include 1) mitochondria having a wide variety of sizes and internal configurations 2) a pleiomorphic, highly ramified, small-diameter transverse-axial tubular system (TATS) 3) numerous "labyrinths," which are proliferated components of the TATS, and 4) myofibril-free regions, located both in juxtanuclear and other myoplasmic levels and populated by a concentration of TATS elements and fibrillar structures. Features (2) and (3) are also characteristic of another fast-beating heart, that of the mouse. The sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodal regions, as well as a Purkinje system, have been identified in the least shrew heart, along with sparsely distributed atrial cells whose myofibrils contain proliferated Z-band material. A feature frequently encountered in atrial working muscle cells is the occurrence of close appositions between gap junctions and tubules of sarcoplasmic reticulum; such appositions are also present in other regions of the shrew heart, as are complexes composed of gap junctions and mitochondria. PMID:2297084

  9. 1,3-dinitrobenzene toxicity in the least shrew, Cryptotis parva.

    PubMed

    Mock, Orin B; Casteel, Stan W; Darmani, Nissar A; Shaddy, James H; Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Towns, Lex C

    2005-10-01

    Shrews are abundant in most areas of toxic chemical contamination and bioaccumulate pollutants at much higher rates than sympatric rodent species. As a part of studies to provide information concerning the toxicity of 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) in least shrews (Cryptotis parva), groups of 10 females and 10 males received DNB at 0 (control), 0.7, 2.9, 11.6, and 46.3 microl/L (equivalent mean daily dosage of 0, 0.26, 1.06, 4.26, and 17.0 mg/kg body wt in each sex) in their diet for 14 d. Leukocytosis present at the 0.26 mg/kg body weight/d dosage established the lowest-observed-adverse effect level (LOAEL). Adrenal enlargement was noted at the 1.06 mg/kg body weight/d level. Splenic enlargement and reductions in hematocrit and hemoglobin values occurred at the 4.26 mg/kg body weight/d treatment. Enlargements in the liver and heart and reductions in brown fat weight, granulocyte numbers, and alanine aminotransferase levels were present at high dose levels. Histopathologic examinations showed Kupffer's cell hemosiderosis and suggested testicular damage at the two highest tested doses but failed to confirm brain lesions. Least shrews do not follow standard scaling estimates for lifespan or metabolic rates. The LOAEL calculated from the standard terrestrial screening benchmark equation was higher than our findings, suggesting that these estimates must be viewed with caution. PMID:16268153

  10. [Some physiological and biochemical indicators of underyearling Laxman's shrews (Sorex cecutiens Laxmann) and even-toothed shrews (Sorex isodon Turov) under conditions of different population densities].

    PubMed

    Kiselev, S V; Lazutkin, A N; Yamborko, A V

    2013-01-01

    Based on the results of a study conducted in 2006-2010 in the Buyunda River basin (a feeder of the Kolyma River), the influence of the population density of common shrews (Sorex) on some of the physiological and biochemical parameters (glycogen and lipids in the liver, the relative weight of the spleen, the white and brown adipose tissue cellularity of bone and brain tissue) was investigated. The content of energy reserve substances was correlated with the number of animals (fat deposits had a negative correlation; the glycogen content in the liver had a direct correlation). For the rest of the physiological-biochemical parameters, no significant correlation with the population density was detected, although for the content of brown fat and cellularity of bone marrow tissue in Sorex isodon, as well as the relative weight of the spleen in both species of shrews, a trend was observed. We suggest that the identified physiological changes indicate irregular feeding of animals in years with higher population densities. PMID:24459854

  11. Effect of PAHs on MFO induction in common shrews (Crocidura russula)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosveld, A.T.C.; Bie, P. de; Weggemans, J.; Murk, A.

    1995-12-31

    PAHs are widespread environmental contaminants. Despite the relatively high turnover rates for enzymatic breakdown, PAHs have been detected in tissues from species at various trophic levels. As a consequence they have the potential to be passed on to the higher levels of the foodchain. As a model for the primary carnivores in the terrestrial foodchain the common shrew (Crocidura russula) is studied in the laboratories. The authors investigated the effect of exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in relation to the effect of a known strong inducer of the MFO system i.e. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The compounds were dissolved in oil and mixed with food. Shrews were exposed for a period of one week to BaP at concentrations equivalent to 10 or 100 mg/kg bodyweight per day (n = 3 for each dose group) and to TCDD at a concentration equivalent to 10 {micro}g/kg per day (n = 5). Controls received a diet with only the carier (oil) added. At termination of the experiment, hepatic CYP1A1 associated EROD activity was induced 20% in both the low and high dosed BaP group. In the TCDD exposed shrews EROD was induced up to 776% compared to the controls. Related MFO activities, including PROD, BROD, MROD and site specific testosterone hydroxylation are under investigation and the results will be presented. The relevance of MFO induction by PAHs and the use of these parameters as biomarkers for PAH exposure will be discussed.

  12. Immunohistochemical organization of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus in the tree shrew.

    PubMed

    Agarwala, S; Günlük, A E; May, J G; Petry, H M

    1992-04-15

    The ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN) of the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) was differentiated into multiple subdivisions (dorsal cap, intergeniculate leaflet, parvicellular segment, and internal and external magnocellular laminae, the latter being further divisible into a lateral and medial division) on the basis of retinal projections, immunochemistry, and histochemistry. Retinal projections traced with intravitreal injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase revealed direct bilateral input to all subregions of the vLGN, except for the internal magnocellular lamina (which received only contralateral input) and the parvicellular segment (which was not retinorecipient). Furthermore, retinal inputs clearly distinguished the relatively heavily retinorecipient intergeniculate leaflet from the less prominently labeled dorsal cap. Immunohistochemical localization of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) perikarya revealed their prominence in the intergeniculate leaflet and the external magnocellular laminae with a concentration along the optic tract. NPY immunoreactive fibers were seen in all but the parvicellular subregion. Gamma amino butyric acid immunoreactivity was seen throughout the vLGN, but was most concentrated in the dorsal cap and the magnocellular laminae, followed by the intergeniculate leaflet. Histochemical studies of cytochrome oxidase and nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase localization revealed similar patterns of dense reactivity within the external magnocellular lamina, intergeniculate leaflet and dorsal cap, and somewhat less dense, but substantial reactivity in the internal magnocellular lamina. Within the external magnocellular lamina, cells reactive for cytochrome oxidase were noted in the lateral portion bordering the optic tract, whereas those specific for NADPH-diaphorase were dispersed throughout the lamina. Poor reactivity for both histochemical markers was evident in the parvicellular segment. Overall, the markedly different patterns of retinal input and neurochemical organization between the subdivisions of the tree shrew vLGN suggest their involvement in diverse functions. Furthermore, the basic similarity of the organization of the tree shrew vLGN to that of the taxonomically unrelated ground squirrel may indicate a common mammalian scheme. PMID:1316386

  13. Post-anesthesia vomiting: Impact of isoflurane and morphine on ferrets and musk shrews

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Charles C.; Meyers, Kelly; Pak, Diana; Nagy, Allysa; Apfel, Christian C.; Williams, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Although partially controlled with antiemetic drugs, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) continues to be a problem for many patients. Clinical research suggests that opioid analgesics and volatile anesthetics are the main triggers of PONV. The aim of this study was to develop an animal model for post-anesthesia vomiting for future studies to further determine mechanisms and preclinical drug efficacy. Ferrets (N=34) were initially used because they have served as a gold standard for emesis research. Ferrets were tested with several doses of morphine, inhaled isoflurane, and a positive control injection of cisplatin (a chemotherapy agent) to induce emesis. Musk shrews (a small animal model; N=36) were also tested for emesis with isoflurane exposure. A control injection of cisplatin produced emesis in ferrets (ip, 129.8±22.0 retches; 13.7±2.3 vomits; mean ± SEM). Morphine produced a dose-response on emesis in ferrets, with maximal responses at 0.9 mg/kg (sc, 29.6±12.6 retches; 1.8±0.9, vomits). Isoflurane exposure (2–4% for 10 min to 6 h exposure) failed to induce vomiting, was not associated with an increased frequency in emesis when combined with a low dose of morphine (0.1 mg/kg, sc), and failed to produced consistent effects on food and water intake. In contrast to ferrets, musk shrews were very sensitive to isoflurane-induced emesis (0.5 to 3%, 10 min exposure; up to 11.8±2.4 emetic episodes). Overall, these results indicate that ferrets will not be useful for delineating mechanisms responsible for isoflurane-induced emesis; however, musk shrews may prove to be a model for vomiting after inhalation of volatile agents. PMID:22504494

  14. Demographic responses of shrews to removal of coarse woody debris in a managed pine forest.

    SciTech Connect

    McCay, Timothy, S.; Komoroski, Mark, J.

    2004-01-01

    McCay, T.S., and M.J. Komoroski. 2004. Demographic responses of shrews to removal of coarse woody debris in a managed pine forest. For. Ecol., and Mgt. 189:387-395. We trapped shrews at six 9.3 ha plots from which logs ý 10 cm diameter (coarse woody debris; CWD) had been manually removed and six control plots inmanaged loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests of the southeastern coastal plain, USA. Trapping was conducted seasonally between autumn 1997 and summer 2001. Capture rates of Cryptotis parva were lower at plots from which CWD was removed than at control plots (P ¡ 0ý011) and declined at all plots over the study period (P ¡ 0ý001). Capture rates of Blarina carolinensis (P ¡ 0ý129) and Sorex longirostris (P ¡ 0ý432) did not differ between removal and control plots, but declined over the study period (P ¡ 0ý001). Age distributions of B. carolinensis differed between removal and control plots (P ¡ 0ý048) with a smaller proportion of individuals in young age categories at removal plots. Sensitivity of Cryptotis to the removal of CWD may have been due to its sociality or low population density at the study area. A reduction in the abundance of young B. carolinensis after removal of CWD may reflect reduced reproduction and immigration of older individuals from outside the plot. Effect of removal of CWD on populations of these shrews was relatively weak compared to strong seasonal and multi-year variation in abundance. However, weak treatment effects may have been partly due to low ambient levels of CWD at control plots.

  15. Body temperature and behavior of tree shrews and flying squirrels in a thermal gradient.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, R

    1998-02-15

    The daily rhythms of body temperature, temperature selection, and locomotor activity of tree shrews and flying squirrels were studied in a thermal gradient. In accordance with previous observations in other mammalian species, the rhythm of temperature selection was found to be 180 degrees out of phase with the body temperature rhythm in both species. Comparison of the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm in the presence and absence of the ambient temperature gradient indicated that behavioral temperature selection reduces the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm. This provides support for the hypothesis that the homeostatic control of body temperature opposes-rather than facilitates-the circadian oscillation in body temperature. PMID:9523893

  16. Resting-Associated Vocalization Emitted by Captive Asian House Shrews (Suncus murinus): Acoustic Structure and Variability in an Unusual Mammalian Vocalization

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals. PMID:25390304

  17. Inference Based on Transitive Relation in Tree Shrews ("Tupaia belangeri") and Rats ("Rattus norvegicus") on a Spatial Discrimination Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ushitani, Tomokazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Six tree shrews and 8 rats were tested for their ability to infer transitively in a spatial discrimination task. The apparatus was a semicircular radial-arm maze with 8 arms labeled A through H. In Experiment 1, the animals were first trained in sequence on 4 discriminations to enter 1 of the paired adjacent arms, AB, BC, CD, and DE, with right…

  18. Conditioned Flavor Preference and the US Postexposure Effect in the House Musk Shrew (Suncus Murinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sawa, Kosuke; Ishii, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is the only species of mammalian insectivore that can be domesticated and used as a laboratory animal, and is an interesting subject in terms of evolutionary and comparative aspects. The present study on the learning faculties of shrews examines the possibility of acquiring a conditioned flavor preference and the effects of US postexposure. Subjects were allowed to a drink sucrose solution with flavor A and tap water with flavor B during training. Two extinction tests were administered after every four conditioning trials, and a significant preference for flavor A was observed. After each test, the animals were divided into two groups. Subjects in Group US were presented with a sucrose solution without flavor, while those in Group Water were given tap water. After these trials, all subjects received choice tests where they were presented with water containing the two flavors. The preference ratio was lower in Group US than in Group Water, suggesting a postexposure effect. The findings were discussed in terms of habituation to the US. PMID:22811673

  19. Size evolution in Goodwin?s small-eared shrew, Cryptotis goodwini

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2005-01-01

    Fossils of Cryptotis goodwini from Honduras indicate that body sizes of modern individuals average at least 18% larger than among members of the late Pleistocene population of this species. Palynological and other paleoenvironmental studies provide evidence that the Neotropical montane environments that these shrews inhabit were cooler and drier in the late Pleistocene than at present and supported communities of plants without modern analog. Therefore, the most likely cause of this change in size ultimately was related to climatic change at the end of the Pleistocene?but to what specific factors did the species respond? I examined the possibilities that this species changed in size: to accommodate a change in temperature regime; to escape from predators; as a response to a change in intensity of interspecific competition; to take advantage of a newly abundant food resource. Based on evidence from studies of modern communities of shrews and niche partitioning, I hypothesized that size evolution in C. goodwini was directly related to changes in the community of soil and soil-surface invertebrates upon which the species depends, specifically an increase in the availability of earthworms (Annelida).

  20. Changing Material Properties of the Tree Shrew Sclera During Minus Lens Compensation and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Grytz, Rafael; Siegwart, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate two collagen-specific material properties (crimp angle and elastic modulus of collagen fibrils) of the remodeling tree shrew sclera during monocular ?5 diopter (D) lens wear and recovery. Methods. Tensile tests were performed on scleral strips obtained from juvenile tree shrews exposed to three different visual conditions: normal, monocular ?5 D lens wear to induce myopia, and recovery. Collagen fibrils are crimped in the unloaded sclera and uncrimp as the tissue stiffens under load. Inverse numerical analyses were performed to estimate the (unloaded) crimp angle and elastic modulus of collagen fibrils using a microstructure-based constitutive model. Results. Compared with the control eye, the crimp angle was significantly higher in the treated eye after 2 days and remained significantly higher until 21 days of lens wear (P < 0.05). The difference between the crimp angle of the treated and control eye rapidly vanished during recovery in concert with the changes in axial elongation rate. A rapid and extensive increase in the elastic modulus was seen in both eyes after starting and stopping the lens wear. Conclusions. The estimated change in the crimp of scleral collagen fibrils is temporally associated with the change in axial elongation rate during myopia development and recovery. This finding suggests that axial elongation may be controlled by a remodeling mechanism that modulates the collagen fibril crimp. The observed binocular changes in scleral stiffness are not temporally associated with the axial elongation rate, indicating that scleral stiffening may not be causally related to myopia. PMID:25736788

  1. Energy expenditure in Crocidurinae shrews (Insectivora): is metabolism a key component of the insular syndrome?

    PubMed

    Magnanou, Elodie; Fons, Roger; Blondel, Jacques; Morand, Serge

    2005-11-01

    A cascade of morphological, ecological, demographical and behavioural changes operates within island communities compared to mainland. We tested whether metabolic rates change on islands. Using a closed circuit respirometer, we investigated resting metabolic rate (RMR) of three species of Crocidurinae shrews: Suncus etruscus, Crocidura russula, and C. suaveolens. For the latter, we compared energy expenditure of mainland and island populations. Our measurements agree with those previously reported for others Crocidurinae: the interspecific comparison (ANCOVA) demonstrated an allometric relation between energy requirements and body mass. Energy expenditure also scaled with temperature. Island populations (Corsica and Porquerolles) of C. suaveolens differed in size from mainland (gigantism). A GLM showed a significant relationship between energy expenditure, temperature, body mass and locality. Mass specific RMR allometrically scales body mass, but total RMR does not significantly differ between mainland and island, although island shrews are giant. Our results are consistent with other studies: that demonstrated that the evolution of mammalian metabolism on islands is partially independent of body mass. In relation to the insular syndrome, we discuss how island selective forces (changes in resource availability, decrease in competition and predation pressures) can operate in size and physiological adjustments. PMID:16154371

  2. Ablation of Least Shrew Central Neurokinin NK1 Receptors Reduces GR73632-Induced Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Andrew P; Chebolu, Seetha; Ramirez, Juan; Darmani, Nissar A

    2009-01-01

    The neurocircuitry mediating the emetic reflex is still incompletely understood, and a key question is the degree to which central and/or peripheral components contribute to the overall vomiting mechanism. Having previously found a significant peripheral component in neurokinin NK1-receptor mediated emesis, we undertook this study to examine the putative central component. Adult least shrews were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with saline or the blood-brain barrier impermeable toxin, Stable Substance P-saporin (SSP-SAP), which ablates cells expressing NK1 receptors. After three days, shrews were challenged intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the emetogenic NK1 agonist GR73632 at different doses and vomiting and scratching behaviors quantified. Ablation of NK1-bearing cells was verified immunohistochemically. Although SSP-SAP injection reduced emesis at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg GR73632 doses, no injections completely eliminated emesis. These data demonstrate that there is a major central nervous system component, and minor peripheral nervous system component, to tachykinin-mediated vomiting. Side effects of the current generation of antiemetics could potentially be reduced by improving bioavailability of the drugs in the more potent central nervous system compartment while reducing bioavailability in the less potent peripheral compartment. PMID:19485577

  3. Dental and Mandibular Morphologies of Arboroharamiya (Haramiyida, Mammalia): A Comparison with Other Haramiyidans and Megaconus and Implications for Mammalian Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jin; Bi, Shundong; Wang, Yuanqing; Zheng, Xiaoting; Wang, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    Background Two recent studies published in the same issue of Nature reached conflicting conclusions regarding the phylogeny of early mammals: One places the clade containing haramiyidans and multituberculates within the Mammalia and the other separates haramiyidans from multituberculates and places the former outside of the Mammalia. These two contrasting results require that the minimally oldest divergence time of the Mammalia was within the Late Triassic or the Middle Jurassic, respectively. Morphological descriptions of the species named in the two papers were brief, and no comparisons between the newly named species were possible. Principal Findings Here we present a detailed description of the dentary bone, teeth, occlusal and wear patterns of the haramiyidan Arboroharamiya and compare it with other haramiyidans and Megaconus. Using this new information, we suggest that tooth identifications and orientations of several previously described haramiyidan species are incorrect, and that previous interpretations of haramiyidan occlusal pattern are problematic. We propose that the published upper tooth orientation of Megaconus was problematic and question the number of upper molars, the length of dentition and mandible, and presence of the mandibular middle ear in Megaconus. Conclusions The additional morphological descriptions and comparisons presented here further support the view that Arboroharamiya, as a derived haramiyidan, shows similarity to multituberculates in tooth and mandible morphologies. Our comparison also suggests that Megaconus lacks many diagnostic features for the family Eleutherodontidae and that its close affinity with multituberculates cannot be ruled out. The detailed morphological data demonstrate that haramiyidans are more similar to multituberculates than to any other mammaliaforms. PMID:25494181

  4. A novel myxozoan parasite of terrestrial mammals: description of Soricimyxum minuti sp. n. (Myxosporea) in pygmy shrew Sorex minutus from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Csaba; Cech, Gabor; Atkinson, Stephen D; Molnar, Kalman; Egyed, Laszlo; Gubanyi, Andras

    2015-01-01

    As part of a biodiversity study in northwestern Hungary, we conducted a parasitological survey of small mammals. In both common shrews (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) and pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus Linnaeus), we found myxospores of a species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 (Myxosporea) and plasmodia in the bile ducts within the liver. Spores from both species of shrewswere morphologically and morphometrically indistinguishable, but differed in their SSU rRNA gene sequences by 3.3%. We identified spores and developmental stages from the common shrew as Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007, based on morphometric data and DNA sequence similarity. Spores from the pygmy shrew were only 96.7% similar to S. fegati, hence we identified them as a novel myxosporean Soricimyxum minuti sp. n. This is only the second myxosporean parasite species described from mammals. PMID:26370293

  5. Dietary competition between the alien Asian Musk Shrew (Suncus murinus) and a re-introduced population of Telfair's Skink (Leiolopisma telfairii).

    PubMed

    Brown, D S; Burger, R; Cole, N; Vencatasamy, D; Clare, E L; Montazam, A; Symondson, W O C

    2014-08-01

    Re-introduction of rare species to parts of their historical range is becoming increasingly important as a conservation strategy. Telfair's Skinks (Leiolopisma telfairii), once widespread on Mauritius, were until recently found only on Round Island. There it is vulnerable to stochastic events, including the introduction of alien predators that may either prey upon it or compete for food resources. Consequently, skinks have been introduced to Ile aux Aigrettes, another small Mauritian island that has been cleared of rats. However, the island has been invaded by Asian Musk Shrews (Suncus murinus), a commensal species spread by man well beyond its natural Asian range. Our aim was to use next-generation sequencing to analyse the diets of the shrews and skinks to look for niche competition. DNA was extracted from skink faeces and from the stomach contents of shrews. Application of shrew- and skink-specific primers revealed no mutual predation. The DNA was then amplified using general invertebrate primers with tags to identify individual predators, and then sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. 119 prey MOTUs (molecular taxonomic units) were isolated, although none could be identified to species. Seeding of cladograms with known sequences allowed higher taxonomic assignments in some cases. Although most MOTUs were not shared by shrews and skinks, Pianka's niche overlap test showed significant prey overlap, suggesting potentially strong competition where food resources are limited. These results suggest that removal of the shrews from the island should remain a priority. PMID:24033506

  6. Effect of land cover, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    1. Because effects of habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbance on native animals have been relatively little studied in arid areas and in insectivores, we investigated the roles of different land covers, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, in southern California. 2. Notiosorex crawfordi was the numerically dominant species (trap-success rate 0.52) occurring in 21 of the 22 study sites in 85% of the 286 pitfall arrays used in this study. Sorex ornatus was captured in 14 of the sites, in 52% of the arrays with a total trap-success rate of 0.2. Neither of the species was found in one of the sites. 3. The population dynamics of the two shrew species were relatively synchronous during the 4-5-year study; the peak densities usually occurred during the spring. Precipitation had a significant positive effect, and maximum temperature a significant negative effect on the trap-success rate of S. ornatus. 4. Occurrence and abundance of shrews varied significantly between sites and years but the size of the landscape or the study site had no effect on the abundance of shrews. The amount of urban edge had no significant effect on the captures of shrews but increased edge allows invasion of the Argentine ants, which had a highly significant negative impact on the abundance of N. crawfordi. 5. At the trap array level, the percentage of coastal sage scrub flora had a significant positive, and the percentage of other flora had a significant negative effect on the abundance of N. crawfordi. The mean canopy height and the abundance of N. crawfordi had a significant positive effect on the occurrence of S. ornatus. 6. Our study suggests that the loss of native coastal sage scrub flora and increasing presence of Argentine ant colonies may significantly effect the distribution and abundance of N. crawfordi. The very low overall population densities of both shrew species in most study sites make both species susceptible to extinction in isolated habitat fragments due to environmental stochasticity, and anthropogenic disturbance.

  7. Mammals of South America, Volume 1, Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2007-01-01

    The vast terrain between Panama and Tierra del Fuego contains some of the world?s richest mammalian fauna, but until now it has lacked a comprehensive systematic reference to the identification, distribution, and taxonomy of its mammals. The first such book of its kind and the inaugural volume in a three-part series, Mammals of South America both summarizes existing information and encourages further research of the mammals indigenous to the region. Containing identification keys and brief descriptions of each order, family, and genus, the first volume of Mammals of South America covers marsupials, shrews, armadillos, sloths, anteaters, and bats. Species accounts include taxonomic descriptions, synonymies, keys to identification, distributions with maps and a gazetteer of marginal localities, lists of recognized subspecies, brief summaries of natural history information, and discussions of issues related to taxonomic interpretations. Highly anticipated and much needed, this book will be a landmark contribution to mammalogy, zoology, tropical biology, and conservation biology.

  8. Solar Radiation during Rewarming from Torpor in Elephant Shrews: Supplementation or Substitution of Endogenous Heat Production?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michelle L.; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C.; McKechnie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external heat), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic heat production. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total heat production capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of heat during rewarming from heterothermy. PMID:25853244

  9. Gene expression signatures in tree shrew choroid in response to three myopiagenic conditions

    PubMed Central

    He, Li; Frost, Michael R.; Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined gene expression in tree shrew choroid in response to three different myopiagenic conditions: minus lens (ML) wear, form deprivation (FD), and continuous darkness (DK). Four groups of tree shrews (n = 7 per group) were used. Starting 24 days after normal eye opening (days of visual experience [DVE]), the ML group wore a monocular ?5 D lens for 2 days. The FD group wore a monocular translucent diffuser for 2 days. The DK group experienced continuous darkness binocularly for 11 days, starting at 17 DVE. An age-matched normal group was examined at 26 DVE. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the relative (treated eye vs. control eye) differences in mRNA levels in the choroid for 77 candidate genes. Small myopic changes were observed in the treated eyes (relative to the control eyes) of the ML group (?1.0 ± 0.2 D; mean ± SEM) and FD group (?1.9 ± 0.2 D). A larger myopia developed in the DK group (?4.4 ± 1.0 D) relative to Normal eyes (both groups, mean of right and left eyes). In the ML group, 28 genes showed significant differential mRNA expression; eighteen were down-regulated. A very similar pattern occurred in the FD group; twenty-seven of the same genes were similarly regulated, along with five additional genes. Fewer expression differences in the DK group were significant compared to normal or the control eyes of the ML and FD groups, but the pattern was similar to that of the ML and FD differential expression patterns. These data suggest that, at the level of the choroid, the gene expression signatures produced by “GO” emmetropization signals are highly similar despite the different visual conditions. PMID:25072854

  10. Species Interactions during Diversification and Community Assembly in an Island Radiation of Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Maher, Sean P.; Brown, Rafe M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Closely related, ecologically similar species often have adjacent distributions, suggesting competitive exclusion may contribute to the structure of some natural communities. In systems such as island archipelagos, where speciation is often tightly associated with dispersal over oceanic barriers, competitive exclusion may prevent population establishment following inter-island dispersal and subsequent cladogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a combination of tools, we test the hypothesis that the distributions of shrew (Crocidura) species in the Philippines are the result of competitive exclusion preventing secondary invasion of occupied islands. We first compare ecological niche models between two widespread, allopatric species and find statistical support for their ecological similarity, implying that competition for habitat between these species is possible. We then examine dispersion patterns among sympatric species and find some signal for overdispersion of body size, but not for phylogenetic branch length. Finally, we simulate the process of inter-island colonization under a stochastic model of dispersal lacking ecological forces. Results are dependent on the geographic scope and colonization probability employed. However, some combinations suggest that the number of inter-island dispersal events necessary to populate the archipelago may be much higher than the minimum number of colonization events necessary to explain current estimates of species richness and phylogenetic relationships. If our model is appropriate, these results imply that alternative factors, such as competitive exclusion, may have influenced the process of inter-island colonization and subsequent cladogenesis. Conclusions/Significance We interpret the combined results as providing tenuous evidence that similarity in body size may prevent co-occurrence in Philippine shrews and that competitive exclusion among ecologically similar species, rather than an inability to disperse among islands, may have limited diversification in this group, and, possibly other clades endemic to island archipelagos. PMID:21760918

  11. Discovery of natural infection by Metagonimus hakubaensis Shimazu, 1999 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in Japanese water shrews (Chimarrogale platycephala) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Noboru; Shigeta, Kai; Matsumoto, Koji; Oyamada, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    A total of 611 preserved adult Metagonimus spp. specimens recovered from 32 of 53 Japanese water shrews (Chimarrogale platycephala) that had previously been collected in Aomori Prefecture between June 1994 and August 1996, were examined in this study. Morphological examination revealed that 603 of these flukes were identical to M. hakubaensis Shimazu, 1999, and that the others were M. takahashii Suzuki, 1930 (n=4), M. otsurui Saito et Shimizu, 1968 (n=2), and M. miyatai Saito et al., 1997 (n=2). Each of the 32 Japanese water shrews infected with M. hakubaensis contained between 1 and 83 flukes. This is the first record of the natural final host for M. hakubaensis, since this fluke species was described. PMID:25131808

  12. Delineation of vagal emetic pathways: intragastric copper sulfate-induced emesis and viral tract tracing in musk shrews

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Kelly; Lim, Audrey; Dye, Matthew; Pak, Diana; Rinaman, Linda; Yates, Bill J.

    2014-01-01

    Signals from the vestibular system, area postrema, and forebrain elicit nausea and vomiting, but gastrointestinal (GI) vagal afferent input arguably plays the most prominent role in defense against food poisoning. It is difficult to determine the contribution of GI vagal afferent input on emesis because various agents (e.g., chemotherapy) often act on multiple sensory pathways. Intragastric copper sulfate (CuSO4) potentially provides a specific vagal emetic stimulus, but its actions are not well defined in musk shrews (Suncus murinus), a primary small animal model used to study emesis. The aims of the current study were 1) to investigate the effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on CuSO4-induced emesis and 2) to conduct preliminary transneuronal tracing of the GI-brain pathways in musk shrews. Vagotomy failed to inhibit the number of emetic episodes produced by optimal emetic doses of CuSO4 (60 and 120 mg/kg ig), but the effects of lower doses were dependent on an intact vagus (20 and 40 mg/kg). Vagotomy also failed to affect emesis produced by motion (1 Hz, 10 min) or nicotine administration (5 mg/kg sc). Anterograde transport of the H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1 from the ventral stomach wall identified the following brain regions as receiving inputs from vagal afferents: the nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema, and lateral parabrachial nucleus. These data indicate that the contribution of vagal pathways to intragastric CuSO4-induced emesis is dose dependent in musk shrews. Furthermore, the current neural tracing data suggest brain stem anatomical circuits that are activated by GI signaling in the musk shrew. PMID:24430885

  13. Expression of muscarinic receptor subtypes in tree shrew ocular tissues and their regulation during the development of myopia

    PubMed Central

    Jobling, A.I.; Truong, H.T.; Cottriall, C.L.; Gentle, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Muscarinic receptors are known to regulate several important physiologic processes in the eye. Antagonists to these receptors such as atropine and pirenzepine are effective at stopping the excessive ocular growth that results in myopia. However, their site of action is unknown. This study details ocular muscarinic subtype expression within a well documented model of eye growth and investigates their expression during early stages of myopia induction. Methods Total RNA was isolated from tree shrew corneal, iris/ciliary body, retinal, choroidal, and scleral tissue samples and was reverse transcribed. Using tree shrew-specific primers to the five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes (CHRM1-CHRM5), products were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and their identity confirmed using automated sequencing. The expression of the receptor proteins (M1-M5) were also explored in the retina, choroid, and sclera using immunohistochemistry. Myopia was induced in the tree shrew for one or five days using monocular deprivation of pattern vision, and the expression of the receptor subtypes was assessed in the retina, choroid, and sclera using real-time PCR. Results All five muscarinic receptor subtypes were expressed in the iris/ciliary body, retina, choroid, and sclera while gene products corresponding to CHRM1, CHRM3, CHRM4, and CHRM5 were present in the corneal samples. The gene expression data were confirmed by immunohistochemistry with the M1-M5 proteins detected in the retina, choroid, and sclera. After one or five days of myopia development, muscarinic receptor gene expression remained unaltered in the retinal, choroidal, and scleral tissue samples. Conclusions This study provides a comprehensive profile of muscarinic receptor gene and protein expression in tree shrew ocular tissues with all receptor subtypes found in tissues implicated in the control of eye growth. Despite the efficacy of muscarinic antagonists at inhibiting myopia development, the genes of the muscarinic receptor subtypes are neither regulated early in myopia (before measurable axial elongation) nor after significant structural change. PMID:19262686

  14. Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene in tree shrew hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis B virus infection and intake of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Park, U S; Su, J J; Ban, K C; Qin, L; Lee, E H; Lee, Y I

    2000-06-13

    Infection with hepadnaviruses and exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are considered to be major risk factors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. A high rate of p53 mutations at codon 249 has been reported in these tumors. The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a useful animal model for the development of HCC after human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or AFB1 treatment. Therefore, it was of particular interest to determine whether the p53 gene in tree shrew HCCs associated with HBV infection and/or with exposure to AFB1 is affected in the same manner as in human HCCs. We determined the tree shrew p53 wild-type nucleotide sequences by RT-PCR and automatic DNA-sequencing. Tree shrew wild-type p53 sequence showed 91.7 and 93.4% homologies with human p53 nucleotide and amino acids sequences, respectively, while it showed 77.2 and 73.7% homologies in mice. One HCC and normal liver tissue from AFB1 treated and one HCC from AFB1- and HBV-treated tree shrew showed no change in p53 sequences, while three HCCs from AFB1- and HBV-treated tree shrews showed point mutations in p53 sequences. One HCC showed point mutations at codon 275, which is on the DNA-binding domain of p53 gene, which might be a cause of gain-of-function during the development of HCC. As a result, our finding indicates that tree shrews exposed to AFB1 and/or HBV had neither codon 249 mutations nor significant levels of other mutations in the p53 gene, as is the case with humans. PMID:10863098

  15. Please cite this article in press as: Huang D, et al. Computerized detection and analysis of cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in a small animal model, musk shrew. J Neurosci Methods (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2011.02.032

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    chemotherapy-induced emesis in a small animal model, musk shrew. J Neurosci Methods (2011), doi:10.1016/j-induced emesis in a small animal model, musk shrew Dong Huanga , Kelly Meyersb , Séverine Henryc , Fernando De la. Musk shrews have been used to study the neurobiology of emesis and have a rapid emetic episode (1

  16. A new species of three-toed sloth (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from PanamB, with a review of the genus Bradypus

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Robert P.

    A new species of three-toed sloth (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from PanamB, with a review of the genus analyses of three-toed sloths (Bradypus) from the islands of Bocas del Toro reveal rapid differentiation independent events, sloths on five of the islands evolved smaller size following insulari- zation. Sloths

  17. Complete genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet’s musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Yanagihara, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of the molecular phylogeny of shrew-borne hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the lack of full-length viral genomes. In this report, we present the complete genome analysis of a newfound hantavirus, designated Bowé virus, detected in ethanol-fixed intercostal muscle of a Doucet’s musk shrew (Crocidura douceti), captured in southwestern Guinea in February 2012. Full-length amino acid sequence comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment gene products revealed that Bowé virus differed by 24.1–53.4%, 17.0–59.9% and 14.6–39.7%, respectively, from all other representative rodent-, shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+? model of evolution, showed that Bowé virus shared a common ancestry with Tanganya virus, a hantavirus detected in the Therese’s shrew (Crocidura theresae) in Guinea. Whole genome analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are needed to better clarify how the radiation of African shrews might have contributed to the phylogeography of hantaviruses. PMID:23994121

  18. Sticky snack for sengis: The Cape rock elephant-shrew, Elephantulus edwardii (Macroscelidea), as a pollinator of the Pagoda lily, Whiteheadia bifolia (Hyacinthaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wester, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Following the recent discovery of rodent pollination in the Pagoda lily, Whiteheadia bifolia (Hyacinthaceae) in South Africa, now the Cape rock elephant-shrew, Elephantulus edwardii (Macroscelidea, Afrotheria) is reported as an additional pollinator. Elephant-shrews, live-trapped near W. bifolia plants, were released in two terraria, containing the plants. The animals licked nectar with their long and slender tongues while being dusted with pollen and touching the stigmas of the flowers with their long and flexible noses. The captured elephant-shrews had W. bifolia pollen in their faeces, likely as a result of grooming their fur as they visited the flowers without eating or destroying them. The animals mostly preferred nectar over other food. This is the first record of pollination and nectar consumption in the primarily insectivorous E. edwardii, contributing to the very sparse knowledge about the behaviour of this unique clade of African mammals, as well as pollination by small mammals.

  19. The Challenges of Resolving a Rapid, Recent Radiation: Empirical and Simulated Phylogenomics of Philippine Shrews.

    PubMed

    Giarla, Thomas C; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2015-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in recent, rapid radiations can be difficult to resolve due to incomplete lineage sorting and reliance on genetic markers that evolve slowly relative to the rate of speciation. By incorporating hundreds to thousands of unlinked loci, phylogenomic analyses have the potential to mitigate these difficulties. Here, we attempt to resolve phylogenetic relationships among eight shrew species (genus Crocidura) from the Philippines, a phylogenetic problem that has proven intractable with small (< 10 loci) data sets. We sequenced hundreds of ultraconserved elements and whole mitochondrial genomes in these species and estimated phylogenies using concatenation, summary coalescent, and hierarchical coalescent methods. The concatenated approach recovered a maximally supported and fully resolved tree. In contrast, the coalescent-based approaches produced similar topologies, but each had several poorly supported nodes. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the concatenated tree could be positively misleading. Our simulations also show that the tree shape we tend to infer, which involves a series of short internal branches, is difficult to resolve, even if substitution models are known and multiple individuals per species are sampled. As such, the low support we obtained for backbone relationships in our coalescent-based inferences reflects a real and appropriate lack of certainty. Our results illuminate the challenges of estimating a bifurcating tree in a rapid and recent radiation, providing a rare empirical example of a nearly simultaneous series of speciation events in a terrestrial animal lineage as it spreads across an oceanic archipelago. PMID:25979143

  20. Regulation of longitudinal esophageal motility in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Shiina, Takahiko; Naitou, Kiyotada; Nakamori, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Hiroki; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2015-05-01

    Suncus murinus (house musk shrew; suncus) is a species of insectivore that has an ability to vomit. Although longitudinal movement of the esophagus would be related to the emetic response, regulatory mechanisms for the suncus esophageal motility are unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify components that regulate esophageal motility in the suncus. An isolated segment of the suncus esophagus was placed in an organ bath, and longitudinal mechanical responses were recorded using a force transducer. Electrical stimulation of the vagus trunk evoked a biphasic contractile response. The first phase of the contractile response was blocked by ?-bungarotoxin, a blocker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on striated muscle cells, whereas the second one was blocked by atropine, a blocker of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on smooth muscle cells. Next, we investigated whether mast cells are involved in motor functions of the suncus esophagus. Application of a mast cell stimulator, compound 48/80, elicited contractile responses, which was resistant to tetrodotoxin. Exogenous application of serotonin and histamine induced contractile responses. The mast cell activation-mediated contraction was abolished by double desensitization by serotonin and histamine and pre-treatment with indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. The findings show that cholinergic and non-cholinergic transmitters induce longitudinal contraction in the suncus esophagus, which might contribute to esophageal shortening during emesis. Cholinergic transmitters are derived from vagal efferents, and non-cholinergic transmitters, which are thought to be serotonin, histamine and prostaglandins, are released from mast cells. PMID:25694232

  1. Shrews, rats, and a polecat in "the pardoner’s tale": Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feinstein, Sandy; Woodman, Neal

    2012-01-01

    While historically existing animals and literary animal characters inform allegorical and metaphorical characterization in The Canterbury Tales, figurative usage does not erase recognition of the material animal. "The Pardoner's Tale," for one, challenges the terms of conventional animal metaphors by refocusing attention on common animals as common animals and common human creatures as something worse than vermin. Most attention has been paid to the larger animals-goat, hare, and horse-that constitute the physical portrait of Chaucer's Pardoner in the "General Prologue" and in the prologue to his tale.! Like these animals, rats and a polecat, together with rhetorical shrews, appear in this tale as well as in other literature, including bestiaries and natural histories. Equally to the purpose, these animals could be physically observed as constituents of both urban and rural landscapes in fourteenth-century England.2 In the Middle Ages, animals were part of the environment as well as part of the culture: they lived inside as well as outside the city gates, priory walls, and even domestic spaces; a rat in the street or the garden might not be any less welcome or uncommon than encountering someone's horses and goats nibbling vegetation or blocking a passage. Not being out of the ordinary, though, such animals could (and can) be overlooked or dismissed as com­mon, too familiar to register. This chapter reveals why readers and listeners should pay close attention to the things they think they know and what they hear about what they think they know.

  2. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  3. The antiemetic interaction of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol when combined with tropisetron or dexamethasone in the least shrew

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaozhi; Ray, Andrew P.; McClanahan, Bryan A.; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2009-01-01

    5-HT3 receptor antagonists (e.g. tropisetron) combined with dexamethasone are effective for the acute phase of cisplatin (CIS)-induced emesis. This study determined the possible additive or synergistic antiemetic efficacy of ?9-THC when combined with tropisetron or dexamethasone (DEX). ?9-THC (0 – 10 mg/kg i.p.) was injected in combination with tropisetron (0 – 5 mg/kg i.p.) or dexamethasone (0 – 20 mg/kg i.p.) prior to CIS (20 mg/kg i.p.) in the least shrew, and the induced emesis was recorded for 60 minutes. CIS-induced vomiting was dose-dependently and significantly attenuated by individual administration of ?9-THC (59–97% reductions) and tropisetron (79–100% attenuation), but not dexamethasone (26–40%), although a trend (p < .1) towards reduced vomiting frequency following DEX was noted. Low doses of ?9-THC (0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg) when combined with low doses of tropisetron (0.025, 0.1, or 0.25 mg/kg) were more efficacious in reducing emesis frequency than when given individually, but ?9-THC had no antiemetic interactions with DEX. However, no tested combination provided a significantly greater effect on the number of animals vomiting than their individually-administered counterparts. The modest interaction of ?9-THC with tropisetron suggests they activate overlapping antiemetic mechanisms, while the lack of interaction with dexamethasone needs further clarification. PMID:18727934

  4. A climate for speciation: rapid spatial diversification within the Sorex cinereus complex of shrews

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Speer, Kelly A.; Demboski, John R.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic climate regime of the late Quaternary caused dramatic environmental change at high latitudes. Although these events may have been brief in periodicity from an evolutionary standpoint, multiple episodes of allopatry and divergence have been implicated in rapid radiations of a number of organisms. Shrews of the Sorex cinereus complex have long challenged taxonomists due to similar morphology and parapatric geographic ranges. Here, multi-locus phylogenetic and demographic assessments using a coalescent framework were combined to investigate spatiotemporal evolution of 13 nominal species with a widespread distribution throughout North America and across Beringia into Siberia. For these species, we first test a hypothesis of recent differentiation in response to Pleistocene climate versus more ancient divergence that would coincide with pre-Pleistocene perturbations. We then investigate the processes driving diversification over multiple continents. Our genetic analyses highlight novel diversity within these morphologically conserved mammals and clarify relationships between geographic distribution and evolutionary history. Demography within and among species indicates both regional stability and rapid expansion. Ancestral ecological differentiation coincident with early cladogenesis within the complex enabled alternating and repeated episodes of allopatry and expansion where successive glacial and interglacial phases each promoted divergence. The Sorex cinereus complex constitutes a valuable model for future comparative assessments of evolution in response to cyclic environmental change.

