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1

Environmental causes of the fluctuations of red shrimp ( Aristeus antennatus) landings in the Catalan Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluctuations of catches of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) were analysed in the 6 ports of Catalonia where production is concentrated, based on monthly landings from 1988 to 2004. The 6 selected ports produced 300 t of red shrimp in 2004, or 80% of the total production in Catalonia. The series for each port showed clear interannual variability, with peaks of production in the early 1990s and more recently from 2001 to 2003. The time periods of the monthly data series, estimated by frequency analysis based on Fourier transform, varied around 7-8 years in the four central ports and 12-13 years in the two northern ports. Additionally, the different curves were not in phase: even in nearby ports, the maximum production is observed in different years. Since the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is an excellent proxy for long-term series of environmental variables, we aimed to explore relationships between the fluctuation of the NAO index and A. antennatus landings in the Catalan Sea. The correlation between the mean annual NAO index and the annual catches in each port was positive and significant with some time lags (from 1 to 3 years). The existence of clear patterns linking the NAO with marine ecological processes has been demonstrated in many studies, but the underlying ecological mechanisms are far from being well understood. The variations in environmental parameters linked to the NAO may act on biological organisms at different levels (individual, population) through physiology (metabolic and reproductive processes) or through trophic relationships, including ecological cascade effects. We propose that NAO-induced environmental variability may enhance food supply to A. antennatus and hence strengthen the reproductive potential of particular year classes, which result in increased catches 1 to 3 years later, although other possible effects of environmental variability on the population dynamics of this species are worth investigating.

Maynou, Francesc

2

Relationship between environment and the occurrence of the deep-water rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a multidisciplinary study characterizing the relationships between hydrodynamic conditions (currents and water masses) and the presence and abundance of the deep-water rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus in a submarine canyon (Blanes canyon in the NW Mediterranean Sea). This species is heavily commercially exploited and is the main target species of a bottom trawl fishery. Seasonal fluctuations in landings are

F. Sardà; N. Bahamón; G. Rotllant; M. M. Flexas; J. D. Sánchez; D. Zúñiga; J. Coenjaerts; D. Orellana; G. Jordà; J. Puigdefábregas; A. Sánchez-Vidal; A. Calafat; D. Martín; M. Espino

2009-01-01

3

Multilocus comparative phylogeography of two aristeid shrimps of high commercial interest (Aristeus antennatus and Aristaeomorpha foliacea) reveals different responses to past environmental changes.  

PubMed

Phylogeographical studies can reveal hidden patterns in the evolutionary history of species. Comparative analyses of closely related species can further help disentangle the relative contributions of processes responsible for such patterns. In this work, the phylogeography of two aristeid species, Aristeus antennatus and Aristaeomorpha foliacea, was compared through multiple genetic markers. These marine shrimp species are of high commercial importance, and are exploited in the Mediterranean Sea (MED) and in Mozambique Channel (MOZ) where they occur in partial sympatry. Aristeus antennatus (N?=?50) from Western and Eastern Mediterranean (WM and EM, respectively), Atlantic Ocean (AO) and MOZ, and Aristaeomorpha foliacea (N?=?40) from WM, EM, MOZ North-Western Australia (AUS) were analyzed with two nuclear genes (PEPCK and NaK) and one mitochondrial (COI) gene. Within the study area differences were found between the two species in their phylogeographical patterns, suggesting distinct responses to environmental changes. Monophyly of Aristeus antennatus was found across its distributional range. This pattern contrasted by a deep evolutionary split within Aristaeomorpha foliacea where genetic diversity followed geography distinguishing MED-MOZ and AUS. We propose that the AUS lineage of A. foliacea warrants consideration as a distinct species, with consequent implications in systematics and resource management. PMID:23516594

Fernández, Maria Victoria; Heras, Sandra; Viñas, Jordi; Maltagliati, Ferruccio; Roldán, Maria Inés

2013-01-01

4

Multilocus Comparative Phylogeography of Two Aristeid Shrimps of High Commercial Interest (Aristeus antennatus and Aristaeomorpha foliacea) Reveals Different Responses to Past Environmental Changes  

PubMed Central

Phylogeographical studies can reveal hidden patterns in the evolutionary history of species. Comparative analyses of closely related species can further help disentangle the relative contributions of processes responsible for such patterns. In this work, the phylogeography of two aristeid species, Aristeus antennatus and Aristaeomorpha foliacea, was compared through multiple genetic markers. These marine shrimp species are of high commercial importance, and are exploited in the Mediterranean Sea (MED) and in Mozambique Channel (MOZ) where they occur in partial sympatry. Aristeus antennatus (N?=?50) from Western and Eastern Mediterranean (WM and EM, respectively), Atlantic Ocean (AO) and MOZ, and Aristaeomorpha foliacea (N?=?40) from WM, EM, MOZ North-Western Australia (AUS) were analyzed with two nuclear genes (PEPCK and NaK) and one mitochondrial (COI) gene. Within the study area differences were found between the two species in their phylogeographical patterns, suggesting distinct responses to environmental changes. Monophyly of Aristeus antennatus was found across its distributional range. This pattern contrasted by a deep evolutionary split within Aristaeomorpha foliacea where genetic diversity followed geography distinguishing MED-MOZ and AUS. We propose that the AUS lineage of A. foliacea warrants consideration as a distinct species, with consequent implications in systematics and resource management. PMID:23516594

Fernandez, Maria Victoria; Heras, Sandra; Vinas, Jordi; Maltagliati, Ferruccio; Roldan, Maria Ines

2013-01-01

5

Relationship between environment and the occurrence of the deep-water rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a multidisciplinary study characterizing the relationships between hydrodynamic conditions (currents and water masses) and the presence and abundance of the deep-water rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus in a submarine canyon (Blanes canyon in the NW Mediterranean Sea). This species is heavily commercially exploited and is the main target species of a bottom trawl fishery. Seasonal fluctuations in landings are attributed to spatio-temporal movements by this species associated with submarine canyons in the study area. Despite the economic importance of this species and the decreases in catches in the area in recent years, few studies have provided significant insight into the environmental conditions driving shrimp distribution. We therefore measured daily A. antennatus catches over the course of an entire year and analyzed this time series in terms of daily average temperature, salinity, mean kinetic energy (MKE), and eddy kinetic energy (EKE) values using generalized additive models and decision trees. A. antennatus was captured between 600 and 900 m in the Blanes canyon, depths that include Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) and the underlying Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW). The greatest catches were associated with relatively salty waters (38.5-38.6), low MKE values (6 and 9 cm 2 s -2) and moderate EKE values (10 and 20 cm 2 s -2). Deep-water rose shrimp occurrence appears to be driven in a non-linear manner by environmental conditions including local temperature. A. antennatus appears to prefer relatively salty (LIW) waters and low currents (MKE) with moderate variability (EKE).

Sardà, F.; Company, J. B.; Bahamón, N.; Rotllant, G.; Flexas, M. M.; Sánchez, J. D.; Zúñiga, D.; Coenjaerts, J.; Orellana, D.; Jordà, G.; Puigdefábregas, J.; Sánchez-Vidal, A.; Calafat, A.; Martín, D.; Espino, M.

2009-09-01

6

Note. Effect of Metabisulphite Treatments and Freezing on Melanosis Inhibition in Rose Shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanosis or blackspot is a dark discolouration, which is unattractive to consumers and reduces the market value of crustaceans. It has been found to be unavoidable in shrimps after the trauma of capture, string and thawing process, and it varies by species, moulting cycle, and harvesting and handling methods. Sulphiting agents are still the most effective and practical method to

G. Rotllant; F. Arnau; J. A. García; N. García; M. Rodríguez; F. Sardà

2002-01-01

7

Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of Aristeus antennatus and other demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspension, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity disappearing from the fishing grounds, probably moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accessibility to fishing exploitation. Similar although more intense responses have been observed during the downslope shelf dense water current episodes that occurred in a submarine canyon, northeast of the Iberian peninsula. The proposed mechanism suggesting how the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom current meter and a sediment trap moored near the fishing grounds. The relationship between vorticity and catches is also explored for fish species (Galeus melastomus, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides) and other crustacean (Geryon longipes and Nephrops norvegicus), considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticity episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species.

Amores, Angel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric

2014-10-01

8

Dynamics of suprabenthos-zooplankton communities around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental variables and effects on the biological cycle of Aristeus antennatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of suprabenthos and zooplankton were analyzed in two areas located in the NW (off Sóller harbour) and S (off Cabrera Archipelago) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths ranging between 135-780 m. Four stations situated respectively at 150 m (shelf-slope break), and at bathyal depths of 350, 650 and 750 m were sampled at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Suprabenthos showed maximum biomass in both areas from late spring to summer (April to August), while minimum biomass was found in autumn (September-November). Though variable, temporal dynamics of zooplankton showed peaks of biomass in late winter and summer (February and June), while minimals occurred in autumn (August-September) and, at bathyal depths, in April. Suprabenthos (abundance; MDS analyses) showed a sample aggregation as a function of depth (3 groups corresponding to the shelf-slope break, upper slope — over 350 m; and the middle, deeper part of the slope — over 650-750 m), without any separation of hauls by season. By contrast, zooplankton samples were separated by season and not by depth. There was evidence of three seasonal groups corresponding to summer (June 2004-August 2003), autumn-winter (September and November 2003, February 2004), and spring (April 2004), being especially well established off Sóller. In general, suprabenthos was significantly correlated with the sediment variables (e.g. total organic matter content (% OM), potential REDOX), whereas zooplankton was almost exclusively dependent on Chl a at the surface, which suggests two different food sources for suprabenthos and zooplankton. The increase of suprabenthos abundance in April-June was paralleled by a sharp increase ( ca. 2.8 times) in the %OM on sediment during the same period, coupled ca. 1-2 months of delay with the peak of surface Chl a recorded in February-March (from satellite imagery data). Suprabenthos biomass was also correlated with salinity close to the bottom, suggesting a link between suprabenthos abundance and changes in the oceanographic condition of water masses close to the bottom. It is suggested that a higher suprabenthos biomass recorded off Sóller in comparison to that off Cabrera in June could, in turn, be related to a seasonal inflow of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in April-June in this area at mid bathyal depths (350-650 m). This trend would be based on: 1) it was evident only at mid-slope depths between 350-750 m, coinciding with the LIW distribution, and 2) it was not recorded among zooplankton (collected throughout the water column). The possible effect of the fluctuations of suprabenthos and zooplankton on higher trophic levels has been explored studying the diet and food consumption rates of the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, as indicator species by its dominance in bathyal communities. A. antennatus increased its food consumption from February to April-June 2004 off Sóller, which in the case of large (CL > 40 mm) specimens was found in both areas. In addition, there was a shift of diet from winter to spring-early summer. In this last period, A. antennatus preyed upon euphausiids and mesopelagic decapods and fish, while benthos (e.g. polychaetes and bivalves) decreased in the diet. This indicates an increase in the food consumption and probably in the caloric content of the diet in pre-spawning females in April-June 2004, which is synchronized with the period when gonad development begins in A. antennatus females (May-June). Anyway, macrozooplankton, and not suprabenthos, is crucial as a high energetic food source in the coupling between food intake and reproduction in the red shrimp.

Cartes, J. E.; Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; López-Jurado, J. L.

9

Dynamics of suprabenthos-zooplankton communities around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental variables and effects on the biological cycle of Aristeus antennatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamics of suprabenthos and zooplankton were analyzed in two areas located in the NW (off Sóller harbour) and S (off Cabrera Archipelago) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths ranging between 135–780 m. Four stations situated respectively at 150 m (shelf-slope break), and at bathyal depths of 350, 650 and 750 m were sampled at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between

J. E. Cartes; T. Madurell; E. Fanelli; J. L. López-Jurado

2008-01-01

10

Punching Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Legendary boxer Muhammad Ali used to brag that he could "float like a butterfly and sting like a bee." But to be a true champion, a prizefighter should really try to "punch like a mantis shrimp." This Science Update examines the research behind copying this mechanism for application to machinery design.

Science Update;

2004-06-28

11

Brine Shrimp 1: Hatching Brine Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will design a test to determine the optimum salinity for hatching brine shrimp. In the second brine shrimp lesson of the series, students will raise these brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

12

Brine Shrimp 2: Brine Shrimp Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the second of two lessons on brine shrimp. In the first brine shrimp lesson, students determined the optimum salinity for hatching. In this lesson, students will raise brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This Science NetLinks lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

13

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project on culturing shrimp. Presents observational labs and the experimentation procedure. Provides general information about shrimp, their life span, optimum temperatures, and other important information. (YDS)

Ruggiero, Lovelle

2000-01-01

14

Stream Sockets on SHRIMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an implementation of stream sockets for the SHRIMP multicomputer. SHRIMP supports protected, user-level data transfer, allows user-level code to perform its own buffer management, and separates data transfers from control transfers so that data transfers can be done without the interrupting the receiving node's CPU. Our sockets implementation exploits all of these features to provide high performance.

Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten

1997-01-01

15

Mexican Shrimp Culture: Legal Changes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mexico has one of the largest potentials in Latin America to culture shrimp. Various groups in Mexico are intensifying efforts to culture shrimp, while the country's fishery cooperatives appear to be experiencing increasing difficulties. Private investors...

D. M. Weidner, R. M. Wells

1991-01-01

16

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In inquiry-based instruction, discovery and learning belong to the students. In this exploration, jumbo shrimp are the source of inspiration. The magic in this project lies not in successfully culturing these shrimp, known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Ruggiero, Lovelle

2000-01-01

17

Brazilian Shrimp Culture Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brazilian harvests of marine and freshwater shrimp are still very limited. While precise data are not available, the consensus in the industry is that farmers only harvested about 2,000 metric tons in 1989 and will probably not exceed 2,500 tons in 1990. ...

D. M. Weidner

1990-01-01

18

Color Control in Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a detailed manual for instructing a laboratory exercise in invertebrate marine physiology. Students investigate the environmental and physiological causes of color change in shrimp. This exercise is suitable for introductory animal or invertebrate physiology courses, and could be adapted further to explore the ecological consquences of color change.

Mary-Jane O'Halloran (Dalhousie University;)

1990-01-01

19

Microbial flora of fresh and stored shrimp  

E-print Network

or 5 C . The use of artificial seawater is not recommended in media preparation. The microbial flora of fresh Gulf shrimp was dominated by coryneforms and species of Pseudomonas, Moraxella Micrococcus, and Flavobacterium. Refrigerated storage... of shrimp usually caused an increase in the percentage of Pseudomonas species and a decrease in coryneforms. Bacterial counts of pond shrimp were much lower than those of Gulf shrimp. The microflora of pond shrimp differed from that of Gulf shrimp...

Mroz, Eva

2012-06-07

20

Monodon baculovirus of shrimp.  

PubMed

Among the viruses infecting penaeid shrimp, monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) otherwise known as Penaeus monodon singly enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (PmSNPV), is one of the widely reported and well described viruses. It is a rod-shaped, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus, and considered till recently, as the type A baculovirus. Besides MBV, two strains of SNPV are reported-plebejus baculovirus and bennettae baculovirus. MBV was reported to be originated from Taiwan and has wide geographic distribution and is reported to be enzootic in wild penaeids of the Indo-pacific coasts of Asia. The virus also has diverse host-range including a variety of cultured and captured shrimp species and freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MBV has been reported in all life stages of P. monodon with late larval, postlarval and young juvenile as the most susceptible stages/ages. However, MBV has not been documented in early larval stages. Although MBV has been reported to be tolerated well by shrimp, the infection has been attributed to decreased productivity. The target organs or tissues of MBV are the hepatopancreatic tubules and duct epithelium of postlarvae, juveniles and adults, and the anterior midgut epithelium of very young postlarvae. The prominent clinical sign of infection is the presence of multiple spherical inclusion bodies in the hepatopancreas and midgut epithelial cells. The major mode of transmission of the virus is horizontal through oral exposure to occlusion bodies, contaminated tissues or fomites. Minor morphometric variation of the virus has been reported among different isolates. The rod-shaped enveloped virus particles range from 265-324 nm in length and 42-77 nm in diameter. Although complete genome sequence of MBV is not available, nucleic acid of MBV is circular, double-stranded DNA with a genome size ranging from 80 to 160 kbp. The virus codes for a 53 kDa major polyhedrin polypeptide and two minor 47 and 49 kDa polypeptides. A variety of diagnostic tools have been reported for this virus including real-time PCR and LAMP-based detection. Taxonomic position is still uncertain and International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses lists MBV as a tentative species named PemoNPV in the genus Nucleopolyhedrovirus. However, according to the latest genomic information on the virus, it has been suggested to create a new group of non-occluded bacilliform viruses called nudiviruses with MBV as one of the members. The aim of the current work is to describe the knowledge on the status, distribution and host-range, pathology, transmission, virus structure and morphogenesis, genomic characteristics, diagnosis and the latest taxonomic position of MBV. PMID:23997439

Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M; Karunasagar, I

2012-09-01

21

Science Nation: Disappearing Red Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Along the shore in Hawaii, the ponds imbedded in lava rocks contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life in these pools are hundreds of tiny red shrimp. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), molecular biologist Scott Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.

