Note: This page contains sample records for the topic shrimp aristeus antennatus from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

INTRASPECIFIC AGGREGATION STRUCTURE OF A SHOAL OF A WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN (CATALAN COAST) DEEP-SEA SHRIMP, ARISTEUS ANTENNATUS (RISSO, 1816), DURING THE REPRODUCTIVE PERIOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep-sea rose shrimp, Aristeus antennatus, constitute an important fishery resource in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The spatio-temporal behavioral pattern of A. antennatus is well-known, with the species forming seasonal aggregations on the middle slope at depths between 400 and 900 m. These aggregations form between late winter and early summer. The object of the present study is to determine

FRANCESC SARDA; ARTURO CASTELLON

2003-01-01

2

The feeding and diet of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus off the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental factors and relationship with the biological cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatio-temporal variation of feeding intensity and diet in the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus was studied at two locations around the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterraean) in August, September, and November 2003, and in February, April and June 2004 at depths between 550 and 750m. The two areas, with different oceanographic conditions, were respectively located in the northwest (Sóller)

Joan E. Cartes; Vanesa Papiol; Beatriz Guijarro

2008-01-01

3

Relationship between environment and the occurrence of the deep-water rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a multidisciplinary study characterizing the relationships between hydrodynamic conditions (currents and water masses) and the presence and abundance of the deep-water rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus in a submarine canyon (Blanes canyon in the NW Mediterranean Sea). This species is heavily commercially exploited and is the main target species of a bottom trawl fishery. Seasonal fluctuations in landings are

F. Sardà; N. Bahamón; G. Rotllant; M. M. Flexas; J. D. Sánchez; D. Zúñiga; J. Coenjaerts; D. Orellana; G. Jordà; J. Puigdefábregas; A. Sánchez-Vidal; A. Calafat; D. Martín; M. Espino

2009-01-01

4

Growth, mortality and yield-per-recruit of the deep-water shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea-Aristeidae) of the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MIX and Compleat ELEFAN methods were used to analyse length-frequency distributions of females of the deep- water shrimp Aristeus antennatus in order to estimate growth, mortality and yield-per-recruit. Length data were gathered in four seasonal experimental trawl surveys made in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). Up to four annual cohorts were distinguishable. Modal lengths were integrated and the

Sergio Ragonese; Marco L. Bianchini

1996-01-01

5

Multilocus comparative phylogeography of two aristeid shrimps of high commercial interest (Aristeus antennatus and Aristaeomorpha foliacea) reveals different responses to past environmental changes.  

PubMed

Phylogeographical studies can reveal hidden patterns in the evolutionary history of species. Comparative analyses of closely related species can further help disentangle the relative contributions of processes responsible for such patterns. In this work, the phylogeography of two aristeid species, Aristeus antennatus and Aristaeomorpha foliacea, was compared through multiple genetic markers. These marine shrimp species are of high commercial importance, and are exploited in the Mediterranean Sea (MED) and in Mozambique Channel (MOZ) where they occur in partial sympatry. Aristeus antennatus (N?=?50) from Western and Eastern Mediterranean (WM and EM, respectively), Atlantic Ocean (AO) and MOZ, and Aristaeomorpha foliacea (N?=?40) from WM, EM, MOZ North-Western Australia (AUS) were analyzed with two nuclear genes (PEPCK and NaK) and one mitochondrial (COI) gene. Within the study area differences were found between the two species in their phylogeographical patterns, suggesting distinct responses to environmental changes. Monophyly of Aristeus antennatus was found across its distributional range. This pattern contrasted by a deep evolutionary split within Aristaeomorpha foliacea where genetic diversity followed geography distinguishing MED-MOZ and AUS. We propose that the AUS lineage of A. foliacea warrants consideration as a distinct species, with consequent implications in systematics and resource management. PMID:23516594

Fernández, Maria Victoria; Heras, Sandra; Viñas, Jordi; Maltagliati, Ferruccio; Roldán, Maria Inés

2013-01-01

6

Relationship between condition and recruitment success of red shrimp ( Aristeus antennatus) in the Balearic Sea (Northwestern Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the reproductive potential and condition of the red shrimp ( Aristeus antennatus) population inhabiting the waters around the Balearic Islands (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), between 1991 and 2004. Red shrimp is one of the most valuable exploited demersal fishery resources in the western Mediterranean. To assess the condition of this species, we use two indices based on weight and length data, one including the gonad weight and another excluding it. Different biological parameters of the population dynamics and reproductive biology, such as sex-ratio, maturity, gonadosomatic index and presence of the spermatophore in females have also been analysed. A negative relationship was found between the gonadosomatic index and the condition of red shrimp, indicating that energy reserves are transferred from the body to the gonad during the reproductive period. The condition of adults reached minimum values during the maturation and spawning period after mating, when the gonadosomatic index, the spermatophore presence in females and the proportion of females in the population were highest. The relationship between the condition of adults during the months prior to spawning and the number of recruits in the following year was significant and positive. This relationship was stronger when only male condition was considered, suggesting that males have an important role on the reproductive potential of this species. Overall, our results suggest that condition of red shrimp, particularly males, is an important aspect for the reproductive and recruitment success of this species. The observed decreasing trend in male condition over years may raise concern on the future reproductive potential of that population.

Carbonell, Ana; Lloret, Josep; Demestre, Montserrat

2008-06-01

7

Feeding ecology of the deep-water blue-red shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Decapoda: Aristeidae) in the Greek Ionian Sea (E. Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feeding habits of the deep-sea blue-red shrimp Aristeus antennatus were determined based on the analysis of 1047 stomach contents, sampled in the Greek Ionian Sea (E. Mediterranean). The diet of this economically and biologically important decapod was studied in relation to the season, size class and sex. The diet of A. antennatus consisted of 54 different prey categories, and belonged mainly to smaller crustaceans (e.g. natantian decapods, euphausiids, tanaidaceans), molluscs, polychaetes, chaetognaths and, to a lesser extent, fishes. The above prey categories consisted of 71-82% of the relative abundance and total occurrence for males and 61-81% for females. Females seemed to be better fed than males (stomach fullness, food quality). A. antennatus displayed a highly diversified diet and the different feeding patterns were discussed. Diet composition showed slight seasonal fluctuations. The observed slight differences on A. antennatus diet among the western, central and eastern Mediterranean could be attributed to the more oligotrophic character of the eastern part of the basin. The principal factors driving the changes in the feeding strategy of this decapod among the seasons are the increased energy demands related to sexual requirements and the food availability in the marine environment. The ontogenetic changes in the shrimp's diet were relatively clear. Larger individuals exhibited selecting prey with a good swimming capacity (e.g. fishes), while the smaller individuals consumed prey with low mobility (e.g. copepods, ostracods).

Kapiris, Kostas; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

2011-01-01

8

The feeding and diet of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus off the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental factors and relationship with the biological cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal variation of feeding intensity and diet in the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus was studied at two locations around the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterraean) in August, September, and November 2003, and in February, April and June 2004 at depths between 550 and 750 m. The two areas, with different oceanographic conditions, were respectively located in the northwest (Sóller) and the south (Cabrera) of Mallorca. Off Sóller, feeding intensity of A. antennatus showed a significant increase from February to April and June 2004 in all the three size-classes studied (small shrimps: CL < 30 mm; medium: CL between 30 and 40 mm; large: CL ? 40 mm). Off Cabrera, the highest fullness was recorded in November 2003 among small and medium shrimp, while only large specimens showed patterns similar to that found off Sóller. Off Sóller, the diet of both small (CL < 34 mm) and large (CL ? 34 mm) A. antennatus was mainly influenced by season, with three dietary groups corresponding to August-September 2003, to November 2003/February 2004, and to hauls from April to June 2004. Off Cabrera, hauls (representing diets) were grouped by depth, never by season. The most remarkable seasonal shift in the diet of A. antennatus off Sóller was the increase of mesopelagic prey in April-June relative to other months. In all size categories there was an increase off Sóller in the energy intake of prey ingested from February to June 2004, an increase not found off Cabrera. Degree of digestion of mesopelagic prey indicated nocturnal feeding on mesopelagic fauna. These prey probably have a shallower depth distribution at night than found in our daylight sampling, and possible migratory movements among prey and A. antennatus at night would explain the lack of correlation between prey abundance in guts and in the environment found during daylight periods for most micronekton mesopelagic prey (euphausiids, myctophids and sergestids). Off Sóller, fullness and diet were significantly linked to temporal changes in water column productivity (e.g., Chl a readings, fluorescence) and to changes in the shrimp biology (lipid content of hepatopancreas, Gonado-somatic Index, GSI). Off Cabrera, we found a higher dependence of fullness and diet with T and S, both variables in turn related to depth. The increase of stomach fullness and dietary energy intake in pre-reproductive females from February to April-June 2004 found off Sóller, coupled with the consumption of mesopelagic prey, was parallel to a significant increase of the gonad weight (GSI, fecundity) in June. Most individuals attain gonad development in the period May-June, after two months of the peak of primary production at the surface. The strong link found between pelagic resources and reproductive processes in a deep-sea species such as the shrimp Aristeus antennatus, situated near the top of the trophic web, suggests a rapid energy flow via mesopelagic fauna between surface primary production and bathyal megabenthic communities at oligotrophic insular areas. In contrast to mainland areas off the Catalan coasts submitted to the influence of submarine canyons, around the island of Mallorca the empoverishment of benthos biomass may enhance consumption of micronektonic prey and a possible accumulation of pre-reproductive females of A. antennatus in areas (e.g., steep slopes and persistent frontal systems found off Sóller) with high zooplankton aggregations.

Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Guijarro, Beatriz

2008-10-01

9

Selectivity Parameters and Size at First Maturity in Deep-Water Shrimps, Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827) and Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816), from the North-Western Ionian Sea (Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectivity experiments were carried out during trawling targeting deep-water shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827) and Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aristeidae) in the North-Western Ionian Sea (Eastern-Central Mediterranean). Different\\u000a criteria were employed to analyse maturity; however, the proportion at 50% of retained, mated and mature specimens was always\\u000a used to indicate the size, expressed as Carapace Length (CL, mm),

R. Carlucci; G. D’Onghia; L. Sion; P. Maiorano; A. Tursi

2006-01-01

10

Selectivity parameters and size at first maturity in deep-water shrimps, Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827) and Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816), from the North-Western Ionian Sea (Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectivity experiments were carried out during trawling targeting deep-water shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso, 1827) and Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aristeidae) in the North-Western Ionian Sea (Eastern-Central Mediterranean). Different\\u000a criteria were employed to analyse maturity; however, the proportion at 50% of retained, mated and mature specimens was always\\u000a used to indicate the size, expressed as Carapace Length (CL, mm),

R. Carlucci; G. D’Onghia; L. Sion; P. Maiorano; A. Tursi

11

Dynamics of suprabenthos-zooplankton communities around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental variables and effects on the biological cycle of Aristeus antennatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of suprabenthos and zooplankton were analyzed in two areas located in the NW (off Sóller harbour) and S (off Cabrera Archipelago) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths ranging between 135-780 m. Four stations situated respectively at 150 m (shelf-slope break), and at bathyal depths of 350, 650 and 750 m were sampled at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Suprabenthos showed maximum biomass in both areas from late spring to summer (April to August), while minimum biomass was found in autumn (September-November). Though variable, temporal dynamics of zooplankton showed peaks of biomass in late winter and summer (February and June), while minimals occurred in autumn (August-September) and, at bathyal depths, in April. Suprabenthos (abundance; MDS analyses) showed a sample aggregation as a function of depth (3 groups corresponding to the shelf-slope break, upper slope — over 350 m; and the middle, deeper part of the slope — over 650-750 m), without any separation of hauls by season. By contrast, zooplankton samples were separated by season and not by depth. There was evidence of three seasonal groups corresponding to summer (June 2004-August 2003), autumn-winter (September and November 2003, February 2004), and spring (April 2004), being especially well established off Sóller. In general, suprabenthos was significantly correlated with the sediment variables (e.g. total organic matter content (% OM), potential REDOX), whereas zooplankton was almost exclusively dependent on Chl a at the surface, which suggests two different food sources for suprabenthos and zooplankton. The increase of suprabenthos abundance in April-June was paralleled by a sharp increase ( ca. 2.8 times) in the %OM on sediment during the same period, coupled ca. 1-2 months of delay with the peak of surface Chl a recorded in February-March (from satellite imagery data). Suprabenthos biomass was also correlated with salinity close to the bottom, suggesting a link between suprabenthos abundance and changes in the oceanographic condition of water masses close to the bottom. It is suggested that a higher suprabenthos biomass recorded off Sóller in comparison to that off Cabrera in June could, in turn, be related to a seasonal inflow of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in April-June in this area at mid bathyal depths (350-650 m). This trend would be based on: 1) it was evident only at mid-slope depths between 350-750 m, coinciding with the LIW distribution, and 2) it was not recorded among zooplankton (collected throughout the water column). The possible effect of the fluctuations of suprabenthos and zooplankton on higher trophic levels has been explored studying the diet and food consumption rates of the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, as indicator species by its dominance in bathyal communities. A. antennatus increased its food consumption from February to April-June 2004 off Sóller, which in the case of large (CL > 40 mm) specimens was found in both areas. In addition, there was a shift of diet from winter to spring-early summer. In this last period, A. antennatus preyed upon euphausiids and mesopelagic decapods and fish, while benthos (e.g. polychaetes and bivalves) decreased in the diet. This indicates an increase in the food consumption and probably in the caloric content of the diet in pre-spawning females in April-June 2004, which is synchronized with the period when gonad development begins in A. antennatus females (May-June). Anyway, macrozooplankton, and not suprabenthos, is crucial as a high energetic food source in the coupling between food intake and reproduction in the red shrimp.

Cartes, J. E.; Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; López-Jurado, J. L.

12

Carotenoids in Solonocera indica and Aristeus alcocki, Deep-Sea Shrimp from Indian Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids are the major pigments responsible for the color of crustaceans like shrimp. Quantitative and qualitative distribution of carotenoids in different body components of deep-sea shrimp Solonocera indica and Aristeus alcocki, from Indian waters were assessed. The yield of waste (head and carapace) from processing of these shrimp ranged from 62.6–65.6%. Carotenoid content was higher in A. alcocki and the

Sachindra Nakkarike Manjabhat; Bhaskar Narayan; Mahendrakar Namdev Subbanna

2006-01-01

13

Deep-water penaeid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) from off the Portuguese continental slope: an alternative future resource?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional crustacean fishery along the continental shelf and slope off Portugal mainly targets the Rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris, Lucas, 1846), Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus, Linnaeus, 1758) and its associated species, Red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus, Risso, 1816). In recent years, the commercial trawl fishery has been intensive and has resulted in an overexploitation of these species, down to depths of

Maria José Figueiredo; Ivone Figueiredo; Pedro Bordalo Machado

2001-01-01

14

[Notes on the biology of the deep-water shrimp Aristeus antillensis in French Guiana].  

PubMed

In order to describe some aspects of the biology of the deep-water shrimp Aristeus antillensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aristeidae) in French Guiana (Western Central Atlantic), a total of 84 bottom trawls were carried out at bottom depths ranging from 200 to 900 m on the Guianan slope during four scientific surveys conducted from August 1990 through July 1991. A. antillensis is distributed in muddy grounds from 456 to 818 m with a peak abundance in the 500-600-m-depth stratum where mean catch rates are about 400 g.h-1. In terms of biomass, catches obtained in day time and at night are similar. All samples observed show great predominance of females. The size frequency distribution indicates the existence of three age-classes for females, probably attributed to three annual cohorts. The results of a detailed study of morphometric relationships (length-weight relationships) are also presented. PMID:11510414

Guéguen, F

2001-08-01

15

Dioxin compounds in the deep-sea rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) throughout the Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) are among the more toxic anthropogenic contaminants. They are fat-soluble and accumulate in animal tissues. Exposure to PCDD\\/Fs can cause several endocrine, reproductive and developmental problems in animals, including human beings. Several studies have demonstrated that fish and invertebrates living in association with sediments are exposed to and accumulate contaminants, but to date there have

Guiomar Rotllant; Esteban Abad; Francisco Sardà; Manuela Ábalos; Josep Rivera

2006-01-01

16

Nile damming as plausible cause of extinction and drop in abundance of deep-sea shrimp in the western Mediterranean over broad spatial scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greatly increased retention of flow in Nile River reservoirs was initiated in 1964, after completion of the Aswan High Dam, which induced important oceanographic changes in the Mediterranean Sea, including deep waters (below a depth of 150 m). Based on an analysis of data series starting in the 1940s/1950s, the giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea has become locally extinct off of the Catalonian coasts (and elsewhere in the northwestern Mediterranean) at depths of 400-900 m, with a simultaneous and significant drop in the catches of red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus, in the second half of the 1960s. The extinction and sharp decline of deep-shrimp populations off Catalonian coast (at ca. 3200 km westwards from Nile Delta) followed the 1964 drop in Nile discharge with a delay of ca. 3-5 yrs (breakpoint analysis applied to data series). The breakpoints detected in the second half of 1960s both in Nile runoff and shrimps’ abundance were independent of climatic events in the study area (e.g. changes in NAO) and occurred before the increase in fishing effort off Catalonian coasts (breakpoint in 1973-1974). The Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), inhabited by A. foliacea in the western Basin, had significant temperature (T) and salinity (S) increases in the 1950-1970 period, and Nile damming has contributed about 45% of the total S increase of Western Mediterranean deep-water masses from the 1960s to the late 1990s (Skliris and Lascaratos, 2004). This had to increase, for instance, LIW salinity at its formation site in the eastern Mediterranean. Nile damming was probably a triggering factor for the extinction/drop in abundance of deep-sea shrimp off Catalonian coasts.

Cartes, J. E.; Maynou, F.; Fanelli, E.

2011-11-01

17

The influence of oceanographic scenarios on the population dynamics of demersal resources in the western Mediterranean: Hypothesis for hake and red shrimp off Balearic Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present paper is to study the relationships between some climatic indices and parental stock, recruitment and accessibility to trawl fishery of hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and red shrimp ( Aristeus antennatus) off Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Available annual catch per unit effort, recruitment and spawning stock biomass have been used as biological data. As environmental data, the meso-scale IDEA index and the large-scale North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Mediterranean Oscillation (MO) indices have been used. To analyze possible links between these indices with the population dynamics of demersal resources, two non-linear approaches have been applied: (i) stock-recruitment relationships from Ricker and Beverton-Holt models, by sequentially incorporating environment factors; (ii) generalized additive modelling, both classical general and threshold non-additive models were considered. The latter simulate an abrupt change in explicative variables across different phases (time periods or climatic index values). The results have shown that two oceanographic scenarios around the Balearic Islands, associated with macro and meso-scale climate regimes, can influence the population dynamics of hake and red shrimp. This is especially true for recruitment, which seems to be enhanced during low NAO and IDEA indices periods. During these periods, colder-than-normal winters generate high amounts of cold Western Mediterranean Intermediate Waters (WIW) in the Gulf of Lions, which flow southwards and reach the Balearic Islands channels in spring, increasing the productivity in the area. This oceanographic scenario could also be favourable to the distribution of hake on the fishing grounds where the trawl fleet targets this species, increasing its accessibility to the fishery. Both spawning stock and abundance of red shrimp seems to be also enhanced by high MO index periods, which could reflect the increased presence of the saline and warm Levantine Intermediate Waters (LIW) in the study area, extending over the fishing grounds of this species. The proposed interactions can be useful to assess and manage these important demersal resources.

Massutí, Enric; Monserrat, Sebastià; Oliver, Pere; Moranta, Joan; López-Jurado, José Luis; Marcos, Marta; Hidalgo, Manuel; Guijarro, Beatriz; Carbonell, Aina; Pereda, Pilar

2008-06-01

18

Composition and diversity patterns of megafauna discards in the deep-water shrimp trawl fishery off Brazil.  

PubMed

Composition and spatial diversity patterns of retained and discarded catches in the deep-water shrimp (family Aristeidae) trawling fishery off Brazil were assessed by observers on-board commercial operations in 2005 and 2006. These trawls caught 19,440?kg and 180,076 individuals of which 76·0 and 65·2%, respectively, were discarded at sea. Finfishes represented 54% of the numerical catch but were almost fully discarded (98%). Crustaceans represented 40% of the numerical catch and were mostly retained (80%). The scarlet shrimp Aristaeopsis edwardsiana comprised approximately half of the retained catch. The remainder of the retained proportion comprised mainly the red giant shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea, the alistado shrimp Aristeus antillensis and small quantities of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi and gulf hake Urophycis mystacea. Discards comprised 108 species including 72 fish species, 19 crustaceans and 10 cephalopods. The large-scaled lanternfish Neoscopelus macrolepidotus was dominant in the discards, followed by the benthopelagic fishes Monomitopus agassizii, Synagrops bellus, Dibranchus atlanticus and Gadella imberbis and various macrurid species. This fishery was restricted to a limited bathymetric range (700-800?m), where discrete megafauna assemblages exist and may have been significantly affected. PMID:24090549

Perez, J A A; Pereira, B N; Pereira, D A; Schroeder, R

2013-10-01

19

Brine Shrimp 1: Hatching Brine Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will design a test to determine the optimum salinity for hatching brine shrimp. In the second brine shrimp lesson of the series, students will raise these brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

20

Brine Shrimp 2: Brine Shrimp Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the second of two lessons on brine shrimp. In the first brine shrimp lesson, students determined the optimum salinity for hatching. In this lesson, students will raise brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This Science NetLinks lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

21

Chilean Shrimp Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chile has not yet developed a shrimp aquaculture industry. A variety of factors suggest that the country has a limited potential to culture shrimp. Indigenous species are untried in pond culture. Climatic factors, especially low seasurface temperatures, a...

D. M. Weidner

1991-01-01

22

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project on culturing shrimp. Presents observational labs and the experimentation procedure. Provides general information about shrimp, their life span, optimum temperatures, and other important information. (YDS)

Ruggiero, Lovelle

2000-01-01

23

Defrosting Shrimp with Microwaves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory experiments and results lead to the conclusion that microwave defrosting is particularly suited to the defrosting of raw, headless shrimp for the following reasons: (1) Microwave defrosting would allow compliance with the present GMP guideline ...

A. Bezanson R. Learson W. Teich

1973-01-01

24

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In inquiry-based instruction, discovery and learning belong to the students. In this exploration, jumbo shrimp are the source of inspiration. The magic in this project lies not in successfully culturing these shrimp, known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Ruggiero, Lovelle

2000-01-01

25

Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.  

PubMed

Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or live in sparse groupings and have large anterior eyes, the basic retinal adaptations are the same across species. Retinal adaptations in adult vent shrimp include the loss of dioptrics, enlargement of both the rhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors and the light-sensitive rhabdomere therein, attenuation of the arhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors, reduction of black screening pigment, development of a white diffusing layer behind the photoreceptors, and the loss of rhabdom turnover. PMID:11079388

Chamberlain, S C

2000-09-29

26

Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.  

PubMed Central

Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or live in sparse groupings and have large anterior eyes, the basic retinal adaptations are the same across species. Retinal adaptations in adult vent shrimp include the loss of dioptrics, enlargement of both the rhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors and the light-sensitive rhabdomere therein, attenuation of the arhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors, reduction of black screening pigment, development of a white diffusing layer behind the photoreceptors, and the loss of rhabdom turnover.

Chamberlain, S C

2000-01-01

27

Investigating Brine Shrimp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

Duran, Lena Ballone

2003-01-01

28

Alabama Cave Shrimp ('Palaemonias alabamae') Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Alabama cave shrimp, Palaemonias alabamae Smalley, is an albinistic troglobitic (cave-dwelling) shrimp known from five caves (three cave systems or three groundwater basins) in Madison County, Alabama. A member of the shrimp family Atyidae, it is one ...

P. Hartfield T. R. Jacobson

1997-01-01

29

Monoculture of Fresh Water Shrimps (Macrobranchium Species)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sole reliance on wild catches of shrimps to meet the increasing demand globally can cause over fishing and destruction of shrimp fishery, pronounced by catch problem and habitat destruction. Freshwater shrimps of the genus Macrobrachium is found in West African waters and is widely distributed in Nigerian waters. These shrimps are more manageable than their marine relative where coastland

S. O. Ayoola

30

Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of the demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean mean surface vorticity from gridded multi-mission satellite altimetry data was explored in the Western Mediterranean basin for the period 2000-2010, with the aim of comparing its variability with several species of the deep water fishery in the area. Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed off northern Mallorca Island displayed a good correlation with surface vorticity. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspensions, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity by moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accesibility to fishing exploitation. This relationship between vorticity and catches also holds for other species , considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticy episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species. The way the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is also investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom currentmeter and a sediment trap sited in the fishing grounds.

Amores, A.; Rueda, L.; Monserrat, S.; Guijarro, B.; Pasqual, C.; Massutí, E.

2013-12-01

31

Substrate Selection by Ghost Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this experiment is to determine if ghost shrimp show a preference for a particular substrate surface under artificial conditions. Ghost shrimp are geographically widespread. They are an important source of food for many fish, mammals, and birds. Ghost shrimp are omnivorous, seldom predaceous. Their preferred food is aquatic vegetation. Ecologically, they are considered scavengers. Therefore, they contribute to an efficient flow of energy within aquatic habitats. Economically, they have become a favorite source of live food for aquarium fish and are sold in pet stores and are harvested for bait for sport fishing.

Ms. Sue Diggs (Monterey High School)

2000-07-01

32

Virus isolations and high population density implicate Culex antennatus (Becker) (Diptera: Culicidae) as a vector of Rift Valley Fever virus during an outbreak in the Nile Delta of Egypt.  

PubMed

In June, 2003, Egypt's hospital-based electronic disease surveillance system began to record increased cases of acute febrile illness from governorates in the Nile Delta. In response to a request for assistance from the Egyptian Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 (NAMRU-3) provided assistance in identifying the cause and extent of this outbreak. Testing of human clinical samples (n=375) from nine governorates in Egypt identified 29 cases of RVF viremia that spanned the period of June to October, and a particular focus of disease in Kafr el Sheikh governorate (7.7% RVF infection rate). Veterinary samples (n=101) collected during this time in Kafr el Sheikh and screened by immunoassay for RVFV-specific IgM identified probable recent infections in cattle (10.4%) and sheep (5%). Entomologic investigations that focused in rural, rice growing villages in the Sidi Salim District of Kafr el Sheikh during August-September, 2003, collected, identified, and tested host-seeking female mosquitoes for the presence of pathogenic viruses. Three isolates of RVF virus (RVFV) were obtained from 297 tested pools of female mosquitoes and all three RVFV isolates came from Cx. antennatus (Becker). While Cx. pipiens has been considered the primary vector of RVF virus in Egypt and is often the most common man-biting species found, Cx. antennatus was the dominant species captured at the 2003 outbreak location in Kafr el Sheikh governorate. This is the first time that Cx. antennatus has been found naturally infected with RVFV in Egypt. PMID:21570939

Hanafi, Hanafi A; Fryauff, David J; Saad, Magdi D; Soliman, Atef K; Mohareb, Emad W; Medhat, Iman; Zayed, Abdel Basset; Szumlas, Daniel E; Earhart, Kenneth C

2011-08-01

33

Shrimp Canning Waste Treatment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wastewater surveys were performed at several Gulf shrimp canneries over a period of three canning seasons. Water used for each process within the plant was metered and the wastewater was tested for biological, chemical and physical characteristics. Pilot ...

A. F. Mauldin A. J. Szabo

1974-01-01

34

Science Nation: Disappearing Red Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Along the shore in Hawaii, the ponds imbedded in lava rocks contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life in these pools are hundreds of tiny red shrimp. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), molecular biologist Scott Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.

35

Shrimp Landings, January 1977-December 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, Current Fisheries Statistics for Shrimp Landings has been compiled for January 1977 through December 1978. The Annual Summary issues for 1977 and 1978 are included. Data includes commercial shrimp landings by type and region, specified periods...

1978-01-01

36

Field evidence that shrimp predation regulates meiofauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, a suspected predator\\/disturber on meiofauna, and other large natant forms (>2 mm) were selectively excluded from microecosystem tanks for nine months during which time replicability between the tanks was established. Subsequently, shrimp were reintroduced into one of the four tanks via an aquarium and the meiofauna populations monitored in the “shrimp” and control tanks. In

Susan S. Bell; Bruce C. Coull

1978-01-01

37

Japan's Frozen Shrimp Imports: 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India was Japan's principal supplier of frozen shrimp in 1973 with 21,903 tons, regaining the lead from Indonesia which came in second with 18,764 tons. Thailand's exports of 9,884 tons ranked that country third. Mexico was fourth in 1973 with 8,839 tons,...

W. B. Folsom

1974-01-01

38

Sparing effect of pond water on vitamins in shrimp diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10-wk experiment was conducted to determine whether shrimp pond water has a sparing effect on vitamins, trace minerals, and protein levels in diets fed to juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Twenty-four 52-L aquaria were stocked with 0.7-g shrimp at a density of 24 shrimp\\/aquaria (100 shrimp\\/m2 equivalent). Shrimp were exposed to flow-through seawater from one of two sources: clear

Shaun M. Moss; Ian P. Forster; Albert G. J. Tacon

2006-01-01

39

Large genomes among caridean shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent genome size estimates for Arctic amphipods have revealed the largest genomes known in the Crustacea. Here we provide additional data for 7 species of caridean shrimp collected from the Canadian Arctic and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Genome sizes were estimated by flow cytometry and haploid C-values ranged from 8.53 ± 0.30 pg in Pandalus montagui (Pandalidae) to 40.89

David J. Rees; Claude Belzile; Hélène Glémet; France Dufresne

2008-01-01

40

Shrimp diseases and current diagnostic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In less than 30 yr, the penaeid shrimp culture industries of the world developed from their experimental beginnings into major industries providing hundreds of thousands of jobs, billions of U.S. dollars in revenue, and augmentation of the world's food supply with a high value crop. Concomitant with the growth of the shrimp culture industry has been the recognition of the

D. V Lightner; R. M Redman

1998-01-01

41

Function of shrimp STAT during WSSV infection.  

PubMed

JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays key roles in the antiviral immunity of mammals, fish and insect. However, limited knowledge is known about the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp although virus disease has caused severe mortality in shrimp aquaculture. In order to understand the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp, dsRNA interfering technique was used to silence the expression of STAT gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, and the mortality of shrimp was detected after WSSV infection. Furthermore, the expressions of some potential target genes regulated by STAT or genes related to RNA interfering pathway were detected in STAT silenced shrimp during WSSV infection. The WSSV copy number in STAT silenced shrimp was 10(2)-10(3) copies/ng DNA which was much lower than that in the control. The mortality in STAT silenced shrimp caused by WSSV infection decreased very significantly compared to their controls. The function of STAT was verified in vitro cultured cells of hematopoietic tissue of crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by adding specific inhibitor of STAT3(S3I-201), and the cultured cells treated with S3I-201 showed much less WSSV copy number than their controls, which further suggested that STAT might be helpful for the replication of WSSV. Expression analysis on the potential STAT target genes and genes in RNA interfering pathway provide important information for understanding the functional mechanism of STAT in antiviral immunity of shrimp. PMID:24727196

Wen, Rong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-06-01

42

An Examination of the Shrimp Futures Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only two seafood commodities traded in futures markets are frozen white and black tiger shrimps on the Minneapolis Grain Exchange (MGE). These two contracts, however, have failed to attract the expected trade volume based on the underlying shrimp cash market flow. First, we investigate the hedging effectiveness of these contracts. Then we also try to determine the adequacy of

Josué Martínez-Garmendia; James L. Anderson

43

Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

2013-01-01

44

76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-549-822] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Final Partial...

2011-02-07

45

Aflatoxin contamination in shrimp feed and effects of aflatoxin addition to feed on shrimp production.  

PubMed

One hundred fifty samples of shrimp feed were collected from the eastern and southern regions of Thailand, and aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) in them were analyzed. AFB1 contamination ranged from a nondetectable level (< 0.003 ppb) to 0.651 ppb. Metabolites of AFB1 were less abundant than AFB1. To study the effects of aflatoxin in feed on shrimp production, black tiger shrimp were divided into four groups of 30 shrimp per group, tested in triplicate, and fed diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10, or 20 ppb of AFB1 for 10 consecutive days. After 7 or 10 days of consumption on each diet, the shrimp were weighed and sacrificed for laboratory examination. AFB1 and its metabolites were not detected in shrimp muscle. The mortality rate was slightly higher in the AFB1-treated groups than in the control group. The body weight of the surviving shrimp was decreased to 46 to 59% of the initial body weight in the AFB1-treated groups but not in the control group. Histopathological findings indicated hepatopancreatic damage by AFB1 with biochemical changes of the hemolymph. These results show that aflatoxin contamination in shrimp feed may cause economic losses by lowering the production of shrimp. Feed contaminated at the level of 20 ppb or lower (i.e., at the observed natural contamination level) may pose a very low risk, if any, to human health. PMID:12747701

Bintvihok, A; Ponpornpisit, A; Tangtrongpiros, J; Panichkriangkrai, W; Rattanapanee, R; Doi, K; Kumagai, S

2003-05-01

46

Husbandry Helps Harvests of Healthy Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparison is presented of the relative role of husbandry or control of environmental conditions, and diseases in the fluctuations of abundance in populations of marine animals. Emphasis is placed on cultured animals such as shrimp. The University of Mi...

G. E. Krantz E. S. Iverson

1973-01-01

47

Thermal and Microwave Energy for Shrimp Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gulf Coast shrimp were processed by 2450 MHz microwave energy and conventional boiling to determine if differences existed in organoleptic evaluation and vitamin retention. Since no satisfactory method was available for measuring the temperature of produc...

M. R. R. Roa A. F. Novak

1975-01-01

48

Characterization of shrimp Drosha in virus infection.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by microRNA (miRNA) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of posttranscriptional gene regulation in all eukaryotes, involving in natural antiviral immunity. The RNAase III Drosha is a key component for miRNA maturation. To date, however, the roles of Drosha in virus infection remain to be addressed. In this study, the Drosha was characterized in Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp. The sequence analysis revealed that the shrimp Drosha gene encoded a 1081-amino-acid peptide, which comprised two tandem ribonuclease III C terminal domains and a double-stranded RNA binding motif. The shrimp Drosha was homologous with those of other animal species. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the Drosha gene was highly expressed in lymphoid organ and was significantly up-regulated in response to WSSV challenge, suggesting that the Drosha was involved in the antiviral immunity of shrimp. The results showed that the knock down of Drosha gene led to the defect of miRNA maturation, and subsequent higher virus loads in shrimp. Our study presented that Drosha played important roles in the antiviral defense of shrimp. PMID:22796424

Huang, Tianzhi; Xu, Dandan; Zhang, Xiaobo

2012-09-01

49

Observations on Cleaner Shrimps of the genus 'Periclimenes'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study indicates that the abundance of reef fishes in the Virgin Islands may be indirectly related to the occurrence of the anemone, Bartholomea annulata (Le Sueur), to which cling the two most abundant shrimps, the Pederson cleaning shrimp Periclimene...

C. Mahken

1972-01-01

50

'Pleistophora' SP. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae): A New Parasite of Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

White (Penaeus setiferus) and brown (P. aztecus) shrimp from Galveston Bay were observed to be infected with Pleistophora sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae). Heavily infected shrimp had a blue-black discoloration of the body. Cysts with 40 or more spores we...