  5. New Aspidoderidae species parasite of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae): a light and scanning electron microscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Sant'anna, V; Oliveira-Menezes, A; De Souza, W

    2014-02-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, are widely distributed in the Americas. The family Aspidoderidae includes the subfamilies Aspidoderinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, and Lauroiinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1951. These two subfamilies are delineated by the presence or absence of cephalic cordons at the anterior region. The nematodes in the subfamily Aspidoderinae, which includes the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are represented by nematodes with anterior cephalic cordons at the anterior end. The nematodes of the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are found in the cecum and large intestine of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia and Rodentia. Species within this genus have many morphological similarities. The use of scanning electron microscopy allows the specific characterization of the species within this genus. In the present work, we describe a new species of Aspidodera parasite of the large intestine of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae) Wied-Neuwied, 1826, collected from Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro. The combination of light and scanning electron microscopy allowed us a detailed analysis of this nematode. PMID:24129095

  6. Invading and Expanding: Range Dynamics and Ecological Consequences of the Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Invasion in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Allan D.; Montgomery, W. Ian; Tosh, David G.; Lusby, John; Reid, Neil; White, Thomas A.; McDevitt, C. Damien; O'Halloran, John; Searle, Jeremy B.; Yearsley, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus), previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013) to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008–2013), and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012–2013 showing rates of 2.4–14.1 km/yr, 0.5–7.1 km/yr and 0–5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island. PMID:24955824

  7. Structure of the ovaries of the Nimba otter shrew, Micropotamogale lamottei, and the Madagascar hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M; Künzle, H; Vogel, P

    2005-01-01

    The otter shrews are members of the subfamily Potamogalinae within the family Tenrecidae. No description of the ovaries of any member of this subfamily has been published previously. The lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, is a member of the subfamily Tenrecinae of the same family and, although its ovaries have not been described, other members of this subfamily have been shown to have ovaries with non-antral follicles. Examination of these two species illustrated that non-antral follicles were characteristic of the ovaries of both species, as was clefting and lobulation of the ovaries. Juvenile otter shrews range from those with only small follicles in the cortex to those with 300- to 400-microm follicles similar to those seen in non-pregnant and pregnant adults. As in other species, most of the growth of the oocyte occurred when follicles had one to two layers of granulosa cells. When larger follicles became atretic in the Nimba otter shrew, hypertrophy of the theca interna produced nodules of glandular interstitial tissue. In the tenrec, the hypertrophying theca interna cells in most large follicles appeared to undergo degeneration. Both species had some follicular fluid in the intercellular spaces between the more peripheral granulosa cells. It is suggested that this fluid could aid in separation of the cumulus from the remaining granulosa at ovulation. The protruding follicles in lobules and absence of a tunica albuginea might also facilitate ovulation of non-antral follicles. Ovaries with a thin-absent tunica albuginea and follicles with small-absent antra are widespread within both the Eulipotyphla and in the Afrosoricida, suggesting that such features may represent a primitive condition in ovarian development. Lobulated and deeply crypted ovaries are found in both groups but are not as common in the Eulipotyphla making inclusion of this feature as primitive more speculative. PMID:16046864

  8. Gene expression signatures in tree shrew choroid during lens-induced myopia and recovery

    PubMed Central

    He, Li; Frost, Michael R.; Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression in tree shrew choroid was examined during the development of minus-lens induced myopia (LIM, a GO condition), after completion of minus-lens compensation (a STAY condition), and early in recovery (REC) from induced myopia (a STOP condition). Five groups of tree shrews (n = 7 per group) were used. Starting 24 days after normal eye-opening (days of visual experience [DVE]), one minus-lens group wore a monocular ?5 D lens for 2 days (LIM-2), another minus-lens group achieved stable lens compensation while wearing a monocular ?5 D lens for 11 days (LIM-11); a recovery group also wore a ?5D lens for 11 days and then received 2 days of recovery starting at 35 DVE (REC-2). Two age-matched normal groups were examined at 26 DVE and 37 DVE. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the relative differences in mRNA levels in the choroid for 77 candidate genes that were selected based on previous studies or because a whole-transcriptome analysis suggested their expression would change during myopia development or recovery. Small myopic changes were observed in the treated eyes of the LIM-2 group (?1.0 ± 0.2 D; mean ± SEM) indicating eyes were early in the process of developing LIM. The LIM-11 group exhibited complete refractive compensation (?5.1 ± 0.2 D) that was stable for five days. The REC-2 group recovered by 1.3 ± 0.3 D from full refractive compensation. Sixty genes showed significant mRNA expression differences during normal development, LIM, or REC conditions. In LIM-2 choroid (GO), 18 genes were significantly down-regulated in the treated eyes relative to the fellow control eyes and 10 genes were significantly up-regulated. In LIM-11 choroid (STAY), 10 genes were significantly down-regulated and 12 genes were significantly up-regulated. Expression patterns in GO and STAY were similar, but not identical. All genes that showed differential expression in GO and STAY were regulated in the same direction in both conditions. In REC-2 choroid (STOP), 4 genes were significantly down-regulated and 18 genes were significantly up-regulated. Thirteen genes showed bi-directional regulation in GO vs. STOP. The pattern of differential gene expression in STOP was very different from that in GO or in STAY. Significant regulation was observed in genes involved in signaling as well as extracellular matrix turnover. These data support an active role for the choroid in the signaling cascade from retina to sclera. Distinctly different treated eye vs. control eye mRNA signatures are present in the choroid in the GO, STAY, and STOP conditions. The STAY signature, present after full compensation has occurred and the GO visual stimulus is no longer present, may participate in maintaining an elongated globe. The 13 genes with bi-directional expression differences in GO and STOP responded in a sign of defocus-dependent manner. Taken together, these data further suggest that a network of choroidal gene expression changes generate the signal that alters scleral fibroblast gene expression and axial elongation rate. PMID:24742494

  9. Gene Expression Signatures in Tree Shrew Sclera in Response to Three Myopiagenic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lin; Frost, Michael R.; He, Li; Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We compared gene expression signatures in tree shrew sclera produced by three different visual conditions that all produce ocular elongation and myopia: minus-lens wear, form deprivation, and dark treatment. Methods. Six groups of tree shrews (n = 7 per group) were used. Starting 24 days after normal eye-opening (days of visual experience [DVE]), two minus-lens groups wore a monocular ?5 diopter (D) lens for 2 days (ML-2) or 4 days (ML-4); two form-deprivation groups wore a monocular translucent diffuser for 2 days (FD-2) or 4 days (FD-4). A dark-treatment (DK) group was placed in continuous darkness for 11 days after experiencing a light/dark environment until 17 DVE. A normal colony-reared group was examined at 28 DVE. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the relative differences in mRNA levels for 55 candidate genes in the sclera that were selected, either because they showed differential expression changes in previous ML studies or because a whole-transcriptome analysis suggested they would change during myopia development. Results. The treated eyes in all groups responded with a significant myopic shift, indicating that the myopia was actively progressing. In the ML-2 group, 27 genes were significantly downregulated in the treated eyes, relative to control eyes. In the treated eyes of the FD-2 group, 16 of the same genes also were significantly downregulated and one was upregulated. The two gene expression patterns were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.90, P < 0.001). After 4 days of treatment, 31 genes were significantly downregulated in the treated eyes of the ML-4 group and three were upregulated. Twenty-nine of the same genes (26 down- and 3 up-regulated) and six additional genes (all downregulated) were significantly affected in the FD-4 group. The response patterns were highly correlated (r2 = 0.95, P < 0.001). When the DK group (mean of right and left eyes) was compared to the control eyes of the ML-4 group, the direction and magnitude of the gene expression patterns were similar to those of the ML-4 (r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001, excluding PENK). Similar patterns also were found when the treated eyes of the ML-4, FD-4, and DK groups were compared to the age-matched normal eyes. Conclusions. The very similar gene expression signatures produced in the sclera by the three different myopiagenic visual conditions at different time points suggests that there is a “scleral remodeling signature” in this mammal, closely related to primates. The scleral genes examined did not distinguish between the specific visual stimuli that initiate the signaling cascade that results in axial elongation and myopia. PMID:24045991

  10. ON and OFF subfield organization of layer 2/3 neurons in tree shrew visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Xiaoying; Fitzpatrick, David

    2015-09-01

    In vivo 2-photon imaging of calcium sensors in visual cortex has provided a host of new insights into the fine scale columnar mapping of response properties like orientation, direction, and visual space. Extracellular recording in carnivores have shown a columnar segregation of ON- and OFF-center geniculate inputs in layer 4, which could provide the basis for the generation of orientation selectivity. However, the spatial arrangement of ON and OFF in layer 2/3 has not been addressed. In this study we used 2-photon imaging of GCamP6s calcium fluorescent signals to map the receptive fields of thousands of neurons in layer 2/3 of tree shrew visual cortex with reverse correlation using sparse noise. We found a diverse array of receptive field properties in layer 2/3 including neurons with classic simple, complex and single sign receptive fields (either ON or OFF). The ON and OFF subfields in layer 2/3 were found to exhibit topologically distinct relationships with the maps of visual space and orientation preference. In most cases, the centers of OFF subfields for neurons in a given region of cortex were confined to a compact region of visual space and displayed a smooth retinotopic progression, while the centers of the ON subfields were distributed over a wider region of visual space and displayed less retinotopic precision. Consistent with the arrangement of ON and OFF subfields of simple cells in other species, the angle of displacement in visual space of the ON and OFF subfields for individual neurons could be used to predict the organization of the orientation map. Taken together, these results suggest that the differential arrangement of ON and OFF subfield centers by cortical circuits meets the conjoint constraints of mapping both visuotopy and orientation in a single population of neurons and in a fashion that preserves continuity for both stimulus features. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326678

  11. Phenotypic Variation across Chromosomal Hybrid Zones of the Common Shrew (Sorex araneus) Indicates Reduced Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Polly, P. David; Polyakov, Andrei V.; Ilyashenko, Vadim B.; Onischenko, Sergei S.; White, Thomas A.; Shchipanov, Nikolay A.; Bulatova, Nina S.; Pavlova, Svetlana V.; Borodin, Pavel M.; Searle, Jeremy B.

    2013-01-01

    Sorex araneus, the Common shrew, is a species with more than 70 karyotypic races, many of which form parapatric hybrid zones, making it a model for studying chromosomal speciation. Hybrids between races have reduced fitness, but microsatellite markers have demonstrated considerable gene flow between them, calling into question whether the chromosomal barriers actually do contribute to genetic divergence. We studied phenotypic clines across two hybrid zones with especially complex heterozygotes. Hybrids between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races produce chains of nine and three chromosomes at meiosis, and hybrids between the Moscow and Seliger races produce chains of eleven. Our goal was to determine whether phenotypes show evidence of reduced gene flow at hybrid zones. We used maximum likelihood to fit tanh cline models to geometric shape data and found that phenotypic clines in skulls and mandibles across these zones had similar centers and widths as chromosomal clines. The amount of phenotypic differentiation across the zones is greater than expected if it were dissipating due to unrestricted gene flow given the amount of time since contact, but it is less than expected to have accumulated from drift during allopatric separation in glacial refugia. Only if heritability is very low, Ne very high, and the time spent in allopatry very short, will the differences we observe be large enough to match the expectation of drift. Our results therefore suggest that phenotypic differentiation has been lost through gene flow since post-glacial secondary contact, but not as quickly as would be expected if there was free gene flow across the hybrid zones. The chromosomal tension zones are confirmed to be partial barriers that prevent differentiated races from becoming phenotypically homogenous. PMID:23874420

  12. Neural regulation of esophageal striated muscle in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Shiina, Takahiko; Shima, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yuji; Wörl, Jürgen; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2012-05-21

    In the present study, we characterized the neural regulation of esophageal striated muscle in Suncus murinus (a house musk shrew; "suncus" used as a laboratory name), which was compared with that in the rat. The tunica muscularis consists of striated muscle in the suncus esophagus. An isolated segment of the suncus esophagus was placed in an organ bath and the contractile responses were recorded using a force transducer. Electrical stimulations to vagus nerves induced contractile responses in the esophageal segment. Treatment with ?-bungarotoxin, a blocker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, blocked the vagally mediated contractions of the suncus esophagus. D-tubocurarine and succinylcholine, typical antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, also inhibited the suncus esophageal contractions, while higher concentrations of the agents were required rather than concentrations for producing an equivalent block in the rat. We used capsaicin, a stimulator of small-caliber afferent neurons, for activating the peripheral neural network. The reagent inhibited the vagally mediated twitch contractions of striated muscle in the suncus esophagus, which was reversed by pretreatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Application of a nitric oxide donor, diethylamine NONOate diethylammonium salt, mimicked capsaicin-induced inhibition. The results suggest that motility of the suncus esophagus, which consists of striated muscles, is regulated by vagal cholinergic neurons. The local neural network including capsaicin-sensitive neurons and intrinsic nitrergic neurons can modify the vagally mediated motility in the suncus esophagus. In addition, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the suncus esophagus might be pharmacologically distinct from those of rodent esophagi. PMID:22285704

  13. Pranlukast prevents cysteinyl leukotriene-induced emesis in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva)

    PubMed Central

    Chebolu, Seetha; Wang, Yaozhi; Ray, Andrew P.; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2009-01-01

    Many chemotherapeutic agents activate multiple signaling systems, including potentially emetogenic arachidonic acid metabolites. Of these messengers, the emetic role of the leukotriene family has been neglected. The aims of this study were to test the emetic potential of key leukotrienes (LTA4, LTB4, LTF4, and the cysteinyl leukotrienes LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4), and to investigate whether the leukotriene CysLT1 receptor antagonist pranlukast or mixed leukotriene CysLT1/2 receptor antagonist Bay u9773 can prevent the LTC4 induced emesis. Least shrews were injected with varying doses of one of the six tested leukotrienes and vomiting parameters measured for 30 minutes. LTC4 and LTD4 were most efficacious, and significantly increased both the frequency and percentage of animals vomiting at doses from 0.1 and 0.05 mg/kg, respectively. The other tested leukotrienes were either weakly emetic or ineffective at doses up to 4 mg/kg. The relative emetogenic activities of the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4=LTD4>LTE4) suggest leukotriene CysLT2 receptors have a key role in emesis. However, pranlukast dose-dependently, and at 10 mg/kg completely, blocked LTC4-induced vomiting, implicating a leukotriene CysLT1 receptor-mediated emetic effect. Bay u9773 dose-dependently reduced the percentage of animals vomiting, but did not significantly reduce vomiting frequency. Fos immunoreactivity, measured subsequent to LTC4-induced vomiting to define its putative anatomical substrates, was significantly increased in the enteric nervous system and medullary dorsal vagal complex following LTC4 (P < 0.05) versus vehicle injections. This study is the first to show that some leukotrienes induce emesis, possibly involving both central and peripheral leukotriene CysLT1 and/or leukotriene CysLT2 receptors. PMID:19941848

  14. Pranlukast prevents cysteinyl leukotriene-induced emesis in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Chebolu, Seetha; Wang, Yaozhi; Ray, Andrew P; Darmani, Nissar A

    2010-02-25

    Many chemotherapeutic agents activate multiple signaling systems, including potentially emetogenic arachidonic acid metabolites. Of these messengers, the emetic role of the leukotriene family has been neglected. The aims of this study were to test the emetic potential of key leukotrienes (LTA(4), LTB(4), LTF(4), and the cysteinyl leukotrienes LTC(4), LTD(4) and LTE(4)), and to investigate whether the leukotriene CysLT(1) receptor antagonist pranlukast or mixed leukotriene CysLT(1/2) receptor antagonist Bay u9773 can prevent the LTC(4)-induced emesis. Least shrews were injected with varying doses of one of the six tested leukotrienes and vomiting parameters were measured for 30min. LTC(4) and LTD(4) were most efficacious, and significantly increased both the frequency and percentage of animals vomiting at doses from 0.1 and 0.05mg/kg, respectively. The other tested leukotrienes were either weakly emetic or ineffective at doses up to 4mg/kg. The relative emetogenic activities of the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC(4)=LTD(4)>LTE(4)) suggest that leukotriene CysLT(2) receptors have a key role in emesis. However, pranlukast dose-dependently, and at 10mg/kg completely, blocked LTC(4)-induced vomiting, implicating a leukotriene CysLT(1) receptor-mediated emetic effect. Bay u9773 dose-dependently reduced the percentage of animals vomiting, but did not significantly reduce vomiting frequency. Fos immunoreactivity, measured subsequent to LTC(4)-induced vomiting to define its putative anatomical substrates, was significantly increased in the enteric nervous system and medullary dorsal vagal complex following LTC(4) (P<0.05) versus vehicle injections. This study is the first to show that some leukotrienes induce emesis, possibly involving both central and peripheral leukotriene CysLT(1) and/or leukotriene CysLT(2) receptors. PMID:19941848

  15. The position of tree shrews in the mammalian tree: Comparing multi-gene analyses with phylogenomic results leaves monophyly of Euarchonta doubtful.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuming; Sun, Fengming; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Guang; Li, Ming

    2015-03-01

    The well-accepted Euarchonta grandorder is a pruned version of Archonta nested within the Euarchontoglires (or Supraprimates) clade. At present, it includes tree shrews (Scandentia), flying lemurs (Dermoptera) and primates (Primates). Here, a phylogenomic dataset containing 1912 exons from 22 representative mammals was compiled to investigate the phylogenetic relationships within this group. Phylogenetic analyses and hypothesis testing suggested that tree shrews can be classified as a sister group to Primates or to Glires or even as a basal clade within Euarchontoglires. Further analyses of both modified and original previously published datasets found that the phylogenetic position of tree shrews is unstable. We also found that two of three exonic indels reported as synapomorphies of Euarchonta in a previous study do not unambiguously support the monophyly of such a clade. Therefore, the monophyly of both Euarchonta and Sundatheria (Dermoptera + Scandentia) are suspect. Molecular dating and divergence rate analyses suggested that the ancestor of Euarchontoglires experienced a rapid divergence, which may cause the unresolved position of tree shrews even using the whole genomic data. PMID:25311886

  16. Overview of the Cestode fauna of European shrews of the genus Sorex with an exploration of historical processes in post-glacial Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cestode fauna in shrews of the genus Sorex from the European region consists of seventeen species. Twelve cestode species have broad Palearctic distributions, three belong to the Western-Asian–European faunistic complex, and only two are endemic to the European zone. Postglacial expansion into ...

  17. Cholesterol induces lipoprotein lipase expression in a tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linqiang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Li, Yunhai; Liao, Shasha; Wu, Xiaoyun; Chang, Qing; Liang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are indispensible to investigate the pathogenesis and treatments of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Altered cholesterol metabolism has been implicated into the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Here, using high fat, cholesterol and cholate diet (HFHC), we generated a novel tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of NAFLD, which displayed dyslipidemia with increased levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), but decreased level of triglycerides (TG). Liver histopathology and genes expression indicated that HFHC diet successfully induced liver steatosis to inflammation and fibrosis progressively within 10 weeks. Moreover, HFHC induced the transcriptional expression of lipoprotein lipase (lpl) in the liver, but repressed the expression of LDL receptor, and the endogenous synthesis pathway and excretion of cholesterol. Notably, Poloxamer 407 (P-407) inhibition of LPL improved the severity of steatosis and reduced inflammation. These results illustrated that LPL plays an important role in cholesterol metabolism in NAFLD, and the tree shrew may be a valuable animal model for further research into NAFLD. PMID:26522240

  18. Cholesterol induces lipoprotein lipase expression in a tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linqiang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Li, Yunhai; Liao, Shasha; Wu, Xiaoyun; Chang, Qing; Liang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are indispensible to investigate the pathogenesis and treatments of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Altered cholesterol metabolism has been implicated into the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Here, using high fat, cholesterol and cholate diet (HFHC), we generated a novel tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of NAFLD, which displayed dyslipidemia with increased levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), but decreased level of triglycerides (TG). Liver histopathology and genes expression indicated that HFHC diet successfully induced liver steatosis to inflammation and fibrosis progressively within 10 weeks. Moreover, HFHC induced the transcriptional expression of lipoprotein lipase (lpl) in the liver, but repressed the expression of LDL receptor, and the endogenous synthesis pathway and excretion of cholesterol. Notably, Poloxamer 407 (P-407) inhibition of LPL improved the severity of steatosis and reduced inflammation. These results illustrated that LPL plays an important role in cholesterol metabolism in NAFLD, and the tree shrew may be a valuable animal model for further research into NAFLD. PMID:26522240

  19. Do geological or climatic processes drive speciation in dynamic archipelagos? The tempo and mode of diversification in Southeast Asian shrews.

    PubMed

    Esselstyn, Jacob A; Timm, Robert M; Brown, Rafe M

    2009-10-01

    Geological and climatic processes potentially alter speciation rates by generating and modifying barriers to dispersal. In Southeast Asia, two processes have substantially altered the distribution of land. Volcanic uplift produced many new islands during the Miocene-Pliocene and repeated sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene resulted in intermittent land connections among islands. Each process represents a potential driver of diversification. We use a phylogenetic analysis of a group of Southeast Asian shrews (Crocidura) to examine geographic and temporal processes of diversification. In general, diversification has taken place in allopatry following the colonization of new areas. Sulawesi provides an exception, where we cannot reject within-island speciation for a clade of eight sympatric and syntopic species. We find only weak support for temporally declining diversification rates, implying that neither volcanic uplift nor sea level fluctuations had a strong effect on diversification rates. We suggest that dynamic archipelagos continually offer new opportunities for allopatric diversification, thereby sustaining high speciation rates over long periods of time, or Southeast Asian shrews represent an immature radiation on a density-dependent trajectory that has yet to fill geographic and ecological space. PMID:19500148

  20. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol differentially suppresses emesis versus enhanced locomotor activity produced by chemically diverse dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonists in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Crim, Jennifer L

    2005-01-01

    The principal psychoactive component of marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), suppresses nausea and vomiting in cancer patients caused by chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin. Cisplatin induces vomiting via a number of emetic stimuli, including dopamine. Currently, there is controversy as to whether Delta9-THC can prevent emesis produced by dopaminergic agonists such as apomorphine. The present investigation utilizes the least shrew to evaluate the antiemetic potential and the cannabinoid receptor by which Delta9-THC may prevent emesis produced by four dopamine receptor agonists with differing selectivity for D2 and D3 receptors, i.e., a nonselective dopamine receptor agonist (apomorphine), a D2-preferring receptor agonist (quinpirole), and two D3-preferring receptor agonists (quinelorane and 7-OH DPAT). In addition, relative to its antiemetic doses, the motor suppressive doses of Delta9-THC in dopamine D2/D3-receptor-agonist-treated shrews were also evaluated. Thus, different groups of shrews were injected with either vehicle (V) or varying doses of Delta9-THC [0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)] 10 min prior to administration of a 2 mg/kg dose of one of the four cited D2/D3 agonists. Immediately after the last injection, the frequency of vomiting for each shrew was recorded for the next 30 min. To investigate which cannabinoid receptor is involved in the antiemetic action of Delta9-THC, various doses of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A [0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, subcutaneous (s.c.)] were administered to shrews 10 min prior to an injection of a fully effective antiemetic dose of Delta9-THC (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Ten minutes later, each treated shrew was administered with a 2 mg/kg dose of apomorphine. The emesis frequency was recorded for the next 30 min. For locomotor studies, different groups of shrews received either vehicle or various doses of Delta9-THC (0, 5, 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg) 10 min prior to an injection of vehicle or a 2 mg/kg dose of one of the four D2/D3 receptor agonists. The triad of motor behaviors (spontaneous locomotor activity, total duration of movement, and rearing frequency) were recorded for the next 30 min by a computerized video tracking system. Delta9-THC dose-dependently attenuated the frequency of emesis as well as fully protecting shrews from vomiting produced by each one of the four cited dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonists with ID50s ranging from 1 to 4 mg/kg. SR 141716A reversed the antiemetic activity of Delta9-THC against apomorphine-induced emesis. Delta9-THC also differentially suppressed the triad of motor activities in dopamine D2/D3-receptor-agonist-treated shrews with ID50s ranging from 7 to 21 mg/kg. The results suggest that Delta9-THC prevents emesis via cannabinoid CB1 receptors in a potent and dose-dependent manner in D2/D3-receptor-agonist-treated shrews at doses well below those which cause significant motor depression. PMID:15652378

  1. Feeding mechanics and dietary implications in the fossil sloth Neocnus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Megalonychidae) from Haiti.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Robert K

    2011-10-01

    Haitian species of the extinct ground sloth genus Neocnus (Mammalia: Pilosa: Megalonychidae) have previously been hypothesized to have a much reduced jugal bone and a correspondingly reduced masseter musculature but a paucity of specimens has prevented further investigation of this hypothesis. Recent discovery of jugal bones belonging to Haitian specimens of Neocnus within the University of Florida Museum collections enables the element to be more accurately described. The discovery also makes it possible to explore mastication in these sloths. Osteological characters related to feeding were examined, along with comparative estimations of bite force with the extant tree sloths, Bradypus and Choloepus, and their known dietary habits as a means to infer aspects of the paleodiet of Neocnus. There is a significant difference in moment arm calculations for m. masseter between predicted and actual jugals, but the overall significance for bite force is lost and hampered by small sample size. Neocnus demonstrates a variety of characters that are similar to those of Bradypus and not to Choloepus, which is a close phylogenetic relative. The masticatory musculature of Neocnus enabled a chewing cycle emphasizing a grinding combination of mesiodistal and linguobuccal movements of the molariform dentition. The orientations of m. masseter and m. temporalis are estimated to produce relatively high bite force ratios that imply a masticatory system with stronger versus faster components. Because of the similarity of bite forces and jaw mechanics to those of Bradypus, in addition to a number of osteological adaptations indicative of herbivorous grazers (elevated mandibular condyle, large and complex masseter, and robust angular process), the Haitian forms of Neocnus are considered to have been selective feeders with a folivorous diet. PMID:21638306

  2. Cyclophosphamide causes activation of protein kinase A (PKA) in the brainstem of vomiting least shrews (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Alkam, Tursun; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A

    2014-01-01

    Complete control of emesis caused by cyclophosphamide (CPA) is of immense interest to both patients and physicians. Serotonin 5-HT3- and tachykinin NK1-receptor antagonists are widely used antiemetics in clinic, but they fail to completely control CPA-induced emesis. New antiemetic targets for the full control of CPA-induced vomiting are lacking. We therefore examined the effects of CPA on emetic targets downstream of 5-HT3- and NK1- receptors in an attempt to better understand the molecular bases of CPA-induced emesis. Acute CPA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) administration in the least shrew caused a biphasic pattern of emesis over a 40 h observation period, with maximal peak vomit frequency during the 1st hour of treatment (acute phase), followed by a delayed-phase which peaks at 27th hour. The NK1 receptor mRNA levels increased significantly at 8 h post-CPA treatment in the brainstem, and at 28 h in the whole intestine. Substance P mRNA levels tended to increase both in the brainstem and intestine at most time-points post-CPA injection, however due to large variability, they failed to attain significance. Likewise, protein expression profiles of both NK1- and 5-HT3 -receptors in the brainstem were unchanged at any time-point. However, phosphorylation levels of protein kinase A (PKA), but not of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), were increased at 2, 8, 22, 28, and 33 h time-points after the treatment with CPA. Moreover, brainstem but not frontal cortex cAMP tissue levels tended to be elevated at most time-points, but significant increases occurred only at 1 and 2 h post-CPA treatment. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor, rolipram, caused significant increases in shrew brainstem cAMP levels which were associated with its capacity to produce vomiting, while pretreatment with SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, prevented rolipram-induced emesis. The results demonstrate that accumulation of cAMP and subsequent activation of PKA in the brainstem may help to initiate and sustain emesis induced by CPA in the least shrew. Our findings suggest that suppression of the cAMP/PKA cascade may have antiemetic potential in the management of CPA-induced emesis. PMID:24513510

  3. Bony labyrinth morphometry indicates locomotor adaptations in the squirrel-related clade (Rodentia, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Cathrin; Martin, Thomas; Ruf, Irina

    2015-06-22

    The semicircular canals (SCs) of the inner ear detect angular acceleration and are located in the bony labyrinth of the petrosal bone. Based on high-resolution computed tomography, we created a size-independent database of the bony labyrinth of 50 mammalian species especially rodents of the squirrel-related clade comprising taxa with fossorial, arboreal and gliding adaptations. Our sampling also includes gliding marsupials, actively flying bats, the arboreal tree shrew and subterranean species. The morphometric anatomy of the SCs was correlated to the locomotion mode. Even if the phylogenetic signal cannot entirely be excluded, the main significance for functional morphological studies has been found in the diameter of the SCs, whereas the radius of curvature is of minor interest. Additionally, we found clear differences in the bias angle of the canals between subterranean and gliding taxa, but also between sciurids and glirids. The sensitivity of the inner ear correlates with the locomotion mode, with a higher sensitivity of the SCs in fossorial species than in flying taxa. We conclude that the inner ear of flying and gliding mammals is less sensitive due to the large information flow into this sense organ during locomotion. PMID:26019162

  4. Digital Cranial Endocast of Hyopsodus (Mammalia, “Condylarthra”): A Case of Paleogene Terrestrial Echolocation?

    PubMed Central

    Orliac, Maeva J.; Argot, Christine; Gilissen, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    We here describe the endocranial cast of the Eocene archaic ungulate Hyopsodus lepidus AMNH 143783 (Bridgerian, North America) reconstructed from X-ray computed microtomography data. This represents the first complete cranial endocast known for Hyopsodontinae. The Hyopsodus endocast is compared to other known “condylarthran” endocasts, i. e. those of Pleuraspidotherium (Pleuraspidotheriidae), Arctocyon (Arctocyonidae), Meniscotherium (Meniscotheriidae), Phenacodus (Phenacodontidae), as well as to basal perissodactyls (Hyracotherium) and artiodactyls (Cebochoerus, Homacodon). Hyopsodus presents one of the highest encephalization quotients of archaic ungulates and shows an “advanced version” of the basal ungulate brain pattern, with a mosaic of archaic characters such as large olfactory bulbs, weak ventral expansion of the neopallium, and absence of neopallium fissuration, as well as more specialized ones such as the relative reduction of the cerebellum compared to cerebrum or the enlargement of the inferior colliculus. As in other archaic ungulates, Hyopsodus midbrain exposure is important, but it exhibits a dorsally protruding largely developed inferior colliculus, a feature unique among “Condylarthra”. A potential correlation between the development of the inferior colliculus in Hyopsodus and the use of terrestrial echolocation as observed in extant tenrecs and shrews is discussed. The detailed analysis of the overall morphology of the postcranial skeleton of Hyopsodus indicates a nimble, fast moving animal that likely lived in burrows. This would be compatible with terrestrial echolocation used by the animal to investigate subterranean habitat and/or to minimize predation during nocturnal exploration of the environment. PMID:22347998

  5. Synergy between cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid, and ??-tetrahydrocannabinol in the regulation of emesis in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew).

    PubMed

    Rock, Erin M; Parker, Linda A

    2015-06-01

    Smoked marijuana contains over 100 different cannabinoids, including the psychoactive compound ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). THC, CBD, and its acidic precursor, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), have all been shown to have antiemetic properties in the Suncus murinus (S. murinus; house musk shrew). Here we show that when subthreshold antiemetic doses of CBD (2.5 mg/kg ip) or CBDA (0.05 mg/kg ip) are combined with a subthreshold antiemetic dose of THC (1 mg/kg ip) in the S. murinus, both lithium-chloride-induced vomiting and abdominal retching are dramatically suppressed. These results suggest that combined effects of these compounds may lead to better control of vomiting with fewer side effects. PMID:26030435

  6. Interglacial refugia preserved high genetic diversity of the Chinese mole shrew in the mountains of southwest China.

    PubMed

    He, K; Hu, N-Q; Chen, X; Li, J-T; Jiang, X-L

    2016-01-01

    The mountains of southwest China (MSC) harbor extremely high species diversity; however, the mechanism behind this diversity is unknown. We investigated to what degree the topography and climate change shaped the genetic diversity and diversification in these mountains, and we also sought to identify the locations of microrefugia areas in these mountains. For these purposes, we sampled extensively to estimate the intraspecific phylogenetic pattern of the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) in southwest China throughout its range of distribution. Two mitochondrial genes, namely, cytochrome b (CYT B) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), from 383 archived specimens from 43 localities were determined for phylogeographic and demographic analyses. We used the continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot species distribution modeling (SDM) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to explore the changes in population size and distribution through time of the species. Two phylogenetic clades were identified, and significantly higher genetic diversity was preserved in the southern subregion of the mountains. The results of the SDM, continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot and ABC analyses were congruent and supported that the Last Interglacial Maximum (LIG) was an unfavorable period for the mole shrews because of a high degree of seasonality; A. squamipes survived in isolated interglacial refugia mainly located in the southern subregion during the LIG and rapidly expanded during the last glacial period. These results furnished the first evidence for major Pleistocene interglacial refugia and a latitudinal effect in southwest China, and the results shedding light on the higher level of species richness in the southern subregion. PMID:26286667

  7. Agomelatine in the tree shrew model of depression: effects on stress-induced nocturnal hyperthermia and hormonal status.

    PubMed

    Schmelting, Barthel; Corbach-Söhle, Silke; Kohlhause, Susan; Schlumbohm, Christina; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2014-03-01

    The antidepressive drug agomelatine combines the properties of an agonist of melatonergic receptors 1 and 2 with an antagonist of the 5-HT2C receptor. We analyzed the effects of agomelatine in psychosocially stressed male tree shrews, an established preclinical model of depression. Tree shrews experienced daily social stress for a period of 5 weeks and were concomitantly treated with different drugs daily for 4 weeks. The effects of agomelatine (40 mg/kg/day) were compared with those of the agonist melatonin (40 mg/kg/day), the inverse 5-HT2C antagonist S32006 (10mg/kg/day), and the SSRI fluoxetine (15 mg/kg/day). Nocturnal core body temperature (CBT) was recorded by telemetry, and urinary norepinephrine and cortisol concentrations were measured. Chronic social stress induced nocturnal hyperthermia. Agomelatine normalized the CBT in the fourth week of the treatment (T4), whereas the other drugs did not significantly counteract the stress-induced hyperthermia. Agomelatine also reversed the stress-induced reduction in locomotor activity. Norepinephrine concentration was elevated by the stress indicating sympathetic hyperactivity, and was normalized in the stressed animals treated with agomelatine or fluoxetine but not in those treated with melatonin or S32006. Cortisol concentration was elevated by stress but returned to basal levels by T4 in all animals, irrespective of the treatment. These observations show that agomelatine has positive effects to counteract stress-induced physiological processes and to restore the normal rhythm of nocturnal CBT. The data underpin the antidepressant properties of agomelatine and are consistent with a distinctive profile compared to its constituent pharmacological components and other conventional agents. PMID:23978391

  8. Natural infection of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Marsupialia) with Leishmania infantum in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The opossum Didelphis have been considered as natural hosts of Leishmania parasites in the New World, suggesting an important role in the epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Among six extant species that belong to the genus Didelphis, only two (D. marsupialis and D. albiventris), have been mentioned as natural hosts of Leishmania infantum in Brazil and Colombia. In the present paper, it is reported for the first time, the observation of intracellular parasites (amastigotes) in tissues of Didelphis aurita naturally infected with Leishmania infantum in Brazil. We also discuss some aspects associated to the relationship between L. infantum and the geographical distribution of some species of the genus Didelphis. Methods The opossums studied were caught by wire traps (Tomahawk) in Barra de Guaratiba, a peri-urban area in Rio de Janeiro. The opossums were killed with an overdose of Thiopental sodium.At necropsy, macroscopic alterations were examined and samples from liver, spleen, lymph nodes, ear, abdominal skin, scent glands and bone marrow were collected for parasitological and molecular diagnoses. Results Forty-eight opossums were captured in an AVL endemic region, 30 being caught in a mangrove area and eighteen animals in a forest area near to some residential-yards. Among the thirty opossums trapped in the mangrove area, all of them were negative by both imprint and sera samples assayed on Dipstick Tests, that is a test based on a combination of protein-A colloidal gold conjugate and rk39 Leishmania antigen to detect anti-Leishmania antibody in serum or plasma. At the macroscopic examination one out of eighteen opossums, caught close to the forest, presented alterations compatible with spleen hypertrophy and three were positive by Dipstick Tests (16.6%) and presented amastigotes in the spleen and in one of them, the parasites were also observed in a submandibular lymph node. Leishmania infantum infections were confirmed through dot blot hybridization using a L. infantum-specific biotinylated probe. Conclusions In the present paper we present the first report of amastigotes in the tissues of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Marsupialia) naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. We also attempt to claim the particular role of some opossum species as hosts of Leishmania infantum, contributing at least in part on the description of potential sylvatic reservoirs. PMID:22676324

  9. Heart and respiratory rates and their significance for convective oxygen transport rates in the smallest mammal, the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, K D; Fons, R; Peters, T; Sender, S

    1996-12-01

    Heart and respiratory rates of the smallest mammal (mean adult body mass 2g), the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus, were determined at rest and under stress conditions. Heart rate was obtained from electrocardiograms (ECGs), recorded via foot electrodes. The mean +/- S.D. heart rate of resting animals (ambient temperature 22 degrees C) was 835 +/- 107 min-1, the mean maximal rate amounted to 1093 +/- 235 min-1. The highest single value recorded was 1511 min-1, which is the highest heart rate reported so far for an endotherm. The respiratory rate was also obtained from ECG recordings, which showed the electrical activity of the breathing muscles during inhalation, and additionally by recording the movements of the thoracic wall with a laser autofocus system. The mean resting respiratory rate was 661 +/- 93 min-1, the mean maximal rate was 758 +/- 109 min-1 and the highest single value recorded was 894 min-1. At 22 degrees C, the specific oxygen consumption rate is 67 times higher in resting S. etruscus than in resting humans. Under these conditions, the respiratory rate of the shrew is 47 times higher but the heart rate only 12 times higher than in man. Therefore, to achieve an adequate circulatory oxygen transport rate, the product of relative stroke volume and arterio-venous O2 difference has to be 5.6 times higher in the shrew than in man, whereas for an appropriate ventilatory oxygen transport rate the product of relative tidal volume and oxygen extraction has to be only 1.4 times higher in this small insectivore than in man. The maximal possible oxygen transport rates of the ventilatory and the circulatory system have been estimated and compared with the diffusional transport capacity of the lung. These rates amount to approximately 1000 ml O2 kg-1 min-1. According to our results and data in the literature, an aerobic scope of 7-10 seems to be realistic for the Etruscan shrew. PMID:9110952

  10. The role of D2 and D3 dopamine receptors in the mediation of emesis in Cryptotis parva (the least shrew).

    PubMed

    Darmani, N A; Zhao, W; Ahmad, B

    1999-01-01

    This study introduces Cryptotis parva (the least shrew) as a new dopaminergic animal model of emesis. The potential emetogenic effects of a nonselective dopamine agonist [apomorphine], two D1 agonists [SKF-38393 and SKF-82958], a D2 preferring agonist [quinpirole], and two D3-preferring agonists [7-(OH) DPAT and PD 128, 907] were investigated. Intraperitoneal administration of D1 agonists failed to induce emesis. However, other agonists caused a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of animals vomiting as well as potentiating the mean frequency of emesis with the following ED50, potency order: 7-(OH) DPAT < apomorphine < quinpirole < PD 128, 907. For antagonist studies a 2 mg/kg dose of these agonists were used to induce emesis. Thus, the inhibitory dose-response effects of a D2-preferring [sulpride], a D3-preferring [U 99194A] and combination of varying doses of these antagonists [sulpride + U 99194A] were evaluated on the ability of the cited agonists to produce vomiting. Sulpride decreased the number of shrews vomiting and the mean vomiting frequency produced by the cited agonists in a dose-dependent fashion with the following ID50 order [apomorphine < PD 128, 907 < 7-(OH) DPAT < quinpirole]. By itself, U 99194A failed to significantly alter the emesis produced by any of the cited agonists, however, it potentiated (3-8 times) the antiemetic effects of sulpride both in reducing the number of shrews vomiting as well as decreasing the mean vomiting frequency with the following ID50 order: PD 128, 907 < 7-(OH) DPAT < quinpirole. However, U 99194A attenuated the potent antiemetic effect of sulpride on the apomorphine-induced emesis. The results suggest that the tested agonists primarily activate dopamine D2 receptors to induce emesis in the least shrew whereas activation of D3 sites potentiate the vomiting action of D2 dopamine receptors. PMID:10651102

  11. Molecular evidence for the monophyly of tenrecidae (mammalia) and the timing of the colonization of Madagascar by Malagasy Tenrecs.

    PubMed

    Douady, Christophe J; Catzeflis, Francois; Kao, Diana J; Springer, Mark S; Stanhope, Michael J

    2002-03-01

    Tenrecs are a diverse family of insectivores, with an Afro-Malagasian biogeographic distribution. Three subfamilies (Geogalinae, Oryzorictinae, Tenrecinae) are restricted to Madagascar and one subfamily, the otter shrews (Potamogalinae), occurs on the mainland. Morphological studies have generated conflicting hypotheses according to which both tenrecids and Malagassy tenrecs are either monophyletic or paraphyletic. Competing hypotheses have different implications for the biogeographic history of Tenrecidae. At present, there are no molecular studies that address these hypotheses. The present study provides sequences of a nuclear protein-coding gene (vWF) and the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, tRNA valine, and 16S rRNA genes from a potamogaline (Micropotamogale). New sequences of these genes are also reported for the tenrecine, Tenrec ecaudatus. The 12S sequences from these taxa were combined with data already available for this locus from two other tenrecids (Echinops telfairi, subfamily Tenrecinae and Oryzorictes talpoides, subfamily Oryzorictinae). Phylogenetic analyses provided strong bootstrap support for the monophyly of Tenrecidae and Malagasy tenrecs. The majority of statistical tests rejected morphological claims for both a Tenrecinae--Chrysochloridae clade and an Oryzorictinae--Potamogalinae clade. Molecular clock estimates suggest a split of otter shrews and Malagasy tenrecs at approximately 53 MYA. We estimate that the ancestor of Malagasy tenrecs dispersed to Madagascar subsequent to this split but prior to about 37 MYA. PMID:11884160

  12. Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

  13. Receptor mechanism and antiemetic activity of structurally diverse cannabinoids against radiation-induced emesis in the Least shrew

    PubMed Central

    Darmani, Nissar A.; Janoyan, Jano J.; Crim, Jennifer; Ramirez, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Xenobiotic cannabinoid CB1/CB2-receptor agonists appear to possess broad-spectrum antiemetic activity since they prevent vomiting produced by a variety of emetic stimuli including the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, serotonin 5-HT3-receptor agonists, dopamine D2/D3-receptor agonists and morphine, via the stimulation of CB1-receptors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether structurally diverse cannabinoids [?9-THC, (delta -9- tetrahydrocannabinol); (?8-THC, delta -8-etrahydrocannabinol); WIN55,212-2, (R (+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(morpholinyl)), methyl] pyrolol [1, 2, 3 – de] – 1, 4 benzoxazinyl] – (1-naphthalenyl) methenone mesylate); and CP55,940, ((-) - 3- [2-hydroxy-4- (1,1 - dimethylheptyl] - 4 – [3 – hydroxypropyl] cyclohexan –1 – ol)), can prevent radiation-induced emesis. Exposure to total body radiation (0, 5, 7.5 and 10 Gy) caused robust emesis in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in a dose-dependent manner (ED50= 5.99 (5.77 – 6.23) Gy) and all animals vomited at the highest tested dose of radiation. In addition, the radiation exposure reduced locomotor behaviors to a significant but mild degree in a non-dose-dependent fashion up to one hour posttreatment. Radiation-induced emesis (10 Gy) was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by the CB1/CB2– receptor agonists with the following ID50potency order: CP55,940 (0.11 (0.09 - 0.12) mg/kg) > WIN55, 212,2 (3.65 (3.15 – 4.23) mg/kg) = ?8-THC (4.36 (3.05 – 6.22) mg/kg) > ? 9-THC (6.76 (5.22 – 8.75) mg/kg). Although the greater antiemetic potency and efficacy of ?8-THC relative to its isomer ?9-THC is unusual as the latter cannabinoid possesses higher affinity and potency for cannabinoid receptors in functional assays, the current data support the results of a clinical study in children suggestive of complete protection from emesis by ?8-THC. This effect has not been clinically observed for ?9-THC in cancer patients receiving chemo- or radiation-therapy.Cannabinoids prevented the induced emesis via the stimulation of cannabinoid CB1- receptors because the CB1(SR141716A) – and not the CB2(SR144528) –receptor antagonist reversed both the observed reduction in emesis frequency and shrew emesis protection afforded by either ?9-THC or CP55,940 against radiation-induced emesis. These findings further suggest that the least shrew can be utilized as a versatile and inexpensive small animal model to rapidly screen the efficacy of investigational antiemetics for the prevention of radiation-induced emesis. PMID:17362921

  14. Receptor mechanism and antiemetic activity of structurally-diverse cannabinoids against radiation-induced emesis in the least shrew.