22

Shrimp Farms, Ecuador  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: Landsat bands 4,3 and 2; ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: Landsat 30 meters (24.6 feet); ASTER 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: Landsat: April 29, 1991; ASTER March 31, 2001

2006-01-01

23

Shrimp farming in China: Operating characteristics, environmental impact and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has been one of the world's largest shrimp producers since 1988. Although the industry suffered disease outbreaks and environmental problems, shrimp farming has recently seen a rapid expansion in China. This study provides some necessary background to shrimp aquaculture in China. It focuses briefly on the operating characteristics of shrimp aquaculture. Emphasis is placed on the shrimp farming impact

Xie Biao; Yu Kaijin

2007-01-01

24

Physiological constraints in shrimp cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological requirements of animals change considerably during development from the egg to the (early) adult stage. Some basic physiological requirements (respiration, excretion of metabolic end products, space requisites, aspects of feeding biology) of cultured animals are considered in relation to design (surface area, depth) and maintenance (water refreshment) of shrimp (and fish) culture units. From general relations between respiration

Dirk H. Spaargaren

1997-01-01

25

Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bou-Olayan, A.H. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait); Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

1995-04-01

26

Molecular mechanisms of the shrimp clotting system.  

PubMed

Shrimp, like other invertebrates, relies solely on its innate immune system, to combat invading pathogens. The invertebrate immune system has ancient origins that involve cellular and humoral responses. The clotting system of the humoral immune response is the first line of defense against pathogens and also serves to prevent blood loss during injury and wound healing. Tranglutaminase and clotting protein are molecules involved in the blood clotting system of crayfish and shrimp. Studies have shown that the shrimp clotting system is linked with the activation of antimicrobial peptides, similar to that of the horseshoe crab. Unlike the horseshoe crab and crayfish blood coagulation which are well studied systems, blood clotting in shrimp remains poorly understood. Here we review the shrimp clotting system and its involvement in innate immunity. PMID:23044383

Maningas, Mary Beth B; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo

2013-04-01

27

Shrimp yields and harvest characteristics of mixed shrimp–mangrove forestry farms in southern Vietnam: factors affecting production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp yields and harvest characteristics were monitored at mixed shrimp–mangrove forestry farms in two state forestry–fisheries enterprises, Tam Giang 3 and 184, in Ca Mau province, southern Vietnam. The aim was to identify key factors contributing to poor and declining shrimp production in the region over recent years. Shrimp yields were highly variable between farms but were generally low with

Danielle Johnston; Ngyuen Van Trong; Doan Van Tien; Tran Thanh Xuan

2000-01-01

28

Ex-vessel demand by size for the Gulf shrimp  

E-print Network

that it is always desirable to shift the most shrimp possible into the larger market, provided that maximized total revenue is an objective and that management controls exist that can effectively influence the distribution by sizes. DEDICATION This thesis... of landings, but also the size of shrimp landed, which influences the revenue shrimpers receive, Any change in policy concerning shrimping season, or depth of water at which shrimp vessels operate, will have a significant effect on the size of shrimp caught...

Chui, Margaret Kam-Too

2012-06-07

29

Reprint of “Deep epibenthic communities in two contrasting areas of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epibenthic communities were studied in two areas, off western and southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean), which differ in the oceanographic conditions and show different degrees of oligotrophy. Sampling was performed with beam trawl at two seasons (December 2009 and July 2010) and at depths between 228 and 900 m. A total of 199 taxa were identified, of which the most diverse were decapod crustaceans and fishes. Depth was the main factor structuring megafaunal assemblages. In the shelf break the shrimps Plesionika heterocarpus, P. antigai, Processa nouveli and P. canaliculata were dominant. In the upper slope, P. acanthonotus, Boreomysis arctica, Gaidropsarus biscayensis and Aristeus antennatus were the species that most contributed to the group formation, whereas in the middle slope the crustaceans P. acanthonotus and Munida tenuimana dominated. Specific abundances were relatively low everywhere. Diversity H? values ranged from 2.19 to 3.17, being higher in Sóller. Using species abundance data, significant differences were identified concerning both area and season in both shelf break and upper slope strata, while no significant differences were found in the middle slope stratum. The analysis of functional groups showed that both depth and area had a significant effect on their differential distribution.

Ramón, Montserrat; Abelló, Pere; Ordines, Francesc; Massutí, Enric

2014-10-01

30

Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

2013-01-01

31

76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-549-822] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Final Partial...

2011-02-07

32

Microarray analyses of shrimp immune responses.  

PubMed

Shrimp aquaculture is one of the major foodproducing industries in the world. However, it is being impacted by several problems including diseases, antibiotic use, and environmental factors. The extent of the effects of these problems in the immune system of the shrimp at the molecular level is just beginning to be understood. Here, we review the gene expression profile of shrimp in response to some of these problems using the high-throughput microarray analysis, including white spot syndrome virus, yellow head virus, Vibrio spp., peptidoglycan, oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, salinity, and temperature. PMID:20393773

Aoki, Takashi; Wang, Han-Ching; Unajak, Sasimanas; Santos, Mudjekeewis D; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo

2011-08-01

33

Antiviral defense in shrimp: from innate immunity to viral infection.  

PubMed

The culture of penaeid shrimp is rapidly developing as a major business endeavor worldwide. However, viral diseases have caused huge economic loss in penaeid shrimp culture industries. Knowledge of shrimp innate immunity and antiviral responses has made important progress in recent years, allowing the design of better strategies for the prevention and control of shrimp diseases. In this study, we have updated information on shrimp antiviral immunity and interactions between shrimp hosts and viral pathogens. Current knowledge and recent progress in immune signaling pathways (e.g., Toll/IMD-NF-?B and JAK-STAT signaling pathways), RNAi, phagocytosis, and apoptosis in shrimp antiviral immunity are discussed. The mechanism of viral infection in shrimp hosts and the interactions between viruses and shrimp innate immune systems are also analyzed. PMID:24886688

Wang, Pei-Hui; Huang, Tianzhi; Zhang, Xiaobo; He, Jian-Guo

2014-08-01

34

MFR PAPER 103 0 An important shrimp  

E-print Network

. The last mentioned method . wh ich is conduct- ed on a large scale along the east coast of Sumatra increas- in g activities in the local shrimp fish- eries along the north coast of J a\\ a and south Sumatra

35

Selenium requirement of shrimp Penaeus chinensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Penaeus chinensis were reared in fibreglass tanks for the study of their selenium requirements. The shrimp were fed semipurified diets containing graded levels of selenium, and weight gains, activities of glutatione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and selenium contents in muscle and hepatopancreas were determined. Weight gain and GSH-Px activity were the highest when the shrimp were fed diet containing 20 mg/kg selenium. Good linear correlation was found between GSH-Px activities and selenium contents in the diets, and the number of healthy shrimp. The experiment showed that 20 mg/kg selenium in the diet is optimal for the shrimp and that GSH-Px activity can be an important biochemical index of the selenium nutrition status of the animal.

Tian, Yuchuan; Liu, Fayi

1993-09-01

36

Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides in Penaeid Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penaeid shrimp aquaculture has been consistently affected worldwide by devastating diseases that cause a severe loss in production.\\u000a To fight a variety of harmful microbes in the surrounding environment, particularly at high densities (of which intensive\\u000a farming represents an extreme example), shrimps have evolved and use a diverse array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as part\\u000a of an important first-line response

Anchalee Tassanakajon; Piti Amparyup; Kunlaya Somboonwiwat; Premruethai Supungul

2010-01-01

37

COBALT60 Gamma Irradiation of Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine were

Nancy L. B. Sullivan; N. L. B

1993-01-01

38

The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke  

E-print Network

We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

2011-01-01

39

A BIOECONOMIC MODEL OF RECIRCULATING SHRIMP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS.  

E-print Network

??To prevent disease outbreaks and increase competitiveness of U.S. shrimp products, U.S. aquaculture researchers have developed super-intensive, bio-secure, recirculating shrimp production systems since the early… (more)

ZHOU, XIA Vivian

2007-01-01

40

21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. 102.55 Section 102... § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The common on...shape and that is not misleading. (b) The words “made from minced...

2010-04-01

41

Ecophsiology of Growth in the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)  

E-print Network

adjustment of the model parameter MMSO, it also adequately simulated studies taken from the literature. Thus, Ecophys.Shrimp seems capable of realistically representing the ecophysiological dynamics of shrimp metabolism and growth in various culture systems....

Walker, Scott J.

2010-07-14

42

Shrimp Farms and Mangroves, Gulf of Fonseca  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For decades, astronauts on space missions have documented land use changes around the world. In this pair of images, astronauts track the development of shrimp farming along the Honduran coastline of the Gulf of Fonseca between 1989 and 2001. Mariculture, primarily shrimp farming, has become a leading agricultural effort in Honduras. The regional transformation of large tracts of coastal swamps into shrimp farms blossomed throughout the 1990s. The top image was taken with color infrared film in 1989. Dense vegetation, like the coastal mangrove swamps and the forested slopes of Volcan Cosiguina show up as dark red. The bottom image, taken with color visible film by the crew of the most recent Space Shuttle mission in December 2001 shows that hundreds of square kilometers of coastal swamp, primarily in Honduras, have been converted to shrimp ponds. These appear as the light-colored, rectilinear land use pattern. The Honduras shrimp farms were hit hard by flooding after Hurricane Mitch in 1998, and a devastating virus in 1999-2000. It is not known how many of the ponds in this view are still functional. A vigorous debate continues about the sustainability of the shrimp farms and the impacts to the environment and coastal ecosystem due to mangrove clearing and mariculture waste production. Apart from the shrimp farms, the other prominent feature on these images is the impressive volcano Cosiguina, which erupted explosively in 1859 (the largest recorded eruption in the Western Hemisphere). Photograph STS-108-717-85 was taken in the December 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. Photograph STS030-93-15 was taken in May 1989 using a Hasselblad camera and color infrared film. Both images are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

43

The Penaeid Shrimp Viruses TSV, IHHNV, WSSV, and YHV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral diseases have emerged during this decade as serious economic impediments to successful shrimp farming. While nearly 20 distinct viruses or groups of viruses are known to infect penaeid shrimp, only four, WSSV, YHV, IHHNV, and TSV, pose a threat to the future of penaeid shrimp culture in the Western Hemisphere. TSV and IHHNV have caused serious disease epizootics throughout

D. V. Lightner

1999-01-01

44

LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP  

E-print Network

LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP PENAEUS SETIFERUS Marine Biological, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP, PENAEUS SETIFERUS. C. May 1958 #12;#12;LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP , PENAEUS SETIFERUS

45

Bottom Soil and Water Quality Management in Shrimp Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine shrimp farming has become an important component of aquaculture. Water and soil conditions have a great influence on the efficiency of shrimp production, and a review of water quality and bottom soil management will be provided. After a shrimp pond has been drained for harvest, organic carbon analyses can indicate if organic matter concentrations are too low (< 0.5%)

Claude E. Boyd

2003-01-01

46

Water quality control using Spirulina platensis in shrimp culture tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis) was co-cultured with black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) for water quality control. We evaluated the effects of: (1) three S. platensis trial conditions on inorganic nitrogen concentrations at one shrimp density (S. platensis trial conditions included: absent, nonharvested and semicontinuous harvesting) and (2) two shrimp densities on inorganic nitrogen concentrations, with and without S. platensis. Semicontinuous

Benjamas Chuntapa; Sorawit Powtongsook; Piamsak Menasveta

2003-01-01

47

Biological treatment of shrimp production wastewater.  

PubMed

Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in consumer demand for shrimp, which has resulted in its worldwide aquaculture production. In the United States, the stringent enforcement of environmental regulations encourages shrimp farmers to develop new technologies, such as recirculating raceway systems. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. The system also produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and organic carbon, which make waste management costs prohibitive. Shrimp farmers have a great need for a waste management method that is effective and economical. One such method is the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same reactor to take the place of multiple reactors in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor system. This is achieved through reactor operation in sequences, which includes fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. A laboratory scale SBR was successfully operated using shrimp aquaculture wastewater. The wastewater contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactors sequentially, namely, aerobic and anoxic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon. Ammonia in the waste was nitrified within 4 days. The denitrification of nitrate was achieved by the anoxic process, and 100% removal of nitrate was observed within 15 days of reactor operation. PMID:19396482

Boopathy, Raj

2009-07-01

48

Guianas-Brazil Shrimp Fishery and Related U.S. Research Activity  

E-print Network

grounds extend from Trinidad south to the mouth of the Amazon River. Brown shrimp. Penaeus subtil is. pink-Brazil offshore shrimp fishery. The Guianas-Brazil fishery grounds extend from Trinidad to south of the Amazon River (Fig. 1). Brown shrimp, Penaeus subtilis, pink-spotted shrimp, P. brasiliensis, pink shrimp, P

49

Prime Rib Roast Shrimp & Penne Alfredo  

E-print Network

Monday Prime Rib Roast Shrimp & Penne Alfredo Green Bean Almandine Fresh Vegetable Medley Sauteed and Cheese Whole Green Beans Fried Green Tomato's Potato Salad/Cole Slaw Grill Special: Flank Steak Soups: Chili and Beef Vegetable Thursday BBQ Pulled Turkey BBQ Pork Steamed Rice Collard Greens Macaroni

Almor, Amit

50

MFR PAPER 1171 Shrimp taste and vitamin  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1171 Shrimp taste and vitamin content did not differ markedly in thermal and microwave been done on vitamin anal '>es of \\egetables cooked b) micro~\\ ave and ~onven ti )nalmean hot spot. by employing peliodic stilTing. Vitamin selected for thi "tud) \\~e;e those \\\\ hich had been

51

COBALT-60 Gamma Irradiation of Shrimp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine were measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

Sullivan, Nancy L. B.

52

Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of shrimp  

SciTech Connect

Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine was measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

Sullivan, N.L.B.

1993-01-01

53

76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis...shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead...shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely...

2011-04-05

54

78 FR 50387 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination...shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). For information on the estimated subsidy...

2013-08-19

55

50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. 622.201 Section...Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ)....

2013-10-01

56

U.S. southeastern shrimp and reef fish resources and their management  

E-print Network

comprised 65% of the total weight, with penaeid shrimp at 16%, nonpenaeid shrimp crustaceans at 13%, non-crustacean invertebrates at 4%, and debris at 1%. In the southeastern Atlantic, finfish accounted for 47%, with penaeid shrimp at 24%, invertebrates...

Scott-Denton, Elizabeth

2009-05-15

57

75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

2010-01-08

58

76 FR 18157 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Brazil, India and Thailand. The anniversary...Kate Johnson at (202) 482-4929 (Brazil), Henry Almond at (202)...

2011-04-01

59

75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

2010-04-28

60

75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23,...

2010-04-28

61

75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

2010-09-21

62

75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

2010-08-11

63

78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Warmwater Shrimp from India'' (Decision Memorandum...Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing...Public versions of all business proprietary documents...Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia...Devi Seafoods, because doing so risks disclosure...

2013-08-19

64

Progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ and ovaries of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in double-strength Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum, 1% glucose, 5 g\\/L NaCl, 15% shrimp meat extract. The optimum conditions for primary culture in vitro were obtained in L-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 730 ± 10 mmol\\/kg, a

J. Kasornchandra; R. Khongpradit; U. Ekpanithanpong; S. Boonyaratpalin

1999-01-01

65

Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system.  

PubMed

Microorganisms play integral roles in the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish and shellfish production. We quantified the pathways of shrimp fecal bacterial activities and their role in C- and N-flux partitioning relevant to culturing Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in RAS. Freshly produced feces from P. vannamei contained 0.6-7 × 10(10) bacteria g(-1) dry wt belonging to Bacteroidetes (7%), Alphaproteobacteria (4%), and, within the Gammaproteobacteria, almost exclusively to the genus Vibrio (61%). Because of partial disintegration of the feces (up to 27% within 12 h), the experimental seawater became inoculated with fecal bacteria. Bacteria grew rapidly in the feces and in the seawater, and exhibited high levels of aminopeptidase, chitinase, chitobiase, alkaline phosphatase, ?- and ?-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Moreover, fecal bacteria enriched the protein content of the feces within 12 h, potentially enriching the feces for the coprophagous shrimp. The bacterial turnover time was much faster in feces (1-10 h) than in mature RAS water (350 h). Thus, shrimp fecal bacteria not only inoculate RAS water but also contribute to bacterial abundance and productivity, and regulate system processes important for shrimp health. PMID:21426366

Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun; Malfatti, Francesca; Azam, Farooq

2011-07-01

66

Abundance of Ohio shrimp (Macrobrachium ohione) and Glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) in the unimpounded Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large rivers of the United States have been altered by construction and maintenance of navigation channels, which has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Using 7 y of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program data collected from the unimpounded upper Mississippi River, we investigated Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance collected from four physical habitats of the unimpounded upper Mississippi River: main channel border, main channel border with wing dike, open side channel and closed side channel. Our objective was to assess associations between Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance, environmental measurements and the four habitats to better understand the ecology of these species in a channelized river system. Ohio Shrimp were most abundant in the open side channels, while Glass Shrimp were most abundant in the main channel border wing dike habitat. Thirty-two percent of the variance in Glass Shrimp abundance was explained by year 1995, year 1998, water temperature, depth of gear deployment, Secchi disk transparency and river elevation. Approximately 8% of variation in Ohio Shrimp abundance was explained by Secchi disk transparency. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was greatest in 1998 for Glass Shrimp but lowest in 1997. Conversely, CPUE was greatest in 1996 for Ohio Shrimp and lowest in 2000. Both species exhibited inter-annual variability in CPUE. Long-term impacts of river modifications on aquatic invertebrates have not been well documented in many large, river systems and warrants further study. The findings from this study provide ecological information on Glass and Ohio Shrimp in a channelized river system.

Barko, V.A.; Hrabik, R.A.

2004-01-01

67

Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.  

PubMed

Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ?T*?4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

2013-01-01

68

Vortex Formation with a Snapping Shrimp Claw  

PubMed Central

Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ?T*?4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

Hess, David; Brucker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

2013-01-01

69

Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.  