R. H. Rigdon C. Hanna K. N. Baxter

1970-01-01

51

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

52

Shrimp Farms and Mangroves, Gulf of Fonseca  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For decades, astronauts on space missions have documented land use changes around the world. In this pair of images, astronauts track the development of shrimp farming along the Honduran coastline of the Gulf of Fonseca between 1989 and 2001. Mariculture, primarily shrimp farming, has become a leading agricultural effort in Honduras. The regional transformation of large tracts of coastal swamps into shrimp farms blossomed throughout the 1990s. The top image was taken with color infrared film in 1989. Dense vegetation, like the coastal mangrove swamps and the forested slopes of Volcan Cosiguina show up as dark red. The bottom image, taken with color visible film by the crew of the most recent Space Shuttle mission in December 2001 shows that hundreds of square kilometers of coastal swamp, primarily in Honduras, have been converted to shrimp ponds. These appear as the light-colored, rectilinear land use pattern. The Honduras shrimp farms were hit hard by flooding after Hurricane Mitch in 1998, and a devastating virus in 1999-2000. It is not known how many of the ponds in this view are still functional. A vigorous debate continues about the sustainability of the shrimp farms and the impacts to the environment and coastal ecosystem due to mangrove clearing and mariculture waste production. Apart from the shrimp farms, the other prominent feature on these images is the impressive volcano Cosiguina, which erupted explosively in 1859 (the largest recorded eruption in the Western Hemisphere). Photograph STS-108-717-85 was taken in the December 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. Photograph STS030-93-15 was taken in May 1989 using a Hasselblad camera and color infrared film. Both images are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

53

Some Recent Issues and Innovations in Marine Shrimp Pond Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

World cultured shrimp production increased from 0.4 million metric tons (MMT) in 1990 to about 0.8 MMT in 1999, or about 25 to 30% of total shrimp supply. Increased production was well below 1.2 MMT predicted 10 years earlier. The primary reason for this shortfall was shrimp disease, which effected shrimp yields worldwide. The most serious diseases were viral, for

Arlo W. Fast; Piamsak Menasveta

2000-01-01

54

Prediction of shelled shrimp weight by machine vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weight of shelled shrimp is an important parameter for grading process. The weight prediction of shelled shrimp by contour\\u000a area is not accurate enough because of the ignorance of the shrimp thickness. In this paper, a multivariate prediction model\\u000a containing area, perimeter, length, and width was established. A new calibration algorithm for extracting length of shelled\\u000a shrimp was proposed,

Peng-min Pan; Jian-ping Li; Gu-lai Lv; Hui Yang; Song-ming Zhu; Jian-zhong Lou

2009-01-01

55

Penaeid shrimp polyploidy: Global status and future direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In those shrimp species comprehensively studied, polyploidy is currently the only known technique that can achieve the dual outcomes of reproductive sterility for genetic protection and skewing sex ratios towards a high proportion of females, which are larger than males in all of the penaeid shrimp. This review article aims to collate the scientific knowledge and global shrimp industries experience,

M. J. Sellars; F. Li; N. P. Preston; J. Xiang

2010-01-01

56

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...forms of shrimp are: (1) Fantail or butterfly: Prepared by splitting the shrimp...tail fins may be left attached. (2) Butterfly, tail off: Prepared by splitting the...Breaded fantail shrimp.â The word âbutterflyâ may be used in lieu of...

2009-04-01

57

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...forms of shrimp are: (1) Fantail or butterfly: Prepared by splitting the shrimp...tail fins may be left attached. (2) Butterfly, tail off: Prepared by splitting the...Breaded fantail shrimp.â The word âbutterflyâ may be used in lieu of...

2010-04-01

58

Economic impacts of TEDs on the shrimp production sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic impact of the effects of the Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs) used in the Gulf of Mexico to control the numbers of turtles caught in shrimp trawl nets is analyzed. This is a major concern to the shrimp fishing economy due to the potential loss of shrimp. A simulation modeling technique is used which estimates the changes in landings,

Wade L. Griffin; Deborah Tolman; Chris Oliver

1993-01-01

59

Burrowing shrimp as foundation species in NE Pacific estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

My talk will be about the my research to characterize the role that burrowing shrimp play as foundation/engineering species in Pacific NW estuaries. My research has focused on measuring the abundance & distribution of two species (ghost shrimp & mud shrimp) at ecosystem scales, ...

60

Water quality control using Spirulina platensis in shrimp culture tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis) was co-cultured with black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) for water quality control. We evaluated the effects of: (1) three S. platensis trial conditions on inorganic nitrogen concentrations at one shrimp density (S. platensis trial conditions included: absent, nonharvested and semicontinuous harvesting) and (2) two shrimp densities on inorganic nitrogen concentrations, with and without S. platensis. Semicontinuous

Benjamas Chuntapa; Sorawit Powtongsook; Piamsak Menasveta

2003-01-01

61

Shrimp molecular responses to viral pathogens.  

PubMed

From almost negligible amounts in 1970, the quantity of cultivated shrimp (~3 million metric tons in 2007) has risen to approach that of the capture fishery and it constitutes a vital source of export income for many countries. Despite this success, viral diseases along the way have caused billions of dollars of losses for shrimp farmers. Desire to reduce the losses to white spot syndrome virus in particular, has stimulated much research since 2000 on the shrimp response to viral pathogens at the molecular level. The objective of the work is to develop novel, practical methods for improved disease control. This review covers the background and limitations of the current work, baseline studies and studies on humoral responses, on binding between shrimp and viral structural proteins and on intracellular responses. It also includes discussion of several important phenomena (i.e., the quasi immune response, viral co-infections, viral sequences in the shrimp genome and persistent viral infections) for which little or no molecular information is currently available, but is much needed. PMID:20393775

Flegel, T W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

2011-08-01

62

Probiotics in shrimp aquaculture: avenues and challenges.  

PubMed

As an alternative strategy to antibiotic use in aquatic disease management, probiotics have recently attracted extensive attention in aquaculture. However, the use of terrestrial bacterial species as probiotics for aquaculture has had limited success, as bacterial strain characteristics are dependent upon the environment in which they thrive. Therefore, isolating potential probiotic bacteria from the marine environment in which they grow optimally is a better approach. Bacteria that have been used successfully as probiotics belong to the genus Vibrio and Bacillus, and the species Thalassobacter utilis. Most researchers have isolated these probiotic strains from shrimp culture water, or from the intestine of different penaeid species. The use of probiotic bacteria, based on the principle of competitive exclusion, and the use of immunostimulants are two of the most promising preventive methods developed in the fight against diseases during the last few years. It also noticed that probiotic bacteria could produce some digestive enzymes, which might improve the digestion of shrimp, thus enhancing the ability of stress resistance and health of the shrimp. However, the probiotics in aquatic environment remain to be a controversial concept, as there was no authentic evidence / real environment demonstrations on the successful use of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in vivo. The present review highlights the potential sources of probiotics, mechanism of action, diversity of probiotic microbes and challenges of probiotic usage in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:19514908

Ninawe, A S; Selvin, Joseph

2009-01-01

63

CO? efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO?) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO? efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO? efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO? m?² y?¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO? m?² y?¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO? emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y?¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO? emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO? released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

2013-01-01

64

Cryptic Bioluminescence in a Midwater Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mesopelagic shrimp Sergestes similis emits ventrally directed bioluminescence that closely matches the intensity of downward-directed illumination and is able to rapidly modify its light output to match changes in background intensity. Masking experiments show that the photoreceptors involved are the compound eyes or adjacent tissues. Light emission originates from modified portions of the hepatopancreas and is similar to oceanic

Jon A. Warner; Michael I. Latz; James F. Case

1979-01-01

65

76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis...shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead...shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely...

2011-04-05

66

An Economic and Financial Analysis of Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Vessels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is intended for financial institutions, shrimp vessel owners and prospective shrimp vessel owners who want economic information associated with operating shrimp vessels of various sizes. Cost and return estimates in this publication are based o...

W. A. Hayenga R. D. Lacewell W. L. Griffin

1974-01-01

67

50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. 622.201 Section...Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ)....

2013-10-01

68

75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23,...

2010-04-28

69

78 FR 50387 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigation does not include brine-frozen shrimp.\\4\\ We have addressed this...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia...Memorandum Regarding Onboard Brine-Frozen Shrimp,'' which is hereby...

2013-08-19

70

78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigation does not include brine-frozen shrimp.\\4\\ We have addressed this...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia...Memorandum Regarding Onboard Brine-Frozen Shrimp'' (Scope Memorandum),...

2013-08-19

71

78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigation does not include brine-frozen shrimp.\\4\\ We have [[Page 50386...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia...Memorandum Regarding Onboard Brine-Frozen Shrimp,'' which is hereby...

2013-08-19

72

78 FR 50381 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigation does not include brine-frozen shrimp.\\4\\ We have addressed this...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia...Memorandum Regarding Onboard Brine-Frozen Shrimp'' (Scope Memorandum),...

2013-08-19

73

Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

1994-01-01

74

Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly\\u000a in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The\\u000a growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production\\u000a methods.

Mark Flaherty; Choomjet Karnjanakesorn

1995-01-01

75

Climate influence on deep sea populations.  

PubMed

Dynamics of biological processes on the deep-sea floor are traditionally thought to be controlled by vertical sinking of particles from the euphotic zone at a seasonal scale. However, little is known about the influence of lateral particle transport from continental margins to deep-sea ecosystems. To address this question, we report here how the formation of dense shelf waters and their subsequent downslope cascade, a climate induced phenomenon, affects the population of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus. We found evidence that strong currents associated with intense cascading events correlates with the disappearance of this species from its fishing grounds, producing a temporary fishery collapse. Despite this initial negative effect, landings increase between 3 and 5 years after these major events, preceded by an increase of juveniles. The transport of particulate organic matter associated with cascading appears to enhance the recruitment of this deep-sea living resource, apparently mitigating the general trend of overexploitation. Because cascade of dense water from continental shelves is a global phenomenon, we anticipate that its influence on deep-sea ecosystems and fisheries worldwide should be larger than previously thought. PMID:18197243

Company, Joan B; Puig, Pere; Sardà, Francesc; Palanques, Albert; Latasa, Mikel; Scharek, Renate

2008-01-01

76

Risk of spread of penaeid shrimp viruses in the Americas by the international movement of live and frozen shrimp.  

PubMed

Within the past decade, viral diseases have emerged as serious economic impediments to successful shrimp farming in many of the shrimp-farming countries of the world. In the western hemisphere, the viral agents of Taura syndrome (TS) and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis have caused serious disease epizootics throughout the shrimp-growing regions of the Americas and Hawaii, while in Asia the viral agents of white spot syndrome (WSS) and yellow head (YH) have caused pandemics with catastrophic losses. The international transfer of live shrimp for aquaculture purposes is an obvious mechanism by which the viruses have spread within and between regions in which they have occurred. Shrimp-eating gulls, other seabirds and aquatic insects may also be factors in the spread of shrimp viruses between and within regions. Another potentially important mechanism for the international spread of these pathogens is the trade in frozen commodity shrimp, which may contain viruses exotic to the importing countries. The viral agents of WSS, YH and TS have been found, and demonstrated to be infectious, in frozen shrimp imported into the United States market. Mechanisms identified for the potential transfer of virus in imported frozen products to domestic populations of cultured or wild penaeid shrimp stocks include: the release of untreated liquid or solid wastes from shrimp importing and processing plants directly into coastal waters, improper disposal of solid waste from shrimp importing and processing plants in landfills so that the waste is accessible to gulls and other seabirds, and the use of imported shrimp as bait by sports fishermen. PMID:9329114

Lightner, D V; Redman, R M; Poulos, B T; Nunan, L M; Mari, J L; Hasson, K W

1997-04-01

77

Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.  

PubMed

Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ?T*?4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

2013-01-01

78

Vortex Formation with a Snapping Shrimp Claw  

PubMed Central

Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ?T*?4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

Hess, David; Brucker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

2013-01-01

79

Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

2005-12-01

80

Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.  

PubMed

As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses. PMID:24751195

Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

2014-01-01

81

Effects of harvesting callianassid (ghost) shrimps on subtropical benthic communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of harvesting of callianassid shrimp (Trypaea australiensis) on the abundance and composition of macrobenthic assemblages in unvegetated sediments of a subtropical coastal embayment in Queensland, Australia were examined using a combination of sampling and manipulative experiments. First, the abundance and composition of the benthic infauna in an area regularly used for the collection of shrimp for bait by

Greg A. Skilleter; Yuri Zharikov; Bronwyn Cameron; Daryl P. McPhee

2005-01-01

82

Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

Bavinck, Maarten

2012-01-01

83

Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms. PMID:21479932

Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

2011-07-01

84

An Economical, Portable System for Hatching Brine Shrimp Artemia spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and construction of a portable, inexpensive hatching system for brine shrimp Artemia spp. is described. The system design is based on batch culture methodology, which is easily customized to the feeding requirements of a larval system and optimizes the nutritional value of brine shrimp. This system can be set up quickly and provides stable temperature and aeration under a

Richard S. Fulford; D. Allen Rutherford

1998-01-01

85

CUTICULAR LESIONS INDUCED IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Adult grass shrimp were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ppm) of hexavalent chromium for 38 days. At the end of the exposure period, over 50% of the surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions that had many of the gross characteristics of 'shell disease.' Th...

86

A critical review of shrimp pond culture in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews and evaluates shrimp pond culture in the Philippines and its ecological and socioeconomic effects. The intertwined histories of the country's mangrove forests and culture ponds are treated in depth; brackishwater aquaculture and the different shrimp culture systems are described. Intensive farming is discussed in terms of feed and water requirements, chemical inputs and waste production, and the

J. Honculada Primavera

1993-01-01

87

Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays for the evaluation and monitoring of the health status of shrimp are available. The defence mechanisms of crustaceans are

Braak van de C. B. T

2002-01-01

88

Illustrated Key to Penaeoid Shrimps of Commerce in the Americas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The commercially important species of penaeoid shrimps comprise 4 families, 12 genera, and 37 species in the Americas. The key is supported by 49 figures including lateral views of whole shrimps in 10 of the 12 genera and detailed figures of male (petasma...

I. P. Farfante

1988-01-01

89

Improved Shrimp Growout Systems for Disease Prevention and Environmental Sustainability in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a large portion of the world's farmed shrimp is produced in Asia, shrimp culture operations do not succeed over the entire area. There have been several problems and impediments that are yet to be resolved. One of these problems is disease. Several shrimp diseases have threatened shrimp production, but the most devastating ones are the viral diseases, namely, yellow-head

Piamsak Menasveta

2002-01-01

90

Valuation of shrimp ecosystem services – a case study in Leizhou City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic valuation of ecosystem services is an effective way to understand the multiple benefits provided. Effluent and other environmental problems must be properly managed if shrimp aquaculture is to achieve sustainability. Evaluation of shrimp ecosystems can facilitate voluntary improvements in the environmental performance of shrimp farms. This study evaluated shrimp ecosystem services in Leizhou City, Guangdong Province, using the

Ya-Yan Liu; Wei-Na Wang; Chun-Xiao Ou; Jin-Xuan Yuan; An-Li Wang; Hai-Sheng Jiang; Ruyong Sun

2010-01-01

91

Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Ghost shrimp and blue mud shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The profiles are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessments. The ghost shrimp (Callianassa californiensis) and blue mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis) are common residents of intertidal mudflats of the Pacific Northwest, as well as of the entire West Coast of the

S. Horning; A. Sterling; S. D. Smith

1989-01-01

92

Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (<10 log CFU/g) during refrigerated (4°C) storage of cooked shrimp for 2 days. The redness, yellowness, and lightness were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for the cooked shrimp than for the uncooked shrimp on all days tested. The standard deviation for redness in the cooked shrimp was large, indicating a wide range of pink coloration on all days tested. The results suggest that boiling shrimp until they float will significantly reduce Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good indication of reduction of these pathogens because of the wide natural color variation. PMID:23317857

Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

2013-01-01

93

Optimum cooking conditions for shrimp and Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

The quality and safety of a cooked food product depends on many variables, including the cooking method and time-temperature combinations employed. The overall heating profile of the food can be useful in predicting the quality changes and microbial inactivation occurring during cooking. Mathematical modeling can be used to attain the complex heating profile of a food product during cooking. Studies were performed to monitor the product heating profile during the baking and boiling of shrimp and the baking and pan-frying of salmon. Product color, texture, moisture content, mass loss, and pressed juice were evaluated during the cooking processes as the products reached the internal temperature recommended by the FDA. Studies were also performed on the inactivation of Salmonella cocktails in shrimp and salmon. To effectively predict inactivation during cooking, the Bigelow, Fermi distribution, and Weibull distribution models were applied to the Salmonella thermal inactivation data. Minimum cooking temperatures necessary to destroy Salmonella in shrimp and salmon were determined. The heating profiles of the 2 products were modeled using the finite difference method. Temperature data directly from the modeled heating profiles were then used in the kinetic modeling of quality change and Salmonella inactivation during cooking. The optimum cooking times for a 3-log reduction of Salmonella and maintaining 95% of quality attributes are 100, 233, 159, 378, 1132, and 399 s for boiling extra jumbo shrimp, baking extra jumbo shrimp, boiling colossal shrimp, baking colossal shrimp, baking Atlantic salmon, and pan frying Atlantic Salmon, respectively. PMID:23387897

Brookmire, Lauren; Mallikarjunan, P; Jahncke, M; Grisso, R

2013-02-01

94

SHRIMP SI- New Capabilities for in situ Stable Isotope Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SHRIMP SI is the latest generation of SHRIMP ion microprobe that has been optimised for light stable isotope analysis. The initial configuration has been set for Cs+ primary ion beam (ca. 15kV) and negative secondary extraction (ca. 10kV). The specific design inherits features from both SHRIMP I, and SHRIMP II instruments, but also has lens configurations that are unique. The primary column has two modes: a configuration allowing Kohler illumination, and a critical illumination system allowing spot sizes down to under a micrometer. The secondary extraction system utilizes an intermediate extraction lens to transfer the secondary ion beam to a separate beam matching chamber containing three quadrupole lenses. SHRIMP SI uses the same proven mass analyser design of the other forward geometry SHRIMPs.The collector has been designed around a minimum unit spacing at approximately mass 40 enabling large ETP multipliers to be used, or standard large dimension Faraday cups. The construction phase is now complete and SHRIMP SI is undergoing initial performance evaluation.

Ireland, T. R.; Clement, S.; Foster, J.

2010-12-01

95

Freshwater shrimp-sponge association from an ancient lake.  

PubMed

Shrimp-sponge associations occur frequently in marine ecosystems, serving as model systems for the evolution of eusociality. Here, we describe the first known instance of such association in freshwater from an ancient lake in Indonesia. The shrimp Caridina spongicola forms an exclusive and probably commensal association with a yet undescribed spongillinid sponge. Phylogenetic and ecological data suggest a comparatively recent origin of both taxa. Climatic fluctuations may have facilitated speciation and occasional hybridization of the shrimp species, which is derived from a rock-dwelling ancestor. Their extremely localized occurrence in an increasingly disturbed area makes both taxa a conservation priority. PMID:17347103

Rintelen, Kristina von; Rintelen, Thomas von; Meixner, Martin; Lüter, Carsten; Cai, Yixiong; Glaubrecht, Matthias

2007-06-22

96

EFFECTS OF GROUND ULV (ULTRA-LOW VOLUME) APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON ESTUARINE BIOTA. 3. RESPONSE OF CAGED PINK SHRIMP AND GRASS SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) were deployed in floating cages to determine if fenthion, in an actual-use application in the field, affected shrimp survival. After four ultra-low-volume ground applications (equivalent to llg/ha or 0...

97

76 FR 61668 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits...frozen warmwater shrimp From India and Thailand covering the period February 1, 2010...Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

2011-10-05

98

75 FR 62099 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits...warmwater shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand covering the period February 1, 2009...Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

2010-10-07

99

76 FR 30034 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reopening of Commercial Penaeid Shrimp Trawling Off South Carolina AGENCY: National...NMFS reopens commercial penaeid shrimp trawling, i.e., for brown, pink, and white...previously closed commercial penaeid shrimp trawling in the EEZ off South Carolina on...

2011-05-24

100

COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

101

GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BURROWING SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ghost shrimp, (Neotypaea californiensis) are burrowers, whose bioturbation and sediment destabilizations have a negative effect on mariculture of the commercially important oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Oyster farmers in Washington and Oregon estuaries have been poisoning these shr...

102

Dissolved Air Flotation Treatment of Gulf Shrimp Cannery Wastewater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study reports on the operation of a plant scale dissolved air flotation system installed to define and evaluate attainable shrimp cannery wastewater treatment levels. The system was operated in all three modes of DAF pressurization. Destabilizing coa...

A. J. Szabo F. R. Wilson L. F. LaFleur

1979-01-01

103

Utilization and Disposal of Crab and Shrimp Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The shellfish waste problem in Alaska (Nature of the wastes, Effects of wastes on natural waters, Pollution, The Alaska water quality standards); By-products (Crab and shrimp meal, Whole shells, Chitin, Protein concentrates, Meat recovery, Produ...

V. Mendenhall

1971-01-01

104

Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production. It was based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurement of shoreline length and areas of marsh having more than 5.0 kilometers of shoreline per square kilometer of area for the Louisiana coast, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield.

Faller, K. H. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

105

Dental erosion protection by fermented shrimp paste in acidic food.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which fermented shrimp paste (which has a high calcium concentration) reduces dental erosion in vitro. In experiment 1, enamel specimens were exposed to various concentrations of shrimp paste in tamarind juice for 15 min, once a day, for a total of 29 days. In experiment 2, pre-softened enamel specimens were exposed to different concentrations of shrimp paste in water, using an exposure method similar to experiment 1. Profilometry and a microhardness test were used to assess changes in enamel loss and softening. The results showed that shrimp paste can reduce the erosive potential of tamarind juice and re-harden softened enamel. PMID:20068304

Chuenarrom, C; Benjakul, P

2010-01-01

106

Experimental design and testing: Hatching and development in brine shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains information for instructing a laboratory exercise in biology. This exercise serves as an example of how both content knowledge and process can be integrated in an investigative laboratory design using brine shrimp.

Leona Truchan (Alverno College;); Ingrith Deyrup-Olsen (University of Washington;)

1993-06-01

107

Isolation and purification of calmodulin from the shrimp, Crangon crangon.  

PubMed

Calmodulin was isolated and purified from shrimp abdominal muscle by heat precipitation, ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified calmodulin was homogeneous when evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A still remaining contaminant was eliminated by high performance liquid chromatography on a phenyl column. The biological and physicochemical properties of shrimp calmodulin such as amino acid composition, molecular weight and the ability to activate calmodulin-deficient bovine heart phosphodiesterase were compared to those of other invertebrate calmodulins. PMID:1333028

Michael, R H; Pipkorn, R; Willig, A; Jaros, P P

1992-01-01

108

Enhanced Cellular Immunity in Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 'Vaccination'  

PubMed Central

It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed ‘specific immune priming’, although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1?1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from ‘vaccinated’ shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either ‘immunised’ or non-immunised’ shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that ‘vaccination’ has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of ‘immune priming’ reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens.

Roberts, Emily C.; Shields, Robin J.; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F.

2011-01-01

109

Diurnal and nocturnal catchability of Kuwait's commercial shrimps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In descending order of importance, the shrimps Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan, 1844; Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837); and Parapenaeopsis stylifera (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) account for over 95% of Kuwait's commercial landings. Throughout its range, P. semisulcatus is nocturnal, but Kuwait trawlers are active 24h a day during season. Historically, all scientific shrimp surveys in Kuwait have been conducted during daylight

J. M. Bishop; Y. Ye; A. H. Alsaffar; H. M. Al-Foudari; S. Al-Jazzaf

2008-01-01

110

Induction of Shrimp Tropomyosin-Specific Hypersensitivity in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Shellfish hypersensitivity is amongst the most common food allergies. The major shellfish allergen was identified as tropomyosin. Here, we investigated the immediate hypersensitivity responses, IgE and cell-mediated immune response in mice sensitized with recombinant shrimp tropomyosin. Methods: Shrimp tropomyosin was cloned and expressed as a His-tagged fusion recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. Three- to 4-week-old BALB\\/c mice were sensitized

Patrick S. C. Leung; Yuen Shan Lee; Chi Yan Tang; Wing Yee Kung; Ya-Hui Chuang; Bor-Luen Chiang; Ming Chiu Fung; Ka Hou Chu

2008-01-01

111

Decline and local extinction of Caribbean eusocial shrimp.  

PubMed

The tropical shrimp genus Synalpheus includes the only eusocial marine animals. In much of the Caribbean, eusocial species have dominated the diverse fauna of sponge-dwelling shrimp in coral rubble for at least the past two decades. Here we document a recent, dramatic decline and apparent local extinction of eusocial shrimp species on the Belize Barrier Reef. Our collections from shallow reefs in central Belize in 2012 failed to locate three of the four eusocial species formerly abundant in the area, and showed steep declines in colony size and increases in frequency of queenless colonies prior to their disappearance. Concordant with these declines, several nonsocial, pair-forming Synalpheus species increased in frequency. The decline in eusocial shrimp is explained in part by disappearance of two sponge species on which they specialize. Eusocial shrimp collections from Jamaica in 2012 showed similar patterns of decline in colony size and increased queenlessness compared with prior Jamaican collections. The decline and local extinction of eusocial shrimp happened against a backdrop of changes in coral assemblages during recent decades, and may reflect changes in abundance and quality of dead coral substratum and succession of the diverse cryptic organisms living within it. These changes document potentially worrisome declines in a unique taxon of eusocial marine animals. PMID:23418429

Duffy, J Emmett; Macdonald, Kenneth S; Hultgren, Kristin M; Chak, Tin Chi Solomon; Rubenstein, Dustin R

2013-01-01

112

Shrimp and redfish studies, bryan mound brine disposal site off Freeport, Texas, 1979-1981. Volume IV. Interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and effort. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

An interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and fishing effort was conducted at specified ports along the Texas coast to strengthen the information base required to determine the effect of the disposal of brine from the Bryan Mound salt dome off Freeport, Texas on commercial brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) populations in the Gulf of Mexico. The data recorded included port number, vessel name, official vessel number, shrimp dealer number, date of landing, area fished, depth of capture, days fished, and pounds of shrimp caught by species and size categories.

Johnson, M.F.

1981-06-01

113

Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Ghost Shrimp and Blue Mud Shrimp,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The profiles are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessments. The ghost shrimp (Callianassa c...

A. Sterling S. Horning S. D. Smith

1989-01-01

114

Determination of storage conditions for shrimp extracts: analysis of specific IgE-allergen profiles.  

PubMed

The consumption of shrimp is a common cause of food hypersensitivity reactions. Shrimp allergy is diagnosed using a skin prick test (SPT) as well as by food challenges. Due to the lack of a wide variety of commercial shrimp extracts for SPTs, we selected various shrimp species for the preparation of local shrimp extracts. However, optimal storage conditions for the shrimp extracts which also maintains allergenic potency has not yet been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the potency of the shrimp extracts under different storage conditions and durations. Specific IgE-allergen profiles of eight shrimp-allergic patients were investigated by using sera incubated with extracts prepared from lyophilized raw or boiled shrimp, which were stored at 4 degress C or -20 degress C for up to 4 weeks. When stored at -20 degress C, most allergens were preserved after 4 weeks. However, storage at 4 degress C results in few allergens remaining after 2 weeks. Boiled-shrimp extracts stored at 4 degree C and -20 degress C contained higher amounts of IgE-allergen complexes than raw-shrimp extracts. Moreover, in both raw and boiled shrimp extracts, the IgE bound 36-40 kDa allergens constituted the major proteins since they were observed in all IgE-allergen profiles. In conclusion, we recommend that shrimp extracts are stored at -20 degress C for 4 weeks to prevent the loss of allergens. PMID:20527516

Piboonpocanun, Surapon; Boonchoo, Siribangon; Pariyaprasert, Wipada; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

2010-03-01

115

Configurations and Relative Efficiencies of Shrimp Trawls Employed in Southeastern United States Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Common shrimp trawl designs employed in the southeastern United States shrimp fishery are the flat, balloon, semiballoon, job, and super X-3. Recent innovations in trawl design and rigging, including the twin trawl rigging and tongue trawl design, have im...

J. W. Watson I. K. Workman C. W. Taylor A. F. Serra

1984-01-01

116

RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

117

Extraction of Shrimp Ponds Using Object Oriented Classification vis-a- vis Pixel Based Classification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rapid expansion of coastal aquaculture/shrimp farming in several countries has necessitated the inventory and monitoring of shrimp farms. These are essential tools for decision making with regard to aquaculture development, including regulatory laws, envi...

N. K. Tripathi R. Chauhan S. R. Chowdhury

2004-01-01

118

ENHANCED ORGANIC MATTER REMINERALIZATION AND NUTRIENT TURNOVER BY POPULATIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN YAQUINA BAY, OR  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing, or thalassinid, shrimp structure large areas of intertidal habitat of Pacific Northwest estuaries. This field study utilized a combination of anoxic incubations, porewater dialysis peepers, and benthic chambers to quantify the role of burrowing shrimp species on OM dec...

119

Physiological and Histopathological Evaluation of Dithiocarbamate Toxicity to the Grass Shrimp, 'Palaemonetes Pugio'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of dithiocarbamates (Aquatreat and Busan) to molting grass shrimp and the effects of these fungicides on regenerative limb growth in grass shrimp. Results indicate that both dithiocarbamate f...

K. R. Rao D. G. Doughtie P. J. Conklin

1983-01-01

120

Leatherback Sea Turtles and Offshore Shrimp Trawling Activity in North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document examined data from the South Atlantic Shrimp File collected under the North Carolina State/Federal Cooperative Statistics agreement to evaluate potential shrimp trawling interactions with leatherback sea turtles (Dermacohelys coriacea) in No...

J. Braun S. P. Epperly

2008-01-01

121

MORE THAN JUST BAIT: BURROWING SHRIMP AS ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS IN OREGON ESTUARIES - SEPTEMBER 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing shrimp may be most widely known as excellent fishing bait, but they also play important roles in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. These shrimps strongly affect carbon and nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, food web structure and dynamics, sediment stability,...

122

The Environmental Impact of Shrimp Aquaculture: Causes, Effects, and Mitigating Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attracted by the demand for shrimp in the developed countries, shrimp aquaculture has expanded rapidly, mainly in the subtropical\\u000a and tropical lowlands of America and Asia. This work provides a global review and viewpoint on the environmental impacts of\\u000a shrimp aquaculture, considering the causes and effects of the siting and operation of shrimp ponds and abandonment of farm\\u000a facilities. Additionally,

FEDERICO PÁEZ-OSUNA

2001-01-01

123

77 FR 73619 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with...surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

2012-12-11

124

75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with...surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

2010-08-27

125

Biocontrol of Vibrio harveyi in Shrimp Aquaculture with Host Specific Lytic Bacteriophage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current decline in shrimp farm production has been related to a variety of issues associated with survivability of shrimp grown in the aquaculture setting. The presence of Vibrio pathogens has been identified as a cause of high mortality in the post larval and juvenile shrimp in aquaculture. The use of bacteriophage to control infections has seen increased interest with

Lillian Barber

2012-01-01

126

Expression analysis of selected haemocyte transcripts from black tiger shrimp infected with yellow head virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow head virus (YHV) is a lethal Penaeid shrimp virus that has caused significant losses to aquaculture farms raising black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). In order to probe some of the underlying molecular events occurring in P. monodon cells in response to YHV infection, we investigated the response of 96 selected shrimp haemocyte transcripts from 90 distinct genes at 24

Lerdchai Chintapitaksakul; Apinunt Udomkit; Duncan R. Smith; Sakol Panyim

2008-01-01

127

Mangroves as filters of shrimp pond effluent: predictions and biogeochemical research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary estimates of the ratio of mangrove forest: shrimp pond area necessary to remove nutrients from shrimp pond effluent are made using budgets of nitrogen and phosphorus output for semi-intensive and intensive shrimp ponds combined with estimates of total net primary production in Rhizophora-dominated mangrove forests in tropical coastal areas. If effluent is delivered directly to mangrove forest plots, it

A. I. Robertson; M. J. Phillips

1995-01-01

128

The Effect on Growth and Protein Digestibility of Shrimp Penaeus stylirrostris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant squid meal from two drying processes: high-heat (from commercial flamedried) (HHSM) and low-heat (labor ator y made) (LHSM), were evaluated as protein source for shrimp Penaeus stylirrostrisin two feeding experiments. Trial I consisted of wild shrimp fed HHSM at different rates. Shrimp survival was negatively affected by commercial squid meal and no difference was found in growth performance. Trial

Julio Humberto Cordova Murueta; Fernando L. Garcia Carreno

2001-01-01

129

Occurrence of Deferribacterales and Entomoplasmatales in the deep-sea Alvinocarid shrimp Rimicaris exoculata gut  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic diversity of the gut microbial population of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata was determined. The presence of micro-organisms in the hindgut of the shrimp was determined, and their morphology illustrated for the first time by transmission electron microscopy. DNA was extracted from the fore-, mid- and hindgut of shrimps collected at the Rainbow site, at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge,

Magali Zbinden; Marie-Anne Cambon-Bonavita

2003-01-01

130

PenBase, the shrimp antimicrobial peptide penaeidin database: Sequence-based classification and recommended nomenclature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial peptides play a major role in innate immunity. The penaeidins, initially characterized from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, are a family of antimicrobial peptides that appear to be expressed in all penaeid shrimps. As of recent, a large number of penaeid nucleotide sequences have been identified from a variety of penaeid shrimp species and these sequences currently reside in several

Yannick Gueguen; Julien Garnier; Lorenne Robert; Marie-Paule Lefranc; Isabelle Mougenot; Julien de Lorgeril; Michael Janech; Paul S. Gross; Gregory W. Warr; Brandon Cuthbertson; Margherita A. Barracco; Philippe Bulet; André Aumelas; Yinshan Yang; Dong Bo; Jianhai Xiang; Anchalee Tassanakajon; David Piquemal; Evelyne Bachère

2006-01-01

131

50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. 622.19 Section...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. Link to an amendment...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

2009-10-01

132

Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses  

PubMed Central

Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection.

Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2014-01-01

133

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

PubMed Central

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

2010-01-01

134

Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India.  

PubMed

Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing métier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested métier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers of Chennai (former Madras). Research took place in 2007 and 2008 (N = 137). Results suggest a general satisfaction with being in the fishery. However, a little over three-fifths of fishers said they would be willing to change fishing métier and about one-half said they would leave the occupation. About one-half also said they would not advise a young person to enter the occupation. The tendency to move away from the fishery is argued to reflect a growing pessimism about the future of the shrimp trawl fisheries, but also an increasing awareness of other economic opportunities. PMID:22997478

Bavinck, Maarten

2012-10-01

135

Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

2007-07-01

136

Issues, Impacts, and Implications of Shrimp Aquaculture in Thailand  

PubMed

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination.The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32 % of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993.Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies.As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.KEY WORDS: Shrimp aquaculture; Thailand; Historical practices; Environmental impacts; Sustainability; Integrated management; Water treatment; Institutional aspects PMID:8703103

Dierberg; Kiattisimkul

1996-09-01

137

NC State University-Science Junction: The Brine Shrimp Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by NCSU Science Junction, this website contains The Brine Shrimp Project, a lesson plan created by educator April J. Cleveland. The goal of this project is for students to "design and conduct a laboratory investigation to determine how different factors may affect the hatching and development of brine shrimp eggs." Although it was "field tested with 10th grade biology students," this project is adaptable for use with elementary, middle, and high school students, and furthermore "supports the National Science Content Standards A and C for grades" K-12. The website clearly outlines the 7-day project including instructions, work sheets for students, and a comprehensive evaluation sheet.

Cleveland, April J.

138

Summary of studies on closed-polyculture of penaeid shrimp with fishes and moluscans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closed-polyculture of Chinese penaeid shrimp, Taiwan red tilapia, and molluscans(constricted tagelus and bay scallop) was studied from 1995 to 1997 with the enclosure-experiment method, on a shrimp farm in Haiyang County, Shandong Province. Four structure-optimized closed-polyculture systems, i. e., the “shrimp-tagelus” system, the “shrimp-scallop” system, the “shrimp-tilapia” system and the “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system, were worked out. All these polyculture systems were superior to shrimp monoculture system in economic and ecological efficiencies. The order of these polyculture systems in efficiencies was “shrimptilapia-tagelus” > “shrimp-tagelus”>“shrimp-tilapia”>“shrimp-scallop”. The “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system raised the production by 28% and the utilization efficiency of input nitrogen by 85%. These closed-polyculture systems reduced the nitrogen discharge ratio to 6% 8%, instead of 40% 90% in the usual open culture systems. The ecological features of the systems were also investigated and many meaningful results have been obtained. The mechanism enhancing the efficiencies of these systems, the ways to enhance the efficiencies further and those to reuse the sedimented materials are disscussed.