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Janoyan, Jano J; Crim, Jennifer; Ramirez, Juan

    2007-06-01

    Xenobiotic cannabinoid CB1/CB2-receptor agonists appear to possess broad-spectrum antiemetic activity since they prevent vomiting produced by a variety of emetic stimuli including the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, serotonin 5-HT3-receptor agonists, dopamine D2/D3-receptor agonists and morphine, via the stimulation of CB1-receptors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether structurally-diverse cannabinoids [Delta9-THC, (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol); (Delta8-THC, delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol); WIN55,212-2, (R (+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(morpholinyl)), methyl] pyrolol [1,2,3-de]-1,4 benzoxazinyl]-(1-naphthalenyl) methenone mesylate); and CP55,940, ((-)-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl]-4-[3-hydroxypropyl] cyclohexane-1-ol)), can prevent radiation-induced emesis. Exposure to total body radiation (0, 5, 7.5 and 10 Gy) caused robust emesis in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in a dose-dependent manner (ED50=5.99 (5.77-6.23) Gy) and all animals vomited at the highest tested dose of radiation. In addition, the radiation exposure reduced locomotor behaviors to a significant but mild degree in a non-dose-dependent fashion up to one hour post-treatment. Radiation-induced emesis (10 Gy) was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by the CB1/CB2-receptor agonists with the following ID50 potency order: CP55,940 (0.11 (0.09-0.12) mg/kg)>WIN55,212,2 (3.65 (3.15-4.23) mg/kg)=Delta8-THC (4.36 (3.05-6.22) mg/kg)>Delta9-THC (6.76 (5.22-8.75) mg/kg). Although the greater antiemetic potency and efficacy of Delta8-THC relative to its isomer Delta9-THC is unusual as the latter cannabinoid possesses higher affinity and potency for cannabinoid receptors in functional assays, the current data support the results of a clinical study in children suggestive of complete protection from emesis by Delta8-THC. This effect has not been clinically observed for Delta9-THC in cancer patients receiving chemo- or radiation-therapy. Cannabinoids prevented the induced emesis via the stimulation of cannabinoid CB1-receptors because the CB1 (SR141716A)--and not the CB2 (SR144528)--receptor antagonist reversed both the observed reduction in emesis frequency and shrew emesis protection afforded by either Delta9-THC or CP55,940 against radiation-induced emesis. These findings further suggest that the least shrew can be utilized as a versatile and inexpensive small animal model to rapidly screen the efficacy of investigational antiemetics for the prevention of radiation-induced emesis. PMID:17362921

  15. Postpartum erythrophagocytosis, iron storage and iron secretion in the endometrium of the tree shrew (Tupaia) during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, U; Kuhn, H J

    1994-01-01

    Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) develop a bidiscoid endotheliochorial placenta. In addition, histiotrophe secreted by uterine glands is absorbed by the paraplacental trophoblast. Histiotrophe which is rich in iron is necessary for erythropoiesis in the young embryo. This report is part of a study of the accumulation and metabolism of iron in the endometrium of precisely dated pregnant Tupaia belangeri by application of electron spectroscopy and histochemistry. In the endometrium of tree shrews which had been pregnant at least once, iron-laden granules were present in macrophages and secreting cells of uterine glands. Iron accumulated in the endometrium shortly after parturition, when macrophages phagocytosed erythrocytes at small haematomas 0.2-0.5 mm in diameter. These haematomas arose during parturition after bleeding into the uterine stroma when the placental discs were detached. At 24 h after parturition the following structural consequences of the erythrolysosomal breakdown of phagocytosed erythrocytes could be observed: free cytosolic siderin granules, membrane-bound siderosomes, telolysosomes (some of which contained myelin figures or lipid droplets) and mixed telolysosomes (containing membranous stacks and siderin granules). During the lysosomal degradation of phagocytosed erythrocytes, iron was transferred from haemoglobin into a different macromolecular compound. Electron energy loss spectra detected from inside siderosomes indicated an iron-oxygen compound, and high-power bright field electron micrographs of siderosomes demonstrated the ultrastructural pattern characteristic of ferritin. At about d 12 of a new pregnancy, macrophages containing siderosomes closely approached the bases of secreting cells of endometrial glands. This strongly suggests that iron is transferred from the macrophages to the glandular cells. Within the glandular cells, iron-rich histiotrophe was synthesised and released into the glandular lumen. Within the uterine cavity this histiotrophe was absorbed by the omphalopleure. We suggest that among eutherians, postpartum erythrophagocytosis, the transfer of iron from macrophages to uterine glands, and the paraplacental uptake of iron, represent an ancestral mechanism of iron supply to the embryo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Figs. 3-4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7928647

  16. Broad-spectrum antiemetic efficacy of the L-type calcium channel blocker amlodipine in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weixia; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A

    2014-05-01

    The dihydropyridine l-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channel blockers nifedipine and amlodipine reduce extracellular Ca(2+) entry into cells. They are widely used for the treatment of hypertensive disorders. We have recently demonstrated that extracellular Ca(2+) entry via l-type Ca(2+) channels is involved in emesis and that nifedipine has broad-spectrum antiemetic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiemetic efficacy of the longer-acting l-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, amlodipine. Fully effective emetic doses of diverse emetogens such as the l-type Ca(2+) channel agonist (FPL 64176) as well as selective and/or nonselective agonists of serotonergic 5-HT3 (e.g. 5-HT or 2-Me-5-HT)-, dopamine D2 (e.g. apomorphine or quinpirole)-, cholinergic M1 (e.g. pilocarpine or McN-A343)- and tachykininergic NK1 (e.g. GR73632)-receptors, were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in the least shrew to induce vomiting. The broad-spectrum antiemetic potential of amlodipine was evaluated against these emetogens. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of amlodipine (0.5-10mg/kg) attenuated in a dose-dependent and potent manner both the frequency and percentage of shrews vomiting in response to intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of FPL 64176 (10mg/kg), 5-HT (5mg/kg), 2-Me-5-HT (5mg/kg), apomorphine (2mg/kg), quinpirole (2mg/kg), pilocarpine (2mg/kg), McN-A343 (2mg/kg), or GR73632 (5mg/kg). A combination of non-effective doses of amlodipine (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist palonosetron (0.05 mg/kg, s.c.) was more effective against FPL 64176-induced vomiting than their corresponding doses tested alone. Amlodipine by itself suppressed the frequency of acute cisplatin (10mg/kg, i.p)-induced vomiting in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, a combination of a non-effective dose of amlodipine (1mg/kg) potentiated the antiemetic efficacy of a semi-effective dose of palonosetron (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) against acute vomiting caused by cisplatin. We confirm that influx of extracellular Ca(2±) ion underlies vomiting due to diverse causes and demonstrate that l-type Ca(2+) channel blockers are a new class of broad-spectrum antiemetics. PMID:24631485

  17. Lethal disease in infant and juvenile Syrian hamsters experimentally infected with Imjin virus, a newfound crocidurine shrew-borne hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Luck Ju; Kurata, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-12-01

    To gain insights into the pathogenicity of Imjin virus (MJNV), a newfound hantavirus isolated from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), groups of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of varying ages (<1, 5, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 56days) were inoculated by the intraperitoneal route with 1000 pfu of MJNV strains 04-55 and 05-11. MJNV-infected Syrian hamsters, aged 21days or less, exhibited reduced activity, weight loss, respiratory distress, hind-limb paralysis and seizures. Death ensued 1 to 6days after onset of clinical disease. MJNV RNA was detected in brain and other major organs by RT-PCR and real time-PCR. Histopathological examination showed alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial pneumonia and severe pulmonary congestion; focal hepatic necrosis and portal inflammation; and acute meningoencephalitis. By immunohistochemistry, MJNV antigen was detected in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and glial cells. Older hamsters (35 and 56days of age) developed subclinical infection without histopathological changes. Future studies are warranted to determine the pathophysiologic bases for the differential age susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to lethal MJNV disease. PMID:26371066

  18. Distributions of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 in the visual system of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Balaram, P; Isaamullah, M; Petry, H M; Bickford, M E; Kaas, J H

    2015-08-15

    Vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) proteins regulate the storage and release of glutamate from synapses of excitatory neurons. Two isoforms, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, are found in most glutamatergic projections across the mammalian visual system, and appear to differentially identify subsets of excitatory projections between visual structures. To expand current knowledge on the distribution of VGLUT isoforms in highly visual mammals, we examined the mRNA and protein expression patterns of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), superior colliculus, pulvinar complex, and primary visual cortex (V1) in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), which are closely related to primates but classified as a separate order (Scandentia). We found that VGLUT1 was distributed in intrinsic and corticothalamic connections, whereas VGLUT2 was predominantly distributed in subcortical and thalamocortical connections. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 were coexpressed in the LGN and in the pulvinar complex, as well as in restricted layers of V1, suggesting a greater heterogeneity in the range of efferent glutamatergic projections from these structures. These findings provide further evidence that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 identify distinct populations of excitatory neurons in visual brain structures across mammals. Observed variations in individual projections may highlight the evolution of these connections through the mammalian lineage. PMID:25521420

  19. The shrew tamed by Wolff's law: do functional constraints shape the skull through muscle and bone covariation?

    PubMed

    Cornette, Raphaël; Tresset, Anne; Herrel, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Bone is a highly plastic tissue that reflects the many potential sources of variation in shape. Here, we focus on the functional aspects of bone remodeling. We choose the skull for our analyses because it is a highly integrated system that plays a fundamental role in feeding and is thus, likely under strong natural selection. Its principal mechanical components are the bones and muscles that jointly produce bite force and jaw motion. Understanding the covariations among these three components is of interest to understand the processes driving the evolution of the feeding apparatus. In this study, we quantitatively and qualitatively compare interactions between these three components in shrews from populations known to differ in shape and bite force. Bite force was measured in the field using a force transducer and skull shape was quantified using surface geometric morphometric approaches based on µCT-scans of the skulls of same individuals. The masseter, temporalis, pterygoideus, and digastricus muscles of these individuals were dissected and their cross sectional areas determined. Our results show strong correlations between bite force and muscle cross sectional areas as well as between bite force and skull shape. Moreover, bite force explains an important amount of skull shape variation. We conclude that interactions between bone shape and muscle characteristics can produce different morpho-functional patterns that may differ between populations and may provide a suitable target for selection to act upon. PMID:25385121

  20. A mongoose remain (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments, Myanmar and its significance in evolutionary history of Asian herpestids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egi, Naoko; Thaung-Htike; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Maung-Maung; Nishioka, Yuichiro; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Ogino, Shintaro; Takai, Masanaru

    2011-11-01

    A tooth of a mongoose (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae) was discovered from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments in central Myanmar. The age of the fauna is not older than the mid-Pliocene. It is identified as a right first upper molar of a small species of Urva (formally included in the genus Herpestes) based on its size and shape. The present specimen is the first carnivoran from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments and is the first record of mongooses in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Asia. It confirms that mongooses had already dispersed into Southeast Asia by the late Pliocene, being consistent with the previous molecular phylogenetic analyses. The fossil may belong to one of the extant species, but an assignment to a specific species is difficult due to the fragmentary nature of the specimen and the small interspecific differences in dental shape among the Asian mongooses. The size of the tooth suggests that the Irrawaddy specimen is within or close to the clade of Urva auropunctata + javanica + edwardsii, and this taxonomic assignment agrees with the geographical distribution.

  1. Rates of rewarming, heart and respiratory rates and their significance for oxygen transport during arousal from torpor in the smallest mammal, the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus.

    PubMed

    Fons, R; Sender, S; Peters, T; Jürgens, K D

    1997-05-01

    We investigated the process of rewarming from torpor with respect to respiratory and circulatory oxygen transport properties in the smallest mammal, the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus. In seven adult Etruscan shrews with a mean body mass of 2.4g, torpor was induced by deprivation of food and a cold environment. During arousal from torpor at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C, the shrews actively rewarmed from the lowest mean (+/- S.D.) body temperature (Tb) of 12.1 +/- 1.2 degrees C to 20 degrees C at a rate of 0.43 +/- 0.14 degree C min-1, from 20 to 24 degrees C at a rate of 0.8 degree C min-1, and from 24 to 36 degrees C at a rate of 1.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C min-1. The mean rate from 12 degrees C to normothermia amounted to 0.83 degree C min-1, which is among the highest values recorded in mammals. During rewarming, the heart rate increased exponentially (Q10 = 2.2) from 100 to 800-1200 min-1, whereas the respiratory rate increased linearly from 50 to 600-800 min-1. These rates are higher than the heart and respiratory rates reported for other small mammals at the same Tb. The fraction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was 9.2 +/- 1.6% of body mass, which is higher than in any other mammal. Up to a body temperature of approximately 17 degrees C, the heat for rewarming was mainly produced in the BAT; above this value, considerable activity of the skeletal muscles enhanced thermogenesis. Estimation of the mixed venous oxygen partial pressure showed that, at the tissue level, the rewarming process corresponds to heavy work conditions. The ventilatory system is adapted such that during rewarming, in addition to the appropriate oxygen transport capacity, there is also a capacity for hyperventilation. PMID:9192497

  2. ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Suppresses Vomiting Behavior and Fos Expression in Both Acute and Delayed Phases of Cisplatin-induced Emesis in the Least Shrew

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Andrew P.; Griggs, Lisa; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2008-01-01

    Cisplatin chemotherapy frequently causes severe vomiting in two temporally-separated clusters of bouts dubbed the acute and delayed phases. Cannabinoids can inhibit the acute phase, albeit through a poorly understood mechanism. We examined the substrates of cannabinoid-mediated inhibition of both emetic phases via immunolabeling for serotonin, Substance P, cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1, CB2), and the neuronal activation marker Fos in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva). Shrews were injected with cisplatin (10 mg/kg ip), and one of vehicle, ?9-THC, or both ?9-THC and the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A (2 mg/kg ip), and monitored for vomiting. ?9-THC-pretreatment caused concurrent decreases in the number of shrews expressing vomiting and Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR), effects which were blocked by SR141716A-pretreatment. Acute phase vomiting induced Fos-IR in the solitary tract nucleus (NTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX), and area postrema (AP), whereas in the delayed phase Fos-IR was not induced in the AP at all, and was induced at lower levels in the other nuclei when compared to the acute phase. CB1 receptor-IR in the NTS was dense, punctate labeling indicative of presynaptic elements, which surrounded Fos-expressing NTS neurons. CB2 receptor-IR was not found in neuronal elements, but in vascular-appearing structures. All areas correlated with serotonin- and Substance P-IR. These results support published acute phase data in other species, and are the first describing Fos-IR following delayed phase emesis. The data suggest overlapping but separate mechanisms are invoked for each phase, which are sensitive to antiemetic effects of ?9-THC mediated by CB1 receptors. PMID:18721829

  3. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol suppresses vomiting behavior and Fos expression in both acute and delayed phases of cisplatin-induced emesis in the least shrew.

    PubMed

    Ray, Andrew P; Griggs, Lisa; Darmani, Nissar A

    2009-01-01

    Cisplatin chemotherapy frequently causes severe vomiting in two temporally separated clusters of bouts dubbed the acute and delayed phases. Cannabinoids can inhibit the acute phase, albeit through a poorly understood mechanism. We examined the substrates of cannabinoid-mediated inhibition of both the emetic phases via immunolabeling for serotonin, Substance P, cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB(1), CB(2)), and the neuronal activation marker Fos in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva). Shrews were injected with cisplatin (10mg/kg i.p.), and one of vehicle, Delta(9)-THC, or both Delta(9)-THC and the CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A (2mg/kg i.p.), and monitored for vomiting. Delta(9)-THC-pretreatment caused concurrent decreases in the number of shrews expressing vomiting and Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR), effects which were blocked by SR141716A-pretreatment. Acute phase vomiting induced Fos-IR in the solitary tract nucleus (NTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX), and area postrema (AP), whereas in the delayed phase Fos-IR was not induced in the AP at all, and was induced at lower levels in the other nuclei when compared to the acute phase. CB(1) receptor-IR in the NTS was dense, punctate labeling indicative of presynaptic elements, which surrounded Fos-expressing NTS neurons. CB(2) receptor-IR was not found in neuronal elements, but in vascular-appearing structures. All areas correlated with serotonin- and Substance P-IR. These results support published acute phase data in other species, and are the first describing Fos-IR following delayed phase emesis. The data suggest overlapping but separate mechanisms are invoked for each phase, which are sensitive to antiemetic effects of Delta(9)-THC mediated by CB(1) receptors. PMID:18721829

  4. Interferon-Lambda3 (IFN-?3) and Its Cognate Receptor Subunits in Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri): Genomic Sequence Retrieval, Molecular Identification and Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Li; Xu, Wen-Wen; Gao, Yue-Dong; Guo, Yan; Wang, Wen-Ju; Wang, Chao; Jiang, Shi-You; Willden, Andrew; Huang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Hua-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Type III IFNs (IFN-?s) constitute a new subfamily with antiviral activities by signaling through a unique receptor complex composed of IFN-?s receptor 1 (IFN?R1) and interleukin-10 receptor 2 (IL10R2). As tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) have shown susceptiblility to several human viruses, they are a potentially important model for analyzing viral infection. However, little is known about their IFN-?s system. We used the tree shrew genome to retrieve IFN-?s and their receptor contig sequences by BLASTN and BLASTZ algorithms, and GenScan was used to scan transcripts from the putative contig sequences. RT-PCR and bioinformatic methods were then used to clone and characterize the IFN-?s system. Due to its highest identity with human IFN-?3, we opted to define one intact IFN-? gene, tsIFN-?3, as well as its two receptor subunits, tsIFN?R1 and tsIL10R2. Additionally, our results showed that tsIFN-?3 contained many features conserved in IFN-?3 genes from other mammals, including conserved signal peptide cleavage and glycosylation sites, and several residues responsible for binding to the type III IFNR. We also found six transcript variants in the receptors: three in tsIFN?R1, wherein different extracellular regions exist in three transmembrane proteins, resulting in different affinities with IFN-?s; and three more variants in tsIL10R2, encoding one transmembrane and two soluble proteins. Based on tissue distribution in the liver, heart, brain, lung, intestine, kidney, spleen, and stomach, we found that IFN-?s receptor complex was expressed in a variety of organs although the expression level differed markedly between them. As the first study to find transcript variants in IL-10R2, our study offers novel insights that may have important implications for the role of IFN-?s in tree shrews’ susceptibility with a variety of human viruses, bolstering the arguments for using tree shrews as an animal model in the study of human viral infections. PMID:23555878

  5. Transformation of Receptive Field Properties from Lateral Geniculate Nucleus to Superficial V1 in the Tree Shrew

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Arani; Rhodes, Heather J.; Culp, Julie H.; Fitzpatrick, David

    2013-01-01

    Tree shrew primary visual cortex (V1) exhibits a pronounced laminar segregation of inputs from different classes of relay neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). We examined how several receptive field (RF) properties were transformed from LGN to V1 layer 4 to V1 layer 2/3. The progression of RF properties across these stages differed markedly from that found in the cat. V1 layer 4 cells are largely similar to the the LGN cells that provide their input, being dominated by a single sign (ON or OFF) and being strongly modulated by sinusoidal gratings. Some layer 4 neurons, notably those near the edges of layer 4, exhibited increased orientation selectivity, and most layer 4 neurons exhibited a preference for lower temporal frequencies. Neurons in cortical layer 2/3 differ significantly from those in the LGN; most exhibited strong orientation tuning and both ON and OFF responses. The strength of orientation selectivity exhibited a notable sublaminar organization, with the strongest orientation tuned neurons in the most superficial parts of layer 2/3. Modulation indexes provide evidence for simple and complex cells in both layer 4 and layer 2/3. However, neurons with high modulation indexes were heterogenous in the spatial organization of ON and OFF responses, with many of them exhibiting unbalanced ON and OFF responses rather than well-segregated ON and OFF subunits. When compared to the laminar organization of V1 in other mammals, these data show that the process of natural selection can result in significantly altered structure/function relationships in homologous cortical circuits. PMID:23843520

  6. Cisplatin increases brain 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and concomitantly reduces intestinal 2-AG and anandamide levels in the least shrew.

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; McClanahan, Bryan A; Trinh, Chung; Petrosino, Stefania; Valenti, Marta; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2005-09-01

    The chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin may produce emesis via release of several neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-HT), substance P and/or dopamine as well as production of prostaglandins (PGs). Administration of synthetic 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) but not of anandamide, which are two putative endocannabinoids, causes vomiting via its downstream metabolites such as arachidonic acid (AA) and PGs in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva). We report here that cisplatin (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) causes dose- and time-dependent increases in brain tissue levels of 2-AG but not anandamide in this vomiting species. Concomitantly, intestinal tissue levels of both endocannabinoids are relatively reduced. Selective inhibitors [arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) and URB597, 0-5 and 0-10 mg/kg, i.p.] of one of the major endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes, the intracellular fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), do not significantly prevent vomiting produced by emetic doses of i.p.-administered 2-AG, cisplatin or the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. At large doses (10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively), both FAAH inhibitors caused emesis per se. Administration of one selective uptake inhibitor of endocannabinoids, OMDM1 (0-5 mg/kg, i.p.), also did not significantly prevent emesis by the direct and indirect emetic stimuli, and likewise caused emesis by itself at a high (10 mg/kg) dose. However, another selective uptake inhibitor, VDM11, did not produce significant emesis per se and prevented emesis caused by apomorphine. Both the corticosteroid dexamethasone, and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, reduced vomiting produced by cisplatin. These data: (a) provide the first evidence that cisplatin causes a selective increase in 2-AG levels in the brain, and (b) support the established notion that 2-AG may produce some of its effects, including emesis, via downstream metabolites produced independently of FAAH. PMID:15921709

  7. Synergistic antiemetic interactions between serotonergic 5-HT3 and tachykininergic NK1-receptor antagonists in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Chebolu, Seetha; Amos, Barry; Alkam, Tursun

    2011-10-01

    Significant electrophysiological and biochemical findings suggest that receptor cross-talk occurs between serotonergic 5-HT(3)- and tachykininergic NK(1)-receptors in which co-activation of either receptor by ineffective doses of their corresponding agonists (serotonin (5-HT) or substance P (SP), respectively) potentiates the activity of the other receptor to produce a response. In contrast, selective blockade of any one of these receptors attenuates the increase in abdominal vagal afferent activity caused by either 5-HT or SP. This interaction has important implications in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) since 5-HT(3)- and NK(1)-receptor antagonists are the major classes of antiemetics used in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether the discussed interaction produces effects at the behavioral level in a vomit-competent species, the least shrew. Our results demonstrate that pretreatment with either a 5-HT(3) (tropisetron)- or an NK(1) (CP99,994)-receptor specific antagonist, attenuates vomiting caused by a selective agonist (2-methyl 5-HT or GR73632, respectively) of both emetic receptors. In addition, relative to each antagonist alone, their combined doses were 4-20 times more potent against vomiting caused by each emetogen. Moreover, combined sub-maximal doses of the agonists 2-methyl 5-HT and GR73632, produced 8-12 times greater number of vomits relative to each emetogen tested alone. However, due to large variability in vomiting caused by the combination doses, the differences failed to attain significance. The antiemetic dose-response curves of tropisetron against both emetogens were U-shaped probably because larger doses of this antagonist behave as a partial agonist. The data demonstrate that 5-HT(3)- and NK(1)-receptors cross-talk to produce vomiting, and that synergistic antiemetic effects occur when both corresponding antagonists are concurrently used against emesis caused by each specific emetogen. PMID:21683089

  8. Measuring airborne components of seismic body vibrations in a Middle-Asian sand-dwelling Insectivora species, the piebald shrew (Diplomesodon pulchellum).

    PubMed

    Volodin, Ilya A; Zaytseva, Alexandra S; Ilchenko, Olga G; Volodina, Elena V; Chebotareva, Anastasia L

    2012-08-15

    Self-produced seismic vibrations have been found for some subterranean rodents but have not been reported for any Insectivora species, although seismic sensitivity has been confirmed for blind sand-dwelling chrysochlorid golden moles. Studying the vocal behaviour of captive piebald shrews, Diplomesodon pulchellum, we documented vibrations, apparently generated by the whole-body wall muscles, from 11 (5 male, 6 female) of 19 animals, placed singly on a drum membrane. The airborne waves of the vibratory drumming were digitally recorded and then analysed spectrographically. The mean frequency of vibration was 160.5 Hz. This frequency matched the periodicity of the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation (159.4 Hz) found in loud screech calls of the same subjects. The body vibration was not related to thermoregulation, hunger-related depletion of energy resources or fear, as it was produced by well-fed, calm animals, at warm ambient temperatures. We hypothesize that in the solitary, nocturnal, digging desert piebald shrew, body vibrations may be used for seismic exploration of substrate density, to avoid energy-costly digging of packed sand for burrowing and foraging. At the same time, the piercing quality of screech calls due to the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation, matching the periodicity of body vibration, may be important for agonistic communication in this species. PMID:22837458

  9. Inference in a social context: A comparative study of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    Four species (capuchin monkeys, tree shrews, rats, and hamsters) performed an inference task situated in a social context. In Experiment 1, capuchin monkeys first explored food sites under 1 of 2 conditions: In 1 condition, food was refilled after it was eaten (replenished condition), whereas it was not refilled (depleted condition) in the other condition. Two food sites were presented for each condition. In the test phase, a subject watched a conspecific demonstrator visit 1 of the food sites in either the replenished or depleted condition. A screen placed in front of the sites prevented the subject from seeing the demonstrator actually eat the food. When the demonstrator was removed, the subject explored the cage. Three of 4 monkeys tended to go to the unvisited sites in the depleted condition, but tended to go to the visited site in the replenished condition. This suggests that they inferred that there was no food because the demonstrator had eaten it. In Experiment 2, using the same procedure, 2 nongroup-living species (tree shrews and hamsters) were indifferent to demonstrator behavior and visited sites only randomly, and group-living rats showed a strong tendency to follow demonstrators, irrespective of the type of food site. These tendencies were unchanged when olfactory information was added in Experiment 3 and when motivation to compete increased in Experiment 4. These results suggest that only capuchin monkeys have the ability to solve an inference task when cued by social information. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460855

  10. Cloning of putative uncoupling protein 1 cDNA in a cold-intolerant mammal, the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Murata, Yoshiharu; Oda, Sen-ichi

    2006-11-01

    The house musk shrew (Suncus murinus), or suncus, is a unique experimental animal. We recently showed that this mammal is cold intolerant and hypothesized that its sensitivity to cold is caused by low thermogenic activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Thermogenesis in BAT is performed by a unique mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Interestingly, only eutherians possess UCP1, and some traits in the suncus resemble those in the Ucp1-ablated mouse, including cold intolerance, histology of BAT, and obesity resistance. In a previous study, we hypothesized that UCP1 may not be present in BAT of the suncus or may be dysfunctional. Therefore, we performed cDNA cloning of suncus Ucp1 and compared it to homologs from other species. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to other mammalian UCP1. Northern blot analysis revealed mRNA in BAT, as in other mammals. However, a difference in an amino acid residue was observed in an important residue for thermogenesis. Genomic sequence analysis showed that this difference existed in our two genetically distant laboratory colonies. These results suggest that cold intolerance in the suncus is derived from low thermogenic activity of UCP1 and may exist in wild house musk shrews. PMID:17189913

  11. Receptor-selective agonists induce emesis and Fos expression in the brain and enteric nervous system of the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Ray, Andrew P; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A

    2009-11-01

    Research on the mechanisms of emesis has implicated multiple neurotransmitters via both central (dorsal vagal complex) and peripheral (enteric neurons and enterochromaffin cells) anatomical substrates. Taking advantage of advances in receptor-specific agonists, and utilizing Fos expression as a functional activity marker, this study demonstrates a strong, but incomplete, overlap in anatomical substrates for a variety of emetogens. We used cisplatin and specific agonists to 5-HT(3) serotonergic, D(2)/D(3) dopaminergic, and NK(1) tachykininergic receptors to induce vomiting in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva), and quantified the resulting Fos expression. The least shrew is a small mammal whose responses to emetic challenges are very similar to its human counterparts. In all cases, the enteric nervous system, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus demonstrated significantly increased Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR). However, Fos-IR induction was notably absent from the area postrema following the dopaminergic and NK(1) receptor-specific agents. Two brain nuclei not usually discussed regarding emesis, the dorsal raphe nucleus and paraventricular thalamic nucleus, also demonstrated increased emesis-related Fos-IR. Taken together, these data suggest the dorsal vagal complex is part of a common pathway for a variety of distinct emetogens, but there are central emetic substrates, both medullary and diencephalic, that can be accessed without directly stimulating the area postrema. PMID:19699757

  12. Receptor-Selective Agonists Induce Emesis and Fos Expression in the Brain and Enteric Nervous System of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Andrew P.; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the mechanisms of emesis has implicated multiple neurotransmitters via both central (dorsal vagal complex) and peripheral (enteric neurons and enterochromaffin cells) anatomical substrates. Taking advantage of advances in receptor-specific agonists, and utilizing Fos expression as a functional activity marker, this study demonstrates a strong, but incomplete, overlap in anatomical substrates for a variety of emetogens. We used cisplatin and specific agonists to 5-HT3 serotonergic, D2/D3 dopaminergic, and NK1 tachykininergic receptors to induce vomiting in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva), and quantified the resulting Fos expression. The least shrew is a small mammal whose responses to emetic challenges are very similar to its human counterparts. In all cases, the enteric nervous system, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus demonstrated significantly increased Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR). However, Fos-IR induction was notably absent from the area postrema following the dopaminergic and NK1 receptor-specific agents. Two brain nuclei not usually discussed regarding emesis, the dorsal raphe nucleus and paraventricular thalamic nucleus, also demonstrated increased emesis-related Fos-IR. Taken together, these data suggest the dorsal vagal complex is part of a common pathway for a variety of distinct emetogens, but there are central emetic substrates, both medullary and diencephalic, that can be accessed without directly stimulating the area postrema. PMID:19699757

  13. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

    PubMed

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-04-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large 'unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild. PMID:25343515

  14. Utilization of the least shrew as a rapid and selective screening model for the antiemetic potential and brain penetration of substance P and NK1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Wang, Yaozhi; Abad, Joseph; Ray, Andrew P; Thrush, Gerald R; Ramirez, Juan

    2008-06-12

    Substance P (SP) is thought to play a cardinal role in emesis via the activation of central tachykinin NK1 receptors during the delayed phase of vomiting produced by chemotherapeutics. Although the existing supportive evidence is significant, due to lack of an appropriate animal model, the evidence is indirect. As yet, no study has confirmed that emesis produced by SP or a selective NK1 receptor agonist is sensitive to brain penetrating antagonists of either NK1, NK2, or NK3 receptors. The goals of this investigation were to demonstrate: 1) whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of either SP, a brain penetrating (GR73632) or non-penetrating (e.g. SarMet-SP) NK1 receptor agonist, an NK2 receptor agonist (GR64349), or an NK3 receptor agonist (Pro7-NKB), would induce vomiting and/or scratching in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in a dose-dependent manner; and whether these effects are sensitive to the above selective receptor antagonists; 2) whether an exogenous emetic dose of SP (50 mg/kg, i.p.) can penetrate into the shrew brain stem and frontal cortex; 3) whether GR73632 (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced activation of NK1 receptors increases Fos-measured neuronal activity in the neurons of both brain stem emetic nuclei and the enteric nervous system of the gut; and 4) whether selective ablation of peripheral NK1 receptors can affect emesis produced by GR73632. The results clearly demonstrated that while SP produced vomiting only, GR73632 caused both emesis and scratching behavior dose-dependently in shrews, and these effects were sensitive to NK1-, but not NK2- or NK3-receptor antagonists. Neither the selective, non-penetrating NK1 receptor agonists, nor the selective NK2- or NK3-receptor agonists, caused a significant dose-dependent behavioral effect. An emetic dose of SP selectively and rapidly penetrated the brain stem but not the frontal cortex. Systemic GR73632 increased Fos expression in the enteric nerve plexi, the medial subnucleus of nucleus tractus solitarius, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, but not the area postrema. Ablation of peripheral NK1 receptors attenuated the ability of GR73632 to induce a maximal frequency of emesis and shifted its percent animals vomiting dose-response curve to the right. The NK1-ablated shrews exhibited scratching behavior after systemic GR73632-injection. These results, for the first time, affirm a cardinal role for central NK1 receptors in SP-induced vomiting, and a facilitatory role for gastrointestinal NK1 receptors. In addition, these data support the validation of the least shrew as a specific and rapid behavioral animal model to screen concomitantly both the CNS penetration and the antiemetic potential of tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists. PMID:18471804

  15. UTILIZATION OF THE LEAST SHREW AS A RAPID AND SELECTIVE SCREENING MODEL FOR THE ANTIEMETIC POTENTIAL AND BRAIN PENETRATION OF SUBSTANCE P AND NK1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS

    PubMed Central

    Darmani, Nissar A.; Wang, Yaozhi; Abad, Joseph; Ray, Andrew P.; Thrush, Gerald R.; Ramirez, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is thought to play a cardinal role in emesis via the activation of central tachykinin NK1 receptors during the delayed phase of vomiting produced by chemotherapeutics. Although the existing supportive evidence is significant, due to lack of an appropriate animal model, the evidence is indirect. As yet, no study has confirmed that emesis produced by SP or a selective NK1 receptor agonist is sensitive to brain penetrating antagonists of either NK1, NK2, or NK3 receptors. The goals of this investigation were to demonstrate: 1) whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of either SP, a brain penetrating (GR73632) or non-penetrating (e.g. SarMet – SP) NK1 receptor agonist, an NK2 receptor agonist (GR64349), or an NK3 receptor agonist (Pro7-NKB), would induce vomiting and/or scratching in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in a dose-dependent manner; and whether these effects are sensitive to the above selective receptor antagonists; 2) whether an exogenous emetic dose of SP (50 mg/kg, i.p.) can penetrate into the shrew brain stem and frontal cortex; 3) whether GR73632 (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced activation of NK1 receptors increases Fos-measured neuronal activity in the neurons of both brain stem emetic nuclei and the enteric nervous system of the gut; and 4) whether selective ablation of peripheral NK1 receptors can affect emesis produced by GR73632. The results clearly demonstrated that while SP produced vomiting only, GR73632 caused both emesis and scratching behavior dose-dependently in shrews, and these effects were sensitive to NK1-, but not NK2- or NK3-receptor antagonists. Neither the selective, non-penetrating NK1 receptor agonists, nor the selective NK2- or NK3-receptor agonists, caused a significant dose-dependent behavioral effect. An emetic dose of SP selectively and rapidly penetrated the brain stem but not the frontal cortex. Systemic GR73632 increased Fos expression in the enteric nerve plexi, the medial subnucleus of nucleus tractus solitarius, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, but not the area postrema. Ablation of peripheral NK1 receptors attenuated the ability of GR73632 to induce a maximal frequency of emesis and shifted its percent animals vomiting dose-response curve to the right. The NK1-ablated shrews exhibited scratching behavior after systemic GR73632-injection. These results, for the first time, affirm a cardinal role for central NK1 receptors in SP-induced vomiting, and a facilitatory role for gastrointestinal NK1 receptors. In addition, these data support the validation of the least shrew as a specific and rapid behavioral animal model to screen concomitantly both the CNS penetration and the antiemetic potential of tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists. PMID:18471804

  16. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol differentially suppresses cisplatin-induced emesis and indices of motor function via cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in the least shrew.

    PubMed

    Darmani, N A

    2001-01-01

    We have recently shown that the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist, SR 141716A, produces emesis in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in a dose- and route-dependent manner. This effect was blocked by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC). The present study investigates the cannabinoid receptor mechanisms by which Delta(9)-THC produces its antiemetic effects against cisplatin (20 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced emesis as well as its cannabimimetic activity profile (motor reduction) in the least shrew. Intraperitoneal administration of Delta(9)-THC (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced both the percentage of animals vomiting (ID(50)=1.8+/-1.6 mg/kg) and the frequency of vomits (ID(50)=0.36+/-1.18 mg/kg) in a potent manner. The lowest significantly effective antiemetic dose of Delta(9)-THC for the latter emesis parameters was 2.5 mg/kg. Although Delta(9)-THC reduced the frequency of vomits up to 98%, it failed to completely protect all tested shrews from vomiting (80% protection). The cannabinoid CB(1) antagonist (SR 141716A) and not the CB(2) antagonist (SR 144528), reversed the antiemetic effects of Delta(9)-THC in a dose-dependent fashion. Delta(9)-THC (1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, ip) suppressed locomotor parameters (spontaneous locomotor activity, duration of movement and rearing frequency) in a biphasic manner and only the 20-mg/kg dose simultaneously suppressed the triad of locomotor parameters to a significant degree. Subcutaneous (1-10 mg/kg) and intraperitoneal (0.05-40 mg/kg) injection of some doses of SR 141716A caused significant reductions in one or more components of the triad of locomotor parameters but these reductions were not dose dependent. Subcutaneous injection of SR 141716A (0.2, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) reversed the motor suppressant effects of a 20-mg/kg dose of Delta(9)-THC (ip) in a dose-dependent manner. Relative to its motor suppressant effects, Delta(9)-THC is a more potent antiemetic agent. Both effects are probably mediated via CB(1) receptors in distinct loci. PMID:11420092

  17. Brain Volume of the Newly-Discovered Species Rhynchocyon udzungwensis (Mammalia: Afrotheria: Macroscelidea): Implications for Encephalization in Sengis

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Jason A.; Turner, Gregory H.; Holroyd, Patricia A.; Rovero, Francesco; Grossman, Ari

    2013-01-01

    The Gray-faced Sengi (Rhynchocyon udzungwensis) is a newly-discovered species of sengi (elephant-shrew) and is the largest known extant representative of the order Macroscelidea. The discovery of R. udzungwensis provides an opportunity to investigate the scaling relationship between brain size and body size within Macroscelidea, and to compare this allometry among insectivorous species of Afrotheria and other eutherian insectivores. We performed a spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan on a preserved adult specimen of R. udzungwensis using a 7-Tesla high-field MR imaging system. The brain was manually segmented and its volume was compiled into a dataset containing previously-published allometric data on 56 other species of insectivore-grade mammals including representatives of Afrotheria, Soricomorpha and Erinaceomorpha. Results of log-linear regression indicate that R. udzungwensis exhibits a brain size that is consistent with the allometric trend described by other members of its order. Inter-specific comparisons indicate that macroscelideans as a group have relatively large brains when compared with similarly-sized terrestrial mammals that also share a similar diet. This high degree of encephalization within sengis remains robust whether sengis are compared with closely-related insectivorous afrotheres, or with more-distantly-related insectivorous laurasiatheres. PMID:23516530

  18. Decay of Ca2+ and force transients in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles from the rat, mouse and Etruscan shrew.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, P; Gros, G

    1998-02-01

    Isometric single-twitch force and intracellular Ca2+ transients were recorded simultaneously, using fura-2, from slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibres of the rat, mouse and Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus. In the slow-twitch rat soleus, force half-relaxation time was three times longer than the 50% decay time of the fura-2 signal. In contrast, in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscles of all three animals, muscle relaxation preceded Ca2+ decay. It is proposed that this surprising property of fast-twitch muscles is due to their pCa-tension curve, which is shifted to the right compared with that of slow-twitch muscle. PMID:9503643

  19. Decay of Ca2+ and force transients in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles from the rat, mouse and Etruscan shrew.

    PubMed

    Wetzel; g

    1998-01-01

    Isometric single-twitch force and intracellular Ca2+ transients were recorded simultaneously, using fura-2, from slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibres of the rat, mouse and Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus. In the slow-twitch rat soleus, force half-relaxation time was three times longer than the 50 % decay time of the fura-2 signal. In contrast, in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscles of all three animals, muscle relaxation preceded Ca2+ decay. It is proposed that this surprising property of fast-twitch muscles is due to their pCa­tension curve, which is shifted to the right compared with that of slow-twitch muscle. PMID:9427671

  20. Differential temporal changes in brain and gut substance P mRNA expression throughout the time-course of cisplatin-induced vomiting in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Dey, Dilip; Abad, Joseph; Ray, Andrew P; Darmani, Nissar A

    2010-01-15

    Cisplatin and related chemotherapeutics are potent emetogens in humans and least shrews, a small animal emesis model which also vomits in response to substance P (SP). The SP-producing preprotachykinin-1 (PPT1) mRNA is transcribed from the Tac1 gene, which has been sequenced from several animal species and humans and is highly conserved. Despite its prominent role in chemotherapy-induced vomiting, the tachykininergic system is not well-characterized in emesis-competent species. This study was undertaken to further establish Cryptotis parva as an emesis model, by sequencing and characterizing SP mRNA, and then comparing the least shrew tachykininergic system to other mammalian species (vomiting and non-vomiting). The cDNA for least shrew beta-PPT1 was successfully cloned and partially sequenced, and found to be 90% homologous to the human sequence, with the SP-producing portion identical to humans. Initial in situ hybridization results demonstrated induction of beta-PPT1 mRNA in the gut following cisplatin administration. These were followed up with mRNA quantification (via QPCR) at multiple time points following cisplatin injection. PPT1 mRNA levels in the brain spiked at 4 h (19-fold increase) and 24 h (20-fold increase) in correlation with cisplatin-induced emesis. PPT1 mRNA in the gut spiked at 28 h (approximately 6.5-fold increase), correlated with the later phase of vomiting. These results validate the least shrew as a tachykinin model at the molecular level. PMID:19912998

  1. Cisplatin causes over-expression of tachykinin NK(1) receptors and increases ERK1/2- and PKA- phosphorylation during peak immediate- and delayed-phase emesis in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) brainstem.

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Dey, Dilip; Chebolu, Seetha; Amos, Barry; Kandpal, Raj; Alkam, Tursun

    2013-01-01

    Scant information is available regarding the effects of cisplatin on the expression profile of tachykinin NK(1) receptors and downstream signaling during cisplatin-induced emesis. Cisplatin causes peak early- and delayed-phase emesis in the least shrew at 1-2 and 33 h post-injection. To investigate the expression profile of NK(1) receptor during both emetic phases, we cloned the cDNA corresponding to a ~700 base pairs of mRNA flanked by two stretches of nucleotides conserved among different species and demonstrated that the shrew NK(1) receptor nucleotide sequence shares ~90% sequence identity with the human NK(1) receptor. Of the 12 time-points tested, significant increases in expression levels of NK(1) receptor mRNA in the shrew brainstem occurred at 2 and 28 h post-cisplatin injection, whereas intestinal NK(1) receptor mRNA was increased at 28 h. Shrew brainstem and intestinal substance P mRNA levels also tended to increase during the two phases. Furthermore, expression levels of NK(1) receptor protein were significantly increased in the brainstem at 2, 8, and 33 h post-cisplatin. No change in brainstem 5-HT(3) receptor protein expression was observed. The temporal enhancements in NK(1) receptor protein expression were mirrored by significant increases in the phosphorylation status of the brainstem ERK1/2 at 2, 8, and 33 h post-cisplatin. Phosphorylation of PKA significantly increased at 33rd and 40th hour. Our results indicate associations between cisplatin's peak immediate- and delayed-phase vomiting frequency with increased: (1) expression levels of NK(1) receptor mRNA and its protein level, and (2) downstream NK(1) receptor-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PKA signaling. PMID:23001014

  2. Patterns of mRNA and protein expression during minus-lens compensation and recovery in tree shrew sclera

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong; Frost, Michael R.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To increase our understanding of the mechanisms that remodel the sclera during the development of lens-induced myopia, when the sclera responds to putative “go” signals of retinal origin, and during recovery from lens-induced myopia, when the sclera responds to retinally-derived “stop” signals. Methods Seven groups of tree shrews were used to examine mRNA levels during minus lens compensation and recovery. Starting 24 days after eye opening (days of visual experience [VE]) lens compensation animals wore a monocular –5D lens for 1, 4, or 11 days. Recovery animals wore the –5D lens for 11 days, which was then removed for 1 or 4 days. Normal animals were examined at 24 and 38 days of VE. All groups contained 8 animals. Scleral mRNA levels were examined in the treated and contralateral control eyes with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for 27 genes divided into four categories: 1) signaling molecules, 2) matricellular proteins, 3) metalloproteinases (MPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and 4) cell adhesion and other proteins. Four groups (n=5 per group) were used to examine protein levels. One group wore a –5D lens for 4 days. A second group recovered for 4 days after 11 days of ?5D lens treatment. Two groups were used to examine age-matched normal protein levels at 28 and 39 days of VE. The levels of six scleral proteins that showed differential mRNA expression were examined with quantitative western blots. Results Nineteen of the genes showed differential (treated eye versus control eye) expression of mRNA levels in at least one group of animals. Which genes showed differential expression differed after 1 and 4 days of compensation and after 1 or 4 days of recovery. The mRNA level for one gene, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1), was upregulated in the treated eyes after 1 day of compensation. After 4 days, transforming growth factor beta receptor 3 (TGFBR3), transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI), and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) mRNA levels were upregulated. Downregulated were mRNA levels for transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1), transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGFB2), thrombospondin 1 (THBS1), tenascin (TNC), osteonectin (SPARC), osteopontin (SPP1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3), and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS5). After 11 days of lens wear, there was no differential expression. During recovery, after 1 day, treated-eye mRNA downregulation was found for TGFB2, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFBR3, SPARC, ADAMTS1, ADAMTS5, syndecan 4 (SDC4), and collagen type VI, alpha 1 (COL6A1). After 4 days, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, THBS2, and TIMP3 mRNA levels were upregulated in the recovering eye. Significant downregulation, relative to normal eyes, was found in both the control and treated eyes for most genes after 1 day of compensation; a similar decrease was found, compared to lens-compensated eyes, after one day of recovery. Protein levels for THBS1 showed positive correlation with the differential mRNA levels and TGFBR3 showed a negative correlation. No differential protein expression was found for TGFB2, TGFBI, MMP14, and TIMP3. Conclusions The different patterns of differential mRNA expression during minus lens compensation (hyperopia) and recovery (myopia) show that scleral fibroblasts distinguish between “go” and “stop” conditions. There is evidence of binocular global downregulation of genes at the start of both lens wear and recovery. As additional information accumulates about changes in gene expression that occur during compensation and recovery the “signature” of differential changes may help us to understand in more detail how the sclera responds in “go” and “stop” conditions. PMID:21541268

  3. Unusual ampullary sperm crypts, and behavior and role of the cumulus oophorus, in the oviduct of the least shrew, Cryptotis parva.

    PubMed

    Bedford, J M; Mock, O B; Phillips, D M

    1997-05-01

    The gametes of the least shrew, Cryptotis parva, were studied in regard to their maturation and structure, and with particular emphasis on their behavior in the fallopian tube, from the time of ovulation until the appearance of two-cell embryos beginning some 9 h after ovulation. Cryptotis spermatozoa are organized according to the conventional eutherian mold, with the exception of a barbed perforatorium and an unusual plasma membrane density lent by a bristly coat where it overlies the acrosome rim. In the epididymis they undergo a maturation of the capacity for motility and an -S-S-related stabilization of the nucleus and tail organelles, with the cauda housing only approximately 4-5 million spermatozoa. Mating involves penile locking and also the deposition of a modest vaginal plug that covers the cervix. The short (4-5 mm) fallopian tube has three regions-a simple isthmus, a relatively narrow ampulla populated throughout by ciliated crypts, and a crypt-free terminal infundibulum-the fertilization site. Unlike the situation in most mammals, the tubal isthmus was devoid of spermatozoa in mated females before and after ovulation, which occurred approximately 13 h post-hCG and produced a mean of 5.7 ova. However, the ampulla then housed approximately 1500 active cells in groups within the ciliated crypts, sometimes together with leukocytes but with few spermatozoa above in the infundibulum. Within about 1 h after their ovulation from approximately 400-microm follicles, eggs were penetrated while in the infundibulum despite the nonexpanded hyaluronidase-resistant state of the cumulus oophorus. However, on moving down to the ampulla by 2-4 h after ovulation, the dense cumulus around fertilized eggs appeared to proliferate and began to disperse coincidentally with secretion of a hyaluronidase-sensitive matrix in which hundreds of motile spermatozoa often became enmeshed. This cumulus change also occurred around unfertilized eggs, though more slowly, but not around fertilized or unfertilized eggs cultured in vitro. Thus, cumulus matrix production appeared to be stimulated to an important degree by factors in the oviduct, not by preovulatory gonadotropins as in many mammals. Although cumulus-invested eggs were fertilized readily in vitro, cumulus-free eggs of the same age were never fertilized, and spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida had intact acrosomes. This and related evidence from other shrews makes it seem likely that the soricid cumulus has an essential role in fertilization and may induce the acrosome reaction. PMID:9160726

  4. The head-twitch response in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) is a 5-HT2- and not a 5-HT1C-mediated phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Darmani, N A; Mock, O B; Towns, L C; Gerdes, C F

    1994-06-01

    Our initial studies suggested that the 5-HT2/1C agonist (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane [(+/-)-DOI] produces both the head-twitch response (HTR) and the ear-scratch response (ESR) in mice via stimulation of 5-HT2 receptors. However, challenge studies revealed that these behaviors are produced via two different receptors (possibly 5-HT2 and 5-HT1C). Due to a lack of selective agents one cannot designate a particular response for the activation of a specific receptor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate such behaviors in the least shrew, which is more sensitive to (+/-)-DOI than rodents. IP injection of (+/-)-DOI in shrews produced a dose-dependent (bell-shaped) and time-dependent increase in the HTR frequency. The (+/-)-DOI-induced HTR was equipotently and completely attenuated by the 5-HT2/1C antagonists ketanserin and spiperone. The 5-HT1C antagonist with 5-HT2 agonist action, lisuride, also produced the HTR in a bell-shaped dose- and time-dependent fashion. Central injections of both (+/-)-DOI (0.2 microgram) and lisuride (0.5 microgram) also induced the behavior. Both peripheral and central administration of lisuride failed to produce the ESR. (+/-)-DOI significantly induced the ESR only at the highest dose tested (2.5 mg/kg, IP). Centrally administered (+/-)-DOI (0.2 microgram) produced more ESRs relative to vehicle controls; however, the difference did not attain significance. At low doses (0.31 and 0.63 mg/kg), (+/-)-DOI had no effect on locomotor activity, but it significantly attenuated the behavior at larger doses. Both low and high doses of lisuride increased the motor activity. Spiperone dose-dependently suppressed locomotion, whereas ketanserin had no effect. The present results suggest that the HTR is a 5-HT2 receptor-mediated event and changes in locomotor activity do not affect the induced HTR. PMID:8090805

  5. Biomic Specialization and Speciation Rates in Ruminants (Cetartiodactyla, Mammalia): A Test of the Resource-Use Hypothesis at the Global Scale

    PubMed Central

    Cantalapiedra, Juan L.; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Morales, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The resource-use hypothesis proposed by E.S. Vrba predicts that specialist species have higher speciation and extinction rates than generalists because they are more susceptible to environmental changes and vicariance. In this work, we test some of the predictions derived from this hypothesis on the 197 extant and recently extinct species of Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla, Mammalia) using the biomic specialization index (BSI) of each species, which is based on its distribution within different biomes. We ran 10000 Monte Carlo simulations of our data in order to get a null distribution of BSI values against which to contrast the observed data. Additionally, we drew on a supertree of the ruminants and a phylogenetic likelihood-based method (QuaSSE) for testing whether the degree of biomic specialization affects speciation rates in ruminant lineages. Our results are consistent with the predictions of the resource-use hypothesis, which foretells a higher speciation rate of lineages restricted to a single biome (BSI?=?1) and higher frequency of specialist species in biomes that underwent high degree of contraction and fragmentation during climatic cycles. Bovids and deer present differential specialization across biomes; cervids show higher specialization in biomes with a marked hydric seasonality (tropical deciduous woodlands and schlerophyllous woodlands), while bovids present higher specialization in a greater variety of biomes. This might be the result of divergent physiological constraints as well as a different biogeographic and evolutionary history. PMID:22174888

  6. Orthoptera as intermediate hosts of Staphylocystis furcata (Stieda, 1862) (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae).