PubMed

As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses. PMID:24751195

Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

2014-01-01

70

Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

2005-12-01

71

An Economical, Portable System for Hatching Brine Shrimp Artemia spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and construction of a portable, inexpensive hatching system for brine shrimp Artemia spp. is described. The system design is based on batch culture methodology, which is easily customized to the feeding requirements of a larval system and optimizes the nutritional value of brine shrimp. This system can be set up quickly and provides stable temperature and aeration under a

Richard S. Fulford; D. Allen Rutherford

1998-01-01

72

DOUBLE-RIG SHRIMP TRAWLING IN THE GULF OF MEXICO  

E-print Network

DOUBLE-RIG SHRIMP TRAWLING IN THE GULF OF MEXICO , , FISB AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Vaited Sial, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director DOUBLE-RIG SHRIMP TRAWLING 470 Washington· September 1958 #12;CONTENTS Introduction · . . . · . Double-Trawl Method Rigging

73

Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

Sinh, Le Xuan

2012-01-01

74

Sanitation Guidelines for the Breaded-Shrimp Industry  

E-print Network

Sanitation Guidelines for the Breaded-Shrimp Industry UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES Sanitation Guidelines Dress 12 Habits 13 Supervision 14 in #12;#12;Sanitation Guidelines for the Breaded-Shrimp Industry

75

Microbiological Profile of Pacific Shrimp, Panda/us jordani, Stowed  

E-print Network

. with the exception 01 Pseu- high quality of stowed shrimp. The RSW may become contaminated from an un- clean fIsh hold or from the shrimp itself. The effect of these factors on the ulti- mate microbial quality of RSW seawater (RSW) samples were collected on four occasions. Two of these samples were obtained onboard f

76

Advances in Research of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium (NHPB) Affecting Penaeid Shrimp Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a severe bacterial disease affecting penaeid shrimp aquaculture. NHP is caused by the gram-negative, pleomorphic, obligately intracellular NHP-bacterium (NHPB) that targets the hepatopancreas tissue of shrimp. NHPB is classified as an ? -proteobacterium and is related to members of the Rickettsia. First reported in 1985 in a Texas shrimp farm, NHP has since affected shrimp farming

Amanda G. Vincent; Jeffrey M. Lotz

2007-01-01

77

Cellular immune responses against viral pathogens in shrimp.  

PubMed

Shrimp is one of the most important commercial marine species worldwide; however, viral diseases threaten the healthy development of shrimp aquaculture. In order to develop efficient control strategies against viral diseases, researchers have begun focusing increasing attention to the molecular mechanism of shrimp innate immunity. Although knowledge of shrimp humoral immunity has grown significantly in recent years, very little information is available about the cell-mediated immune responses. Several cellular processes such as phagocytosis, apoptosis, and RNA interference critical in cellular immune response play a significant role in endogenous antiviral activity in shrimp. In this review, we summarize the emerging research and highlight key mediators of cellular immune response to viral pathogens. PMID:25111591

Xu, Dandan; Liu, Weifeng; Alvarez, Angel; Huang, Tianzhi

2014-12-01

78

Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production methods. The conversion of near-shore areas to shrimp culture, however, is proving to have many consequences that impinge on the environmental integrity of coastal areas. This paper reviews the development of Thailand's marine shrimp culture industry and examines the nature of the environmental impacts that are emerging. It then discusses the implications these have for rural poor and the long-term viability of the culture industry.

Flaherty, Mark; Karnjanakesorn, Choomjet

1995-01-01

79

Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity  

PubMed Central

Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

2014-01-01

80

Isolation of indole-producing bacteria from white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus)  

E-print Network

fozmation during shrimp spoilage. LITERATURE REVIEW Previous research Most of the studies on the decomposition of shrimp and the analysis of indole was done by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigators, although few of these studies...- tion of the shrimp. REFERENCES 1. Anon. 1979. FDA wins contested shrimp decomposition seizure. Food Chem. News. 21:3:30. 2. Barry, H. C. , J. F. Weeks, Jr. and R. E. Duggan. 1956. Effect of storage on decomposed canned shrimp. J. Assoc. Off. Agr...

Smith, Rodney Lee

2012-06-07

81

Systems analysis of a shrimp mariculture system  

E-print Network

mariculture pond 126 Figure D2: Oxygen profile in shrimp ponds. 128 Figure Figure Figure Figure D3: Efi'ect of feed decomposition rate on oxygen level. D0: Effect of' light transmittance on change in oxygen concentration D5: Effect of' feeding level...) also estimated the optimum intensity to be constant (. 03 langleys) for Blue- green algae. The rate of photosynthesis is also dependent on temper- ature, amount of carbon stored within the cell and the limiting nutrients of phosphates or nitrates...

Farnsworth, John Terry

2012-06-07

82

Transglutaminase regulates immune-related genes in shrimp.  

PubMed

Transglutaminase (TGase) is known to be involved in blood coagulation, a conserved defence mechanism among invertebrates. Gene silencing of TGase was previously shown to render shrimp susceptible to both bacterial and viral infections suggesting that TGase is an essential component of the shrimp immune system. Here, we examine the effects of the absence of TGase on the transcriptomic profile of kuruma shrimp by microarray analysis, focussing on genes that are involved in shrimp immunity. Total RNAs from shrimp haemocytes injected with dsRNA specific for TGase and control samples were isolated at 3 and 7 days p.i. and analyzed by microarray. Results revealed that TGase silencing affects the expression of genes in shrimp and caused significant down-regulation of the expressions of crustin and lysozyme. Furthermore, TGase-depleted samples were found to have lower haemocyte counts and higher total bacterial counts in their haemolymph. These results suggest that TGase is an important component of the shrimp immune response and is involved in the regulation of some immune-related genes particularly antimicrobial peptides. PMID:22306779

Fagutao, Fernand F; Maningas, Mary Beth B; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo

2012-05-01

83

Variation of shrimp texture with rigor-mortis  

E-print Network

on the nutritional state and not on type of death of the fish (Love et al. , 1974) ~ The pH in postmortem tissue of warm-blooded animals decreases prior to onset of rigor, then increases slightly as rigor is resolved (Pearson, 1970). However, in shrimp tissue p... t '' t tissue pH. Possibly different levels of lactic acid affected the pH of freshly caught shrimp, depending on the amount of struggle before death. The pH of shrimp during postmortem aging was probably infuenced by the amount of glycogen remaining...

Wilaichon, Wunwiboon

2012-06-07

84

Description of three ecology studies on brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus and white shrimp P. setiferus conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service, Galveston, Texas  

E-print Network

, Sciaeno s ocellata, as predator. COMPARATIVE ABUNDANCES OF BROWN SHRIMP IN VEGETATED AND NON-VEGETATED HABITATS IN A LOUISIANA SPARTINA PATENS MARSH. Penaeid shrimp in the Gulf of Mex1co migrate from open waters into estuaries as postlarvae..., Sciaeno s ocellata, as predator. COMPARATIVE ABUNDANCES OF BROWN SHRIMP IN VEGETATED AND NON-VEGETATED HABITATS IN A LOUISIANA SPARTINA PATENS MARSH. Penaeid shrimp in the Gulf of Mex1co migrate from open waters into estuaries as postlarvae...

Diego, Maria Eugenia de

2012-06-07

85

Shrimp and redfish studies, bryan mound brine disposal site off Freeport, Texas, 1979-1981. Volume IV. Interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and effort. Technical memo  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and fishing effort was conducted at specified ports along the Texas coast to strengthen the information base required to determine the effect of the disposal of brine from the Bryan Mound salt dome off Freeport, Texas on commercial brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) populations in the Gulf of Mexico.

Johnson

1981-01-01

86

21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly...

2014-04-01

87

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.175 Frozen raw...are in a shape similar to that of breaded fish sticks the name is “Breaded shrimp...

2014-04-01

88

MAPPING BURROWING SHRIMP AND SEAGRASS IN YAQUINA ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing shrimp and seagrasses create extensive intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats within Pacific NW estuaries. Maps of their populations are useful to inform estuarine managers of locations that deserve special consideration for conservation, and to inform oyster farmers...

89

Diel and Seasonal Occurrence of Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum  

E-print Network

transmission, and activity in relation to moon phase. Catches were larger during darkness and rose of transmitted light. In dark phases of the moon greater numbers of shrimp were caught than during light phases

90

FOOD PATHWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH PENAEID SHRIMPS IN A MANGROVEFRINGED ESTUARY  

E-print Network

FOOD PATHWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH PENAEID SHRIMPS IN A MANGROVE·FRINGED ESTUARY ALLAN W. STONERl AND Ro, particularly where wetland habitats such as marsh grasses or mangroves are prominent coastal fea- tures

91

Economic and financial implications of shrimp farming in West Texas  

E-print Network

A research and demonstration shrimp producing facility was established at Imperial, Texas in 1991. The results showed technical feasibility. Using data collected from the facility in West Texas and commercial operations on the Southern coast...

Britt, David Westbrook

2012-06-07

92

Proceedings of the Latin American Shrimp Culture Congress  

E-print Network

, density, salinity, substrate texture, hunger, and the presence of fish predators on the burrowing behavior), substrate (fine sand course sand, crushed shell), density (5.8, 11.6, 23.1 shrimp per sq m), hunger (fed

93

GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BURROWING SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ghost shrimp, (Neotypaea californiensis) are burrowers, whose bioturbation and sediment destabilizations have a negative effect on mariculture of the commercially important oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Oyster farmers in Washington and Oregon estuaries have been poisoning these shr...

94

Growth, survival and salinity tolerances of penaeid shrimp in thermal effluents  

E-print Network

, which adjusted the salinity to 5. 0 ppt. Throughout the period the shrimp were fed brine shrimp larvae. All shrimp were siphoned from the tank into a 25 liter container, mixed by hand, sampled using a 25 ml flask and counted to determine the number... the water. Water temperature was maintained at 25 C throughout the 10-day acclimation period. Postlarvae were fed brine shrimp throughcut the acclimation and testing. Ten shrimp from the 15 and ten shrimp from the 25 ppt acclimation salinities were...

Berry, Robert Leon

2012-06-07

95

Brine shrimp lethality of the compounds from Phryma leptostachya L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brine shrimp assay-guided fractionation and isolation of the EtOAc soluble fraction ofPhryma leptostachya L. (Phrymacaceae) gave two active compounds, phrymarolin II (1) and ursolic acid (2), which were identified by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 exhibited potent lethality with LD50 value of 0.0013 ?g\\/ml, whereas2 showed moderate lethality with LD50 value of 27.0 ?g\\/ml against brine shrimp. The cytotoxic

SangMyung Lee; ByungSun Min; YungHee Kho

2002-01-01

96

Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters  

E-print Network

HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis by BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982... Major Subject: Food Science and Technology HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Head of apartment) May 1982...

DeWitt, Bernard John

2012-06-07

97

Diurnal and nocturnal catchability of Kuwait's commercial shrimps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In descending order of importance, the shrimps Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan, 1844; Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837); and Parapenaeopsis stylifera (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) account for over 95% of Kuwait's commercial landings. Throughout its range, P. semisulcatus is nocturnal, but Kuwait trawlers are active 24h a day during season. Historically, all scientific shrimp surveys in Kuwait have been conducted during daylight

J. M. Bishop; Y. Ye; A. H. Alsaffar; H. M. Al-Foudari; S. Al-Jazzaf

2008-01-01

98

Enhanced Cellular Immunity in Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 'Vaccination'  

PubMed Central

It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed ‘specific immune priming’, although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1?1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from ‘vaccinated’ shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either ‘immunised’ or non-immunised’ shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that ‘vaccination’ has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of ‘immune priming’ reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens. PMID:21698190

Roberts, Emily C.; Shields, Robin J.; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F.

2011-01-01

99

Detection of virus in shrimp using digital color correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of virus in shrimp tissue using digital color correlation is presented. Phase filters in three channels (red, green and blue) were used in order to detect HPV virus like target. These first results obtained showed that is possible to detect virus in shrimp tissue. More research must be made with color correlation in order to consider natural morphology of the virus, color, scale and rotation and noise in the samples.

Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina; Bueno-Ibarra, Mario A.

1999-07-01

100

A bio-economic model for penaeid shrimp mariculture systems  

E-print Network

. variety of aquacultural systems other than penaeid shrimp mariculture (Brown, Iiill, and. Chessness; Her ick and Baldwin; Johnson; NacDonald, I'leade, and. Gates; Shang; Smith) . The majority of these analyses have involved only the derivation... these to date. Costs and. returns analyses have been performed. by Shang and. Fujimura for freshwater shrimp farming. Although this work provided no budgeting or cash flow analysis, it did provide a detailed cost and. returns analyses on the freshwater...

Adams, Charles M

2012-06-07

101

75 FR 12206 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results, Partial Rescission, and Request...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), covering the period of review...

2010-03-15

102

76 FR 20318 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of...of Grobest & I-Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd. (``Grobest & I-Mei...shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). We have...

2011-04-12

103

75 FR 27705 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty New...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February...

2010-05-18

104

78 FR 15699 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period of review (``POR'')...

2013-03-12

105

77 FR 13547 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Administrative Review AGENCY...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period of review (``POR'')...

2012-03-07

106

78 FR 59650 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') meets the statutory and regulatory...

2013-09-27

107

75 FR 3446 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Intent To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Review...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). See Notice of Amended Final...

2010-01-21

108

78 FR 72635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') covering the period February 1, 2013...

2013-12-03

109

76 FR 36519 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...

2011-06-22

110

77 FR 4993 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of...circumstances review (``CCR'') of C. P. Vietnam Corporation, the Department of Commerce...shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). We have...

2012-02-01

111

77 FR 1053 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ The Department is conducting a new...

2012-01-09

112

75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on August 26, 2010, meets the...

2010-10-01

113

76 FR 20627 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ The Department is conducting a new...

2011-04-13

114

75 FR 47546 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the First Five-year...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). On the basis of the notice of intent to...

2010-08-06

115

77 FR 20358 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an...

2012-04-04

116

76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on February 28, 2011, meets...

2011-03-23

117

76 FR 12054 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results, Partial Rescission, and Request...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period of review (``POR'')...

2011-03-04

118

78 FR 56211 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\2\\ Based upon our analysis of the...

2013-09-12

119

75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...

2010-09-14

120

75 FR 37757 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-552-802] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). We have preliminarily concluded that...

2010-06-30

121

75 FR 844 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February...

2010-01-06

122

RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

123

Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain.  

PubMed

In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management. PMID:25198861

Dabade, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Rob; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

2014-09-01

124

Reproduction in a simultaneous hermaphroditic shrimp, Lysmata wurdemanni : any two will do?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caridean shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Gibbes) displays protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism with out-crossing, but not all males become simultaneous hermaphrodites (euhermaphrodites). In this laboratory study, we attempted to determine why some shrimp remain males. In our experiment, we grew L. wurdemanni from post-larvae to adults in several group sizes and observed their reproductive function. We found that all shrimp reared in

J. Lin; D. Zhang

2001-01-01

125

Metals in Shrimp Culture Areas from the Gulf of Fonseca, Central America. I. Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp aquaculture is a prominent industrial activity in the Gulf of Fonseca, which is shared by Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. The shrimp culture area in Honduras is widely extended and mainly located in the Departments of Valle and Choluteca, receiving waters from Choluteca, Sampile, Goascoran, Nacaome and Negro Rivers. Three thousands tons of shrimps were produced during 1993. In

G. Carbonell; C. Ramos; J. V. Tarazona

1998-01-01

126

Dendrilla nigra, a marine sponge, as potential source of antibacterial substances for managing shrimp diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary metabolites of marine sponge Dendrilla nigra were tested for determining the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Based on the exploratory experiments, the chosen dose of D. nigra (500 mg\\/kg of shrimp) was used for pilot experiment. The percent relative protection (PRP) of shrimps treated with Dendrilla feed and challenged with various concentrations of bacterial pathogen was evaluated. Dendrilla

Joseph Selvin; A. P Lipton

2004-01-01

127

Globalization of shrimp mariculture: The impact on social justice and environmental quality in central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the consequences of the globalization of the shrimp mariculture industry on rural livelihoods, social justice, and environmental quality in Central America. It considers the association between the expansion of shrimp farms and enhanced social conflict and the emergence of local resistance movements of the poor. It describes the globalization of shrimp mariculture, discusses its repercussions in Asia

Susan C. Stonich; John R. Bort; Luis L. Ovares

1997-01-01

128

75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shrimp; 2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; 3) with the...surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; 4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

2010-07-28

129

75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with...surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

2010-08-27

130

Farm Level and Geographic Predictors of Antibiotic Use in Sri Lankan Shrimp Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon farming is important for Sri Lanka's rural development plans. Consumer confidence is critical for the development and maintenance of export and domestic shrimp markets. Public concern about the use of antimicrobial drugs and chemicals on shrimp farms, however, could threaten market access. We sought to identify high-risk areas and farm-level risk factors for antimicrobial use

Nalaka Munasinghe; Craig Stephen; Colin Robertson; Preeni Abeynayake

2012-01-01

131

Pink shrimp ( P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: Influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w\\/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain

Natália Mezzomo; Bianca Maestri; Renata Lazzaris dos Santos; Marcelo Maraschin; Sandra R. S. Ferreira

132

FRESH-WATER SHRIMP, A NATURAL FISH FOOD By S. G. Worth  

E-print Network

FRESH-WATER SHRIMP, A NATURAL FISH FOOD By S. G. Worth Superintendent U. S. Fisheries Station. A., September 22 to 26, 1908 853 #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;FRESH-WATER SHRIMP and conserve it. In the fresh-water shrimp we have an example of such a gatherer and conservator. Palemonetes

133

Expression analysis of selected haemocyte transcripts from black tiger shrimp infected with yellow head virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow head virus (YHV) is a lethal Penaeid shrimp virus that has caused significant losses to aquaculture farms raising black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). In order to probe some of the underlying molecular events occurring in P. monodon cells in response to YHV infection, we investigated the response of 96 selected shrimp haemocyte transcripts from 90 distinct genes at 24

Lerdchai Chintapitaksakul; Apinunt Udomkit; Duncan R. Smith; Sakol Panyim

2008-01-01

134

The atyid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) rostrum: phylogeny versus adaptation, taxonomy versus trophic ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cave shrimps of the subgenus Troglocaris (Atyidae), exhibit high variability in rostral length and dentition. In shrimp populations that co-occur with the amphibian predator Proteus anguinus, longer rostra armed with more numerous teeth are recorded. These shrimps are also larger than those living in a presumably Proteus-free environment. Discrepancies between molecularly established phylogenetic relationships and distributions of rostral length, as

Jure Jugovic; Simona Prevorcnik; Gregor Aljancic; Boris Sket

2010-01-01

135

50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

2011-10-01

136

50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

2012-10-01

137

50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. 622...208 Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod end of a rock shrimp trawl net in the South...