Li, De-Shang; Dong, Shuang-Lin

2000-03-01

139

Cryoprotective effects of shrimp head protein hydrolysate on gel forming ability and protein denaturation of lizardfish surimi during frozen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of shrimp head protein hydrolysate (SHPH) from three species of shrimp (northern pink shrimp [Pandalus eous], endeavour shrimp [Metapenaeus endeavouri], black tiger shrimp [Penaeus monodon]) on gel forming ability and protein denaturation of lizardfish surimi during frozen storage at ?25°C were evaluated. The\\u000a quality of lizardfish surimi with 5% (dried matter) of any of the three SHPH or

Yaowalux Ruttanapornvareesakul; Kingduean Somjit; Akinori Otsuka; Kenji Hara; Kiyoshi Osatomi; Kazufumi Osako; Orawan Kongpun; Yukinori Nozaki

2006-01-01

140

Effect of shrimp head protein hydrolysates on the state of water and denaturation of fish myofibrils during dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To utilize fisheries waste products as food materials with functional properties, shrimp head protein hydrolysates (SHPH)\\u000a from three species of shrimp, that is, Northern pink shrimp (Pandalus eous). Endeavour shrimp (Metapenaeus endeavouri) and Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), were produced by enzymatic hydrolysis using endopeptidase derived from Bacillus subtilis and exopeptidase derived from Aspergillus oryzae at a level of 0.1%

Yaowalux Ruttanapornvareesakul; Misako Ikeda; Kenji Hara; Kazufumi Osako; Orawan Kongpun; Yukinori Nozaki

2005-01-01

141

A feasability study of gamma irradiation on Thailand frozen shrimps (PENAEUS MONODON)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thaïland ``PENAEUS MONODON'' Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and the organoleptic properties of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the extension of shelf-life based on mesophiles content was from 33 days for the control to more than 47 days for the irradiated shrimps stored at 3 +/- 1°C. The results of sensory evaluation gave slightly fresher odor for the control than the irradiated shrimps. On day one, this effect was more apparent. The results of hedonic tests showed that the irradiated shrimps were acceptable during storage. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the combined treatments (freezing plus irradiation) of precooked shrimps are useful for increasing the storage life of shrimps without affecting consumer acceptability.

Gagnon, M.; Lacroix, M. L.; Charbonneau, R.; Jobin, M.; Thibault, C.; Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.

1995-02-01

142

A feasibility study of gamma irradiation on Thailand frozen shrimps ( PENEAUS MONODON)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thaïland "PENAEUS MONODON" Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and the organoleptic properties of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the extension of shelf-life based on mesophiles content was from 33 days for the control to more than 47 days for the irradiated shrimps stored at 3 ± 1 °C. The results of sensory evaluation gave slightly fresher odor for the control than the irradiated shrimps. On day one, this effect was more apparent. The results of hedonic tests showed that the irradiated shrimps were acceptable during storage. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the combined treatments (freezing plus irradiation) of precooked shrimps are useful for increasing the storage life of shrimps without affecting consumer acceptability.

Lacroix, M. L.; Charbonneau, R.; Jobin, M.; Thibault, C.; Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.; Gagnon, M.

143

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.  

PubMed

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

2010-01-01

144

Phylogeny and evolution of Indo-Pacific shrimp-associated gobies (Gobiiformes: Gobiidae).  

PubMed

Despite the ubiquity of obligate mutualisms on coral reef ecosystems, little is known about the evolution of many participating species. The shrimp gobies, known primarily from the coral reef habitats of the Indo-Pacific, are small benthic fishes that participate in a remarkable mutualism with alpheid shrimp. In this mutualism, the shrimp build and maintain a burrow that is guarded by the goby, and the shrimp and goby engage in an intricate tactile communication system. The mutualism is obligate for most shrimp gobies as participating species are highly vulnerable to predation when separated from a shrimp partner. We use phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data to infer evolutionary relationships among shrimp gobies, and between shrimp gobies and their non-mutualistic gobiid relatives. We show that the mutualist shrimp association has arisen twice among gobies, once in a clade composed of Amblyeleotris, Ctenogobiops, and Vanderhorstia, and a second time in a clade including Cryptocentrus, Mahidolia, Tomiamichthys and Stonogobiops. We then compare the evolution of traits within each shrimp goby clade and consider their intrarelationships. We document cryptic diversity among shrimp gobies, with three distinct clades delineated among Mahidolia mysticina specimens captured at the same locality, paired with the same shrimp species. Mahidolia is placed as sister to the Cryptocentrus species Cryptocentrus cinctus; both exhibit pronounced dichromatism, occurring in both brown and yellow (xanthic) forms. We additionally clarify species identities within Amblyeleotris, confirming that widespread similar species Amblyeleotris fasciata, Amblyeleotris steinitzi and Amblyeleotris wheeleri are all distinct. We hypothesize that the flexibility of gobiid gobies and alpheid shrimp to interact with mutualist partners, as well as the apparently highly beneficial nature of mutualism between them, has contributed to the dual evolution of shrimp-association among Indo-Pacific gobies. PMID:21315161

Thacker, Christine E; Thompson, Andrew R; Roje, Dawn M

2011-04-01

145

Biocontrol of pathogens in shrimp hatcheries using bacteriophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microflora associated with larval stages of shrimp could affect the health and development of the larvae. Some bacteria such as luminous Vibrio harveyi cause serious mortalities. Consequent to the ban on use of most antibiotics in aquaculture, there is a need for alternate technologies for control of bacterial pathogens. Bacteriophages have a potential to control bacterial pathogens. This paper reports

Indrani Karunasagar; M. M. Shivu; S. K. Girisha; G. Krohne; Iddya Karunasagar

2007-01-01

146

Treatment of harvest discharge from intensive shrimp ponds by settling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent from intensively managed shrimp ponds was examined during harvest when ponds were drained. Concentrations of nutrients and solids in effluents were significantly higher during the final 20 cm of discharge (16% of pond volume), but greatest increases occurred during the final 5 cm of discharge (3.9% of pond volume). When the final 20 cm of pond discharge was allowed

D. R. Teichert-Coddington; D. B. Rouse; A. Potts; C. E. Boyd

1999-01-01

147

Selective preservation of chitin during the decay of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preservation potential of chitin in the marine environment is a matter of debate. To determine the relative survival of chitin and other organic components, the shrimp Crangon was decayed under different laboratory conditions. Solid state 13 C NMR and Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry demonstrated that slightly transformed chitin represents the major component of the remaining biomass

M. Baas; D. E. G. Briggs; J. D. H. van Heemst; A. J. Kear; J. W. de Leeuw

1995-01-01

148

The Phylogenetic Characterization of a Bioluminescent Bacterium Isolated From Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioluminescence, the biological production of light, is an unusual characteristic that is observed in certain members of the genera Vibrio, Photobacterium, Photorhabdus, and Shewanella. The bioluminescence system is composed of a group of proteins, including luciferase the main enzyme responsible for light pro- duction. I have isolated a bioluminescent strain of gram negative cocci from marine shrimp. All known bioluminescent

Jason Johnston

149

POLYCYCLIC MUSK FRAGRANCES IN SEDIMENTS AND SHRIMP TISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic musk fragrances are widely used as ingredients in personal care products, shampoos, lotions, and household cleaning agents. These chemicals have relatively high octanol-water partition coefficients, and therefore tend to accumulate in sediments, sludge, and biological tissues. We analyzed shrimp and sediment samples for the presence of synthetic musks. Samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction. Gel permeation chromatography and

Yelena Sapozhnikova; Dan Liebert; Edward Wirth; Michael Fulton

2010-01-01

150

CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia  

PubMed Central

The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y?1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere.

Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

2013-01-01

151

Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

1999-01-01

152

Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

153

What Environmental Conditions Lead to the Hatching of Brine Shrimp?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this investigation is to determine the best environmental conditions for the hatching and growth of brine shrimp. This level 4 inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2010 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Margaret Mauntel (Dubois Middle School)

2011-04-01

154

Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993. Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies. As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.

Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

1996-09-01

155

New insights into mercury bioaccumulation in deep-sea organisms from the NW Mediterranean and their human health implications.  

PubMed

A number of studies have found high levels of mercury (Hg) in deep-sea organisms throughout the world's oceans, but the underlying causes are not clear as there is no consensus on the origin and cycling of Hg in the ocean. Recent findings suggested that Hg accumulation may increase with increasing forage depth and pointed to the deep-water column as the origin of most Hg in marine biota, especially its organic methylmercury (MeHg) form. In the present study, we determined the total mercury (THg) levels in 12 deep-sea fish species and a decapod crustacean and investigated their relationship with the species' nitrogen stable isotope ratio (?(15)N) as an indicator of their trophic level, average weight and habitat depth. THg levels ranged from 0.27 to 4.42 ?g/g w.w. and exceeded in all, except one species, the recommended 0.5 ?g/g w.w. guideline value. While THg levels exhibited a strong relationship with ?(15)N values and to a lesser extent with weight, the habitat depth, characterized as the species' depth of maximum abundance (DMA), had also a significant effect on Hg accumulation. The fish species with a shallower depth range exhibited lower THg values than predicted by their trophic level (?(15)N) and body mass, while measured THg values were higher than predicted in deeper-dwelling fish. Overall, the present results point out a potential risk for human health from the consumption of deep-sea fish. In particular, for both, the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, which is one of the most valuable fishing resources of the Mediterranean, as well as the commercially exploited fish Mora moro, THg levels considerably exceeded the recommended 0.5?g/g w.w. limit and should be consumed with caution. PMID:23178837

Koenig, Samuel; Solé, Montserrat; Fernández-Gómez, Cristal; Díez, Sergi

2013-01-01

156

Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shrimp Tissue Under Various Environmental Conditions1  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus culture O from Gulf Coast shrimp was inoculated into whole shrimp and shrimp homogenate to determine its survival at various temperatures and pH values. Although large decreases in viable population occurred during storage for 2 days at 10 to -18 C, survivors were present even after 8 days. No significant differences were observed in the population changes of inoculated whole shrimp as compared with shrimp homogenates. Low populations (5 × 102 per ml) of V. parahaemolyticus were destroyed by heating shrimp homogenates at 60, 80, and 100 C for 1 min. With larger populations (2 × 105 per ml), some survivors were present after heating at 60 and 80 C for 15 min. None survived 1 min at 100 C. V. parahaemolyticus was very sensitive to pH values below 6.0. Cells survived for several hours in the contents of the porcine gastrointestinal tract.

Vanderzant, C.; Nickelson, R.

1972-01-01

157

The Shrimp Caridina nilotica in Lake Victoria (East Africa), Before and After the Nile Perch Increase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrimp Caridina nilotica is a major prey of the introduced Nile perch in Lake Victoria. In spite of heavy predation, the density of shrimps increased\\u000a after the Nile perch boom and the concomitant disappearance of the haplochromine cichlids. In the same period, the mean size\\u000a of gravid shrimps and the size at first maturity declined. This seems to indicate

Frans Witte; Jan H. Wanink

2006-01-01

158

Spawning and Larval Survival of the Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, in a Small Culture Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye-enucleated pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, were successfully matured, mated, and spawned in 1.23-m diameter tanks. Broodstock of five to six female shrimp spawned, on average, 50% of days during which expanded ovaries were observed. Average daily spawn of viable eggs ranged from 2,750 (September) to 11,026 (March). In a preliminary experiment, shrimp fed the bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, as well as

Geraldine M. Cripe

1997-01-01

159

Application of Nucleic-acid-based Therapeutics for Viral Infections in Shrimp Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral infections are one of the major reasons for the huge economic losses in shrimp farming. The control of viral diseases\\u000a in shrimp remains a serious challenge for the shrimp aquacultural industry, with major pathogens, such as the white spot syndrome\\u000a virus, yellow head virus, Taura syndrome virus, hepatopancreatic parvovirus, and baculoviruses, being geographically widespread.\\u000a In the absence of a

Mudagandur S. Shekhar; Yuanan Lu

2009-01-01

160

Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that is required to produce the food inputs, nursery areas, and clean water to the shrimp farms, as well as to process wastes. We also made an estimate of the natural and human-made resources necessary to run a typical semiintensive shrimp farm. The results show that a semiintensive shrimp farm needs a spatial ecosystem support—the ecological footprint—that is 35-190 times larger than the surface area of the farm. A typical such shrimp farm appropriates about 295 J of ecological work for each joule of edible shrimp protein produced. The corresponding figure for industrial energy is 40:1. More than 80% of the ecological primary production required to feed the shrimps is derived from external ecosystems. In 1990 an area of 874-2300 km2 of mangrove was required to supply shrimp postlarvae to the farms in Colombia, corresponding to a total area equivalent to about 20-50% of the country’s total mangrove area. The results were compared with similar estimates for other food production systems, particularly aquacultural ones. The comparison indicates that shrimp farming ranks as one of the most resource-intensive food production systems, characterizing it as an ecologically unsustainable throughput system. Based on the results, we discuss local, national, and regional appropriation of ecological support by the semiintensive shrimp farms. Suggestions are made for how shrimp farming could be transformed into a food production system that is less environmentally degrading and less dependent on external support areas.

Larsson, Jonas; Folke, Carl; Kautsky, Nils

1994-09-01

161

The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed\\u000a potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been\\u000a converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds\\u000a cannot feed

M. Yasué; P. Dearden

2009-01-01

162

Visualizing Flow Diagrams in WebSphere Studio Using SHriMP Views  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the integration of an information visualization tool, called SHriMP Views, with IBM WebSphere Studio Application Developer Integration Edition, which was developed with Eclipse technology. Although SHriMP was originally developed for visualizing programs, it is content-independent. We have re-targeted SHriMP for visualizing flow diagrams. Flow diagrams, as supported by WebSphere Studio Appli- cation Developer Integration Edition, can be

Derek Rayside; Marin Litoiu; Margaret-anne D. Storey; Casey Best; Robert Lintern

2003-01-01

163

The visibility of 350 °C black-body radiation by the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata and man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eye of the 'eyeless' shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is unusual in having no image-forming optics and a high concentration of rhodopsin1. The shrimps swarm around 350 °C hydrothermal 'black smoker' vents in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge2. There is no other known source of visible light in the shrimp's environment. The spectral sensitivity of rhodopsin is well matched to typical spectra of

Denis G. Pelli; Steven C. Chamberlain

1989-01-01

164

A freshwater shrimp (Paratya compressa improvisa) as a sensitive test organism to pesticides.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of 2-week-old individuals of the freshwater shrimp, Paratya compressa improvisa, to five kinds of insecticide and five kinds of herbicide was examined in comparison with that of two species of Cladocera, Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa. The shrimp was especially sensitive to two organophosphorus insecticides. The 48-h LC50 values for fenitrothion and fenthion to the shrimp were 1.15 and 1.04 microg litre(-1) (mean value, n=2), in contrast with 37.8 and 35.3 microg litre(-1) in the case of M. macrocopa, and more than 50 microg litre(-1) with D. magna. The shrimp also showed the higher susceptibility to other insecticides, diazinon, carbaryl (NAC) and BPMC, apart from D. magna to diazinon and NAC. The shrimp also showed higher susceptibility to herbicides. The 48-h LC50 values of CNP, benthiocarb, oxadiazon, butachlor, and symetryne to the shrimp were two to eight times lower than those of two species of Cladocera, except for the LC50 value of oxadiazon to M. macrocopa, which was very slightly higher. However, the shrimp showed a somewhat lower susceptibility to heavy metals than the two species of Cladocera, especially to copper, and to cadmium and zinc in comparison with D. magna. A bioassay using the shrimp with river water, collected from the river adjacent to the paddy field, showed clearly the high mortality of the shrimp following the aerial spraying with pesticides. PMID:15092400

Hatakeyama, S; Sugaya, Y

1989-01-01

165

The environmental impact of shrimp aquaculture: causes, effects, and mitigating alternatives.  

PubMed

Attracted by the demand for shrimp in the developed countries, shrimp aquaculture has expanded rapidly, mainly in the subtropical and tropical lowlands of America and Asia. This work provides a global review and viewpoint on the environmental impacts of shrimp aquaculture, considering the causes and effects of the siting and operation of shrimp ponds and abandonment of farm facilities. Additionally, mitigating alternatives are discussed. To date, approximately 1-1.5 million ha of coastal lowlands have been converted into shrimp ponds, comprising mainly salt flats, mangrove areas, marshes, and agricultural lands. The impact of shrimp farming of most concern is the destruction of mangroves and salt marshes for pond construction. Compatibility with other users, the presence of buffer zones, maintaining an acceptable balance between mangroves and shrimp pond area, improved pond design, reduction of water exchange, and an improved residence time of water, size and capacity to assimilate effluents of the water body, are examples of ways to mitigate the adverse effects. The use of mangroves and halophytes as biofilters of shrimp pond effluents offers an attractive tool for reducing the impact in those regions where mangrove wetlands and appropriate conditions for halophyte plantations exist. Healthy seed supply, good feed with the use of prophylactic agents (including probiotics), good water quality, and lower stocking densities are examples of actions suggested to control disease in shrimp farming. Finally, in the context of integrated management, research priorities are suggested. PMID:11436996

Páez-Osuna, F

2001-07-01

166

Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey  

SciTech Connect

The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

2000-04-01

167

Liquid chromatographic determination of the processing aid 4-hexylresorcinol in shrimp.  

PubMed

A rapid, sensitive, liquid chromatographic (LC) method has been developed for determination of residuals of the processing aid, 4-hexylresorcinol, on shrimp meat. An aqueous homogenate of shrimp meat is extracted with ethyl acetate followed by precolumn preparation on a silica Sep-Pak cartridge. LC determination is preformed with a Nova-Pak C18 column, with UV detection at 214 nm. Sensitivity was 0.006 micrograms, and recovery from shrimp meat samples of known 4-hexylresorcinol addition was 94%. Shrimp treated with 4-hexylresorcinol under the recommended dip protocol had mean residuals of 1.18 ppm, with a standard deviation of 0.13 ppm. PMID:1757407

King, J M; McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R

1991-01-01

168

Selective preservation of chitin during the decay of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preservation potential of chitin in the marine environment is a matter of debate. To determine the relative survival of chitin and other organic components, the shrimp Crangon was decayed under different laboratory conditions. Solid state 13C NMR and Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry demonstrated that slightly transformed chitin represents the major component of the remaining biomass after

M. Baas; D. E. G. Briggs; J. D. H. Van Heemst; A. J. Kear; J. W. De Leeuw

1995-01-01

169

Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface\\u000a salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable\\u000a when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond\\u000a sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just

Forrest E. Dierberg; Woraphan Kiattisimkul

1996-01-01

170

Physicochemical and functional characteristics of radiation-processed shrimp chitosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of gamma irradiation on chitosan samples were determined in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Shrimp chitosan was extracted from shell using a chemical process involving demineralization, deproteinization, decolorization and deacetylation. Commercial snow chitosan was also used. Samples (in a solid state) were given irradiation dose of 25kGy at a dose rate of 1.1013kGy\\/h in air and 0kGy

F. C. K. Ocloo; E. T. Quayson; A. Adu-Gyamfi; E. A. Quarcoo; D. Asare; Y. Serfor-Armah; B. K. Woode

2011-01-01

171

Virtual memory mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network interfaces of existing multicomputers require a significant amount of software overhead to provide protection and to implement message passing protocols. This paper describes the design of a low-latency, high-bandwidth, virtual memory-mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer project at Princeton University. Without sacrificing protection, the network interface achieves low latency by using virtual memory mapping and write-latency hiding

Matthias A. Blumrich; Kai Li; Richard Alpert; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Jonathan Sandberg

1994-01-01

172

Water Diagnosis in Shrimp Aquaculture based on Neural Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many countries, the shrimp aquaculture has not advanced computational systems to supervise the artificial habitat of the farms and laboratories. A computational system of this type helps significantly to improve the environmental conditions and to elevate the production and its quality. The main idea of this study is the creation of a system using an artificial neural network (ANN), which can help to recognize patterns of problems and their evolution in shrimp aquaculture, and thus to respond with greater rapidity against the negative effects. Bad control on the shrimp artificial habitat produces organisms with high stress and as consequence losses in their defenses. It generate low nutrition, low reproduction or worse still, they prearrange to acquire lethal diseases. The proposed system helps to control this problem. Environmental variables as pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have an important effect in the suitable growth of the shrimps and influence in their health. However, the exact mathematical model of this relationship is unspecified; an ANN is useful for establishing a relationship between these variables and to classify a status that describes a problem into the farm. The data classification is made to recognize and to quantify two states within the pool: a) Normal: Everything is well. b) Risk: One, some or all environmental variables are outside of the allowed interval, which generates problems. The neural network will have to recognize the state and to quantify it, in others words, how normal or risky it is, which allows finding trend of the water quality. A study was developed for designing a software tool that allows recognizing the status of the water quality and control problems for the environment into the pond.

Carbajal Hernández, J. J.; Sánchez Fernández, L. P.

2007-05-01

173

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Shrimp Head Waste: Functional and Biochemical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp head of Penaeus kerathurus obtained from industrial processing, were hydrolyzed by commercial trypsin (0.1%). Hydrolysis reaction was terminated by heat inactivation of the enzyme (95°C) followed by centrifugation. The produced protein hydrolysates were characterized by biochemical analysis for protein content, total free amino acids (FAA), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and electrophoresis SDS-PAGE profile. Functional properties such as emulsifying

Zouhour Limam; Saloua Sadok; Amor El Abed

2008-01-01

174

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE-SCALE NITROGEN DYNAMICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

175

IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON C, N CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

176

IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

177

75 FR 20548 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AY58 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2010-04-20

178

77 FR 1045 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BB61 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2012-01-09

179

75 FR 28760 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AY58 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2010-05-24

180

These Squatters Are Not Innocent: The Evidence of Parasitism in Sponge-Inhabiting Shrimps  

PubMed Central

Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic) and T. spongicola (Mediterranean). The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs) suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae) and Synalpheus (Alpheidae). The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation.

Duris, Zdenek; Horka, Ivona; Juracka, Petr Jan; Petrusek, Adam; Sandford, Floyd

2011-01-01

181

Chronic toxicity of nitrate to Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: Impacts on survival, growth, antennae length, and pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic toxicity of nitrate (NO3?) has not been well documented in the culture of penaeid shrimp. To interpret this problem, lab-scale research was conducted in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) to determine the long-term impacts of nitrate on shrimp growth, survival, total mass of shrimp per system (shrimp biomass), antennae length, and tissue pathology. The first experiment, Trial (A), was performed

David D. Kuhn; Stephen A. Smith; Gregory D. Boardman; Matthew W. Angier; Lori Marsh; George J. Flick

2010-01-01

182

Effects of Clam Shrimp on Production of Walleye and Northern Pike, and a Review of Clam Shrimp Control Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of clam shrimp, Caenestheriella belfragei, populations in fish culture ponds were studied to evaluate their effect on yield of fingerling northern pike, Esox lucius, or walleye, Stizostedion vitreum. The studies were carried out on twenty-three 0.64-ha ponds during the culture season for northern pike and on 19 of the same ponds during the season for walleye. Ponds were

James M. Luzier; Robert C. Summerfelt

1996-01-01

183

Comparison of heat-shock responses between the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata and the related coastal shrimp Palaemonetes varians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep-sea vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is believed to occur at the hot end of the hydrothermal biotope in order to provide essential elements to its epibiosis. Because it is found close to hot venting water, R. exoculata lives in a highly fluctuating environment where temperature (2–40°C in the swarms) can exceed its critical maximal temperature (33–38.5±2°C). In order to

Delphine Cottin; Bruce Shillito; Thomas Chertemps; Sven Thatje; Nelly Léger; Juliette Ravaux

2010-01-01

184

News from a small island – first record of a freshwater shrimp (Decapoda, Atyidae, Caridina) from Peleng, Banggai Islands, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indonesian island Sulawesi is well known for its fascinating fauna. Among the atyid and palaemonid freshwater shrimps described from Sulawesi are also a number of endemic species. In contrast, freshwater shrimps have never been reported from the nearby and smaller Peleng Island. Here we describe Caridina thomasi sp. nov. as a first record of an atyid freshwater shrimp from

Kristina von Rintelen; Andreas Karge; Werner Klotz

2008-01-01

185

Effect of Low-Dose gamma Irradiation on the Shelf-Life and Quality of Frozen Shrimp (Penaeus Merquiensis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of low-dose gamma irradiation on the shelf-life and quality of frozen shrimp (Penaeus merquiensis) has been studied. Fresh peeled shrimp and shell on headless shrimp were frozen and irradiated at doses of 2 and 4 kGy and held at -18 degC for s...

K. Nouchpramool S. Songprasertchai S. Pungsilpa

1983-01-01

186

Studies on the Toxicity of Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) Fed Diets Dosed with Aflatoxin B1 to Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the potential for transmission of aflatoxin B1 to humans through consumption of shrimp contaminated with this toxin. Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) were fed diets dosed with three levels of afaltoxin B1 (300, 400, and 900 ppb) in an 8 week indoor aquarium feeding trial. The shrimp were analyzed for residues of

S. Divakaran; Albert G. J. Tacon

2000-01-01

187

A redescription of two atyid shrimps (Decapoda: Caridina) from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two atyid shrimp species Caridina buehleri and Caridina appendiculata have not been reported since their first description many years ago. Based on new material from the Luwuk Peninsula in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, we here redescribe these poorly known species and provide a discussion of their taxonomic status. In addition, we give a brief review of the atyid shrimp known

W. KLOTZ; A. KARGE; K. VON RINTELEN

2007-01-01

188

Toxicant effects on reproduction and disruption of the egg-length relationship in grass shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass shrimp have been used extensively for acute toxicity tests with pesticides, metals, chlorine, simulated effluents, radiation, and others. Their use in acute toxicity tests has been recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for effluents (PELTIER 1978),hazardous materials (USEPA 1975), premanufacture notification (USEPA 1979), and ocean disposal (TYLER-SCHROEDER 1978b, c). This broad use of grass shrimp in

A. L. Buikema; B. R. Niederlehner; J. Cairns

1980-01-01

189

Velocity Measurements of a Pistol Shrimp's Micro Water Jet Using High Speed PIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pistol shrimp generates a high speed micro water jet that was studied experimentally using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The pistol shrimp, with an average size of about 5.5 cm, is considered to be one of the loudest animals in the world. The sound generated can reach intensity levels as high as 200 db. In the past, it was

J. Torres; S. Wong; M. Zarzecki; Y. Cheng; F. J. Diez

2007-01-01

190

Estimating density of intertidal ghost shrimps using counts of burrow openings. Is the method reliable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether surface hole counts could be used as a reliable estimate of density of the ghost shrimps Trypaea australiensis Dana 1852 and Biffarius arenosus Poore 1975 (Decapoda, Thalassinidea) in south eastern Australia. The relationship between the number of holes and the number\\u000a of ghost shrimps was explored in two ways. Resin casts were used to document any

Sarah Butler; Fiona L. Bird

2007-01-01

191

A Study of the Bacterial Spoilage Patterns in Iced 'Penaeus' Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the numbers and types of bacteria developing on ice stored shrimp has been conducted. Pseudomonas species were studied as the predominant bacterial type present on shrimp at the onset of spoilage, comprising greater than 95% of the population p...

D. W. Cook

1970-01-01

192

Detection of yellowhead virus and Chinese baculovirus in penaeid shrimp by the Western blot technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuing threat posed by viral diseases in cultured shrimp calls for the development of detection technologies for monitoring the animals, especially broodstock. Two of the most highly pathogenic viruses of penaeid shrimp are the yellow-head virus (YHV) and Chinese baculovirus (CBV, also called white spot baculovirus). A Western blot (WB) protocol capable of detecting YHV and CBV in the

Elpidio Cesar B. Nadala; Lourdes M. Tapay; Shurong Cao; Philip C. Loh

1997-01-01

193

BIOACCUMULATION OF KEPONE BY GRASS SHRIMP (PALAEMONETIS PUGIO): IMPORTANCE OF DIETARY ACCUMULATION AND INGESTION RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The relative extent of dietary accumulation and bioconcentration of Kepone by grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) was quantitatively evaluated at food rations of 4 and of the average wet weight of the shrimp. 14C]Kepone was utilized to determine bioconcentration and dietary accumul...

194

On the Spinicaudata (Branchiopoda) from Lake Cuitzeo, Michoacán, México: First report of a clam shrimp fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuitzeo is the second largest lake in México (ca. 425 km2). Indigenous people collect clam shrimp (locally known as `conchilla') and sell them dry as pets' food; the income is important for the local economy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a clam shrimp fishery. Two conchilla species co-occur: Eocyzicus digueti (Richard) and Leptestheria compleximanus (Packard). They

María Araceli Martínez-Pantoja; Javier Alcocer; Alejandro M. Maeda-Martínez

2002-01-01

195

The U.S. Shrimp Industry: Past Trends and Prospects for the 1970's.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. shrimp industry has expanded rapidly during the last two decades and is expected to continue growing during the 1970's. Production has grown in recent years because of rapidly increasing catches of northern shrimp. Total production likely will co...

D. R. Whitaker

1973-01-01

196

50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. 622.208 Section 622.208 Wildlife...applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the...the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia and Florida is 17/8 inches (4.8...

2013-10-01

197

Bioaccumulation of Kepone by Grass Shrimp ('Palaemonetes pugio'): Importance of Dietary Accumulation and Food Ration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relative extent of dietary accumulation and bioconcentration of Kepone by grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) was quantitatively evaluated at food rations of 4 and 8% of the average wet weight of the shrimp. (14)C-Kepone was utilized to determine biocon...

D. J. Fisher J. R. Clark

1990-01-01

198

Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

199

MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

200

The American brine shrimp as an exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypersaline environments and salterns present in the western Mediterranean region (including Italy, southern France, the\\u000a Iberian Peninsula and Morocco) contain autochthonous forms of the brine shrimp Artemia, with parthenogenetic diploid and tetraploid strains coexisting with the bisexual species A. salina. Introduced populations of the American brine shrimp A. franciscana have also been recorded in these Mediterranean environments since the

Francisco Amat; Francisco Hontoria; Olga Ruiz; Andy J. Green; Marta I. Sánchez; Jordi Figuerola; Francisco Hortas

2005-01-01

201

Constructed wetlands as recirculation filters in large-scale shrimp aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent waters from shrimp aquaculture, which can contain elevated levels of phosphorus, ammonia, nitrate, and organics, must be managed properly if shrimp aquaculture is to achieve sustainability. Constructed wetlands are ecologically beneficial, low cost treatment alternatives proven capable of reducing suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals from wastewater of many sources. The goal of this

David Rogers Tilley; Harish Badrinarayanan; Ronald Rosati; Jiho Son

2002-01-01

202

The Efficiency of a Bycatch Reduction Device Used in Skimmer Trawls in the Florida Shrimp Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of principal concern to those who regulate shrimp harvesting gear are the quantity and composition of nontargeted species (bycatch) harvested by any allowable gear type. The use of skimmer trawls in the Florida shrimp fishery is a contested issue, in part because little bycatch characterization data exist for this gear. We characterized skimmer trawl bycatch and evaluated the efficiency of

Daniel A. Warner; Anne L. McMillen-Jackson; Theresa M. Bert; Charles R. Crawford

2004-01-01

203

FEEDING RATES OF THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the clam Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities of the shrimp and its commensal clam, as well as particle settlement within t...

204

Water Management to Control Clam Shrimp, Cyzicus morsie in Walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, Production Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clam shrimp, Cyzicus morsie , can occur in hatchery ponds in such dense numbers that they interfere with production of fish. Hatchery ponds are frequently left dry during the fall and winter and are filed in spring or early summer, simulating the vernal pools where clam shrimp naturally occur. Ponds left dry over winter and ponds that were full over

James M. Czarnezki; Ernest J. Hamilton; Bruce A. Wagner

1994-01-01

205

Genetic diversity of wild and cultured Black Tiger Shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) in the Philippines using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six microsatellites were used to study (1) the genetic diversity of wild Penaeus monodon shrimp from four geographic regions (Palawan, Quezon, Capiz and Negros Occidental-W) in the Philippines, and (2) its association with the status of mangroves and intensity of shrimp culture systems in these regions. Two cultured populations (Negros Occidental-C and Antique) were used for comparison. All six microsatellite

Zhenkang Xu; Jurgenne H Primavera; Leobert D de la Pena; Priscilla Pettit; Jane Belak; Acacia Alcivar-Warren

2001-01-01

206

USE OF THE GRASS SHRIMP 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO' IN A LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology for using the estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) in life-cycle toxicity tests was successfully developed. Life-cycle exposures of juvenile shrimp (12 to 19 mm in rostrum-telson length) to the chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide endrin were begun in November 1...

207

50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654.24 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five...

2009-10-01

208

50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654.24 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five...

2010-10-01

209

Review of the Rock Shrimp Fishery off the East Coast of the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report represents a summary of landings and effort data for south Atlantic rock shrimp during the eleven year period from 1981 through 1991. The majority of the rock shrimp landed from the east coast of the United States are Sicyonia brevirostris. The...

J. M. Nance

1993-01-01

210

The deep sea shrimp fishery off Brazil (Decapoda: Aristeidae): development and present status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a deep-sea fishery for aristeid shrimps off Brazil is reviewed from its early days in 2002. Descriptive data were collected by observers on board 75 directed fishing trips conducted in the study period, with a total of over 15,000 monitored trawls. An incipient fishing phase took place between No- vember 2000 and October 2002, when aristeid shrimps

Rodrigo Dallagnolo; Jose Angel Alvarez Perez; Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto; Roberto Wahrlich

2009-01-01

211

Arsenic speciation in shrimp and mussel from the Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and mussel (Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis) were collected 3500 m below the ocean surface at the hydrothermal vents of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG and Snake Pit sites, respectively). Arsenic, a potentially toxic element, is among the substances emitted by the hydrothermal vents. The hydrothermal vent shrimp, which are known to be a primary consumer of the primary

Erik H. Larsen; Christophe R. Quétel; Riansares Munoz; Aline Fiala-Medioni; Olivier F. X. Donard

1997-01-01

212

Tomography of Bacteria-Mineral Associations Within the Deep sea Hydrothermal Vent Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and temperature conditions around deep sea hydrothermal vents are both dynamic and extreme, yet the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata flourishes around these environments on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) . The epibiotic bacteria and minerals found within the branchial chamber of the shrimp are of great interest in the search for a chemical model for the Rainbow MAR hydrothermal vent

L. Anderson; J. Lechaire; G. Frebourg; T. Boudier; M. Zbinden; F. Gaill

2005-01-01

213

Ir on oxide deposits associated with the ectosymbiotic bacteria in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rimicaris exoculata shrimp is considered as a primary consumer that dominates the fauna of most Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) hydrothermal ecosystems. These shrimps harbour in their gill chambers an important ec- tosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria asso- ciated with iron oxide deposits. The structure and elemen- tal composition of the mineral concretions associated with these bacteria have been investigated by

L. Corbari; M.-A. Cambon-Bonavita; G. J. Long; F. Grandjean; M. Zbinden; F. Gaill

2008-01-01

214

Iron oxide deposits associated with the ectosymbiotic bacteria in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rimicaris exoculata shrimp is considered a primary consumer that dominates the fauna of most Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) hydrothermal ecosystems. These shrimps harbour in their gill chambers an important ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with iron oxide deposits. The structure and elemental composition of the minerals associated with these bacteria have been investigated by using X-ray microanalyses, light microscopy,

L. Corbari; M.-A. Cambon-Bonavita; G. J. Long; F. Grandjean; M. Zbinden; F. Gaill; P. Compère

2008-01-01

215

Effect of gamma-irradiation on frozen shrimps for decontamination of pathogenic bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve samples of imported frozen shrimps were used in this study. The total aerobic bacteria were at 2 × 10 4 to 6 × 10 6 per gram. A few of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from many samples. However, Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples. After exposure to 4-5 kGy of gamma-rays, the total aerobic bacteria in frozen shrimps were reduced by approximately 2-3 log cycles. The dose necessary to reduce the vibrio isolates and Aeromonas hydrophila at a level of below 10 -4 per gram was about 3 kGy in frozen shrimps, whereas about 3.5 kGy was required for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, unpleasant off-odor was clearly detected in the non-frozen shrimps irradiated at 2.5 kGy. On the other hand, off-odor was negligible in the frozen product below 5 kGy irradiation. No remarkable changes of peroxide values were also obtained up to 9 kGy of irradiation in the frozen shrimps. However peroxide values of non-frozen shrimps were clearly increased even irradiated at 4 kGy. Trimethylamine content was not changed at doses below 10 kGy in both of frozen and non-frozen shrimps. Shelf-life of defrosted shrimps were extended ca. 2 times under non-frozen market conditions.