    PubMed

    Rysavý, B

    1989-01-01

    Cysticercoids of Staphylocystis furcata (Stieda, 1962), the adults of which parasitize the shrews (Soricidae), were found in the thoracic and abdominal cavities of orthopterous insects (Orthoptera, Acridioidea) belonging to five species: Chorthippus apricarius (L.), Chorthippus paralellus (Zett.), Omocestus viridulus (L.), Chrysochraon brachypterus (Ocsk.), and Chrysochraon dispar (Germ.). The cysticercoids are described and their incidence in both sexes of the examined intermediate hosts is compared. PMID:2767549

  7. A microsatellite study in the ??gucki M?yn/Popielno hybrid zone reveals no genetic differentiation between two chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus).

    PubMed

    Moska, Magdalena; Wierzbicki, Heliodor; Macierzy?ska, Anna; Strza?a, Tomasz; Ma?lak, Robert; Warcha?owski, Marcin

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated a chromosome hybrid zone between two chromosomal races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus). Gene flow and genetic structure of the hybrid zone, located in the northeast of Poland, were studied using seven polymorphic autosomal microsatellite loci (L9, L14, L33, L45, L67, L68, L97) and a Y-linked microsatellite locus (L8Y). Seventy-five animals (46 of the ??gucki M?yn race and 29 of the Popielno race) from nine different localities were examined and the data were analyzed using hierarchical AMOVA and F-statistic. The studied microsatellite loci and races (divided into nine geographical populations) were characterized by observed heterozygosity (H(O)), expected heterozygosities within (H(S)), and between (H(T)) populations, inbreeding coefficient (F(IS)), fixation index (F(ST)), and average allelic richness (A). We found that genetic structuring within and between the two chromosome races were weak and non-significant. This finding and unconstrained gene flow between the races indicates a high level of migration within the ??gucki M?yn/Popielno hybrid zone, suggesting that evolutionarily important genetic structuring does not occur in interracial zones where races which are not genetically distinct come into contact. PMID:21475705

  8. The testis of greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula in Southern European populations: a case of adaptive lack of seasonal involution?

    PubMed

    Massoud, Diaa; Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Ortega, Esperanza; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    Males of all seasonal breeding mammals undergo circannual periods of testis involution resulting in almost complete ablation of the germinative epithelium. We performed a morphometric, histological, hormonal, and gene-expression study of the testes from winter and summer males of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, in populations of the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. Unexpectedly, we found no significant differences between the two study groups. Surprisingly, female data confirmed a non-breeding period in the summer, evidencing that males retain full testis function even when most females are not receptive. This situation, which has not been described before, does not occur in northern populations of the same species where, in addition, the reproductive cycle is inverted with respect to those in the south, as the non-breeding period occurs in winter instead in summer. Considering that the non-reproductive period shortens at lower latitude locations, we hypothesize that in southern populations the non-breeding period is short enough to make testis regression inefficient in terms of energy savings, because: (1) testes of C. russula are very small, a condition derived from their monogamy that implies low investment in spermatogenesis; and (2) the spermatogenic cycle of this species is slow and long. The inverted seasonal breeding cycle and the lack of seasonal testis regression described here are new adaptive processes that deserve further research, and provide evidence that the genetic and hormonal mechanisms controlling reproduction timing in mammals are more plastic and versatile than initially suspected. PMID:24895181

  9. Chemical features of monoaminergic and non-monoaminergic neurons in the brain of laboratory shrew (Suncus murinus) are changed by systemic administration of monoamine precursors.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, N; Arai, R; Isomura, G; Nagatsu, T; Nagatsu, I

    1995-12-01

    5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into the laboratory shrew (Suncus murinus). Immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence studies were carried out on serial or same sections of the brain, which were reacted with specific antisera to dopamine (DA) or serotonin (5-HT) produced in our laboratory. We observed that cell bodies and nerve terminals of many catecholaminergic (CAnergic) neurons exhibited 5-HTP uptake and conversion of the precursor into 5-HT. However, the locus ceruleus showed scarcely any 5-HT immunoreactivity. This suggests that the precursor uptake mechanism may be different among various CAnergic groups. In contrast to these findings on CAnergic neurons, all serotoninergic (5-HTnergic) neurons after L-DOPA administration showed DA immunopositive reaction in their cell bodies and nerve terminals, suggesting that 5-HTnergic neurons may have the same capacity for precursor uptake. On the other hand, we observed that all aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)-only-positive neuron groups showed both DA and 5-HT immunoreactions after L-DOPA and 5-HTP administration, respectively, in the double-staining immunofluorescence method. From these results, AADC-only-positive neurons may be considered to belong to the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) system. PMID:8848292

  10. Surveillance of endoparasitic infections and the first report of Physaloptera sp. and Sarcocystis spp. in farm rodents and shrews in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tung, Kwong-Chung; Hsiao, Fun-Chun; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Chou, Chi-Chung; Lee, Wei-Ming; Wang, Kai-Sung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

    2009-01-01

    A total of 95 rodents and shrews including 82 Rattus norvegicus, 7 Rattus rattus, and 6 Suncus murinus were trapped from different localities of Taichung, Taiwan. The overall prevalence of parasites was 93.7%. The infection rates for R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and S. murinus were 93.9%, 85.7%, and 100%, respectively. The rats were infected with four cestodes, Taenia taeniaeformis (48.4%), Hymenolepis diminuta (38.9%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), and Raillietina celebensis (45.3%); ten nematodes, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (16.8%), Capillaria hepatica (49.5%), Gongylonema neoplasticum (1.1%), Heterakis spumosa (35.8%), Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (57.9%), Physaloptera sp. (1.1%), Strongyloides ratti (81.1%), Syphacia muris (2.1%), Trichosomoides crassicauda (29.5%), and Trichurus sp. (1.1%), and one protozoan, Sarcocystis spp. (33.7%). Physaloptera sp. from S. murinus and Sarcocystis spp. from both R. norvegicus and R. rattus were reported for the first time in Taiwan. The importances of zoonotic species were discussed. PMID:19194075

  11. Additive antiemetic efficacy of low-doses of the cannabinoid CB(1/2) receptor agonist ?(9)-THC with ultralow-doses of the vanilloid TRPV1 receptor agonist resiniferatoxin in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Chebolu, Seetha; Zhong, Weixia; Trinh, Chung; McClanahan, Bryan; Brar, Rajivinder S

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that cannabinoid CB1/2 and vanilloid TRPV1 agonists (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC) and resiniferatoxin (RTX), respectively) can attenuate the emetic effects of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. In this study we used the least shrew to demonstrate whether combinations of varying doses of ?(9)-THC with resiniferatoxin can produce additive antiemetic efficacy against cisplatin-induced vomiting. RTX by itself caused vomiting in a bell-shaped dose-dependent manner with maximal vomiting at 18 ?g/kg when administered subcutaneously (s.c.) but not intraperitoneally (i.p.). ?(9)-THC up to 10 mg/kg provides only 80% protection of least shrews from cisplatin-induced emesis with an ID50 of 0.3-1.8 mg/kg. Combinations of 1 or 5 ?g/kg RTX with varying doses of ?(9)-THC completely suppressed both the frequency and the percentage of shrews vomiting with ID50 dose values 5-50 times lower than ?(9)-THC doses tested alone against cisplatin. A less potent TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, by itself did not cause emesis (i.p. or s.c.), but it did significantly reduce vomiting induced by cisplatin given after 30 min but not at 2 h. The TRPV1-receptor antagonist, ruthenium red, attenuated cisplatin-induced emesis at 5mg/kg; however, another TRPV1-receptor antagonist, capsazepine, did not. In summary, we present evidence that combination of CB1/2 and TRPV1 agonists have the capacity to completely abolish cisplatin-induced emesis at doses that are ineffective when used individually. PMID:24157976

  12. L-type calcium channels contribute to 5-HT3-receptor-evoked CaMKII? and ERK activation and induction of emesis in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Tarun E; Zhong, Weixia; Chebolu, Seetha; Wilson, Sean M; Darmani, Nissar A

    2015-05-15

    Activation of serotonergic 5-HT3 receptors by its selective agonist 2-methyl serotonin (2-Me-5-HT) induces vomiting, which is sensitive to selective antagonists of both 5-HT3 receptors (palonosetron) and L-type calcium channels (LTCC) (amlodipine or nifedipine). Previously we demonstrated that 5-HT3 receptor activation also causes increases in a palonosetron-sensitive manner in: i) intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, ii) attachment of calmodulin (CaM) to 5-HT3 receptor, and iii) phosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II? (CaMKII?) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Here, we investigate the role of the short-acting LTCC blocker nifedipine on 2-Me-5-HT-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) increase and on downstream intracellular emetic signaling, which have been shown to be coupled with 2-Me-5-HT?s emetic effects in the least shrew. Using the cell-permeant Ca(2+) indicator fluo-4 AM, here we present evidence for the contribution of Ca(2+) influx through LTCCs (sensitive to nifedipine) in 2-Me-5-HT (1µM) -evoked rise in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in least shrew brainstem slices. Nifedipine pretreatment (10mg/kg, s.c.) also suppressed 2-Me-5-HT-evoked interaction of 5-HT3 receptors with CaM as well as phosphorylation of CaMKII? and ERK1/2 in the least shrew brainstem, and 5-HT3 receptors -CaM colocalization in jejunum of the small intestine. In vitro exposure of isolated enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine to 2-Me-5-HT (1µM) caused CaMKII? phosphorylation, which was also abrogated by nifedipine pretreatment (0.1µM). In addition, pretreatment with the CaMKII inhibitor KN62 (10mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed emesis and also the activation of CaMKII?, and ERK in brainstem caused by 2-Me-5-HT (5mg/kg, i.p.). This study provides further mechanistic explanation for our published findings that nifedipine can dose-dependently protect shrews from 2-Me-5-HT-induced vomiting. PMID:25748600

  13. High Levels of Antimicrobial Resistance among Escherichia coli Isolates from Livestock Farms and Synanthropic Rats and Shrews in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nhung, N. T.; Cuong, N. V.; Campbell, J.; Hoa, N. T.; Bryant, J. E.; Truc, V. N. T.; Kiet, B. T.; Jombart, T.; Trung, N. V.; Hien, V. B.; Thwaites, G.; Baker, S.

    2014-01-01

    In Mekong Delta farms (Vietnam), antimicrobials are extensively used, but limited data are available on levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Escherichia coli isolates. We performed a structured survey of AMR in E. coli isolates (n = 434) from 90 pig, chicken, and duck farms. The results were compared with AMR among E. coli isolates (n = 234) from 66 small wild animals (rats and shrews) trapped on farms and in forests and rice fields. The isolates were susceptibility tested against eight antimicrobials. E. coli isolates from farmed animals were resistant to a median of 4 (interquartile range [IQR], 3 to 6) antimicrobials versus 1 (IQR, 1 to 2) among wild mammal isolates (P < 0.001). The prevalences of AMR among farmed species isolates (versus wild animals) were as follows: tetracycline, 84.7% (versus 25.6%); ampicillin, 78.9% (versus 85.9%); trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 52.1% (versus 18.8%); chloramphenicol, 39.9% (versus 22.5%); amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 36.6% (versus 34.5%); and ciprofloxacin, 24.9% (versus 7.3%). The prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) (resistance against three or more antimicrobial classes) among pig isolates was 86.7% compared to 66.9 to 72.7% among poultry isolates. After adjusting for host species, MDR was ?8 times greater among isolates from wild mammals trapped on farms than among those trapped in forests/rice fields (P < 0.001). Isolates were assigned to unique profiles representing their combinations of susceptibility results. Multivariable analysis of variance indicated that AMR profiles from wild mammals trapped on farms and those from domestic animals were more alike (R2 range, 0.14 to 0.30) than E. coli isolates from domestic animals and mammals trapped in the wild (R2 range, 0.25 to 0.45). The results strongly suggest that AMR on farms is a key driver of environmental AMR in the Mekong Delta. PMID:25398864

  14. High levels of antimicrobial resistance among escherichia coli isolates from livestock farms and synanthropic rats and shrews in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nhung, N T; Cuong, N V; Campbell, J; Hoa, N T; Bryant, J E; Truc, V N T; Kiet, B T; Jombart, T; Trung, N V; Hien, V B; Thwaites, G; Baker, S; Carrique-Mas, J

    2015-02-01

    In Mekong Delta farms (Vietnam), antimicrobials are extensively used, but limited data are available on levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Escherichia coli isolates. We performed a structured survey of AMR in E. coli isolates (n = 434) from 90 pig, chicken, and duck farms. The results were compared with AMR among E. coli isolates (n = 234) from 66 small wild animals (rats and shrews) trapped on farms and in forests and rice fields. The isolates were susceptibility tested against eight antimicrobials. E. coli isolates from farmed animals were resistant to a median of 4 (interquartile range [IQR], 3 to 6) antimicrobials versus 1 (IQR, 1 to 2) among wild mammal isolates (P < 0.001). The prevalences of AMR among farmed species isolates (versus wild animals) were as follows: tetracycline, 84.7% (versus 25.6%); ampicillin, 78.9% (versus 85.9%); trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 52.1% (versus 18.8%); chloramphenicol, 39.9% (versus 22.5%); amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 36.6% (versus 34.5%); and ciprofloxacin, 24.9% (versus 7.3%). The prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) (resistance against three or more antimicrobial classes) among pig isolates was 86.7% compared to 66.9 to 72.7% among poultry isolates. After adjusting for host species, MDR was ?8 times greater among isolates from wild mammals trapped on farms than among those trapped in forests/rice fields (P < 0.001). Isolates were assigned to unique profiles representing their combinations of susceptibility results. Multivariable analysis of variance indicated that AMR profiles from wild mammals trapped on farms and those from domestic animals were more alike (R(2) range, 0.14 to 0.30) than E. coli isolates from domestic animals and mammals trapped in the wild (R(2) range, 0.25 to 0.45). The results strongly suggest that AMR on farms is a key driver of environmental AMR in the Mekong Delta. PMID:25398864

  15. Synaptonemal complex analysis of interracial hybrids between the Moscow and Neroosa chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus showing regular formation of a complex meiotic configuration (ring-of-four).

    PubMed

    Matveevsky, Sergey N; Pavlova, Svetlana V; Maret M Acaeva; Oxana L Kolomiets

    2012-01-01

    Immunocytochemical and electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) was carried out for the first time in homozygotes and complex Robertsonian heterozygotes (hybrids) of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from a newly discovered hybrid zone between the Moscow and the Neroosa chromosomal races. These races differ in four monobrachial homologous metacentrics, and closed SC tetravalent is expected to be formed in meiosis of a hybrid. Indeed, such a multivalent was found at meiotic prophase I in hybrids. Interactions between multivalent and both autosomes and/or the sex chromosomes were observed. For the first time we have used immunocytochemical techniques to analyse asynapsis in Sorex araneus and show that the multivalent pairs in an orderly fashion with complete synapsis. Despite some signs of spermatocytes arrested in the meiotic prophase I, hybrids had large number of active sperm. Thus, Moscow - Neroosa hybrid males that form a ring-of-four meiotic configuration are most likely not sterile. Our results support previous demonstrations that monobrachial homology of metacentrics of the common shrew does not lead to complete reproductive isolation between parapatric chromosomal races of the species. PMID:24260670

  16. Class Mammalia Order Xenarthra

    E-print Network

    Loughry, Jim

    extinct there only 10,000- 15,000 years ago. These invaders included giant herbivorous armadillos Encyclopedia The giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus) eats primarily termites. (Photo by Paul Crum- madillo suborder, Cingulata, split from anteaters and sloths around the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary

  17. Bibliography of Publications from Research Based on Mammal Specimens in the University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute

    E-print Network

    Timm, Robert M.

    2009-12-01

    . 1970. Taxonomy of the Neotoma albigula-group of woodrats in Central Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy, 51:504–516. Handley, C. O., Jr., and J. R. Choate. 1970. The correct name for the least short-tailed shrew (Cryptotis parva) of Guatemala (Mammalia... of Mammalogy, 51:372–375. Choate, J. R. 1970. Systematics and zoogeography of Middle American shrews of the genus Cryptotis. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History, 19:195–317. Gardner, A. L., R. K. LaVal, and D. E. Wilson. 1970...

  18. Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor-Mediated Vomiting Occurs via the Activation of Ca2+/CaMKII-Dependent ERK1/2 Signaling in the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Weixia; Hutchinson, Tarun E.; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2014-01-01

    Stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) by 2-methylserotonin (2-Me-5-HT), a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, can induce vomiting. However, downstream signaling pathways for the induced emesis remain unknown. The 5-HT3R channel has high permeability to extracellular calcium (Ca2+) and upon stimulation allows increased Ca2+ influx. We examined the contribution of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II? (Ca2+/CaMKII?), interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling to 2-Me-5-HT-induced emesis in the least shrew. Using fluo-4 AM dye, we found that 2-Me-5-HT augments intracellular Ca2+ levels in brainstem slices and that the selective 5-HT3R antagonist palonosetron, can abolish the induced Ca2+ signaling. Pre-treatment of shrews with either: i) amlodipine, an antagonist of L-type Ca2+ channels present on the cell membrane; ii) dantrolene, an inhibitor of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) Ca2+-release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); iii) a combination of their less-effective doses; or iv) inhibitors of CaMKII (KN93) and ERK1/2 (PD98059); dose-dependently suppressed emesis caused by 2-Me-5-HT. Administration of 2-Me-5-HT also significantly: i) enhanced the interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin in the brainstem as revealed by immunoprecipitation, as well as their colocalization in the area postrema (brainstem) and small intestine by immunohistochemistry; and ii) activated CaMKII? in brainstem and in isolated enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine as shown by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. These effects were suppressed by palonosetron. 2-Me-5-HT also activated ERK1/2 in brainstem, which was abrogated by palonosetron, KN93, PD98059, amlodipine, dantrolene, or a combination of amlodipine plus dantrolene. However, blockade of ER inositol-1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptors by 2-APB, had no significant effect on the discussed behavioral and biochemical parameters. This study demonstrates that Ca2+ mobilization via extracellular Ca2+ influx through 5-HT3Rs/L-type Ca2+ channels, and intracellular Ca2+ release via RyRs on ER, initiate Ca2+-dependent sequential activation of CaMKII? and ERK1/2, which contribute to the 5-HT3R-mediated, 2-Me-5-HT-evoked emesis. PMID:25121483

  19. Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor-mediated vomiting occurs via the activation of Ca2+/CaMKII-dependent ERK1/2 signaling in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weixia; Hutchinson, Tarun E; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A

    2014-01-01

    Stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) by 2-methylserotonin (2-Me-5-HT), a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, can induce vomiting. However, downstream signaling pathways for the induced emesis remain unknown. The 5-HT3R channel has high permeability to extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) and upon stimulation allows increased Ca(2+) influx. We examined the contribution of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II? (Ca(2+)/CaMKII?), interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling to 2-Me-5-HT-induced emesis in the least shrew. Using fluo-4 AM dye, we found that 2-Me-5-HT augments intracellular Ca(2+) levels in brainstem slices and that the selective 5-HT3R antagonist palonosetron, can abolish the induced Ca(2+) signaling. Pre-treatment of shrews with either: i) amlodipine, an antagonist of L-type Ca(2+) channels present on the cell membrane; ii) dantrolene, an inhibitor of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) Ca2+-release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); iii) a combination of their less-effective doses; or iv) inhibitors of CaMKII (KN93) and ERK1/2 (PD98059); dose-dependently suppressed emesis caused by 2-Me-5-HT. Administration of 2-Me-5-HT also significantly: i) enhanced the interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin in the brainstem as revealed by immunoprecipitation, as well as their colocalization in the area postrema (brainstem) and small intestine by immunohistochemistry; and ii) activated CaMKII? in brainstem and in isolated enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine as shown by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. These effects were suppressed by palonosetron. 2-Me-5-HT also activated ERK1/2 in brainstem, which was abrogated by palonosetron, KN93, PD98059, amlodipine, dantrolene, or a combination of amlodipine plus dantrolene. However, blockade of ER inositol-1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptors by 2-APB, had no significant effect on the discussed behavioral and biochemical parameters. This study demonstrates that Ca(2+) mobilization via extracellular Ca(2+) influx through 5-HT3Rs/L-type Ca(2+) channels, and intracellular Ca(2+) release via RyRs on ER, initiate Ca(2+)-dependent sequential activation of CaMKII? and ERK1/2, which contribute to the 5-HT3R-mediated, 2-Me-5-HT-evoked emesis. PMID:25121483

  20. Changes in Ucp1, D2 (Dio2) and Glut4 (Slc2a4) mRNA expression in response to short-term cold exposure in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Murata, Yoshiharu; Oda, Sen-ichi

    2007-07-01

    The house musk shrew (Suncus murinus), or so-called suncus, is a cold-intolerant mammal, but it is unclear why it is susceptible to low temperatures. Cold-intolerance may be the result of lower thermogenic activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The early phase of severe cold exposure is a critical period for suncus. Therefore, we exposed suncus to mildly cold temperatures (10-12 degrees C) for 1 to 48 h to increase non-shivering thermogenesis without causing stress and measured changes in the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), type II iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase (Dio2=D2), and glucose transporter 4 (Slc2a4=Glut4) in BAT. These mRNAs play a major role in non-shivering thermogenesis and are mainly regulated by the sympathetic nervous system via direct beta-noradrenergic innervation of BAT. During cold exposure, Ucp1 expression in BAT increased steadily over time, albeit only slightly. Neither D2 nor Glut4 expression in BAT increased immediately; however, they had increased significantly after 24 h and 48 h of cold exposure. These findings suggest that the responsiveness of mRNA regulation is weak and thus may be involved in cold-intolerance in suncus. PMID:17660682

  1. Lipotyphla limb myology comparison.

    PubMed

    Neveu, Pauline; Gasc, Jean-Pierre

    2002-05-01

    Fore- and hindlimb muscles were dissected in four species of Lipotyphla: the western European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus (Erinaceidae, Erinaceinae); the moonrat Echinosorex gymnura (Erinaceidae, Hylomyinae or Galericinae); the tailless tenrec Tenrec ecaudatus (Tenrecidae, Tenrecinae); and the common European white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula (Soricidae, Soricinae). This work completely reviews the limb musculature of these walking mammals. Twelve myological characters were evaluated in order to disclose phylogenetic relationships. The cladogram obtained supported previous ones based on cranial and dental characters. This study shows that myological characters are valuable in phylogenetic analyses. PMID:11921044

  2. A histologically derived stereotaxic atlas and substance P immunohistochemistry in the brain of the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) support its role as a model organism for behavioral and pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Ray, Andrew P; Darmani, Nissar A

    2007-07-01

    Chemotherapy is an effective treatment but difficult to tolerate due to side effects like vomiting. Studies on the etiology of chemotherapy-related emesis have implicated brainstem nuclei and the neurotransmitter substance P, among other substrates. Since rodents do not vomit, other species have been necessary as alternative models of chemotherapy-induced emesis. Of these, the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) has proven valuable due to its small size, hardiness, and close phylogenetic relationship with primates. However, very little neuroanatomical data on C. parva exist. We used histological and immunohistochemical techniques to provide neuroanatomical data to help validate C. parva as a model organism, especially for emesis research. Brains were sectioned and stained for Nissl substance or myelin, or immunofluorescently labeled for substance P. Sections were photographed, traced, and reconstructed with standardized zero points, and these data used to create a stereotaxic atlas. The brain of C. parva was similar to but smaller than other mammalian brains, with the cerebellum and hippocampus demonstrating the biggest differences. Differences appeared to be related to the small size of the brain and the metabolic compromises required of such a small mammal. Substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPL-IR) was semiquantitatively mapped, and correlated very well with SPL-IR observed in other species. Dense SPL-IR areas included the periaqueductal grey, trigeminal nuclei, dorsal raphe, and emesis-related brainstem nuclei including the area postrema and solitary tract nucleus. These data demonstrate that the anatomical differences between C. parva and other mammals will not preclude its use as a model organism. PMID:17540350

  3. A Histologically-Derived Stereotaxic Atlas and Substance P Immunohistochemistry in the Brain of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis Parva) Support Its Role as a Model Organism for Behavioral and Pharmacological Research

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Andrew P.; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy is an effective treatment but difficult to tolerate due to side effects like vomiting. Studies on the etiology of chemotherapy-related emesis have implicated brainstem nuclei and the neurotransmitter Substance P, among other substrates. Since rodents do not vomit, other species have been necessary as alternative models of chemotherapy-induced emesis. Of these, the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) has proven valuable due to its small size, hardiness, and close phylogenetic relationship with primates. However, very little neuroanatomical data on C. parva exist. We used histological and immunohistochemical techniques to provide neuroanatomical data to help validate C. parva as a model organism, especially for emesis research. Brains were sectioned and stained for Nissl substance or myelin, or immunofluorescently labeled for Substance P. Sections were photographed, traced, and reconstructed with standardized zero points, and these data used to create a stereotaxic atlas. The brain of C. parva was similar to but smaller than other mammalian brains, with the cerebellum and hippocampus demonstrating the biggest differences. Differences appeared to be related to the small size of the brain and the metabolic compromises required of such a small mammal. Substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPL-IR) was semiquantitatively mapped, and correlated very well with SPL-IR observed in other species. Dense SPL-IR areas included the periaqueductal grey, trigeminal nuclei, dorsal raphe, and emesis-related brainstem nuclei including the area postrema and solitary tract nucleus. These data demonstrate that the anatomical differences between C. parva and other mammals will not preclude its use as a model organism. PMID:17540350

  4. The historical biogeography of Mammalia

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Mark S.; Meredith, Robert W.; Janecka, Jan E.; Murphy, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Palaeobiogeographic reconstructions are underpinned by phylogenies, divergence times and ancestral area reconstructions, which together yield ancestral area chronograms that provide a basis for proposing and testing hypotheses of dispersal and vicariance. Methods for area coding include multi-state coding with a single character, binary coding with multiple characters and string coding. Ancestral reconstruction methods are divided into parsimony versus Bayesian/likelihood approaches. We compared nine methods for reconstructing ancestral areas for placental mammals. Ambiguous reconstructions were a problem for all methods. Important differences resulted from coding areas based on the geographical ranges of extant species versus the geographical provenance of the oldest fossil for each lineage. Africa and South America were reconstructed as the ancestral areas for Afrotheria and Xenarthra, respectively. Most methods reconstructed Eurasia as the ancestral area for Boreoeutheria, Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria. The coincidence of molecular dates for the separation of Afrotheria and Xenarthra at approximately 100 Ma with the plate tectonic sundering of Africa and South America hints at the importance of vicariance in the early history of Placentalia. Dispersal has also been important including the origins of Madagascar's endemic mammal fauna. Further studies will benefit from increased taxon sampling and the application of new ancestral area reconstruction methods. PMID:21807730

  5. Broad-spectrum antiemetic potential of the L-type calcium channel antagonist nifedipine and evidence for its additive antiemetic interaction with the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist palonosetron in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Zhong, Weixia; Chebolu, Seetha; Vaezi, Mariam; Alkam, Tursun

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin-like chemotherapeutics cause vomiting via release of multiple neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), or substance P (SP)) from the gastrointestinal enterochromaffin cells and/or the brainstem via a calcium dependent process. Diverse channels in the plasma membrane allow extracellular Ca(2+) entry into cells for the transmitter release process. Agonists of 5-HT3 receptors increase calcium influx through both 5-HT3 receptors and L-type Ca(2+) channels. We envisaged that L-type calcium agonists such as FPL 64176 should cause vomiting and corresponding antagonists such as nifedipine would behave as broad-spectrum antiemetics. Administration of FPL 64176 did cause vomiting in the least shrew in a dose-dependent fashion. Nifedipine and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist palonosetron, potently suppressed FPL 64176-induced vomiting, while a combination of ineffective doses of these antagonists was more efficacious. Subsequently, we investigated the broad-spectrum antiemetic potential of nifedipine against diverse emetogens including agonists of serotonergic 5-HT3- (e.g. 5-HT or 2-Me-5-HT), SP tachykinin NK1- (GR73632), dopamine D2- (apomorphine or quinpirole), and cholinergic M1- (McN-A-343) receptors, as well as the non-specific emetogen, cisplatin. Nifedipine by itself suppressed vomiting in a potent and dose-dependent manner caused by the above emetogens except cisplatin. Moreover, low doses of nifedipine potentiated the antiemetic efficacy of non-effective or semi-effective doses of palonosetron against vomiting caused by either 2-Me-5-HT or cisplatin. Thus, our findings demonstrate that activation of L-type calcium channels causes vomiting, whereas blockade of these ion channels by nifedipine-like antagonists not only provides broad-spectrum antiemetic activity but can also potentiate the antiemetic efficacy of well-established antiemetics such as palonosetron. L-type calcium channel antagonists should also provide antiemetic activity against drug-induced vomiting as well as other emetogens including bacterial and viral proteins. PMID:24513517

  6. Photoreceptor types and distributions in the retinae of insectivores.

    PubMed

    Peichl, L; Künzle, H; Vogel, P

    2000-01-01

    The retinae of insectivores have been rarely studied, and their photoreceptor arrangements and expression patterns of visual pigments are largely unknown. We have determined the presence and distribution of cones in three species of shrews (common shrew Sorex araneus, greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula, dark forest shrew Crocidura poensis; Soricidae) and in the lesser hedgehog tenrec Echinops telfairi (Tenrecidae). Special cone types were identified and quantified in flattened whole retinae by antisera/antibodies recognizing the middle-to-long-wavelength-sensitive (M/L-)cone opsin and the short-wavelength-sensitive (S-)cone opsin, respectively. A combination of immunocytochemistry with conventional histology was used to assess rod densities and cone/rod ratios. In all four species the rods dominate at densities of about 230,000-260,000/mm2. M/L- and S-cones are present, comprising between 2% of the photoreceptors in the nocturnal Echinops telfairi and 13% in Sorex araneus that has equal diurnal and nocturnal activity phases. This suggests dichromatic color vision like in many other mammals. A striking feature in all four species are dramatically higher S-cone proportions in ventral than in dorsal retina (0.5% vs. 2.5-12% in Sorex, 5-15% vs. 30-45% in Crocidura poensis, 3-12% vs. 20-50% in Crocidura russula, 10-30% vs. 40-70% in Echinops). The functional and comparative aspects of these structural findings are discussed. PMID:11193110

  7. Automating analog design: Taming the shrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, A.

    1990-01-01

    The pace of progress in the design of integrated circuits continues to amaze observers inside and outside of the industry. Three decades ago, a 50 transistor chip was a technological wonder. Fifteen year later, a 5000 transistor device would 'wow' the crowds. Today, 50,000 transistor chips will earn a 'not too bad' assessment, but it takes 500,000 to really leave an impression. In 1975 a typical ASIC device had 1000 transistors, took one year to first samples (and two years to production) and sold for about 5 cents per transistor. Today's 50,000 transistor gate array takes about 4 months from spec to silicon, works the first time, and sells for about 0.02 cents per transistor. Fifteen years ago, the single most laborious and error prone step in IC design was the physical layout. Today, most IC's never see the hand of a layout designer: and automatic place and route tool converts the engineer's computer captured schematic to a complete physical design using a gate array or a library of standard cells also created by software rather than by designers. CAD has also been a generous benefactor to the digital design process. The architect of today's digital systems creates the design using an RTL or other high level simulator. Then the designer pushes a button to invoke the logic synthesizer-optimizer tool. A fault analyzer checks the result for testability and suggests where scan based cells will improve test coverage. One obstinate holdout amidst this parade of progress is the automation of analog design and its reduction to semi-custom techniques. This paper investigates the application of CAD techniques to analog design.

  8. Topological Ghosts: the Teeming of the Shrews

    E-print Network

    Kaloper, Nemanja

    2012-01-01

    We consider dynamics of spacetime volume-filling form fields with "wrong sign" kinetic terms, such as in so-called Type-II$^*$ string theories. Locally, these form fields are just additive renormalizations of the cosmological constant. They have no fluctuating degrees of freedom. However, once the fields are coupled to membranes charged under them, their configurations are unstable: by a process analogous to Schwinger pair production the field space-filling flux increases. This reduces the cosmological constant, and preserves the null energy condition, since the processes that can violate it by reducing the form flux are very suppressed. The increase of the form flux implies that as time goes on the probability for further membrane nucleation {\\it increases}, in contrast to the usual case where the field approaches its vacuum value and ceases to induce further transitions. Thus, in such models spaces with tiny positive vacuum energy are ultimately unstable, but the instability may be slow and localized. In a ...

  9. Topological Ghosts: the Teeming of the Shrews

    E-print Network

    Nemanja Kaloper; McCullen Sandora

    2012-11-13

    We consider dynamics of spacetime volume-filling form fields with "wrong sign" kinetic terms, such as in so-called Type-II$^*$ string theories. Locally, these form fields are just additive renormalizations of the cosmological constant. They have no fluctuating degrees of freedom. However, once the fields are coupled to membranes charged under them, their configurations are unstable: by a process analogous to Schwinger pair production the field space-filling flux increases. This reduces the cosmological constant, and preserves the null energy condition, since the processes that can violate it by reducing the form flux are very suppressed. The increase of the form flux implies that as time goes on the probability for further membrane nucleation {\\it increases}, in contrast to the usual case where the field approaches its vacuum value and ceases to induce further transitions. Thus, in such models spaces with tiny positive vacuum energy are ultimately unstable, but the instability may be slow and localized. In a cosmological setting, this instability can enhance black hole rate formation, by locally making the vacuum energy negative at late times, which constrains the scales controlling membrane dynamics, and may even collapse a large region of the visible universe.

  10. A field guide to the mammals of Central America & Southeast Mexico, book review.

    E-print Network

    Timm, Robert M.

    2011-06-01

    , the slaty mouse opossum (Marmosops invictus; p. 51) is more widely distributed in Panama than the map and text state (see Pine 1981). The map legends for 2 species of shrews are switched—Cryptotis hondurensis should be listed as occur- www.mammalogy.org 690... and Biodiversity Institute, 1345 Jayhawk Boulevard, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA; e-mail: btimm@ku.edu. LITERATURE CITED PINE, R. H. 1981. Reviews of the mouse opossum Marmosa parvidens Tate and Marmosa invicta Goldman (Mammalia: Marsupialia...

  11. The lamina cribrosa of Ornithorhynchus (Monotremata, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Zeller, U

    1988-01-01

    A vestigial and transitory lamina cribrosa was found in nestling platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). The heads of two nest-young (180 and 333 mm length), one subadult and one adult Ornithorhynchus were serially sectioned and studied with special reference to the development of the nasal region. In nest-young Ornithorhynchus an irregularly shaped bar of cartilage develops at the foramen olfactorium advehens. In the subadult it is largely resorbed, and in the osseous skull of the adult it is completely lacking. Ontogeny and topographical relationships of this bar of cartilage indicate that it is part of a lamina cribrosa. It embraces the ramus medialis of the nervus ethmoidalis and the arteria ethmoidalis, as do the corresponding parts of the lamina cribrosa of Tachyglossus. Compared to other parts of the chondrocranium this bar develops late in ontogeny, as does the lamina cribrosa of other mammals. Therefore, it can be concluded that part of the lamina cribrosa is present for a short period during the ontogeny of Ornithorhynchus, contrary to earlier reports. As in many other water-adapted mammals, the olfactory system of Ornithorhynchus is reduced. This suggests that the rest of the lamina cribrosa of Ornithorhynchus is secondarily reduced. The common ancestor of Ornithorhynchus and Tachyglossidae most probably possessed a lamina cribrosa which can be traced back to the common mammalian stock. The lamina cribrosa developed only once in the phylogeny of mammals. Its lack in the adult Ornithorhynchus is not a "reptilian" character. PMID:3223609

  12. Arthritis in a glyptodont (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Fernando Henrique de Souza; Porpino, Kleberson de Oliveira; Fragoso, Ana Bernadete Lima; Oliveira, Edison Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Arthritic lesions have been frequently diagnosed in the fossil record, with spondyloarthropathy (a type of erosive and pan-mammalian arthritis) being one of the most common types described to date for mammals, though not restricted to this group. Here, we identify spondyloarthropathy in fossil bones from the late Pleistocene in Brazil assignable to a large glyptodont individual. Bone erosions in the peripheral joints (viz., the ulna, radius, left femur and tibiae-fibulae) associated with osteosclerosis allow the diagnosis of spondyloarthropathy. The presence of osteophytes in seven bones of the forelimbs (viz., the ulna and radius) and hind limbs (viz., the tibiae-fibulae, left femur and patellae) and a subchondral cyst in one element (viz., the left femur) indicate secondary osteoarthritis. A calcified deposition on the articular surface of the left patella indicates the presence of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, which, like the observed osteoarthritic alterations, likely represents a complication of spondyloarthropathy. This is the first report of spondyloarthropathy for xenarthrans. PMID:24551126

  13. Arthritis in a Glyptodont (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata)

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Fernando Henrique de Souza; Porpino, Kleberson de Oliveira; Fragoso, Ana Bernadete Lima; Oliveira, Edison Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Arthritic lesions have been frequently diagnosed in the fossil record, with spondyloarthropathy (a type of erosive and pan-mammalian arthritis) being one of the most common types described to date for mammals, though not restricted to this group. Here, we identify spondyloarthropathy in fossil bones from the late Pleistocene in Brazil assignable to a large glyptodont individual. Bone erosions in the peripheral joints (viz., the ulna, radius, left femur and tibiae-fibulae) associated with osteosclerosis allow the diagnosis of spondyloarthropathy. The presence of osteophytes in seven bones of the forelimbs (viz., the ulna and radius) and hind limbs (viz., the tibiae-fibulae, left femur and patellae) and a subchondral cyst in one element (viz., the left femur) indicate secondary osteoarthritis. A calcified deposition on the articular surface of the left patella indicates the presence of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, which, like the observed osteoarthritic alterations, likely represents a complication of spondyloarthropathy. This is the first report of spondyloarthropathy for xenarthrans. PMID:24551126

  14. SHORT REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Gu, S. H.; Dormion, J.; Hugot, J.-P.; Yanagihara, R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae and Talpidae) has challenged the conventional view that rodents serve as the principal reservoir hosts. Nova virus (NVAV), previously identified in archival liver tissue of a single European mole (Talpa europaea) from Hungary, represents one of the most highly divergent hantaviruses identified to date. To ascertain the spatial distribution and genetic diversity of NVAV, we employed RT–PCR to analyse lungs from 94 moles, captured in two locations in France, during October 2012 to March 2013. NVAV was detected in more than 60% of moles at each location, suggesting efficient enzootic virus transmission and confirming that this mole species serves as the reservoir host. Although the pathogenic potential of NVAV is unknown, the widespread geographical distribution of the European mole might pose a hantavirus exposure risk for humans. PMID:24044372

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nectogale elegans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting; Yan, Chaochao; Tan, Zheng; Tu, Feiyun; Yue, Bisong; Zhang, Xiuyue

    2014-08-01

    The elegant water shrew (Nectogale elegans) belongs to the family Soricidae, and distributes in northern South Asia, central and southern China and northern Southeast Asia. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of N. elegans was sequenced. It was determined to be 17,460 bases, and included 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and one non-coding region, which is similar to other mammalian mitochondrial genomes. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees based on 12 heavy-strand concatenated PCGs. Phylogenetic analyses further confirmed that Crocidurinae diverged prior to Soricinae, and Sorex unguiculatus differentiated earlier than N. elegans. PMID:23795853

  16. Re-Teaching Shakespeare (II): The Shrew Oppressed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Describes a "Shakespeare Coursework Unit" in which Shakespearean and other literary works of the Tudor era were analyzed for evidence of the gender biases prevalent in that period. Notes that by the end of the course, students accepted the assertion that textual analysis is never truly completed. (SG)

  17. On the development of the shoulder girdle in Crocidura russula (Soricidae) and other placental mammals: evolutionary and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Martin; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Maier, Wolfgang

    2002-11-01

    The development of the shoulder girdle was studied in embryonic stages and a neonate of Crocidura russula using histological sections and 3-D reconstructions. Neonatal stages of Suncus etruscus and Mesocricetus auratus, both altricial placentals, were also studied. The earliest stage of C russula, in which the scapula is still partially blastematous, has already a supraspinous fossa. The dorsal portion of the scapular spine does not develop from the anterior margin of the scapula. Its mode of development varies among the placentals studied to date. In some it is completely appositional bone, in others it consists of bone formed mostly by endochondral ossification of a dorsal cartilaginous process stemming from the acromium. During development the supraspinatus muscle increases in size in proportion to the infraspinatus muscle and the humeral head increases in size in relation to the glenoid fossa. Placentals have secondary cartilage in the sternal and acromial ends of the clavicle, a derived feature absent in Marsupialia. Even the most altricial placentals have a more developed shoulder girdle at birth than any newborn marsupial studied to date. PMID:12448772

  18. On the development of the shoulder girdle in Crocidura russula (Soricidae) and other placental mammals: evolutionary and functional aspects

    PubMed Central

    Großmann, Martin; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Maier, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    The development of the shoulder girdle was studied in embryonic stages and a neonate of Crocidura russula using histological sections and 3-D reconstructions. Neonatal stages of Suncus etruscus and Mesocricetus auratus, both altricial placentals, were also studied. The earliest stage of C. russula, in which the scapula is still partially blastematous, has already a supraspinous fossa. The dorsal portion of the scapular spine does not develop from the anterior margin of the scapula. Its mode of development varies among the placentals studied to date. In some it is completely appositional bone, in others it consists of bone formed mostly by endochondral ossification of a dorsal cartilaginous process stemming from the acromium. During development the supraspinatus muscle increases in size in proportion to the infraspinatus muscle and the humeral head increases in size in relation to the glenoid fossa. Placentals have secondary cartilage in the sternal and acromial ends of the clavicle, a derived feature absent in Marsupialia. Even the most altricial placentals have a more developed shoulder girdle at birth than any newborn marsupial studied to date. PMID:12448772

  19. Breaking constraint: axial patterning in Trichechus (Mammalia: Sirenia).

    PubMed

    Buchholtz, Emily A; Wayrynen, Kaisa L; Lin, Iris W

    2014-01-01

    Meristic variation is often limited in serially homologous systems with high internal differentiation and high developmental modularity. The mammalian neck, an extreme example, has a fixed (at seven) count of diversely specialized segments. Imposition of the mammalian cervical constraint has been tentatively linked to the origin of the diaphragm, which is muscularized by cells that migrate from cervical somites during development. With six cervical vertebrae, the genus Trichechus (manatee) has apparently broken this constraint, although the mechanism of constraint escape is unknown. Hypotheses for the developmental origin of Trichechus cervical morphology include cervical rib 7 repatterning, a primaxial/abaxial patterning shift, and local homeosis at the cervical/thoracic boundary. We tested predictions of these hypotheses by documenting vertebral morphology, axial ossification patterns, regionalization of the postcranial skeleton, and the relationship of thoracic ribs to sternal subunits in a large data set of fetal and adult Trichechus and Dugong specimens. These observations forced rejection of all three hypotheses. We propose alternatively that a global slowing of the rate of somitogenesis reduced somite count and disrupted alignment of Hox-generated anatomical markers relative to somite (and vertebral) boundaries throughout the Trichechus column. This hypothesis is consistent with observations of the full range of traditional cervical morphologies in the six cervical vertebrae, conserved postcranial proportions, and column-wide reduction in count relative to its sister taxon, Dugong. It also suggests that the origin of the mammalian cervical constraint lies in patterning, not in count, and that Trichechus and the tree sloths have broken the constraint using different developmental mechanisms. PMID:25339599

  20. Comparison of mitochondrial genome sequences of pangolins (Mammalia, Pholidota).

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen

    2015-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced for three species of pangolins, Manis javanica, Phataginus tricuspis, and Smutsia temminckii, and comparisons were made with two other species, Manis pentadactyla and Phataginus tetradactyla. The genome of Manidae contains the 37 genes found in a typical mammalian genome, and the structure of the control region is highly conserved among species. In Manis, the overall base composition differs from that found in African genera. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the genera Manis, Phataginus, and Smutsia, as well as the basal division between Maninae and Smutsiinae. Comparisons with GenBank sequences reveal that the reference genomes of M. pentadactyla and P. tetradactyla (accession numbers NC_016008 and NC_004027) were sequenced from misidentified taxa, and that a new species of tree pangolin should be described in Gabon. PMID:25746396