2013-10-01

138

50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

2010-10-01

139

State of the art of immunological tools and health control of penaeid shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp farming constitutes an important source of revenue and employment in many develop- ing countries. However, infectious diseases have affected the profitability of the shrimp industry. For this reason, disease prevention is a priority and shrimp immunology has become a prime area of research. In such a perspective, studies into the value of cellular and humoral parameters as indicators of

Jenny Rodriguez; Gilles Le Moulla

140

Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.  

PubMed

Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2014-02-12

141

Growth and reproductive performance of broodstock shrimp reared in a biosecure recirculating aquaculture system versus a flow-through pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, viral pathogens have caused mass mortalities of farmed shrimp throughout the major shrimp farming regions of the world. In addition, the global shrimp farming industry has been criticized for negatively impacting coastal environments. These issues have raised concerns about the sustainability of traditional shrimp farming practices, and have prompted farmers and researchers to develop biosecure technologies

Clete A. Otoshi; Steve M. Arce; Shaun M. Moss

2003-01-01

142

Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

2007-07-01

143

Issues, Impacts, and Implications of Shrimp Aquaculture in Thailand  

PubMed

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination.The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32 % of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993.Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies.As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.KEY WORDS: Shrimp aquaculture; Thailand; Historical practices; Environmental impacts; Sustainability; Integrated management; Water treatment; Institutional aspects PMID:8703103

Dierberg; Kiattisimkul

1996-09-01

144

Description and analysis of the shrimp raceway run for the summer 1990, Shrimp Mariculture Project, Texas A&M University System  

E-print Network

amount of research directed toward the culture of these crustaceans. For more information about the history of shrimp farming the reviews by Lawrence et al. (1985) and Lawrence and Huner (1987) are recommended. However, more details about this topic... which classifies them into two taxa: the grooved shrimp with closed th ly, f pl P t od P. d: d th nongrooved shrimp with open thelyca, like P. setiferus, P. ~tl t, d P. ' (L t 1. 1885) Penaeid shrimp, like other decapoda crustaceans, have larval...

Mena, Luis

2012-06-07

145

Phylogeny and evolution of Indo-Pacific shrimp-associated gobies (Gobiiformes: Gobiidae).  

PubMed

Despite the ubiquity of obligate mutualisms on coral reef ecosystems, little is known about the evolution of many participating species. The shrimp gobies, known primarily from the coral reef habitats of the Indo-Pacific, are small benthic fishes that participate in a remarkable mutualism with alpheid shrimp. In this mutualism, the shrimp build and maintain a burrow that is guarded by the goby, and the shrimp and goby engage in an intricate tactile communication system. The mutualism is obligate for most shrimp gobies as participating species are highly vulnerable to predation when separated from a shrimp partner. We use phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data to infer evolutionary relationships among shrimp gobies, and between shrimp gobies and their non-mutualistic gobiid relatives. We show that the mutualist shrimp association has arisen twice among gobies, once in a clade composed of Amblyeleotris, Ctenogobiops, and Vanderhorstia, and a second time in a clade including Cryptocentrus, Mahidolia, Tomiamichthys and Stonogobiops. We then compare the evolution of traits within each shrimp goby clade and consider their intrarelationships. We document cryptic diversity among shrimp gobies, with three distinct clades delineated among Mahidolia mysticina specimens captured at the same locality, paired with the same shrimp species. Mahidolia is placed as sister to the Cryptocentrus species Cryptocentrus cinctus; both exhibit pronounced dichromatism, occurring in both brown and yellow (xanthic) forms. We additionally clarify species identities within Amblyeleotris, confirming that widespread similar species Amblyeleotris fasciata, Amblyeleotris steinitzi and Amblyeleotris wheeleri are all distinct. We hypothesize that the flexibility of gobiid gobies and alpheid shrimp to interact with mutualist partners, as well as the apparently highly beneficial nature of mutualism between them, has contributed to the dual evolution of shrimp-association among Indo-Pacific gobies. PMID:21315161

Thacker, Christine E; Thompson, Andrew R; Roje, Dawn M

2011-04-01

146

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

PubMed Central

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

2010-01-01

147

Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of six Indian medicinal plants, piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z were tested for cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality test. Piper longum showed most potent cytotoxic activity. Piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z showed potent activity with LC50 2.4, 8.9 and 4.9, respectively.

R Padmaja; P. C Arun; D Prashanth; M Deepak; A Amit; M Anjana

2002-01-01

148

Antioxidant, icthyotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality tests of Magonia glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extract of the fruit bark from Magonia glabrata yielded shikimic acid, scopoletin, sitosterol glycoside and 2-O-methyl-l-inositol. Antioxidant, icthyotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality activities were observed in this extract. The major constituent, 2-O-methyl-l-inositol, was found to be inactive in two assays but showed moderate activity as a radical scavenger.

Telma L. G. Lemos; Luciana L. Machado; João S. N. Souza; Aluisio M. Fonseca; Juliana L. Maia; Otilia D. L. Pessoa

2006-01-01

149

Evaluation of Brine Shrimp Lethality of Cinnamomum Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamomum species have long been used as spices. The preliminary bioactive constituent’s identification and brine shrimp lethality activities of ethanolic extracts of seven Cinnamomum species, viz., C. travancoricum, C. walaiwarense, C. wightii, C. verum, C. sulphuratum, C. riparium, and C. perrottetii were evaluated in this study. The results of cytotoxic activity of the bark extracts of seven Cinnamomum species were

Muthiah Maridass

2008-01-01

150

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...label shall name the food, as prepared from each...accurately descriptive of the food. The word “prawns” may...in the name of the food if the shrimp are of large...names of the optional ingredients used, as provided...designated as “spice and coloring”, unless the spice is...

2012-04-01

151

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...label shall name the food, as prepared from each...accurately descriptive of the food. The word “prawns” may...in the name of the food if the shrimp are of large...names of the optional ingredients used, as provided...designated as “spice and coloring”, unless the spice is...

2010-04-01

152

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...label shall name the food, as prepared from each...accurately descriptive of the food. The word “prawns” may...in the name of the food if the shrimp are of large...names of the optional ingredients used, as provided...designated as “spice and coloring”, unless the spice is...

2013-04-01

153

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...label shall name the food, as prepared from each...accurately descriptive of the food. The word “prawns” may...in the name of the food if the shrimp are of large...names of the optional ingredients used, as provided...designated as “spice and coloring”, unless the spice is...

2011-04-01

154

EXPLORATORY SHRIMP FISHING IN THE GULF OF MEXICO  

E-print Network

............... 9 9 A Large Catch of PinlFish, ani Bat tom Trash From the D~ Tortugas GroundsEXPLORATORY SHRIMP FISHING IN THE GULF OF MEXICO 1950 -51 FISHERY LEAFLET 406 FISB AND WILDLIFE. Chapman, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Albert H. Day, Direct or Fishery Leaflet 406 Washington 25

155

Fast RPC on the SHRIMP Virtual Memory Mapped Network Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of new network interface technology is enabling new approaches to the development of communications software. This paper evaluates the SHRIMP virtual memory mapped network interface by using it to build two fast implementations of remote procedure call (RPC). Our first implementations, called vRPC, is fully compatible with the SunRPC standard. We change the RPC runtime library, the operating

Angelos Bilas; Edward W. Felten

1997-01-01

156

Design Choices in the SHRIMP System: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SHRIMP cluster-computing system has progressed to a point of relative maturity; a variety of applications are running on a 16-node system. We have enough experience to understand what we did right and wrong in designing and building the system. In this paper we discuss some of the lessons we learned about computer architecture, and about the challenges involved in

Matthias A. Blumrich; Richard D. Alpert; Yuqun Chen; Douglas W. Clark; Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Liviu Iftode; Kai Li; Margaret Martonosi; Robert A. Shillner

1998-01-01

157

Early Experience with Message-Passing on the SHRIMP Multicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SHRIMP multicomputer provides virtual memory-mapped communication (VMMC), which supports protected, user-level message passing, allows user programs to perform their own buffer management, and separates data transfers from control transfers so that a data transfer can be done without the intervention of the receiving node CPU. An important question is whether such a mechanism can indeed deliver all of the

Edward W. Felten; Richard D. Alpert; Angelos Bilas; Matthias A. Blumrich; Douglas W. Clark; Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Liviu Iftode; Kai Li

1996-01-01

158

21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.  

...for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized...The common on usual name of the food product that conforms to the...this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp...or graphic matter, and in a height not less than the larger...

2014-04-01

159

21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized...The common on usual name of the food product that conforms to the...this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp...or graphic matter, and in a height not less than the larger...

2012-04-01

160

21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized...The common on usual name of the food product that conforms to the...this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp...or graphic matter, and in a height not less than the larger...

2011-04-01

161

21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized...The common on usual name of the food product that conforms to the...this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp...or graphic matter, and in a height not less than the larger...

2013-04-01

162

Impacts of shrimp farming in Bangladesh: Challenges and alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp farming is growing in Bangladesh due to suitable agro-climatic conditions, adequate water resources, cheap labour force, international donor agencies and the involvement of multinational corporations. Although it provides immediate economic benefits, contributes to poverty reduction and food security, as well as generates employment from seed collectors to exporters, it has also been facing a host of challenges. They hinder

Brojo Gopal Paul; Christian Reinhard Vogl

2011-01-01

163

Review article Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

E-print Network

has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been the challenges presented by climate change. disease emergence / shrimp / fish / virus Table of contents 1 CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL), 5 Portarlington Road, Geelong

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

NORMAL POSTMORTEM CHANGES IN THE BROWN SHRIMP, PENAEUS AZTECUSI  

E-print Network

reported by Flick and Lovell (1972). They reported that the compounds ATP. ADP. AMP, IMP, and glycogen. Shrimp tails remained tender and soft during the entire storage period of 10 days (at DOC) and did BULLETIN: VOL. 72. NO.1. the characteristics commonly associated with rigor mortis (Flick and Lovell, 1972

165

Food preference of fairy shrimp Streptocephalus dichotomus (Baird) Crustacea: Anostraca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate and describe the feeding biology of fairy shrimp. Methodology and results: The nature of food items and uptake of phyto and zooplankton were studied in three different size classes i.e. immature forms (6 - 9 mm), mature males (20 - 22 mm), and mature females (11 - 14 mm). The composition of food items and percentage composition

B. Jesi Selvarani

166

Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993. Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies. As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.

Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

1996-09-01

167

Design and Test of a Topless Shrimp Trawl to Reduce Pelagic Fish Bycatch in the Gulf of Maine Pink Shrimp Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new innovative topless shrimp trawl was designed and tested in the flume tank, and at sea to evaluate its potential of reducing finfish bycatch in the pink shrimp fishery in the Gulf of Maine. The trawl design removed the square and the top part of the section after the square (first belly section), to become \\

Pingguo He; David Goethel; Tracey Smith

2007-01-01

168

Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis).  

PubMed

Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced and studied. Different recipes were used to study the effect of preserving parameters (organic acids, pH and NaCl) on growth of microorganisms and shelf life at 7-8 degrees C or 12 degrees C. Particularly, brines with different concentrations of (i) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids or (ii) acetic, citric and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora of the industrially processed brined shrimp. In addition, shelf life of brined shrimp was affected by the types and concentrations of organic acids and by the storage temperature as expected. The effect of MAP was less pronounced. Eighty-two isolates from the spoilage microflora of brined shrimp were identified and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus sakei constituted the dominating microflora of shrimp in brines that contained benzoic, citric and sorbic acids as preservatives. L. sakei dominated the spoilage microflora of brined and drained MAP shrimp, and of brined shrimp preserved using acetic, citric and lactic acids, irrespective of packaging conditions. Shrimp in brine with benzoic, citric and sorbic acids prevented growth of L. monocytogenes during more than 40 days at 7 degrees C when the preserving parameters resembled those of commercial products. However, small changes in the preserving parameters and, particularly, reduced concentrations of benzoic acid led to growth of L. monocytogenes in brined shrimp. The present study provides significant new information on microbial changes, shelf life and growth of L. monocytogenes in brined shrimp. This information can facilitate development of new and safe brined shrimp products. PMID:18456355

Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, Jette; Modberg, Anne; Vest, Mette Bohn; Bøknaes, Niels; Koort, Joanna; Björkroth, Johanna; Dalgaard, Paw

2008-06-10

169

Snapping shrimp prefer natural as opposed to artificial materials as their habitat in laboratory conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed the habitat selection behavior of the snapping shrimp, Alpheus spp., comparing natural shelters (Rocks with oysters attached on the surface Sh; rocks with smooth surface, Ro and coral rubble, Co with plastic bottle. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the habitat preference, effect of photoperiod and shrimp orientation at shelter. The current study indicated that snapping shrimp preferred natural materials but rejected plastic bottle as their shelter. Among the natural shelters, coral rubble was the most preferred habitat followed by shell and rock. Photoperiod showed minimum effect on the shrimp where they spend most of the time inside and underneath the shelters. In conclusion the current study showed that snapping shrimp preferred coral rubble as opposed to other natural material and plastic bottle. The result also suggested that plastic debris in the marine environment is not an alternative habitat for snapping shrimp.

Sim, Lai Kean; Ghazali, Shahriman M.

2014-09-01

170

The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier  

PubMed Central

The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P?=?0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

Martinez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaro, Maite; Lopez-Rull, Isabel; Simoes, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andres

2014-01-01

171

Differential gene expression in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, following administration of oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid.  

PubMed

The intensification of shrimp farming systems has led to the spreading of a variety of bacterial and viral diseases that continue to plague the shrimp industry worldwide. Efforts to combat these pathogenic organisms include the use of immunostimulants, probiotics, vaccines and antibiotics. Although a few studies have already reported on the effects of various stimuli on shrimp, the effect of antibiotics, particularly on the changes in the shrimp transcriptomic profile have yet to be reported. Here we show that injecting shrimp with oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid alters the expression of genes in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, lymphoid organ. These antibiotics, especially oxylinic acid, down-regulated the expression of a few immune-related genes, most notably penaeidin, proPO, clotting protein, profilin and whey acidic protein. PMID:19497335

Fagutao, Fernand F; Yasuike, Motoshige; Santos, Mudjekeewis D; Ruangpan, Lila; Sangrunggruang, Kulvara; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Takahashi, Yuikinori; Ueno, Ryuji; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi

2009-10-01

172

Assessing the Shelf Life of Retail Shrimp Using Real-time Microrespirometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp is the most consumed seafood item in the United States (U.S.). Currently 90% of the shrimp consumed in the U.S. is imported from a few Asian countries. When imported shrimp arrives to its destination, it probably contains a load of microbial contamination due to the post-harvest processing steps such as transportation, handling, preparation, beheading, peeling, deveining, packaging and storage

Fahad Alderees

2010-01-01

173

Proximate composition and extraction of carotenoids and lipids from Brazilian redspotted shrimp waste ( Farfantepenaeus paulensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of redspotted shrimp (Penaeus paulensis) waste was investigated. The shrimp waste (freeze-dried heads, shells and tails) was found to have high protein (49% d.w.) and ash (27% d.w.) contents, but a low lipid content (4.9% d.w.) although the latter was higher than those found in other kinds of shrimp captured in Brazil. The fatty acid compositions showed

Andrea del Pilar Sánchez-Camargo; Maria Ângela de Almeida Meireles; Bruna Letícia Fontoura Lopes; Fernando Antonio Cabral

2011-01-01

174

Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that is required to produce the food inputs, nursery areas, and clean water to the shrimp farms, as well as to process wastes. We also made an estimate of the natural and human-made resources necessary to run a typical semiintensive shrimp farm. The results show that a semiintensive shrimp farm needs a spatial ecosystem support—the ecological footprint—that is 35-190 times larger than the surface area of the farm. A typical such shrimp farm appropriates about 295 J of ecological work for each joule of edible shrimp protein produced. The corresponding figure for industrial energy is 40:1. More than 80% of the ecological primary production required to feed the shrimps is derived from external ecosystems. In 1990 an area of 874-2300 km2 of mangrove was required to supply shrimp postlarvae to the farms in Colombia, corresponding to a total area equivalent to about 20-50% of the country’s total mangrove area. The results were compared with similar estimates for other food production systems, particularly aquacultural ones. The comparison indicates that shrimp farming ranks as one of the most resource-intensive food production systems, characterizing it as an ecologically unsustainable throughput system. Based on the results, we discuss local, national, and regional appropriation of ecological support by the semiintensive shrimp farms. Suggestions are made for how shrimp farming could be transformed into a food production system that is less environmentally degrading and less dependent on external support areas.