Ito, Hitoshi; Rashid, Harun Or; Sangthong, Naruemon; Adulyatham, Pitaya; Rattagool, Pongpen; Ishigaki, Isao

1993-07-01

216

Evidence of an active laccase-like enzyme in deepwater pink shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the presence of an active laccase-like enzyme from deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This enzyme was found in all anatomical parts of the deepwater pink shrimp, but particularly in the cephalothorax, and became active during the course of storage. Gel staining with laccase-specific substrates such as ADA, DMP and DAB was used to

Oscar Martínez-Alvarez; Pilar Montero; Carmen Gómez-Guillén

2008-01-01

217

Contrast enhancement through structural variations in the rhabdoms of oplophorid shrimps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhabdom morphology in oplophorid shrimps varies both interspecifically and also within the eye of an individual, particularly with respect to the relative sizes of distal and proximal rhabdoms. We have combined published data on anatomical measurements, visual pigment absorption, and underwater light distribution to model the absorptance of light from different sources by the rhabdoms in these shrimps. In Systellaspis

E. Gaten; P. M. J. Shelton; M. S. Nowel

2004-01-01

218

Spectral Sensitivity of Vision and Bioluminescence in the Midwater Shrimp Sergestes similis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the oceanic midwater environment, many fish, squid, and shrimp use luminescent countershading to remain cryptic to silhouette-scanning predators. The mid- water penaeid shrimp, Sergestes similis Hansen, responds to downward-directed light with a dim bioluminescence that dynamically matches the spectral radiance of oceanic down- welling light at depth. Although the sensory basis of lumi- nescent countershading behavior is visual, the

S. M. LINDSAY; T. M. FRANK; J. KENT; J. C. PARTRIDGE; M. I. LATZ

219

78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand,'' dated concurrently with...Public Co., Ltd./Thai Union Seafood Co., Ltd. (TUF/TUS...Ltd./Thai Union 2.09. Seafood Co., Ltd...entries of frozen shrimp from Thailand that are entered, or...

2013-06-04

220

Comparing the efficiency of chitosan with chlorine for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand is one of the leading exporters of frozen shrimp to many countries. Chlorine is the decontaminating agent most frequently used in the frozen shrimp industries to kill potential pathogens. However, long time contact to chlorine causes severe respiratory tract damage. In this study, chitosan was compared to chlorine for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In vitro investigation, chitosan could reduce more

S. Chaiyakosa; W. Charernjiratragul; K. Umsakul; V. Vuddhakul

2007-01-01

221

Evolution of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda, Malacostraca) in the light of new Mesozoic fossils  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We describe new specimens of Mesozoic mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda, Malacostraca) that exhibit morphological and developmental information previously unknown. RESULTS: Specimens assigned to the taxon Sculda exhibit preserved pleopods, thoracopods including all four raptorial limbs as well as details of antennae and antennulae. The pleopods and the antennulae resemble those of the modern mantis shrimps, but the raptorial limbs are

Joachim T Haug; Carolin Haug; Andreas Maas; Verena Kutschera; Dieter Waloszek

2010-01-01

222

Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

2010-01-01

223

EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE SHRIMPS, 'PENAEUS DUORARUM', 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO' AND 'PALAEMONETES VULGARIS'  

EPA Science Inventory

Data from this experiment show that grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris, were acutely and chronically more sensitive to cadmium than the pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum. Bioaccumulation of cadmium from water occurred at concentrations as low as 2 micrograms/l in P. duorarum and 7.9...

224

Growth overfishing in the brown shrimp fishery of Texas, Louisiana, and adjoining Gulf of Mexico EEZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth overfishing in the brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, fishery in inshore (estuarine) and offshore (Gulf of Mexico) territorial waters of Texas and Louisiana, and adjoining waters of the United States’ (U.S.) Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and its potentially detrimental economic consequences to the harvesting sector, have not been among major concerns of Federal and State shrimp management agencies. Three possible

C CAILLOUETJR; R. A. Hart; J. M. Nance

2008-01-01

225

Virion composition and genomics of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect further into Central- and South-America. In cultured shrimp WSSV infection can reach a cumulative mortality of up to

Hulten van M. C. W

2001-01-01

226

Deep-water shrimp ( Pandalus borealis, Krøyer 1838) as indicator organism for fish-farm waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding experiment was carried out with deep-water shrimp (Pandalus borealis), a common benthic inhabitant of Norwegian fjords. Shrimp were reared in tanks for three months, fed either salmon feed or cod, and the fatty acid profile of their muscle tissue was monitored. The salmon feed pellets and cod had completely different fatty acid compositions, with significant differences in most

Siri Aaserud Olsen; Arne Ervik; Otto Grahl-Nielsen

2009-01-01

227

Identification of Continuous, Allergenic Regions of the Major Shrimp Allergen Pen a 1 (Tropomyosin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Crustaceans and mollusks are a frequent cause of allergic reactions. The only major allergen identified in shrimp is the muscle protein tropomyosin; at least 80% of shrimp-allergic subjects react to tropomyosin. Furthermore, tropomyosin is an important allergen in other crustaceans such as lobsters, crabs and mollusks, as well as other arthropods such as house dust mites and cockroaches, and

R. Ayuso; S. B. Lehrer; G. Reese

2002-01-01

228

Evaluate of heavy metal concentration in shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab (Portunus pelagicus) with INAA method.  

PubMed

The level of the heavy metal in green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab (Portunus pelagicus) caught off the Persian Gulf near Bushehr province were investigated. This study was performed to evaluate instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to analyze heavy metal concentration in crab and shrimp whole body tissue. The order of the swimmer crab and shrimp heavy metal concentrations were Zn>Fe>As>Mn>Co and Fe>Zn>Mn>As>Co, respectively. The results showed swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) and shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) caught off Persian gulf, were contaminated with high level of As (21.38±3.31ppm and 8.28±2.82 ppm, respectively). High levels of As and Mn were noted in crabs and shrimp, respectively. PMID:23487484

Heidarieh, Marzieh; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Behgar, Mehdi; Ziaei, Farhood; Akbari, Zahra

2013-12-01

229

Predation by dipteran larvae on fairy shrimp (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Utah rock pools  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of experiments examined how ecological factors affect notonectid foraging success on fairy shrimp. Variation in pond depth over natural ranges had no direct effect on notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. Decreases in water clarity over natural ranges led to decreased notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. This corresponds with the observation that six weeks after the fairy shrimp hatched they were more likely to be present in cloudy ponds than in ponds containing clearer water. If correct, this is a situation where physical factors have a major effect on how a biological interaction influences the local distribution of species. It appears water depth indirectly affects notonectid foraging rates, as shallow ponds are apparently made cloudy by wind-driven waves disturbing the bottom mud. These results suggest the notonectid-fairy shrimp interaction will not be a constant for any given pond, but will depend on abiotic factors like amount of rainfall and frequency of windy conditions.

Graham, T. B.

1994-01-01

230

[Cholesterol oxidation products in fresh and frozen shrimps, raw and grilled].  

PubMed

Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been related to different toxic effects, being the atherosclerotic process one of the best known. The presence of cholesterol oxides in freshly and frozenly commercialised shrimps, both raw and grilled, was studied. The determination was made by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Fresh shrimps showed significant amounts of all analysed COPs, except for 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, accounting in total for 33.15 microg COPs/g fat. In contrast, in frozen commercialised shrimps only 7-ketocholesterol and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol were detected. These results point out the great effectiveness of the commercialisation of this type of products under freezing, in terms of to the minimisation of the COPs formation. The cooking method (grilling) increased the COPs content in both types of shrimps, reaching 55.43 microg COPs/g fat in fresh shrimps and only 13.06 microg COPs/g fat in frozen ones. PMID:16045132

Echarte, M; Conchillo, A; Ansoren, D; Astiasarán, I

2005-01-01

231

Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

1992-01-01

232

A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).  

PubMed

This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems. PMID:20943254

Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

2010-11-01

233

Do Penaeid Shrimps have a Preference for Mangrove Habitats? Distribution Pattern Analysis on Inhaca Island, Mozambique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific information on how penaeid shrimps are distributed within mangrove ecosystems is scarce, which presents an obstacle for fisheries as well as mangrove management. This study investigated the prime nursery microhabitats for the two major commercial species in Mozambique— Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus monoceros. Stake net enclosures were used to sample shrimps living among unvegetated shallows and mangroves at Inhaca Island, Mozambique, during three consecutive spring tide periods. Four microhabitats were sampled: (1) sand flat; (2) fringe Avicennia marina on sandy substrate; (3) fringe A. marina on muddy substrate; and (4) interior A. marina adjacent to the supratidal terrestrial margin. P. indicus had a significant preference for fringe mangroves over the adjacent sand flat ( P<0·001 and P=0·05). Postlarval shrimps only occupied the sand flat, whereas the mangrove was utilized by postlarval, juvenile and sub-adult life stages. Within the fringe mangrove, there was no correlation between shrimp abundance and organic content of sediment (5·7-11·6 shrimps m -2). Shrimps utilized the most interior margin of the mangroves (0·35 shrimps m -2), although catch rates were significantly lower than in the mangrove fringe ( P<0·001). M. monoceros was significantly ( P<0·01), more abundant in the sand flat (0·44-2·1 shrimps m -2) than in the mangrove fringe (0·04-0·61 shrimps m -2), although this habitat preference was not evident for juvenile and sub-adult life stages. The results demonstrate the extensive use of mangrove habitats by penaeid shrimps. The confinement to mangroves for P. indicus, but not for M. monoceros, is discussed in the context of habitat characteristics and predation avoidance behaviour. Methodological considerations of the stake net technique are also outlined.

Rönnbäck, P.; Macia, A.; Almqvist, G.; Schultz, L.; Troell, M.

2002-09-01

234

Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Digestive Lipase in Whiteleg Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penaeus vannamei lipase was purified from midgut gland of whiteleg shrimp. Pure lipase (E.C. 3.1.1.3) was obtained after Superdex 200 gel\\u000a filtration and Resource Q anionic exchange. The pure lipase, which is a glycosylated molecule, is a monomer having a molecular\\u000a mass of about 44.8 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. The lipase hydrolyses short and long-chain triacylglycerols and\\u000a naphthol derivates

Crisalejandra Rivera-Pérez; Fernando L. García-Carreño; Reinhard Saborowski

2011-01-01

235

Effects of process parameters on quality changes of shrimp during drying in a jet-spouted bed dryer.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of various parameters, that is, concentration of salt solution (2%, 3%, 4%[w/v]), boiling time (3, 5, 7 min), drying air temperature (80, 100, 120 degrees C), and size of shrimp, on the kinetics of drying and various quality attributes of shrimp, namely, shrinkage, rehydration ability, texture, colors, and microstructure, during drying in a jet-spouted bed dryer. In addition, the effects of these processing parameters on the sensory attributes of dried shrimp were also investigated. Small shrimp (350 to 360 shrimp/kg) and large shrimp (150 to 160 shrimp/kg) were boiled and then dried until their moisture content was around 25% (d.b.). It was found that the degree of color changes, toughness, and shrinkage of shrimp increased while the rehydration ability decreased with an increase in the concentration of salt solution and boiling time. Size of shrimp and drying temperature significantly affected all quality attributes of dried shrimp. The conditions that gave the highest hedonic scores of sensory evaluation for small dried shrimp are the concentration of salt solution of 2% (w/v), boiling time of 7 min, and drying air temperature of 120 degrees C. On the other hand, the conditions that gave the highest hedonic scores of sensory evaluation for large dried shrimp are the concentration of salt solution of 4% (w/v), boiling time of 7 min, and drying air temperature of 100 degrees C. The quality attributes of dried shrimp measured by instruments correlated well with the sensory attributes, especially the color of dried shrimp. PMID:18034725

Niamnuy, C; Devahastin, S; Soponronnarit, S

2007-11-01

236

Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) meat: characterization and the effects of protein additives.  

PubMed

Autolytic activity of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mince in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl was investigated. Pacific white shrimp mince exhibited the maximum autolytic activity at 35 and 40 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl, respectively, as evidenced by the highest TCA-soluble peptide content and the greatest disappearance of myosin heavy chain (MHC). The autolysis was more pronounced in the acidic pH values, followed by alkaline pH ranges. Pepstatin A showed the highest inhibition toward autolysis in the acidic condition, revealing that aspartic proteinase was dominant in shrimp muscle. Nevertheless, soybean trypsin inhibitor effectively inhibited the autolysis at neutral and alkaline pH values, suggesting that serine proteinase was present in shrimp mince but contributed to autolysis at a lower extent in shrimp meat. Autolysis in shrimp meat could be inhibited partially by all protein additives, including bovine plasma protein (BPP), egg white (EW), and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The inhibition of autolysis increased when the level of protein additives increased with the concomitant increase in band intensity of MHC retained. WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince. PMID:18298747

Eakpetch, P; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

2008-03-01

237

Occurrence and recent long-distance dispersal of deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimps  

PubMed Central

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme environments that have a high concentration of hydrogen sulphide. However, abundant unique invertebrates including shrimps of the family Bresiliidae have been found in such environments. The bresiliid shrimps are believed to have radiated in the Miocene (less than 20?Myr); however, the period when and the mechanisms by which they dispersed across the hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in oceans worldwide have not been clarified. In the present study, we collected the deep-sea blind shrimp Alvinocaris longirostris from the hydrothermal vent site in the Okinawa Trough and carried out the first investigation of the 18S rRNA gene of a bresiliid shrimp. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bresiliid shrimp is situated at an intermediate lineage within the infraorder Caridea and shows monophyly with palaemonid shrimps, which live in shallow sea and freshwater. Furthermore, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were analysed to determine the phylogenetic relationship with known bresiliid shrimps. A. longirostris of the Okinawa Trough had two haplotypes of the COI gene, one of which was identical to the Alvinocaris sp. of the cold seeps in Sagami Bay. These results indicate that a long-distance dispersal of A. longirostris occurred possibly within the last 100?000 years.

Tokuda, Gaku; Yamada, Akinori; Nakano, Kazuma; Arita, Nao; Yamasaki, Hideo

2005-01-01

238

Occurrence and recent long-distance dispersal of deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimps.  

PubMed

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme environments that have a high concentration of hydrogen sulphide. However, abundant unique invertebrates including shrimps of the family Bresiliidae have been found in such environments. The bresiliid shrimps are believed to have radiated in the Miocene (less than 20 Myr); however, the period when and the mechanisms by which they dispersed across the hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in oceans worldwide have not been clarified. In the present study, we collected the deep-sea blind shrimp Alvinocaris longirostris from the hydrothermal vent site in the Okinawa Trough and carried out the first investigation of the 18S rRNA gene of a bresiliid shrimp. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bresiliid shrimp is situated at an intermediate lineage within the infraorder Caridea and shows monophyly with palaemonid shrimps, which live in shallow sea and freshwater. Furthermore, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were analysed to determine the phylogenetic relationship with known bresiliid shrimps. A. longirostris of the Okinawa Trough had two haplotypes of the COI gene, one of which was identical to the Alvinocaris sp. of the cold seeps in Sagami Bay. These results indicate that a long-distance dispersal of A. longirostris occurred possibly within the last 100,000 years. PMID:17148377

Tokuda, Gaku; Yamada, Akinori; Nakano, Kazuma; Arita, Nao; Yamasaki, Hideo

2006-06-22

239

Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).  

PubMed

The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2014-01-01

240

Risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in shrimp farming in Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong.  

PubMed

An ecological survey was carried out to determine the sediment concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish and shrimp including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. nilotica), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), gei wai shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and caridean shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) in the traditional tidal shrimp ponds (gei wais) of Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. The sediments collected from the landward sites contained higher nutrient contents, as well as zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) than those collected from the seaward sites, but vice versa for lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). However, the concentrations of all metals were exceptionally high in the two sites located outside the reserve, suggesting that waters from Deep Bay might be the possible source of metal contamination affecting the reserve. All metals studied seemed to accumulate in the viscera of fish. Body size was the determining factor for the accumulation of heavy metals in caridean shrimp and gei wai shrimp but not fish. Concentrations of the metals studied in tissues of grey mullet and gei wai shrimp were found to be safe for human consumption. Concentrations of Cr in tilapia whole body (0.68-1.10 mg kg(-1) wet weight) were close to or over the guideline value of 1 mg kg(-1) set by the Food Adulteration (Metallic Contamination) Regulations of Hong Kong. Tilapia flesh and small caridean shrimp collected from gei wais were contaminated by Cr and Pb but still fit for human consumption. Caution is required if large caridean shrimp is to be consumed in large amounts continuously because the concentration of Pb exceeded the maximum permitted concentration (6 mg kg(-1)). The rather high Cr concentrations in tilapia whole body should not be overlooked as the fish will serve as a food source for migratory birds visiting the site. PMID:16528597

Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

2006-01-01

241

Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen  

SciTech Connect

Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G. (INRS); (Purdue)

2010-11-16

242

Chitin extraction from shrimp shell waste using Bacillus bacteria.  

PubMed

The ability of six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus mojavencis A21, Bacillus licheniformis RP1, Bacillus cereus SV1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 and Bacillus subtilis A26) to ferment media containing only shrimp shell waste, for chitin extraction, was investigated. More than 80% deproteinization was attained by all the strains tested. However, demineralization rates not exceeding 67% were registered. Cultures conducted in media containing shrimp shell waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, without affecting deproteinization rates. The antioxidant activities of hydrolysates, at different concentrations, produced during fermentation in medium supplemented with glucose, were determined using different tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method, reducing power assay and chelating activity. All hydrolysates showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity. Hydrolysate produced by B. pumilus A1 exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, with an IC(50) value of 0.3 mg/ml. Highest reducing power (DO 700 nm=1.55 at 1.5 mg/ml) and metal chelating activity (98% at 5mg/ml) were obtained with B. pumilus A1 and B. licheniformis RP1 hydrolysates, respectively. PMID:22981824

Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Maâlej, Hana; Hajji, Sawssen; Nasri, Moncef

2012-12-01

243

Nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in shrimp.  

PubMed

Vertebrates detect viral infection predominantly by sensing viral nucleic acids to produce type I interferon (IFN). In invertebrates, it has been believed that the IFN system is absent and RNA interference is a sequence-specific antiviral pathway. In this study, we found that injection of nucleic acid mimics poly(I:C), poly(C:G), CL097, poly C and CpG-DNA, afforded shrimp antiviral immunity, which is similar to the vertebrate IFN system. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method, 480 expression sequence tags were identified to be involved in the poly(I:C)-induced antiviral immunity of the model crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei, and 41% of them were new genes. In the SSH libraries, several IFN system-related genes such as dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and IFN?-inducible protein 30 were identified. L. vannamei IKK?, whose vertebrate homologs are central regulators of the IFN-producing pathway, could significantly activate IFN reporter genes in HEK293T cells. In crustacean databases, many genes homologous to genes of the vertebrate IFN response, such as IRFs, PKR, ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific) and other interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were discovered. These results suggest that shrimp may possess nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity. PMID:23773856

Wang, Pei-Hui; Yang, Li-Shi; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2013-09-01

244

Ovarian primary tissue culture of the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus.  

PubMed

Cell growth in ovarian primary culture of the kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, was examined under various culture conditions. The best growth of ovarian cells was obtained in a culture system consisting of double strength of Leibovitz-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, glucose (1 g/L), proline (0.1 g/L), TC-Yeastolate (1 g/L), and lactalbumin hydrolysate (1 g/L). The cells survived in this medium at 25 degrees C for 45 d. The epithelial-like cells predominated in 10-d-old cultures, covering >80% of the surface area on the bottom of flask. Cells in mitosis were often observed. Cell proliferation was monitored by incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), an analog of thymidine. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-associated cells accounted for 11.5 and 35.0% of cell populations at 2 and 24 h, respectively, after BrdU treatment. Our results provide an improved culture technique for ovarian tissue of the kuruma shrimp. PMID:14613332

Maeda, Minoru; Mizuki, Eiichi; Itami, Toshiaki; Ohba, Michio

2003-01-01

245

One-solvent extraction of astaxanthin from lactic acid fermented shrimp wastes.  

PubMed

Free astaxanthin one-solvent extractions with ethanol, acetone, and liquid 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane from raw and lactic acid fermented (ensilaged) shrimp residues were investigated. The total carotenoid recovery from ensilaged shrimp wastes was higher than that from non-ensilaged ones as assessed by HPLC analyses. Acetone gave the highest extraction yields of free astaxanthin with up to 115 microg/g of material. Moreover, liquid tetrafluoroethane is reported for the first time in a successful one-solvent extraction of carotenoids from shrimp. PMID:18020413

Gimeno, Miquel; Ramírez-Hernández, Jessica Yesemite; Mártinez-Ibarra, César; Pacheco, Neith; García-Arrazola, Roeb; Bárzana, Eduardo; Shirai, Keiko

2007-12-12

246

A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

Lieberman, Marya

1999-12-01

247

Phylogenetic community ecology and the role of social dominance in sponge-dwelling shrimp.  

PubMed

When functional traits are evolutionarily conserved, phylogenetic relatedness can serve as a proxy for ecological similarity to examine whether functional differences among species mediate community assembly. Using phylogenetic- and trait-based analyses, we demonstrate that sponge-dwelling shrimp (Synalpheus) assemblages are structured by size-based habitat filtering, interacting with competitive exclusion mediated by social system. Most shrimp communities were more closely related and/or more similar in size than randomized communities, consistent with habitat filtering facilitated by phylogenetically conserved body size. Those sponges with greater space heterogeneity hosted shrimp communities with greater size diversity, corroborating the importance of size in niche use. However, communities containing eusocial shrimp - which cooperatively defend territories - were less phylogenetically related and less similar in size, suggesting that eusociality enhances competitive ability and drives competitive exclusion. Our analyses demonstrate that community assembly in this diverse system occurs via traits mediating niche use and differential competitive ability. PMID:22548770

Hultgren, Kristin M; Duffy, J Emmett

2012-07-01

248

77 FR 37647 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Public Hearing Notification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Public Hearing Notification AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

2012-06-22

249

77 FR 38266 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Public Hearing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Public Hearing AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

2012-06-27

250

77 FR 48106 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp and Summer Flounder Trawling Requirements; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...50 CFR Part 223 [Docket No. 120427423-2423-02] RIN 0648-AW93 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp and Summer Flounder Trawling Requirements; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

2012-08-13

251

75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-04-01

252

75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-08-23

253

76 FR 51940 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2011-08-19

254

77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2012-07-10

255

75 FR 54847 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-09-09

256

75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-03-22

257

78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

258

78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

259

78 FR 50391 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-08-19

260

Bioaccumulation of cyanuric acid in edible tissues of shrimp following experimental feeding.  

PubMed

Due to concerns that cyanuric acid (CYA)-contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food chain, a method to quantify CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp was previously developed and validated. This paper provides further data on the deliberate feeding of CYA to shrimp to determine the extent of residue accumulation in edible tissue. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed for the analysis of CYA in shrimp tissue. Edible tissue of shrimp fed 1666 or 3333 mg kg?¹ CYA in their diet (approximately 55 and 124 mg kg?¹ body weight) contained 0.767 and 0.406 mg kg?¹ CYA, respectively. The residue levels are below the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake level for CYA and are generally considered unlikely to pose a human health risk. PMID:20936555

Karbiwnyk, Christine M; Williams, Rodney R; Andersen, Wendy C; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Madson, Mark R; Miller, Keith E; Reimschuessel, Renate

2010-12-01

261

75 FR 33375 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's...DS form number, information collection title, and OMB control number in the subject...conditions a government official of the exporting country. The DS-2031 Form...

2010-06-11

262

75 FR 10338 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's...applicable), information collection title, and OMB control number in any correspondence...conditions a government official of the exporting country. The DS-2031 Form...

2010-03-05

263

Studies on the Use of Sulfites to Control Shrimp Melanosis (Blackspot).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shrimp melanosis, commonly known as 'blackspot' is a harmless but objectionable surface dicoloration caused by polyphenoloxidase enzyme systems which remain active during refrigeration or ice storage. In the early 1950's sulfiting agents, particularily so...

1986-01-01

264

Commercial Brown, White and Pink Shrimp Tail Size: Total Size Conversions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equations for converting tail length to total length and tail weight to total weight and vice versa were obtained for white, brown and pink shrimp (Penaeus setiferus, Penaeus aztecus and Penaeus duorarum, respectively), using linear regression analyses. T...

S. L. Brunenmeister

1980-01-01

265

Tail Length to Tail Weight Relationships for Louisiana White Shrimp in 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of white shrimp Penaeus setiferus collected in July to December 1977 were used to study length to weight relations. Some conclusions are: Sexual differences in length-weight curves are not of practical significance: there are significant differenc...

P. L. Phares

1980-01-01

266

Discovery of immune molecules and their crucial functions in shrimp immunity.  

PubMed

Several immune-related molecules in penaeid shrimps have been discovered, most of these via the analysis of expressed sequence tag libraries, microarray studies and proteomic approaches. These immune molecules include antimicrobial peptides, serine proteinases and inhibitors, phenoloxidases, oxidative enzymes, clottable protein, pattern recognition proteins, lectins, Toll receptors, and other humoral factors that might participate in the innate immune system of shrimps. These molecules have mainly been found in the hemolymph and hemocytes, which are the main sites where immune reactions take place, while some are found in other immune organs/tissues, such as the lymphoid organs, gills and intestines. Although the participation of some of these immune molecules in the shrimp innate immune defense against invading pathogens has been demonstrated, the functions of many molecules remain unclear. This review summarizes the current status of our knowledge concerning the discovery and functional characterization of the immune molecules in penaeid shrimps. PMID:23059654

Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Supungul, Premruethai; Tang, Sureerat

2013-04-01

267

Science Sampler: Bringing scientific inquiry alive using real grass shrimp research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the Nat

Curran, Mary C.; Partridge, Michael; Aultman, Terry

2010-03-01

268

78 FR 15686 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department selected for individual examination are Marine Gold Products Limited (Marine Gold), and Thai Union Frozen Products Public Co...shrimp from Thailand produced and exported by Marine Gold. Finally, the Department also preliminarily...

2013-03-12

269

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO CHROMIUM, PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND DITHIOCARBAMATES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report deals with the histopathological/ultrastructural changes in various tissues of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) exposed to hexavalent chromium, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and two dithiocarbamate formulations: Aquatreat DNM-30 (15% sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate plus 15...

270

Toxic Effect of Certain Marine Blue-Green Algae to Penaeid Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hemocytic enteritis (HE) was found to be a disease of cultured marine penaeid shrimp and of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The principal lesion of HE disease is a necrosis and intense cellular inflammation of the mucosa of those portions...

D. V. Lightner

1982-01-01

271

Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of

Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith; Ackerson, Nicole

2010-12-01

272

Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

2002-01-01

273

Catch, survey and life-history data for shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) off Jan Mayen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jan Mayen area has an extreme environment with low temperatures and infrequent, but abrupt temperature changes. The shrimp population here is considered to be on its edge of distribution. The life-history parameters are in the same range as in other high-latitude shrimp populations and are characterized by slow growth, large size at maturation and extended longevity. Irregular and sporadic commercial exploitation limit fishing mortality and give the population life-history parameters not previously seen in other areas. The Jan Mayen shrimp are large compared to, e.g., the Barents Sea shrimp and can reach a maximum carapace length ( Lmax) of 37 mm and an age of 10-11 years. The large size at sex transformation ( L50, >24 mm) and analyses of length-frequency distributions indicate that the shrimp may be 6-7 years of age before changing sex. The change in Lmax and L50 observed during the study period is probably caused by increased natural mortality due to sudden temperature changes or due to increased predation, rather than increased growth rates. The life-history strategy of shrimp in the Jan Mayen area can be explained by factors such as depth, temperature and population density variations caused by fluctuation in recruitment and mortality. The shrimp fisheries in the Jan Mayen area began in the late 1970s and reached an annual landing of 2000 tonnes in 1985, and since then landings have oscillated around 500 tonnes depending on a combination of factors. The survey indices of stock biomass varied between 3000 and 6600 tonnes. For most years, the highest shrimp densities are at a depth of 200-299 m, while large shrimp (and therefore also female shrimp) are dominant at depths greater than 300 m. Fish community data were studied as the composition of the demersal fish community is an integrated response to environmental conditions and as predation affects the shrimp stock. Polar cod and capelin are the most abundant fish species in the study area. A high number of blue whiting was registered in 1979, but the number declined in 1980 and 1981 as temperature decreased. During the surveys in 1994 and 1995, no blue whiting was registered. A few individuals were found again in the 1999 samples. The number of Greenland halibut has declined from the beginning of the 1980s to the 1990s.

Nilssen, Einar M.; Aschan, Michaela M.

2009-10-01

274

Comparison of methods for sampling populations of ghost shrimp, Trypaea australiensis (Decapoda: Thalassinidea: Callianassidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coring and pumping methods, commonly used to determine the abundance and population parameters of burrowing ghost shrimp, were assessed in three widely separated south-eastern Australian estuaries. First, a comparison of two sizes of coring tube (0.04 and 0.07m2) revealed no significant differences in catches of the ghost shrimp Trypaea australiensis Dana, nor differences in precision. However, the smaller sized core

Douglas Rotherham; Ronald J West

2003-01-01

275

Effects of a probiotic bacterium on black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon survival and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus S11 bacterium isolated from black tiger shrimp habitats was added to shrimp feed as a probiotic in three forms: fresh cells, fresh cells in normal saline solution, and a lyophilized form. After a 100-day feeding trial with probiotic supplemented and non-supplemented (control) feeds, Penaeus monodon (from PL30) exhibited no significant difference (p>0.05) in growth, survival nor external appearance between

Sirirat Rengpipat; Wannipa Phianphak; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul; Piamsak Menasveta

1998-01-01

276

Ultrastructure of a spirochete found in tissues of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A spirochete which occurs in tissues of the brine shrimp,Artemia salina, was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A total of seven infected shrimps were encountered.2.Under darkfield illumination, most spirochete cells inArtemia blood were 6–13 µ long and 0.3–0.4 µ wide. Coiling was variable and often irregular.3.When tissues of the maxillary gland (kidney) and nearby organs were examined

Greta E. Tyson

1974-01-01

277

Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand\\u000a for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on\\u000a semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that\\u000a is required

Jonas Larsson; Carl Folke; Nils Kautsky

1994-01-01

278

Protein and lipid sources affect cholesterol concentrations of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone).  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of protein and lipid sources on cholesterol, AA, and fatty acid content, and on biological performance of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). In Exp. 1, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish meal; soybean meal; casein; fish meal + soybean meal; fish meal + casein; soybean meal + casein; and fish meal + soybean meal + casein. In Exp. 2, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish oil; soy oil; poultry fat; fish oil + soy oil; fish oil + poultry fat; soy oil + poultry fat; and fish oil + soy oil + poultry fat. Nine shrimp (average BW 570 mg) were stocked per 60-L tank, with three tanks per diet in each experiment. Shrimp were fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 28 d. Protein sources affected shrimp cholesterol, feed consumption, feed efficiency, protein consumption, protein efficiency ratio, and crude body fat (P < or = 0.05), but not weight gain, survival, hepatosomatic index, body protein, ash, and AA composition. Body (without hepatopancreas) cholesterol concentrations were the highest in shrimp fed the diet containing fish meal (0.81%), lowest for those fed the casein diet (0.64%), and intermediate in the other dietary treatment groups (range 0.71 to 0.74%). Lipid source also affected shrimp body cholesterol, body fatty acid profiles, and fatty acid profiles in the hepatopancreas (P < or = 0.05), but not growth performance, body protein, fat, ash, and cholesterol concentrations in the hepatopancreas. Shrimp fed the fish oil diet had the highest body cholesterol (0.75%), whereas those fed the soy oil or poultry fat diets were lowest (0.66 and 0.65%, respectively). Results indicate that by replacing fish meal and fish oil with soybean meal and soy oil, shrimp growth performance is not affected, but body cholesterol concentration is reduced. PMID:15080336

Cheng, Z J; Hardy, R W

2004-04-01

279

cDNA cloning of the lysozyme of the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysozyme, an antibacterial protein, has been implicated in innate immunity in invertebrates, but its activity in shrimp remained to be determined. We cloned the white shrimp lysozyme cDNA using a PCR strategy and detected its activity in haemocytes using a lytic-zone assay against Micrococcus luteus. The cloning was based on a reported EST (dbEST BE18831). The deduced amino acid sequence

Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo; Maria A. Islas-Osuna; Enrique de-la-Re-Vega; Jorge Hernández-López; Francisco Vargas-Albores; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia

2003-01-01

280

Prediction of shrimp growth using an artificial neural network and regression models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncertainty and lack of information about the future make it difficult for shrimp farmers to develop and plan harvesting schedules.\\u000a To do this effectively, farmers should be able to predict shrimp growth. A reliable prediction of growth and survival would\\u000a also give farmers a better insight into future productivity and profitability. Linear and nonlinear regression models have\\u000a been used to

Abdoulkarim Esmaeili; Mohammad Hassan Tarazkar

281

The chronic toxicity of fenoxycarb to larvae of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined effects of fenoxycarb, a carbamate insecticide, on larvae of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. In laboratory experiments, grass shrimp larvae were exposed to fenoxycarb from hatch to postlarval metamorphosis in a chronic, static renewal bio assay. LC50's ranged from 0.92 mg\\/L at 96 h to 0.35 mg\\/L at the end of the study (24 days). In assessing

Peter B. Key; Geoffrey I. Scott

1994-01-01

282

Survival of Deep-Sea Shrimp ( Alvinocaris sp.) During Decompression and Larval Hatching at Atmospheric Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report successful larval hatching of deep-sea shrimp after decompression to atmospheric pressure. Three specimens of deep-sea shrimp were collected from an ocean depth of 1157 m at cold-seep sites off Hatsushima Island in Sagami Bay, Japan, using a pressure-stat aquarium system. Phylogenetic analysis of Alvinocaris sp. based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit gene sequences confirmed that these species were

Sumihiro Koyama; Takahiko Nagahama; Noriyuki Ootsu; Tomoji Takayama; Masae Horii; Satoshi Konishi; Tetsuya Miwa; Yoichi Ishikawa; Masuo Aizawa

2005-01-01

283

SocioEconomic Structure of the Deep Water Pink Shrimp Fisheries in the Marmara Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was done to be determined the socio-economic structure of shrimp fishery in the Marmara sea. The main material of this research is the original data which has been obtained by face-to-face interviewing with the vessel owners via using questionnaires during 2003-2004 shrimp fishery season. In the questionnaires the fallowing data has been taken places which are given respectively

H. Güngör; G. Güngör

284

Tomography of bacteria–mineral associations within the deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rimicaris exoculata flourishes around deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Epibiotic bacteria and minerals found within the branchial chamber of the shrimp are of interest in the search for the metabolic energy pathways sustaining shrimp swarms at the Rainbow vent site (MAR). Here we examine the three-dimensional (3D) relationships between epibionts and their associated minerals. The morphology

Louise Anderson; Sébastien Halary; Jean-Pierre Lechaire; Thomas Boudier; Ghislaine Frébourg; Sergio Marco; Magali Zbinden; Françoise Gaill

2008-01-01

285

A novel eye in 'eyeless' shrimp from hydrothermal vents of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rimicaris exoculata1 is a shrimp that swarms over high-temperature (350 °C) sulphide chimneys at Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal fields (3,600 m)1-7. This shrimp lacks an externally differentiated eye1, having instead a pair of large organs within the cephalothorax immediately beneath the dorsal surface of the transparent carapace, connected by large nerve tracts to the supraesophageal ganglion. These organs contain a visual

Cindy Lee Van Dover; Ete Z. Szuts; Steven C. Chamberlain; J. R. Cann

1989-01-01

286

Identification of differentially expressed genes in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata exposed to heat stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep-sea vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the vagile megafauna at most vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This shrimp swarms around the hot end of the hydrothermal biotope where temperature can exceed its critical maximal temperature (33–38.5±2°C). It may therefore be subjected to a thermal regime that is assumed to be stressful for animals. In this study, we used

Delphine Cottin; Bruce Shillito; Thomas Chertemps; Arnaud Tanguy; Nelly Léger; Juliette Ravaux

2010-01-01

287

Isolation and characterization of Noctiluca killing bacteria from a shrimp aquaculture pond in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

To control harmful algal blooms (HABs), in particular dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans, which causes damage to shrimp production, algicidal bacteria were isolated from shrimp pond water and screened for their\\u000a killing effect against N. scintillans under laboratory condition. Among 260 bacterial isolates, 10 showed killing effects on N. scintillans. Out of 5 strains showing relatively stronger killing activity, 4 strains belonged to the

Teeyaporn Keawtawee; Kimio Fukami; Putth Songsangjinda; Pensri Muangyao

288

Freshwater shrimp ( Palaemonetes australis ) as a potential bioindicator of crustacean health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaemonetes australis is a euryhaline shrimp found in southwestern Australian estuaries. To determine if P. australis is a suitable bioindicator species for monitoring the health of estuarine biota, they were exposed to measured concentrations\\u000a of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) at 0.01, 0.1, or 1 ppm for 14 days under laboratory conditions. At the end of exposure the shrimp were sacrificed

Diane Webb

2011-01-01

289

Optimization of the production of shrimp waste protein hydrolysate using microbial proteases adopting response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysates were produced from shrimp waste mainly comprising head and shell of Penaeus monodon by enzymatic hydrolysis for 90 min using four microbial proteases (Alcalase, Neutrase, Protamex, Flavourzyme) where PR(%)\\u000a and DH (%) of respective enzymes were compared to select best of the lot. Alcalase, which showed the best result, was used\\u000a to optimize hydrolysis conditions for shrimp waste hydrolysis

Satya S. Dey; Krushna Chandra Dora

290

Deepest exposed crust of Brazil-SHRIMP establishes three events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deepest exposed crust of Brazil is in the western portion of the exposed Precambrian shield of southernmost Rio Grande do Sul State and comprises a bimodal sequence of mafic garnet granulites and metatrondhjemites, intercalated with smaller volumes of metamorphosed pyroxenites, anorthosites, sillimanite gneisses, and banded iron formation. As determined by zircon U/Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP), this granulite terrain accreted from the mantle at the end of the Archean (ca. 2.55 Ga) and was deformed in high-pressure granulite facies metamorphic conditions in the Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.02 Ga). A younger event, possibly ca. 900 Ma, caused local amphibolite facies retrogression in the complex. Zircons from a metabasalt and a metatrondhjemite show external morphologies typical of high-grade metamorphic rocks, whereas backscattered electron images reveal internal oscillatory zoning of their igneous precursors. Spot ages from zircon agree well with previous model Nd and Sm/Nd mineral isochron ages.