  1. A Reexamination of the Carnivora Malleus (Mammalia, Placentalia)

    PubMed Central

    Wible, John R.; Spaulding, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Authoritative anatomical references depict domestic dogs and cats as having a malleus with a short rostral (anterior) process that is connected via a ligament to the ectotympanic of the auditory bulla. Similar mallei have been reported for representatives of each of the 15 extant families of Carnivora, the placental order containing dogs and cats. This morphology is in contrast to a malleus with a long rostral process anchored to the ectotympanic that is considered to be primitive for mammals. Our reexamination of extant carnivorans found representatives from 12 families that possess an elongate rostral process anchored to the ectotympanic. Consequently, the malleus also is a component of the bulla. In a subset of our carnivoran sample, we confirmed that the elongate rostral process on the ectotympanic is continuous with the rest of the malleus through a thin osseous lamina. This morphology is reconstructed as primitive for Carnivora. Prior inaccurate descriptions of the taxa in our sample having mallei continuous with the bulla were based on damaged mallei. In addition to coupling to the ectotympanic, the rostral process of the malleus was found to have a hook-like process that fits in a facet on the skull base in representatives from seven families (felids, nandiniids, viverrids, canids, ursids, procyonids, and mustelids); its occurrence in the remaining families could not be ascertained. This feature is named herein the mallear hook and is likewise reconstructed to be primitive for Carnivora. We also investigated mallei in one additional placental order reported to have mallei not connected to the ectotympanic, Pholidota (pangolins), the extant sister group of Carnivora. We found pholidotans to also have anchored mallei with long rostral processes, but lacking mallear hooks. In light of our results, other mammals previously reported to have short rostral processes should be reexamined. PMID:23209753

  2. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae) from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Abstract From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556

  3. Vertebral anomaly in fossil sea cows (Mammalia, Sirenia).

    PubMed

    Voss, Manja; Asbach, Patrick; Hilger, André

    2011-06-01

    Four incompletely preserved caudal vertebrae lacking the neural arches of two fossil sirenian individuals of Halitherium schinzii (Oligocene) from the Rhine area in Germany and northern Belgium reveal osteological alterations. The caudal vertebrae possess a transverse process with growth retardation. This asymmetry indicates that the affected transverse processes are less developed than their counterparts and, consequently, deviate from the norm. Computed tomography (CT) scans reveal osteosclerotic patterns, a morphological feature that characterizes sea cows and supports the nonpathological state of the vertebrae. Additionally, no indications of vertebral fractures or any other occurrences due to external factors are present. This is the oldest documentation of such an anomaly in any sirenian and is interpreted here as hypoplasia, the underdevelopment of an organ or parts of it that might cause a functional deficiency. PMID:21538937

  4. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. PMID:25869730

  5. Ecological correlates to cranial morphology in Leporids (Mammalia, Lagomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, Emma; Bumacod, Nicholas; Wedel, Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian order Lagomorpha has been the subject of many morphometric studies aimed at understanding the relationship between form and function as it relates to locomotion, primarily in postcranial morphology. The leporid cranial skeleton, however, may also reveal information about their ecology, particularly locomotion and vision. Here we investigate the relationship between cranial shape and the degree of facial tilt with locomotion (cursoriality, saltation, and burrowing) within crown leporids. Our results suggest that facial tilt is more pronounced in cursors and saltators compared to generalists, and that increasing facial tilt may be driven by a need for expanded visual fields. Our phylogenetically informed analyses indicate that burrowing behavior, facial tilt, and locomotor behavior do not predict cranial shape. However, we find that variables such as bullae size, size of the splenius capitus fossa, and overall rostral dimensions are important components for understanding the cranial variation in leporids. PMID:25802812

  6. Molecular evolution of Holarctic martens (genus Martes, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Stone, Karen D; Cook, Joseph A

    2002-08-01

    The Bering Land Bridge has served as a major corridor of interchange between the northern continents for many organisms. We investigated the phylogeny of all extant species of Martes (except for Martes gwatkinsi from India) to infer evolutionary relationships and characterize the extent of trans-Beringian movements. Analyses of complete sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and partial sequences of the nuclear aldolase C gene (241bp) suggested that the genus Martes may be paraphyletic with respect to Gulo gulo. These data supported the fossil record's indication that early radiations gave rise to two subgenera (Pekania and Charronia) and that a more recent, possibly rapid, radiation gave rise to species of the third subgenus (Martes). Two colonizations of North America are evident, one by members of the subgenus Pekania and another by member of the subgenus Martes. Contrary to hypotheses based on morphological evidence, the "americana" and "caurina" subspecies groups of Martes americana are not the result of independent colonizations of North America. The phylogenetic analyses of cytochrome b data were consistent with the recognition of these subspecies groups as monophyletic clades; however, variation in the aldolase C sequences indicated that these generally parapatric groups may interbreed in a region of limited geographic overlap. PMID:12144754

  7. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphisvirginiana, 15 Didelphismarsupialis, and 5 Philanderopossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaimadidelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopaliascoronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchusmicrocephalus and the nematodes Cruziatentaculata, Gnathostomaturgidum, and Turgidaturgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556

  8. Nitrogen requirements of white-lipped peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L G; Borges, Rogério M; Mendes, Alcester; Dias, Carlos T S

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the protein requirement of the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) performing a nitrogen (N) balance digestion trial. In a 4?×?4 Latin square design, four adult captive male peccaries were fed four isoenergetic diets containing four different levels of N (13.3, 19.2, 28.7, and 37.1?g?N/kg dry matter). After 15 days of adaptation, the total collection of feces and urine was carried out for five consecutive days. By regression analysis between N intake and N in feces and urine, the metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN?=?3.1?g/kg of dry matter intake) and daily endogenous urinary N (EUN?=?91.0?mg/kg(0.75) ) were determined. Likewise, by regression analyses between consumption of nitrogen and the nitrogen balance [NB?N consumed-(fecal N?+?Urine N)] we estimated the daily requirement of 336.5 mgN/kg(0.75) . Therefore, if food intake is unrestricted, white-lipped peccaries require a minimum content in their diet of about 4.5% crude protein as percentage of dry diet. These values are similar to those found in frugivorous wild ruminants, which reinforces the proposition that peccaries have a digestive physiology nearer to that of ruminants than of domestic pigs. Furthermore, the low nutritional maintenance requirements for white-lipped peccary may explain how this species thrive in the Neo-tropical region eating predominantly palm-fruits that normally have low crude protein contents. PMID:24958733

  9. Generic names of northern and southern fur seals (Mammalia: Otariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    We have resolved a nomenclatural problem discovered during research on the northern fur seal that concerns the correct generic name for this taxon and for fur seals of the Southern Hemisphere. The unfortunate practice by some 19th century authors to use names in their Latinized form, but to date them from their first appearance as French common names led to the use of Arctocephalus for southern fur seals when the name correctly applies to the northern fur seal, known today as Callorhinus ursinus. However, Arctocephalus and Callorhinus are antedated by Otoes G. Fischer, 1817, which is the earliest available generic for the fur seal of the northern Pacific. The earliest available generic name for southern fur seals is Halarctus Gill, 1866. To avoid the confusion that would result from replacing the currently used generic names with those required by strict adherence to the Principle of Priority, we have petitioned the International Commission on Zoological nomenclature to preserve Arctocephalus and Callorhinus for the southern and northern fur seals, respectively.

  10. Convergence vs. Specialization in the ear region of moles (Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Crumpton, Nick; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated if and how the inner ear region undergoes similar adaptations in small, fossorial, insectivoran-grade mammals, and found a variety of inner ear phenotypes. In our sample, afrotherian moles (Chrysochloridae) and the marsupial Notoryctes differ from most other burrowing mammals in their relatively short radii of semicircular canal curvature; chrysochlorids and fossorial talpids share a relatively long interampullar width. Chrysochlorids are unique in showing a highly coiled cochlea with nearly four turns. Extensive cochlear coiling may reflect their greater ecological dependence on low frequency auditory cues compared to talpids, tenrecids, and the marsupial Notoryctes. Correspondingly, the lack of such extensive coiling in the inner ear of other fossorial species may indicate a greater reliance on other senses to enable their fossorial lifestyle, such as tactile sensation from vibrissae and Eimer's organs. The reliance of chrysochlorids on sound is evident in the high degree of coiling and in the diversity of its mallear types, and may help explain the lack of any semiaquatic members of that group. The simplest mallear types among chrysochlorids are not present in the basal-most members of that clade, but all extant chrysochlorids investigated to date exhibit extensive cochlear coiling. The chrysochlorid ear region thus exhibits mosaic evolution; our data suggest that extensive coiling evolved in chrysochlorids prior to and independently of diversification in middle ear ossicle size and shape. PMID:25858660

  11. Marshall White, Reginald H. Barrett, Allan S. Boss, Thomas F. Newman, Thomas]. Rahn, and Daniel F. Williams This chapter offers information on the status, distri-

    E-print Network

    002 Mount Lyell Shrew Sorex lyelli M003 Vagrant Shrew Sorex vagrans M004 Dusky Shrew Sorex monticolus M005 Ornate Shrew Sorex ornatus M006 Water Shrew Sorex palustris M007 Trowbridge's Shrew Sorex trowbridgii M008 Shrew-mole Neurotrichus gibbsii M009 Broad-footed Mole Scapanus latimanus M010 Little Brown

  12. BY E..GUS COTHRAN, MICHAEL H. SMITH, JERRY O. WOLFF AND JOHN B. GENTRY

    E-print Network

    Georgia, University of

    carolinensis carolinensis (Bachman) - Southern Short-tailed Shrew 56 Cryptotis parva parva (Say) . Least Shrew 57 Sorex longirostris longirostris Bachman - Southeastern Shrew 58 Condylura cristata parva Paradiso

  13. Shared ancestry between a newfound mole-borne hantavirus and hantaviruses harbored by cricetid rodents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N; Hope, Andrew G; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-08-01

    Discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae) and moles (family Talpidae) contests the conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia, families Muridae and Cricetidae) are the principal reservoir hosts and suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously hypothesized. We now report on Rockport virus (RKPV), a hantavirus identified in archival tissues of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) collected in Rockport, TX, in 1986. Pairwise comparison of the full-length S, M, and L genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity between RKPV and other soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that RKPV shared a most recent common ancestor with cricetid-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Distributed widely across the eastern United States, the fossorial eastern mole is sympatric and syntopic with cricetid rodents known to harbor hantaviruses, raising the possibility of host-switching events in the distant past. Our findings warrant more-detailed investigations on the dynamics of spillover and cross-species transmission of present-day hantaviruses within communities of rodents and moles. PMID:21632770

  14. The Fleas of Endemic and Introduced Small Mammals in Central Highland Forests of Madagascar: Faunistics, Species Diversity, and Absence of Host Specificity.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Steven M; Randrenjarison Andriniaina, H Rico; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude

    2015-09-01

    Data are presented on the flea species of the genera Paractenopsyllus (Ceratophyllidae, Leptopsyllinae) and Synopsyllus (Pulicidae, Xenopsyllinae) obtained from small mammals during two 2014 seasonal surveys at a montane humid forest site (Ambohitantely) in the Central Highlands of Madagascar. The mammal groups included the endemic family Tenrecidae (tenrecs) and subfamily Nesomyinae (rodents) and two introduced families Muridae (rodents) and Soricidae (shrews); no fleas were recovered from the latter family. The surveys were conducted at the end of the wet and dry seasons with 288 individual small mammals captured, including 12 endemic and four introduced species. These animals yielded 344 fleas, representing nine species endemic to Madagascar; no introduced species was collected. Some seasonal variation was found in the number of trapped small mammals, but no marked difference was found in species richness. For flea species represented by sufficient samples, no parasite-host specificity was found, and there is evidence for considerable lateral exchange in the local flea fauna between species of tenrecs and the two rodent families (endemic and introduced). The implications of these results are discussed with regards to small mammal species richness and community structure, as well as a possible mechanism for the maintenance of sylvatic cycles of bubonic plague in the montane forests of Madagascar. PMID:26336252

  15. Water shrews detect movement, shape, and smell to find prey underwater

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin L.

    of echolocation, sonar, or electroreception was inves- tigated by testing for ultrasonic and audible calls above of stimuli, and electric fields. We also tested for the use of echolocation or sonar both above and below water by recording ultrasonic and audible calls. Finally, previous investigations have shown that water

  16. Scleral gene expression during recovery from myopia compared with expression during myopia development in tree shrew

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lin; Frost, Michael R.; Siegwart, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose During postnatal refractive development, the sclera receives retinally generated signals that regulate its biochemical properties. Hyperopic refractive error causes the retina to produce “GO” signals that, through the direct emmetropization pathway, cause scleral remodeling that increases the axial elongation rate of the eye, reducing the hyperopia. Myopia causes the retina to generate “STOP” signals that produce scleral remodeling, slowing the axial elongation rate and reducing the myopia. Our aim was to compare the pattern of gene expression produced in the sclera by the STOP signals with the GO gene expression signature we described previously. Methods The GO gene expression signature was produced by monocular –5 diopter (D) lens wear for 2 days (ML-2) or 4 days (ML-4); an additional “STAY” condition was examined after eyes had fully compensated for a –5 D lens after 11 days of lens wear (ML-11). After 11 days of ?5 D lens wear had produced full refractive compensation, gene expression in the STOP condition was examined during recovery (without the lens) for 2 days (REC-2) or 4 days (REC-4). The untreated contralateral eyes served as a control in all groups. Two age-matched normal groups provided a comparison with the treated groups. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA levels for 55 candidate genes. Results The STAY group compensated fully for the lens (treated eye versus control eye, –5.1±0.2 D). Wearing the lens, the hyperopic signal for elongation had dissipated (–0.3±0.3 D). In the STOP groups, the refraction in the recovering eyes became less myopic relative to the control eyes (REC-2, +1.3±0.3 D; REC-4, +2.6±0.4 D). In the STAY group, three genes showed significant downregulation. However, many genes that were significantly altered in GO showed smaller, nonsignificant, expression differences in the same direction in STAY, suggesting the gene expression signature in STAY is a greatly weakened form of the GO signature. In the STOP groups, a different gene expression pattern was observed, characterized by mostly upregulation with larger fold differences after 4 days than after 2 days of recovery. Eleven of the 55 genes examined showed significant bidirectional GO/STOP regulation in the ML-2 and REC-2 groups, and 13 genes showed bidirectional regulation in the ML-4 and REC-4 groups. Eight of these genes (NPR3, CAPNS1, NGEF, TGFB1, CTGF, NOV, TIMP1, and HS6ST1) were bidirectionally regulated at both time points in the GO and STOP conditions. An additional 15 genes showed significant regulation in either GO or STOP conditions but not in both. Conclusions Many genes are involved in scleral remodeling and the control of axial length. The STOP (recovery) gene expression signature in the sclera involves some of the same genes, bidirectionally regulated, as the GO signature. However, other genes, regulated in GO, are not differentially regulated in STOP, and others show differential regulation only in STOP. PMID:25540576

  17. The use of albendazole for the treatment of trematodiasis in two tree shrews (Tupala glis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beehler, B.A.; Tuggle, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    Albendazole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic of the benzimidazole group which has been tested in several rodents and domestic animals. Albendazole has been used effectively to treat trematodes in sheep, cattle, dogs, and cats. The use of this anthelmintic in exotic small mammals has not been reported to the authors' knowledge.

  18. TOXICITY EVALUATION OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE (TNB) IN SHREWS (CRYPTOTIS PARVA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TNB has been detected as an environmental contaminant of soil and water at certain Army installations and production waste disposal sites. At present there are no toxicity data on TNB in small wild mammals that might be used for ecological risk assessment. Therefore, a 14-day to...

  19. Fine structure of the parotid gland in tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Mifune, H; Nishida, T; Obara, T; Kamimura, R; Sakamoto, H; Mohammad Abdul, A; Nishinakagawa, H

    1995-10-01

    The parotid glands of Tupaia glis were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The acinar cells were seromucous in nature, and contained many acidophilic granules with strong affinity for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and weak affinity for alcian blue (AB). These granules consisted of a fine granular matrix of moderate density in which a denser corpuscles or semilunar materials were present. Intercalated duct cells had a few fine vesicles, vacuoles and very few dense granules in the apical region. In occasional epithelial cells, acidophilic, PAS-positive and AB-negative bodies with moderate density were observed in the supranuclear region. The striated ducts consisted of columnar light and dark cells containing round or small ovoid granules of moderate density and did not show the granular duct as seen in the parotid glands of kobe mole and tenrec which are placed in the order insectivora. PMID:8575539

  20. The Taming of the Shrew--Controlling the Morphology of Filamentous Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Walisko, Robert; Moench-Tegeder, Judith; Blotenberg, Jana; Wucherpfennig, Thomas; Krull, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    One of the most sensitive process characteristics in the cultivation of filamentous biological systems is their complex morphology. In submerged cultures, the observed macroscopic morphology of filamentous microorganisms varies from freely dispersed mycelium to dense spherical pellets consisting of a more or less dense, branched and partially intertwined network of hyphae. Recently, the freely dispersed mycelium form has been in high demand for submerged cultivation because this morphology enhances the growth and production of several valuable products. A distinct filamentous morphology and productivity are influenced by the environment and can be controlled by inoculum concentration, spore viability, pH value, cultivation temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, medium composition, mechanical stress or process mode as well as through the addition of inorganic salts or microparticles, which provides the opportunity to tailor a filamentous morphology. The suitable morphology for a given bioprocess varies depending on the desired product. Therefore, the advantages and disadvantages of each morphological type should be carefully evaluated for every biological system. Because of the high industrial relevance of filamentous microorganisms, research in previous years has aimed at the development of tools and techniques to characterise their growth and obtain quantitative estimates of their morphological properties. The focus of this review is on current advances in the characterisation and control of filamentous morphology with a separation of eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems. Furthermore, recent strategies to tailor the morphology through classical biochemical process parameters, morphology and genetic engineering to optimise the productivity of these filamentous systems are discussed. PMID:25796624

  1. Species interactions during diversification and community assembly in an island radiation of shrews.

    E-print Network

    Brown, Rafe M.

    2011-01-01

    has a remarkably complex geological history, in which a combination of volcanic activity, subduction, and island accretion altered the distribution of land dramatically over the history of the archipelago (approximately the last 30 My) [46..., but also on Camiguin Sur, a small, young volcanic island that has remained isolated throughout its existence [72]. Thus, most islands in the Philippines hold single species of Crocidura, but two species are found on the islands of Mindanao (C. beatus and C...

  2. Comparative aspects of lipid metabolism in two shrews (Suncus etruscus and Crocidura russula).

    PubMed

    Sicart, R; Sable-Amplis, R; Fons, R

    1978-01-01

    1. The amounts of tissue lipids were higher in S. etruscus than in C. russula. 2. The level of liver phospholipids was specially low in C. russula, 2650 mg/100 g as opposed to 3725 g in S. etruscus. 3. This is in good agreement with a reduced rate of the labelled acetate incorporation into the lipids of C. russula. 4. The proportion of unsaturated fatty acids was greater in the liver of S. etruscus; however, the percentage of arachidonic acid was higher in C. russula--15% as opposed to 8%. PMID:318366

  3. Blood oxygen transport and organ weights of two shrew species (S. etruscus and C. russula).

    PubMed

    Bartels, H; Bartels, R; Baumann, R; Fons, R; Jürgens, K D; Wright, P

    1979-03-01

    Blood parameters concerning oxygen transport and relative organ weights of 11 Suncus etruscus and 13 Crocidura russula under light halothane anesthesia were investigated. Mean body weight of S. etruscus was 2.5 g and for C. russula was 9 g, hemoglobin concentration was 17.4 and 15.6 g/100 ml blood, hematocrit was 50 and 44%, red blood cells were 18 and 11 X 10(6)/microliter, respectively. Mean corpuscular volume was calculated to be 26 and 41 micron3, mean diameter 5.5 and 7 micron, and mean thickness 1.2 and 1.1 micron, respectively. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was in the normal range of mammalian red blood cells. A blood oxygen half-saturation pressure of 35 and 34 Torr at pH 7.4, 37 degrees C and a Bohr factor deltalog P50/deltapH of -0.61 and -0.66 was measured. Experiments with stripped hemoglobin showed that 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is the main oxygen affinity reducing allosteric factor. Relative weights of heart, kidney, and liver are remarkably high in S. etruscus. The maximal oxygen transport of 400 ml . kg-1 . min-1 of S. etruscus is feasible by an enormous heart rate, a large relative stroke volume, a high hemoglobin concentration combined with a low oxygen affinity, and a large Bohr effect. PMID:426099

  4. DOI 10.1515/mammalia-2011-0138Mammalia 2013; 77(1): 2130 Arielle Waldstein Parsons*, Theodore R. Simons, Allan F. O'Connell Jr. and

    E-print Network

    Buckel, Jeffrey A.

    of an isolated, unmanaged raccoon Procyon lotor (Procyonidae, Carnivora) population on the Outer Banks of North Carolina Abstract: Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are highly adapt- able meso-carnivores that inhabit many application requires site-specific information on population parameters. We studied an unharvested raccoon

  5. Extreme environmental change and evolution: stress-induced morphological variation is strongly

    E-print Network

    Badyaev, Alex

    concordant with patterns of evolutionary divergence in shrew mandibles Alexander V. Badyaev* { and Kerry R of Sorex shrews to environmental stress. As predicted, we found that most of the variation in shrew

  6. The Insect Eaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about insectivores, including definitions and characteristics of shrews, moles, hedgehogs, and tenrecs. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Little Starnose" and "You and a Shrew." A reproducible worksheet is provided for use in "You and a Shrew." (TW)

  7. YALE PEABODY MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY yale environmental NEWS20

    E-print Network

    Sargis, Eric J.

    species of modern primates, flying lemurs, tree shrews and plesi- adapiforms. As part of this analysis lowii, the pen-tailed tree shrew. Ptilocercus, the most primitive living tree shrew, has been the focus

  8. Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Horá?ek, Ivan; Knitlová, Markéta; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, László; Nadachowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogeography suggests that Micromys minutus, the sole extant species of the genus, colonized its extensive range quite recently, during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Rich Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil records both from Europe and China suggest rather continuous and gradual in situ phenotype rearrangements from the Pliocene to the Recent periods. To elucidate the discrepancy we reexamined a considerable part of the European fossil record of the genus (14 sites from MN15 to Q3, 0.4–4.2 Ma, including the type series of M. preaminutus from MN15 Csarnóta 2), analyzed them with the aid of detailed morphometric comparisons, and concluded that: (a) The European Pliocene form, M. praeminutus, differs significantly from the extant species; (b) it exhibits a broad phenotypic variation covering the presumptive diagnostic characters of MN16 M. caesaris; (c) despite having smaller dimensions, the Early and Middle Pleistocene forms (MN17-Q3, 2.6–0.4 Ma) seem to be closer to M. praeminutus than to the extant species; (d) the extinction of M. praeminutus during Q3 and the re-occupation of its niche by the recent expansion of M. minutus from E-European – C Asiatic sources (suggested by phylogeographic hypotheses) cannot be excluded. Discussing interpretations of the phylogenetic past of the genus we emphasize the distinct history of the West Palearctic clade (Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene) terminating with M. praeminutus and the East Asiatic clade (chalceus, tedfordi, minutus), and the possible identity of the Western clade with the Late Miocene genus Parapodemus. PMID:23671605

  9. Specific chromosomal defects associated with ultraviolet radiation-induced cutaneous tumors in Monodelphis domestica (Marsupialia, mammalia).

    PubMed

    Pathak, S; Gadhia, M; Dhaliwal, M K; Applegate, L A; Ley, R D

    1992-12-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of eight ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced cutaneous tumors and one spontaneously transformed fibroblast cell line of Monodelphis domestica showed that two of the tumor cell lines were of murine origin and that the remaining six marsupial tumor cell lines had hyperdiploid stemline numbers ranging from 21 to 31. Each tumor cell line showed structural and numerical abnormalities. The single transformed fibroblast cell line also showed a hyperdiploid chromosome number with structural and numerical defects. All M. domestica tumor cell lines and the fibroblast line showed a common structural abnormality: deletion of the short arm (p) of a chromosome 1. In some cell lines, the short arm of chromosome 1 was replaced by a translocation with the X chromosome. We suggest, based on the Giemsa-banding homology of chromosome 1p in M. domestica and human chromosome 6q involved in melanomas, that marsupial chromosome 1p may harbor tumor suppressor gene(s) that are associated with UVR-induced cutaneous tumors. PMID:1486565

  10. The Endemic Insular and Peninsular Species Chaetodipus spinatus (Mammalia, Heteromyidae) Breaks Patterns for Baja California

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Castañeda, Sergio Ticul; Murphy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula is the second longest, most geographically isolated peninsula on Earth. Its physiography and the presence of many surrounding islands has facilitated studies of the underlying patterns and drivers of genetic structuring for a wide spectrum of organisms. Chaetodipus spinatus is endemic to the region and occurs on 12 associated islands, including 10 in the Gulf of California and two in the Pacific Ocean. This distribution makes it a model species for evaluating natural historical barriers. We test hypotheses associated with the relationship between the range of the species, patterns in other species, and its relationship to Pleistocene-Holocene climatic changes. We analyzed sequence data from mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and III (COIII) in 26 populations including all 12 islands. The matrilineal genealogy, statistical parsimony network and Bayesian skyline plot indicated an origin of C. spinatus in the southern part of the peninsula. Our analyses detected several differences from the common pattern of peninsular animals: no mid-peninsula break exists, Isla Carmen hosts the most divergent population, the population on an ancient southern Midriff island does not differ from peninsular populations, and a mtDNA peninsular discordance occurs near Loreto. PMID:25542029

  11. Frugivory by phyllostomid bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a restored area in Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Maurício; Trevelin, Leonardo; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Godoi, Simone; Mandetta, Elizabeth Neuenhaus; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the potential contribution of frugivorous bats to the reestablishment of vegetational diversity in a restored area. We analysed the diets of the bat species and the differences between them in the consumption of fruits of autochtonous and allochthonous species. Planted (autochtonous) species were the basis of diets, especially Solanum mauritianum and Cecropia pachystachya, whereas for allochthonous species we found that Piperaceae to be of particular importance. Carollia perspicillata was the main seed disperser for allochthonous species, and potentially the most important bat in the promotion of vegetation diversity in the study area. Our results suggest that frugivorous bats are especially important in the reestablishment of vegetation in disturbed areas, and that restorarion efforts should focus on the planting of different zoochorous species that would guarantee a high year-round fruit production, thereby facilitating natural plant reestablishment by frugivorous bats in regenerating areas.

  12. Identification of Bacterial Specialists in Hosts belonging to Aves, Mammalia, and Pisces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Only a portion of bacteria found in animal guts are able to establish specific associations within animal hosts. Taxa that have formed these specialized relationships may have played a prominent role in host evolution and may also contribute significantly to current host physiolo...

  13. A new middle eocene whale (Mammalia: Cetacea: Archaeoceti) and associated biota from Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hulbert, R.C., Jr.; Petkewich, R.M.; Bishop, G.A.; Bukry, D.; Aleshire, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    A shallow-marine fossil biota was recovered from the Blue Bluff unit (formerly part of the McBean Formation) in the Upper Coastal Plain of eastern Georgia. Biochronologically significant mollusks (e.g., Turritella nasuta, Cubitostrea sellaeformis, Pteropsella lapidosa) and calcareous nannoplankton (e.g., Chiasmolithus solitus, Reticulofenestra umbilica, Cribocentrum reticulatum) indicate a latest Lutetian-earliest Bartonian age, or about 40 to 41 Ma. Georgiacetus vogtlensis new genus and species is described from a well-preserved, partial skeleton. Georgiacetus is the oldest known whale with a true pterygoid sinus fossa in its basicranium and a pelvis that did not articulate directly with the sacral vertebrae, two features whose acquisitions were important steps toward adaptation to a fully marine existence. The posterior four cheek teeth of G. vogtlensis form a series of carnassial-like shearing blades. These teeth also bear small, blunt accessory cusps, which are regarded as being homologous with the larger, sharper accessory cusps of basilosaurid cheek teeth.

  14. Definition, Diagnosis, and Origin of Mammalia Author(s): Timothy Rowe

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Jack

    Paleontology, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1988), pp. 241-264 Published by: The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Paleontology is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. http://www.jstor.org #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;

  15. A tubulidentate suiform lineage (Tayassuidae, Mammalia) from the Early Miocene of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickford, Martin; Morales, Jorge

    1998-08-01

    Small suiform artiodactyls from Moheda, Loranca and Corcolés, Spain, possess tubulidentate microstructure in their cheek tooth roots. The oldest specimens from Moheda (MN 2a) have a few scattered tubules near the apices of the molar roots, those from Loranca (MN 2b) have numerous tubules of various diameters in contact with each other, but oriented at various angles, while specimens from Corcolés (MN 4) are completely tubulidentate with well developed, sub-parallel tubules of sub-equal diameter running the entire length of the roots. The same series of fossils shows that with the passage of geological time the roots of this tayassuid lineage became more hypsorhizic and fusion of the roots increased, while the crowns of the teeth became simpler and thinner enamelled. Selection in this lineage was therefore focused upon increasing the longevity and wear resistance of the roots, while the role of the crowns of the teeth in mastication was de-emphasised. It is hypothesised that, as in Tubulidentata and Edentata, this suiform lineage was ingesting food items which contained significant quantities of adhérant earth. Whether the diet also contained ants and termites is not known.

  16. Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases.

  17. Systematical and biochronological review of Plio-Pleistocene Alceini (Cervidae; Mammalia) from Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breda, Marzia; Marchetti, Marco

    2005-03-01

    Systematics, taxonomy and phylogeny of Eurasian fossil moose are discussed in order to analyse their distribution in space and time. The largest European collections were studied. We recognise the genus Cervalces, including the chronospecies C. gallicus, C. carnutorum and C. latifrons, as well as the genus Alces, with the species A. alces. Cervalces differs from Alces in the facial area, in the length of the antlers and in the orientation of the palmation. Taking into account as more bibliography as possible, we suggest that the Siberian remains, due to their distance from the type localities, have size ranges and beam proportions a little different from the coeval European ones, so they are regarded as different geographic populations. Cervalces latifrons postremus systematics and chronology have been reconsidered. It results that it was present only in Siberia during the penultimate glaciation and was of the same body size as typical C. latifrons. It is likely that A. alces is not the direct descendant of the last European Cervalces, but its origin is still an open question. The present analysis provides a clearer picture of the geographical and chronological distribution of Cervalces and Alces.

  18. Revision of the Wind River faunas, early Eocene of central Wyoming. X - Bunophorus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    Research on the holotypes and large collections of the species of Wasatchia and Bunophorus is reviewed. It is concluded that Bunophorus is a senior synonym of Wasatchia and includes six valid species, namely, B. etsagicus, B. grangeri, B. pattersoni, B. macropternus, B. sinclairi, and B. robustus. B. sinclairi includes two penecontemporaneous geographic variants: B.s. sinclairi from the Wind River, Piceance and Green River basins, and B.s. robinsoni, n. ssp., from the Huerfano Basin.

  19. The first occurrence of a toxodont (Mammalia, Notoungulata) in the United States

    E-print Network

    Lundelius, Ernest; Bryant, Vaughn M.; Mandel, Rolfe; Thies, Kenneth J.; Thoms, Alston

    2013-01-08

    American Sediments. AASP Book Series, Dallas, Texas. Cisneros, J. C. 2005. New Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from El Salvador. Revista Braxileira de Paleontologia 8:239–255. Gazin, C. L. 1957. Exploration for the remains of giant ground sloths in Panama...

  20. Presence of antibodies against Leptospira serovars in Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae), La Pampa province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Fort, Marcelo; Delgado, Fernando; Bedotti, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of antibodies against 21 Leptospira reactive serovars in Chaetophractus villosus in La Pampa province, Argentina, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pathologic changes compatible with leptospirosis and in situ detection of the agent by immunohistochemistry were studied in 24 and 3 individuals respectively. Only 35/150 (23.3%) serum samples had antibodies against Leptospira sp. Six percent of the samples reacted with serovar Canicola, 4.7% with serovar Castellonis, 1.3% with serovar Icterohemorrhagieae and 0.7% with serovar Hardjo. Sixteen (10.6%) serum samples agglutinated with Castellonis-Icterohemorrhagiae and Canicola-Castellonis serovars, both with 4.7%, and Canicola-Hardjo and Castellonis-Canicola-Icterohemorrhagiae both with 0.6%. Fourteen animals had variable degrees of lesions, which were more severe in animals with higher serological titers (3200), and Leptospira sp. was detected in 3 animals by immunohistochemistry. These results represent the first record of the presence of Leptospira in C. villosus in La Pampa. PMID:25754485

  1. Ptolemaiida, a new order of Mammalia--with description of the cranium of Ptolemaia grangeri.

    PubMed Central

    Simons, E L; Bown, T M

    1995-01-01

    All records of the exotic mammalian family Ptolemaiidae are known from 182 m of section in the lower to middle parts of the upper Eocene and lower Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation, Fayum Depression, Egypt. Previous tentative assignments of ptolemaiid affinity have suggested that these animals are allied with the primitive suborder Pantolesta (currently placed in the order Cimolesta). Though perhaps ultimately derived from an unknown member of that group, the likelihood that ptolemaiids constitute a distinct group is considered, and analysis of all known materials of Ptolemaia, Qarunavus, and Cleopatrodon demonstrates that these genera belong in their own order, the Ptolemaiida, described here. The morphologically unique dentition and only known ptolemaiid cranium, that of Ptolemaia grangeri, is described. Although Qarunavus and Cleopatrodon show some similarities in primitive characters to European merialine Paroxyclaenidae (suborder Pantolesta), their affinities clearly lie with Ptolemaia and the Ptolemaiida. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:11607526

  2. Rodents and lagomorphs (Mammalia) from the Hemphillian (late Miocene) of Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korth, W.W.; De Blieux, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    Four species of rodents (two heteromyids and two cricetids) and one lagomorph are identified from the late Tertiary Sevier River Formation of Utah. The heteromyids include a new genus and species of heteromyine, Metaliomys sevierensis, which is intermediate in morphology between the Clarendonian and early Hemphillian Diprionomys Kellogg and the extant genera Liomys and Heteromys. A single specimen is referred to Diprionomys sp., cf. D. minimus (Kellogg). The cricetid Paronychomys lemredfieldi Jacobs is known from the Hemphillian of Arizona. The second cricetid is referred to a new genus Basirepomys. Peromyscus pliocenicus Wilson from the Hemphillian of California is designated as the type species of the new genus, to which the new species B. robertsi from Utah is referred. Basirepomys is viewed as intermediate between Peromyscus and the basal neotomyine Repomys May from the late Hemphillian and Blancan. The only lagomorph in the fauna is Hypolagus vetus (Kellogg). Four of the taxa recognized from the Sevier River Formation (Diprionomys, Paronychomys lemredfieldi, Basirepomys, and Hypolagus vetus) are elsewhere known from the Hemphillian of North America. However, it is not possible at this time to determine whether the fauna is early or late Hemphillian. ?? 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

  3. Phenotypic Convergence in Genetically Distinct Lineages of a Rhinolophus Species Complex (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David S.; Babiker, Hassan; Bastian, Anna; Kearney, Teresa; van Eeden, Rowen; Bishop, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the convergence. Instead, the striking similarity in morphology and sensory biology are probably the result of neutral evolutionary processes, resulting in the independent evolution of similar phenotypes. PMID:24312666

  4. New fauna of archaeocete whales (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Bartonian middle Eocene of southern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, Philip D.; Zouhri, Samir

    2015-11-01

    Six genera and species of archaic whales are present in a new fauna from the Aridal Formation at Gueran in the Sahara Desert of southwestern Morocco. Three of the archaeocete species represent semiaquatic Protocetidae and three species are fully aquatic Basilosauridae. Protocetids are characteristic of Lutetian lower middle Eocene strata, and basilosaurids are characteristic of Priabonian late Eocene beds. Similar representation of both families is restricted to intervening Bartonian strata and indicative of a late middle Eocene age. Archaeocetes from Gueran include (1) a small protocetid represented by a partial humerus, teeth, and vertebrae; (2) a middle-sized protocetid represented by a partial innominate and proximal femur; (3) the very large protocetid Pappocetus lugardi represented by teeth, a partial innominate, and two partial femora; (4) a new species of the small basilosaurid Chrysocetus represented by a dentary, teeth, humeri, and many vertebrae; (5) a new species of the larger basilosaurid Platyosphys (resurrected as a distinct genus) represented by a partial braincase, tympanic bulla, and many vertebrae; and (6) the large basilosaurid Eocetus schweinfurthi represented by teeth, a tympanic bulla, and lumbar vertebrae. The Gueran locality is important geologically because it constrains the age of a part of the Aridal Formation, and biologically because it includes a diversity of archaic whales represented by partial skeletons with vertebrae in sequence and by forelimb and hind limb remains. With further collecting, Gueran archaeocete skeletons promise to clarify the important evolutionary transition from foot-powered swimming in Protocetidae to the tail-powered swimming of Basilosauridae and all later Cetacea.

  5. Functional implications of variation in tooth spacing and crown size in pinnipedimorpha (mammalia: carnivora).

    PubMed

    Churchill, Morgan; Clementz, Mark T

    2015-05-01

    Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) show variation in tooth morphology that relates to ecology. However, crown size and spacing are two aspects of morphology that have not been quantified in prior studies. We measured these characters for nearly all extant pinnipeds and three fossil taxa and then determined the principal sources of variation in tooth size and spacing using principal components (PCAs) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA showed that species sorted into three groups: taxa with small crowns and large diastemata, taxa with large crowns and small diastemata, and taxa that fell between these two extremes. We then performed discriminant function analysis (DFA) to determine if tooth morphology correlated with foraging strategy or diet. DFA results indicated weak correlation with diet, and stronger correlation with prey capture strategies. Tooth size and spacing were most strongly correlated with the importance of teeth in prey acquisition, with tooth size decreasing and tooth spacing increasing as teeth become less necessary in capturing food items. Taxa which relied on teeth for filtering prey from the water column or processing larger or tougher food items generally had larger crowns and smaller tooth spacing then taxa which swallowed prey whole. We found the fossil taxa Desmatophoca and Enaliarctos were most similar in tooth morphology to extant otariids, suggesting that both taxa were generalist feeders. This study established the relationship between tooth size and feeding behavior, and provides a new tool to explore the paleoecology of fossil pinnipeds and other aquatic tetrapods. PMID:25367223

  6. Cope's rule and the evolution of body size in Pinnipedimorpha (Mammalia: Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Churchill, Morgan; Clementz, Mark T; Kohno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Cope's rule describes the evolutionary trend for animal lineages to increase in body size over time. In this study, we tested the validity of Cope's rule for a marine mammal clade, the Pinnipedimorpha, which includes the extinct Desmatophocidae, and extant Phocidae (earless seals), Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions), and Odobenidae (walruses). We tested for the presence of Cope's rule by compiling a large dataset of body size data for extant and fossil pinnipeds and then examined how body size evolved through time. We found that there was a positive relationship between geologic age and body size. However, this trend is the result of differences between early assemblages of small-bodied pinnipeds (Oligocene to early Miocene) and later assemblages (middle Miocene to Pliocene) for which species exhibited greater size diversity. No significant differences were found between the number of increases or decreases in body size within Pinnipedimorpha or within specific pinniped clades. This suggests that the pinniped body size increase was driven by passive diversification into vacant niche space, with the common ancestor of Pinnipedimorpha occurring near the minimum adult body size possible for a marine mammal. Based upon the above results, the evolutionary history of pinnipeds does not follow Cope's rule. PMID:25355195

  7. Human Origins and Evolution Humans belong to the Order Primates within the Class Mammalia

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher A.

    Primates apart Monkeys are called Old World if they are found in Africa or Asia & New World if they are found in the Americas New World monkeys may have prehensile (grabbing) tails; Old World monkeys never do Apes all lack tails!! Family Tarsiidae: Tarsiers New World Monkeys Above: tamarins Below: marmosets #12

  8. Morphology and function of the hyoid apparatus of fossil xenarthrans (mammalia).

    PubMed

    Pérez, Leandro M; Toledo, Néstor; De Iuliis, Gerardo; Bargo, M Susana; Vizcaíno, Sergio F

    2010-09-01

    The analysis of the hyoid apparatus of fossil xenarthrans provides insight on the form of the tongue and its function in food intake and intraoral processing. The hyoid apparatus of xenarthrans is notable for fusion among its elements. The presence of a V-bone, a complex consisting of fused basihyal and thyrohyal bones, is a consistent and probably synapomorphic feature of xenarthrans. Fusion of other elements is variable in fossil xenarthrans. Most fossil sloths retain independent elements, as in living dasypodids and mammals generally. Among nothrotheriids, the elements are slender and their articular surfaces indicate considerable mobility, and the relatively long and horizontal orientation of the geniohyoid muscle suggests considerable tongue protrusion. Among mylodontines, such as Paramylodon and Glossotherium, the elements indicate relatively mobile articulations, except between the stylo- and epihyals. The relatively posterior placement of the apparatus and the length and alignment of the geniohyoid muscle indicate considerable capacity for tongue protrusion. Scelidotherium, however, had rigidly articulated stylohyal and epihyal, and the apparatus lies farther anteriorly, which together with the elongated, steeply inclined mandibular symphysis, indicates a relatively shorter geniohyoid muscle and thus more limited capacity for tongue protrusion. A similar situation is indicated for Megatherium, casting doubt on the classical reconstruction of this sloth as having a long prehensile tongue. Among cingulates Prozaedyus resembles living dasypodids, indicating considerable tongue protrusion important in food acquisition and intake. More extensive fusion of hyoid elements occurs in the cingulates Glyptodon and Proeutatus, in which the stylohyal and epihyal at least, are fused into a single element termed the sigmohyal. The presence of this element supports recent proposals of a sister-group relationship between glyptodonts and eutatines. The rigidity of the apparatus suggests limited tongue protrusion, but the tongue, in glyptodonts at least, was a powerful structure important for intraoral manipulation of food. PMID:20730924

  9. Microstructure of dental hard tissues in fossil and recent xenarthrans (Mammalia: Folivora and Cingulata).

    PubMed

    Kalthoff, Daniela C

    2011-06-01

    A striking difference between xenarthrans and other mammals is the complete loss of tooth enamel in all members but the earliest armadillos. However, sloth and armadillo teeth show structured wear facets, which in all other mammals are formed by tooth enamel. How is that possible? Here, I report about an analysis of fossil and recent xenarthran dental hard tissue microstructure. It shows that osteodentine is not exclusive to fossil Cingulata, but also occurs in some recent taxa. Furthermore, I found profound modifications of orthodentine architecture in comparison to other mammals. Remarkable features are (a) a larger proportion of the highly mineralized, collagen-free peritubular dentine, and (b) a modified architecture of the odontoblastic process with frequent interconnections between the extensions and unusually intensive branching of the extensions forming a complex meshwork, penetrating the intertubular dentine matrix. The orthodentine microstructural build-up is unique in Folivora and Cingulata. PMID:21456028

  10. Systematics and Evolution of the Miocene Three-Horned Palaeomerycid Ruminants (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla)

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Israel M.; Cantalapiedra, Juan L.; Ríos, María; Quiralte, Victoria; Morales, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Palaeomerycids were strange three-horned Eurasian Miocene ruminants known through fossils from Spain to China. We here study their systematics, offering the first cladistic phylogeny of the best-known species of the group, and also reassess their phylogenetic position among ruminants, which is currently disputed. The beautifully preserved remains of a new palaeomerycid from middle Miocene deposits of Spain, Xenokeryx amidalae gen. et sp. nov., helps us to better understand palaeomerycid anatomy, especially that of the nuchal region in the skull, significantly improving our current knowledge on these enigmatic ruminants. Our results show two main lineages of palaeomerycids, one containing the genus Ampelomeryx diagnosed by a characteristic type of cranium / cranial appendages and some dental derived traits, and another one that clusters those forms more closely related to Triceromeryx than to Ampelomeryx, characterized by a more derived dentition and a set of apomorphic cranial features. Xenokeryx branches as a basal offshoot of this clade. Also, we find that Eurasian palaeomerycids are not closely related to North American dromomerycids, thus rejecting the currently more accepted view of palaeomerycids as the Eurasian part of the dromomerycid lineage. Instead of this, palaeomerycids are nested with the African Miocene pecoran Propalaeoryx and with giraffoids. On the other hand, dromomerycids are closely related to cervids. We define a clade Giraffomorpha that includes palaeomerycids and giraffids, and propose an emended diagnosis of the Palaeomerycidae based on cranial and postcranial characters, including several features of the cranium not described so far. We also define the Palaeomerycidae as the least inclusive clade of pecorans containing Triceromeryx and Ampelomeryx. Finally, we reassess the taxonomy of several palaeomerycid taxa. PMID:26630174

  11. Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor) (Mammalia, Felidae)

    PubMed Central

    Matte, Eunice M.; Castilho, Camila S.; Miotto, Renata A.; Sana, Denis A.; Johnson, Warren E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species’ molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America. PMID:24385863

  12. Foraging behaviour, food selection and diet digestion of Babyrousa babyrussa (Suidae, Mammalia

    E-print Network

    Leus, Kristin

    A population of 79 babirusa distributed over 19 zoos in Europe and the United States were the subject of a study of the foraging behaviour, food selection, and digestion of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa). Stomachs ...