Larsson, Jonas; Folke, Carl; Kautsky, Nils

1994-09-01

175

Acute toxicity of increased pH to the freshwater shrimpParatya curvirostris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly alkaline wastes from the ash lagoons at the Huntly thermal power station are a potential hazard to the upstream migration of the shrimp Paratya curvirostris. To test the response of the shrimp to such wastes migrating shrimp were exposed for 48 h in the laboratory to a pH range of 7.47–10.66. The relation between the median period of

T. L. Shaw

1981-01-01

176

Food habits of the mantis shrimp, Squilla empusa Say, in Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-print Network

that a variety of prey items were taken in the field, but the majority of the fragments identified were crustacean (mostly penaeid shrimp), fish, and detrital material. The various prey items found were significantly affected by the month the mantis... at the food habits of the mantis shrimp Scfuilla ~em usa and determine if this species exhibits a food preference. Are the food habits of S. ~em usa consistent with those known from other species of mantis shrimp? Stomatopods are predatory crustaceans...

Cappola, Valerie Ann

2012-06-07

177

Seabird use of discards from a nearshore shrimp fishery in the South Atlantic Bight, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp trawling is common throughout the southeastern and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the USA and is the primary contributor\\u000a to fisheries discards in these regions. Tens of thousands of nearshore seabirds nest near shrimp trawling grounds in the USA,\\u000a but to date, there has been no assessment of the relationship between seabirds and shrimp trawlers. We examined the taxonomic

Patrick G. R. JodiceLisa; Lisa C. Wickliffe; Elena B. Sachs

178

Toxicity of a phthalate ester in the diet of a penaied shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of dl?2?ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, was measured experimentally as a contaminant in shrimp aquaculture feeds. Diets containing 40 to 50,000 ppm DEHP were fed to Penaeus vannamei for 14 d at 4% body weight\\/d. DEHP concentrations in shrimp, diet, and water were measured by electron?capture gas chromatography. Whole?body residues in shrimp were 18 ppm at

James F. Hobson; Dean E. Carter; Donald V. Lightner

1984-01-01

179

An analysis of the impact of alternative import management policies for shrimp  

E-print Network

. Blomo's study was the first to examine both supply and demand of shrimp by size category. Studies investigating the demand for shrimp are numerous ? Timmer 1968; Gillespie et al. , 1969; Doll, 1972; Batie, 1974; Miller, 1975; Mar- asco, 1976... was constructed by Doll using annual data for the period 1950-1968. Market demand was estimated at retail, wholesale, and ex-vessel levels. Domestic landings and imports are regarded as exogenous in the model since, "the factors that cause shrimp abundance...

Hopkins, Jane Chadwick

2012-06-07

180

Visualizing Flow Diagrams in WebSphere Studio Using SHriMP Views  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the integration of an information visualization tool, called SHriMP Views, with IBM WebSphere Studio Application Developer Integration Edition, which was developed with Eclipse technology. Although SHriMP was originally developed for visualizing programs, it is content-independent. We have re-targeted SHriMP for visualizing flow diagrams. Flow diagrams, as supported by WebSphere Studio Appli- cation Developer Integration Edition, can be

Derek Rayside; Marin Litoiu; Margaret-anne D. Storey; Casey Best; Robert Lintern

2003-01-01

181

Uncovering the mechanisms of shrimp innate immune response by RNA interference.  

PubMed

Because of the importance of shrimp in world aquaculture, there is much interest in understanding their immune system in order to improve their resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. An effective tool in studying genes involved in the immune response in shrimp is RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi, first recognized as an antiviral response against RNA viruses, is a cellular mechanism that is triggered by double-stranded RNAs and results in the degradation of homologous genes. In this review, we describe the current studies of genes in shrimp that employed RNAi technology to elucidate or confirm their functions. We also review the potential of RNAi to elicit antiviral response in shrimp. PMID:20396922

Hirono, Ikuo; Fagutao, Fernand F; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi

2011-08-01

182

Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey  

SciTech Connect

The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

2000-04-01

183

Sound production by white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) analysis of another crustacean-like sound from the Gulf of Mexico, and the possible use of passive sonar for dedication and stock assessment of shrimp  

E-print Network

Sound production by white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) was studied acoustically and behaviorally. Another crustacean-like signal from the Gulf of Mexico was analyzed, and the use of passive sonar for the detection and stock assessment of shrimp...

Berk, Ilona M.

2012-06-07

184

Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii as a teratogen test system.  

PubMed

Brine shrimp increase in length rapidly after hatching. A teratogen test system is based on disruption of elongation between 24 and 48 hr after wetting of the cysts. Teratogenicity of substances dissolved in the medium is assayed by comparison of average lengths of animals raised for the test period in suspect solution with average lengths of controls. The system is fast, inexpensive, and requires little skill. Brine shrimp are suited to testing industrial wastes, chemical formulations, drugs, and food additives that can be dissolved in water at 25 degrees C. The method appears unsuited to testing the teratogenicity of gases, particulates, very dilute wastes, or natural waters. Cadmium, mercury, lead, zinc, bromoform, n-butylphthalate, 1,2-dichloroethane, nitrobenzene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and 1,1,3-trichloroethane were found teratogenic. Chromium (III), chromium (VI), copper, chlorobenzene, chloroform, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and phenol were found not teratogenic. Other aquatic organism teratogen test systems are surveyed. PMID:6872918

Kerster, H W; Schaeffer, D J

1983-06-01

185

Extraction of Astaxanthin from Shrimp Waste Using Pressurized Hot Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient and environmentally sustainable extraction method is proposed for the enrichment of a high-value pigment, astaxanthin,\\u000a from a low-value raw material, shrimp waste. Ethanol at elevated temperature and pressure was used as a “green” extraction\\u000a solvent. An experimental design approach based on central composite design was used to investigate the dependence of pressurized\\u000a liquid extraction (PLE) operating variables (pressure,

Can Quan; Charlotta Turner

2009-01-01

186

Effective extraction of astaxanthin pigment from shrimp using proteolytic enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was to investigate efficient extraction conditions of astaxanthin from shrimp wastes for utilizing it as\\u000a a functional food additive. In order to enhance the stability of pigments, proteolytic enzymes were applied to extract astaxanthin\\u000a as carotenoprotein. Also, various conditions such as acid ensilaging of samples, using EDTA solution and adding various enzymes\\u000a were examined to optimize extraction

Seung Hwan Lee; Seung Koo Roh; Ki Hwan Park; Kwang-Ro Yoon

1999-01-01

187

Cost and returns budgets for penaeid shrimp culture operations  

E-print Network

techniques presently being used in the Texas AAM University Shrimp Mariculture Program and current industry tech- nology. Budgets were developed for variations in hatchery tank size and tank number using fixed numbers of maturation tanks within a range... various combinations of hatchery tank sizes and num- bers for a 6 month period assuming 1. 67 runs per month per tank and 75 percent capacity . Page 24 Variable input and per unit price for items required for postlarval production . Fixed input...

Johns, M. A.

2012-06-07

188

U-Pb SHRIMP dating of uraniferous opals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U-Pb and U-series analyses of four U-rich opal samples using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) demonstrate the potential of this technique for the dating of opals with ages ranging from several tens of thousand years to millions of years. The major advantages of the technique, compared to the conventional thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), are the high spatial resolution (???20 ??m), the ability to analyse in situ all isotopes required to determine both U-Pb and U-series ages, and a relatively short analysis time which allows obtaining a growth rate of opal as a result of a single SHRIMP session. There are two major limitations to this method, determined by both current level of development of ion probes and understanding of ion sputtering processes. First, sufficient secondary ion beam intensities can only be obtained for opal samples with U concentrations in excess of ???20 ??g/g. However, this restriction still permits dating of a large variety of opals. Second, U-Pb ratios in all analyses drifted with time and were only weakly correlated with changes in other ratios (such as U/UO). This drift, which is difficult to correct for, remains the main factor currently limiting the precision and accuracy of the U-Pb SHRIMP opal ages. Nevertheless, an assumption of similar behaviour of standard and unknown opals under similar analytical conditions allowed successful determination of ages with precisions of ???10% for the samples investigated in this study. SHRIMP-based U-series and U-Pb ages are consistent with TIMS dating results of the same materials and known geological timeframes. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Nemchin, A.A.; Neymark, L.A.; Simons, S.L.

2006-01-01

189

Antimicrobial Interventions to Reduce Listeria spp. Contamination on Shrimp  

E-print Network

and Technology iii ABSTRACT Antimicrobial Interventions to Reduce Listeria spp. Contamination on Shrimp. (August 2009) Tsui-Yin Wong, B.S., University of Chai-Yi (Taiwan); M.S., Texas A&M University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Leon Russell... to thank the farm manager, Dell, and receptionist, Faye, for providing me with the poultry?s farm computer when I needed it to input my data. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...

Wong, Tsui-Yin

2010-01-14

190

Virtual memory mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network interfaces of existing multicomputers require a significant amount of software overhead to provide protection and to implement message passing protocols. This paper describes the design of a low-latency, high-bandwidth, virtual memory-mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer project at Princeton University. Without sacrificing protection, the network interface achieves low latency by using virtual memory mapping and write-latency hiding

Matthias A. Blumrich; Kai Li; Richard Alpert; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Jonathan Sandberg

1998-01-01

191

Virtual memory mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network interfaces of existing multicomputers require a significant amount of software overhead to provide protection and to implement message passing protocols. This paper describes the design of a low-latency, high-bandwidth, virtual memory-mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer project at Princeton University. Without sacrificing protection, the network interface achieves low latency by using virtual memory mapping and write-latency hiding

Matthias A. Blumrich; Kai Li; Richard Alpert; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Jonathan Sandberg

1994-01-01

192

IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

193

IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON C, N CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

194

75 FR 28760 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AY58 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2010-05-24

195

77 FR 1045 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BB61 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2012-01-09

196

75 FR 20548 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AY58 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2010-04-20

197

76 FR 30100 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Department calculated new surrogate values for shrimp using ranged data from the Indian shrimp producer Devi Seafoods, Ltd. (``Devi'') and adopted a new surrogate labor rate. Id. at 1342. Using these revised values, the...

2011-05-24

198

75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Vietnam AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') in which it preliminarily determined that...

2010-08-16

199

76 FR 30648 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...successor-in-interest to Grobest & I-Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd. (``Grobest & I-Mei...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). [[Page...

2011-05-26

200

77 FR 55800 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final Partial Rescission of Antidumping...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ Based upon our analysis of the...

2012-09-11

201

76 FR 49729 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of Antidumping...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...

2011-08-11

202

75 FR 75965 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the First Five-year ``Sunset...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). On the basis of the notices of intent to...

2010-12-07

203

76 FR 73594 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to January 9, 2012. The period of...

2011-11-29

204

76 FR 64307 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and Final Partial Rescission...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ The period of review...

2011-10-18

205

77 FR 63786 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony...Review of Grobest & I Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd., and Notice of Amended...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period...

2012-10-17

206

75 FR 36635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of New Shipper...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') with respect to Nhat Duc Co.,...

2010-06-28

207

75 FR 47771 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial Rescission of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an...

2010-08-09

208

76 FR 45775 - Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), covering the period of review...

2011-08-01

209

76 FR 67418 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to December 9, 2011. The period of...

2011-11-01

210

76 FR 55350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to November 9, 2011. The period of...

2011-09-07

211

76 FR 56158 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final Partial Rescission of Antidumping...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an...

2011-09-12

212

78 FR 57352 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Re...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Re-conducted...Review of Grobest & I-Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd. and Intent Not To Revoke...shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of...

2013-09-18

213

Are the Hawaiian Opae-ula Shrimps Halocaridina rubra and H. palahemo Simply Different Morphotypes of the Same Species?  

E-print Network

Are the Hawaiian Opae-ula Shrimps Halocaridina rubra and H. palahemo Simply Different Morphotypes Approximately 300 H. rubra shrimp ("opae-ula" in Hawaiian) (Figure 1) were evenly split between two experimental

Cowles, David L.

214

Effect of Shrimp Chitin and Shrimp Chitin Hydrolysate on the Freeze-Induced Denaturation, and on the Amount of Unfreezable Water of Wanieso Lizardfish Myofibrillar Protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of potential utilization of shrimp waste, shrimp chitin (SC) and shrimp chitin hydrolysate (SCH) were prepared from 3 kinds of shrimp species, namely: black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, endeavour shrimp Metapenaeus endeavouri and giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The effects of 5% SC and SCH (dry weight) on the state of water and on the denaturation of wanieso lizardfish Saurida wanieso myofibrillar protein (Mf) were evaluated based on changes in Mf Ca-ATPase activity and the amount of unfreezable water during frozen storage. Each effect was compared with those of Mf without additives (control) and Mf with glucose. The changes in Ca-ATPase activity of control and Mf with SC during frozen storage were exhibited biphasic pattern while those of SCH and glucose exhibited monophasic pattern. The amount of unfreezable water of Mf with SC was lower than that of control while those of Mf with SCH and glucose were higher than that of control. Present findings suggested that the preventive effect of SCH on freeze-induced denaturation of Mf is caused by the stabilizing the hydrated water molecule surrounding the Mf.

Somjit, Kingduean; Kongpun, Orawan; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Hara, Kenji; Nozaki, Yukinori

215

Predation by native brown shrimp on invasive Pacific oyster spat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decades, the invasive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) increased dramatically in the Wadden Sea. One of the driving mechanisms for the success of the Pacific oyster could be a relatively low predation pressure by epibenthic predators and shore birds on oyster spat. Nevertheless, observations and experiments on predation rates on early life-stages of the Pacific oyster are rare. Therefore, we examined predation rates of brown shrimps on Pacific oyster spat in a number of laboratory experiments. Our results demonstrate that spat of Pacific oysters are most susceptible to predation by brown shrimps (Crangon crangon) in the first days after settlement, when attachment to the substrate (unglazed tiles in our study) is still absent or weak. At this stage the shell length of oyster spat is around ~ 300 ?m, and around 50% of the individuals in the experiment were consumed in the two hour trials. Predation rates decreased rapidly as the spat grew larger and reached zero within 10 days after settlement of the spat (shell length > 700 ?m). Additional experiments revealed that the attachment of oysters is probably limiting predation by brown shrimps rather than the size of the spat. This indicates that Pacific oyster spat may limit predation loss faster compared to native bivalves, which commonly depend on size to reduce predation rates. Overall, our results suggest that the invasive success of Pacific oysters may in part be explained by relatively low predation rates throughout their life stages.

Weerman, E. J.; Eriksson, B. K.; Olff, H.; van der Heide, T.

2014-01-01

216

The contribution of flocculated material to shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) nutrition in a high-intensity, zero-exchange system  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp ponds contain a high density of flocculated particles, rich in bacteria and phytoplankton, compared with flow-through systems. The flocculated particles provide a potential food source for shrimp. Short-term tank experiments were conducted to determine the retention of nitrogen (N) from natural biota, dominated by flocculated particles, in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) at a high-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp farm

Michele A Burford; Peter J Thompson; Robins P McIntosh; Robert H Bauman; Doug C Pearson

2004-01-01

217

Abundance and Size of Gulf Shrimp in Louisiana's Coastal Estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.  

PubMed

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

2014-01-01

218

Abundance and Size of Gulf Shrimp in Louisiana's Coastal Estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

PubMed Central

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

van der Ham, Joris L.; de Mutsert, Kim

2014-01-01

219

These Squatters Are Not Innocent: The Evidence of Parasitism in Sponge-Inhabiting Shrimps  

PubMed Central

Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic) and T. spongicola (Mediterranean). The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs) suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae) and Synalpheus (Alpheidae). The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation. PMID:21814564

Duris, Zdenek; Horka, Ivona; Juracka, Petr Jan; Petrusek, Adam; Sandford, Floyd

2011-01-01

220

Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:24780624

Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

2014-10-01

221

An Assessment of the Economic Importance of the San Carlos Island Shrimp Processing Industry to the Lee County Economy  

E-print Network

to the Lee County Economy Chuck Adams, David Mulkey, and Alan Hodges Food and Resource Economics Department the shrimp processing industry on San Carlos Island contributes to the Lee County economy. Most of the shrimp of the revenues earned on a trip are spent within the Lee County economy. During seasons when shrimp landings

Florida, University of

222

Larva' distribution and transport of penaeoid shrimps during the presence of the Tortugas Gyre in May-June 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part ofthe Southeast Florida and Caribbean Recruitment Project (SEFCAR), penaeoid shrimp lar­ vae were collected during the spring and summer cruise of the RV Longhorn in the Lower Florida Keys and Dry'Ibrtugas from 29 May to 30 June 1991. Larvae of the pink shrimp, Penaeusduorarum, and the rock shrimp, Sicyonia sp., were dis­ tributed inshore close to the Dry

Maria M. Criales; Thomas N. Lee

223

Brine Shrimp Lethality Activity of Thai Medicinal Plants in the Family Meliaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brine shrimp larvae have been used as a bioassay for a variety of toxic substances. The method has also been applied to plant extracts in order to facilitate the isolation of biologically active compounds. In this study, the plants in the family Meliaceae have been selected to test for brine shrimp lethality activity based on taxonomic approach including Azedirachta indica,

Sirintorn Pisutthanana; Pinyupa Plianbangchang

224

A comparison between two brine shrimp assays to detect in vitro cytotoxicity in marine natural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The brine shrimp lethality assay is considered a useful tool for preliminary assessment of toxicity. It has also been suggested for screening pharmacological activities in plant extracts. However, we think that it is necessary to evaluate the suitability of the brine shrimp methods before they are used as a general bio-assay to test natural marine products for pharmacological activity.