Hartmann, Léo A.; Leite, Jayme A. D.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Santos, João Orestes S.

1999-10-01

291

[Bacterial community structure in intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei].  

PubMed

The composition of bacterial community in the intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei under laboratory culture condition was determined using the 16S rDNA clone library. 16s rRNA gene was amplified and a library was constructed by using the genomic DNA extracted from the bacteria in the shrimp intestine as template. 12 different RFLP patterns of the clones were obtained by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using Afa I and Msp I. Compared with the published sequences in GenBank database, sequencing results of cloned 16S rDNA amplicons revealed a diverse community including gamma-proteobacteria and Firmicutes in the intestine of artificial diet-fed shrimp. Results showed that the Firmicutes group can be a dominant component (75.4%) in the shrimp intestinal microflora and other clones belong to gamma-proteobacteria (24.6%) which were identified as Shewanella sp., Pantoea sp., Aranicola sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Vibrio sp., respectively. These results provide the first comprehensive description of microbial diversity of the white shrimp intestine and suggest that most of the bacteria associated with shrimp intestine are uncultured and novel species. PMID:17944366

Li, Ke; Zheng, Tian-ling; Tian, Yun; Yuan, Jian-jun

2007-08-01

292

Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical, microbial quality and shelf life of shrimp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study the combined effect of gamma irradiation (1, 3 and 5 kGy) and storage at two temperatures: refrigeration (+4 °C) and frozen (-18 °C), on the shelf-life extension of fresh shrimp meat was investigated. The study was based on microbiological and physicochemical changes occuring in the shrimp samples. Total volatile base nitrogen values and trimethylamine values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly lower than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures, and the rate of decrease was more pronounced in samples irradiated at the higher dose (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly higher than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). pH values of shrimp samples were affected significantly by both irradiating dose and storage temperatures (p<0.05). Microbial counts for non-irradiated shrimp samples were higher than the respective irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). The results revealed that irradiation at high dose (5 kGy) might enhance lipid oxidation, although the growth of microorganisms and protein oxidation was inhibited.

Hocao?lu, Asl?; Sükrü Demirci, Ahmet; Gümüs, Tuncay; Demirci, Mehmet

2012-12-01

293

In vitro gastric and intestinal digestions of pulsed light-treated shrimp extracts.  

PubMed

Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel technology most commonly used for microbial inactivation, has recently been employed to effectively mitigate food allergens in peanuts, soybean, shrimp, and almond. Putative mechanisms for the efficacy of PUV in reducing allergen reactivity include photothermal, photochemical, and photophysical effects. To date, there are no published data highlighting the effects of in vitro simulated gastric and intestinal digestion on the stability of PUV reduced allergen reactivity of food. In this study, PUV-treated shrimp extracts were subjected to simulated gastric fluid containing pepsin and simulated intestinal fluid containing trypsin and chymotrypsin, and then tested for changes in allergen potency. SDS-PAGE showed no major band deviation between undigested and digested PUV-treated shrimp extracts. IgE binding to tropomyosin remained markedly decreased as seen in Western blot analysis. Total shrimp allergen reactivity remained unchanged following in vitro peptic digestion and was markedly reduced following in vitro intestinal digestion as illustrated in indirect ELISA. The PUV reduced shrimp allergens remained at a low level under the in vitro simulated digestive conditions. The results inferred that PUV could be a potential method to create less allergenic shrimp products that would remain at a low allergen level under human gastric and intestinal digestive conditions. PMID:22278049

Yang, Wade W; Shriver, Sandra K; Chung, Si-Yin; Percival, Susan; Correll, Melanie J; Rababah, Taha M

2012-03-01

294

Protection of yellow head virus infection in shrimp by feeding of bacteria expressing dsRNAs.  

PubMed

Although prevention of shrimp mortality from yellow head virus (YHV) infection via dsRNA injection has been well demonstrated for many years, it has not yet been applied in a farm culture because of its impracticality. Hence, oral administration of dsRNA becomes an alternative and desirable approach. This study is the first to demonstrate that oral feeding of Escherichia coli expressing shrimp Rab7 gene (dsRab7) or YHV protease gene (dsYHV) could inhibit YHV replication and lowered shrimp mortality. E. coli HT115 expressing dsRab7 or dsYHV or a combination of these dsRNAs were embedded in agar and used to feed vannamei shrimp at early juvenile stage before YHV challenge. After 4 days of continuous feeding of dsRNAs, strong inhibitory effect on shrimp mortality was observed in which dsRab7 gave the highest effect (70% reduction from the control) whereas dsYHV showed a 40% reduction. Our results reveal the potential of anti-YHV strategy via orally delivered dsRNA for application in the shrimp farm industry. PMID:24637372

Sanitt, Poohrawind; Attasart, Pongsopee; Panyim, Sakol

2014-06-10

295

Acquisition of epibiotic bacteria along the life cycle of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

PubMed Central

The caridean shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the fauna at several Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites. This shrimp has an enlarged gill chamber, harboring a dense ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with mineral oxide deposits. Until now, their acquisition is not fully understood. At three hydrothermal vent sites, we analyzed the epibionts diversity at different moult stages and also in the first stages of the shrimp life (eggs, hatched eggs (with larvae) and juveniles). Hatched eggs associated with young larvae were collected for the first time directly from gravid females at the Logachev vent site during the Serpentine cruise. An approach using 16S rRNA clone libraries, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used. Molecular results and microscope observations indicated a switch in the composition of the bacterial community between early R. exoculata life cycle stage (egg libraries dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria) and later stages (juvenile/adult libraries dominated by the Epsilonproteobacteria). We hypothesized that the epibiotic phylotype composition could vary according to the life stage of the shrimp. Our results confirmed the occurrence of a symbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, but more complex than previously assumed. We revealed the presence of active type-I methanotrophic bacteria colonizing the cephalothorax of shrimps from the Rainbow site. They were also present on the eggs from the Logachev site. This could be the first ‘epibiotic' association between methanotrophic bacteria and hydrothermal vent crustacean. We discuss possible transmission pathways for epibionts linked to the shrimp life cycle.

Guri, Mathieu; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valerie; Zbinden, Magali; Crassous, Philippe; Shillito, Bruce; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

2012-01-01

296

Abundance and seasonal migrations of the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) within Iraqi waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration of Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) from the Arabian Gulf to nursery grounds in the inland waters of Iraq extends from May\\/June to January\\/February. Shrimp ranging in size from 3–125 mm total length were found in inland waters. In the shallow waters of the Al-Assaflya small-sized shrimp only were caught, while in the Marshes large-sized shrimp were abundant. Maximum numbers

S. D. Salman; M. H. Ali; A. H. Y. Al-AdhubI

1990-01-01

297

Marination of deep-water pink shrimp with rosemary extract and the determination of its shelf-life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract on marinated deep-water pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris Lucas, 1846) stored at 1°C was investigated. Chemical, physical, instrumental, microbiological and sensory analyses were performed to investigate the quality changes and to determine the shelf-life of marinated shrimps. Chemical composition of the shrimp was determined and no significant difference (P>0.05) was found between

Asli Cadun; Duygu K??la; ?ükran Çakl?

2008-01-01

298

Molecular systematics of shrimp (Decapoda: Bresiliidae) from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, I: Enigmatic "small orange" shrimp from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are juvenile Rimicaris exoculata.  

PubMed

Independent species descriptions of a "small orange" caridean shrimp found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have created the synonymous names Iorania concordia Vereshchaka 1996b and Rimicaris aurantiaca Martin et al. 1997. Our genetic analyses involving allozymes and mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal that the "small orange" shrimp described in these studies are a juvenile form of Rimicaris exoculata Williams and Rona, a species commonly found at these sites. In light of this result, we reconsider the life history and ecologic characteristics of juvenile and adult stages of Rimicaris exoculata. PMID:9628005

Shank, T M; Lutz, R A; Vrijenhoek, R C

1998-06-01

299

A Study on the contribution of different food sources to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope methods can be used to determine the food sources and prey items of aquatic organisms accurately and reliably. This study examined the relative contribution of artificial foods (the formulated feed and Artemia) and natural foods to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond by using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. The results showed that the nutrition utilization efficiency of the harvested shrimp was low, only 33.18% of feed nitrogen and 21.73% of feed carbon being converted to shrimp flesh. Our stable isotope results showed that the shrimp obtained nutrition for maximum growth from artificial foods, whose contribution was 93.5%, with the remaining attributed to the natural foods. However, there was 0.94 t harvested shrimp derived from natural foods (the rest of 13.56 t harvested shrimp derived from artificial foods) in 1ha intensive pond with a shrimp production of 14.50 t ha-1. Therefore, unit area shrimp production can be increased by increasing the contribution proportion of natural foods in intensive shrimp farming.

Su, Yuepeng; Ma, Shen; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

2008-11-01

300

Peptidomic analysis of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) hemolymph by magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peptides in shrimp hemolymph play an important role in the innate immune response. Analysis of hemolymph will help to detect and identify potential novel biomarkers of microbial infection. We used magnetic bead-based purification (ClinProt system) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to characterize shrimp hemolymph peptides. Shrimp serum and plasma were used as the source of samples for comparative analysis, and it was found that serum was more suitable for shrimp hemolymph peptidomic analysis. To screen potential specific biomarkers in serum of immune-challenged shrimps, we applied magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS to serum samples from 10 immune-challenged and 10 healthy shrimps. The spectra were analyzed using FlexAnalysis 3.0 and ClinProTools 2.1 software. Thirteen peptide peaks significantly different between the two groups were selected as candidate biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infection. The diagnostic model established by genetic algorithm using five of these peaks was able to discriminate LPS-challenged shrimps from healthy control shrimps with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. Our approach in MALDITOF MS-based peptidomics is a powerful tool for screening bioactive peptides or biomarkers derived from hemolymph, and will help to enable a better understanding of the innate immune response of shrimps.

Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

2013-03-01

301

A precollaborative study of weight determination methods for quick frozen shrimp.  

PubMed

A precollaborative study compared the accuracy and precision of official AOAC methods with other selected methods for determining net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp, assessed the ruggedness of the methods with respect to changes in the levels of the factors under study, and selected candidate methods for use in a collaborative study. Methods tested for determining deglazed (frozen) net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp were (1) AOAC Method 963.18 and (2) the Water Bath Dip Method. Methods tested for determining thawed net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp were (1) AOAC Method 967.13, (2) Modified AOAC Method(mnb) 967.13, (3) Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13, (4) the Codex Method, (5) the Air Thaw Method, and (6) Modified AOAC Method 963.18. The same methods except Modified AOAC Method 963.18 were tested for determining thawed net weight of block-glazed shrimp. A total of 864 0.45 kg (1 lb), 0.90 kg (2 lb), and 1.35 kg (3 lb) IQF-glazed shrimp test samples and 234 2.25 kg (5 lb) block-glazed shrimp test samples were collected. During sample preparation, test samples were subjected to either water with or without sodium tripolyphosphate (STP). During deglazing (IQF-glazed shrimp only) and/or thawing, test samples were allocated in a factorial design to assess the effects of STP presence (no STP and STP), sieve mesh sizes (2.83 and 2.38 mm; 0.11 and 0.09 in.), and sieve diameters (20 and 30 cm; 8 and 12 in.). During weighing, test samples were further allocated to a sequence of weighing procedures designed to assess the effects of using sieve weights (dry and wet) in combination with paper towel use (no and yes) and tared pan weights when calculating determined net weights. On the basis of the results of this precollaborative study, Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13 and the Air Thaw Method seem to be the best methods to determine net weight of IQF-glazed and block-glazed shrimp. Therefore, to validate method choices in the collaborative study, the authors recommend analysis of IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp test samples, each prepared with or without STP, by Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13 and the Air Thaw Method. To fulfill AOAC requirements, IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp test samples, each prepared with or without STP, must be analyzed by official methods: AOAC Method 963.18 (IQF-glazed shrimp only) and AOAC Method 967.13. During testing, sieve mesh size will be either 2.83 or 2.38 mm (0.11 or 0.09 in.), sieve diameter will be limited to 30 cm (12 in.), and weighing procedure will be limited to tared pan. PMID:9477564

Dobson, J E; McClure, F D; Rainosek, A P

1998-01-01

302

The effect of heating conditions on polyphenol oxidase, proteases and melanosis in pre-cooked Pacific white shrimp during refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-cooked Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an important shrimp product. However melanosis, especially in the cephalothorax including carapace and internal organs, is more likely caused by the remaining polyphenol oxidase (PPO) after pre-cooking. Thus, PPO from carapace and proteases from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp were characterised and the remaining activities of both enzymes were monitored in pre-cooked shrimp

Kusaimah Manheem; Soottawat Benjakul; Kongkarn Kijroongrojana; Wonnop Visessanguan

303

Alkaline proteases produced by Bacillus licheniformis RP1 grown on shrimp wastes: Application in chitin extraction, chicken feather-degradation and as a dehairing agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current increase in the amount of shrimp wastes produced by the shrimp industry has led to the need in finding new methods\\u000a for shrimp wastes disposal. In this study, Bacillus licheniformis RP1 was shown to produce proteases when grown in media containing shrimp wastes powder as a sole carbon and nitrogen source,\\u000a indicating that this bacteria could obtain its

Anissa Haddar; Noomen Hmidet; Olfa Ghorbel-Bellaaj; Nahed Fakhfakh-Zouari; Alya Sellami-Kamoun; Moncef Nasri

2011-01-01

304

The effects of temperature, chlorine and acids on the survival of Listeria and Salmonella strains associated with uncooked shrimp carapace and cooked shrimp flesh.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the association of Listeria and Salmonella with shrimp surfaces on the effects of temperature, chlorine and acids on their survival. Planktonic, attached and colonized cells of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, L. monocytogenes V7, Salmonella Senftenberg 1734b and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 were challenged with high (50 degrees , 60 degrees and 70 degrees C) and low (4 degrees C) temperature, 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution, and acetic, hydrochloric and lactic acids (pH 4.0). Attached and colonized Listeria and Salmonella showed significantly greater (p < 0.05) resistance to heat ( approximately 1.3-2.6 fold increase in D-values), hypochlorite ( approximately 6.6 >or= 40.0 fold) and acids ( approximately 4.0-9.0 fold) than their planktonic counterparts. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the survival of planktonic, attached or colonized cells of Listeria and Salmonella stored under refrigerated conditions. The association of Listeria and Salmonella with shrimp surfaces enhances their resistance to heat, chlorine and acids. Both attachment to, and subsequent colonization of, shrimp surfaces by pathogens may reduce the efficacy of methods used in their control. Strategies to reduce attachment of these pathogens to shrimp are required to assure safety of this product. PMID:20141943

Wan Norhana, M N; Poole, Susan E; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

2010-04-01

305

Effect of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) muscle stored on ice.  

PubMed

The effect of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of raw and cooked white shrimp was studied. Hue angle was greater (p???0.05) for stressed raw shrimp compared to control (greener color); whereas a lower angle was detected for cooked stressed shrimp (redder/orange coloration). In addition, hue angle increased (p???0.05) over the ice storage period for control and stressed shrimp (raw and/or cooked). Muscle hardness and shear force showed no differences when comparing control and stressed shrimp (raw and/or cooked). However, during ice storage, shear force increased (p???0.05) by 22% and 9% for control and stressed raw shrimp, respectively; in contrast, shear force and muscle hardness decreased for cooked shrimp (p???0.05). Control showed more (p???0.05) elasticity than stressed cooked shrimp. Stressed raw shrimp showed a water holding capacity 10.8% lower (p???0.05) than control. However, during the storage, water holding capacity increased (p???0.05) reaching similar values to control after day 4. Muscle protein solubility of stressed shrimp was 31% lower than control; however, no differences (p?>?0.05) were observed after the second day. The thermal stability of myosin (T max) showed differences (p???0.05) among control and stressed shrimp, whereas no differences for ?H were observed. Results showed the influence of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of white shrimp muscle. PMID:23685566

García-Sifuentes, Celia Olivia; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Scheuren-Acevedo, Susana María; Carvallo-Ruiz, Gisela; Garcia-Sanchez, Guillermina; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Hernández-López, Jorge

2013-06-01

306

Physical and physiological aspects of gear efficiency in North Sea brown shrimp fisheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In search of means to reduce the by-catch of juvenile flatfish in the shrimp fishery, vibrations and changes in current velocity caused by shrimp trawls were investigated in the field and in the laboratory. Buried as well as emerged shrimps ( Crangon crangon) exhibit tailflips 5 10 cm before being touched by the rollers of a shrimp gear approaching them at a speed of 0.5 m·sec-1, as was revealed by slow motion video recordings in aquaria under artificial light. Hence, the signal effective in triggering escape must be attenuated strongly with increasing distance. Sediment vibration, commonly assumed to be an important signal in triggering escape of shrimps, was found to decrease by a factor 100·m-1. Signals from the rollers of a commercial shrimp gear in operation (towing speed 1 m·sec-1) were directly recorded with an accelerometer. Their frequency ranged from 50 to 500 Hz and reached an acceleration of 40 m·sec-2 on soft bottom or up to 100 m·sec-2 on hard substrate. Accelerometers, which had been buried right at the surface of a tidal sand flat during low tide, produced only one sharp signal of 100 Hz with an acceleration of 24 m·sec-2, when a shrimp gear swept them on the submerged tidal flats. However, in aquaria short sinusoidal signals (<5 m·sec-2; 20 to 300 Hz) made buried shrimps and flatfish ( Pleuronectes platessa, Solea solea, Microstomus kitt) hide rather than flee. The vibrations recorded directly at the rollers and the underlying jolting movements of the rollers induce corresponding pulses in the water surrounding the rollers in a layer of approximately 10 15 cm. Similar water displacement of high acceleration was experimentally produced by a spring loaded transparent lucite piston (7 cm in diameter) fitted to an accelerometer. Accelerating this piston (12 116 m·sec-2, 50 200 Hz range) from 5 cm above towards the shrimp produced escape responses in up to 94% of the tests. Arthropods are known to perceive medium displacement rather than pressure. Hence, strong and rapidly rising water currents caused by the rollers rather than sediment vibration are assumed to mainly trigger the escape reaction, which makes Crangon accessible to the gear.

Berghahn, R.; Wiese, K.; Lüdemann, K.

1995-03-01

307

A cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, for identification of genes relevant to testicular development in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

Background Poor reproductive maturation in captive male broodstock of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is one of the serious problems to the farming industries. Without genome sequence, EST libraries of P. monodon were previously constructed to identify transcripts with important biological functions. In this study, a new version of cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, was constructed from the Peneaus monodon EST libraries of 12 tissues, containing 5,568 non-redundant cDNA clones from 10,536 unique cDNA in the P. monodon EST database. UniShrimpChip was used to study testicular development by comparing gene expression levels of wild brooders from the West and East coasts of Thailand and domesticated brooders with different ages (10-, 14-, 18-month-old). Results The overall gene expression patterns from the microarray experiments revealed distinct transcriptomic patterns between the wild and domesticated groups. Moreover, differentially expressed genes from the microarray comparisons were identified, and the expression patterns of eight selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Among these, expression levels of six subunits (CSN2, 4, 5, 6, 7a, and 8) of the COP9 signalosome (CSN) gene family in wild and different ages of domesticated brooders were examined by RT-qPCR. Among the six subunits, CSN5 and CSN6 were most highly expressed in wild brooders and least expressed in the 18-month-old domesticated group; therefore, their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Conclusions This study is the first report to employ cDNA microarray to study testicular development in the black tiger shrimp. We show that there are obvious differences between the wild and domesticated shrimp at the transcriptomic level. Furthermore, our study is the first to investigate the feasibility that the CSN gene family might have involved in reproduction and development of this economically important species.

2011-01-01

308

The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal ( N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

Yasué, M.; Dearden, P.

2009-06-01

309

Accumulation of trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and N-acetylsulfamethoxazole in fish and shrimp fed medicated Artemia franciscana.  

PubMed Central

In a previous paper (H.J. Nelis, P. Léger, P. Sorgeloos, and A. P. De Leenheer, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:2486-2489, 1991) it was reported that two selected antibacterial agents, i.e., trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, can be efficiently bioencapsulated in nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana for administration to fish. This follow-up study showed that larvae of the sea bass and the turbot as well as postlarvae of the white shrimp accumulate the therapeutic agents in high quantities when fed medicated A. franciscana. To monitor their levels as a function of time, the liquid chromatographic method originally developed for the analysis of A. franciscana was modified with respect to chromatography, internal standardization, and sample pretreatment. The levels of trimethoprim ranged from 1 to 7 micrograms/g (sea bass), 1 to 13 micrograms/g (turbot), and 4 to 38 micrograms/g (white shrimp). The corresponding values for sulfamethoxazole were 0.3 to 4 micrograms/g (sea bass), 1 to 42 micrograms/g (turbot), and 4 to 35 micrograms/g (white shrimp). Only the two fish species, unlike the shrimp, metabolized the latter to N-acetylsulfamethoxazole (concentration range, 1 to 10 micrograms/g). These data suggest the potential of the bioencapsulation of therapeutic agents in live food as a tool to control infectious diseases in aquaculture. A preliminary challenge test also confirmed the in vivo efficacy of this approach.

Chair, M; Nelis, H J; Leger, P; Sorgeloos, P; de Leenheer, A P

1996-01-01

310

Growing backwards: an inverted role for the shrimp ortholog of vertebrate myostatin and GDF11.  

PubMed

Myostatin (MSTN) and growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) are closely related proteins involved in muscle cell growth and differentiation as well as neurogenesis of vertebrates. Both MSTN and GDF11 negatively regulate their functions. Invertebrates possess a single ortholog of the MSTN/GDF11 family. In order to understand the role of MSTN/GDF11 in crustaceans, the gene ortholog was identified and characterized in the penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon. The overall protein sequence and specific functional sites were highly conserved with other members of the MSTN/GDF11 family. Gene transcripts of pmMstn/Gdf11, assessed by real-time PCR, were detected in a variety of tissue types and were actively regulated in muscle across the moult cycle. To assess phenotypic function in shrimp, pmMstn/Gdf11 gene expression was downregulated by tail-muscle injection of sequence-specific double-stranded RNA. Shrimp with reduced levels of pmMstn/Gdf11 transcripts displayed a dramatic slowing in growth rate compared with control groups. Findings from this study place the MSTN/GDF11 gene at the centre of growth regulation in shrimp, but suggest that, compared with higher vertebrates, this gene has an opposite role in invertebrates such as shrimp, where levels of gene expression may positively regulate growth. PMID:21795562

De Santis, Christian; Wade, Nicholas M; Jerry, Dean R; Preston, Nigel P; Glencross, Brett D; Sellars, Melony J

2011-08-15

311

Occurrence of Deferribacterales and Entomoplasmatales in the deep-sea Alvinocarid shrimp Rimicaris exoculata gut.  

PubMed

Abstract The phylogenetic diversity of the gut microbial population of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata was determined. The presence of micro-organisms in the hindgut of the shrimp was determined, and their morphology illustrated for the first time by transmission electron microscopy. DNA was extracted from the fore-, mid- and hindgut of shrimps collected at the Rainbow site, at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (16S rDNA) were analyzed. Seven different bacterial phylotypes were identified from the 90 clones screened. The sequences were affiliated to three major groups: epsilon-Proteobacteria (48,8%), Entomoplasmatales (23.3%) and representatives of the new phylum Deferribacteres (26.6%). These results show that the diversity in the shrimp gut is very low compared to that of the surrounding medium. Furthermore, the presence of groups that are not found in the external medium (Spiroplasma sp. and Geovibrio sp.) suggests the existence of a local microflora. The potential roles of these bacteria are discussed, involving the shrimp diet and metal bioremediation. PMID:19719579

Zbinden, Magali; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

2003-10-01

312

Functional analysis on immune deficiency (IMD) homolog gene in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.  

PubMed

IMD pathway is an important signaling pathway in regulating the innate immunity of invertebrate. IMD is regarded as a key adaptor to link the extracellular signals and intracellular signals. In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding an IMD homolog (FcIMD) was isolated from Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. It consists of 767 bp with a 483 bp open reading frame encoding 160 amino acids. A death domain was predicted which is crucial to the immune function of IMD. Tissue expression analysis showed that FcIMD mRNA had different expression level in different tissues. The transcriptional expression of FcIMD in shrimp was significantly induced at early stage (1 h) after stimulation by Vibrio or Micrococcus which suggested its important role in the immunity of shrimp to bacterium infection. The expressions of shrimp antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were affected when FcIMD was silenced by dsRNA interference. Through analyzing the expression of FcRelish, FcDorsal and FcJNK in FcIMD silenced shrimp at 1 h post Vibrio injection, we deduced that IMD was involved in Relish regulated signaling pathway, not in Dorsal or JNK regulated signaling pathway. PMID:24390318

Feng, Ningning; Wang, Dongdong; Wen, Rong; Li, Fuhua

2014-03-01

313

Melanosis and quality changes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) treated with catechin during iced storage.  

PubMed

Melanosis, microbiological, chemical, and physical changes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) treated with catechin were monitored during iced storage of 10 days. Whole shrimp treated with catechin solution (0.05 or 0.1%) had retarded growth of psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H(2)S-producing bacteria and enterobacteriaceae throughout storage in comparison with the control and those treated with 1.25% sodium metabisilfite (SMS) (P < 0.05). The lower increases in pH and total volatile base (TVB) content were obtained in the shrimp treated with catechin solution at both levels, compared with those of other samples (P < 0.05). Lipid oxidation, loss in freshness and melanosis were lowered by catechin treatment. In general, the efficacy of catechin in lowering melanosis and quality losses increased with increasing levels used. Additionally, catechin (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1% (w/v)) showed inhibitory activity toward polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, catechin can be used as a promising melanosis inhibitor as well as an antimicrobial and an antioxidant in ice-stored shrimp. PMID:19309075

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

2009-05-13

314

Cholesterol oxidation and astaxanthin degradation in shrimp during sun drying and storage.  

PubMed

Dried salted shrimps are made from raw shrimps, which are cooked and dried under direct sunlight. The preparation and storage include treatments and conditions that can promote oxidative changes in different components. The aim of this study was to monitor the formation of major cholesterol oxidation products and the changes in the astaxanthin content and fatty acid profile in dried salted shrimp during cooking, sun drying and storage. During sun drying, most of the astaxanthin (75%) was degraded in cooked shrimp, while cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) showed a dramatic increase (8.6-fold), reaching a total concentration of 372.9 ± 16.3 ?g/g of lipids. Further storage favoured both astaxanthin degradation (83%) and COPs formation (886.6 ± 97.9 ?g/g of lipids after 90 days of storage). The high degradation of astaxanthin and the elevated formation of COPs during sun drying and storage indicate the necessity to re-evaluate the processing and storage conditions of salted dried shrimp. PMID:24128553

Hernández Becerra, Josafat A; Ochoa Flores, Angélica A; Valerio-Alfaro, Gerardo; Soto-Rodriguez, Ida; Rodríguez-Estrada, María T; García, Hugo S

2014-02-15

315

Haemocyte apoptosis of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon exposed to cadmium.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of ambient Cadmium (Cd) on haemocyte apoptosis of the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Cellular response was determined in Cd-exposed (0, 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg L(-1)) shrimp. Results showed that 0.05 mg L(-1) Cd(2+) had no significant effect on the haemocyte parameters during the 48 h exposure. Cadmium at doses of 0.5 and 5 mg L(-1) depressed the total haemocyte count (THC), and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis ratio in haemocytes. Esterase activity increased in shrimp exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) Cd(2+) for 6 h, and decreased to the initial level later. Depressed esterase activity could be observed in shrimp after 24 and 48 h exposure to 5 mg L(-1) Cd(2+). These results demonstrated that Cd(2+) modified esterase activity and induced ROS generation, which led to haemocyte apoptosis and THC reduction. Oxidative stress is one of the induction mechanisms for Cd-caused apoptosis of shrimp haemocytes. PMID:24374743

Xian, Jian-An; Li, Bin; Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Ye, Jian-Min; Feng, Li-Na; Ye, Chao-Xia; Pan, Xun-Bin; Wang, An-Li; Hao, Xuan-Ming

2014-05-01

316

Protozoan ciliate epibionts on the freshwater shrimp Caridina (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) from the Malili lake system on Sulawesi (Indonesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protozoan ciliate epibionts on the freshwater shrimp Caridina (Decapoda, Atyidae), in particular from the ancient Malili lake system on Sulawesi (Indonesia), were studied. These ciliates belong to the following genera: the suctorian Acineta, and the peritrichs Thuricola, Cothurnia, Vorticella, Opercularia, and Zoothamnium. The ciliates were located on diverse areas of the surface and appendages of the shrimp. Morphological and taxonomical

Kristina Zitzler; Regina Gabilondo

2006-01-01

317

Emigration of penaeid shrimp from the once-through cooling lake of Cedar Bayou Steam Electric Generating Station, Baytown, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Migration and distribution of two decapod shrimp, Penaeus setiferus and P. aztecus, in the cooling-water system of a power plant on the Texas coast were investigated, with emphasis on the seaward emigration from the cooling lake. Samples were collected every two weeks for a year by straining water leaving the lake over a drop structure, trawling in the cooling lake, and flushed from the intake screen. Shrimp catches at the drop structure were positively correlated with the standing population in the cooling lake. Significantly more shrimp passed over the drop structure nocturnally than diurnally. Shrimp caught at the drop structure diurnally averaged either smaller or similar in size to the shrimp taken there at night. The passage of a cold front enhanced migration and initially increased and then reduced the mean size of shrimp passing the drop structure. Higher percentages of the shrimp population in the cooling lake emigrated near new moon than full moon. The moon-phase effects appeared to be due to the moon cycle itself rather than to the intinsity of moon light. Significantly more shrimp of both species emigrated during the hours of ebbing than incoming tide. As the lake surface was above high tide level, an endogenous timing mechanism rather than evironmental factors associated with tidal rhythms controlled this emigration pattern. A temperature drop of up to 0.23 C/hour significantly increased P. aztecus emigration.

Chen, Y.L.

1983-01-01

318

Extraction of astaxanthin from giant tiger ( Panaeus monodon) shrimp waste using palm oil: Studies of extraction kinetics and thermodynamic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of extraction of astaxanthin from giant tiger (Panaeus monodon) shrimp waste using palm oil was conducted to determine the extraction kinetics and thermodynamic parameters. Two extraction models were proposed: mass transfer kinetic model and reaction kinetic model. It was found that both of mass transfer and reaction kinetic control the extraction of astaxanthin from shrimp waste using palm oil.

Akdes Dewi Handayani; Sutrisno; Nani Indraswati; Suryadi Ismadji

2008-01-01

319

Cathepsin B from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: cDNA sequence analysis, tissues-specific expression and biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathepsin B is a cystein proteinase scarcely studied in crustaceans. Its function has not been clearly described in shrimp species belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata, which includes the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and other species from the Penaeidae family. Studies on vertebrates suggest that these lysosomal enzymes intracellularly hydrolize protein, as other cystein proteinases. However, the expression of the gene

A. Stephens; L. Rojo; S. Araujo-Bernal; F. Garcia-Carreño; A. Muhlia-Almazan

320

ASPECTS OF THE HOST - COMMENSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A PALAEMONID SHRIMP ('PONTONIA DOMESTICA') AND THE PEN SHELL ('ATRINA RIGIDA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Sixty pen shells (Atrina rigida), were collected and examined to determine the prevalence and morphometrics of the commensal shrimp (Pontonia domestica). The spatial and sexual distribution within the shell of the host, and the reproductive states of the shrimp were also investig...

321

Comparative Embryonic and Larval Developmental Responses of Estuarine Shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) to the Juvenile Hormone Agonist Fenoxycarb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio) were reared separately through both embryonic and total larval development during exposure to fenoxycarb at measured concentrations of ?1. A fenoxycarb concentration of 888 ?g L ?1 significantly ( p ?1 had no significant ( p > 0.05) effect on complete embryonic development. Significantly fewer shrimp successfully metamorphosed to postlarvae when exposed through complete larval

C. L. McKenney; G. M. Cripe; S. S. Foss; S. R. Tuberty; M. Hoglund

2004-01-01

322

Effect of temporal variation, gender and size on cuticle polyphenol oxidase activity in deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal changes and physiological factors related to sex, size and spawning period may alter polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in crustacean decapods. Given the undesirable effects that the enzyme has on the marketability of shrimps, the cuticles of the valuable deep-water rose shrimp were examined. Monthly measurements of PPO activity in cuticles of juvenile and adult males and females were recorded

Gioacchino Bono; Cinzia Badalucco; Antonino Corrao; Salvatore Cusumano; Luigi Mammina; Giovanni B. Palmegiano

2010-01-01

323

Energy Filtering Transmission Electron Tomography (EFTET) of Bacteria-Mineral Associations within the Deep sea Hydrothermal Vent Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and temperature conditions around deep sea hydrothermal vents are both dynamic and extreme, yet the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata flourishes around these environments on the Mid--Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Epibiotic bacteria and minerals found within the branchial chamber (BC) of the shrimp are of great interest in the search for a chemical model for the Rainbow MAR hydrothermal vent site.

L. M. Anderson; S. Halary; J. Lechaire; G. Frébourg; T. Boudier; M. Zbinden; J. Laval; S. Marco; F. Gaill

2007-01-01

324

Bacterial symbionts and mineral deposits in the branchial chamber of the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata: relationship to moult cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is considered a primary consumer that dominates the fauna of most Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal ecosystems. The shrimps harbour in their gill chamber an important ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with iron oxide deposits. The settlement and development of this ectosymbiosis was investigated using micro- scopy techniques (light microscopy, LM; and scanning, transmission and environmental scanning

Laure Corbari; Magali Zbinden; Marie-Anne Cambon-Bonavita; Françoise Gaill; Philippe Compère

2008-01-01

325

77 FR 21679 - Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions of Bycatch Reduction Device...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BB61 Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery Management...devices (BRDs) for use in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and South Atlantic...

2012-04-11

326

Retardation of quality changes of Pacific white shrimp by green tea extract treatment and modified atmosphere packaging during refrigerated storage.  

PubMed

The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality changes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) treated with or without green tea extract (1g/L; GTE) in combination with or without ascorbic acid (0.05g/L; AA) during refrigerated storage of 10days was investigated. Shrimp without treatment stored under MAP had lowered psychrotrophic bacteria, enterobacteriaceae and H(2)S-producing bacteria count (P<0.05) but similar lactic acid bacteria count (P>0.05), in comparison with shrimp stored in air (control). The coincidental lowered rate of increase in pH, total volatile base (TVB) content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were obtained in shrimp stored under MAP (P<0.05). However, MAP slightly lowered melanosis formation and improved likeness score to some extent. When shrimp were treated with GTE and stored under MAP, the lower microbiological and chemical changes as well as the lowest melanosis formation were observed, compared to shrimp kept under MAP without treatment and the control (P<0.05). GTE treatment in combination with MAP could retard chemical changes and melanosis formation, regardless of AA incorporation (P>0.05). Nevertheless, GTE in combination with AA had higher inhibition on microbial growth and yielded the shrimp with higher likeness, compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Therefore, shrimp treated with GTE in combination with AA prior to MAP had the lowest losses in quality during refrigerated storage. PMID:21798614

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

2011-10-01

327

Phylogenetic relationships within the snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus (Decapoda: Alpheidae).  