  13. Bone Inner Structure Suggests Increasing Aquatic Adaptations in Desmostylia (Mammalia, Afrotheria)

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shoji; Houssaye, Alexandra; Nakajima, Yasuhisa; Chiba, Kentaro; Ando, Tatsuro; Sawamura, Hiroshi; Inuzuka, Norihisa; Kaneko, Naotomo; Osaki, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    Background The paleoecology of desmostylians has been discussed controversially with a general consensus that desmostylians were aquatic or semi-aquatic to some extent. Bone microanatomy can be used as a powerful tool to infer habitat preference of extinct animals. However, bone microanatomical studies of desmostylians are extremely scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the histology and microanatomy of several desmostylians using thin-sections and CT scans of ribs, humeri, femora and vertebrae. Comparisons with extant mammals allowed us to better understand the mode of life and evolutionary history of these taxa. Desmostylian ribs and long bones generally lack a medullary cavity. This trait has been interpreted as an aquatic adaptation among amniotes. Behemotops and Paleoparadoxia show osteosclerosis (i.e. increase in bone compactness), and Ashoroa pachyosteosclerosis (i.e. combined increase in bone volume and compactness). Conversely, Desmostylus differs from these desmostylians in displaying an osteoporotic-like pattern. Conclusions/Significance In living taxa, bone mass increase provides hydrostatic buoyancy and body trim control suitable for poorly efficient swimmers, while wholly spongy bones are associated with hydrodynamic buoyancy control in active swimmers. Our study suggests that all desmostylians had achieved an essentially, if not exclusively, aquatic lifestyle. Behemotops, Paleoparadoxia and Ashoroa are interpreted as shallow water swimmers, either hovering slowly at a preferred depth, or walking on the bottom, and Desmostylus as a more active swimmer with a peculiar habitat and feeding strategy within Desmostylia. Therefore, desmostylians are, with cetaceans, the second mammal group showing a shift from bone mass increase to a spongy inner organization of bones in their evolutionary history. PMID:23565143

  14. The endemic insular and peninsular species Chaetodipus spinatus (Mammalia, Heteromyidae) breaks patterns for Baja California.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Castañeda, Sergio Ticul; Murphy, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula is the second longest, most geographically isolated peninsula on Earth. Its physiography and the presence of many surrounding islands has facilitated studies of the underlying patterns and drivers of genetic structuring for a wide spectrum of organisms. Chaetodipus spinatus is endemic to the region and occurs on 12 associated islands, including 10 in the Gulf of California and two in the Pacific Ocean. This distribution makes it a model species for evaluating natural historical barriers. We test hypotheses associated with the relationship between the range of the species, patterns in other species, and its relationship to Pleistocene-Holocene climatic changes. We analyzed sequence data from mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and III (COIII) in 26 populations including all 12 islands. The matrilineal genealogy, statistical parsimony network and Bayesian skyline plot indicated an origin of C. spinatus in the southern part of the peninsula. Our analyses detected several differences from the common pattern of peninsular animals: no mid-peninsula break exists, Isla Carmen hosts the most divergent population, the population on an ancient southern Midriff island does not differ from peninsular populations, and a mtDNA peninsular discordance occurs near Loreto. PMID:25542029

  15. First isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J

    2013-03-31

    There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans. PMID:23200751

  16. Desmodus rotundus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, L M; Esbérard, C E L

    2011-08-01

    Since the 1990s, attacks by hematophagous bats on humans and domestic animals have been reported both on the continent and on the islands on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The density of vampire bats was investigated based on percentage of captures during control of Desmodus rotundus samplings and during bat diversity research. In the present work, 203 individuals of D. rotundus were captured from 1993 to 2009, which corresponds to 11.88% of all bat captures carried out for species control in local villages and 1.58% of all captures in faunistic inventories. The density of D. rotundus is high even on the recently occupied islands where domestic animals have been introduced. It is probable that this species dispersed from the continent to the islands due to the introduction of domestic animals. PMID:21881799

  17. Dental microwear patterns of extant and extinct Muridae (Rodentia, Mammalia): ecological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Merceron, Gildas; Viriot, Laurent

    2009-04-01

    Extant species of Muridae occupy a wide array of habitats and have diverse dietary habits. Consequently, their dental microwear patterns represent a potential clue to better understand the paleoecology of their extinct relatives, which are abundant in many Old World Neogene localities. In this study, dental microwear is investigated for specimens of 17 extant species of murine and deomyine rodents in order to test the reliability of this method and infer dietary preferences on the fossil species Saïdomys afarensis. This extinct form comes from a mid-Pliocene site (AL 327) located at the Hadar Formation (Ethiopia) known to have delivered many hominid specimens of Australopithecus afarensis. A significant correlation between microwear patterns and diet is detected. Thus, grass, fruit, and insect eaters display, respectively, high amounts of fine scratches, wide scratches, and large pits. Moreover, some aspects of the paleoecology of S. afarensis, including feeding habits, could be assessed in regard to its dental microwear pattern. Indeed, it probably had feeding habits similar to that of living grass eaters. These results concur with the presence of open to woodland areas covered by an herbaceous vegetal layer, including monocotyledons, in the vicinity of this mid-Pliocene locality.

  18. The Hand of Cercopithecoides williamsi (Mammalia, Primates): Earliest Evidence for Thumb Reduction among Colobine Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Stephen R.; Gilbert, Christopher C.; Pugh, Kelsey D.; Guthrie, Emily H.; Delson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Thumb reduction is among the most important features distinguishing the African and Asian colobines from each other and from other Old World monkeys. In this study we demonstrate that the partial skeleton KNM-ER 4420 from Koobi Fora, Kenya, dated to 1.9 Ma and assigned to the Plio-Pleistocene colobine species Cercopithecoides williamsi, shows marked reduction of its first metacarpal relative to the medial metacarpals. Thus, KNM-ER 4420 is the first documented occurrence of cercopithecid pollical reduction in the fossil record. In the size of its first metacarpal relative to the medial metacarpals, C. williamsi is similar to extant African colobines, but different from cercopithecines, extant Asian colobines and the Late Miocene colobines Microcolobus and Mesopithecus. This feature clearly links the genus Cercopithecoides with the extant African colobine clade and makes it the first definitive African colobine in the fossil record. The postcranial adaptations to terrestriality in Cercopithecoides are most likely secondary, while ancestral colobinans (and colobines) were arboreal. Finally, the absence of any evidence for pollical reduction in Mesopithecus implies either independent thumb reduction in African and Asian colobines or multiple colobine dispersal events out of Africa. Based on the available evidence, we consider the first scenario more likely. PMID:25993410

  19. Observations on fur development in echidna (Monotremata, Mammalia) indicate that spines precede hairs in ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo; Rogers, George

    2015-04-01

    In the primitive mammal echidna, the initial 2-3 generations of skin appendages produced from birth forms spines and only later true hairs appear. Microscopy on preserved museum specimens reveals that the morphogenesis of spines and hairs is similar but that a larger dermal papilla is formed in spines. The growing shaft comprises a medulla surrounded by a cortex and by an external cuticle. A thick inner root sheath made of cornified cells surrounds the growing shaft inside the spine canal that eventually exits with a pointed tip. Hairs develop later with the same modality of spines but have a smaller papilla and give rise to a fur coat among spines. Therefore the integument of developing echidnas initially produces spines from large dermal papillae but the reduction in size of the papillae later determines the formation of hairs. Although the morphogenesis of spines and hairs can represent a case of specialization in this species, the primitive mammalian characteristics of echidnas has also inspired new speculations on the evolution of the mammalian hair from mammalian-like reptiles with a spiny coat. The resemblance in the morphogenesis between spines and hairs has suggested some hypothesis on hair evolution, in particular that hairs might be derived from the reduction of protective large spines present in ancient mammalian-like reptiles possibly derived from the reduction of pre-existing pointed scales. The hypothesis suggests that spines became reduced and internalized in the skin forming hairs. PMID:25367156

  20. Histological patterns of the intestinal attachment of Corynosoma australe (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) in Arctocephalus australis (Mammalia: Pinnipedia).

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato Z; Pereira, Joaber; Cousin, João Carlos B

    2014-12-01

    The mucosal attachment pattern of Corynosoma australe in the intestines of Arctocephalus australis is described. Normal and abnormal tissue were sampled from 32 hosts to be submitted to histological routine protocol to embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in balsam. Corynosoma australe shows three different degrees of body depth intestinal attachment (BDINA-1-3). BDINA-1: it is exclusive of the small intestine and the parasite attaches on the villi; BDINA-2: parasite affects the Lieberkühn crypts in several depth levels and, BDINA-3: the parasite reaches the submucosa. These attachment patterns alter the mucosa by degeneration and dysfunction due to necrosis of mucosal structure, great quantities of cellular debris and significant reduction of the mucosal thickness. Other aspects are crater-like concave holes (CLCHs) as sites where C. australe could be attached-detached several times according to adult migratory processes within luminal intestine space. The submucosa shows edema probably due to the local mucosal alterations resulting in homeostatic break. There is no severe inflammatory response by host but BDINA-1 to BDINA-3 and CLCH could represent foci to secondary opportunistic infections and significant areas of malabsorption in severally infected hosts contributing to increase clinical signs of preexistent pathologies. PMID:25320494

  1. Nucleolus organizer regions and B-chromosomes of wood mice (mammalia, rodentia, Apodemus)

    SciTech Connect

    Boeskorov, G.G.; Kartavtseva, I.V.; Zagorodnyuk, I.V.; Belyanin, A.N.; Lyapunova, E.A.

    1995-02-01

    Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (=A. microps), A. fulvipectus (=A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 53). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases. PMID:19288073

  3. A late-surviving apatemyid (Mammalia: Apatotheria) from the latest Oligocene of Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Apatemyidae, Sinclairella simplicidens, is based on four isolated teeth that were screenwashed from fissure fillings at the late Oligocene Buda locality, Alachua County, Florida. Compared to its only congener Sinclairella dakotensis, the new species is characterized by upper molars with more simplified crowns, with the near absence of labial shelves and stylar cusps except for a strong parastyle on M1, loss of paracrista and paraconule on M2 (paraconule retained but weak on M1), lack of anterior cingulum on M1–M3, straighter centrocristae, smaller hypocone on M1 and M2, larger hypocone on M3, distal edge of M2 continuous from hypocone to postmetacrista supporting a large posterior basin, and with different tooth proportions in which M2 is the smallest rather than the largest molar in the toothrow. The relatively rare and poorly-known family Apatemyidae has a long temporal range in North America from the late Paleocene (early Tiffanian) to early Oligocene (early Arikareean). The new species from Florida significantly extends this temporal range by roughly 5 Ma to the end of the Paleogene near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (from early Arikareean, Ar1, to late Arikareean, Ar3), and greatly extends the geographic range of the family into eastern North America some 10° of latitude farther south and 20° of longitude farther east (about 2,200 km farther southeast) than previously known. This late occurrence probably represents a retreat of this subtropically adapted family into the Gulf Coastal Plain subtropical province at the end of the Paleogene and perhaps the end of the apatemyid lineage in North America. PMID:26713254

  4. Cranial anatomy of Paleocene and Eocene Labidolemur kayi (Mammalia: Apatotheria), and the relationships of

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    incisor. The lower dentition of apatemyids also typically includes a wedge-shaped, blade-like p2 (1987) suggested these fingers were used with the enlarged anterior dentition for foraging for wood). The combination of their rather strange dentition and derived postcranium makes them one of the most specialized

  5. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia)

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM) muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors. PMID:25024917

  6. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  7. REVIEW OF THE TONATIA BIDENS COMPLEX (MAMMALIA: CHIROPTERA), WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF

    E-print Network

    Willig, Michael

    Specimens (n = 224) were examined from the: American Museum of Natural History (AMNH); British Museum (Natural History; BM; now The Natural History Museum, London); Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CM); Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH); Museum of Zoology, Louisiana State University (LSUMZ); Museum

  8. Virtual endocranial cast of earliest Eocene Diacodexis (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) and morphological diversity of early artiodactyl brains

    PubMed Central

    Orliac, M. J.; Gilissen, E.

    2012-01-01

    The study of brain evolution, particularly that of the neocortex, is of primary interest because it directly relates to how behavioural variations arose both between and within mammalian groups. Artiodactyla is one of the most diverse mammalian clades. However, the first 10 Myr of their brain evolution has remained undocumented so far. Here, we used high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to investigate the endocranial cast of Diacodexis ilicis of earliest Eocene age. Its virtual reconstruction provides unprecedented access to both metric parameters and fine anatomy of the most complete endocast of the earliest artiodactyl. This picture is assessed in a broad comparative context by reconstructing endocasts of 14 other Early and Middle Eocene representatives of basal artiodactyls, allowing the tracking of the neocortical structure of artiodactyls back to its simplest pattern. We show that the earliest artiodactyls share a simple neocortical pattern, so far never observed in other ungulates, with an almond-shaped gyrus instead of parallel sulci as previously hypothesized. Our results demonstrate that artiodactyls experienced a tardy pulse of encephalization during the Late Neogene, well after the onset of cortical complexity increase. Comparisons with Eocene perissodactyls show that the latter reached a high level of cortical complexity earlier than the artiodactyls. PMID:22764165

  9. Pliocene Carnivora (Mammalia) from the Hadar Formation at Dikika, Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraads, Denis; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Bobe, René; Reed, Denné

    2015-07-01

    We report here on further study of the Carnivora collected by the Dikika Research Project at Dikika, in the Hadar Formation south of the type locality since 2000. The Canidae and the otter Enhydriodon have been described elsewhere, so we focus here on the other Mustelidae and on the Felidae and Hyaenidae. All Hyaenidae are referred to Crocuta, but differences in size and tooth proportions suggest two species that might belong to distinct lineages. An associated set of upper and lower teeth is made the type of a new species of Lutra that must be close to the divergence of Lutra palaeindica, Lutra lutra, and Hydrictis maculicollis. Sample size is still small, but the Dikika assemblage differs from others of similar age in the abundance of hyenas relative to felids.

  10. Chromosome painting among Proboscidea, Hyracoidea and Sirenia: Support for Paenungulata (Afrotheria, Mammalia) but not Tethytheria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardini, A.T.; O'Brien, P. C. M.; Fu, B.; Bonde, R.K.; Elder, F.F.B.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Yang, F.; Robinson, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite marked improvements in the interpretation of systematic relationships within Eutheria, particular nodes, including Paenungulata (Hyracoidea, Sirenia and Proboscidea), remain ambiguous. The combination of a rapid radiation, a deep divergence and an extensive morphological diversification has resulted in a limited phylogenetic signal confounding resolution within this clade both at the morphological and nucleotide levels. Cross-species chromosome painting was used to delineate regions of homology between Loxodonta africana (2n = 56), Procavia capensis (2n=54), Trichechus manatus latirostris (2n = 48) and an outgroup taxon, the aardvark (Orycteropus afer, 2n = 20). Changes specific to each lineage were identified and although the presence of a minimum of 11 synapomorphies confirmed the monophyly of Paenungulata, no change characterizing intrapaenungulate relationships was evident. The reconstruction of an ancestral paenungulate karyotype and the estimation of rates of chromosomal evolution indicate a reduced rate of genomic repatterning following the paenungulate radiation. In comparison to data available for other mammalian taxa, the paenungulate rate of chromosomal evolution is slow to moderate. As a consequence, the absence of a chromosomal character uniting two paenungulates (at the level of resolution characterized in this study) may be due to a reduced rate of chromosomal change relative to the length of time separating successive divergence events. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  11. Beitr. Palont., 26:195, Wien 2001 Gulo gulo (Mustelidae, Mammalia) im Jungpleistozn

    E-print Network

    Döppes, Doris

    /1/4277-53522, doris.doeppes@univie.ac.at Abstract At the opportunity of studying the almost complete wolverine finding made a catalogue of the Upper Pleistocene wolverine remains in Middle Europe. The bone atlas will help of the Upper Pleistocene wolverine I started a discussion about the systematical position of the Gulo gulo

  12. The Hand of Cercopithecoides williamsi (Mammalia, Primates): Earliest Evidence for Thumb Reduction among Colobine Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Frost, Stephen R; Gilbert, Christopher C; Pugh, Kelsey D; Guthrie, Emily H; Delson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Thumb reduction is among the most important features distinguishing the African and Asian colobines from each other and from other Old World monkeys. In this study we demonstrate that the partial skeleton KNM-ER 4420 from Koobi Fora, Kenya, dated to 1.9 Ma and assigned to the Plio-Pleistocene colobine species Cercopithecoides williamsi, shows marked reduction of its first metacarpal relative to the medial metacarpals. Thus, KNM-ER 4420 is the first documented occurrence of cercopithecid pollical reduction in the fossil record. In the size of its first metacarpal relative to the medial metacarpals, C. williamsi is similar to extant African colobines, but different from cercopithecines, extant Asian colobines and the Late Miocene colobines Microcolobus and Mesopithecus. This feature clearly links the genus Cercopithecoides with the extant African colobine clade and makes it the first definitive African colobine in the fossil record. The postcranial adaptations to terrestriality in Cercopithecoides are most likely secondary, while ancestral colobinans (and colobines) were arboreal. Finally, the absence of any evidence for pollical reduction in Mesopithecus implies either independent thumb reduction in African and Asian colobines or multiple colobine dispersal events out of Africa. Based on the available evidence, we consider the first scenario more likely. PMID:25993410

  13. Early Eocene lagomorph (Mammalia) from Western India and the early diversification of Lagomorpha

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kenneth D; DeLeon, Valerie Burke; Missiaen, Pieter; Rana, R.S; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Lachham; Smith, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    We report the oldest known record of Lagomorpha, based on distinctive, small ankle bones (calcaneus and talus) from Early Eocene deposits (Middle Ypresian equivalent, ca 53?Myr ago) of Gujarat, west-central India. The fossils predate the oldest previously known crown lagomorphs by several million years and extend the record of lagomorphs on the Indian subcontinent by 35?Myr. The bones show a mosaic of derived cursorial adaptations found in gracile Leporidae (rabbits and hares) and primitive traits characteristic of extant Ochotonidae (pikas) and more robust leporids. Together with gracile and robust calcanei from the Middle Eocene of Shanghuang, China, also reported here, the Indian fossils suggest that diversification within crown Lagomorpha and possibly divergence of the family Leporidae were already underway in the Early Eocene. PMID:18285282

  14. Molecular systematics and phylogeography of the tribe Myonycterini (Mammalia, Pteropodidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    PubMed

    Nesi, Nicolas; Kadjo, Blaise; Pourrut, Xavier; Leroy, Eric; Pongombo Shongo, Célestin; Cruaud, Corinne; Hassanin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The tribe Myonycterini comprises five fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae, which are endemic to tropical Africa. Previous studies have produced conflicting results about their interspecific relationships. Here, we performed a comparative phylogeographic analysis based on 148 complete cytochrome b gene sequences from the three species distributed in West Africa and Central Africa (Myonycteris torquata, Lissonycteris angolensis and Megaloglossus woermanni). In addition, we investigated phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Myonycterini, using a matrix including 29 terminal taxa and 7235 nucleotide characters, corresponding to an alignment of two mitochondrial genes and seven nuclear introns. Our phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the genus Megaloglossus belongs to the tribe Myonycterini. Further, the genus Rousettus is paraphyletic, with R. lanosus, sometimes placed in the genus Stenonycteris, being the sister-group of the tribes Myonycterini and Epomophorini. Our phylogeographic results showed that populations of Myonycteris torquata and Megaloglossus woermanni from the Upper Guinea Forest are highly divergent from those of the Congo Basin Forest. Based on our molecular data, we recommended several taxonomic changes. First, Stenonycteris should be recognized as a separate genus from Rousettus and composed of S. lanosus. This genus should be elevated to a new tribe, Stenonycterini, within the subfamily Epomophorinae. This result shows that the evolution of lingual echolocation was more complicated than previously accepted. Second, the genus Lissonycteris is synonymised with Myonycteris. Third, the populations from West Africa formerly included in Myonycteris torquata and Megaloglossus woermanni are now placed in two distinct species, respectively, Myonycteris leptodon and Megaloglossus azagnyi sp. nov. Our molecular dating estimates show that the three phases of taxonomic diversification detected within the tribe Myonycterini can be related to three distinct decreases in tree cover vegetation, at 6.5-6, 2.7-2.5, and 1.8-1.6Ma. Our results suggest that the high nucleotide distance between Ebolavirus Côte d'Ivoire and Ebolavirus Zaire can be correlated with the Plio/Pleistocene divergence between their putative reservoir host species, i.e., Myonycteris leptodon and Myonycteris torquata, respectively. PMID:23063885

  15. Phylogeography and population genetics of the endangered Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis Natterer, 1883 (Mammalia, Sirenia).

    PubMed

    Cantanhede, Andréa Martins; Da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves-Gomes, José

    2005-02-01

    We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to examine phylogeography and population differentiation of the endangered Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis. We observe lack of molecular differentiation among localities and we find weak association between geographical and genetic distances. However, nested clade analysis supports restricted gene flow and/or dispersal with some long-distance dispersal. Although this species has a history of extensive hunting, genetic diversity and effective population sizes are relatively high when compared to the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus. Patterns of mtDNA haplotype diversity in T. inunguis suggest a genetic disequilibrium most likely explained by demographic expansion resulting from secession of hunting and enforcement of conservation and protective measures. Phylogenetic analysis of T. manatus and T. inunguis haplotypes suggests that T. inunguis is nested within T. manatus, effectively making T. manatus a paraphyletic entity. Paraphyly of T. manatus and recent divergence times of T. inunguis and the three main T. manatus lineages suggest a possible need for a taxonomic re-evaluation of the western Atlantic Trichechus. PMID:15660933

  16. Reproductive anatomy of the female Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis Natterer, 1883 (Mammalia: Sirenia).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; Da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques; Lazzarini, Stella Maris

    2008-05-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is uniparous and has a slow reproduction cycle due to a long gestation period and long interval between births. Even though protected by law, hunting remains one of the main causes hindering the natural population growth of this species in the wild. The histology and reproductive anatomy provide information on the history and reproductive status of the female and offer a tool for the conservation of the species. The present study describes the anatomy of the female reproductive tract in T. inunguis. It is based on materials from three reproductive tracts fixed in 10% buffered formalin. The ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia are described. The hymen presents two tiny openings separated by a segment that, upon rupturing during the first copulation, should make up a single vaginal opening. A still intact hymen and the absence of placental scars in the uterus were found in one specimen. Additionally, the presence of a hemorrhagic body and Graafian follicles on the right ovary were observed, as well as whitish scars and among them, possible corpora albicantia. These findings suggest that T. inunguis undergoes infertile estrus cycles before its first gestation. Macroscopically, counting of the whitish scars is hindered by the small diameter of these structures. It is not possible to differentiate between the scars resulting from ruptured (corpora albicantia) and nonruptured follicles (regressed corpora atretica). The presence of whitish scars on both ovaries of the same specimen suggests their bilateral function in T. inunguis. PMID:18383272

  17. The mammary glands of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia): morphological characteristics and microscopic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques

    2014-08-01

    The mammaries from carcasses of two female Amazonian manatees were examined. Trichechus inunguis possesses two axillary mammaries beneath the pectoral fins, one on each side of the body. Each papilla mammae has a small hole on its apex--the ostium papillare. The mammaries are covered by a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. The epithelium of the mammary ducts became thinner more deeply in the tissue and varied from stratified to simple cuboidal. There was no evidence of glandular activity or secretion into the ducts of the mammary glands. PMID:24920139

  18. Urinary parameters of Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia, Sirenia): reference values for the Amazonian Manatee.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, T M A; Da Rosas, F C W; Dos Silva, V M F; Santos, A M F

    2010-08-01

    The Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Natterer 1883) is endemic to the Amazon Basin and is currently considered a vulnerable species. In order to establish normality ranges of urinary parameters to help monitor the health of this species in captivity, chemical urinalyses were performed on twelve males and nine females of various age groups. Urine was collected once a month for twelve months in the tanks just after being drained, by placing stainless steel containers under the genital slit of females and applying abdominal massages to males in order to stimulate urination. Quantitative data of glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid and amylase levels were obtained using colorimetric spectrophotometry. Dip strips were also useful for routine analyses, despite only providing qualitative results. Normal range to glucose levels, regardless of sex or age class, was 3.0 to 3.6 mgxdL-1, coinciding with qualitative values of glucose measured by dip strips. Statistical differences observed in some parameter levels suggest that some urine parameters analysed must take into consideration the sex and the age class of the animal studied, being these differences less remarkable in creatinine and amylase levels. To this last one, statistical difference was detected only in the calve's urine (7.0 to 11.5 mgxdL-1) compared to other age classes samples (4.1 to 5.3 mgxdL-1). The results presented here may be used as comparative data in future research on urinalysis in related species. PMID:20730348

  19. First detailed reconstruction of the karyotype of Trachypithecus cristatus (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The chromosomal homologies of human (Homo sapiens = HSA) and silvered leaf monkey (Trachypithecus cristatus = TCR) have been previously studied by classical chromosome staining and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) applying chromosome-specific DNA probes of all human chromosomes in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. Results However, as the resolution of these techniques is limited we used multicolor banding (MCB) at an ~250-band level, and other selected human DNA probes to establish a detailed chromosomal map of TCR. Therefore it was possible to precisely determine evolutionary conserved breakpoints, orientation of segments and distribution of specific regions in TCR compared to HSA. Overall, 69 evolutionary conserved breakpoints including chromosomal segments, which failed to be resolved in previous reports, were exactly identified and characterized. Conclusions This work also represents the first molecular cytogenetic one characterizing a multiple sex chromosome system with a male karyotype 44,XY1Y2. The obtained results are compared to other available data for old world monkeys and drawbacks in hominoid evolution are discussed. PMID:24341374

  20. Effects of different land cover, habitat fragmentation, and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Eggs or empty shells of the American woodcockwere collected from 10 states in 1971and shell thickness (mean of clutch means) was compared with that of eggs collected from 16 states during the years 1859-1939. The 1971 shells (n = 91) from hatched eggs or those containing fully developed embryos were about i0 percent thinner (P<0.001) than both unembryonated shells (n = 26) from the same year and the 1859-1939 shells (n = 169) from essentially unembryonated eggs. The difference is attributed to the transfer of calcium from the shells to the embryos and not to environmental pollutants.

  1. Vocal development during postnatal growth and ear morphology in a shrew that generates seismic vibrations, Diplomesodon pulchellum

    E-print Network

    Zaytseva, Alexandra S.; Volodin, Ilya A.; Mason, Matthew J.; Frey, Roland; Fritsch, Guido; Ilchenko, Olga G.; Volodina, Elena V.

    2015-06-04

    of the vocal folds (Titze 1994 ), and both mass and length increase together with the 51 growth of the larynx (Kahane 1978, 1982). In most mammalian species, the growth of these 52 sound-producing structures is related to the growth of the body, which results... in a steady descent 53 of f0 with age (for instance, Briefer and McElligott 2011; Efremova et al. 2011 , Campbell et al. 54 2014). In humans, this pattern is complicated in males by an abrupt fall of f0 due to accelerated 55 growth of the larynx...

  2. The differential antiemetic properties of GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39) in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew).

    PubMed

    Chan, Sze Wa; Lu, Zengbing; Lin, Ge; Yew, David Tai Wai; Yeung, Chi Kong; Rudd, John A

    2014-08-01

    The use of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus is commonly associated with nausea and vomiting. Previous studies using Suncus murinus revealed that the GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, induces emesis via the brainstem and/or hypothalamus. The present study investigated the mechanism of exendin-4-induced emesis in more detail. Ondansetron (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and CP-99,994 (10 mg/kg, s.c) failed to reduce emesis induced by exendin-4 (3 nmol, i.c.v.), suggesting that 5-HT3 and NK1 receptors are not involved in the mechanism. In other studies, the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39), antagonised emesis and c-Fos expression in the brainstem and the paraventricular hypothalamus induced by the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin (30 mg/kg, i.p.; p < 0.05), but not the emesis induced by nicotine (5 mg/kg, s.c.; p > 0.05), or copper sulphate pentahydrate (120 mg/kg, p.o.; p > 0.05). GLP-1 receptors may therefore represent a potential target for drugs to prevent chemotherapy-induced emesis in situations where 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor antagonists fail. PMID:24726308

  3. 0042.6989 S.l S; WI I 0 00 Copnghi ; I%-! Perysmon Press Ltd

    E-print Network

    OF THE TREE SHREW* HEY~O~ID M. PETRI?. ROBERT Fox and VIWEN A. CASAGRASDE Departments of Psychology measured for 3 tree shrews. Our two- alternative forced-choice discrimination paradigm required the animals the limitations set by the eye size and retinal anatomy of the tree shrew. Tree shrew Contrast sensitivity Spatial

  4. Graphical Models in Computational Molecular

    E-print Network

    Friedman, Nir

    -tailed bat Jamaican fruit-eating bat Asiatic shrew Long-clawed shrew Mole Small Madagascar hedgehog Aardvark Elephant Armadillo Rabbit Pika Tree shrew Bonobo Chimpanzee Man Gorilla Sumatran orangutan Bornean Cetartiodactyla Rodentia 1 Hedgehogs Rodentia 2 Primates Chiroptera Moles+Shrews Afrotheria Xenarthra Lagomorpha

  5. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 31 (2003) 739750 www.elsevier.com/locate/biochemsyseco

    E-print Network

    Sanderson, Mike

    2003-01-01

    ), and least shrews Cryptotis parva (Say), than previously reported. Our survey also included a few-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda, southern short-tailed shrew Blarina carolinensis, and least shrew Cryptotis parva. Of the 28 loci, 11 were monomorphic for the same allele in all species. Only one locus (Mpi

  6. Developmental Patterns in Mesozoic Evolution

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Jill M.

    on many evolutionary problems. The beginning of the three living mammal groups, monotremes (egg Mammalia Mammaliaformes Mammaliamorpha Cynodonta Synapsida Monotremes Teinolophos Henosferus Pseudotribos

  7. Mammals from ‘down under’: a multi-gene species-level phylogeny of marsupial mammals (Mammalia, Metatheria)

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, C. William; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2015-01-01

    Marsupials or metatherians are a group of mammals that are distinct in giving birth to young at early stages of development and in having a prolonged investment in lactation. The group consists of nearly 350 extant species, including kangaroos, koala, possums, and their relatives. Marsupials are an old lineage thought to have diverged from early therian mammals some 160 million years ago in the Jurassic, and have a remarkable evolutionary and biogeographical history, with extant species restricted to the Americas, mostly South America, and to Australasia. Although the group has been the subject of decades of phylogenetic research, the marsupial tree of life remains controversial, with most studies focusing on only a fraction of the species diversity within the infraclass. Here we present the first Methaterian species-level phylogeny to include 80% of the extant marsupial species and five nuclear and five mitochondrial markers obtained from Genbank and a recently published retroposon matrix. Our primary goal is to provide a summary phylogeny that will serve as a tool for comparative research. We evaluate the extent to which the phylogeny recovers current phylogenetic knowledge based on the recovery of “benchmark clades” from prior studies—unambiguously supported key clades and undisputed traditional taxonomic groups. The Bayesian phylogenetic analyses recovered nearly all benchmark clades but failed to find support for the suborder Phalagiformes. The most significant difference with previous published topologies is the support for Australidelphia as a group containing Microbiotheriidae, nested within American marsupials. However, a likelihood ratio test shows that alternative topologies with monophyletic Australidelphia and Ameridelphia are not significantly different than the preferred tree. Although further data are needed to solidify understanding of Methateria phylogeny, the new phylogenetic hypothesis provided here offers a well resolved and detailed tool for comparative analyses, covering the majority of the known species richness of the group. PMID:25755933

  8. Mammals from 'down under': a multi-gene species-level phylogeny of marsupial mammals (Mammalia, Metatheria).

    PubMed

    May-Collado, Laura J; Kilpatrick, C William; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2015-01-01

    Marsupials or metatherians are a group of mammals that are distinct in giving birth to young at early stages of development and in having a prolonged investment in lactation. The group consists of nearly 350 extant species, including kangaroos, koala, possums, and their relatives. Marsupials are an old lineage thought to have diverged from early therian mammals some 160 million years ago in the Jurassic, and have a remarkable evolutionary and biogeographical history, with extant species restricted to the Americas, mostly South America, and to Australasia. Although the group has been the subject of decades of phylogenetic research, the marsupial tree of life remains controversial, with most studies focusing on only a fraction of the species diversity within the infraclass. Here we present the first Methaterian species-level phylogeny to include 80% of the extant marsupial species and five nuclear and five mitochondrial markers obtained from Genbank and a recently published retroposon matrix. Our primary goal is to provide a summary phylogeny that will serve as a tool for comparative research. We evaluate the extent to which the phylogeny recovers current phylogenetic knowledge based on the recovery of "benchmark clades" from prior studies-unambiguously supported key clades and undisputed traditional taxonomic groups. The Bayesian phylogenetic analyses recovered nearly all benchmark clades but failed to find support for the suborder Phalagiformes. The most significant difference with previous published topologies is the support for Australidelphia as a group containing Microbiotheriidae, nested within American marsupials. However, a likelihood ratio test shows that alternative topologies with monophyletic Australidelphia and Ameridelphia are not significantly different than the preferred tree. Although further data are needed to solidify understanding of Methateria phylogeny, the new phylogenetic hypothesis provided here offers a well resolved and detailed tool for comparative analyses, covering the majority of the known species richness of the group. PMID:25755933

  9. Homeotic Evolution in the Mammalia: Diversification of Therian Axial Seriation and the Morphogenetic Basis of Human Origins

    PubMed Central

    Filler, Aaron G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the rising interest in homeotic genes, little has been known about the course and pattern of evolution of homeotic traits across the mammalian radiation. An array of emerging and diversifying homeotic gradients revealed by this study appear to generate new body plans and drive evolution at a large scale. Methodology/Principal Findings This study identifies and evaluates a set of homeotic gradients across 250 extant and fossil mammalian species and their antecedents over a period of 220 million years. These traits are generally expressed as co-linear gradients along the body axis rather than as distinct segmental identities. Relative position or occurrence sequence vary independently and are subject to polarity reversal and mirroring. Five major gradient modification sets are identified: (1)–quantitative changes of primary segmental identity pattern that appeared at the origin of the tetrapods ; (2)–frame shift relation of costal and vertebral identity which diversifies from the time of amniote origins; (3)–duplication, mirroring, splitting and diversification of the neomorphic laminar process first commencing at the dawn of mammals; (4)–emergence of homologically variable lumbar lateral processes upon commencement of the radiation of therian mammals and ; (5)–inflexions and transpositions of the relative position of the horizontal septum of the body and the neuraxis at the emergence of various orders of therian mammals. Convergent functional changes under homeotic control include laminar articular engagement with septo-neural transposition and ventrally arrayed lumbar transverse process support systems. Conclusion/Significance Clusters of homeotic transformations mark the emergence point of mammals in the Triassic and the radiation of therians in the Cretaceous. A cluster of homeotic changes in the Miocene hominoid Morotopithecus that are still seen in humans supports establishment of a new “hominiform” clade and suggests a homeotic origin for the human upright body plan. PMID:17925867

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the African palm civet, Nandinia binotata, the only representative of the family Nandiniidae (Mammalia, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Here I report the complete mitochondrial genome of the African palm civet, (Nandinia binotata) as sequenced from overlapping PCR products. The genome is 17,103?bp in length and contains the 37 genes found in a typical mammalian genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The control region of N. binotata includes both RS2 and RS3 tandem repeats. The overall base composition on the L-strand is A: 33.6%, C: 27.3%, G: 13.0%, and T: 26.1%. PMID:24937569

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Spotted Linsang, Prionodon pardicolor, the first representative from the family Prionodontidae (Mammalia, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Veron, Géraldine

    2016-03-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Spotted Linsang, Prionodon pardicolor, was sequenced using overlapping PCR products. The genome is 16,718 base pairs in length and contains the 37 genes found in a typical mammalian genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base composition on the L-strand is A: 32.4%, C: 25.0%, G: 13.9%, T: 28.7%. The control region of P. pardicolor includes both RS2 and RS3 tandem repeats. Phylogenetic analyses support a sister relationship with the Felidae. PMID:24937573

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Servaline Genet, Genetta servalina, the first representative from the family Viverridae (Mammalia, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Here I report the complete mitochondrial genome of the Servaline Genet, Genetta servalina, as sequenced from overlapping PCR products. The genome is 16,938 base pairs in length and contains the 37 genes found in a typical mammalian genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The control region of G. servalina includes both RS2 and RS3 tandem repeats. The overall base composition on the L-strand is A: 32.8%, C: 25.5%, G: 13.5%, and T: 28.2%. PMID:24937571

  13. Light and electron microscopy of the cardiac gland region of the stomach of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa – Suidae, Mammalia). 

    E-print Network

    Leus, Kristin; Macdonald, Alastair A; Goodall, Gordon P; Veitch, David; Mitchell, Steven; Bauwens, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the gross anatomical structure of the stomach of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) differs markedly from that of all other pigs. This light and scanning electron microscopic study revealed a previously unknown...

  14. First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Sotnikova, Marina V; Foronova, Irina V

    2014-08-01

    A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznetsk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia). The find of P. fossilis first recorded in Asia considerably extends the current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions. The Siberian lion is geologically the oldest form and is dimensionally among the largest members of the group of fossil lions on the Eurasian continent. Although known by mandibular remains only, it is readily distinguished from Panthera (Leo) spelaea by a heavy built mandibular corpus with rectangular profile in the cheek teeth area, a deep, well-outlined and narrow anterior section of the masseteric fossa, and a large p4 supported by a big unreduced anterior root. The Siberian lion shares these features with the European Middle Pleistocene P. fossilis and the American Late Pleistocene P. (Leo) atrox, which suggests their close relationship. P. atrox originated from P. fossilis and was isolated in North America south of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This explains why the American lion has retained more primitive features than the coeval Eurasian cave lion P. (L.) spelaea. PMID:24382145

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Neotropical Wild Carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora): At the Top of the T. cruzi Transmission Chain

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; de Lima, Juliane Saab; Cheida, Carolina Carvalho; Lemos, Frederico Gemesio; de Azevedo, Fernanda Cavalcanti; Arrais, Ricardo Corassa; Bilac, Daniele; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Mourão, Guilherme; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    Little is known on the role played by Neotropical wild carnivores in the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. We investigated T. cruzi infection in wild carnivores from three sites in Brazil through parasitological and serological tests. The seven carnivore species examined were infected by T. cruzi, but high parasitemias detectable by hemoculture were found only in two Procyonidae species. Genotyping by Mini-exon gene, PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I) and kDNA genomic targets revealed that the raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus) harbored TcI and the coatis (Nasua nasua) harbored TcI, TcII, TcIII-IV and Trypanosoma rangeli, in single and mixed infections, besides four T. cruzi isolates that displayed odd band patterns in the Mini-exon assay. These findings corroborate the coati can be a bioaccumulator of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTU) and may act as a transmission hub, a connection point joining sylvatic transmission cycles within terrestrial and arboreal mammals and vectors. Also, the odd band patterns observed in coatis’ isolates reinforce that T. cruzi diversity might be much higher than currently acknowledged. Additionally, we assembled our data with T. cruzi infection on Neotropical carnivores’ literature records to provide a comprehensive analysis of the infection patterns among distinct carnivore species, especially considering their ecological traits and phylogeny. Altogether, fifteen Neotropical carnivore species were found naturally infected by T. cruzi. Species diet was associated with T. cruzi infection rates, supporting the hypothesis that predator-prey links are important mechanisms for T. cruzi maintenance and dispersion in the wild. Distinct T. cruzi infection patterns across carnivore species and study sites were notable. Musteloidea species consistently exhibit high parasitemias in different studies which indicate their high infectivity potential. Mesocarnivores that feed on both invertebrates and mammals, including the coati, a host that can be bioaccumulator of T. cruzi DTU’s, seem to take place at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain. PMID:23861767

  16. A new microphallid (Digenea) species from Lontra provocax (Mammalia: Mustelidae) from freshwater environments of northwestern Patagonia (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Flores, Verónica R; Brugni, Norma L; Pozzi, Carla M

    2012-10-01

    A new microphallid species of Maritrema is described from the native southern river otter, Lontra provocax (Thomas). A naturally infected otter was found dead in the Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina. Ovigerous adult worms were recovered from the anterior portion of the intestine. Specimens of Maritrema huillini n. sp. have an unarmed genital pore and glabrous cirrus. They can be distinguished from all other species in the genus by having a long intestinal ceca extending up to three-quarters of the testes length to the level of the posterior border of the testes and a metraterm composed of a proximal sphincter, a non-muscular sac, and a distal muscular portion. This microphallid is the first species recovered from a South American eutherian host and the first digenean recorded for L. provocax. PMID:22540416

  17. Didelphidae marsupials (Mammalia, Didelphimorphia) from the late Pleistocene deposit of the Gruta dos Moura Cave, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nova, Patricia Villa; Avilla, Leonardo S; Oliveira, Édison V

    2015-03-01

    The present study acknowledges the diversity of fossil marsupials from the Gruta dos Moura cave, as well as environmental and climatic aspects during the Quaternary. The results show that this is the largest diversity of Pleistocene marsupials recorded in a single cave: Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus agilis, G. microtarsus, Marmosa murina, Monodelphis brevicaudata, M. domestica and Sairadelphys tocantinensis. Furthermore, the described specimens are also part of the only fossil assemblage unequivocally referable to the late Pleistocene. Paleontological studies suggest an intimate association with dry and open environments with high abundance of water sources. Since most of the identified taxa are characteristic of open forests and gallery forests, this could represent the actual environment around the Gruta dos Moura cave. Recent studies identified sympatric occurrences between species from open and dry environments and species from humid forests that were identified among our material and are characteristic of humid regions. Therefore, these species could inhabit gallery forests and capons, or even ecotones, inside a dry and open environment. Moreover, the extinction of Sairadelphys could also indicate that the climatic and environmental conditions changed or that the past environment was more heterogeneous than the current environment of the region. PMID:25806985

  18. Endocrine cells and nerve ganglia of the small intestine of the Opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (Mammalia: Didelphidae).

    PubMed

    Freitas-Ribeiro, Gláucia M; Fonseca, Cláudio C; Sartori, Sirlene S R; Loures-Ribeiro, Alan; Neves, Clóvis A

    2012-09-01

    The nervous and endocrine systems jointly control intestinal movements, secretions of their glands and also participate of the processes of nutrient digestion and absorption. Therefore, the central objective of this study was to verify the existence of a possible relationship between the number of nervous cells and ganglia of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses and the number of endocrine cells in the small intestine of adult D. aurita. The utilized staining techniques were Grimelius, modified Masson-Fontana, direct immunoperoxidase and H-E. Argyrophillic, argentaffin and insulin immunoreactive endocrine cells do not numerically vary between the initial, mid and final regions of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P>0.05), except for argyrophillic cells in the jejunum (P>0.05). No numerical relationship has yet been verified between the number of nerve ganglia and endocrine cells, and also between nervous and endocrine cells. We recommended the use of new immunohistochemical techniques to confirm the numerical correlation between the nervous and endocrine systems in the small intestine. The morphology and distribution of endocrine cells and the nerve ganglia studied were similar to those encountered in eutherian mammals. PMID:22801379

  19. The sweet spot of a biological hammer: the centre of percussion of glyptodont (Mammalia: Xenarthra) tail clubs

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, R. Ernesto; Jones, Washington W.; Rinderknecht, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    The importance of the centre of percussion (CP) of some hand-held sporting equipment (such as tennis rackets and baseball bats) for athletic performance is well known. In order to avoid injuries it is important that powerful blows are located close to the CP. Several species of glyptodont (giant armoured mammals) had tail clubs that can be modelled as rigid beams (like baseball bats) and it is generally assumed that these were useful for agonistic behaviour. However, the variation in tail club morphology among known genera suggests that a biomechanical and functional analysis of these structures could be useful. Here, we outline a novel method to determine the CP of the glyptodont tail clubs. We find that the largest species had the CP very close to the possible location of horny spikes. This is consistent with the inference that they were adapted to delivering powerful blows at that point. Our new analysis reinforces the case for agonistic use of tail clubs in several glyptodont species. PMID:19710060

  20. Chewing through the Miocene: an examination of the feeding musculature in the ground sloth Hapalops from South America (Mammalia: Pilosa)

    PubMed Central

    Naples, Virginia L.; McAfee, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Hapalops, a smaller-sized and early sloth of the Megatheroidea, appeared in the middle Miocene Santa Cruz formation of Argentina. This genus is part of the group from which later, larger megatheroids arose, i.e., Nothrotheriops and Megatherium. Many cranial characters support this idea; however Hapalops is not merely a smaller antecedent of the later forms. Specifically, Hapalops retains short anterior caniniform teeth, and a temporomandibular joint elevated above the cheek tooth row; a combination distinct among sloths. An elevated temporomandibular joint occurs in Bradypus, a tree sloth with anterior chisel-shaped teeth instead of caniniforms, and the tree sloth Choloepus, which is aligned with the megalonychids, has anterior caniniforms. Hapalops has an elongated zygomatic ascending process that is reminiscent of that in Bradypus; however, the Bradypus skull is extremely foreshortened while that of Hapalops is elongated, as in nothrotheres, but not deepened as in megatheres. Previous work identified many sloth cranial character complexes, and functional limitations on skull feature combinations. The unique Hapalops character patterns indicate a selective feeder with a mediolaterally oriented grinding stroke during mastication. PMID:25075299

  1. A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity.

    PubMed

    Góis, Flávio; González Ruiz, Laureano Raúl; Scillato-Yané, Gustavo Juan; Soibelzon, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene-lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene-lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age. PMID:26083486

  2. A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Scillato-Yané, Gustavo Juan; Soibelzon, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene–lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene–lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower–middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene–early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age. PMID:26083486

  3. Early Eocene rodents (Mammalia) from the Subathu Formation of type area (Himachal Pradesh), NW sub-Himalaya, India: Palaeobiogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Smita; Kumar, Kishor

    2015-08-01

    Based on isolated upper cheek teeth, two new early Eocene rodents (Subathumys solanorius gen. et sp. nov. and Subathumys globulus gen. et sp. nov.) and three others (Birbalomys cf. sondaari, Birbalomys sp., cf. Chapattimys sp.) are recorded from the lower-middle part of the Subathu Formation of the type area in Himachal Pradesh, northwestern sub-Himalaya (India). The new rodents exhibit morphological features most similar to the unified ctenodactyloid family Chapattimyidae (including Yuomyidae), which is also represented in the assemblage from the upper part (middle Eocene) of the Subathu Formation. The associated lower cheek teeth are provisionally described as three indeterminate chapattimyid taxa. The new Subathu rodents are somewhat younger than the previously documented early Eocene assemblages from the Indian subcontinent, and are chronologically intermediate between the early Eocene ailuravines from Gujarat in the western peninsular India and the middle Eocene chapattimyids from northwestern India and Pakistan. They suggest that chapattimyids originated in the sub-Himalayan region during the Ypresian, which is earlier than previously believed. The absence of ailuravines in this as well as younger rodent assemblages from the subcontinent seems to suggest that ailuravines (Ischyromyidae), within a relatively short time after their appearance in the peninsular India in the early Eocene, may have been replaced by the indigenous chapattimyids. The co-occurrence in the early Eocene Subathu assemblage of three or more chapattimyids indicates their early radiation and dominance during the early and middle Eocene. This record of rodents opens the possibility of recovery of other small mammal remains in older levels of the Subathu Formation, which will be important for understanding linkage with early Eocene faunas from peninsular India, Europe and North America.