José Luis Carballo; Zaira L Hernández-Inda; Pilar Pérez; María D García-Grávalos

2002-01-01

225

White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. PMID:24111694

Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

2013-12-01

226

Arsenic speciation in shrimp and mussel from the Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and mussel (Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis) were collected 3500 m below the ocean surface at the hydrothermal vents of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG and Snake Pit sites, respectively). Arsenic, a potentially toxic element, is among the substances emitted by the hydrothermal vents. The hydrothermal vent shrimp, which are known to be a primary consumer of the primary

Erik H. Larsen; Christophe R. Quétel; Riansares Munoz; Aline Fiala-Medioni; Olivier F. X. Donard

1997-01-01

227

Communications: Bioencapsulation of the Antibacterial Drug Sarafloxacin in Nauplii of the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were enriched with the antibacterial drug sarafloxacin hydrochloride to determine if levels effective against four pathogenic strains of Vibrio spp. would accumulate in brine shrimp. Three vibrio strains were Vibrio anguillarum; the fourth was V. vulnifcus. Concentrations of sarafloxacin ranging from 1 to 40% (weight volume) were incorporated into the oil phase of

B. A. Dixon; S. O. Van Poucke; M. Chair; M. Dehasque; H. J. Nelis; P. Sorgeloos; A. P. De Leenheer

1995-01-01

228

78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2) to which a ``dusting''' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with...surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

2013-06-04

229

78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2) to which a ``dusting''' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with...surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

2013-06-04

230

Simulated Economic Impact of TED Regulations on Selected Vessels in the Texas Shrimp Fishery  

E-print Network

Simulated Economic Impact of TED Regulations on Selected Vessels in the Texas Shrimp Fishery JOY legislation requires the use ofa Turtle Ex cluderDevice (TED) which, when inplace in the shrimp trawl, reduces sea turtle mortal ity. The impactofthe TED on shrimpproduc tion is notknown. This intermediate

231

Immunity enhancement in black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) by a probiont bacterium ( Bacillus S11)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and growth of Penaeus monodon fed the probiont Bacillus S11 in two 90-day culture trials were increased compared with non-treated shrimp. Bacillus S11 also efficiently activated and increased the engulfment of foreign particles (phagocytic activity) as measured by % phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI) in hemolymph. Phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities increased with age in all shrimp, but were even

Sirirat Rengpipat; Sombat Rukpratanporn; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul; Piamsak Menasaveta

2000-01-01

232

METHOD OF DETERMINING CAROTENOID CONTENTS OF ALASKA PINK SHRIMP AND REPRESENTATIVE VALVES FOR  

E-print Network

FOR SEVERAL SHRIMP PRODUCTS CAROLYN E. KELLEY' AND ANTHONY W. HARMON" ABSTRACf An extraction method and marketingpractices. The carotenoid in Alaska pink shrimp is pri- marily astaxanthin. Both total astaxanthin as a filter aid, is not essential but makes subsequent extraction and filtration easier. Blend just enough

233

Supercritical CO 2 extraction of lipids and astaxanthin from Brazilian redspotted shrimp waste ( Farfantepenaeus paulensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazilian redspotted shrimp (Farfantepenaeus paulensis) waste is an important source of carotenoids such as astaxanthin and lipids with a high ??3 fatty acids content, mainly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In order to establish an efficient and environmental friendly recovery process, the lipids and astaxanthin were extracted from the freeze-dried redspotted shrimp waste (including head, tail and shell)

Andrea P. Sánchez-Camargo; Hugo A. Martinez-Correa; Losiane C. Paviani; Fernando A. Cabral

2011-01-01

234

Financial Feasibility of Producing Value-Added Seafood from Shrimp Waste in Quebec  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp waste disposal represents a financial and environmental cost to processors and society. There have been successful biotechnology experiments in producing certain value-added marketable consumer products from shrimp waste. This study reports on the economics of that process and its commercial viability in Quebec. Discounted cash flow methods (NPV, IRR) and the payback period criteria were employed to conduct investment

P. Goldsmith; F. Amankwah; K. Gunjal; J. Smith

2004-01-01

235

UPTAKE, ASSIMILATION, AND LOSS OF DDT RESIDUES BY Euphausia pacifica, A EUPHAUSIID SHRIMP  

E-print Network

UPTAKE, ASSIMILATION, AND LOSS OF DDT RESIDUES BY Euphausia pacifica, A EUPHAUSIID SHRIMP ABSTRACT JAMES L. Cox' Euphausia pacifica Hensen, an abundant euphausiid shrimp from the California Current, can acquire sufficient DDT residue from its food to account for amounts found in its tissues. Assimilation

236

BIOACCUMULATION OF KEPONE BY GRASS SHRIMP (PALAEMONETIS PUGIO): IMPORTANCE OF DIETARY ACCUMULATION AND INGESTION RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The relative extent of dietary accumulation and bioconcentration of Kepone by grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) was quantitatively evaluated at food rations of 4 and of the average wet weight of the shrimp. 14C]Kepone was utilized to determine bioconcentration and dietary accumul...

237

FISH PREDATION ON JUVENILE BROWN SHRIMp, PENAEUS AZTECUS IVES: EFFECTS OF TURBIDITY AND  

E-print Network

FISH PREDATION ON JUVENILE BROWN SHRIMp, PENAEUS AZTECUS IVES: EFFECTS OF TURBIDITY AND SUBSTRATUM for burrowing. Regardless of the type of substratum, turbid water increased predation by southern flounder clear and turbid water, the presence of sand, whic1l allowed shrimp to burrow, decreased predation

238

Environmental Impacts and their Socioeconomic Consequences of Shrimp Farming in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial shrimp culture in Bangladesh has expanded dramatically over the last two decades for itshigh demand in the international market and its potential for making quick profit. Large farm size, very low input, low stocking density, diseases infestation and low production are the characteristics of most shrimp farms. While other Asian countries like Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand, India and Srilanka have

Sadika Haque; Gopal Datt Bhatta; Nazmul Hoque; Mahbub Hossain Rony; Mustafizur Rahman

2008-01-01

239

The application of bacterial indicator phylotypes to predict shrimp health status.  

PubMed

The incidence of shrimp disease is closely associated with the microbial composition in surrounding water, but it remains uncertain whether microbial indicator phylotypes are predictive for shrimp health status (healthy or diseased). To test this idea, we combined the data from our previous works, to investigate the feasibility of indicator phylotypes as independent variables to predict the health status during a shrimp culture procedure. The results showed linearly increased dissimilarities (P?shrimps. In particular, we created a model to identify indicators that discriminated ponds with diseased shrimp populations from these with healthy shrimp populations. As a result, 13 indicative families were screened, in which seven are healthy indicator and six are diseased indictor. An improved logistic regression model additionally revealed that the occurrences of these indicator families could be predictive of the shrimp health status with a high degree of accuracy (>79 %). Overall, this study provides solid evidences that indicator phylotypes could be served as independent variables for predicting the incidences of shrimp disease. PMID:25042597

Xiong, Jinbo; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhang, Demin

2014-10-01

240

Identification of Continuous, Allergenic Regions of the Major Shrimp Allergen Pen a 1 (Tropomyosin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Crustaceans and mollusks are a frequent cause of allergic reactions. The only major allergen identified in shrimp is the muscle protein tropomyosin; at least 80% of shrimp-allergic subjects react to tropomyosin. Furthermore, tropomyosin is an important allergen in other crustaceans such as lobsters, crabs and mollusks, as well as other arthropods such as house dust mites and cockroaches, and

R. Ayuso; S. B. Lehrer; G. Reese

2002-01-01

241

Frozen Commodity Shrimp: Potential Avenue for Introduction of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Yellow Head Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1992, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) have caused mortalities in cultured shrimp throughout Asia. By 1995, WSSV was detected in Texas and South Carolina, and the virus has also been recently reported in Central and South America (Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Panama, Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador). The importation of live infected shrimp is the principal

S. V. Durand; K. F. J. Tang; D. V. Lightner

2000-01-01

242

A new RNA virus found in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon from Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, apparently innocuous virus was found while investigating the cause of monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) in cultured black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). It was identified via plasmid vector clones of E. coli containing randomly amplified cDNA fragments produced from total nucleic acid extracts of hemolymph from MSGS shrimp. Of 421 clones, 30 that failed to give positive dot

Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; Somjai Apisawetakan; Anutara Boon-nat; Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul; Timothy W. Flegel

2006-01-01

243

Onboard processing of deepwater pink shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris ) with liquid ice: Effect on quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect on the quality of deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) of onboard chilling with liquid ice versus the traditional chilling with flaked ice. Quality was estimated by physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters after 24 h and 4 days of chilled storage. Application of liquid ice immediately after catch for the fast chilling of pink shrimp

Almudena Huidobro; María Elvira López-Caballero; Rogério Mendes

2002-01-01

244

Determinants of Yields in Shrimp Culture: Scientific Vs. Traditional Farming Systems in West Bengal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at identifying various determinants of shrimp yield in scientific and traditional farming systems in West Bengal. The primary data was collected from two shrimp farming districts—North 24 Parganas and Purba Midnapur during 2004-05. The empirical results derived from the multiple regression analysis show that education and capital costs have a positive impact on the yield in both

Poulomi Bhattacharya

2009-01-01

245

Oxidative stress response of black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) to enrofloxacin and to culture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Vietnam, enrofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in shrimp farms. Although the European Union set a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 ?g\\/kg for enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in edible tissues of aquatic animals for human consumption, only few data are available on its potential deleterious effects on shrimp. This study aimed to investigate the impacts

Huynh Thi Tu; Frédéric Silvestre; Amandine Bernard; Caroline Douny; Nguyen Thanh Phuong; Chau Tai Tao; Guy Maghuin-Rogister; Patrick Kestemont

2008-01-01

246

Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

247

A Review of the Offshore Shrimp Fishery and the 1981 Texas Closure  

E-print Network

with the fisheries of earlier years. Statistics describing the U.S. Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery began in 1956 reported in "Fishery Statistics of the United States" and "Shrimp Landings" (USFWS, 1956-70a, b; NMFS, 1970) to determine re- cruitment to the offshore fisheries. Figure I.-Locations of statistical subareas (no. 12

248

MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

249

A Demographic Profile of Participants in Two Gulf of Mexico Inshore Shrimp Fisheries and Their  

E-print Network

of the offshore shrimp fishery by delaying amined differ in that the market distribution ofshrimpfrom Galveston sequently, shrimp are harvested by both inshore and offshore shrimpers. These two user groups harvest of inshore and offshore James M. Nance is with the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Galveston

250

MIGRATIONS AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, PENAEUS DUORARUM, OF THE TORTUGAS AND SANIBEL GROUNDS,  

E-print Network

patterns on the offshore grounds. The migrations and geographic distribution of pink shrimp, Penae'u8 d'IW1MIGRATIONS AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, PENAEUS DUORARUM, OF THE TORTUGAS on the offshore Tortugas and Sanibel trawling grounds in the Gulf of Mexico. To study the Tortugas and Sanibel

251

Field study of cyclic hypoxic effects on gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas.  

PubMed

Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, are widely used for ecological and toxicological research. They commonly experience cyclic hypoxia in their natural habitats. The response of grass shrimp to laboratory-controlled cyclic hypoxia has been studied in detail, but little is known about how field acclimatized grass shrimp regulate the gene expression and response to cyclic hypoxia. In this study we examined morphometric parameters, relative fecundity and gene expression of grass shrimp collected from two areas in Weeks Bay (Mobile, Alabama). One is a traditionally normoxic location (WBM), and the other is a traditionally cyclic hypoxic location (WC). In the week preceding grass shrimp collection dissolved oxygen (DO) at the field sites was measured continuously. DO was <2 (mg/L DO) and between 2 and 3 (mg/L DO) for 0 and 255min at WBM, and for 285 and 1035min at WC, respectively. Weight and length of WBM grass shrimp were significantly greater than weight and length of WC shrimp. WBM shrimp had more eggs than WC shrimp, but the difference was not significant. Shrimp from WC had a significant higher number of parasites than those from WBM. A cDNA microarray was utilized to investigate the changes in gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas. Five genes, previously identified as hypoxia/cyclic hypoxia-responsive genes in laboratory exposure studies, were significantly up-regulated in WC shrimp relative to WBM. A total of 5 genes were significantly down-regulated in the field study. Only one of those genes, vitellogenin, has been previously found in chronic and cyclic hypoxic studies. Up and down-regulation of 7 selected genes was confirmed by qPCR. The overall pattern of gene expression in wild shrimp from cyclic DO sites in Weeks Bay showed only weak correlations with gene expression in shrimp from chronic and cyclic hypoxic laboratory studies. It appears therefore that transcriptome profiles of laboratory acclimated animals are of limited utility for understanding responses in field acclimatized animals that are exposed to a broader array of environmental variables. PMID:24077186

Li, Tiandao; Brouwer, Marius

2013-12-01

252

SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN AN ALPHEID SHRIMP AND A XANTHOID CRAB IN SALT MARSHES OF MID-ATLANTIC STATES, U.S.A.  

E-print Network

(i.e., grass shrimp and fiddler crabs), it will not prey on snapping shrimp. Alpheus cagedSYMBIOSIS BETWEEN AN ALPHEID SHRIMP AND A XANTHOID CRAB IN SALT MARSHES OF MID-ATLANTIC STATES, U snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis) participates in a symbiosis with the black-clawed mud crab

Bermingham, Eldredge

253

Asian-Style Shrimp Noodle Soup with Lemongrass and Coconut Milk By Tom McNary of Carried Away, Aptos, CA  

E-print Network

Asian-Style Shrimp Noodle Soup with Lemongrass and Coconut Milk By Tom McNary of Carried Away teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons fish sauce 1 can coconut milk 1¼ pounds gulf shrimp, peeled Chef Tom Mc juice, salt, fish sauce, coconut milk and shrimp. Simmer for about 5 minutes until shrimp is pink

California at Santa Cruz, University of

254

Optimization of microbial inactivation of shrimp by dense phase carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Microbial inactivation of Litopenaeus vannamei by dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) treatment was investigated and neural network was used to optimize the process parameters of microbial inactivation. The results showed that DPCD treatment had a remarkable bactericidal effect on microorganism of shrimp. A 3×5×2 three-layer neural network model was established. According to the neural network model, the inactivation effect was enhanced with pressure, temperature and exposure time increasing and temperature was the most important factor affecting microbial inactivation of shrimp. Cooked appearance of shrimp by DPCD treatment was observed and seemed to be more positively acceptable by Chinese diet custom. Therefore, color change of shrimp by DPCD treatment could have a positive effect on quality attributes. Moderate temperature 55 °C with 15 MPa for 26 min treatment time achieved a 3.5-log reduction of total aerobic plate counts (TPC). The parameters combination might be appropriate for shrimp process by DPCD. PMID:22424934

Ji, Hongwu; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Shucheng; Qu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Chaohua; Gao, Jialong

2012-05-01

255

Influence of ultrasonic treatment on the allergenic properties of Shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei) Allergen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0°C or 50°C for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0°C. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50°C. In the determination of allergenicity with Ci-ELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.

Zhenxing, Li; Hong, Lin; Limin, Cao

2006-04-01

256

Burrow utilization in the goby Eutaeniichthys gilli associated with the mud shrimp Upogebia yokoyai.  

PubMed

We investigated the estuarine goby's (Eutaeniichthys gilli) utilization of mud shrimp (Upogebia yokoyai) burrows in laboratory experiments at Kochi, Japan. The goby utilized the shrimp burrow in the presence of the host, without predators, when the mud surface was covered with water. The goby spent one quarter to half the time in shrimp burrows in experimental tanks. The goby frequently entered and exited the shrimp burrows, with bout durations of several seconds to several minutes. The goby also utilized vacant artificial burrows in much the same manner. It is suggested that E. gilli feeds on small-sized crustaceans and other organic matter on the mud surface frequently utilizing shrimp burrows for possible predator avoidance even when no predator is present. Repeated evolution of burrow utilization in the North Pacific bay gobies in both the East and West Pacific would correlate with burrow commensalism in E. gilli, which is the most proximal outgroup of the bay gobies. PMID:25088593

Henmi, Yumi; Itani, Gyo

2014-08-01

257

Evaluate of heavy metal concentration in shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab (Portunus pelagicus) with INAA method.  

PubMed

The level of the heavy metal in green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab (Portunus pelagicus) caught off the Persian Gulf near Bushehr province were investigated. This study was performed to evaluate instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to analyze heavy metal concentration in crab and shrimp whole body tissue. The order of the swimmer crab and shrimp heavy metal concentrations were Zn>Fe>As>Mn>Co and Fe>Zn>Mn>As>Co, respectively. The results showed swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) and shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) caught off Persian gulf, were contaminated with high level of As (21.38±3.31ppm and 8.28±2.82 ppm, respectively). High levels of As and Mn were noted in crabs and shrimp, respectively. PMID:23487484

Heidarieh, Marzieh; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Behgar, Mehdi; Ziaei, Farhood; Akbari, Zahra

2013-12-01

258

Changes in the composition of Vibrio communities in pond water during tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) cultivation and in the hepatopancreas of healthy and diseased shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two batches of shrimp were cultivated in a total of 4 culture ponds from March 28 to June 13, and July 17 to September 11, 1997. Vibrio spp. were isolated from the pond water and the hepatopancreas of healthy and diseased shrimp using thiosulfate–citrate–bile salt–sucrose agar plate, and then identified using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. In each culture

Hung-Hung Sung; Hai-Ching Li; Fu-Ming Tsai; Yun-Yuan Ting; Wei-Liang Chao

1999-01-01

259

Molecular Characterizations of a Novel Putative DNA-Binding Protein LvDBP23 in Marine Shrimp L. vannamei Tissues and Molting Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLitopenaeus Vannamei, well known as pacific white shrimp, is the most popular shrimp in the world shrimp market. Identification and characterization of shrimp muscle regulatory genes are not only important for shrimp genetic improvement, but also facilitate comparative genomic tools for understanding of muscle development and regeneration.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA novel mRNA encoding for a putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 was identified from

Yanisa Laoong-u-thai; Baoping Zhao; Amornrat Phongdara; Jinzeng Yang

2011-01-01

260

Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban.  