PubMed

The snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus (Alpheidae) is one of the most speciose decapod genera, with over 160 described species worldwide. Most species live in symbiotic relationships with other marine organisms, such as sponges, corals and crinoids, and some sponge-dwelling species have a highly organized, social structure. The present study is the first worldwide molecular phylogenetic analysis of Synalpheus, based on >2200bp of sequence data from two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and two nuclear (PEPCK and 18S) loci. Our molecular data show strong support for monophyly of three out of six traditionally recognized morphology-based species groups: the S. brevicarpus, S. comatularum and S. gambarelloides groups. The remaining three species groups (S. paulsoni, S. neomeris and S. coutierei groups) are non-monophyletic in their current composition and will need to be either abandoned or taxonomically redefined. We also identified potential cryptic species of Synalpheus in our dataset, using intraspecific and interspecific sequence variation in COI from the taxonomically well-studied S. gambarelloides group to establish a genetic divergence threshold. We then used both genetic divergence and tree-based criteria (reciprocal monophyly) to identify potential cryptic species in the remaining taxa of the genus. Our results suggest the presence of multiple cryptic lineages in Synalpheus, underlining the need for more integrative taxonomic studies-including morphological, ecological, molecular, and color pattern data-in this biologically interesting genus. PMID:24680914

Hultgren, Kristin M; Hurt, Carla; Anker, Arthur

2014-08-01

328

Physicochemical and functional characteristics of radiation-processed shrimp chitosan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of gamma irradiation on chitosan samples were determined in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Shrimp chitosan was extracted from shell using a chemical process involving demineralization, deproteinization, decolorization and deacetylation. Commercial snow chitosan was also used. Samples (in a solid state) were given irradiation dose of 25 kGy at a dose rate of 1.1013 kGy/h in air and 0 kGy samples were used as controls. Results showed that moisture contents were between 8.690% and 13.645%. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in the degree of deacetylation of the chitosan samples. Significant differences ( P<0.05) were observed in the viscosity and viscosity-average molecular weight of the chistosan samples. Viscosity and molecular weight decreased when the samples were given the irradiation dose of 25 kGy. Chitosan samples had low antioxidant activity compared with BHT. Water binding capacity ranged from 582.40% to 656.75% and fat binding capacity was between 431.00% and 560.55%. Irradiation had a major effect on the viscosity and the viscosity-average molecular weight of the chitosan samples.

Ocloo, F. C. K.; Quayson, E. T.; Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Quarcoo, E. A.; Asare, D.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Woode, B. K.

2011-07-01

329

Oceanobacillus kapialis sp. nov., from fermented shrimp paste in Thailand.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic, spore-forming, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain SSK2-2T, was isolated from fermented shrimp paste (ka-pi) produced in Thailand. It contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The isolate grew at 8-43 degrees C, pH 6-9 and in 0.5-24% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 6-14% NaCl). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. Phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipid components. The DNA G+C content was 39.7 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that strain SSK2-2T was most closely related to Oceanobacillus picturae KCTC 3821T with 98.7% sequence similarity. Based on phenotypic and molecular features combined with DNA-DNA hybridization results (

Namwong, Sirilak; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Lee, Keun Chul; Lee, Jung-Sook

2009-09-01

330

Spectral tuning and the visual ecology of mantis shrimps.  

PubMed

The compound eyes of mantis shrimps (stomatopod crustaceans) include an unparalleled diversity of visual pigments and spectral receptor classes in retinas of each species. We compared the visual pigment and spectral receptor classes of 12 species of gonodactyloid stomatopods from a variety of photic environments, from intertidal to deep water (> 50 m), to learn how spectral tuning in the different photoreceptor types is modified within different photic environments. Results show that receptors of the peripheral photoreceptors, those outside the midband which are responsible for standard visual tasks such as spatial vision and motion detection, reveal the well-known pattern of decreasing lambdamax with increasing depth. Receptors of midband rows 5 and 6, which are specialized for polarization vision, are similar in all species, having visual lambdamax-values near 500nm, independent of depth. Finally, the spectral receptors of midband rows 1 to 4 are tuned for maximum coverage of the spectrum of irradiance available in the habitat of each species. The quality of the visual worlds experienced by each species we studied must vary considerably, but all appear to exploit the full capabilities offered by their complex visual systems. PMID:11079411

Cronin, T W; Marshall, N J; Caldwell, R L

2000-09-29

331

[Preparation of a spread from shrimp by-catch fish].  

PubMed

The composition of shrimp by-catch fish from the Central-Western region of Venezuela at different periods of the year was studied, as well as mean size and weight of same, and the yields obtained during processing, until the edible portion (pulp) was reached. The pulp was also analyzed from the physical, chemical and microbiological (pH, basic volatile N, trimethylamine, thiobarbituric acid test, moisture, fat, protein, ashes content and mesophyll and psychrophilic counts) points of view. The purpose of these studies was to determine its quality and freshness, since said pulp was utilized for the preparation of a canned and sterilized bread spread. Results obtained indicated the pulp to have an acceptable freshness, a fact which reflected in a final product with adequate characteristics. The bread spread was also analyzed from the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory viewpoints (objective analyses of color and texture, pH, rancidity and sterility tests, moisture, fat protein, ashes, carbohydrates, sodium chloride contents, and sensory evaluation). In addition, these analyses were repeated monthly during the three-month storage period at two temperatures. On the basis of the above-mentioned findings, it was possible to determine that the bread spread had adequate acceptability and stability during storage. Furthermore, raw material variations did not affect the final product characteristics, which resulted in a product with commercial potential. PMID:3154297

Sena, C; Bello, R A

1988-12-01

332

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of protein-bound residues in shrimp dosed with nitrofurans.  

PubMed

An analytical method was developed for the determination of bound residues of the nitrofuran drugs furazolidone, nitrofurazone, furaltadone, and nitrofurantoin with a sensitivity of 1 ppb in shrimp. In this procedure, shrimp tissue is prewashed with solvents followed by overnight acid hydrolysis, during which the side chains of the bound residues are released and simultaneously derivatized with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. After liquid-liquid extraction cleanup, the derivatives are detected and quantitated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The method was validated using control shrimp fortified with each side-chain analyte at 1, 2, and 4 ppb. Method accuracies were >80% with coefficients of variation of <20% for all four analytes. Tissues from dosed shrimp were assayed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for recovering bound residues of nitrofurans. In shrimp dosed with nitrofurans, nitrofurantoin exhibited the lowest level of bound residues. PMID:16277385

Chu, Pak-Sin; Lopez, Mayda I

2005-11-16

333

An immersion of Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract improves the immunity and survival of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The innate immunity and resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received the Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract were examined. Shrimp immersed in seawater containing the extract at 0 (control), 400 and 600 mg L(-1) for 3 h were challenged with WSSV at 2 × 10(4) copies shrimp(-1). Shrimp not exposed to the extract and not received WSSV challenge served as unchallenged control. The survival rate of shrimp immersed in 400 mg L(-1) or 600 mg L(-1) extract was significantly higher than that of challenged control shrimp over 24-120 h. The haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 6, 6, 6, 6, and 6-24 h post-challenge. In another experiment, shrimp which had received 3 h immersion of 0, 400, 600 mg L(-1) extract were challenged with WSSV. The shrimp were then received a booster (3 h immersion in the same dose of the extract), and the immune parameters were examined at 12-120 h post-challenge. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract, and then received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 12-48 h post-challenge. In conclusion, shrimp which had received the extract exhibited protection against WSSV as evidenced by the higher survival rate and higher values of immune parameters. Shrimp which had received the extract and infected by WSSV showed improved immunity when they received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h post-WSSV challenge. The extract treatment caused less decrease in PO activity, and showed better performance of lysozyme activity and antioxidant response in WSSV-infected shrimp. PMID:21802517

Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Li, Chang-Che; Chen, Li-Li; Cheng, Ann-Chang; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2011-12-01

334

Effect of dandelion polysaccharides on the retardation of the quality changes of white shrimp.  

PubMed

Dandelion polysaccharides (DPs) have antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In this study, investigated were the effects of the DPs on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during refrigerated storage. Shrimp samples were untreated or soaked in the DPs solution, and then they were stored under refrigerated conditions. Samples were taken periodically and evaluated for total viable count, pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen, and overall acceptability score. Treatment of the DPs effectively retarded bacterial growth and pH increasing, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen, and increased overall acceptability score of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during refrigerated storage. The results show that the DPs treatment could prolong shelf life for up to 10 days. PMID:24820151

Wang, Hong-Bin

2014-07-01

335

Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

2008-05-01

336

Ultraviolet irradiation and gradient temperature assisted autolysis for protein recovery from shrimp head waste.  

PubMed

A novel autolysis method using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and gradient temperature was investigated to efficiently recover proteins from the head of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. The proteolytic activity of shrimp head subjected to 30W UV irradiation for 20min was increased by 62%, compared with that of untreated samples. After irradiation, the enzymes remained active across a wide range of temperatures (45-60°C) and pH (7-10). An orthogonal design was used to optimize autolysis condition. After 5h autolysis, protein recovery from the UV-heat treated samples was up to 92.1%. These results indicate the potential of using UV irradiation in combination with gradient temperatures to improve recovery of proteins from shrimp head waste. PMID:24996316

Cao, Wenhong; Tan, Caiyun; Zhan, Xiaojian; Li, Huiyi; Zhang, Chaohua

2014-12-01

337

Determination of hydroxytryptophan isomers in gamma-irradiated egg white, chicken meat, and shrimps.  

PubMed

The radiation induced products of tryptophan (TRP) were determined in gamma-irradiated egg white, chicken meat and shrimps using RP-HPLC and electrochemical detection. A two-step hydrolysis with proteinase K and carboxypeptidase A was developed to release the radiation products from egg white and chicken meat and with proteinase K and pronase E from shrimps. The four hydroxytryptophan isomers (OH-Trp) were identified and quantified as radiation products in all samples. The amounts ranged between 0.02 and 1.97 mg/kg protein. A significant difference between irradiated and unirradiated samples was found for irradiation doses of more than 3 kGy for egg white and chicken meat. For shrimps no significant increase of OH-Trp isomers was measured up to a radiation dose of 5 kGy. PMID:10721119

Kleeberg, K K; van Wickern, B; Simat, T J; Steinhart, H

1999-01-01

338

The northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) offshore fishery in the Northeast Atlantic.  

PubMed

This chapter describes the development and current situation of the offshore shrimp fisheries in Iceland, Greenland, Svalbard, Jan Mayen and the Norwegian Barents Sea area, with information on the biology of Pandalus borealis and its relation to the environment. Some additional information about the inshore shrimp fisheries of Iceland and Greenland of relevance to this study is also included. The Icelandic offshore shrimp fishery started in 1975 and has formed between 68% and 94% of the annual catch of shrimp since 1984. Landings peaked at 66,000 tons in 1997. The offshore fleet increased threefold from 1983 to 1987, and catch per unit of effort doubled. The first signs of overfishing were detected in 1987, when the first total allowable catch (TAC) was set, and catches decreased during the next few years despite the discovery of new fishing grounds. Good recruitment allowed catches to rise steadily from 1990 to 1996. However, catches and stock index have decreased markedly since then, with a minimum catch for the period 1998-2003 of 21,500 tons in 2000. It has been suggested that predation by cod is an important factor affecting shrimp stock size, but mortality from predation is slightly lower than fishing mortality, so that the impact of fishing cannot be disregarded. The Greenland offshore shrimp fishery is one of the largest in the North Atlantic and it generates 90% of the export value of the country. The fishery started in 1970 in West Greenland with landings of 1200 tons, but since 1974 it has formed between 59% and 89% of the annual shrimp catch. In 2004, landings reached 113,000 tons and the fishable stock was estimated at 300,000 tons. The significant spatial expansion of the fishery from the original fishing grounds off the Disko Island area to all of the West coast south of 75 degrees N and the fleet improvement over the past three decades have made possible this spectacular growth. Other fishing grounds off the East coast have been fished since 1978, mostly by foreign vessels. Catches in this area oscillated between 5000 and 15,000 tons during the period 1980-2004. The main problem of the shrimp fishery in Greenland is its overlapping with nursery areas of redfish, Greenland halibut, cod and other groundfish species, some of which show declining trends of biomass and abundance. This led to the implementation in 2000 of sorting grids and laws that forbid fishing when the bycatch exceeds legal limits. However, it is likely that ecological processes only partially understood, such as the trophic web and hydrography of the area, greatly influence the stock abundance of the demersal community. The offshore Norwegian fishery started in 1973. The main fishing grounds are off Svalbard and in the Barents Sea. Catches at Jan Mayen have never exceeded 5% of the total annual catch of northern shrimp. Large fluctuations in catches and stock size are the main characteristic of this fishery. Stock size seems to be largely dependent on the annual hydrographic variability in the area and trends in abundance of predator species, especially cod. However, shrimp mortality due to predation has been estimated to be the same as fishing mortality, and therefore fishing probably accounts for part of the observed variability in stock size. Large populations of juvenile cod, haddock, redfish and Greenland halibut are often found on the shrimp fishing grounds. The implementation of sorting grids in 1991 and a bio-economical model in 1993 to estimate allowable maximum catches of the commercial bycatch species have not solved the bycatch problem. All the commercial fish species present on the shrimp grounds are currently below safe biological limits. This is the only fishery within the studied area that is not regulated by means of a TAC system. PMID:17298891

Garcia, Elena Guijarro

2007-01-01

339

Distribution of hydrothermal Alvinocaridid shrimps: effect of geomorphology and specialization to extreme biotopes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to review of our knowledge about distribution of recently known species of vent shrimps and to analyze factors influencing distribution patterns. Analyses are based upon (1) original material taken during eight cruises in the Atlantic Ocean (a total of 5861 individuals) and (2) available literature data from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Vent shrimps have two patterns of the species ranges: local (single vent site) and regional (three--six vent sites). Pacific species ranges are mainly of the local type and the Atlantic species ranges are of the regional type. The regional type of species ranges may be associated with channels providing easy larval dispersal (rift valleys, trenches), while the local type is characteristic for other areas. Specialization of a shrimp genus to extreme vent habitats leads to two effects: (1) an increase in the number of vent fields inhabited by the genus and (2) a decrease of species number within the genus. PMID:24676215

Lunina, Anastasia A; Vereshchaka, Alexandr L

2014-01-01

340

Determination of chloramphenicol residues in shrimps by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic method with mass spectrometric detection and identification (LC-MS) is presented for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP) in shrimp tissues. Homogenized shrimp samples were extracted with phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Clean-up was carried out on a C(18) SPE cartridge. Chloramphenicol was determined by LC-MS-ESI in negative mode. The column used was a Symmetry Shield with a mixture of acetonitrile-water (25:75) as mobile phase. Shrimp samples were fortified at CAP levels between 0.2 and 50 ng g(-1) with 5D-CAP as internal standard. At these levels, accuracies lay between 101 and 110% and between-day reproducibilities were lower than 7.1%, expressed as the variation coefficient of the mean. Limit of decision (CCalpha) was 0.02 ng g(-1). Limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.2 ng g(-1). PMID:12798162

Ramos, M; Muñoz, P; Aranda, A; Rodriguez, I; Diaz, R; Blanca, J

2003-07-01

341

Survival of deep-sea shrimp (Alvinocaris sp.) during decompression and larval hatching at atmospheric pressure.  

PubMed

We report successful larval hatching of deep-sea shrimp after decompression to atmospheric pressure. Three specimens of deep-sea shrimp were collected from an ocean depth of 1157 m at cold-seep sites off Hatsushima Island in Sagami Bay, Japan, using a pressure-stat aquarium system. Phylogenetic analysis of Alvinocaris sp. based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit gene sequences confirmed that these species were a member of the genus Alvinocaris. All 3 specimens survived to reach atmospheric pressure conditions after stepwise 63-day decompression. Two of the specimens contained eggs, which hatched after 10 and 16 days, respectively, of full decompression. Although no molting of the shrimp larvae was observed during 74 days of rearing under atmospheric pressure, the larvae developed conventional dark-adapted eyes after 15 days. PMID:15942807

Koyama, Sumihiro; Nagahama, Takahiko; Ootsu, Noriyuki; Takayama, Tomoji; Horii, Masae; Konishi, Satoshi; Miwa, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Aizawa, Masuo

2005-01-01

342

Heat-shock response and temperature resistance in the deep-sea vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata.  

PubMed

The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata swarms around hydrothermal black smoker chimneys at most vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This species maintains close proximity to the hydrothermal fluid, where temperatures can reach 350 degrees C and steep thermal and chemical gradients are expected. We performed in vivo experiments in pressurized aquaria to determine the upper thermal limit [critical thermal maximum (CT(max))] of R. exoculata and to investigate some characteristics of the shrimp stress response to heat exposure. These experiments showed that the shrimp does not tolerate sustained exposure to temperatures in the 33-37 degrees C range (CT(max)). A heat-inducible stress protein belonging to the hsp70 family was identified in R. exoculata, and its synthesis threshold induction temperature is below 25 degrees C. The R. exoculata optimal thermal habitat may thus be restricted to values lower than previously expected (<25 degrees C). PMID:12796451

Ravaux, Juliette; Gaill, Françoise; Le Bris, Nadine; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Jollivet, Didier; Shillito, Bruce

2003-07-01

343

Distribution of Hydrothermal Alvinocaridid Shrimps: Effect of Geomorphology and Specialization to Extreme Biotopes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to review of our knowledge about distribution of recently known species of vent shrimps and to analyze factors influencing distribution patterns. Analyses are based upon (1) original material taken during eight cruises in the Atlantic Ocean (a total of 5861 individuals) and (2) available literature data from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Vent shrimps have two patterns of the species ranges: local (single vent site) and regional (three - six vent sites). Pacific species ranges are mainly of the local type and the Atlantic species ranges are of the regional type. The regional type of species ranges may be associated with channels providing easy larval dispersal (rift valleys, trenches), while the local type is characteristic for other areas. Specialization of a shrimp genus to extreme vent habitats leads to two effects: (1) an increase in the number of vent fields inhabited by the genus and (2) a decrease of species number within the genus.

Lunina, Anastasia A.; Vereshchaka, Alexandr L.

2014-01-01

344

An Integrin from Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Mediated Microbial Agglutination and Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Background Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte migration, and complement receptor-dependent phagocytosis. In invertebrates, as a cell adhesion receptor, ? integrins play an important role for the balanced activation of immune defense responses especially during the encounter of infections. The present study attempts to characterize the immune functions of shrimp integrin (LvIntegrin) to have better understanding on the immune system and its regulation mechanisms in shrimps. Methodology A shrimp integrin was identified from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvIntegrin). Its full-length cDNA was of 2621 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2439 bp encoding a polypeptide of 812 amino acids. The mRNA expression of LvIntegrin was significantly up-regulated at 3, 6 and 12 h after Listonella anguillarum challenge. The cDNA fragment encoding ? integrin domains (?A and hybrid domain) of LvIntegrin was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS. The recombinant protein (rLvIntegrin) could significantly agglutinate the tested microbe including E. coli JM109, L. anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Candida dattiladattila in the presence of divalent cations. Moreover, when NIH3T3 cells were cultured with rLvIntegrin, the proliferation rate increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions LvIntegrin, a shrimp ? integrin was identified from L. vannamei, shared several highly conserved features. LvIntegrin exhibited broad-spectrum agglutination activity towards both bacteria and fungi and could improve the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, indicating that LvIntegrin is involved in the immune response against microbe challenge and regulation of cell proliferation as a cell adhesion receptor in shrimp.

Zhang, Ying; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Wu, Ning; Zhou, Zhi; Song, Linsheng

2012-01-01

345

Molecular phylogeny and in situ detection of the etiologic agent of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in shrimp.  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a severe disease of farm-raised Penaeus vannamei that has been associated with mortality losses ranging from 20 to 95%. NHP was first recognized in Texas in 1985 (S. K. Johnson, p. 16, in Handbook of Shrimp Diseases, 1989) and is an economically important disease that has limited the ability to culture shrimp in Texas. The putative cause of NHP is a gram-negative, pleomorphic, intracellular, rickettsia-like bacterium that remains uncultured in part because of the absence of established shrimp cell lines. The inability to culture the NHP bacterium necessitated the use of molecular methods for phylogenetic placement of the NHP bacterium. The gene encoding the 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) of this shrimp pathogen was amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the cloned 16S rDNA indicates that the NHP bacterium is a member of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria. Within the alpha subclass, the NHP bacterium is shown to be most closely related to bacterial endosymbionts of protozoa, Caedibacter caryophila and Holospora obtusa. Also, the NHP bacterium is distinct from but related to members of the typhus group (Rickettsia typhi and R. prowazekii) and spotted fever group (R. rickettsii) of the family Rickettsiaceae. Fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide DNA probes that bind to variable regions (V2, V6, and V8) of 16S rRNA of the NHP bacterium were used to detect the bacterium in infected shrimp by in situ hybridization. This technique provided direct visual evidence that the 16S rDNA that was amplified, cloned, and sequenced was derived from the intracellular bacterium that infects the hepatopancreas of farm-raised P. vannamei shrimp.

Loy, J K; Dewhirst, F E; Weber, W; Frelier, P F; Garbar, T L; Tasca, S I; Templeton, J W

1996-01-01

346

Real-time assessment of the microbial quality of retail shrimp using CO2 evolution rate.  

PubMed

A real-time CO(2) evolution rate (CER) method together with conventional cultural and sensory techniques were utilized to determine the microbial quality and shelf life of several types of shrimp products: chloramphenicol (CAP) treated, imported farm raised, and domestic wild caught. Treatment with CAP was used to create different bacterial loads in shrimp samples to demonstrate the ability and sensitivity of the CER method for differentiating the bacterial activity in samples. Samples were divided into control (nontreated) and 0, 10, and 30 ppm of CAP treatment groups and stored at 4°C. The CER was recorded with a microrespirometer, and aerobic plate counts (APCs), olfactory sensory analyses, and pH measurements were recorded daily until spoilage occurred. The real-time CER results were highly correlated with the APCs (R(2) = 0.93) and readily distinguished the onset of spoilage in each of the treatment groups. CAP treatment at 10 and 30 ppm increased the sample shelf life by 2 and 3 days, respectively, compared with the nontreated samples. Untreated domestic wild-caught shrimp had a shelf life 1 day longer than that of the untreated imported farm-raised shrimp. No pattern of change in pH was noted throughout the storage period. When the olfactory sensory scores reached the marginally acceptable level, the mean CER was 27.23 ?l/h/g and the mean APC was 5.78 log CFU/g. A cutoff CER of 25.0 ?l/h/g was therefore selected to define acceptable raw shrimp. The CER method was a highly effective and sensitive real-time method for determining the microbial quality of raw shrimp. PMID:23212016

Alderees, Fahad; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

2012-12-01

347

Acquisition of epibiotic bacteria along the life cycle of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata.  

PubMed

The caridean shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the fauna at several Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites. This shrimp has an enlarged gill chamber, harboring a dense ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with mineral oxide deposits. Until now, their acquisition is not fully understood. At three hydrothermal vent sites, we analyzed the epibionts diversity at different moult stages and also in the first stages of the shrimp life (eggs, hatched eggs (with larvae) and juveniles). Hatched eggs associated with young larvae were collected for the first time directly from gravid females at the Logachev vent site during the Serpentine cruise. An approach using 16S rRNA clone libraries, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used. Molecular results and microscope observations indicated a switch in the composition of the bacterial community between early R. exoculata life cycle stage (egg libraries dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria) and later stages (juvenile/adult libraries dominated by the Epsilonproteobacteria). We hypothesized that the epibiotic phylotype composition could vary according to the life stage of the shrimp. Our results confirmed the occurrence of a symbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, but more complex than previously assumed. We revealed the presence of active type-I methanotrophic bacteria colonizing the cephalothorax of shrimps from the Rainbow site. They were also present on the eggs from the Logachev site. This could be the first 'epibiotic' association between methanotrophic bacteria and hydrothermal vent crustacean. We discuss possible transmission pathways for epibionts linked to the shrimp life cycle. PMID:21993397

Guri, Mathieu; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valérie; Zbinden, Magali; Crassous, Philippe; Shillito, Bruce; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

2012-03-01

348

Edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract inhibits melanosis in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).  

PubMed

This study compared the potential of an aqueous extract of an edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) to prevent melanosis in cultured Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) with other antimelanosic compounds in vivo. The mushroom extract contained 9.1 mg/mL ergothioneine (ESH). Immersion of live full-grown shrimp in a 0.5% w/v solution of mushroom extract significantly reduced PPO activity in shrimp hemolymph. In addition, expression of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene decreased in hemocytes, suggesting that the extract blocked the activation of the proPO cascade. Consequently, the development of melanosis in the treated shrimp was significantly suppressed during ice storage. Treatment with a 0.05% w/v solution of sodium ascorbate and 4-hexyl-1,3-benzenediol had the same effect. In vitro experiments showed that ESH effectively inhibited PPO activity and activation of the proPO cascade in hemocyte lysate supernatant. This study suggests that in vivo application of F. velutipes mushroom extract is an effective natural alternative to synthetic antimelanosic agents to inhibit postmortem melanosis in shrimp. Practical Application: The extract of an edible mushroom (F. velutipes) containing ergothioneine can be a promising natural alternative to synthetic antimelanosic agents used to prevent postharvest melanosis in shrimp and other crustaceans. Furthermore, utilization of the mushroom trimmings could also help address the growing concerns on the disposal of such agricultural wastes and instead use it into a novel purpose as a source of antimelanosic and antioxidants for food and industrial application. PMID:21535653

Encarnacion, Angel B; Fagutao, Fernand; Hirayama, Jinto; Terayama, Makoto; Hirono, Ikuo; Ohshima, Toshiaki

2011-01-01

349

Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (? 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant ? 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The ? 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant flora indicated that sewage N extended further from the creek mouths than shrimp N. The combination of physical/chemical and biological indicators used in this study was effective in distinguishing the composition and subsequent impacts of aquaculture and sewage effluent on the receiving waters.

Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

2001-01-01

350

Environmental Impact Assessment of Shrimp Culture Practice in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid unplanned expansion of coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh poses risks in degrading environment. The unsustainable aquaculture practices are suspected to impart significant nutrient load to the ecosystem. Nevertheless, shrimp production is very less and susceptible to sever mortality. For this, the study aimed to understand the management practices and nutrient flux from some represented shrimp ponds in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. A comprehensive study from 2002 to 2004 was done in an aquatic system comprising a river (Semi diurnal tidal system), a canal and 10 shrimp ponds along with wider area survey to verify the issues under a DFID-funded research project involving Nautilus Consultants Ltd. (UK). In the study area (Dumuria under the district Khulna) shrimp culture practices were mostly improved extensive. Shrimp were being produced without proper pond preparation, fry nursing, stocking or feed management due to lack of technical somehow and the risks involved with higher levels of investment. Consequently production rates were very low, averaging only 191 Kg/ha. Very high mortality of shrimp was reported in some of the farms using shallow ponds immediately after heavy rainfall. This may due to the sudden fluctuation of water pH and/or water temperature and salinity. The water quality in shrimp ponds during grow out period was in acceptable range except lower trend of DO and ammonia nitrogen. Year round water quality observations indicated that there were no major differences among the river, canal and pond water that might be due to the high water flushing rate (468%). The nutrient dynamics estimation indicates that 48.7 kg/ha/cycle of nitrogen and 28.96 kg/ha/cycle of phosphorus were added to the pond as an input mostly from fertilizer and feed. Among the inputs, only 33.4% of nitrogen and 6% of phosphorus were removed as harvested form. A large portion, 39.1% N and 92% P were remained in the sediments and unaccounted for. Average intake of nutrients through supply water was slightly higher than nutrient discharged through water outlet, which indicates a net retention of nutrients in the pond ecosystems. A large portion of this sediment nutrient eventually finds its routes into the wider aquatic system every year during pond preparation. Though the aquatic environment is able to accommodate the load from the present level of aquaculture practice, the assimilative power of aquatic environment is in danger of being degraded with the unplanned intensification of shrimp culture areas. In planning aquaculture and future development all the issues and impacts must be considered.

Islam, M. M.; Rouf, M. A.; Hambrey, J.

2008-12-01

351

The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

1996-06-01

352

The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions  

PubMed Central

The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to “perceive” forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of Artemia for the well-being of human populations.

Gajardo, Gonzalo M.; Beardmore, John A.

2012-01-01

353

Comprehensive proteomics approach in characterizing and quantifying allergenic proteins from northern shrimp: toward better occupational asthma prevention.  

PubMed

Occupational asthma is a major chronic health dilemma among workers involved in the seafood industry. Several proteins notoriously known to cause asthma have been reported in different seafood. This work involves the application of an allergenomics strategy to study the most potent allergens of northern shrimp. The proteins were extracted from shrimp tissue and profiled by gel electrophoresis. Allergenic proteins were identified based on their reactivity to patient sera and were structurally identified using tandem mass spectrometry. Northern shrimp tropomyosin, arginine kinase, and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein were found to be the most significant allergens. Multiple proteolytic enzymes enabled 100% coverage of the sequence of shrimp tropomyosin by tandem mass specrometry. Only partial sequence coverage was obtained, however, for the shrimp allergen arginine kinase. Signature peptides, for both tropomyosin and arginine kinase, were assigned and synthesized for use in developing the multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometric method. Subsequently, air samples were collected from a shrimp processing plant and two aerosolized proteins quantified using tandem mass specrometry. Allergens were detected in all areas of the plant, reaching levels as high as 375 and 480 ng/m(3) for tropomyosine and arginine kinase, respectively. Tropomyosine is much more abundant than arginine kinase in shrimp tissues, so the high levels of arginine kinase suggest it is more easily aerosolized. The present study shows that mass spectrometric analysis is a sensitive and accurate tool in identifying and quantifying aerosolized allergens. PMID:23268739

Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Kamath, Sandip D; Gagné, Sébastien; Lopata, Andreas L; Helleur, Robert

2013-02-01

354

Effect of pyrophosphate and 4-hexylresorcinol pretreatment on quality of refrigerated white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) kept under modified atmosphere packaging.  

PubMed

The effect of pretreatment with pyrophosphate and 4-hexylresorcinol in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (80% CO(2), 10% O(2), 10% N(2), or 80% CO(2), 20% N(2)) on the quality of white shrimp during storage at 4 degrees C was investigated. Shrimp pretreated with 2% pyrophosphate and 0.25% 4-hexylresorcinol and stored under MAP showed the lower microbiological and chemical deteriorations as evidenced by delayed microbial growth as well as lower trimethylamine (TMA) and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB) production (P < 0.05). Additionally, the growth of coliforms was inhibited effectively. White shrimp pretreated with 4-hexylresorcinol had the lower melanosis throughout the storage compared with those without treatment (P < 0.05). This was associated with the lowered polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in shrimp treated with 4-hexylresorcinol. Therefore, the effective retardation of microbiological and chemical deterioration of white shrimp stored under MAP with the decrease in melanosis could be achieved by pretreatment of the shrimp with pyrophosphate and 4-hexylresorcinol. Furthermore, decapitation could be another means to lower the microbial load and melanosis in white shrimp, particularly those stored under MAP. PMID:18387125

Thepnuan, R; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W

2008-04-01

355

Effects of ergothioneine from mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) on melanosis and lipid oxidation of kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).  

PubMed

The antimelanosic and antioxidative properties of a hot water extract prepared from the fruiting body of the edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) were evaluated by dietary supplementation in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) for possible aquaculture application. The extract contained ergothioneine (ERT) at a level of 2.05 mg/mL. A commercial standard of l-ergothioneine (l-ERT) and the mushroom extract showed inhibitory activity against mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Feeding of the extract had no adverse effects on the immune systems of the shrimp under the present experimental conditions. Supplementation of the extract in the diet significantly suppressed PPO activities in the hemolymphs of the shrimp. Expression of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene decreased in the hemocyte of the Kuruma shrimp fed with the mushroom extract. Consequently, development of melanosis was significantly suppressed in the supplement fed shrimp during ice storage. Lipid oxidation was also effectively controlled in the supplement fed group throughout the storage period. In vitro experiments showed that l-ERT effectively inhibited the activation of proPO in the hemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS). The transcript of the proPO gene in the hemocyte showed lower expression in the l-ERT-treated HLS. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of the mushroom extract in shrimp could be a promising approach to control post mortem development of melanosis and lipid oxidation in shrimp muscles. PMID:20078077

Encarnacion, Angel B; Fagutao, Fernand; Hirono, Ikuo; Ushio, Hideki; Ohshima, Toshiaki

2010-02-24

356

The effects of temperature, chlorine and acids on the survival of Listeria and Salmonella strains associated with uncooked shrimp carapace and cooked shrimp flesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the association of Listeria and Salmonella with shrimp surfaces on the effects of temperature, chlorine and acids on their survival. Planktonic, attached and colonized cells of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, L. monocytogenes V7, Salmonella Senftenberg 1734b and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 were challenged with high (50°, 60° and 70 °C) and

M. N. Wan Norhana; Susan E. Poole; Hilton C. Deeth; Gary A. Dykes

2010-01-01

357

Species boundaries, specialization, and the radiation of sponge-dwelling alpheid shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microevolutionary studies and natural history suggest that host-specialization has promoted the high diversity of tropical sponge-dwelling snapping shrimps (Decapoda, Alpheidae, Synalpheus). Yet the taxonomic difficulty of this genus has precluded rigorous tests of this hypothesis. S. rathbunae Coutiere is among the most abundant invertebrates inhabiting the framework of sponges and dead coral that forms the floor of Caribbean coral reefs.

J. Emmett Duffy

1996-01-01

358

Radically different scales of phylogeographic structuring within cryptic species of freshwater shrimp (Atyidae: Caridina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the phylogeographic structures of four cryptic species of freshwater shrimp from the Caridina indistincta complex (Atyidae) in eastern Australia using sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I. We found very large differences between the species in the scales of overall geographic distribution, intraspecific divergence, and population structure. These species were characterized as either: (1) species with

Timothy J. Page; Jane M. Hughes

2007-01-01

359

Molecular Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in a Freshwater Shrimp Species Caridina ensifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMolecular genetic analyses of parentage provide insights into mating systems. Although there are 22,000 members in Malacostraca, not much has been known about mating systems in Malacostraca. The freshwater shrimp Caridina ensifera blue, is a new species belonging to Malacostraca which was discovered recently in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Due to its small body size and low fecundity, this species is an

Gen Hua Yue; Alex Chang; Trine Bilde

2010-01-01

360

Acute toxicity of pesticides to the tropical freshwater shrimp Caridina laevis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the potential risk of pesticides frequently used in Indonesia, a new toxicity test was developed using the indigenous freshwater shrimp Caridina laevis, which is representative of tropical ecosystems. The test species could easily be maintained in the laboratory. Acute toxicity tests with different insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides assessing adult survival after 24 and 96h of static exposure showed

David Sucahyo; Nico M. van Straalen; Agna Krave; Cornelis A. M. van Gestel

2008-01-01

361

Water Management to Control Clam Shrimp, 'Cyzicus morsie', in Walleye, 'Stizostedion vitreum', Production Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clam shrimp, Cyzicus morsie, can occur in hatchery ponds in such dense numbers that they interfere with the production of fish. Hatchery ponds are frequently left dry during the fall and winter and are filled in spring or early summer, simulating the vern...

J. M. Czarnezki E. J. Hamilton B. A. Wagner

1993-01-01

362

Monoclonal antibody based immunodot for specific detection of proteins of the shrimp Penaeus species.  