  4. Shippingport, Kentucky, is the type locality for the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque, 1818) (Mammalia: Rodentia: Cricetidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The white-footed mouse, Musculus leucopus Rafinesque, 1818 (= Peromyscus leucopus), is a common small mammal that is widespread in the eastern and central United States. Its abundance in many habitats renders it ecologically important, and its status as a reservoir for hantavirus and Lyme disease gives the species medical and economic significance. The recognition of two cytotypes and up to 17 morphological subspecies of P. leucopus indicates considerable variation in the species, and to understand this variation, it is important that the nominate subspecies be adequately defined so as to act as a standard for comparison. Relevant to this standard for the white-footed mouse is its type locality, which has generally been accepted to be either the vague "pine barrens of Kentucky" or the mouth of the Ohio River. Newly assembled information regarding the life and travels of Constantine S. Rafinesque, the North American naturalist who described P. leucopus, establishes that Rafinesque observed this species in July 1818 while visiting Shippingport, Kentucky, which is now within the city limits of Louisville, Jefferson Co., Kentucky. Shippingport is therefore the actual type locality for this species.

  5. A New Late Miocene Odobenid (Mammalia: Carnivora) from Hokkaido, Japan Suggests Rapid Diversification of Basal Miocene Odobenids.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The modern walrus, Odobenus rosmarus, is specialized and only extant member of the family Odobenidae. They were much more diversified in the past, and at least 16 genera and 20 species of fossil walruses have been known. Although their diversity increased in the late Miocene and Pliocene (around 8-2 Million years ago), older records are poorly known. A new genus and species of archaic odobenid, Archaeodobenus akamatsui, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene (ca. 10.0-9.5 Ma) top of the Ichibangawa Formation, Hokkaido, northern Japan, suggests rapid diversification of basal Miocene walruses. Archaeodobenus akamatsui is the contemporaneous Pseudotaria muramotoi from the same formation, but they are distinguishable from each other in size and shape of the occipital condyle, foramen magnum and mastoid process of the cranium, and other postcranial features. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, A. akamatsui might have split from P. muramotoi at the late Miocene in the western North Pacific. This rapid diversification of the archaic odobenids occurred with a combination of marine regression and transgression, which provided geological isolation among the common ancestors of extinct odobenids. PMID:26244784

  6. Revision of the Wind River faunas, early Eocene of central Wyoming. IX - The oldest known hystricomorphous rodent (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Mary R.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Stucky, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    The rostral portion of the skull of a new genus and species of rodent, Armintomys tullbergi, from the earliest middle Eocene of the Wind River Basin (Wyoming) provides the geologically oldest known record of the hystricomorphous zygomasseteric structure. Armintomys also preserves the oldest known occurrence of incisor enamel that is transitional from pauciserial to uniserial. Other dental characters include: anteriorly grooved incisor, small premolars, and relatively primitive sciuravidlike molars. Analysis of this unique combination of characters implies that Armintomys is the oldest known myomorph rodent and the only known representative of a new family. Armintomyidae, which is referred, with question, to the myomorph superfamily Dipodoidea. Armintomys is more primitive, especially in premolar retention and structure, than the Bridgerian zapodid Elymys from Nevada, but adds to evidence from the latter for an early origin and radiation of dipodoid rodents.

  7. Chewing through the Miocene: an examination of the feeding musculature in the ground sloth Hapalops from South America (Mammalia: Pilosa).

    PubMed

    Naples, Virginia L; McAfee, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Hapalops, a smaller-sized and early sloth of the Megatheroidea, appeared in the middle Miocene Santa Cruz formation of Argentina. This genus is part of the group from which later, larger megatheroids arose, i.e., Nothrotheriops and Megatherium. Many cranial characters support this idea; however Hapalops is not merely a smaller antecedent of the later forms. Specifically, Hapalops retains short anterior caniniform teeth, and a temporomandibular joint elevated above the cheek tooth row; a combination distinct among sloths. An elevated temporomandibular joint occurs in Bradypus, a tree sloth with anterior chisel-shaped teeth instead of caniniforms, and the tree sloth Choloepus, which is aligned with the megalonychids, has anterior caniniforms. Hapalops has an elongated zygomatic ascending process that is reminiscent of that in Bradypus; however, the Bradypus skull is extremely foreshortened while that of Hapalops is elongated, as in nothrotheres, but not deepened as in megatheres. Previous work identified many sloth cranial character complexes, and functional limitations on skull feature combinations. The unique Hapalops character patterns indicate a selective feeder with a mediolaterally oriented grinding stroke during mastication. PMID:25075299

  8. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla, from western Colombia and western Ecuador (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2007-01-01

    The twelve recognized species of nectar-feeding bats of the genus Lonchophylla occur in low- and middle-elevation, humid, Neotropical forests. Morphological and morphometrical analyses of specimens formerly lumped with Lonchophylla mordax O. Thomas (1903) support recognition of Lonchophylla concava Goldman (1914) as a separate species and reveal a third species from the western Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador that I describe herein as Lonchophylla jornicata. This new species is morphologically similar to Lonchophylla concava but is distinctively larger than that species. Tests for sexual dimorphism within these and other species of Lonchophyllini suggest a tendency for females to have slightly longer, narrower skulls, higher coronoid processes of the mandible, and longer forearms than males.

  9. New data on recently described rodent species Paulina's Limestone Rat Saxatilomys paulinae Musser, Smith, Robinson & Lunde, 2005 (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nghia Xuan; Ngo, Tuong Xuan; Nguyen, Duy Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Paulina's Limestone Rat Saxatilomys paulinae Musser et al., 2005 was first discovered by Musser et al. (2005) based on specimens from the Khammouane Limestone National Biodiversity Conservation Area (NBCA) in Khammouane Province in central Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). This tower karst landscape is part of the Central Indochina Limestone massif, which extends eastward into north-central Vietnam in Quang Binh and Quang Tri Provinces. New information In April 2014, we conducted a rodent survey and collected four (4) whole specimens of Saxatilomys paulinae in Quang Binh province. This is the first record of Saxatilomys paulinae in Vietnam. External and craniodental characteristics of all specimens clearly exhibit the characters of Saxatilomys paulinae as described in Musser et al. (2005)?. The rats are of medium size (HB: 160.3 ± 2.03 mm, T: 192.3 ± 6.69 mm) with some specific morpological characteristics. The external and craniodental measurement of the specimens from Vietnam tend to be larger than those of specimens from Lao. However, this needs to be verified by more studies in future. The habitat of Saxatilomys paulinae in Vietnam is characterized by complicated terrain comprising low karst towers (around 400 m) with steep slopes covered under limestone humid evergreen forest. The forest has been affected by selected timber logging in the past, but still has a complex 4-layer structure. The population of Saxatilomys paulinae in Vietnam is threatened by rodent trapping/snaring and habitat disturbance. More status surveys should be conducted to assess the species distributional range and its population status for undertaking relevant conservation measures. PMID:26023285

  10. Cranial Remain from Tunisia Provides New Clues for the Origin and Evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria) in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Julien; Adnet, Sylvain; El Mabrouk, Essid; Khayati, Hayet; Ben Haj Ali, Mustapha; Marivaux, Laurent; Merzeraud, Gilles; Merigeaud, Samuel; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Tabuce, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Sea cows (manatees, dugongs) are the only living marine mammals to feed solely on aquatic plants. Unlike whales or dolphins (Cetacea), the earliest evolutionary history of sirenians is poorly documented, and limited to a few fossils including skulls and skeletons of two genera composing the stem family of Prorastomidae (Prorastomus and Pezosiren). Surprisingly, these fossils come from the Eocene of Jamaica, while stem Hyracoidea and Proboscidea - the putative sister-groups to Sirenia - are recorded in Africa as early as the Late Paleocene. So far, the historical biogeography of early Sirenia has remained obscure given this paradox between phylogeny and fossil record. Here we use X-ray microtomography to investigate a newly discovered sirenian petrosal from the Eocene of Tunisia. This fossil represents the oldest occurrence of sirenians in Africa. The morphology of this petrosal is more primitive than the Jamaican prorastomids’ one, which emphasizes the basal position of this new African taxon within the Sirenia clade. This discovery testifies to the great antiquity of Sirenia in Africa, and therefore supports their African origin. While isotopic analyses previously suggested sirenians had adapted directly to the marine environment, new paleoenvironmental evidence suggests that basal-most sea cows were likely restricted to fresh waters. PMID:23342128

  11. Population structure of Lankatrematoides gardneri (Digenea: Opisthotrematidae) in the pancreas of the dugong (Dugong dugon) (Mammalia: Sirenia).

    PubMed

    Blair, D; Hudson, B E

    1992-12-01

    The distribution among size and reproductive classes of the digenean Lankatrematoides gardneri was recorded from the pancreatic ducts of 41 dugongs from the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea. Infrapopulation sizes ranged from 5 to 921 worms and showed no correlation with host age, sex, or month of capture. Immature worms tended to be concentrated in intermediate size classes, the largest immatures being no more numerous than matures. The mean proportion of mature worms in the 29 infrapopulations containing them was small (9.8%). Mature worms were significantly greater in mass than the largest immatures. There is evidence of an interaction between the presence or absence of mature worms and the distribution of immatures among classes. PMID:1491302

  12. The clavicles of Smilodon fatalis and Panthera atrox (Mammalia: Felidae) from Rancho La Brea, Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Long, Ryan C; Farrell, Aisling B; Shaw, Christopher A

    2012-09-01

    The Rancho La Brea collections at the George C. Page Museum in Los Angeles, California, contain the largest single inventory of Smilodon fatalis remains representing virtually every bone in the skeleton. Eighteen clavicles of two distinctive shapes have been recovered from historical and recent excavations at Rancho La Brea. In this study, we identify these specimens to species through comparison of their morphology and morphological variability with clavicles found in modern felids. This study includes a reevaluation of clavicles that have been previously assigned to S. fatalis, which are more likely to be those of Panthera atrox, and the description of pantherine cat clavicles. A previously undescribed sample of clavicles not only includes some of the same pantherine morph but also 10 specimens, herein assigned to S. fatalis, which are morphologically distinctive and significantly smaller than the previously described specimens. In addition, we report unexpected variations between clavicles of Panthera leo and P. tigris: the clavicles of P. leo closely resemble those of the large Rancho La Brea clavicle morph-which presumably belongs to P. atrox-thus supporting a P. leo/P. atrox clade. We report distinctive morphology of the clavicles of Acinonyx jubatus. Possible functional and phylogenic significance of felid clavicles is suggested. PMID:22592918

  13. The action of post-dispersal beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on scats of Didelphis spp. (Mammalia: Didelphidae).

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; Monteiro-Filho, Emygdio L A

    2006-12-01

    A two year study of dung beetles and ants acting on scats of two species of opossum (Didelphis spp.) was carried out. Scats were left in the field in order to detect post-dispersal agents. A portion of each scat (30 %) was examined for seeds in the laboratory. Beetles were recovered from burrows (51% of 84 faecal samples left in the field) where they either buried scats of opossums or were attracted, together with ants, to pitfalls (N = 10) baited with opossum scats. Dung beetles were the main post-dispersal agents of seeds found in scats of opossums, rolling the scats away or burying then on the site of deposition. They buried faeces at 4 to 15 cm in depth (N = 22 tunnels). The main dung beetles identified (medium to large size) were Eurysternus (28.7 % in pitfalls) and Dichotomius (13.7 %), Coprophanaeus (seen only directly on faeces), besides small-bodied beetles (< 10 mm; 57.6 %). The ant Acromirmex sp. transported some seeds from scats. This species was present in 25.5 % of all Formicidae samples (pitfall). These post-dispersal agents contribute to avert scat seed predators such as rodents, and to accelerate seed bank formation. PMID:18457158

  14. Cranial remain from Tunisia provides new clues for the origin and evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria) in Africa.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Julien; Adnet, Sylvain; El Mabrouk, Essid; Khayati, Hayet; Ben Haj Ali, Mustapha; Marivaux, Laurent; Merzeraud, Gilles; Merigeaud, Samuel; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Tabuce, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Sea cows (manatees, dugongs) are the only living marine mammals to feed solely on aquatic plants. Unlike whales or dolphins (Cetacea), the earliest evolutionary history of sirenians is poorly documented, and limited to a few fossils including skulls and skeletons of two genera composing the stem family of Prorastomidae (Prorastomus and Pezosiren). Surprisingly, these fossils come from the Eocene of Jamaica, while stem Hyracoidea and Proboscidea--the putative sister-groups to Sirenia--are recorded in Africa as early as the Late Paleocene. So far, the historical biogeography of early Sirenia has remained obscure given this paradox between phylogeny and fossil record. Here we use X-ray microtomography to investigate a newly discovered sirenian petrosal from the Eocene of Tunisia. This fossil represents the oldest occurrence of sirenians in Africa. The morphology of this petrosal is more primitive than the Jamaican prorastomids' one, which emphasizes the basal position of this new African taxon within the Sirenia clade. This discovery testifies to the great antiquity of Sirenia in Africa, and therefore supports their African origin. While isotopic analyses previously suggested sirenians had adapted directly to the marine environment, new paleoenvironmental evidence suggests that basal-most sea cows were likely restricted to fresh waters. PMID:23342128

  15. Island history affects faunal composition: the treeshrews (Mammalia: Scandentia: Tupaiidae) from the Mentawai and Batu Islands, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargis, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Morningstar, Natalie C.; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2014-01-01

    The Mentawai and Batu Island groups off the west coast of Sumatra have a complicated geological and biogeographical history. The Batu Islands have shared a connection with the Sumatran ‘mainland’ during periods of lowered sea level, whereas the Mentawai Islands, despite being a similar distance from Sumatra, have remained isolated from Sumatra, and probably from the Batu Islands as well. These contrasting historical relationships to Sumatra have influenced the compositions of the respective mammalian faunas of these island groups. Treeshrews (Scandentia, Tupaiidae) from these islands have, at various times in their history, been recognized as geographically circumscribed populations of a broadly distributed Tupaia glis, subspecies, or distinct species. We used multivariate analyses of measurements from the skull and hands to compare the island populations from Siberut (Mentawai Islands) and Tanahbala (Batu Islands) with the geographically adjacent species from the southern Mentawai Islands (T.?chrysogaster) and Sumatra (T.?ferruginea). Results from both the skull and manus of the Siberut population show that it is most similar to T.?chrysogaster, whereas the Tanahbala population is more similar to T.?ferruginea, confirming predictions based on island history. These results are further corroborated by mammae counts. Based on these lines of evidence, we include the Siberut population in T.?chrysogaster and the Tanahbala population in T.?ferruginea. Our conclusions expand the known distributions of both the Mentawai and Sumatran species. The larger geographical range of the endangered T.?chrysogaster has conservation implications for this Mentawai endemic, so populations and habitat should be re-evaluated on each of the islands it inhabits. However, until such a re-evaluation is conducted, we recommend that the IUCN Red List status of this species be changed from ‘Endangered’ to ‘Data Deficient’.

  16. Case 3018. Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 (currently Mazama gouazoubira; Mammalia, Artiodactyla): proposed conservation as the correct original spelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the spelling of the specific name of Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 for the brown brocket deer of South America (family Cervidae). This spelling, rather than the original gouazoubira, has been in virtually universal usage for almost 50 years.

  17. Nuclear DNA phylogeny of the squirrels (Mammalia: Rodentia) and the evolution of arboreality from c-myc and RAG1

    E-print Network

    Steppan, Scott

    squirrels (Pteromyinae) to subfamily status. Instead, flying squirrels are derived from one of the tree, whether gliding evolved more than once, and the relationships of flying squirrels to other groups. Until subfamilies: Sciurinae, the tree and ground squirrels, and Pteromyinae, the flying squirrels (Hoffmann et al

  18. Nuclear DNA phylogeny of the squirrels (Mammalia: Rodentia) and the evolution of arboreality from c-myc and RAG1.

    PubMed

    Steppan, Scott J; Storz, Brian L; Hoffmann, Robert S

    2004-03-01

    Although the family Sciuridae is large and well known, phylogenetic analyses are scarce. We report on a comprehensive molecular phylogeny for the family. Two nuclear genes (c-myc and RAG1) comprising approximately 4500 bp of data (most in exons) are applied for the first time to rodent phylogenetics. Parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of the separate gene regions and combined data reveal five major lineages and refute the conventional elevation of the flying squirrels (Pteromyinae) to subfamily status. Instead, flying squirrels are derived from one of the tree squirrel lineages. C-myc indels corroborate the sequence-based topologies. The common ancestor of extant squirrels appears to have been arboreal, confirming the fossil evidence. The results also reveal an unexpected clade of mostly terrestrial squirrels with African and Holarctic centers of diversity. We present a revised classification of squirrels. Our results demonstrate the phylogenetic utility of relatively slowly evolving nuclear exonic data even for relatively recent clades. PMID:15012949

  19. Rediscovery of Biswamoyopterus (Mammalia: Rodentia: Sciuridae: Pteromyini) in Asia, with the description of a new species from Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Sanamxay, Daosavanh; Douangboubpha, Bounsavane; Bumrungsri, Sara; Xayavong, Sysouphanh; Xayaphet, Vilakhan; Satasook, Chutamas; Bates, Paul J J

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the flying squirrel genus Biswamoyopterus is described from Lao PDR. It is based on a single specimen collected from a local food market at Ban Thongnami, Pak Kading District, Bolikhamxai Province. The new taxon shows close affinities to Biswamoyopterus biswasi, which is only known from the holotype collected in 1981, 1250 km from the current locality, in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. However, it differs substantially in pelage colour, most particularly on the ventral surfaces of the body, patagia, tail membrane, and tail. The single specimen was found in an area of central Lao PDR, which is characterised by its extensive limestone karst formations and which is home to other rare endemic rodents, including the Khanyou (Laonastes aenigmamus) nd the Lao limestone rat (Saxatilomyspaulinae). PMID:26473234

  20. First record of Mylagaulid rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Olkhon Island, Baikal Lake, Irkutsk Region, Russia).

    PubMed

    Tesakov, A S; Lopatin, A V

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of rodent, Lamugaulus olkhonensis, belonging to the subfamily Promylagaulinae of the family Mylagaulidae, is described on the basis of isolated teeth from the Khalagay Formation of the Lower Miocene Tagay locality (Olkhon island, Lake Baikal, Irkutsk Region). This is the first record of mylagaulids in Eastern Siberia, significantly expanding the data on the distribution of this mainly North American group of rodents in Asia and showing its presence outside the Central Asian arid zone. PMID:25773245

  1. The adaptive significance of enamel loss in the mandibular incisors of cercopithecine primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): a finite element modelling study.

    PubMed

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

    2014-01-01

    In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits. PMID:24831704

  2. A New Late Miocene Odobenid (Mammalia: Carnivora) from Hokkaido, Japan Suggests Rapid Diversification of Basal Miocene Odobenids

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The modern walrus, Odobenus rosmarus, is specialized and only extant member of the family Odobenidae. They were much more diversified in the past, and at least 16 genera and 20 species of fossil walruses have been known. Although their diversity increased in the late Miocene and Pliocene (around 8–2 Million years ago), older records are poorly known. A new genus and species of archaic odobenid, Archaeodobenus akamatsui, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene (ca. 10.0–9.5 Ma) top of the Ichibangawa Formation, Hokkaido, northern Japan, suggests rapid diversification of basal Miocene walruses. Archaeodobenus akamatsui is the contemporaneous Pseudotaria muramotoi from the same formation, but they are distinguishable from each other in size and shape of the occipital condyle, foramen magnum and mastoid process of the cranium, and other postcranial features. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, A. akamatsui might have split from P. muramotoi at the late Miocene in the western North Pacific. This rapid diversification of the archaic odobenids occurred with a combination of marine regression and transgression, which provided geological isolation among the common ancestors of extinct odobenids. PMID:26244784

  3. The northernmost record of Catagonus stenocephalus (Lund in Reinhardt, 1880) (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla) and its palaeoenvironmental and palaeobiogeographical significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avilla, Leonardo S.; Müller, Lisiane; Gasparini, German M.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Absolon, Bruno; Pêgo, Frederico Bonissoni; Silva, Rafael C.; Kinoshita, Angela; Graciano Figueiredo, Ana Maria; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2013-03-01

    During fieldwork carried out in January 2009 at Aurora do Tocantins (Tocantins State, northern Brazil), we recovered a fragmentary right maxilla (UNIRIO-PM 1006) of Catagonus stenocephalus from a sedimentary deposit of presumed late Pleistocene age in a karstic cave. This paper aims to: (1) provide the first record of C. stenocephalus in the northern region of Brazil (and consequently, also the northernmost one); (2) update the geographic distribution of C. stenocephalus; (3) present a date for the specimen; and (4) discuss the palaeoenvironmental and palaeobiogeographical implications of the finding. The species C. stenocephalus (Lund) is known from the Bonaerian (middle Pleistocene) and Lujanian (late Pleistocene to earliest Holocene) ages in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Bolivia. The new record presented here extends the geographical distribution of C. stenocephalus more than 1000 km north from the former northernmost record (caves of Lagoa Santa region). Peccaries of the genus Catagonus have several morphological features associated with cursorial habits in relatively open and dry environments. The new distributional range of C. stenocephalus is coincident with the Chacoan subregion, characterized by dry climates and open areas. As the studied material comes from the top of the carbonate layer, this may suggest that the deposition of the C. stenocephalus remains described here is synchronous with the onset of a wetter climate phase. This argument is also in accordance with the datation results, around 20 ky BP, just after the last glacial maximum. This increasingly wet climate, which may also be related to the climatic changes that occurred during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene, could be a factor in the extinction of C. stenocephalus in South America.

  4. Generalism as a subsistence strategy: advantages and limitations of the highly flexible feeding traits of Pleistocene Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis (Rhinocerotidae, Mammalia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich; Kaiser, Thomas M.

    2011-08-01

    The so-called Hundsheim rhinoceros, Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis, was a very common faunal element of the Early to early Middle Pleistocene period in the western Palaearctic. In this study, individuals from two different central European populations of the Hundsheim rhinoceros were analysed in order to determine whether their local dietary signals could reflect differing food availability between the two populations, and whether such information could provide a better understanding of the ecological role of S. hundsheimensis within corresponding faunal assemblages, and of its principal subsistence strategy in the western Palaearctic. The mesowear traits observed in the studied S. hundsheimensis populations have been interpreted as representing biome-specific signals, indicating grassland vegetation at the site of Süßenborn, and dense to open forests at Voigtstedt (both localities in Germany). The analyses performed on the fossil rhino material demonstrate the most pronounced dietary variability ever established for a single herbivorous ungulate species by mesowear studies. This variability ranges from an attrition dominated grazing regime, to a one of predominantly browsing, and characterises S. hundsheimensis as the most ecologically tolerant rhinoceros of the Palaearctic Plio-Pleistocene. Although such dietary flexibility proved an effective enough subsistence strategy over a period of 600-900 ka (1.4/1.2-0.6/0.5 Myr) in the western Palaearctic, the situation changed dramatically after 0.6 Myr BP, when the new species of rhinoceroses, Stephanorhinus hemitoechus and Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis, appeared and started to compete for both the grass and the browse. For the generalist S. hundsheimensis, this bilateral interference was detrimental to its success in all of its habitats. The successful competition of specialised forms of rhinoceroses, which might have originated as a result of the development of 100 ka periodicity in the global climatic record, is proposed as the main reason for the extinction of S. hundsheimensis during the early Middle Pleistocene.

  5. Post-glacial colonization of northwestern North America by the forest-associated American marten (Martes americana, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Stone, Karen D; Flynn, Rodney W; Cook, Joseph A

    2002-10-01

    Phylogeographic patterns were used to assess intraspecific diversification of American martens (Martes americana). Within martens, two morphological groups (americana and caurina) have been recognized, though the level of distinction between them has been debated. We examined mitochondrial cytochrome b gene haplotypes from 680 martens to explore the colonization history of the Pacific Northwest and found two clades that correspond to the morphological groups. The widespread americana clade extends from interior Alaska south to Montana and eastward to Newfoundland and New England (i.e. northwestern, north-central and northeastern North America). The caurina clade occurs in western North America, minimally extending from Admiralty Island (southeastern Alaska) south to Oregon and Wyoming. Our data indicated two colonization events for the Pacific Northwest (one by members of each clade) and were consistent with the persistence of populations throughout past glacial periods in eastern and western refugia. Due to vegetational and geological history following the past deglaciation, we hypothesize that martens of the caurina clade spread along the North Pacific Coast, and into southeastern Alaska, earlier than martens of the americana clade. Mismatch distributions for the americana clade were indicative of populations that recently experienced demographic expansion, while mismatch distributions for the caurina clade suggested that populations were at equilibrium. These clades are reciprocally monophyletic and distinctive (interclade divergence ranged from 2.5 to 3.0% (uncorrected p), whereas, intraclade divergence was < 0.7%), and two regions of sympatry have been identified. Genetic signatures of past admixture in hybrid zones may have been extinguished during subsequent glacial periods when ranges contracted. This recurrent pattern of relatively restricted western, or Pacific coastal, lineages and more widespread eastern, or interior continental, lineages exists across broad taxonomic groups and suggests a shared biogeographical history. PMID:12296948

  6. A new form of the mole vole Ellobius tancrei Blasius, 1884 (Mammalia, Rodentia) with the lowest chromosome number

    PubMed Central

    Bakloushinskaya, Irina; Romanenko, Svetlana A.; Serdukova, Natalia A.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Lyapunova, Elena A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The subterranean mole vole, Ellobius tancrei, with aspecific variability in autosomes (2n = 31–54) and unusual sex chromosomes (XX in males and females), represents an amazing model for studying the role of chromosome changes in speciation. New materials from the upper reaches of the Surkhob River in the Pamiro-Alay mountains resulted in the discovery of a new form with 2n = 30. The application of Zoo-FISH and G-banding methods allowed the detection of 13 pairs of autosomes as Robertsonian metacentrics originated after fusions of acrocentrics of an assumed ancestral karyotype of Ellobius tancrei with 2n = 54. The sex chromosomes (XX, in both sexes) and one pair of acrocentric autosomes are the only acrocentrics in this karyotype, and the set with 2n = 30 possesses the lowest possible chromosome number among populations of Ellobius tancrei. PMID:24260698

  7. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although it has proven to be an important foundation for investigations of carnivoran ecology, biology and evolution, the complete species-level supertree for Carnivora of Bininda-Emonds et al. is showing its age. Additional, largely molecular sequence data are now available for many species and the advancement of computer technology means that many of the limitations of the original analysis can now be avoided. We therefore sought to provide an updated estimate of the phylogenetic relationships within all extant Carnivora, again using supertree analysis to be able to analyze as much of the global phylogenetic database for the group as possible. Results In total, 188 source trees were combined, representing 114 trees from the literature together with 74 newly constructed gene trees derived from nearly 45,000 bp of sequence data from GenBank. The greater availability of sequence data means that the new supertree is almost completely resolved and also better reflects current phylogenetic opinion (for example, supporting a monophyletic Mephitidae, Eupleridae and Prionodontidae; placing Nandinia binotata as sister to the remaining Feliformia). Following an initial rapid radiation, diversification rate analyses indicate a downturn in the net speciation rate within the past three million years as well as a possible increase some 18.0 million years ago; numerous diversification rate shifts within the order were also identified. Conclusions Together, the two carnivore supertrees remain the only complete phylogenetic estimates for all extant species and the new supertree, like the old one, will form a key tool in helping us to further understand the biology of this charismatic group of carnivores. PMID:22369503

  8. Cranial and mandibular shape variation in the genus Carollia (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Colombia: biogeographic patterns and morphological modularity

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Torres, Jairo; Wilson, Laura A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Neotropical bats of the genus Carollia are widely studied due to their abundance, distribution and relevance for ecosystems. However, the ecomorphological boundaries of these species are poorly differentiated, and consequently correspondence between their geographic distribution, ecological plasticity and morphological variation remains unclear. In this study, patterns of cranial and mandibular morphological variation were assessed for Carollia brevicauda, C. castanea and C. perspicillata from Colombia. Using geometric morphometrics, morphological variation was examined with respect to: differences in intraspecific variation, morphological modularity and integration, and biogeographic patterns. Patterns of intraspecific variation were different for each species in both cranial and mandibular morphology, with functional differences apparent according to diet. Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not. High cranial and mandibular correlation reflects Cranium-Mandible integration as a functional unit. Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species. The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations. PMID:26413433

  9. The Effects of Feeding Unpredictability and Classical Conditioning on Pre-Release Training of White-Lipped Peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Selene S. C.; Abreu, Shauana A.; Peregrino, Helderes; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L. G.

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3) and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled). The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2) than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3). The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1) and the following control phase (C2) than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2), also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild. PMID:24475072

  10. The effects of feeding unpredictability and classical conditioning on pre-release training of white-lipped peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Selene S C; Abreu, Shauana A; Peregrino, Helderes; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L G

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3) and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled). The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2) than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3). The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1) and the following control phase (C2) than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2), also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild. PMID:24475072

  11. The Adaptive Significance of Enamel Loss in the Mandibular Incisors of Cercopithecine Primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): A Finite Element Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

    2014-01-01

    In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits. PMID:24831704

  12. Evolutionary and Biological Implications of Dental Mesial Drift in Rodents: The Case of the Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia, Mammalia)

    PubMed Central

    Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Solé, Floréal; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Viriot, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Dental characters are importantly used for reconstructing the evolutionary history of mammals, because teeth represent the most abundant material available for the fossil species. However, the characteristics of dental renewal are presently poorly used, probably because dental formulae are frequently not properly established, whereas they could be of high interest for evolutionary and developmental issues. One of the oldest rodent families, the Ctenodactylidae, is intriguing in having longstanding disputed dental formulae. Here, we investigated 70 skulls among all extant ctenodactylid genera (Ctenodactylus, Felovia, Massoutiera and Pectinator) by using X-ray conventional and synchrotron microtomography in order to solve and discuss these dental issues. Our study clearly indicates that Massoutiera, Felovia and Ctenodactylus differ from Pectinator not only by a more derived dentition, but also by a more derived eruptive sequence. In addition to molars, their dentition only includes the fourth deciduous premolars, and no longer bears permanent premolars, conversely to Pectinator. Moreover, we found that these premolars are lost during adulthood, because of mesial drift of molars. Mesial drift is a striking mechanism involving migration of teeth allowed by both bone remodeling and dental resorption. This dental innovation is to date poorly known in rodents, since it is only the second report described. Interestingly, we noted that dental drift in rodents is always associated with high-crowned teeth favoring molar size enlargement. It can thus represent another adaptation to withstand high wear, inasmuch as these rodents inhabit desert environments where dust is abundant. A more accurate study of mesial drift in rodents would be very promising from evolutionary, biological and orthodontic points of view. PMID:23185576

  13. A Systematic Study on Tooth Enamel Microstructures of Lambdopsalis bulla (Multituberculate, Mammalia) - Implications for Multituberculate Biology and Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Fangyuan; Wang, Yuanqing; Meng, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Tooth enamel microstructure is a reliable and widely used indicator of dietary interpretations and data for phylogenetic reconstruction, if all levels of variability are investigated. It is usually difficult to have a thorough examination at all levels of enamel structures for any mammals, especially for the early mammals, which are commonly represented by sparse specimens. Because of the random preservation of specimens, enamel microstructures from different teeth in various species are often compared. There are few examples that convincingly show intraspecific variation of tooth enamel microstructure in full dentition of a species, including multituberculates. Here we present a systematic survey of tooth enamel microstructures of Lambdopsalis bulla, a taeniolabidoid multituberculate from the Late Paleocene Nomogen Formation, Inner Mongolia. We examined enamel structures at all hierarchical levels. The samples are treated differently in section orientations and acid preparation and examined using different imaging methods. The results show that, except for preparation artifacts, the crystallites, enamel types, Schmelzmuster and dentition types of Lambdopsalis are relatively consistent in all permanent teeth, but the prism type, including the prism shape, size and density, may vary in different portions of a single tooth or among different teeth of an individual animal. The most common Schmelzmuster of the permanent teeth in Lambdopsalis is a combination of radial enamel in the inner and middle layers, aprismatic enamel in the outer layer, and irregular decussations in tooth crown area with great curvature. The prism seam is another comparably stable characteristic that may be a useful feature for multituberculate taxonomy. The systematic documentation of enamel structures in Lambdopsalis may be generalized for the enamel microstructure study, and thus for taxonomy and phylogenetic reconstruction, of multituberculates and even informative for the enamel study of other early mammals. PMID:26020958

  14. Appendix C -1 Appendix C: Focal Wildlife Species

    E-print Network

    Grizzly bear Ursus arctos Long-eared myotis Myotis evotis Long-legged myotis Myotis volans Merriam's shrew flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus Pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis Pygmy shrew Microsorex hoyi

  15. Hebbian Learning of the Statistical and Geometrical Structure of Visual Input

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    illustrates this mapping for V1 in a tree shrew, a primate-like species where the geometrical relationships shows that tree shrew V1 is organized much like the retina, with location on the retina mapping

  16. Increasing Communications Security through Protocol Parameter Diversity

    E-print Network

    New Mexico, University of

    , and assesses the efficacy of this defense using Kuzmanovic's shrew pulsing attack. The experiments show of the protocol more difficult to predict. This form of diversity is designed to mitigate the shrew attack [16

  17. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [University of Notre Dame

    E-print Network

    Notre Dame, University of

    chipmunk)-- 1 0.02 Insectivores Sorex palustris (Northern water shrew) 2 0.04 Blarina brevicauda (Shorttail shrew) 1 0.02 Condvlura cristata (Starnosed mole) 1 0.02 Unknown mammal remains 3 0.06 Naueozauus

  18. 2000 Macmillan Magazines Ltd letters to nature

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    -tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda. J. Mammal. 60, 751±759 (1979). 19. Forsman, K. A. & Malmquist, M. G. Evidence for echolocation in the common shrew, Sorex araneus. J. Zool. Lond. 216, 655±662 (1988). 20. Speakman, J. R & Racey

  19. Feature Article David Fitzpatrick The Functional Organization of Local

    E-print Network

    : Insights from the Study of Tree Shrew Striate Cortex Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical- niques to explore the functional organization of vertical and horizontal connections in tree shrew

  20. News and Views Evolution of pedal grasping in Primates

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Doug M.

    grasping: (1) a small, insectivorous, scansorial, clawed, non-grasping mammal like the extant shrew without a nail, such as the extant tree- shrew Ptilocercus; (3) a terminal branch feeder, characterized

  1. PII S0031-9384(98)00138-3 Aromatase Activity and Regulation of Sexual

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    the production of masculine copulatory behaviors (2,14,27). In parallel, in the female musk shrew testosterone the conversion of testosterone to DHT. As in the musk shrew, exogenous testosterone can stimulate the display

  2. Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 Geometric Morphometrics

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    Height(cm) Shrew Marmot #12;Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 of morphological shape using geometric coordinates instead of measurements Component 1 Component2 Shrew Marmot #12

  3. Expanded Host Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Hantaviruses in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Stanley, William T.; Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Gu, Se Hun

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of hantaviruses in shrews and bats in West Africa suggests that other genetically distinct hantaviruses exist in East Africa. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of newfound hantaviruses, detected in archival tissues from the Geata mouse shrew (Myosorex geata) and Kilimanjaro mouse shrew ( Myosorex zinki) captured in Tanzania, expands the host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses and suggests that ancestral shrews and/or bats may have served as the original mammalian hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24741077

  4. rl'.. RRAIN RESEARCH 277 REPRESENTATION OF THE VISUAL FIELD IN THE SUPERIOR

    E-print Network

    Allman, John M.

    OF THE GREY SQUIRREL (SCIURUS CAROLINENSIS) AND I THE TREE SHREW (TUPAIA GLIS) J· I RONALD H. LANE, JOHN M.S.A.) I (Accepted September 7th, 1970) t I I INTRODUCTION I 1 General resemblances between tree shrew and tree shrews havef.j, already been madel,? and the results suggest considerable parallel or convergent

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Molecular and physicochemical characterization of hemoglobin

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin L.

    -altitude Taiwanese brown-toothed shrew (Episoriculus fumidus) Kevin L. Campbell · Anthony V. Signore · Masashi Harada online: 6 April 2012 Ó Springer-Verlag 2012 Abstract Red-toothed shrews (subfamily Soricinae) exhibit-toothed shrew (Episo- riculus fumidus) Hb and its temperature and pH dependence in the absence and presence

  6. ,2013,33 (2):113 -122 Acta Theriologica Sinica

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Bob

    :We collected a group of shrew moles from Puge County,Meigu County,Luding County,and Jiulong County, southwestern Sichuan,China. Morphologically,they were similar to other species of shrew moles in possessing the follow- ing suite of characteristics:body shrew-like;snout long and thin;ear present;forefeet small

  7. NEUROSYSTEMS Functional and laminar dissociations between muscarinic

    E-print Network

    neuromodulation in the tree shrew primary visual cortex Anwesha Bhattacharyya,1,2 Felix Bießmann,1,3 Julia Veit,1 in the tree shrew primary visual cortex during visual stimulation with drifting grating stimuli of varying of orientation tuning. Our findings suggest close homology between cholinergic mechanisms in tree shrew

  8. Prepared for USDA Forest Service

    E-print Network

    Notre Dame, University of

    of the Water Shrew (Sorex palustris) in the Michigan Upper Peninsula Dr. Karen E. Francl University of Notre Sciences Notre Dame, IN 46556 April 2005 #12;Status of the Water Shrew (Sorex palustris) in the Michigan Upper Peninsula ABSTRACT Despite the acknowledgement of water shrews (Sorex palustris

  9. HAWK: Halting Anomalies with Weighted Choking to Rescue Well-Behaved TCP Sessions from

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yu

    HAWK: Halting Anomalies with Weighted Choking to Rescue Well-Behaved TCP Sessions from Shrew DDo flooding have baffled researchers for years, a new type of even more detrimental attack--shrew attacks (periodic intensive packet bursts with low average rate)--has recently been identified. Shrew attacks can

  10. Current Biology 19, 19251931, December 1, 2009 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2009.09.022 Convergent Evolution of Novel Protein

    E-print Network

    Hoekstra, Hopi E.

    .1016/j.cub.2009.09.022 Report Convergent Evolution of Novel Protein Function in Shrew and Lizard Venom the salivary glands of the North American shrew Blarina brevicauda. Here, we examine the molecular changes with the evolution of toxicity in a shrew and then document its remarkable func- tional convergence with a lizard

  11. vol. 163, no. 6 the american naturalist june 2004 Evolution of Morphological Integration. I. Functional Units

    E-print Network

    Badyaev, Alex

    . Functional Units Channel Stress-Induced Variation in Shrew Mandibles Alexander V. Badyaev1,* and Kerry R studied within-individual developmental variation (fluctuating asymmetry) in the mandible of four shrew explain the historical persistence of sets of traits involved in the same function in shrew jaws despite

  12. Behavioural Processes 90 (2012) 364371 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    Direct Behavioural Processes journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/behavproc Recognition memory in tree shrew recognition test Tree shrew Long term memory Familiarization a b s t r a c t Recognition memories are formed. Here, we examine novelty preference using the NOR task in tree shrew, a small animal species

  13. Vir;m Rc.i. Vol. 26. No. 2, pp. 291-298. 1986 Prmted in Great Btitatn. All rights reserved

    E-print Network

    IN THE TREE SHREW (TUPAIA BELANGE~l) GERALD H. JACOBSand JAY NEITZ Department of Psychology. University-The retina of the tree shrew (Tupaiubelangeri) is heavily cone dominated. rods comprising less than 4 behavioral and ci~trophysiologi~i experiments. In confi~ation of an earlier inv~tigation. the tree shrew

  14. Use of allometry in predicting anatomical and physiological parameters of mammals

    E-print Network

    Lindstedt, Stan

    of function among mammals. For example, a 3 g shrew and a 5 metric ton elephant have the same number of bones and muscles and they share identical biochemical pathways, yet the metabolic intensity of the shrew's tissues weight) drug or metabolite doses must vary greatly between shrews and elephants and the con- sequences

  15. Journal of Mammalogy, 81(2):578585, 2000 THERMAL BIOLOGY AND METABOLISM OF THE AMERICAN

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin L.

    578 Journal of Mammalogy, 81(2):578­585, 2000 THERMAL BIOLOGY AND METABOLISM OF THE AMERICAN SHREW Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 Canada The American shrew-mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii) seems to occupy an ecological and evo- lutionary position intermediate to that of shrews and fully fossorial moles

  16. 78 FR 14245 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Buena...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... the shrew that we published in the Federal Register on July 10, 2012 (77 FR 40706), our DEA of the... designate critical habitat for the Buena Vista Lake shrew published on January 24, 2005 (70 FR 3437). For... rule to designate critical habitat for the Buena Vista Lake shrew (74 FR 53999) encompassing the...

  17. Cerebral Cortex doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp162

    E-print Network

    Cortex and Pulvinar Nucleus of the Tree Shrew Ranida D. Chomsung1 , Haiyang Wei1 , Jonathan D. Day-Brown1 connections between the temporal cortex and the dorsal (Pd) and central (Pc) subdivisions of the tree shrew input from the superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SC). Tree shrews (Tupaia) are small, fast

  18. 12 ASCB NEWSLETTER AUGUST 2009 INCyTES from MBCAugust, Vol. 20, Nos. 15 and 16

    E-print Network

    Morozov, Alexandre V.

    in EGF-stimulated Cells Depend on Adherens Junction Protein Shrew-1 Julia Christina Gross, Alexander remains rather elusive. Shrew-1/AJAP1 is a recently identified adherens junction­associated transmembrane- and loss-of-function approaches, the authors show that shrew-1 upregulation and depletion respectively

  19. BULLETIN OP THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSTON. 337 Vol. VI,No. 22. Washington, D.C. Dec. 20,1886.

    E-print Network

    ,ral Burope tlie only mmnmals which commit (loproilations jn fish ponds are the water-shrew and the otter. The water-shrew (Sorexfodiens Pall.) isa pretty little animal, measur- ing 10 to 12 centimeters [about 4. Below t3hetail tliere is a keel-shaped row of long hairs. The water-shrew is very coininon in nearly all

  20. 76 FR 23781 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Buena...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... designate critical habitat for the Buena Vista Lake shrew published on January 24, 2005 (70 FR 3437). For... Lake shrew (74 FR 53999). We proposed to designate approximately 4,649 ac (1,881 ha) in five units... Lake shrew (70 FR 3437, January 24, 2005) remains in full force and effect until we publish a new...

  1. MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 732, pp. 13, 3 figs. Sorex arizonae. By Lee H. Simons and Donald F. Hoffmeister

    E-print Network

    Hayssen, Virginia

    . Hoffmeister Published 18 December 2003 by the American Society of Mammalogists FIG. 1. Adult Arizona shrew- ico, Albuquerque. Sorex arizonae Diersing and Hoffmeister, 1977 Arizona Shrew Sorex arizonae Diersing shrews by the presence of a well-defined post-mandibular foramen (Fig. 2), lack of pigmentation

  2. Current Biology 19, 17, December 1, 2009 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2009.09.022 Convergent Evolution of Novel Protein

    E-print Network

    Alwes, Frederike

    .cub.2009.09.022 Report Convergent Evolution of Novel Protein Function in Shrew and Lizard Venom Yael T glands of the North American shrew Blarina brevicauda. Here, we examine the molecular changes responsible with the evolution of toxicity in a shrew and then document its remarkable func- tional convergence with a lizard

  3. J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 66 (2006) 11371151 www.elsevier.com/locate/jpdc

    E-print Network

    Hwang, Kai

    2006-01-01

    detection and filtering of shrew DDoS attacks using spectral analysis Yu Chen , Kai Hwang Internet and Grid Abstract This paper presents a new spectral template-matching approach to countering shrew distributed in very low frequency, periodically. Thus, shrew attacks may endanger the victim systems for a long time

  4. Evaluation of the anti-emetic potential of anti-migraine drugs to prevent resiniferatoxin-induced emesis in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Frankie H M; Andrews, Paul L R; Moreaux, Benoit; Ngan, Man-P; Rudd, John A; Sam, Tasia S W; Wai, Man-K; Wan, Christina

    2005-01-31

    Activation of vanilloid receptors has commonly been used to facilitate neurogenic inflammation and plasma exudation to model components of the pathogenesis of migraine; however, these studies have been performed mainly in species lacking the emetic reflex. In the present studies, therefore, we used Suncus murinus, a species of insectivore capable of emesis, to investigate if the vanilloid receptor agonist resiniferatoxin is capable of modeling the emesis associated with migraine. Resiniferatoxin (100 nmol/kg, s.c.) induced an emetic response that was antagonized significantly (P<0.05) by ruthenium red (1-3 micromol), (2R-trans)-4-[1-[3,5-bis(trifluromethyl)benzoyl]-2-(phenylmethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-1-acetamide (S)-hydroxybutanedioate (R116301; 10-100 micromol/kg), and scopolamine (1 micromol/kg), but not by dihydroergotamine (0.3-3 micromol/kg), sumatriptan (1-10 micromol/kg), methysergide (1-10 micromol/kg), tropanyl 3,5-dichlorobenzoate (MDL72222; 3-30 micromol/kg), ondansetron (0.3-3 micromol/kg), metoclopramide (3-30 micromol/kg), domperidone (3-30 micromol/kg), diphenhydramine (1-10 micromol/kg), or indomethacin (3-30 micromol/kg). The failure of a wide range of representative anti-migraine drugs to reduce retching and vomiting limits the use of this model to identify/investigate novel treatments for the emesis (and nausea) associated with migraine attacks in humans. However, the results provide further evidence for the involvement of a novel vanilloid receptor in resiniferatoxin-induced emesis and implicate both tachykinins and acetylcholine in the pathway(s) activated by resiniferatoxin in S. murinus. PMID:15680276

  5. [The role of hybrid zones in speciation: a case study on chromosome races of the house mouse Mus domesticus and common shrew Sorex araneus].