PubMed

The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union therefore took measures to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on ships and ultimately banned these paints in 2003. Despite sufficient data on OT concentrations in marine gastropods, data are scarce for other species such as the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), a dominant crustacean species in North Sea inshore benthic communities. The present study provides the first spatial overview of OT concentrations in North Sea brown shrimp. We have compared these data with historical concentrations in shrimp as well as with sediment concentrations. We have also addressed the effect on the shrimp stock and any human health risks associated with the OT concentrations found. TBT and TPhT in shrimp tail muscle ranged from 4 to 124 and from 1 to 24 ?g kg(-1) DW, respectively. High levels are accumulated in estuarine areas and are clearly related with sediment concentrations (biota-sediment accumulation factor ~10). Levels have decreased approximately 10-fold since the ban took effect, coinciding with a recovery of the shrimp stock after 30 years of gradual regression. Furthermore, the OT levels found in brown shrimp no longer present a human health risk. PMID:22154339

Verhaegen, Y; Monteyne, E; Neudecker, T; Tulp, I; Smagghe, G; Cooreman, K; Roose, P; Parmentier, K

2012-03-01

261

Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.  

PubMed

Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp. PMID:22417550

Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

2011-09-01

262

Molecular cloning and characterisation of prophenoloxidase from haemocytes of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

cDNA encoding prophenoloxidase (proPO) of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA using oligonucleotide primers based on the proPO sequence of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus (accession no.: AF521949) and kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (accession no.: AB0733223). proPO of L. vannamei was constitutively expressed. The 2471-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2058 bp, a 96-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 317-bp 3'-untranslated region containing the poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence (686 amino acids) was 78.1 kDa with an estimated pI of 6.02. It contained putative copper binding sites, a complement-like motif (GCGWPQHM), a proteolytic activation site, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. However, no signal peptide sequence was detected in white shrimp proPO. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that white shrimp proPO is more closely related to the proPO of another penaeid than to that of a freshwater crayfish. White shrimp proPO mRNA was synthesized in haemocytes and not in the hepatopancreas or muscle. The activation responses of the proPO of the white shrimp to an exogenous protease (trypsin), a detergent (sodium dodecyl sulphate), and algal and microbial cell wall components (laminarin, sodium alginate, zymosan, and lipopolysaccharide), and its susceptibility to protease inhibitors in vitro resemble the proPO activation system of other crustaceans. These facts suggest that the proPO system in haemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei serves an important function in non-self recognition and host immune reactions. PMID:15683918

Lai, Ching-Yi; Cheng, Winton; Kuo, Ching-Ming

2005-05-01

263

Characterization of Intestinal Bacteria in Wild and Domesticated Adult Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2014-01-01

264

Chitin extraction from shrimp shell waste using Bacillus bacteria.  

PubMed

The ability of six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus mojavencis A21, Bacillus licheniformis RP1, Bacillus cereus SV1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 and Bacillus subtilis A26) to ferment media containing only shrimp shell waste, for chitin extraction, was investigated. More than 80% deproteinization was attained by all the strains tested. However, demineralization rates not exceeding 67% were registered. Cultures conducted in media containing shrimp shell waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, without affecting deproteinization rates. The antioxidant activities of hydrolysates, at different concentrations, produced during fermentation in medium supplemented with glucose, were determined using different tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method, reducing power assay and chelating activity. All hydrolysates showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity. Hydrolysate produced by B. pumilus A1 exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, with an IC(50) value of 0.3 mg/ml. Highest reducing power (DO 700 nm=1.55 at 1.5 mg/ml) and metal chelating activity (98% at 5mg/ml) were obtained with B. pumilus A1 and B. licheniformis RP1 hydrolysates, respectively. PMID:22981824

Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Maâlej, Hana; Hajji, Sawssen; Nasri, Moncef

2012-12-01

265

Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina.  

PubMed

Heterocytous cyanobacteria from various habitats were screened for toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina and the murine lymphoblastic cell line Sp/2 in order to compare these two testing models for evaluation of risk posed by cyanobacteria to human health. Methanol extracts of biomass and cultivation media were tested for toxicity and selected extracts were fractionated to determine the active fraction. We found a significant toxic effect to A. salina and to Sp/2 cells in 5.2% and 31% of studied extracts, respectively. Only 8.6% of the tested strains were highly toxic to both A. salina and the Sp/2 cell line, and only two of the tested strains were toxic to A. salina and not to the murine cell line. Therefore, it is likely that the toxic effect of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites mostly targets basal metabolic pathways present in mammal cells and so is not manifested in A. salina. We conclude that it is insufficient to monitor cytotoxicity of cyanobacteria using only the brine shrimp bioassay as was usual in the past, since cytotoxicity is a more frequent feature in cyanobacteria in comparison with toxicity to A. salina. A. salina toxicity test should not be used when estimating the possible health risk for humans. We suggest that in vitro mammal cells be used for these purposes. PMID:20946912

Hisem, Daniel; Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, Petr; Tomší?ková, Jana; Zapom?lová, Eliška; Skácelová, Kate?ina; Lukešová, Alena; Kopecký, Ji?í

2011-01-01

266

The use of indole as a potential quality index for fresh, frozen, cooked and canned shrimp  

E-print Network

. samples were far below the 25~/100 g shrimp suggested by FDA while total aezobic plate counts were more than 8 0 10 organisms per gram. At 12 0 the indole level reached 100~/100 shrimp with TPC of more than 10 /g aftez 78 hr of storage. At 22 0 8 0... for determina- tion of the quality of shrimp hes, for years, been an important goal not only to seafood. processors but also to agencies like the National Marine Fisheries Servies (NMFS) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The need for rapid...

Chang, Olivia Hui-Fen

2012-06-07

267

Shrimp Culture Research at Texas A&M University: 1989 to 1991.  

E-print Network

strate and seawater, the substrate being more im portant than seawater; and (3) production was greater at low than at high salinities. However, the growth at high salinities could be increased by raising the protein level of the feed. Growth studies... per day (1.70 glweek and 5,912 kgl ha); (2) growth was either equal to or greater in shrimp fed during the day than in shrimp fed at night; (3) growth inoceased as feeding frequency increased from 1 to 4 times per day, (4) shrimp fed a 25 percent...

Lawrence, A.; Castille, F.; Samocha, T.; Bray, W.; Robertson, L.; Frelier, P.

1994-01-01

268

A model for the management of the Texas brown shrimp fishery  

E-print Network

1979 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics A MODEL FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE TEXAS BROWN SHRIMP FISHERY A Thesis by GLENN CHARLES TYDLACKA Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman oE Commi e) pg w~ (Member) (M j) Augvst 1979 ABSTRACT... A Model for the Management of the Texas Brown Shrimp Fishery. (August 1979) Glenn Charles Tydlacka, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advi" ory Committee: Dr. Wade L. Griffin The management of the shrimp fi-hery in Texas is an important...

Tydlacka, Glenn Charles

2012-06-07

269

Fucoidan effectively provokes the innate immunity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against experimental Vibrio alginolyticus infection.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the effect of fucoidan on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus infection. Fucoidan induced degranulation, caused changes in the cell morphology, and increased activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) and the production of superoxide anions in vitro. Shrimp that received fucoidan via immersion at 100, 200, and 400 mg l(-1) after 3 h showed haemocyte proliferation and a higher mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue. In another experiment, the haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and respiratory bursts (RBs) were examined after the shrimp had been fed diets containing fucoidan at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 7-21 days. Results indicated that these parameters directly increased with time. The immune parameters of shrimp fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) diet were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the 2.0 g kg(-1) diet after 14 and 21 days. Phagocytic activity and the clearance efficiency against V. alginolyticus were significantly higher in shrimp fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) diet compared to those of shrimp fed the 0, 0.5 and 2.0 g kg(-1) diets. In a separate experiment, shrimp that had been fed diets containing fucoidan for 21 days were challenged with V. alginolyticus at 10(6) colony-forming units shrimp(-1). Survival rates of shrimp fed the 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) diets were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the 0 and 0.5 g kg(-1) diets for 96-120 h. We concluded that fucoidan provokes innate immunity of shrimp as evidenced by haemocyte degranulation, proPO activation, and the mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue, and that dietary administration of fucoidan at 1.0 g kg(-1) enhanced the immune response of shrimp and their resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:23201320

Kitikiew, Suwaree; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Liou, Chyng-Hwa

2013-01-01

270

21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.173 Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent...

2014-04-01

271

50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the...

2011-10-01

272

50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the...

2010-10-01

273

Development of Stable Microencapsulated Astaxanthin Powders Using Extracted Astaxanthin from Crawfish and Shrimp Byproducts.  

E-print Network

??Crawfish and shrimp byproducts are an excellent source of astaxanthin. The antioxidant-rich natural astaxanthin dispersed in alpha linolenic acid-rich flaxseed oil (FO) may provide healthier… (more)

Pu, Jianing

2010-01-01

274

Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery.  

PubMed

Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delta using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing (HyMap) and (ii) to investigate links between the variation of foliar nitrogen mapped and local environmental variables. In this study, multivariate prediction models achieved a higher level of accuracy than narrow-band vegetation indices, making multivariate modeling the best choice for mapping. The variation of foliar nitrogen concentration in mangroves was significantly influenced by the local environment: (1) position of mangroves (seaward/landward), (2) distance to the shrimp ponds, and (3) predominant mangrove species. The findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbances, in this case shrimp ponds, influence nitrogen variation in mangroves. Mangroves closer to the shrimp ponds had higher foliar nitrogen concentrations. PMID:24103095

Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin; Heitkönig, Ignas M A

2013-11-15

275

78 FR 50383 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Republic of Indonesia: Final Negative Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Thailand, and Socialist...through Bank Rakyat Indonesia 5. Government Provision of Electricity to the Indonesian Fishing and Aquaculture Sector for...

2013-08-19

276

The occurrence of semicarbazide in the meat and shell of Bangladeshi fresh-water shrimp.  

PubMed

There is evidence that semicarbazide (SEM), a marker for the banned nitrofuran nitrofurazone, can arise from other, unrelated sources. Recently, Belgium rejected 54 consignments of Bangladeshi freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), following a laboratory decision to test meat and exoskeleton combined. To study the possible natural occurrence of SEM in wild shrimp, samples were collected and analysed from 29 sites across Bangladesh. SEM (<1.0 ?g/kg) was detected in ?65% of meat samples. However, SEM concentrations were approximately 100 times higher in the exoskeleton, and were unrelated to sampling location, strongly suggesting natural occurrence. In meat, most SEM was surface-associated. When the shrimp was shelled, some of the epidermal layer (which synthesises new exoskeleton) remained with the shell and some remained with the meat--leading to differing levels of natural SEM on the shrimp surface. This has implications for the use of SEM and the analytical strategy used to control nitrofuran use. PMID:23194563

McCracken, Robert; Hanna, Bob; Ennis, David; Cantley, Lynne; Faulkner, Dermot; Kennedy, D Glenn

2013-02-15

277

77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...Department'') has determined that C. P. Vietnam Corporation is the successor-in-interest to C. P. Vietnam Livestock Corporation, and shall be...

2012-04-18

278

75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-04-01

279

75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-08-23

280

78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

281

78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

282

75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-03-22

283

Intraspecific relationships among the stygobitic shrimp Typhlatya mitchelli, by analyzing sequence data from mitochondrial DNA  

E-print Network

may correspond to a new species. This unidentified Typhlatya from Cenote San Antonio Chiich was helpful in establishing a period in which the epigean ancestor colonized the cenotes. Based on pairwise distance data and previously published shrimp...

Webb, Michael Scott

2004-09-30

284

Requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis O'sbeck for potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis were studied. Orthogonal design was employed in this experiment. The composition of the basal diet consisted of fish meal, peanut cake, corn meal, soybean cake, wheat bran, vitamin mix and mineral mix, and supplementations of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine in the basal diet were made according to the L9(34) orthogonal table. The results indicated that iodine supplementation improved growth of the shrimp significantly and raised survival very significantly, iodine requirement of the shrimp was 0.003%; sodium requirement was 0.87% or less; and that 1.1 1.3% potassium and 0.18 0.38% magnesium in the diet were proper nutrition supplements for the shrimp.

Liu, Fa-Yi; Li, He-Fang; Wang, Hui-Liang; Liang, De-Hai; Tian, Yu-Chuan

1995-06-01

285

Application of a Bio-Economic-Engineering Model for Shrimp Mariculture Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a bio-economic-engineering (BEE) model for penaeid shrimp mariculture and its application to a specific system is described. The tool is introduced in primarily an application context. The BEE model is capable of integrating biological ...

C. M. Adams, W. L. Griffin, J. P. Nichols, R. E. Brick

1980-01-01

286

Genetic characterization of the burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis) in Washington and Oregon estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

The Ghost shrimp, (Neotrypaea californiensis) are burrowers, which have a wide demographic distribution along the United States Pacific Coast. Our study used genetic analysis to estimate the source populations of larvae recruiting into estuaries to allow a greater understanding ...

287

75 FR 41813 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ltd. (17) G.K S Business Associates Pvt. Ltd...Gujarat, 360 575, India) (21) Indian Aquatic...longer exists and is now doing business as Calcutta Seafoods...Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results and...

2010-07-19

288

Recruitment of shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) in the Barents Sea related to spawning stock and environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shrimp spawn in autumn, and the females carry their eggs as out roe until spring when the larvae hatch. Within a period of 2 months the shrimp larvae settle to the bottom. It has been claimed that the year-class strength probably is determined during the larval phase. Today's assessment and forecast of the shrimp stock productivity and potential fishing yields are weak. This is partly due to poor knowledge on population dynamics from hatching until the shrimp are caught in the fishery at the age of 3 or 4 years. We, therefore, here identify the most important abiotic and biotic factors that affect recruitment in addition to spawning stock biomass. Since 1995, a net attached to the underbelly of the survey trawl used at the annual cruise in the Barents Sea has caught juvenile shrimp. The abundance of settled shrimp larvae varies in time and space. The recruitment to the fishery has been quite stable with the exception of the 1996 year-class, which was observed as 1-year-olds but has not been registered since. The temporal pattern of the three youngest year-classes is studied in relation to abiotic factors such as sea temperature, ice index and North Atlantic Oscillation, as well as biotic factors such as spawning stock biomass and presence of copepods, euphausiids and predating cod. Recruitment indices and factors identified by the Spearmann correlation to be significantly correlated with recruitment were used as input in a principal component analysis (PCA) and a generalized additive model (GAM) was applied. Abundance of 1-year-old shrimp is positively correlated to spawning stock biomass the previous year and to temperature of the previous winter, and negatively correlated with the number of 1-year-old cod. Two-year-old shrimp show significant correlation with temperature, whereas there is a strong negative correlation with euphausiids. Three-year-old shrimp are significantly correlated with the number of 2-year-old shrimp the previous year but negatively correlated to temperature at sampling time. This is probably due to less overlap with the main predator cod when cold. Ricker functions indicate an increased density-dependent mortality with age. When predicting the recruitment of shrimp to the fishery, the spawning stock biomass, the abundance of cod and euphausiids, as well as the temperature should be included.

Aschan, Michaela; Ingvaldsen, Randi

2009-10-01

289

Brine shrimp toxicity and antiplasmodial activity of five Kenyan medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic extracts of leaves and roots of five plants used for treating malaria in Central, Nairobi and Rift Valley Provinces, Kenya were tested for brine shrimp lethality and in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Of the plants tested, 60% were toxic to the brine shrimp (LC50<30?g\\/ml) and eight out of ten plant

G. N. Wanyoike; S. C. Chhabra; C. C. Lang’at-Thoruwa; S. A. Omar

2004-01-01

290

Proper use of sodium bisulfite with minimal salt penetration during brine immersion freezing of shrimp  

E-print Network

brine immersion tank was direct addition of sodium bisulfite to the brine mixture at a concentration of 8. 75(I. Shrimp frozen in 23% sodium chloride with 8. 75% sodium bisulfite produced initial residual sulfur dioxide close to the maximum level..., sodium chloride and sodium bisulfite must be replenished on a regular basis. Background information for shrimp frozen in brine immersion tanks were obtained on the Ramona Cruz, IV a brine immersion vessel. It was recommended that 3. 5...