PubMed

Frozen shrimp continued to be the single largest item of export from India in terms of value accounting for about 44% of the total marine export earnings. Headless, peeled frozen shrimp is a common and dominant item in the market and there is need for differentiating peeled Penaeus sp from Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis and Macrobrachium sp as consumer preference and price vary. Furthermore, there is need to find out original species used in value addition of shrimp products. Hence, it is essential for development of simple and consumer friendly technique for the identification of shrimp and their products in the market. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) C-15 (IgG3) and C-52 (IgG2a) reacting with 65 and 47 kD proteins of Penaeus monodon respectively in the Western blot were selected. In epitope analysis by immunodot, the two MAbs reacted and recognized specific proteins of P. monodon, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Littopenaeus vannamei and not that of Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, crabs and fishes. The immunodot required 120 min for completion. The sensitivity of the immunodot to detect proteins of P. monodon was 0.225 mg with MAb C-15 and 0.028 mg with MAb C-52. The MAb based immunodot developed, could be used for identifying and differentiating meat of P. monodon, F. indicus, and L. vannamei from that of Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis, M. rosenbergii, crabs and fishes. PMID:24803705

Abhiman, P B; Shankar, K M; Patil, Rajreddy; Suresh Babu, P P; Sahoo, A K; Shamasundar, B A

2014-05-01

363

Evolution of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda, Malacostraca) in the light of new Mesozoic fossils  

PubMed Central

Background We describe new specimens of Mesozoic mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda, Malacostraca) that exhibit morphological and developmental information previously unknown. Results Specimens assigned to the taxon Sculda exhibit preserved pleopods, thoracopods including all four raptorial limbs as well as details of antennae and antennulae. The pleopods and the antennulae resemble those of the modern mantis shrimps, but the raptorial limbs are not as differentiated as in the modern species. In some specimens, the first raptorial limb (second thoracopod) is not significantly larger than the similar-sized posterior three pairs (as in extant species), but instead these appendages become progressively smaller along the series. In this respect they resemble certain Palaeozoic stomatopods. Another specimen, most likely belonging to another species, has one pair of large anterior raptorial thoracopods, a median-sized pair and two more pairs of small-sized raptorial appendages and, thus, shows a new, previously unknown type of morphology. A single specimen of Pseudosculda laevis also exhibits the size of the raptorial limbs; they are differentiated as in modern species, one large pair and three small pairs. Furthermore, we report additional larval specimens and show also post-larval changes, e.g., of the tail fan. Conclusions These new data are used to reconsider the phylogeny of Stomatopoda. We still need a strict taxonomical revision of the Mesozoic mantis shrimps, but this first examination already demonstrates the importance of these fossils for understanding mantis shrimp evolution and the interpretation of evolutionary pathways of particular features.

2010-01-01

364

Fisheries biology, ecology and recreational harvesting of ghost shrimp (trypaea australiensis) in south-eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burrowing ghost shrimp, Trypaea australiensis Dana 1852, are a popular bait organism harvested from estuarine intertidal sediments in eastern Australia by recreational and commercial fishers. Previous investigations concerning the biology and ecology of this species have been limited in this region, particularly for south-eastern Australia. Despite considerable public concern about the species, catches of T. australiensis are largely unregulated, at

Douglas Rotherham

2004-01-01

365

Concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in fish and shrimp in Jiangsu Province, China.  

PubMed

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) concentrations were determined in 55 samples of fish, shrimp, crabs, frogs and turtles collected in Jiangsu Province and 55 freshwater shrimp samples collected from the Huiming Fish Market, Nanjing, China between 2003 and 2004. PCP concentrations ranged from less than the method detection limit (MDL: 0.5 microg/kg ww) to 61 microg/kg ww, with a mean of 5.2 microg/kg ww in 55 samples collected across Jiangsu Province and a mean of 0.5 microg/kg ww for freshwater shrimp collected from the Huiming Fish Market. Concentrations of PCP in common carp (Carassius auratus) were significantly greater than concentrations of PCP in other species from all of the areas studied. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) contained the second greatest concentrations and crustacean species contained the least concentrations. Concentrations of PCP were greater in samples collected from Southern Jiangsu than those collected from other areas of Jiangsu Province. Concentrations of PCP in the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) from the Huiming Fish Market were greater in March and September than those collected in June and December. Based on the allowable daily intake (ADI) set by the US National Academy of Science, current concentrations of PCP measured in aquatic products from Jiangsu Province presented minimus health risks to humans. PMID:17537482

Ge, Jiachun; Pan, Jianling; Fei, Zhiliang; Wu, Guanghong; Giesy, John P

2007-08-01

366

Organic Coasts? Regulatory Challenges of Certifying Integrated Shrimp-Mangrove Production Systems in Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vietnamese government aims to expand the scale of Naturland certified organic production in integrated shrimp-mangrove farming systems across the coast of Ca Mau province by 2015. In doing so the division between public and private regulation has become blurred. We analyze the government's goal by examining the regulatory challenges of using…

Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Bush, Simon R.; Mol, Arthur P. J.; van Dijk, Han

2012-01-01

367

The Relative Abundance of Opossum Shrimp, Mysis relicta, in Twin Lakes, Colorado Using a Benthic Trawl..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of the opossum shrimp (Mysis relicta) at Twin Lakes, Colo., is part of an investigation into the potential impacts of pumped-storage power generation on the two lakes. Since 1974, large and small benthic sled-type trawls have been used monthly t...

T. P. Nesler

1981-01-01

368

Spatial structure and bathymetric patterns of penaeoid shrimps in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative surveys of penaeoid shrimps (Farfantepenaeus duorarum, F. aztecus, Litopenaeus setiferus, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, Sicyonia brevirostris and Trachypenaeus similis) were conducted in Campeche Sound, southwestern Gulf of Mexico, in October and November 2002. A total of 20 stations were located along a bathymetric gradient ranging from 8 to 50m. Spatial patterns in density and individual size were evaluated by geostatistics and

Hugo Castrejón; Roberto Pérez-Castañeda; Omar Defeo

2005-01-01

369

Cloning and molecular characterization of heat shock cognate 70 from tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

We cloned the complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) of the heat shock cognate 70 (hsc70) gene of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). It was 2207 bp long and included a 1959-bp coding region, a 40-bp flanking region at the 5? end, and a 208-bp flanking region at the 3? end. The deduced, 652–amino acid sequence had a molecular mass of 71?481 Da and an estimated isoelectric point (pI) of 5.2. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the gene is clustered with the hsc70 proteins of invertebrates and vertebrates. In native gel electrophoresis, recombinant P monodon hsc70 expressed in an Escherichia coli system is tightly associated with carboxymethylated ?-lactalbumin (CMLA), which indicates that hsc70 probably functions as a chaperone. In an in vitro adenosine triphosphatase assay, recombinant hsc70 hydrolyzed adenosine triphosphate to adenosine-5?-diphosphate and increased hydrolysis activity by binding to unfolded peptide, CMLA. In situ hybridization using an antisense riboprobe revealed that the hsc70 gene was active in most tissues of unstressed shrimp. The expression of hsc70 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in hemocytes increased 2- to 3-fold at the first hour after shrimp experienced heat shock and 0.5-hour recovery. Hsc70 mRNA decreased gradually to the background level. Cloning and characterizing the P monodon hsc70 gene is the first, crucial step in studying the relationship of heat shock proteins with the stress or immune responses of shrimp.

Lo, Wan-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Liao, I-Chiu; Song, Yen-Ling

2004-01-01

370

Cleavage and gastrulation in the shrimp Penaeus ( Litopenaeus) vannamei (Malacostraca, Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most malacostracan crustaceans develop through superficial cleavage, in the Amphipoda, Euphausiacea, and Dendrobranchiata (Decapoda) cleavage is complete. Euphausiaceans and dendrobranchiate shrimp share a similar early cleavage pattern, early cleavage arrest and ingression of mesendoderm progenitor cells, a ring of crown cells (prospective naupliar mesoderm) around the blastopore, and hatching as a nauplius larva. Yet recent phylogenies do not support

Philip L. Hertzler

2005-01-01

371

EFFECTS OF AERIAL THERMAL FOG APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON CAGED PINK SHRIMP, MYSIDS AND SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mosquito control applications of fenthion by aerial thermal fog equipment were studied at two sites in Collier County, FL, for sprays that occurred on 20 and 23 June 1984. Acute, lethal effects of fenthion deposited in these estuarine habitats were assessed for caged pink shrimp ...

372

Molecular cloning and characterization of the nitric oxide synthase gene from kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) signaling is involved in many physiological processes in vertebrates and invertebrates. In crustaceans, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) plays a significant role in the regulation of the nervous system and in innate immunity. Here, we describe the entire cDNA sequence (4616 bp) of the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus NOS (Mj NOS) generated using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction

Mari Inada; Tohru Mekata; Raja Sudhakaran; Shogo Okugawa; Tomoya Kono; Amel Mohammed El Asely; Nguyen T. H. Linh; Terutoyo Yoshida; Masahiro Sakai; Toshifumi Yui; Toshiaki Itami

2010-01-01

373

A new snapping shrimp (Crustacea Decapoda, Alpheidae, Alpheus) from the estuarine mudflats of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new snapping shrimp, Alpheus lutosus spec. nov., is described from the intertidal mudflats of Bubiyan Island, northern Kuwait, south of the vast Shatt-Al-Arab delta. The new species appears to be closely related to Alpheus hoplocheles Coutière, 1897 from similar estuarine habitats in China and Japan, differing mainly in the absence of a sharp distolateral tooth on the palm of

A. Anker; Grave De S

2009-01-01

374

Genetic mapping of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon with amplified fragment length polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report construction of an initial genetic linkage map for the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Mapping was carried out using polymorphic markers derived from 23 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) primer pairs. These were analysed on three reference families of known pedigree. A total of 673 polymorphic AFLP loci that conformed to expected Mendelian segregation ratios were scored in

Kate Wilson; Yutao Li; Vicki Whan; Sigrid Lehnert; Keren Byrne; Stephen Moore; Siriporn Pongsomboon; Anchalee Tassanakajon; George Rosenberg; Elizabeth Ballment; Zahra Fayazi; Jennifer Swan; Matthew Kenway; John Benzie

2002-01-01

375

DOSE/DOSE-RATE RESPONSES OF SHRIMP LARVAE TO UV-B RADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 W sq m (DNA) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activi...

376

Effects of Betaine Supplementation to Feeds of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Reared at Extreme Salinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp production worldwide has increased dramatically, and optimal sites are no longer abundant. New farms are being constructed in areas where water salinity and ion composition are suboptimal. Aquaculturists and feed suppliers are attempting to alleviate ion nonequilibriums through nutrition. One nutritive supplement that has been marketed is the amino acid betaine. The present work evaluated the effects of betaine

I. P. Saoud; D. A. Davis

2005-01-01

377

Satellite DNA from the brine shrimp Artemia affects the expression of a flanking gene in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously revealed that in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana an AluI DNA family of repeats, 113 bp in length, is the major component of the constitutive heterochromatin and that this repetitive DNA shows a stable curvature that confers a solenoidal geometry on the double helix in vitro. It was suggested that this particular structure may play a relevant

Domenico Maiorano; Raffaele Cece; Gianfranco Badaracco

1997-01-01

378

Life history divergence of sympatric diploid and polyploid populations of brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study how polyploidy affects life history patterns in animals, we have examined sympatric diploid and polyploid brine shrimp (Artemia parthenogenetica) from China, Italy and Spain under laboratory conditions. At optimal temperature and salinity (25°C and 90 ppt), diploids from the three populations had much higher intrinsic rates of increase, higher fecundity, faster developmental rates, and larger brood

Lei Zhang; Charles E. King

1993-01-01

379

Use of Brine Shrimp, Artemia spp., in Larval Crustacean Nutrition: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of convenience in production and their suitable biochemical composition, brine shrimp Artemia spp. nauplii have been adopted as a standard diet in the commercial larviculture of several crustacean species. The nutritional value of Artemia, however, is not constant, but varies both geographically and temporally. During the past decade both the causes of Artemia nutritional variability and methods to improve

Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Coutteau; Philippe Dhert; Greet Merchie; Patrick Lavens

1998-01-01

380

Rearing Orius laevigatus on Cysts of the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and reproduction of Orius laevigatus (Fieber) on cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana Kellogg were compared with those on eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. Cysts had to be hydrated for successful development of the predator. Developmental period on decapsulated cysts stored in dry form was shorter than that on nondecapsulated cysts or E. kuehniella

Yves Arijs; Patrick De Clercq

2001-01-01

381

Effects of feeding and predator exposure on photoresponses during diel vertical migration of brine shrimp larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of f&ding-starvation and exposure to a planktivorous fish (Atlantic menhaden larvae) on photoresponses involved in nocturnal diel vertical migration (DVM) of brine shrimp (Artemia) naupliar larvae were measured in a laboratory system that mimics the distribution of underwater angular light. Exposure to predators activated photoresponses involved in the descent response to an increase in light intensity (as at sunrise)

RICHARD B. FORWARD; WILLIAM F. HETTLER

1992-01-01

382

Limnological control of brine shrimp population dynamics and cyst production in the Great Salt Lake, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Great Salt Lake of Utah, the brine shrimp Artemia franciscanaKellogg is an important food resource for birds and they produce dormant cysts that are harvested and used extensively in the aquaculture industry. We analyzed the limnological factors controlling Artemia growth and cyst production over 12 months in 1994 and 1995. Laboratory experiments showed that inter-brood intervals were highly

Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh; Z. Maciej Gliwicz

2001-01-01

383

The fine structure of the maxillary gland of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina : The efferent duct  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efferent duct of the maxillary gland of adult brine shrimp, Artemia salina, is specialized into two morphologically distinct regions: an efferent tubule and a terminal duct. The wall of the efferent tubule is composed of epithelial cells which possess an apical microvillous border and, more basally, membranous configurations with which large numbers of mitochondria are closely associated. These membranous

Greta E. Tyson

1968-01-01

384

Genetic and morphometric differentiation in Old World bisexual species of Artemia (the brine shrimp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied bisexual populations of Eastern Old World (EOW) brine shrimp (Artemia) from China (A. sinica and Artemia sp.), Kazakhstan (Artemia sp.) and Iran (A. urmiana), together with one population of Western Old World (WOW) A. tunisiana (Italy) and a New World (NW) population of A. franciscana (U.S.A.). Allozyme electrophoresis, discriminant analyses of morphometric characters, and laboratory tests for reproductive

Ernani J S Pilla; John A Beardmore

1994-01-01

385

Effects of metals on early life stages of the brine shrimp, Artemia : A developmental toxicity assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for simple, fast and inexpensive tests to study metal pollution in the marine environment has become more pressing as utilization of coastal waters increases. To address this concern, the influence of four metals, cupric sulfate, lead nitrate, zinc sulfate and nickel sulfate, on emergence and hatching of the brine shrimp,Artemia, has been assessed. Occurrence of these easily recognized

Thomas H. MacRae; Amritanshu S. Pandey

1991-01-01

386

Intercoil connections of the kidney of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maxillary glands (kidneys) of adult brine shrimp were examined by light and electron microscopy. Within a single maxillary gland there are numerous places where adjacent coils of the efferent tubule are linked by structures designated “intercoil connections”. At the site of such a connection the basal laminae of the two coils are continuous, and one or more cytoplasmic processes originating

Greta E. Tyson

1969-01-01

387

Economic Valuation of a Mangrove Ecosystem Threatened by Shrimp Aquaculture in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove ecosystems in Sri Lanka are increasingly under threat from development projects, especially aquaculture. An economic assessment is presented for a relatively large (42 ha) shrimp culture development proposed for the Rekawa Lagoon system in the south of Sri Lanka, which involved an extended cost–benefit analysis of the proposal and an estimate of the “total economic value” (TEV) of a

M. Gunawardena; J. S. Rowan

2005-01-01

388

75 FR 56988 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is extending the time limit for the preliminary results of the administrative review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the period February 1, 2009, through January 31,...

2010-09-17

389

MINUTES OF THE STAKEHOLDER MEETINGS ON THE REPORT OF THE JSA SHRIMP VIRUS WORK GROUP  

EPA Science Inventory

Minutes of the Stakeholder Meetings on the Report of the JSA Shrimp Virus Work Group - Availability September 1997 (EPA/600/R-97/136) This document is comprised of five pieces as follows: Minutes of the Stakeholder Meetings on the Report o...

390

FRESH-WATER SHRIMPS (CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA, NATANTIA) OF THE ORINOCO BASIN AND THE VENEZUELAN GUAYANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimps of the families Sergestidae and Palaemonidae collected in the Orinoco basin, the upper Cuyuni River, and the upper and lower Rio Negro, are dealt with in this paper. New records and comments are given for Acetes paraguayensis, Macrobrachium amazonicum, M. brasiliense, M. jelskii, M. nattered, M. surinamicum, and Palaemonetes carteri. Two new palaemonids are described: Macrobrachium cortezi, a form

Gilberto Rodriguez

1982-01-01

391

Selenium biotransformations in an engineered aquatic ecosystem for bioremediation of agricultural wastewater via brine shrimp production.  

PubMed

An engineered aquatic ecosystem was specifically designed to bioremediate selenium (Se), occurring as oxidized inorganic selenate from hypersalinized agricultural drainage water while producing brine shrimp enriched in organic Se and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for use in value added nutraceutical food supplements. Selenate was successfully bioremediated by microalgal metabolism into organic Se (seleno-amino acids) and partially removed via gaseous volatile Se formation. Furthermore, filter-feeding brine shrimp that accumulated this organic Se were removed by net harvest. Thriving in this engineered pond system, brine shrimp ( Artemia franciscana Kellogg) and brine fly (Ephydridae sp.) have major ecological relevance as important food sources for large populations of waterfowl, breeding, and migratory shore birds. This aquatic ecosystem was an ideal model for study because it mimics trophic interactions in a Se polluted wetland. Inorganic selenate in drainage water was metabolized differently in microalgae, bacteria, and diatoms where it was accumulated and reduced into various inorganic forms (selenite, selenide, or elemental Se) or partially incorporated into organic Se mainly as selenomethionine. Brine shrimp and brine fly larva then bioaccumulated Se from ingesting aquatic microorganisms and further metabolized Se predominately into organic Se forms. Importantly, adult brine flies, which hatched from aquatic larva, bioaccumulated the highest Se concentrations of all organisms tested. PMID:23621086

Schmidt, Radomir; Tantoyotai, Prapakorn; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Bañuelos, Gary S; Hristova, Krassimira R; Freeman, John L

2013-05-21

392

Hydrological and Water Quality Indices as management tools in marine shrimp culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous monitoring of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of pond, effluent and inlet waters helps not only to predict and control negative conditions for shrimp farming, but also avoids environmental damages and collapse of the production process. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of implementing a Water Quality Index (WQI) as a tool to

N. C. Ferreira; C. Bonetti; W. Q. Seiffert

2011-01-01

393

Whiteleg shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone, 1931) isotrypsins: Their genotype and modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on information about isotrypsins found by substrate–SDS-PAGE in the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and their segregation, an explanation for the presence of three-trypsin phenotype was sought. Isotrypsins A, B, and C depend on two loci: locus ?, which is homozygous, yielding isoenzyme C, and locus ?, which is heterozygous, yielding isoenzymes A and B. Segregation in locus ? in

Juan Carlos Sainz; Fernando L. García-Carreño; Julio H. Córdova-Murueta; Pedro Cruz-Hernández

2005-01-01

394

Protein digestion in penaeid shrimp: digestive proteinases, proteinase inhibitors and feed digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein is the most abundant ingredient in both natural and prepared diets of penaeid shrimp. The assessment of protein digestion through the developmental stages of penaeids may contribute to the development of more suitable feeding schedules for their cultivation. Among the techniques to study protein digestion, detection and characterization of digestive proteinase inhibitors in proteinaceous feed ingredients can be achieved

D. Lemos; J. M. Ezquerra; F. L. Garcia-Carreno

2000-01-01

395

COMPARISON OF FREEZING AND THAWING TREATMENTS ON MUSCLE PROPERTIES OF WHITELEG SHRIMP (LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is traded as a frozen food. Changes in texture of thawed muscle are a negative economic factor. This study evaluated and compared two freezing methods, cryogenic and forced convection, and two thawing methods, at 4 and 25C by histological, textural and electrophoretical tests. Insignificant interaction was found between the two main effects for any of the

LOURDES M. DÍAZ-TENORIO; FERNANDO L. GARCÍA-CARREÑO; RAMÓN PACHECO-AGUILAR

2007-01-01

396

The cytochrome c oxidase and its mitochondrial function in the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during hypoxia.  

PubMed

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, is a key constituent of the electron transport chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is constantly exposed to hypoxic conditions, which affects both the central metabolism and the mitochondrial function. The purpose of this study was to isolate shrimp mitochondria, identify the COX complex and to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on the shrimp mitochondrial function and in the COX activity. A 190 kDa protein was identified as COX by immunodetection techniques. The effect of hypoxia was confirmed by an increase in the shrimp plasma L-lactate concentration. COX activity, mitochondrial oxygen uptake and protein content were reduced under hypoxic conditions, and gradually restored as hypoxia continued, this suggests an adaptive mitochondrial response and a highly effective COX enzyme. Both mitochondrial oxygen uptake and COX activity were completely inhibited by KCN and sodium azide, suggesting that COX is the unique oxidase in L. vannamei mitochondria. PMID:24338495

Jimenez-Gutierrez, L R; Uribe-Carvajal, S; Sanchez-Paz, A; Chimeo, C; Muhlia-Almazan, A

2014-06-01

397

The contribution of the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) to lunar geochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) developed at the Australian National University (ANU) was the first of the high-resolution ion microprobes. The impact of this instrument on geochronological research over the last twenty years has been immense. This is particularly so for lunar geochronology where it has opened up avenues of research that were not possible using conventional TIMS techniques.

R. T. Pidgeon; A. A. Nemchin; C. Meyer

2010-01-01

398

California Freshwater Shrimp Project: An Eco-Action Project with Real Life Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California Freshwater Shrimp Project is an example of a student-initiated, eco-action project. Students, from a fourth grade class in the Ross Valley School District in San Rafael, California, were linked to their community and environment through their work in rehabilitating habitat and educating the public. The paper gives an overview of a…

Rogers, Laurette H.

399

Mercury and arsenic in green tiger shrimp from the Persian Gulf.  

PubMed

Mercury and arsenic pollution has been recognized as a potential environmental and public health problem for over 40 years. The major source of exposure to mercury and arsenic for humans is the ingestion of sea food. Concentrations of mercury and arsenic in the muscle samples of green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) from the Persian Gulf were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of metals in muscle samples were 49-115 µg kg(-1) for mercury, 115-131 µg kg(-1)for arsenic, with means of 82.7 and 251.6 µg kg(-1), respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference of mercury and arsenic concentration in shrimp muscles between selected stations (Bushehr, Khuzestan, and Hormozgan provinces). No significant difference was found among heavy metal contents of male and female shrimps. The results of this study indicate that the green tiger shrimp from the Persian Gulf have concentrations well below the maximum permissible levels for mercury (500 µg kg(-1)) and arsenic (6000 µg kg(-1)), according to international standards, with no health risk of consumers. PMID:22782706

Raissy, Mehdi; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Nadeali, Vahid; Ansari, Mahsa; Shakerian, Amir

2014-04-01

400

Guianas-Brazil Shrimp Fishery and Related U.S. Research Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

United States research activity in connection with the Guianas-Brazil shrimp fishery is descried. The fishery's history is reviewed and catch and effort statistics are discussed. The fishery grounds extend from Trinidad south to the mouth of the Amazon Ri...

A. Dragovich

1981-01-01

401

Genetic Variability Assessed by Microsatellites in a Breeding Program of Pacific White Shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity in a shrimp-breeding program was monitored for 2 generations by microsatellite DNA markers ( Pvan1578 and Pvan1815) to establish levels of variation and proceed with a selection program. An increase in the number and frequencies of some alleles in both microsatellite loci from G 0 to G 2 was induced by foreign sire contributions. Most common alleles and

Pedro Cruz; Ana M. Ibarra; Humberto Mejia-Ruiz; Patrick M. Gaffney; Ricardo Pérez-Enríquez

2004-01-01

402

Selective breeding of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) for growth and resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1995 to 1998, the Oceanic Institute operated a breeding program for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on a selection index weighted equally for growth and resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV). In 1998, two separate breeding lines were established. One line was selected 100% for growth (Growth line) and a second line was selected on an index weighted 70%

Brad J Argue; Steve M Arce; Jeffrey M Lotz; Shaun M Moss

2002-01-01

403

Lysozyme gene expression by hemocytes of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after injection with Vibrio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to quantify the gene expression of lysozyme, an important antibacterial protein produced by shrimp hemocytes, within tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in response to a pathogen challenge. We quantified lysozyme transcripts with a real-time PCR method and used these data, along with total hemocyte counts, to infer patterns of hemocyte trafficking during the immune

Erin J. Burge; Daniel J. Madigan; Louis E. Burnett; Karen G. Burnett

2007-01-01

404

ENHANCED ORGANIC MATTER REMINERALIZATION AND NUTRIENT TURNOVER BY BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS IN YAQUINA BAY, OR  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing thalassinid shrimp are major ecological components of Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and where they structure large areas of intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat. These crustaceans occur in dense beds (>250 m-2) and dig extensive burrow systems (>1 m) controlling ...

405

76 FR 41760 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is extending the time limit for the final results of the new shipper review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February 1, 2010, through July 31,...

2011-07-15

406

The Role of Bacteria in the Uptake of Hexoses from Seawater by Postlarval Penaeid Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The uptake of hexoses from dilute solutions in seawater by postlarval penaeid shrimp was measured at salinities from 10-40o/oo. Uptake of D-mannitol was less than that of D-glucose but greater than that of both L-glucose and 3-0-methyl-D-glucose, which di...

F. L. Castille A. L. Lowrence

1979-01-01

407

NONINDIGENOUS PATHOGENIC SHRIMP VIRUS INTRODUCTIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES: DEVELOPING A QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Nonindigenous Pathogenic Shrimp Virus Introductions into the United States: Developing a Qualitative Ecological Risk Assessment. Austin, R.K.; van der Schalie, W.R.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC; Menzie, C.; Menzie-Cura and Associates, Chelmsford, MA; Fair...

408

Culturable fungal diversity of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone from breeding farms in brazil  

PubMed Central

Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers.

Cruz da Silva, Lidiane Roberta; Camilo de Souza, Odacy; dos Santos Fernandes, Maria Jose; Massa Lima, Debora Maria; Rodrigues Coelho, Rosalie Reed; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria

2011-01-01

409

77 FR 12801 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results, Partial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...determines that the respondents in this review did not make sales in the United States at prices...to submit statements certifying that they did not enter, export or sell subject merchandise...review only covers suspended entries that did not include dusted shrimp, but cash...

2012-03-02

410

Heat-shock response and temperature resistance in the deep-sea vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata swarms around hydrothermal black smoker chimneys at most vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This species maintains close proximity to the hydrothermal fluid, where temperatures can reach 350°C and steep thermal and chemical gradients are expected. We performed in vivo experiments in pressurized aquaria to determine the upper thermal limit (critical thermal maximum (CTmax)) of R.

Juliette Ravaux; Françoise Gaill; Nadine Le Bris; Pierre-Marie Sarradin; Didier Jollivet; Bruce Shillito; Quai St-Bernard; Batiment A

2003-01-01

411

Relationship of life-history patterns to depth in deep-water caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Natantia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-water shrimps, distributed on the steep outer reef slopes of tropical Pacific Islands, were obtained by setting baited traps in depths down to 850 m in the vicinity of Laucala Bay, Fiji, over the period 1979 to 1983. Life-history variables were estimated and interspecific comparisons made between Parapandalus serratifrons, Plesionika longirostris, Heterocarpus ensifer, H. gibbosus, H. sibogae, H. laevigatus (Pandalidae)

M. G. King; A. J. Butler

1985-01-01

412

A new genus and species of deep-water pontoniine shrimp (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae) from Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus and species of pontoniine shrimp, Patonia mclaughlinae n. gen., n. sp., is described and illustrated based on a single ovigerous female collected at depths of 209 to 280 m, during a recent deep-sea expedition off Taiwan. Th is new genus diff ers from other Pontoniinae genera in a combination of charac- ters: hepatic spine bearing a complete

Masako MITSUHASHI; Tin-Yam CHAN

413

AMERICAN SPECIES OF THE DEEP-SEA SHRIMP GENUS BYTHOCARIS (CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA, HIPPOLYTIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The .American species of the dcep-sca hippolytid shrimp genus Bylhocaris are reviewed. Bylhocaris nana is redescribed, and three new species — B. floridensis, B. gorei, and B. mis- erabilis—are described from material collected along the east and southeast coasts of the United States. A key to the known species oi Bylhocaris is given, and their distribution in American waters is

Lawrence G. Abele; Joel W. Martin

414

Deep-sea Shrimps and Lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda) from Northern Japan, Collected during the Project \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A taxonomic report on deep-water dendrobranchiate and caridean shrimps and polychelid lobsters from northern Japan, mainly from northeastern Honshu (Aomori Prefecture to Ibaraki Prefecture), is present- ed. The collection consists of 64 species, belonging to 12 families. Two new species, Metacrangon cornuta sp. nov. (Caridea: Crangonidae) and Lebbeus similior sp. nov. (Caridea: Hippolytidae), are described and illus- trated. Furthermore, the

Tomoyuki Komai; Hironori Komatsu

415

Iron oxide deposits associated with the ectosymbiotic bacteria in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rimicaris exoculata shrimp is considered a primary consumer that dominates the fauna of most Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) hydrothermal ecosystems. These shrimps harbour in their gill chambers an important ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with iron oxide deposits. The structure and elemental composition of the minerals associated with these bacteria have been investigated by using X-ray microanalyses, light microscopy, and transmission, environmental scanning and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The nature of the iron oxides in shrimps obtained from the Rainbow vent field at 36°14.0' N, has also been determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. This multidisciplinary approach has revealed that the three step-levels of mineral crust found in the Rimicaris exoculata shrimps consist of heavy concretions formed by nanoparticles of two-line ferrihydrite intermixed with minor inorganic SiO2, (Ca,Mg)SO4, and (Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2 minerals that may stabilise the ferrihydrite form of iron oxides. Morphological observations on the bacteria have revealed their close interactions with these minerals and, thus, indicate the biogenic origin of the iron oxide deposits. The evolution of the bacterial density in the three mineral crust levels is related to the amount of the iron deposits and it is proposed that the lower crust level is the most likely region for the location of the iron-oxidizing bacteria.

Corbari, L.; Cambon-Bonavita, M.-A.; Long, G. J.; Grandjean, F.; Zbinden, M.; Gaill, F.; Compère, P.

2008-04-01

416

Detoxification mechanisms in shrimp: Comparative approach between hydrothermal vent fields and estuarine environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal vents are extreme deep-sea habitats that, due to their singular features, still intrigue scientific communities. Swift growth rates and profuse biomass of biological communities can be observed, despite of their inherently unstable physical–chemical and toxic conditions, indicating that organisms inhabiting this environment must be well adapted to these inhospitable conditions. The caridean shrimp, Chorocaris chacei, Mirocaris fortunata and Rimicaris

Maria Gonzalez-Rey; Angela Serafim; Tânia Gomes; Maria João Bebianno

2008-01-01

417

Comparative Morphology of the Eyes of Postlarval Bresiliid Shrimps From the Region of Hydrothermal Vents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and ultrastructure of the eyes of postlarval vent shrimps provisionally designated 'Alvi- nocaris' and 'Chorocaris' are described. The eyes of the postlarval 'Alvinocaris' are cylindrical, borne on short stalks, and contain closely packed rhabdoms. The omma- tidia lack dioptric apparatus and have rhabdoms extending almost to the cornea. The rhabdoms consist of orthogonal layers of microvilli typical of

E. GATEN; P. J. HERRING; P. M. J. SHELTON; M. L. JOHNSON

1998-01-01

418

Are midwater shrimp trapped in the craters of submarine volcanoes by hydrothermal venting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology of Kick’em Jenny (KEJ) submarine volcano, part of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc and located off the coast of Grenada in the Caribbean Sea, was studied during a cruise in 2003. Hydrothermal venting and an associated biological assemblage were discovered in the volcanic crater (?250m depth). Warm water with bubbling gas emanated through rock fissures and sediments. Shrimp

Karen F. Wishner; Jason R. Graff; Joel W. Martin; S. Carey; H. Sigurdsson; B. A. Seibel

2005-01-01

419

Iron oxide deposits associated with the ectosymbiotic bacteria in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rimicaris exoculata shrimp is considered as a primary consumer that dominates the fauna of most Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) hydrothermal ecosystems. These shrimps harbour in their gill chambers an important ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with iron oxide deposits. The structure and elemental composition of the mineral concretions associated with these bacteria have been investigated by using LM, ESEM, TEM STEM and EDX microanalyses. The nature of the iron oxides in shrimps obtained from the Rainbow vent field has also been determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. This multidisciplinary approach has revealed that the three layers of mineral crust in the Rimicaris exoculata shrimps consist of large concretions formed by aggregated nanoparticles of two-line ferrihydrite and include other minor elements as Si, Ca, Mg, S and P, probably present as silicates cations, sulphates or phosphates respectively that may contribute to stabilise the ferrihydrite form of iron oxides. TEM-observations on the bacteria have revealed their close interactions with these minerals. Abiotic and biotic precipitation could occur within the gill chamber of Rimicaris exoculata, suggesting the biologically-mediated formation of the iron oxide deposits. The difference of the bacterial density in the three-mineral crust layers could be correlated to the importance of the iron oxide concretions and suggest that the first mineral particles precipitates on the lower layer which could be considered as the most likely location of iron-oxidizing bacteria.

Corbari, L.; Cambon-Bonavita, M.-A.; Long, G. J.; Grandjean, F.; Zbinden, M.; Gaill, F.; Compère, P.

2008-09-01

420

Assessment from space of mangroves evolution in the Mekong Delta, in relation to extensive shrimp farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an attempt to produce an assessment of the impact of shrimp aquaculture in the Mekong Delta (Viet Nam) on mangrove ecosystems. For this exercise we selected two sub-areas (Ca Mau and Tra Vinh provinces) encompassing a variety of land uses and ecological conditions. Twenty stations in Tra Vinh and 15 stations in Ca Mau have been surveyed

P. H. S. Tong; Y. Auda; J. Populus; M. Aizpuru; A. Al Habshi; F. Blasco

2004-01-01

421

Tissue location of Vibrio antigen delivered by immersion to tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an indirect fluorescent antibody technique, we traced the tissue location of heat-killed Vibrio vulnificus antigen delivered by immersion to tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). At selected time intervals (5 min, 3, 6 and 12 h, and 1, 3, 7 and 14 days) following administration, we observed antigen uptake in hemolymph and tissues such as the gills, stomach, hepatopancreas, intestines, hematopoietic

Hung-Hung Sung; Yen-Ling Song

1996-01-01

422

Relationship between land use classification and grass shrimp Palaemonetes spp. population metrics in coastal watersheds.  