    PubMed

    Lavrenchenko, L A; Bulatova, N Sh

    2015-01-01

    Although diverse complexes of chromosome races are of rather rare occurrence in mammals, that does not reduce its importance to insignificant phenomenon not worthy of studying as some unique case without direct analogy. Moreover, these complexes present virtually ideal models for estimation of the impact of hybridization on the process of microevolution. The chromosome races are characterized by almost zero level of genetic differentiation and well-defined distinctions, usually induced by chromosome rearrangements only. The presented review shows the valuable contribution of the studies on Sorex araneus and Mus domesticus chromosome Robertsonian systems into our understanding of varied impacts of hybridization on the speciation process. Particularly, it promotes better understanding of such evolutionary phenomena as "reinforcement" of reproductive isolation in secondary contact zones between divergent populations, speciation without geographic separation ("divergence with gene flow"), and "zonal raciation". PMID:26353396

  6. Placental diversity in malagasy tenrecs: placentation in shrew tenrecs (Microgale spp.), the mole-like rice tenrec (Oryzorictes hova) and the web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus).

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Blankenship, T N; Goodman, S M; Soarimalala, V; Carter, A M

    2007-07-01

    Placentation in tenrecs of the subfamily Oryzorictinae, family Tenrecidae, has not been described previously. The structure of the placenta of this group and especially of the genus Microgale was investigated to determine its similarity or dissimilarity to previously described placentas of the tenrec subfamilies Potamogalinae and Tenrecinae. Fifteen specimens of the genus Microgale ranging from an early yolk sac stage to near term were available for study. Placentation in Microgale was found to be different from other tenrecids in that there is an early simple lateral rather than central haemophagous region. In addition, a more villous portion of the placental disk forms before the formation of a more compact labyrinth. Although the definitive placenta is cellular haemomonochorial, it lacks the spongy zone found in the Tenrecinae. Neither does it resemble the endotheliochorial condition found in the Potamogalinae. Of the two genera of the subfamily Oryzorictinae represented by single specimens, the placenta of Limnogale resembled that of the Microgale but Oryzorictes had several differences including a lobulated placental disk. It is concluded that there is more variation in placentation both within the subfamily Oryzorictinae and within the family Tenrecidae than would ordinarily be expected. PMID:17113148

  7. The taming of the shrew milk teeth Elina Jarvinen,a, Kaisa Valimaki,b Marja Pummila,a Irma Thesleff,a and Jukka Jernvalla

    E-print Network

    Jernvall, Jukka

    dentition is the evolutionary reduction of tooth number and replace- ment. Because mice do not replace teeth. In addition to limited tooth renewal, mamma- lian dentition is characterized by different teeth along the tooth row or heterodonty. The generalized mammalian dentition consists of anterior incisor and canine

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the boky-boky, Mungotictis decemlineata, the first representative of the Malagasy carnivores (Mammalia, Carnivora, Eupleridae).

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Veron, Géraldine

    2016-03-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the boky-boky, Mungotictis decemlineata, was sequenced using overlapping PCRs. The genome is 16,910 base pairs in length and contains the 37 genes found in a typical mammalian genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base composition on the L-strand is A: 32.1%, C: 27.8%, G: 14.5%, T: 25.6%. The control region of M. decemlineata includes both RS2 and RS3 tandem repeats. PMID:24937575

  9. Anatomy, feeding ecology, and ontogeny of a transitional baleen whale: a new genus and species of Eomysticetidae (Mammalia: Cetacea) from the Oligocene of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Boessenecker, Robert W; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene history of cetacean evolution is now represented by the expansive fossil record of archaeocetes elucidating major morphofunctional shifts relating to the land to sea transition, but the change from archaeocetes to modern cetaceans is poorly established. New fossil material of the recently recognized family Eomysticetidae from the upper Oligocene Otekaike Limestone includes a new genus and species, Waharoa ruwhenua, represented by skulls and partial skeletons of an adult, juvenile, and a smaller juvenile. Ontogenetic status is confirmed by osteohistology of ribs. Waharoa ruwhenua is characterized by an elongate and narrow rostrum which retains vestigial alveoli and alveolar grooves. Palatal foramina and sulci are present only on the posterior half of the palate. The nasals are elongate, and the bony nares are positioned far anteriorly. Enormous temporal fossae are present adjacent to an elongate and narrow intertemporal region with a sharp sagittal crest. The earbones are characterized by retaining inner and outer posterior pedicles, lacking fused posterior processes, and retaining a separate accessory ossicle. Phylogenetic analysis supports inclusion of Waharoa ruwhenua within a monophyletic Eomysticetidae as the earliest diverging clade of toothless mysticetes. This eomysticetid clade also included Eomysticetus whitmorei, Micromysticetus rothauseni, Tohoraata raekohao, Tokarahia kauaeroa, Tokarahia lophocephalus, and Yamatocetus canaliculatus. Detailed study of ontogenetic change demonstrates postnatal elaboration of the sagittal and nuchal crests, elongation of the intertemporal region, inflation of the zygomatic processes, and an extreme proportional increase in rostral length. Tympanic bullae are nearly full sized during early postnatal ontogeny indicating precocial development of auditory structures, but do increase slightly in size. Positive allometry of the rostrum suggests an ontogenetic change in feeding ecology, from neonatal suckling to a more specialized adult feeding behaviour. Possible absence of baleen anteriorly, a delicate temporomandibular joint with probable synovial capsule, non-laterally deflected coronoid process, and anteroposteriorly expanded palate suggests skim feeding as likely mode of adult feeding for zooplankton. Isotopic data in concert with preservation of young juveniles suggests the continental shelf of Zealandia was an important calving ground for latitudinally migrating Oligocene baleen whales. PMID:26380800

  10. Characters and phylogenetic relationships of nectar-feeding bats, with descriptions of new Lonchophylla from western South America (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Lonchophyllini)

    E-print Network

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    2006-12-01

    The Neotropical Lonchophyllini (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) currently comprise four genera and thirteen species of nectar-feeding bats. These species often are separated into larger-bodied (eight species) and smaller-bodied ...

  11. Characters and phylogenetic relationships of nectar-feeding bats, with descriptions of new Lonchophylla from western South America (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Lonchophyllini)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Timm, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Neotropical Lonchophyllini (Chiropter: Phyllostomidae) currently comprise four genera and thirteen species of nectar-feeding bats. These species often are separated into larger-bodied (eight species) and smaller-bodied (five species) forms to aid in identification. Our morphological and morphometrical analyses of the smaller Lonchophyllini revealed the existence of two distinctive, previously undescribed species of bats of the genus Lonchophylla from western South America. We describe a new form from Amazonian Peru as Lonchophylla pattoni and one from western Colombia as Lonchophylla cadenai. Phyllogenetic analysis of the Lonchophyllini based primarily on morphological characters indicates that these two new species are closely related to Lonchophylla thomasi.

  12. A New Basal Caniform (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the Middle Eocene of North America and Remarks on the Phylogeny of Early Carnivorans

    PubMed Central

    Tomiya, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite a long history of research, the phylogenetic origin and initial diversification of the mammalian crown-group Carnivora remain elusive. Well-preserved fossil materials of basal carnivorans are essential for resolving these issues, and for constraining the timing of the carnivoran origin, which constitutes an important time-calibration point in mammalian phylogenetics. Methodology/Principal Findings A new carnivoramorphan from the middle Eocene of southern California, Lycophocyon hutchisoni, is described. The new taxon exhibits stages of dental and basicranial evolution that are intermediate between earlier carnivoramorphans and the earliest representatives of canoid carnivorans. The evolutionary affinity of the new taxon was determined by a cladistic analysis of previously-published and newly-acquired morphological data for 30 Paleogene carnivoramorphans. The most-parsimonious trees identified L. hutchisoni as a basal caniform carnivoran, and placed (1) Tapocyon robustus, Quercygale angustidens, “Miacis” sylvestris, “M.” uintensis, and “M.” gracilis inside or outside the Carnivora, (2) nimravids within the Feliformia, and (3) the amphicyonid Daphoenus outside the crown-group Canoidea. Parsimony reconstructions of ancestral character states suggest that loss of the upper third molars and development of well-ossified entotympanics that are firmly fused to the basicranium (neither condition is observed in L. hutchisoni) are not associated with the origin of the Carnivora as traditionally thought, but instead occurred independently in the Caniformia and the Feliformia. A discriminant analysis of the estimated body weight and dental ecomorphology predicted a mesocarnivorous diet for L. hutchisoni, and the postcranial morphology suggests a scansorial habit. Conclusions/Significance Lycophocyon hutchisoni illuminates the morphological evolution of early caniforms leading to the origin of crown-group canoids. Considerable uncertainty remains with respect to the phylogenetic origin of the Carnivora. The minimum date of caniform-feliform divergence is provisionally suggested to be either 47 million years ago or 38 million years ago, depending on the position of “Miacis” sylvestris within or outside the Carnivora, respectively. PMID:21935380

  13. Seasonal changes in isoform composition of giant proteins of thick and thin filaments and titin (connectin) phosphorylation level in striated muscles of bears (Ursidae, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Salmov, N N; Vikhlyantsev, I M; Ulanova, A D; Gritsyna, Yu V; Bobylev, A G; Saveljev, A P; Makariushchenko, V V; Maksudov, G Yu; Podlubnaya, Z A

    2015-03-01

    Seasonal changes in the isoform composition of thick and thin filament proteins (titin, myosin heavy chains (MyHCs), nebulin), as well as in the phosphorylation level of titin in striated muscles of brown bear (Ursus arctos) and hibernating Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus ussuricus) were studied. We found that the changes that lead to skeletal muscle atrophy in bears during hibernation are not accompanied by a decrease in the content of nebulin and intact titin-1 (T1) isoforms. However, a decrease (2.1-3.4-fold) in the content of T2 fragments of titin was observed in bear skeletal muscles (m. gastrocnemius, m. longissimus dorsi, m. biceps) during hibernation. The content of the stiffer N2B titin isoform was observed to increase relative to the content of its more compliant N2BA isoform in the left ventricles of hibernating bears. At the same time, in spite of the absence of decrease in the total content of T1 in the myocardium of hibernating brown bear, the content of T2 fragments decreased ~1.6-fold. The level of titin phosphorylation only slightly increased in the cardiac muscle of hibernating brown bear. In the skeletal muscles of brown bear, the level of titin phosphorylation did not vary between seasons. However, changes in the composition of MyHCs aimed at increasing the content of slow (I) and decreasing the content of fast (IIa) isoforms of this protein during hibernation of brown bear were detected. Content of MyHCs I and IIa in the skeletal muscles of hibernating Himalayan black bear corresponded to that in the skeletal muscles of hibernating brown bear. PMID:25761688

  14. Presence of the 54-chromosome common vole (Mammalia) on Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, East Siberia, Russia), and the occurrence of an unusual X-chromosome variant

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, S.V.; Tchabovsky, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We report a new finding of the 54-chromosome sibling species of the common vole in East Siberia - the first description from Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal). The karyotype of a male specimen revealed by routine staining and C-banding demonstrates the unambiguous presence of Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Ognev, 1924 (recently often regarded as as junior synonym of Microtus levis Miller, 1908). Comparison with conspecific specimens from the European part of the species range (from the left bank of the river Volga) shows that the vole of the island population has a smaller X-chromosome due to a reduced quantity of C-positive heterochromatin. This is just the third example of this type of X-chromosome variant with previous cases on an Arctic island (Svalbard) and the West Siberian lowland (Novosibirsk) and the only one on a lake island. Although Microtus rossiaemeridionalis is largely monomorphic in its karyotype, our data show that one specific type of X-chromosome variant is remarkably widespread, though rare. PMID:24260647

  15. Coccidial dispersion across New World marsupials: Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Caroline Spitz; Berto, Bruno Pereira; do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Filho, Walter Leira Teixeira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2014-09-01

    Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 is a primitive coccidian parasite reported from the New World marsupials Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus) and Marmosa demerarae (Thomas). The current work describes K. tejerai from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) in Southeastern Brazil, evidencing the coccidial dispersion across opossums of the same family. The sporocysts recovered from urine samples were ellipsoidal, 20.4 × 12.7 µm, with sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules and c.13 sporozoites per sporocyst, with refractile bodies and nucleus. Macrogametes, microgametes, sporonts, sporoblasts/sporocysts were identified within parasitophorous vacuoles of epithelial cells located near the renal corticomedullary junction. Didelphis marsupialis should not have transmitted K. tejerai to D. aurita because they are not sympatric; however M. demerarae is sympatric with D. marsupialis and D. aurita. Therefore, D. aurita becomes the third host species for K. tejerai in South America. PMID:25079818

  16. Observations and larval descriptions of fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, Ctenophthalmidae, Ishnopsyllidae) of the southern flying squirrel, little brown bat, and Brazilian free-tailed bat (Mammalia: Rodentia, Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Elbel, Robert E; Bossard, Robert L

    2007-11-01

    Larvae of the four fleas infesting nests of the southern flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans colans (L.) [Conorhinopsylla stanfordi Stewart, Epitedia faceta (Rothschild), Opisodasys pseudarctomys (Baker), and Orchopeas howardi (Baker)], and of the bat fleas Myodopsylla insignis (Rothschild) and Sternopsylla distincta texana (C. Fox), associated with the bats Myotis lcifuigus (Le Conte) and Tadarida brasiliensis (I. Geof. St. Hilaire), respectively, are described. C. stanfordi has the second posterior-row seta on abdominal segments 1-5 at most one fourth the length of the first and third setae, but it is unique among the Leptopsyllini with five short setae in abdominal segment 9 anterior row. E. faceta has the straight line of anterior-row setae 2-5 on abdominal segment 1, which is diagnostic for Phalacropsyllini. O. howardi and O. pseudarctomys have three anterior-row setae on the anal comb, three ventrolateral setae on the anal segment (abdominal segment 10), and a narrow mandible with five or more teeth as other Ceratopyllinae, but O. pseudarctomys is distinguishable from O. howardi because the first setae on the posterior row of the head is long (greater than one half the length of the third posterior-row setae), the ventral setae on abdominal segment 7 are different sizes, and the third anterior-row setae on abdominal segment 8 does not extend past the spiracle posterior to it. Bat flea larvae have six posterior-row setae on abdominal segments 1-9 with the anal comb anterior row with two or more setae; M. insignis has eight mandible teeth and S. distincta texana three to four. PMID:18047188

  17. First record of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in the Quaternary of Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais State), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Ferraz, Patrícia Fonseca; Cunha, Gabriel Cardoso; Cunha, Isabella Cardoso; de Souza Carvalho, Ismar; Borges Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Francisco Macedo; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia

    2012-08-01

    Although the occurrence of Pleistocene mammals is abundant in many localities of Minas Gerais State (e.g., Lagoa Santa, Janaúba, Bambuí, Cordisburgo, Patos de Minas, Araxá), there are no references at present of Quaternary megafauna in Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro, southeastern Brazil. This region is traditionally recognized for its taxonomically diverse fauna of the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group. In 2006, fossil material attributed to giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Xenarthra, Megatheriidae), a typical taxon of the Brazilian Pleistocene, was discovered in the Uberaba City (Minas Gerais State). The specimen (CPP 1122) which is here described consists of several cranial and postcranial bones of a single individual. The material was confined to a small alluvial deposit, yielding in the Córrego da Saudade stream, which due its restricted area distribution it is not represented in geological maps.

  18. Isthminia panamensis, a new fossil inioid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Chagres Formation of Panama and the evolution of ‘river dolphins’ in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Gutstein, Carolina S.; Little, Holly; Vigil, Dioselina; O’Dea, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to dominant mode of ecological transition in the evolution of marine mammals, different lineages of toothed whales (Odontoceti) have repeatedly invaded freshwater ecosystems during the Cenozoic era. The so-called ‘river dolphins’ are now recognized as independent lineages that converged on similar morphological specializations (e.g., longirostry). In South America, the two endemic ‘river dolphin’ lineages form a clade (Inioidea), with closely related fossil inioids from marine rock units in the South Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil inioid, Isthminia panamensis, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene of Panama. The type and only known specimen consists of a partial skull, mandibles, isolated teeth, a right scapula, and carpal elements recovered from the Piña Facies of the Chagres Formation, along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Sedimentological and associated fauna from the Piña Facies point to fully marine conditions with high planktonic productivity about 6.1–5.8 million years ago (Messinian), pre-dating the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Along with ecomorphological data, we propose that Isthminia was primarily a marine inhabitant, similar to modern oceanic delphinoids. Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and living inioids, including new codings for Ischyrorhynchus, an enigmatic taxon from the late Miocene of Argentina, places Isthminia as the sister taxon to Inia, in a broader clade that includes Ischyrorhynchus and Meherrinia, a North American fossil inioid. This phylogenetic hypothesis complicates the possible scenarios for the freshwater invasion of the Amazon River system by stem relatives of Inia, but it remains consistent with a broader marine ancestry for Inioidea. Based on the fossil record of this group, along with Isthminia, we propose that a marine ancestor of Inia invaded Amazonia during late Miocene eustatic sea-level highs. PMID:26355720

  19. Evolutionary plasticity in coccidia - striking morphological similarity of unrelated coccidia (apicomplexa) from related hosts: Eimeria spp. from African and Asian Pangolins (Mammalia: Pholidota).

    PubMed

    Jirk?, Miloslav; Kvi?erová, Jana; Modrý, David; Hypša, Václav

    2013-07-01

    Two morphologically similar, but phylogenetically unrelated Eimeria species from ancient mammals, African Tree Pangolin Phataginus tricuspis and Sunda Pangolin Manis javanica (Pholidota: Manidae), from two distant biogeographic realms (Afrotropical and Oriental), are characterized and compared morphologically and molecularly. Phylogenetic analyses produced an unstable topology. However, while precise position of the two Eimeria species from pangolins could not be firmly established due to the lack of related taxa, it is evident that they are not closely related and do not fall into any of the so far recognized eimerian lineages. Moreover, an eimerian found in P. tricuspis is described as a new species Eimeria nkaka n. sp., based on morphology of oocysts, endogenous developmental stages and sequence data. PMID:23837921

  20. New Specimens of the Rare Taeniodont Wortmania (Mammalia: Eutheria) from the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Comments on the Phylogeny and Functional Morphology of “Archaic” Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Thomas E.; Brusatte, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Taeniodonta is a clade of Late Cretaceous – Paleogene mammals remarkable for their relatively extreme cranial, dental, and postcranial adaptations and notable for being among the first mammals to achieve relatively large size following the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Previous workers have hypothesized that taeniodonts can be divided into two clades: Conoryctidae, a group of small-bodied taeniodonts with supposedly “generalized” postcranial skeletons, and Stylinodontidae, a group of large-bodied, robust animals with massive forelimbs and claws adapted for scratch-digging. However, many taeniodont taxa are poorly known and few are represented by postcranial material, leaving many details about their anatomy, biology, and evolution ambiguous. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we describe three new specimens of the rare taxon Wortmaniaotariidens from the early Paleocene (Puercan) of New Mexico. Among these specimens is one that includes remarkably complete cranial and dental material, including associated upper and lower teeth, and another that consists of partial forelimbs. These specimens allow for an updated anatomical description of this unusual taxon, supply new data for phylogenetic analyses, and enable a more constrained discussion of taeniodont biology and functional morphology. Conclusions/Significance The new specimen of Wortmania that includes associated upper and lower teeth indicates that previous interpretations of the upper dentition of this taxon were not accurate and the taxon Robertschochiasullivani is a junior synonym of W. otariidens. New specimens that include partial forelimbs indicate that Wortmania is very similar to later, large-bodied taeniodonts, with marked and distinctive adaptations for scratch-digging. Comparisons with other taeniodont taxa that include postcranial material suggest that all taeniodonts may have had scratch-digging adaptations. A phylogenetic analysis shows that Schowalteria and Onychodectes are basal taeniodonts, Stylinodontidae (including Wortmania) is monophyletic, and a monophyletic Conoryctidae (but not including Onychodectes) is only recovered when certain characters are ordered. PMID:24098738

  1. The Dasypodidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Urso Fóssil Cave (Quaternary), Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil: paleoecological and taxonomic aspects.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paulo V; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Oliveira, Edison V; Viana, Maria Somália S

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with xenarthrans osteoderms assigned to Dasypus aff. D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cabassous sp. The material was collected in subsurface, from 0.10 to 0.60 m in the Urso Fóssil Cave, Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. The ages of sediment samples from levels 4 and 5 (depths of 0.40 and 0.50 m) were determined by thermoluminescence technique, and indicated ages of 8,000 and 8,200 years BP for each layer respectively. The presence in these layers of early Holocene xenarthrans taxa can contribute to the understanding of the biotic evolution of the northwest region of Ceará during the last 10,000 years. Two of the three identified taxa still occur in the region: Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus. The Dasypodidae fauna here reported includes animals with generalist feeding habits and current wide geographical distribution. It is suggested, therefore, that the climatic and environmental conditions in the early Holocene were very similar the actual ones, and that the absence of Cabassous may be conditioned to other factors, such as anthropogenic action and loss of habitat by fragmentation of the vegetation. PMID:24519005

  2. Albicetus oxymycterus, a New Generic Name and Redescription of a Basal Physeteroid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Miocene of California, and the Evolution of Body Size in Sperm Whales

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Living sperm whales are represented by only three species (Physeter macrocephalus, Kogia breviceps and Kogia sima), but their fossil record provides evidence of an ecologically diverse array of different forms, including morphologies and body sizes without analog among living physeteroids. Here we provide a redescription of Ontocetus oxymycterus, a large but incomplete fossil sperm whale specimen from the middle Miocene Monterey Formation of California, described by Remington Kellogg in 1925. The type specimen consists of a partial rostrum, both mandibles, an isolated upper rostrum fragment, and incomplete tooth fragments. Although incomplete, these remains exhibit characteristics that, when combined, set it apart morphologically from all other known physeteroids (e.g., a closed mesorostral groove, and the retention of enameled tooth crowns). Kellogg originally placed this species in the genus Ontocetus, a enigmatic tooth taxon reported from the 19th century, based on similarities between the type specimen Ontocetus emmonsi and the conspicuously large lower dentition of Ontocetus oxymycterus. However, the type of the genus Ontocetus is now known to represent a walrus tusk (belonging to fossil Odobenidae) instead of a cetacean tooth. Thus, we assign this species to the new genus Albicetus, creating the new combination of Albicetus oxymycterus, gen. nov. We provide new morphological observations of the type specimen, including a 3D model. We also calculate a total length of approximately 6 m in life, using cranial proxies of body size for physeteroids. Lastly, a phylogenetic analysis of Albicetus oxymycterus with other fossil and living Physeteroidea resolves its position as a stem physeteroid, implying that large body size and robust dentition in physeteroids evolved multiple times and in distantly related lineages. PMID:26651027

  3. Convergence analysis of a finite element skull model of Herpestes javanicus (Carnivora, Mammalia): implications for robust comparative inferences of biomechanical function.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Flynn, John J

    2015-01-21

    Predictions of skull biomechanical capability based on virtual models constitute a valuable data source for testing hypotheses about craniodental form and feeding behavior. Such comparative analyses also inform dietary reconstruction in extinct species. 3D modeling using Finite Element (FE) methods is a common technique applied to the comparative analysis of craniodental function in extinct and extant vertebrates. However, taxonomically diverse skull models in the literature often are not directly comparable to each other, in part because of distinctions in how boundary conditions are defined, but also because of substantial differences in the number of FEs composing the models. In this study, we test whether a conventional convergence test is adequate in identifying the minimum number of FEs needed to achieve internally stable results for a single species. We constructed a series of skull models of Herpestes javanicus, and simulated unilateral biting across the dentition; the models differed in the number of FEs, degrees of freedom at the joint and bite point constraints, and type of tetrahedral FEs used. We found that convergence patterns differed across constraint types, FE quantities, and bite position simulated. Four-noded tetrahedral (tet-4) FE models with relaxed constraints produced the most stable measurements compared to over-constrained tet-4 models and to relaxed tet-10 models. In absence of an optimal FE quantity from convergence testing, we propose a broadly applicable sub-sampling protocol, whereby average measurement values across multiple models per specimen are used for among-species comparisons. A regime of sampling three low FE quantity models produced the closest estimates of mean measurement values relative to larger model sets, being within the 95% bootstrap estimated confidence intervals. Future studies should focus on identifying sources of variation associated with other FE modeling protocols, so that they can be accounted for before biomechanical attributes from these simulations are used to infer form-function linkage. PMID:25445190

  4. Anatomy, feeding ecology, and ontogeny of a transitional baleen whale: a new genus and species of Eomysticetidae (Mammalia: Cetacea) from the Oligocene of New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene history of cetacean evolution is now represented by the expansive fossil record of archaeocetes elucidating major morphofunctional shifts relating to the land to sea transition, but the change from archaeocetes to modern cetaceans is poorly established. New fossil material of the recently recognized family Eomysticetidae from the upper Oligocene Otekaike Limestone includes a new genus and species, Waharoa ruwhenua, represented by skulls and partial skeletons of an adult, juvenile, and a smaller juvenile. Ontogenetic status is confirmed by osteohistology of ribs. Waharoa ruwhenua is characterized by an elongate and narrow rostrum which retains vestigial alveoli and alveolar grooves. Palatal foramina and sulci are present only on the posterior half of the palate. The nasals are elongate, and the bony nares are positioned far anteriorly. Enormous temporal fossae are present adjacent to an elongate and narrow intertemporal region with a sharp sagittal crest. The earbones are characterized by retaining inner and outer posterior pedicles, lacking fused posterior processes, and retaining a separate accessory ossicle. Phylogenetic analysis supports inclusion of Waharoa ruwhenua within a monophyletic Eomysticetidae as the earliest diverging clade of toothless mysticetes. This eomysticetid clade also included Eomysticetus whitmorei, Micromysticetus rothauseni, Tohoraata raekohao, Tokarahia kauaeroa, Tokarahia lophocephalus, and Yamatocetus canaliculatus. Detailed study of ontogenetic change demonstrates postnatal elaboration of the sagittal and nuchal crests, elongation of the intertemporal region, inflation of the zygomatic processes, and an extreme proportional increase in rostral length. Tympanic bullae are nearly full sized during early postnatal ontogeny indicating precocial development of auditory structures, but do increase slightly in size. Positive allometry of the rostrum suggests an ontogenetic change in feeding ecology, from neonatal suckling to a more specialized adult feeding behaviour. Possible absence of baleen anteriorly, a delicate temporomandibular joint with probable synovial capsule, non-laterally deflected coronoid process, and anteroposteriorly expanded palate suggests skim feeding as likely mode of adult feeding for zooplankton. Isotopic data in concert with preservation of young juveniles suggests the continental shelf of Zealandia was an important calving ground for latitudinally migrating Oligocene baleen whales. PMID:26380800

  5. Mammalia (2006): 160162 2006 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York. DOI 10.1515/MAMM.2006.026 Article in press -uncorrected proof

    E-print Network

    Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2006-01-01

    ) to cougar (Puma concolor) attacks Comportement du mouflon d'Amerique (Ovis canadensis) lors d'attaques par le cougar (Puma concolor) Fanie Pelletier*,a , Yannick Gendreau and Chiarastella Feder De´ partement et al. 1989; Lingle 2002; Robinson et al. 2002). Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and cougars (Puma

  6. Mammalia 74 (2010): 311315 2010 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York. DOI 10.1515/MAMM.2010.035 Article in press -uncorrected proof

    E-print Network

    Airoldi, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    in autumn/winter. Three main construction types exist: (a) lin- ear burrows, (b) compact and tight networks and food supply; the same plants that provide food for the voles often also supply them with cover, so

  7. A New Machairodont from the Palmetto Fauna (Early Pliocene) of Florida, with Comments on the Origin of the Smilodontini (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Steven C.; Hulbert, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    South-central Florida’s latest Hemphillian Palmetto Fauna includes two machairodontine felids, the lion-sized Machairodus coloradensis and a smaller, jaguar-sized species, initially referred to Megantereon hesperus based on a single, relatively incomplete mandible. This made the latter the oldest record of Megantereon, suggesting a New World origin of the genus. Subsequent workers variously accepted or rejected this identification and biogeographic scenario. Fortunately, new material, which preserves previously unknown characters, is now known for the smaller taxon. The most parsimonious results of a phylogenetic analysis using 37 cranio-mandibular characters from 13 taxa place it in the Smilodontini, like the original study; however, as the sister-taxon to Megantereon and Smilodon. Accordingly, we formally describe Rhizosmilodon fiteae gen. et sp. nov. Rhizosmilodon, Megantereon, and Smilodon (?=? Smilodontini) share synapomorphies relative to their sister-taxon Machairodontini: serrations smaller and restricted to canines; offset of P3 with P4 and p4 with m1; complete verticalization of mandibular symphysis; m1 shortened and robust with widest point anterior to notch; and extreme posterior “lean” to p3/p4. Rhizosmilodon has small anterior and posterior accessory cusps on p4, a relatively large lower canine, and small, non-procumbent lower incisors; all more primitive states than in Megantereon and Smilodon. The former also differs from Megantereon and Smilodon gracilis by having a very small mandibular flange. Rhizosmilodon is the oldest known member of the Smilodontini, suggesting that the tribe originated in North America. Two more derived, similar-sized species evolved in parallel during the Blancan, Megantereon hesperus and Smilodon gracilis. The former is rarer, known only from the north-central and northwestern US, and presumably dispersed into the Old World. The latter is known from the eastern and southern US, and dispersed into South America. PMID:23516394

  8. A New Large Hyainailourine from the Bartonian of Europe and Its Bearings on the Evolution and Ecology of Massive Hyaenodonts (Mammalia)

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Floréal; Amson, Eli; Borths, Matthew; Vidalenc, Dominique; Morlo, Michael; Bastl, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new large-sized species of hypercarnivorous hyainailourine–Kerberos langebadreae gen. & sp. nov.–from the Bartonian (MP16) locality of Montespieu (Tarn, France). These specimens consist of a skull, two hemimandibles and several hind limb elements (fibula, astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsals, and phalanges). Size estimates suggest K. langebadreae may have weighed up to 140 kg, revealing this species as the largest carnivorous mammal in Europe at that time. Besides its very large size, K. langebadreae possesses an interesting combination of primitive and derived features. The distinctive skull morphology of K. langebadreae reflects a powerful bite force. The postcranial elements, which are rarely associated with hyainailourine specimens, indicate an animal capable of a plantigrade stance and adapted for terrestrial locomotion. We performed the first phylogenetic analysis of hyainailourines to determine the systematic position of K. langebadreae and to understand the evolution of the group that includes other massive carnivores. The analysis demonstrates that Hemipsalodon, a North American taxon, is a hyainailourine and is closely related to European Paroxyaena. Based on this analysis we hypothesize the biogeographic history of the Hyainailourinae. The group appeared in Africa with a first migration to Europe during the Bartonian that likely included the ancestors of Kerberos, Paroxyaena and Hemipsalodon, which further dispersed into North America at this time. We propose that the hyainailourines dispersed into Europe also during the Priabonian. These migrants have no ecological equivalent in Europe during these intervals and likely did not conflict with the endemic hyaenodont proviverrines. The discovery of K. langebadreae shows that large body size appears early in the evolution of hyainailourines. Surprisingly, the late Miocene Hyainailouros shares a more recent common ancestor with small-bodied hyainailourines (below 15 kg). Finally, our study supports a close relationship between the Hyainailourinae and Apterodontinae and we propose the new clade: Hyainailouridae. PMID:26398622

  9. Isthminia panamensis, a new fossil inioid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Chagres Formation of Panama and the evolution of 'river dolphins' in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Gutstein, Carolina S; Little, Holly; Vigil, Dioselina; O'Dea, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to dominant mode of ecological transition in the evolution of marine mammals, different lineages of toothed whales (Odontoceti) have repeatedly invaded freshwater ecosystems during the Cenozoic era. The so-called 'river dolphins' are now recognized as independent lineages that converged on similar morphological specializations (e.g., longirostry). In South America, the two endemic 'river dolphin' lineages form a clade (Inioidea), with closely related fossil inioids from marine rock units in the South Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil inioid, Isthminia panamensis, gen. et sp. nov. from the late Miocene of Panama. The type and only known specimen consists of a partial skull, mandibles, isolated teeth, a right scapula, and carpal elements recovered from the Piña Facies of the Chagres Formation, along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Sedimentological and associated fauna from the Piña Facies point to fully marine conditions with high planktonic productivity about 6.1-5.8 million years ago (Messinian), pre-dating the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Along with ecomorphological data, we propose that Isthminia was primarily a marine inhabitant, similar to modern oceanic delphinoids. Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and living inioids, including new codings for Ischyrorhynchus, an enigmatic taxon from the late Miocene of Argentina, places Isthminia as the sister taxon to Inia, in a broader clade that includes Ischyrorhynchus and Meherrinia, a North American fossil inioid. This phylogenetic hypothesis complicates the possible scenarios for the freshwater invasion of the Amazon River system by stem relatives of Inia, but it remains consistent with a broader marine ancestry for Inioidea. Based on the fossil record of this group, along with Isthminia, we propose that a marine ancestor of Inia invaded Amazonia during late Miocene eustatic sea-level highs. PMID:26355720

  10. Boltimys broomi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Rodentia, Mammalia), nouveau Muridae d'affinité incertaine du Pliocène inférieur d'Afrique du Sud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sénégas, Frank; Michaux, Jacques

    2000-04-01

    Boltimys broomi gen. nov., sp. nov., a Muridae of uncertain affinity in the Early Pliocene of South Africa. Boltimys broomi gen. nov., sp. nov. is reported from the Early Pliocene fauna of Waypoint 160, a fossiliferous locality in the area of Bolt's Farm (Province of Gauteng) near Krugersdorp in South Africa. The occlusal surface of the jugal teeth is characterized by a basin-shaped aspect due to the coalescence of the cusps which make the lobes of the molars. An accessory inner cusp is present on the first and second upper molars. A faint longitudinal crest is present only in the first lower molar. The new rodent is tentatively referred to the subfamily Myocricetodontinae.

  11. New ruminants (Mammalia) from the Pliocene of Kanapoi, Kenya, and a revision of previous collections, with a note on the Suidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraads, Denis; Bobe, René; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

    2013-09-01

    We describe here new ruminant material and revise previous collections from the Pliocene site of Kanapoi in northwestern Kenya, at c. 4 Ma., leading to substantial changes in the identifications and faunal list. Tragelaphins are the most common bovids; reduncins are quite rare if present; hippotragins are probably represented by a form previously unknown from Kenya; the alcelaphin Damalacra is represented by a new species; and an antilopin is possibly related to Dytikodorcas. We remove the suid Notochoerus cf. euilus from the list. Similarities with the South African site of Langebaanweg are more distant than previously implied, but the Kanapoi ruminant fauna bears no close relationship with other eastern African Pliocene assemblages.

  12. Biochronological implications of the Arvicolidae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Lower Pleistocene hominid-bearing level of Trinchera Dolina 6 (TD6, Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Bescós, G; Laplana, C; Canudo, J I

    1999-01-01

    Level TD6 of the Trinchera Dolina Section in the railway cutting of the Sierre de Atapuerca (Trinchera del Ferrocarril) has yielded a rich small mammal assemblage (26 species) in association with fossil human remains of Homo antecessor. The arvicolids of TD6 are identified as: Mimomys savini, Microtus seseae, Stenocranius gregaloides, Terricola arvalidens, Iberomys huescarensis, Allophaiomys chalinei, and Pliomys episcopalis. The rodent association also includes large rodents (i.e., Castor fiber, Marmota sp., and Hystrix refossa) and the small Allocricetus sp., Eliomys helleri, Micromys minutus, and Apodemus aff. flavicollis. The small vertebrate remains also include Insectivora (Beremendia fissidens, Sorex sp, Neomys sp., Crocidura sp., Galemys sp., Talpa sp., Erinaceus sp.), Chiroptera (Miniopterus schreibersii, Myotis sp., Rhinolophus sp.), and Lagomorpha (Oryctolagus sp., Lepus sp.), as well as lizards, birds and amphibians. The H. antecessor remains are derived from a 15 cm thick layer at the top of TD6 (TD6-T36-43), where A. chalinei, H. refossa and Marmota sp. do not occur. The paleomagnetic Matuyama/Brunhes boundary is found in the overlying level TD7 of the Gran Dolina Section. On the basis of the arvicolids, TD6 can be referred to the Biharian biochron. The Matuyama/Brunhes boundary is fixed in the late Biharian (Microtus-Mimomys rodent Superzone). The species M. savini (without M. pusillus), as well as the evolutionary stage of Microtus s.l., are characteristic of the Late Biharian. The evolutionary level of the species M. savini, T. arvalidens, S. gregaloides indicates that TD6 is older than West Runton (type Cromerian). In the Trinchera Dolina Section we are able to calibrate, for the first time, the evolutionary level of important biochronological markers with magnetostratigraphy. We propose that a radiation of Microtus s.l., along with the first appearance of primitive S. gregaloides, T. arvalidens and Iberomys, took place just before the Matuyama/Brunhes boundary. These species can be considered as characteristic elements of early Pleistocene faunas. PMID:10496992

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among Japanese species of the family Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia), inferred from nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Oshida, T; Masuda, R; Yoshida, M C

    1996-08-01

    In order to investigate phylogenetic relationships of the family Sciuridae living in Japan, we sequenced partial regions (379 bases) of mitochondrial 12S rRNA genes in six species of Japanese and other Asian squirrels. Phylogenetic trees constructed by sequence data indicated that two genera of flying squirrels (Petaurista and Pteromys) were clustered in a group distinct from non-flying squirrels, suggesting a possible monophyletic relationships of these flying squirrels. The evolutionary distance between the Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis) from Honshu island and the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) from Hokkaido island was comparable to intraspecific distances of the remaining species examined. PMID:8940915

  14. Presence of the 54-chromosome common vole (Mammalia) on Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, East Siberia, Russia), and the occurrence of an unusual X-chromosome variant.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, S V; Tchabovsky, A V

    2011-01-01

    We report a new finding of the 54-chromosome sibling species of the common vole in East Siberia - the first description from Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal). The karyotype of a male specimen revealed by routine staining and C-banding demonstrates the unambiguous presence of Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Ognev, 1924 (recently often regarded as as junior synonym of Microtus levis Miller, 1908). Comparison with conspecific specimens from the European part of the species range (from the left bank of the river Volga) shows that the vole of the island population has a smaller X-chromosome due to a reduced quantity of C-positive heterochromatin. This is just the third example of this type of X-chromosome variant with previous cases on an Arctic island (Svalbard) and the West Siberian lowland (Novosibirsk) and the only one on a lake island. Although Microtus rossiaemeridionalis is largely monomorphic in its karyotype, our data show that one specific type of X-chromosome variant is remarkably widespread, though rare. PMID:24260647

  15. Bone-breaking bite force of Basilosaurus isis (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the late Eocene of Egypt estimated by finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Snively, Eric; Fahlke, Julia M; Welsh, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Bite marks suggest that the late Eocence archaeocete whale Basilosaurus isis (Birket Qarun Formation, Egypt) fed upon juveniles of the contemporary basilosaurid Dorudon atrox. Finite element analysis (FEA) of a nearly complete adult cranium of B. isis enables estimates of its bite force and tests the animal's capabilities for crushing bone. Two loadcases reflect different biting scenarios: 1) an intitial closing phase, with all adductors active and a full condylar reaction force; and 2) a shearing phase, with the posterior temporalis active and minimized condylar force. The latter is considered probable when the jaws were nearly closed because the preserved jaws do not articulate as the molariform teeth come into occulusion. Reaction forces with all muscles active indicate that B. isis maintained relatively greater bite force anteriorly than seen in large crocodilians, and exerted a maximum bite force of at least 16,400 N at its upper P3. Under the shearing scenario with minimized condylar forces, tooth reaction forces could exceed 20,000 N despite lower magnitudes of muscle force. These bite forces at the teeth are consistent with bone indentations on Dorudon crania, reatract-and-shear hypotheses of Basilosaurus bite function, and seizure of prey by anterior teeth as proposed for other archaeocetes. The whale's bite forces match those estimated for pliosaurus when skull lengths are equalized, suggesting similar tradeoffs of bite function and hydrodynamics. Reaction forces in B. isis were lower than maxima estimated for large crocodylians and carnivorous dinosaurs. However, comparison of force estimates from FEA and regression data indicate that B. isis exerted the largest bite forces yet estimated for any mammal, and greater force than expected from its skull width. Cephalic feeding biomechanics of Basilosaurus isis are thus consistent with habitual predation. PMID:25714832

  16. Bone-Breaking Bite Force of Basilosaurus isis (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Late Eocene of Egypt Estimated by Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Snively, Eric; Fahlke, Julia M.; Welsh, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Bite marks suggest that the late Eocence archaeocete whale Basilosaurus isis (Birket Qarun Formation, Egypt) fed upon juveniles of the contemporary basilosaurid Dorudon atrox. Finite element analysis (FEA) of a nearly complete adult cranium of B. isis enables estimates of its bite force and tests the animal’s capabilities for crushing bone. Two loadcases reflect different biting scenarios: 1) an intitial closing phase, with all adductors active and a full condylar reaction force; and 2) a shearing phase, with the posterior temporalis active and minimized condylar force. The latter is considered probable when the jaws were nearly closed because the preserved jaws do not articulate as the molariform teeth come into occulusion. Reaction forces with all muscles active indicate that B. isis maintained relatively greater bite force anteriorly than seen in large crocodilians, and exerted a maximum bite force of at least 16,400 N at its upper P3. Under the shearing scenario with minimized condylar forces, tooth reaction forces could exceed 20,000 N despite lower magnitudes of muscle force. These bite forces at the teeth are consistent with bone indentations on Dorudon crania, reatract-and-shear hypotheses of Basilosaurus bite function, and seizure of prey by anterior teeth as proposed for other archaeocetes. The whale’s bite forces match those estimated for pliosaurus when skull lengths are equalized, suggesting similar tradeoffs of bite function and hydrodynamics. Reaction forces in B. isis were lower than maxima estimated for large crocodylians and carnivorous dinosaurs. However, comparison of force estimates from FEA and regression data indicate that B. isis exerted the largest bite forces yet estimated for any mammal, and greater force than expected from its skull width. Cephalic feeding biomechanics of Basilosaurus isis are thus consistent with habitual predation. PMID:25714832

  17. Exploration of the taxonomy of some Pleistocene Cervini (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Cervidae) from Java and Sumatra (Indonesia): a geometric- and linear morphometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruwier, Ben; de Vos, John; Kovarovic, Kris

    2015-07-01

    Third molars of extant- and fossil Southeast Asian deer were metrically compared using a linear- and geometric morphometric approach and discussed in relation to known taxonomic information from the literature. Our analysis suggests the presence of medium sized deer of the genus Axis and large sized taxa of the genus Cervus s. l. in Java. Axis lydekkeri and Axis javanicus are considered valid taxa, with A. lydekkeri probably related to the subgenus Hyelaphus. The large deer, such as Cervus kendengensis, Cervus stehlini and Cervus problematicus are most likely of the subgenus Rusa, the former two closely related to extant Cervus timorensis. The Sumatran fossils are members of the subgenus Rusa, but not necessarily conspecific with extant Cervus (Rusa) unicolor.

  18. Morphological, morphometric and genetic variation among cryptic and sympatric species of southeastern South American three-striped opossums (Monodelphis: Mammalia: Didelphidae).

    PubMed

    Duda, Rafaela; Costa, Leonora Pires

    2015-01-01

    Monodelphis is the most diverse genus of the family Didelphidae, whose systematics and taxonomy have not yet been well established. Two of the included species, Monodelphis americana and M. iheringi, are difficult to distinguish because both present three dorsal black stripes. Furthermore, they show intra- and interspecific variation related to body size and pelage coloration. Because this variation is not well understood, there are problems in correctly identifying these species, which remain poorly collected and thus rare in zoological collections. This study evaluated the morphological and genetic variations in a sample of striped opossums from a single location in southeastern Brazil to understand if the morphological variation observed in individuals from the same location was indicative of the existence of more than one taxon. The comparative analyses of a series from this single locality with museum specimens of other locations revealed variations in the skin and skull qualitative characters that were related to age and sex. Morphological comparisons led to the identification of two morphogroups, which were corroborated by molecular data; the analysis of cytochrome b sequences indicated the existence of two clades, with an average divergence of 14%. Thus, the results support the existence of two taxa in the sample, defined as M. americana and M. iheringi. We confirmed the sympatry of these two species in a location in southeastern Brazil, presented morphological diagnostic characters to distinguish the two species, provided novel phylogenetic information on the group, and also demonstrated the existence of important intra- and interspecific morphological variations related to sexual dimorphism and ontogeny in the group. These results significantly contribute to information on the systematics of the genus. PMID:25947450

  19. [Experimental hybridization of voies of the genus Microtus s.l. M. socialis with species of the group arvalis (Mammalia, Rodentia)].

    PubMed

    Koval'skaia, Iu M; Savinetskaia, L E; Aksenova, T G

    2014-01-01

    The results of interspecific crosses of the social vole Microtus socialis with the Altai vole M. obscurus, the East European vole M. rossiaemeridionalis, and the Transcaspian vole M. transcaspicus are presented. The role of the sperm head structure in the reproductive isolation of this species was studied. Hybrids were obtained in five of the six crossing combinations. It is established that significant differences in the sperm head shape in the social vole and in arvalis group species do not prevent fertilization. The sterility of hybrids indicates the existence of postcopulative mechanisms of reproductive isolation. PMID:25739313

  20. Thermal Biology in Yellowstone National Park Lesson plan by Deb Williams, modified by TBI

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    and respiring organisms), Chordata Phylum (animals with spinal cords), Mammalia Class (animals with hair information. Explain any relationships in the last column of the table. 9. Create a phylogeny tree or "Tree