PubMed

Estuaries in the southeastern USA have experienced increased loading of contaminants from nonpoint source runoff as well as changes in habitat (e.g., loss of wetlands) due to urbanization. These changes may pose significant risks to estuarine fauna, including crustaceans. Several studies have shown relationships between land use classification and levels of stress in estuarine populations. The grass shrimp of the genus Palaemonetes is one of the dominant species found in estuarine tidal creeks, accounting for more than 50 % of all macropelagic fauna. Grass shrimp populations were sampled monthly for 3 years at six estuarine creeks on Kiawah Island, SC. Creek watersheds were estimated using National Aerial Photograph Program color infrared and low-altitude true color aerial photography combined with in situ differentially corrected global positioning system mapping of engineered features. Land classifications delineated included water, marsh, buildings, roads, and lawns. Pairwise comparisons for grass shrimp densities among sites showed significant differences on an annual and seasonal basis. Significant relationships (p < 0.05) between land class variables and grass shrimp density were identified both annually and seasonally. These findings suggest an influence of land use on Palaemonetes spp. populations. PMID:24464399

Daugomah, James W; Key, P B; West, J B; Shea, N R; McDaniel, S; Pennington, P L; Fulton, M H

2014-06-01

423

Slow Photic and Chemical Induction of Bioluminescence in the Midwater Shrimp, Sergestes similis Hansen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial luminescent response to photic stimulation of dark-maintained specimens of the mid- water shrimp, Sergestes similis Hansen, differed from the conventional counterillumination response. Animals were initially unresponsive to light; bioluminescence was only induced after a latency of 3 min. Maximum intensity was reached after approximately 25 min. During the induction process, light emission from the anterior light organs was

MICHAEL I. LATZ; JAMES F. CASE

424

LIGHT ORGAN AND EYESTALK COMPENSATION TO BODY TILT IN THE LUMINESCENT MIDWATER SHRIMP, SERGESTES SIMILIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The posterior light organ and eyestalk of the midwater shrimp, Sergestes similis Hansen, are capable of 140° of angular movement within the body during pitch body tilt, maintaining the organs at near horizontal orienta- tions. Counter-rotations compensate for 74-80% of body inclination. These responses are statocyst mediated. Unilateral statolith ablation reduces compensation by 50%. There is no evidence for

MICHAEL I. LATZ; JAMES F. CASE

425

Physiological mechanisms in the control of bioluminescent countershading in a midwater shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the oceanic midwater environment, most animals have evolved an extraordinary anti?predation behavior using bioluminescent countershading (counterillumination) to help them remain cryptic to visual predators. For the midwater penaeid shrimp, Sergestes similis, the interaction of both hormonal and neural systems may be involved in the control of counterillumination. S. similis responds to downward?directed illumination, detected by the eyes, with light

Michael I. Latz

1995-01-01

426

Vertical migration, feeding and colouration in the mesopelagic shrimp Sergestes arcticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspecific variation in vertical distribution, timing of vertical migration, and colouration of the mesopelagic shrimp Sergestes arcticus were studied in the .400 m deep part of Masfjorden, Norway. Very few individuals were caught in the upper strata during daytime, and larger individuals occurred deeper during the day than smaller ones. Vertical migration was prominent and no overall trend of increasing

HEGE VESTHEIM; STEIN KAARTVEDT

2009-01-01

427

Detection of Salmonella invA gene in shrimp enrichment culture by polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Contamination of seafood with salmonellae is a major public health concern. Detection of Salmonella by standard culture methods is time consuming. In this study, an enrichment culture step prior to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect 284 bp fragment of Salmonella invA in comparison with the conventional culture method in 100 shrimp samples collected from four different shrimp farms and fresh food markets around Bangkok. Samples were pre-enriched in non-selective lactose broth (LB) and selective tetrathionate broth (TTB). PCR detection limit was 10 pg and 10(4) cfu/ml of viable salmonellae with 100% specificity. PCR assay detected 19 different Salmonella serovars belonging to 8 serogroups (B, C1, C2-C3, D1, E1, E4 and K) commonly found in clinical and environmental samples in Thailand. The detection rate of PCR following TTB enrichment (24%) was higher than conventional culture method (19%). PCR following TTB, but not in LB enrichment allowed salmonella detection with 84% sensitivity, 90% specificity and 89% accuracy. Shrimp samples collected from fresh food markets had higher levels of contaminated salmonellae than those from shrimp farms. The results indicated that incorporation of an enrichment step prior to PCR has the potential to be applied for detection of naturally contaminated salmonellae in food, environment and clinical samples. PMID:20578527

Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa; Thongshoob, Jarinee; Mahakunkijcharoen, Yuvadee; Wongchinda, Niracha; Suthienkul, Orasa; Khusmith, Srisin

2010-03-01

428

Molecular Characterization of Arginine Kinase, an Allergen from the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Consumption of seafood can produce allergic symptoms in susceptible individuals and crustacean allergies are the most frequently reported causes of allergic reactions. Methods: An allergen from the muscle of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was purified by ion exchange chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides and its specific enzymatic activity. Moreover, the corresponding full-length cDNA was

Karina D. García-Orozco; Emmanuel Aispuro-Hernández; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia; Ana María Calderón-de-la-Barca; Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo

2007-01-01

429

Nutrient and microbial dynamics in high-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp ponds in Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial and phytoplankton processes, and their effect on water quality were examined over a 3-week period in five high-intensity (120 animals m?2) shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) ponds of varying crop ages at Belize Aquaculture Ltd., (BAL) in Central America. These ponds were characterized by zero water exchange throughout the crop, plastic lining and high aeration rates. Nitrogen (N) and organic carbon

Michele A Burford; Peter J Thompson; Robins P McIntosh; Robert H Bauman; Doug C Pearson

2003-01-01

430

Preliminary Studies of a Potential Finfish Industry from Commercial Shrimp Landings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to determine species composition and weights of fish taken during trawling for shrimp by the commercial fishery in Georgia's close inshore waters. For all species combined and considering the State as a unit the average pounds per ho...

C. J. Knowlton

1971-01-01

431

CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON TWO SPECIES OF MYSID SHRIMP: 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' AND 'MYSIDOPSIS BIGELOWI'  

EPA Science Inventory

Two species of mysid shrimp, the sub-tropical Mysidopsis bahia and the northern temperate Mysidopsis bigelowi, were exposed simultaneously to cadmium (as CdC12) in a continuous-flow bioassay system to determine the effect on survival and reproductive success. Temperature and sali...

432

ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

433

THE INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN PINK SHRIMP 'PENAEUS DUORARUM' BY METHYL PARATHION AND ITS OXON  

EPA Science Inventory

The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, E.C.3.1.1.7, (AChE) activity in the ventral nerve cord of pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) by methyl parathion (MPT) and methyl paraoxon (MPO) was investigated. When the animals were exposed to these compounds in water (in vivo), AChE activit...

434

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

435

Biochemical responses during starvation and subsequent recovery in postlarval Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postlarval shrimp, Penaeus vannamei Boone, 1931, were held individually in cages and exposed to two feeding regimes. One group was starved for 12 d and then fed during the following 12 d. A second group was fed throughout the 24 d study. Four individuals were sampled from each of the two groups on Days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12,

K. C. Stuck; S. A. Watts; S. Y. Wang

1996-01-01

436

Detection and quantification of hepatopancreatic parvovirus in penaeid shrimp by real-time PCR assay.  

PubMed

As one of the major pathogens, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) can cause severe diseases in penaeid shrimp. We developed a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay for the HPV detection in China. A pair of primers (HPVF and HPVR) and a TaqMan probe were designed according to the HPV genomic sequence of Chinese isolate (GenBank: GU371276). Our data showed that the primers and TaqMan probe were specific for HPV, and they exhibited no cross-reaction with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and specific pathogen free (SPF) shrimp DNA. The assay had a detection limit of four plasmid HPV DNA copies per reaction. Furthermore, HPV was detected in 16 of 21 Fenneropenaeus Chinensis, 3 of 52 Litopenaeus vannamei and 2 of 2 Marsupenaeus japonicus penaeid shrimp samples. In addition, HPV was also detected in crabs. Therefore, this assay could be successfully used as a sensitive and rapid molecular-based diagnostic method to screen HPV-free animals and survey the prevalence of HPV in cultured populations of penaeid shrimp in China. PMID:24090693

Liu, Tianqi; Yang, Bing; Song, Xiaoling; Wang, Xiuhua; Yuan, Yanyan; Liu, Li; Huang, Jie

2013-11-01

437

Structure and interactions of calcite spherulites with ?-chitin in the brown shrimp ( Penaeus aztecus) shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spots form in the brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus, Decapoda) shell during frozen storage. The mineral formed consists of calcite incorporated into an amorphous ?-chitin matrix. We studied mechanisms of interaction of amorphous ?-chitin macromolecules with hkl crystal planes to form highly ordered structures, as well as the role of specific sites in the biopolymer, which can be related to

A. Heredia; M. Aguilar-Franco; C. Magaña; C. Flores; C. Piña; R. Velázquez; T. E. Schäffer; L. Bucio; V. A. Basiuk

2007-01-01

438

Purification of Hemocyanin from White Shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei Boone) by Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemocyanin (Hc) was isolated from white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei Boone) plasma by density gradient ultracentrifugation and immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Hc was contained in the subnatant high density fraction and was adsorbed by an iminodiacetic acid (Ni-IDA) column that bound Hc and apohemocyanin. Hc molecular weight was estimated by pore limiting electrophoresis as 400 kDa. It is composed of two

Ciria G. Figueroa-Soto; Ana Maria Calderón de la Barca; Luz Vazquez-Moreno; Inocencio Higuera-Ciapara; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia

1997-01-01

439

Comparative morphological studies on four populations of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four populations (a total of 677 specimens) of the hydrothermal shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata from three Mid-Atlantic Ridge vent fields were studied: Broken Spur (29°N), TAG (26°N), and "14-45" (14°N). Five morphological characters were analysed: number of dorsolateral spines on telson, telative carapace width, relative abdominal length, presence of "abnormal telson", and fat content. Dependences of each character upon shrimp size were analysed. Division of the shrimp ontogenesis on the basis of general morphology is proposed. Phenotypic analysis based upon five selected characters revealed statistically significant divergence between two populations within the same vent field TAG. Probable causes of observed divergence are discussed.

Vereshchaka, A. L.

1997-11-01

440

Life cycle assessment of Chinese shrimp farming systems targeted for export and domestic sales.  

PubMed

We conducted surveys of six hatcheries and 18 farms for data inputs to complete a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance for intensive (for export markets in Chicago) and semi-intensive (for domestic markets in Shanghai) shrimp farming systems in Hainan Province, China. The relative contribution to overall environmental performance of processing and distribution to final markets were also evaluated from a cradle-to-destination-port perspective. Environmental impact categories included global warming, acidification, eutrophication, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use. Our results indicated that intensive farming had significantly higher environmental impacts per unit production than semi-intensive farming in all impact categories. The grow-out stage contributed between 96.4% and 99.6% of the cradle-to-farm-gate impacts. These impacts were mainly caused by feed production, electricity use, and farm-level effluents. By averaging over intensive (15%) and semi-intensive (85%) farming systems, 1 metric ton (t) live-weight of shrimp production in China required 38.3 ± 4.3 GJ of energy, as well as 40.4 ± 1.7 t of net primary productivity, and generated 23.1 ± 2.6 kg of SO(2) equiv, 36.9 ± 4.3 kg of PO(4) equiv, and 3.1 ± 0.4 t of CO(2) equiv. Processing made a higher contribution to cradle-to-destination-port impacts than distribution of processed shrimp from farm gate to final markets in both supply chains. In 2008, the estimated total electricity consumption, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese white-leg shrimp production would be 1.1 billion kW·h, 49 million GJ, and 4 million metric tons, respectively. Improvements suggested for Chinese shrimp aquaculture include changes in feed composition, farm management, electricity-generating sources, and effluent treatment before discharge. Our results can be used to optimize market-oriented shrimp supply chains and promote more sustainable shrimp production and consumption. PMID:21714571

Cao, Ling; Diana, James S; Keoleian, Gregory A; Lai, Qiuming

2011-08-01

441

Mercury contamination of fish and shrimp samples available in markets of Mashhad, Iran.  

PubMed

Fish and shrimp are common healthy sources of protein to a large percentage of the world's population. Hence, it is vital to evaluate the content of possible contamination of these marine-foods. Six species of fishes and two species of shrimps were collected from the local markets of Mashhad, Iran. The mercury (Hg) concentration of samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a mercuric hydride system (MHS 10). High concentration of total Hg was found in Clupeonella cultriventris caspia (0.93 ± 0.14 ?g/g) while the lowest level was detected in Penaeus indicus (0.37 ± 0.03 ?g/g). Mean Hg levels in fish and shrimp samples were 0.77 ± 0.08 ?g/g and 0.51 ± 0.05 ?g/g, respectively. Farmed species (except for P. indicus) and all samples from Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea had mean mercury concentrations above 0.5 ?g/g, which is the maximum standard level recommended by Joint FAO/WHO/Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). All samples had also mean Hg concentrations that exceeded EPA's established safety level of 0.3 ?g/g. A little more extensive analysis of data showed that weekly intake of mercury for the proportion of the Iranian population consuming Hg contaminated fish and shrimp is not predicted to exceed the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes recommended by JECFA. However, the Iranian health and environmental authorities should monitor Hg contamination of the fishes and shrimps before marketing. PMID:23903758

Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed-Reza; Moradi, Valiollah; Mokhtari, Mehrangiz; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad

2013-09-01

442

Cadmium resistance in an oligochaete and its effect on cadmium trophic transfer to an omnivorous shrimp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It has been demonstrated that the deposit-feeding oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri inhabiting Foundry Cove (FC), a severely cadmium (Cd)-contaminated cove located on the Hudson River, New York, USA, has evolved resistance to Cd. In this study we investigate how this resistance influences Cd trophic transfer from this oligochaete to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. Cadmium-resistant worms collected from FC and nonresistant worms collected from an adjacent unpolluted site were investigated for differences in Cd tolerance, accumulation, subcellular distribution and bioavailability to shrimp. FC worms were more tolerant of Cd, surviving twice as long as worms from the unpolluted site during a toxicity bioassay. The 7 d concentration factor of Cd-resistant worms was 4 times greater than that of nonresistant worms (2020 vs 577). There were also differences between worm populations with respect to subcellular Cd distributions. Cd-resistant worms produced metallothionein-like proteins (MT) as well as metal-rich granules (MRG) for Cd storage and detoxification; nonresistant worms only produced MT. These differences in subcellular Cd distributions led to large differences in Cd bioavailability to shrimp; shrimp fed Cd-resistant worms absorbed 21% of the ingested Cd, while those fed nonresistant worms absorbed roughly 4 times that amount (~75%). These absorption efficiencies were in good agreement with the proportions of Cd bound to the worm's most biologically available subcellular fractions (i.e. the cytosol and organelles). Although Cd-resistant worms predominantly stored the toxic metal in biologically unavailable MRG, their increased accumulation of Cd would still result in substantial trophic transfer to shrimp because of the storage of Cd in the biologically available fractions. This work demonstrates that the evolution of Cd resistance can have profound implications for Cd bioavailability and cycling within aquatic ecosystems.

Wallace, W. G.; Lopez, G. R.; Levinton, J. S.

1998-01-01

443

Utilization of shrimp industry waste in the formulation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus) feed.  

PubMed

A rapid expansion of fisheries is demanding an adequate supply of efficient, nutritious and inexpensive fish feed, because feed contributes highly to the cost of fish production. Shrimp head, a waste product from the shrimp export industry qualifies as an economical, abundant and good quality protein source for fish feeds. In the present work, shrimp head silage powder, which contained approximately 40% protein, was used as a substitute for fish flour. Four feeds, in the form of pellets, were prepared by substituting shrimp head silage for fish flour at 0%, 33.3%, 66.6% and 100% dietary levels. Other ingredients such as corn, soy, bovine blood, cassava and corn cob flours, soy oil, vitamin premix, salt, and other components also were used in the formulation. A commercial fish feed was used as the control. The proximate composition of these feeds did not differ significantly at p>0.05, except for the protein content of the control feed, which was about 30.6% versus 35.4-36.9% protein in the other diets. No significant differences (p>0.05 level) in weight and length of juveniles fed with the different feeds during a period of 60 days were observed. In all cases, an excellent correlation (0.9950-0.9996) between weight and length of juveniles was observed. No significant difference in growth of juveniles fed on R1, R2, R3, or R4, or the control feed, was observed. Similarly, the proximate analyses of the flesh of juveniles did not present significant differences (p>0.05). The result of the study indicates that the shrimp head silage could replace fish flour as an ingredient in tilapia feed with economic advantages and without sacrificing the quality of the feed. PMID:16624557

Oliveira Cavalheiro, José Marcelino; Oliveira de Souza, Erivelto; Bora, Pushkar Singh

2007-02-01

444

Effect of Boiling Frying, Microwave Heating and Canning of the Proximate, Mineral and Thiamin Content of Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of boiling, microwave heating, canning, and frying was determined on the proximate, mineral and thiamin content of shrimp. As expected, moisture content was reduced by all cooking procedures. Heat processing tends to increase the nutritive cont...

A. J. Peplow H. Appledorf J. A. Koburger

1978-01-01

445

76 FR 64307 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2011-10-18

446

75 FR 47771 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-08-09

447

76 FR 45775 - Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2011-08-01

448

Vertical Migration and Its Effect on Dispersal of Penaeid Shrimp Larvae in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Penaeid shrimp larvae in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, sampled over discrete depths and time intervals showed a day-night pattern of vertical distribution. The magnitude of the migrations increased with larval development.

P. C. Rothlisberg

1982-01-01

449

FIELD CONFIRMATION OF A LABORATORY-DERIVED HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF FENTHION TO PINK SHRIMP, 'PENAEUS DUORARUM'  

EPA Science Inventory

Field studies were conducted to determine if laboratory protocols accurately predict shrimp mortality under field conditions. Fenthion, a mosquitocide, was applied to coastal marshes in several truck-mounted ultra-low volume (ULV) adulticide operations, and by direct application ...

450

Complete mitogenome of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimp Alvinocaris chelys Komai and Chan, 2010 (Decapoda: Caridea: Alvinocarididae).  

PubMed

We reported the complete sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the deep-sea vent shrimp Alvinocaris chelys. This is the first complete mt genome obtained for the hydrothermal vent shrimp. The gene arrangement of the A. chelys mt genome is identical to the pancrustacean ground pattern as in most of the other caridean shrimp mt genomes available to date. However, there is an exceptionally long intergene spacer (86 bp in length) existed between the ND1 and tRNA(Leu)-CUN genes that is not previously reported. Our results provide further evidence that the mt gene order is highly conserved among caridean shrimp, in contrast to the other decapod infraorder such as Brachyura or Anomura which are of comparable or lower diversity. PMID:22943309

Yang, Chien-Hui; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Tin-Yam

2012-12-01

451

International Study on Artemia XXII: Nutrition in Aquatic Toxicology--Diet Quality of Geographical Strains of the Brine Shrimp, Artemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reference and four geographical strains of brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) nauplii were evaluated as diets for the larvae of a marine fish, the Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia). The survival of fish fed the various strains was significantly different a...

A. D. Beck D. A. Bengtson

1982-01-01

452

Utilization of Finfishes Caught Incidental to Shrimp Trawling in the Western Gulf of Mexico. Part II: Evaluation of Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents estimates of the cost of operating several alternative systems for holding and landing finfish caught incidental to shrimp trawling operations. Freezer units, brine immersion tanks, an on-board fish meal plant, and extra crew member an...

J. P. Nichols M. Cross V. Blomo W. L. Griffin

1975-01-01

453

EFFECTS OF FOOD AVAILABILITY ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH, AND REPRODUCTION OF THE GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO: A LABORATORY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Grass shrimp are abundant, ecologically important inhabitants of estuarine ecosystems; adults and embryos have been used extensively in laboratory experiments, including studies of the impacts of environmental toxicants. However, optimal laboratory feeding conditions for grass sh...

454

Gulf of Mexico Pink Shrimp Assessment Modeling Update from a Static VPA to an Integrated Assessment Model Stock Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) pink shrimp stocks were deemed undergoing overfishing in 2008 at the conclusion of the 2007 fishing season (National Marine Fisheries Service 2009). This designation was made because the SEFSC Galveston Laboratory's Virtual Popula...

J. M. Nance R. A. Hart

2010-01-01

455

California Freshwater Shrimp ('Syncaris pacifica') Surveys Within Point Reyes National Seashore and Golden Gate National Recreation Area, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the study are as follows: (1) Determine the distribution of California freshwater shrimp within streams of Golden Gate National Recreation Area and Point Reyes National Seashore; (2) Evaluate the effectiveness of three survey methods for...

D. Fong

1999-01-01

456

Sarcoplasmic Calcium-Binding Protein: Identification as a New Allergen of the Black Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tropomyosin and arginine kinase have been identified as crustacean allergens. During purification of arginine kinase from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, we found a new allergen of 20-kDa. Methods: A 20-kDa allergen was purified from the abdominal muscle of black tiger shrimp by salting-out, anion-exchange HPLC and reverse-phase HPLC. Following digestion of the 20-kDa allergen with lysyl endopeptidase, peptide

Kazuo Shiomi; Yuichiro Sato; Shohei Hamamoto; Hajime Mita; Kuniyoshi Shimakura

2008-01-01

457

Lethal and sublethal effects of chlorpyrifos exposure on adult and larval stages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide, on newly hatched to adult life stages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. In laboratory experiments, adult and 18?day old larval grass shrimp were exposed in separate 96?h acute toxicity tests to establish a range of LC50's for these two life stages. The adult 96?h LC50 was 0.37 ?g\\/L with

Peter B. Key; Michael H. Fulton

1993-01-01

458

Sea surface temperature and the brown shrimp ( Farfantepenaeus aztecus) population on the Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas continental shelves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program - Gulf of Mexico (SEAMAP-GM) summer and fall trawl survey data covering the Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas continental shelves for the period 1987-2000 shows that the annual number n and weight w of the brown shrimp per trawl is positively correlated with annual sea surface temperature (SST) averaged over the continental shelves. Correlations of the monthly anomalous SST by calendar month with the annual shrimp data are highest in April and May. Past work has suggested a possible reason for this: juvenile brown shrimp, which mainly develop from postlarvae in coastal estuaries in April and May, grow faster in warmer water and are therefore more likely to escape predators. Since the juvenile shrimp population is a good predictor of the adult shelf shrimp population, and since the estuarine and shelf SST are closely linked, it is reasonable that April and May shelf SST should be positively correlated with the number and weight of brown shrimp per trawl. Shrimp are more numerous in the summer and the correlation of April and May SST anomaly is much higher for the number and weight per trawl in the summer than in the fall. Hindcasts are made using the simple linear statistical prediction model n=?+?·SSTA, where SSTA is the anomalous April-May departure of SST from the annual cycle. The cross-verified correlation between model and observed n is r = 0.77. A similar model for w gave r = 0.79. A prediction model for summer shrimp alone had cross-verified correlations r = 0.79 for n and 0.86 for w. Based on the 2004 April-May SST anomaly, annual and summer models predict that n and w should be close to average in 2004.

Li, Jianke; Clarke, Allan J.

2005-08-01

459

Characterization of water quality in shrimp ponds of different sizes and with different management regimes using multivariate statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal shrimp aquaculture in Bangladesh is mostly practiced in an agricultural unit called a Gher, which is a special type\\u000a of agricultural field with elevated surrounding embankments\\/borders situated by the side of a river that is used to grow rice\\u000a in winter and shrimp in summer. Ghers of different sizes are managed in different ways. An on-farm project was carried

A. Milstein; M. S. Islam; M. A. Wahab; A. H. M. Kamal; S. Dewan

2005-01-01

460

PmRab7 Is a VP28Binding Protein Involved in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to isolate and characterize white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-binding proteins from shrimp. After a blot of shrimp hemocyte membrane proteins was overlaid with a recombinant WSSV envelope protein (rVP28), the reactive bands on the blot were detected using anti-VP28 antibody. Among three membrane- associated molecules identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, there was a 25-kDa protein that

Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; W. Wannapapho; C. F. Lo; T. W. Flegel

2006-01-01

461

Factors Affecting the Reproductive Performance of the Atlantic White Shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, in Conventional and Unisex Tank Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional maturation systems for open thelycum penaeid shrimp are typified by 3.5-4.5 m diameter tanks stocked at three to seven shrimp\\/m at a 1:1 sex ratio. A system based on maturation in female unisex tanks and transfer to male tanks for mating offers opportunities for development of improved experimental systems, increased efficiency in commercial systems and decreased production costs. This

C. L. Browdy; K. McGovern-Hopkins; A. D. Stokes; J. S. Hopkins; P. A. Sandifer

1996-01-01

462

Water and sediment quality, partial mass budget and effluent N loading in coastal brackishwater shrimp farms in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to quantify the water and sediment quality and growth and production parameters and to establish nutrient budgets for an average of five selected semi-intensive shrimp ponds in Bangladesh over a growing cycle. Physico-chemical parameters of water and sediments were measured and analyzed by standard methods. Gross yield (kgha?1) of shrimp was calculated from the stocking and

Tamiji Yamamoto; Masaru Tanaka

2004-01-01

463

Assessing the Health of Grass Shrimp ( Palaeomonetes pugio ) Exposed to Natural and Anthropogenic Stressors: A Molecular Biomarker System  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We developed a molecular biomarker system (MBS) to assess the physiological status of Palaomenetes pugio (grass shrimp) challenged with exposure to heat stress, cadmium, atrazine, and the water-accommodating fraction of either\\u000a diesel fuel or bunker fuel No. 2. The MBS assayed 9 specific cellular parameters of shrimp that are indicative of a nonstressed\\u000a or stressed condition: heat-shock protein 60,

Craig A. Downs; John E. Fauth; Cheryl M. Woodley

2001-01-01

464

Effects of Soy and Corn Flour Addition on Batter Rheology and Quality of Deep Fat-Fried Shrimp Nuggets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effects of soy and corn flour (5 and 10% w\\/w) addition to the batter formulation on the quality of deep fat-fried shrimp nuggets were evaluated. Rheological properties\\u000a of batters, coating pick-up, moisture content, and oil content of the samples were determined. Shrimp nuggets were fried at\\u000a 150 °C, 170 °C, 190 °C, for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min.

Fereshteh Dehghan Nasiri; Mohebbat Mohebbi; Farideh Tabatabaee Yazdi; Mohammad Hossein Haddad Khodaparast

465

Detection of V. harveyi in shrimp postlarvae and hatchery tank water by the Most Probable Number technique with PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

V. harveyi is the cause of serious disease in the shrimp industry in Thailand during cultivation. In this study, the gyrB gene of V. harveyi NICA, isolated from shrimp in Thailand, was sequenced. A pair of specific primers (A2B3) was designed that allowed amplification of a 363 bp gene fragment of V. harveyi. No cross reaction was detected in 17 other

Sawitree Thaithongnum; Pimonsri Ratanama; Karnchana Weeradechapol; Ampaitip Sukhoom; Varaporn Vuddhakul

2006-01-01

466

Feeding strategy and daily ration of juvenile pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) in a South Florida seagrass bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of juvenile pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum Burkenroad, previously Penaeus duorarum) from Long Key Bight, Florida Keys, was studied using stomach content examination, pigment measurements, and stable isotope\\u000a (?13C and ?15N) analysis. Samples were taken over approximately 24?h on four occasions from December 1997 to June 1998. Juvenile F.?duorarum fed nocturnally, the main prey being the seagrass shrimp Thor

R. Schwamborn; M. M. Criales

2000-01-01

467

Elevated standard metabolic rate in a freshwater shrimp ( Palaemonetes paludosus) exposed to trace element-rich coal combustion waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

I conducted a transplant experiment to determine whether standard metabolic rate (SMR) of a freshwater shrimp (Palaemonetes paludosus) would be affected by exposure to trace element-enriched coal combustion waste (`coal ash'). Shrimp were transplanted into replicate cages in a coal ash-polluted site and a reference site for 8 months. The coal ash-polluted site was characterized by elevated sediment concentrations of

Christopher L Rowe

1998-01-01

468

Genetic Signature of Rapid IHHNV (Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus) Expansion in Wild Penaeus Shrimp Populations  

PubMed Central

Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is a widely distributed single-stranded DNA parvovirus that has been responsible for major losses in wild and farmed penaeid shrimp populations on the northwestern Pacific coast of Mexico since the early 1990's. IHHNV has been considered a slow-evolving, stable virus because shrimp populations in this region have recovered to pre-epizootic levels, and limited nucleotide variation has been found in a small number of IHHNV isolates studied from this region. To gain insight into IHHNV evolutionary and population dynamics, we analyzed IHHNV capsid protein gene sequences from 89 Penaeus shrimp, along with 14 previously published sequences. Using Bayesian coalescent approaches, we calculated a mean rate of nucleotide substitution for IHHNV that was unexpectedly high (1.39×10?4 substitutions/site/year) and comparable to that reported for RNA viruses. We found more genetic diversity than previously reported for IHHNV isolates and highly significant subdivision among the viral populations in Mexican waters. Past changes in effective number of infections that we infer from Bayesian skyline plots closely correspond to IHHNV epizootiological historical records. Given the high evolutionary rate and the observed regional isolation of IHHNV in shrimp populations in the Gulf of California, we suggest regular monitoring of wild and farmed shrimp and restriction of shrimp movement as preventative measures for future viral outbreaks.

Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Bohonak, Andrew J.; McClenaghan, Leroy R.; Dhar, Arun K.

2010-01-01

469

A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with "Bacterial White Tail Disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

470

Effects of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Effects of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were studied. Shrimp soaked in 2.5% NaCl containing both compounds at different levels of pH (5.5, 7, 8.5, 10 and 11.5) showed an increase in the weight gain and cooking yield and a reduced cooking loss as pH of solutions increased (p<0.05). Increases in pH and salt content in soaked shrimp muscle were obtained with increasing pH (p<0.05). Higher pH of soaking solution partially solubilized proteins in the muscle as well as carotenoproteins. pH of solutions above 8.5 led to the pronounced leaching of pigments, associated with the lowered redness of cooked shrimp. Shear force of raw and cooked shrimp continuously decreased as pH of solution increased (p<0.05). Solution containing 2.5% NaCl and 2.0% NaHCO3 (pH 8.5) was recommended for treatment of white shrimp as a promising alternative for phosphates to increase the yield and to lower cooking loss without any negative effect on sensory properties. PMID:21917644

Chantarasuwan, C; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W

2011-08-01

471

The sensitivity of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, embryos to organophosphate pesticide induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition.  

PubMed

Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, are common inhabitants of salt marshes along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America. Grass shrimp embryos are brooded externally on the abdomen of adult females for about 2 weeks prior to hatching. In South Carolina, the spring spawning period for grass shrimp coincides with the period of peak pesticide application on crops grown along the South Carolina coast. Thus, grass shrimp of all developmental stages are at risk of exposure to pesticides present in nonpoint source agricultural runoff. Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are commonly applied agricultural chemicals which produce toxicity by inhibiting the nervous system enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The purpose of this study was to examine the development of AChE activity in grass shrimp embryos and to assess their sensitivity to OP-induced AChE inhibition. Embryos were exposed for 24 h to either chlorpyrifos or malathion. All exposure concentrations were nominal and ranged from 0 to 2.00 µg l(-1) for chlorpyrifos and from 0 to 120.00 µg l(-1) for malathion. Quantifiable levels of AChE activity first appeared at Stage V of development and increased as embryonic development progressed. AChE inhibition by the OPs was assessed in Stage VI and Stage VII embryos. Both stages of embryos were more sensitive to chlorpyrifos than malathion. The 24-h Effective Concentration (EC(50)) values for chlorpyrifos were 0.49 µg l(-1) (95% C.I.=0.33-0.77 µg l(-1)) and 0.36 µg l(-1) (95% C.I.=0.33-0.38 µg l(-1)) for Stage VI and Stage VII embryos, respectively. In comparison, malathion 24-h EC(50) values were 55.53 µg l(-1) (95% C.I.=22.08-80.73 µg l(-1)) for Stage VI embryos and 29.93 µg l(-1) (95% C.I.=25.22-44.22 µg l(-1)) for Stage VII embryos. For both OPs, there were no significant differences in the EC(50) values calculated for Stage VI and Stage VII embryos; however, AChE inhibition was significantly (Pshrimp. Embryo bioassays provide a number of important advantages over traditional laboratory toxicity tests including reduced laboratory space requirements, large numbers of embryos from a few ovigerous females, and small volumes of waste. PMID:10686320

Lund; Fulton; Key

2000-03-01

472

Does zero-water discharged technology enhance culture performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.)?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Litopenaeus vannamei or white leg shrimp is an introduced shrimp which has successfully cultured in Indonesia. In Indonesia, L. vannamei is commonly cultured on outdoor/earthen pond that requires renewal of water, less control in term of water quality and disease and attributed to unpredictable yield production. Based on the existing culture condition, a system that enable to minimize water consumption, improve the hygiene of the culture and at the same time maintain a more stable yield production is urgent to be developed by using a zero water discharge system. The system consists of: (a) culture tank - to retain and culture the shrimp; (b) CaCO3 grained - buffering agent and substrate of nitrifying bacteria; (c) aeration line - to provide O2 and homogenize the culture; (d) ancho (feeding) - to control an appropriate feed; (e) nitrifying bacteria adding - to consume ammonium and nitrite then convert it to nitrate, and also control pathogen Vibrio sp.; (f) diatom microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis) - to uptake nitrate, bacteriostatic agent, feed source, provide O2 and shading. In this study, there were 2 treatments: the static culture (batch) system was set as control (K) (in 70 PL/m2), and culture system with zero-water discharge system which was inoculated by 0.02% v/v 106 CFU/ml of mixed culture nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae in 70 PL/m2 (P1). The white leg shrimp used in this experiment was at post larvae (PL) 10 and cultured in a batch system (1 × 1 × 0.5 m3 pond) during 2 months. Several parameters including survival rate, mean body weight, and water quality (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) were measured. Based on the results, biomass of P1 (237.12 ± 31.11) gram is significantly higher than control (K) (180.80 ± 12.26) gram (P< 0,05). Water quality during the culture period in all treatments were still in tolerance range of white leg shrimp post larvae, except ammonium concentration in control (K) (2.612 ± 0.56) mg/L which is significantly different from P1 (1.287 ± 0.49) mg/L. Based on this research, zero-water discharge technology using nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae can improve productivity of white shrimp by increasing the biomass and maintaining a stable water quality especially ammonium concentration.

Suantika, Gede; Anggraeni, Jayanty; Hasby, Fahri Azhari; Yanuwiarti, Ni Putu Indah

2014-03-01

473

Historic emergence, impact and current status of shrimp pathogens in Asia.  

PubMed

It is estimated that approximately 60% of disease losses in shrimp aquaculture have been caused by viral pathogens and 20% by bacterial pathogens. By comparison, losses to fungi and parasites have been relatively small. For bacterial pathogens, Vibrio species are the most important while for viral pathogens importance has changed since 2003 when domesticated and genetically selected stocks of the American whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Boone 1931) replaced the formerly dominant giant tiger or black tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon (Fabricius 1798) as the dominant cultivated species. For both species, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal. Next most important for P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), originally reported from Brazil, but since 2006 from Indonesia where it was probably introduced by careless importation of shrimp aquaculture stocks. So far, IMNV has not been reported from other countries in Asia. Former impacts of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) on this species have dramatically declined due to the introduction of tolerant stocks and to implementation of good biosecurity practices. Another problem recently reported for P. vannamei in Asia is abdominal segment deformity disease (ASDD), possibly caused by a previously unknown retrovirus-like agent. Next most important after WSSV and YHV for P. monodon is monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) for which component causes appear to be Laem Singh virus (LSNV) and a cryptic integrase containing element (ICE). Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) may be problematic when captured P. monodon are used to produce larvae, but only in the absence of proper preventative measures. Since 2009 increasing losses with P. vannamei in China, Vietnam and now Thailand are associated with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS) of presently unknown cause. Despite these problems, total production of cultivated penaeid shrimp from Asia will probably continue to rise as transient disease problems are solved and use of post larvae originating from domesticated SPF shrimp stocks in more biosecure settings expands. PMID:22429834

Flegel, Timothy W

2012-06-01

474

Delivery of HUFA, probionts and biomedicine through bioencapsulated Artemia as a means to enhance the growth and survival and reduce the pathogenesity in shrimp Penaeus monodon postlarvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems in the shrimp culture industry is the difficulty in producing high-quality shrimp larvae. In larviculture,\\u000a quality feeds containing a high content of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) and ingredients that stimulate stress and\\u000a disease resistance are essential to produce healthy shrimp larvae. In the present study, Penaeus monodon postlarvae (PL15) were fed for 25 days on

G. Immanuel; T. Citarasu; V. Sivaram; M. Michael Babu; A. Palavesam

2007-01-01

475

Protection of Shrimp against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) with ?-1,3- d -glucan-encapsulated vp28siRNA Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp viral pathogen responsible for large economic losses to shrimp aquaculture\\u000a all over the world. The RNAi mediated by siRNA contributes a new strategy to control this viral disease. However, the efficient\\u000a approach to deliver the siRNA into shrimp remains to be addressed. In this investigation, an antiviral vp28-siRNA was encapsulated\\u000a in

Fei Zhu; Xiaobo Zhang

476

SHRIMP and electron microprobe chronology of UHT metamorphism in the Napier Complex, East Antarctica: implications for zircon growth at >1,000 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zircons in ultra-high-temperature (UHT) metamorphosed paragneisses from Mt. Riiser-Larsen in the Napier Complex, East Antarctica, were dated by using ion microprobe (SHRIMP) and electron microprobe (EMP). Both SHRIMP and EMP analyses yield consistent 2520–2460 Ma age populations for garnet–orthopyroxene-bearing paragneiss and leucosomes enclosed within. The peak UHT event was dated at 2480 Ma by SHRIMP analyses on metamorphic zircons from the garnet–orthopyroxene

Tomokazu Hokada; Keiji Misawa; Kazumi Yokoyama; Kazuyuki Shiraishi; Akira Yamaguchi

2004-01-01

477

Thermal adaptations in deep-sea hydrothermal vent and shallow-water shrimp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrothermal vent shrimp Mirocaris fortunata is commonly exposed to acute thermal gradients and rapid fluctuations in water temperature. The shallow-water shrimp Palaemonetes varians experiences less acute but similar magnitude fluctuations in its thermal regime. Acute respiratory response to temperature shock, and temperature preference was assessed for both species. Oxygen consumption rates were assessed across the natural temperature range reported for M. fortunata. Rates increased with temperature for both species. P. varians had a significantly higher rate of oxygen consumption than M. fortunata at all temperatures except 4 °C. The rate of increase in oxygen consumption with increasing temperature was also significantly greater for P. varians. M. fortunata selected a significantly higher temperature than P. varians. Mirocaris fortunata maintains its metabolism at a more stable rate, which is likely an adaptation to acute changes in temperatures occurring at hydrothermal vents.

Smith, Felix; Brown, Alastair; Mestre, Nélia C.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

2013-08-01

478</