Broussard, Suzanne Rene

2012-06-07

291

Tolerance and behaviour of the mysid shrimp Tenagomysis novae?zealandiae to low dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estuarine hypoxia (<4.0 mg O2\\/litre) caused by eutrophication has been linked to mass mortality of fish and Crustacea. However, there is little information on the hypoxia tolerance of New Zealand's estuarine mysid shrimps and\\/or if these species exhibit behavioural and physiological responses to low dissolved oxygen. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the native mysid shrimp Tenagomysis novae?zealandiae was tolerant of dissolved oxygen

Gregory Larkin; Gerard P. Closs; Barrie Peake

2007-01-01

292

Can small male shrimps achieve copulation in the presence of larger ones?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity for insemination and competitive ability of small males of the partially protandrous alpheid shrimpAthanas kominatoensis Kubo which lives in symbiosis with the Japanese purple sea urchinAnthocidaris crassispina (A. Agassiz) were examined. Although male shrimps 1.5 mm in carapace length or larger produced sperm, it was not until they\\u000a grew to 2.4 mm that they became functional. Males lost

Yasuhiro Nakashima

1995-01-01

293

DOUBLE-RIG TWIN SHRIMP-TRAWLING GEAR USED IN GULF OF MEXICO  

E-print Network

DOUBLE-RIG TWIN SHRIMP-TRAWLING GEAR USED IN GULF OF MEXICO llar I IL Hulhs .Ir. I Ilt nil d Doublt advan...es technology sign of the out1'lgg rs, mast trud 1I b, an other rigging ..;omponent r lat d to h purpose 0: this paper IS to des nb on t 111 shrimp-trawling rig that has b en flsh d along the Texas 'oast

294

Effects of a probiotic bacterium on black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon survival and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus S11 bacterium isolated from black tiger shrimp habitats was added to shrimp feed as a probiotic in three forms: fresh cells, fresh cells in normal saline solution, and a lyophilized form. After a 100-day feeding trial with probiotic supplemented and non-supplemented (control) feeds, Penaeus monodon (from PL30) exhibited no significant difference (p>0.05) in growth, survival nor external appearance between

Sirirat Rengpipat; Wannipa Phianphak; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul; Piamsak Menasveta

1998-01-01

295

Management plan for a penaeid shrimp larviculture facility in Belize, Central America  

E-print Network

responsibilities included the culture, harvesting and feeding of ~A ~Q; the disinfection and preparation of tanks for stocking shrimp larvae; the harvesting and packing of postlarvae for shipment; and, the regulation of water exchanges. As my internship... of culturing algae. I was responsible for maintaining pure cultures, starting up mass cultures, mixing up nutrients, and regulating the distribution of algae to the tanks containing the larval shrimp. By the end of my internship at the LMSF-TX hatchery, I...

Skidmore,John D.

2012-06-07

296

Effects of shrimp-farm effluents on the food web structure in subtropical coastal lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous studies have reported the negative effects of shrimp aquaculture on water quality, little is known about the ecological effects of these practices in coastal lagoons and near-shore marine habitats. The impact of shrimp-farm effluents on the food webs of an impacted subtropical coastal lagoon in the Gulf of California was evaluated through measurements of isotopic (?13C, ?15N) signatures

L. Serrano-Grijalva; S. Sánchez-Carrillo; D. G. Angeler; R. Sánchez-Andrés; M. Álvarez-Cobelas

2011-01-01

297

Review of Some Recent Developments in Sustainable Shrimp Farming Practices in Texas, Arizona, and Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world shrimp-farming industry is currently experiencing major crop losses due to disease outbreaks, which are often associated with environmental degradation. Such losses can be minimized through the adaptation of technologies that enhance biosecurity and environmental control. Current technologies suggest that a shrimp yield as high as 10 kg\\/m\\/crop can be achieved in indoor, super-intensive, closed-recirculation systems in which environmental

Tzachi M. Samocha; Louis Hamper; Craig R. Emberson; Allen D. Davis; Dennis McIntosh; Addison L. Lawrence; Peter M. Van Wyk

2002-01-01

298

Presence, growth and survival characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica in oysters, shrimp and crab  

E-print Network

PRESENCE, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YERSI NZA ENTEROCOLITI CA IN OYSTERS, SHRIMP AND CRAB A Thesis by SUE STALLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PRESENCE, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YERSZNZA ENTEROCOLZTZCA IN OYSTERS, SHRIMP AND CRAB A Thesis by SUE STALLER Approved as to style and content by: Chairman o f...

Staller, Sue

2012-06-07

299

Gene Expression Profile of Hemocytes of Kuruma Shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus Following Peptidoglycan Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimps are believed to lack an adaptive immune system and therefore rely heavily on their innate immune mechanisms to ward\\u000a off pathogens. Moreover, their innate defense reactions are triggered by bacterial and fungal cell wall components such as\\u000a lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycan and ?-glucans. In this study, we used microarray to examine the gene expression profile\\u000a of kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, after

Fernand F. Fagutao; Motoshige Yasuike; Christopher Marlowe Caipang; Hidehiro Kondo; Ikuo Hirono; Yukinori Takahashi; Takashi Aoki

2008-01-01

300

Freshwater shrimp ( Palaemonetes australis ) as a potential bioindicator of crustacean health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaemonetes australis is a euryhaline shrimp found in southwestern Australian estuaries. To determine if P. australis is a suitable bioindicator species for monitoring the health of estuarine biota, they were exposed to measured concentrations\\u000a of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) at 0.01, 0.1, or 1 ppm for 14 days under laboratory conditions. At the end of exposure the shrimp were sacrificed

Diane Webb

2011-01-01

301

Molecular Phylogeny and In Situ Detection of the Etiologic Agent of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis in Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a severe disease of farm-raised Penaeus vannamei that has been associated with mortality losses ranging from 20 to 95%. NHP was first recognized in Texas in 1985 (S. K. Johnson,p.16,inHandbookofShrimpDiseases,1989)andisaneconomicallyimportantdiseasethathaslimited the ability to culture shrimp in Texas. The putative cause of NHP is a gram-negative, pleomorphic, intracel- lular, rickettsia-like bacterium that remains uncultured in part because

JAMES K. LOY; FLOYD E. DEWHIRST; WILLIAM WEBER; PAUL F. FRELIER; THEODORE L. GARBAR; SERBAN I. TASCA; ANDJOE W. TEMPLETON

1996-01-01

302

Survival and Histological Alterations in Juvenile Tiger Shrimps Exposed to Saponin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and shell quality of juvenile tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, exposed to a plant derived toxicant, saponin, were investigated. The 96 h LC50 was 132.07 mg l-1 of saponin. The juvenile tiger shrimp tested against 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations of the 96 h LC50 value of saponin for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 days recorded shell

T. S. Nagesh; N. Jayabalan; C. V. Mohan; T. S. Annappaswamy; T. M. Anil

1999-01-01

303

Enabling Sustainable Shrimp Aquaculture: Narrowing the Gaps Between Science and Policy in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the early 1980s, shrimp aquaculture has expanded rapidly with production increasing more than 100-fold from 31,000 t\\u000a in 1976 to 2.6 million tons in 2006 (Fig. 7.1). About 90% of farmed shrimp is produced in Asia (mainly in China, Thailand,\\u000a Vietnam, Indonesia and India). The other 10% is produced mainly in Latin America, where Mexico, Brazil and Ecuador are

Dao Huy Giap; Po Garden; Louis Lebel

304

Polyculture of indigenous marine fishes stocked with penaeid shrimp in thermally enriched brackish water ponds  

E-print Network

POLYCULTURE OF INDIGENOU MARINE FISHES STOCKED WITH PENAEID SHRIMP Ii~J THERMALLY ENRICHED BRACKISH RATER PONDS A Thesis by KAREN SUE ROSSBERG Submitted by the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial ulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: JJildlife and F'sheries Sciences POLYCULTURE OF INDIGENOUS MARINE FISHES STOCKED WITH PENAEID SHRIMP IN THERMALLY ENRICHED BRACKISH WATER PONDS A Thesis by KAREN SUE ROSSBERG Approved...

Rossberg, Karen Sue

2012-06-07

305

Hemolymph analysis and evaluation of newly formulated media for culture of shrimp cells ( Penaeus stylirostris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Creation of a shirmp cell line has been an elusive goal. This failure may be due to the composition of the cell culture medium,\\u000a which may be inadequate to support primary cultured cells. Shrimp hemolymph should contain the nutritional components needed\\u000a to support cell growth and division. We report here the comprehensive biochemical analysis of hemolymph from the blue shrimp,Penaeus

Chisato Shimizu; Hiroko Shike; Kurt R. Klimpel; Jane C. Burns

2001-01-01

306

Antibiotic administration by osmotic infiltration in the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

ANTIBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION BY OSMOTIC INFILTRATION IN THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACROBRACHIUM POSENBERGII A Thesis by ALCESTIS TRILLO LLOBRERA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology ANTIBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION BY OSMOTIC INFILTRATION IN THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII A Thesis by ALCESTIS TRILLO LLOBRERA Approved...

Llobrera, Alcestis Trillo

2012-06-07

307

Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

Klerks, P. L.; Felder, D. L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P. W.

2007-01-01

308

Identification of arachidonic acid and its metabolism in Gulf of Mexico shrimp  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION QF ARACHIDONIC ACID AND ITS METABOLISM IN GULF OF MEXICO SHRIMP A Thesis by MARTHA LAE LILLY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement fcr the degree of MASTER QF... SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Biochemistry IDENTIFICATION OF ARACHIDONIC ACID AND ITS METABOLISM IN GULF OF MEXICO SHRIMP A Thesis by MARTHA LAE LILLY Approved as to style and content by: airman of Committee) (M (Member) ead of Department...

Lilly, Martha Lae

2012-06-07

309

Effects of three Caribbean cleaner shrimps on ectoparasitic monogeneans in a semi-natural environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most research on cleaning symbioses on coral reefs has focused on fish clients being cleaned by smaller fishes. While many shrimps and other crustaceans are reported as cleaners, whether they remove parasites from fish hosts and can effectively regulate populations of ectoparasites is unclear. The effects of Pederson shrimp ( Periclimenes pedersoni) , spotted shrimp ( P. yucatanicus), and banded coral shrimp ( Stenopus hispidus), on the parasitic monogenean Neobenedenia melleni on a host reef fish, blue tang ( Acanthurus coeruleus), were investigated. The abundance and size of N. melleni from fish with and without access to shrimps in a semi-natural macrocosm was quantified. P. pedersoni had a strong effect on both the abundance and size of parasites. In contrast, P. yucatanicus and S. hispidus had no effect on the abundance of parasites but had a small yet statistically significant effect on average size. These data suggest that P. pedersoni can play a significant role in the biological regulation of at least some ectoparasites on Caribbean reef fishes, but further suggest that some other shrimps regarded as “cleaners” may have little or no effectiveness at removing parasites and underscore the need for further verification before this term is applied.

McCammon, A.; Sikkel, P. C.; Nemeth, D.

2010-06-01

310

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater. PMID:24658782

Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

2014-09-01

311

Molecular characterization of a Ran isoform gene up-regulated in shrimp immunity.  

PubMed

Diseases caused by viruses are the greatest challenge to worldwide shrimp aquaculture. Ran gene was an important antiviral gene identified from shrimp and its mRNA level was up-regulated in response to viral infection. In this investigation, a Ran isoform gene (named Ran-iso) cDNA was cloned from shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus. The full-length cDNA of Ran-iso was 1286 bp, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 272 bp, 3'-terminal UTR of 366 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 648 bp encoding a polypeptide of 215 amino acids. The deduced protein was highly homologous, it shared 90.64%, 84.19%, 81.48% and 67.58% identities with Ran protein of shrimp, honey bee, human and tobacco respectively. Ran-iso gene was constitutively expressed in 6 tissues examined, including gill, hepatopancreas, hemolymph, heart, intestine and muscle. However, Ran-iso was highest expressed in hepatopancreas (p<0.01), whereas the expressions of other five tissues were equal and relatively low. Time course analysis showed that the expression level of Ran-iso was obviously up-regulated 2.8 times (at 6h) as much as that in the control in the hepatopancreas challenged by WSSV. This investigation might provide a clue to elucidate the shrimp innate immunity and would be helpful to shrimp disease control. PMID:22192911

Han, Fang; Wang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Zhiyong

2012-03-01

312

The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P < 0.05). In contrast to the other two treatments, mode-M had stable pH after 50 d cultivation of shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P < 0.05). Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

2013-09-01

313

Effect of stocking density on extensive production of freshwater shrimp in coal mine reclamation ponds  

SciTech Connect

The use of post-mining reclamation ponds for the production of freshwater shrimp was evaluated by examining different stocking densities. Juvenile shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) averaging 0.5g each were stocked into four existing ponds at Peabody`s Ken Surface Mine at 6,175; 12,350; 18,500; and 24,700/ha (2,500, 5,000, 7,500, and 10,000/acre) on June 1, 1995. Shrimp were fed twice a week for 103 days, with harvest conducted September 13, 1995. Survival averaged 40%, overall. Average individual weight size was inversely related to stocking density ranging from 52 g (8.7 shrimp/lb) at 6,175/ha to 20.3 g (22.7 shrimp/lb) at 18,500/acre. Total production was directly related to stocking density ranging from 97 kg/ha (86 lbs/acre) at low density to 211 kg/ha (188 lbs/acre) at 18,500/ha shrimp acre. The major difficulty was at harvest due to difficulty in draining ponds. Construction of designed culture ponds with gravity drains during reclamation could greatly enhance survival, harvestability, and commercial feasibility.

Tidwell, J.H.; Wynne, F.; Coyle, S.D. [Kentucky State Univ., Frankfort, KY (United States). Aquaculture Research Center; Grey, B. [Peabody Coal Co., Rockport, KY (United States); McGuire, J.

1998-12-31

314

Rapid identification of enterovirulent Escherichia coli strains using polymerase chain reaction from shrimp farms.  

PubMed

Although, Escherichia coli is widely distributed in the environment, only a small percentage is pathogenic to humans. The most commonly encountered are those belonging to the Enterotoxigenic (ETEC), Enteroinvasive (EIEC), Enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and Enteropathogenic (EPEC) subtypes. Aquaculture premises specially shrimp farm in tropical and subtropical countries largely susceptive to different types of E. coli strains. With the PCR system, an attempt was taken to identify the virulent E. coli in a rapid basis from water, sediment and live shrimp from different shrimp farms established in the shrimp production areas of southwest part of Bangladesh. The target genes chosen for this investigation included the PhoA, a housekeeping gene in all E. coli and thereafter the virulent genes LT1, LT1 and ST1 of ETEC, the VT of EHEC and EAE of EPEC, which were amplified with the primers designed for their specific genes. The restriction enzyme conformation and the gel electrophoresis bands showed the presence of E. coli, among which ETEC and EPEC groups were present in the environmental and biological samples of shrimp farms, brings up into the human health concern. The sanitation conditions amid farm were also investigated to find the link of pathogenic E. coli, which came into the result of less infection if the farm maintains improved sanitation. This study has clearly urged the exigency of periodical quick check of virulent E. coli with the versatile PCR system from brood management to post-harvest handling of shrimp. PMID:24511733

Roy, Debashis; Biswas, Bhabananda; Islam, H M Rakibul; Ahmed, Md Shamim; Rasheduzzaman, Md; Sarower, Md Golam

2013-11-01

315

Extension of shelf life of whole and peeled shrimp with organic acid salts and bifidobacteria.  

PubMed

Microbiological and sensory characteristics of treated whole and peeled shrimp from the east coast of Saudi Arabia were evaluated. Shrimp samples were treated with organic acid salts with or without Bifidobacterium breve culture and stored in ice. Peeling alone extended the microbiological shelf life by 4 days. Treatment of whole shrimp with sodium acetate alone or potassium sorbate with bifidobacteria prolonged the microbiological shelf life by 3 days and increased the microbial generation time from 12.8 h (control) to 30.1 h or 31.4 h, respectively. The microbiological and sensory shelf life of peeled shrimp treated with sodium acetate was more than 17 days. Sodium acetate extended the microbial lag phase and lengthened the generation time (38.7 h compared to 15.8 h for the control). Micrococci and coryneforms were the predominant microorganisms in whole shrimp during storage. Treatment with sodium acetate maintained better sensory characteristics for peeled shrimp than potassium sorbate combined with bifidobacteria. PMID:9921829

Al-Dagal, M M; Bazaraa, W A

1999-01-01

316

Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed.  

PubMed

Lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extract was prepared using distilled water as a medium. An extraction yield of 26.16g/100g of seed was obtained after extraction at room temperature for 12h. Total phenolic and mimosine contents in the lead seed extract powder (LSEP) were 17.4g GAE/100g and 8.8g/100g, respectively. LSEP at different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v) showed inhibitory activity towards polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose dependent manner. When the whole Pacific white shrimp were treated with 0.25% and 0.5% (w/v) LSEP, the shrimp treated with 0.5% LSEP had the lower melanosis score throughout the storage of 12days and showed a higher score for colour and odour, as well as overall likeness, compared with the control (without treatment) and 1.25% sodium metabisulphite treated samples at day 12 (P<0.05). Meat of shrimps treated with LSEP at both levels had the increase in mimosine content up to 8days, suggesting the migration of mimosine into shrimp muscle during extended storage. Therefore, 0.5% LSEP can be used as a novel melanosis inhibitor for Pacific white shrimp. PMID:25212152

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

2011-09-15

317

Abundance and seasonal migrations of the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) within Iraqi waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration of Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) from the Arabian Gulf to nursery grounds in the inland waters of Iraq extends from May\\/June to January\\/February. Shrimp ranging in size from 3–125 mm total length were found in inland waters. In the shallow waters of the Al-Assaflya small-sized shrimp only were caught, while in the Marshes large-sized shrimp were abundant. Maximum numbers

S. D. Salman; M. H. Ali; A. H. Y. Al-AdhubI

1990-01-01

318

The effect of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide extracts on vibriosis resistance and immune activity of the shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunostimulants are valuable for control of shrimp diseases and the immunostimulatory effects of some polysaccharide additives for shrimp have been reported. In this study, the Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide extract (SFPSE) was assessed as a feed additive when supplemented in the diet (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%) for juvenile shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, in order to study the effects of SFPSE on

Xuxiong Huang; Hongqi Zhou; Hui Zhang

2006-01-01

319

Cation-dependent nutrient transport in shrimp digestive tract.  

PubMed

Purified epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were produced from the hepatopancreas of the Atlantic White shrimp, Litopeneaus setiferus, using standard methods originally developed for mammalian tissues and previously applied to other crustacean and echinoderm epithelia. These vesicles were used to study the cation dependency of sugar and amino acid transport across luminal membranes of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. (3)H-D: -glucose uptake by BBMV against transient sugar concentration gradients occurred when either transmembrane sodium or potassium gradients were the only driving forces for sugar accumulation, suggesting the presence of a possible coupled transport system capable of using either cation. (3)H-L: -histidine transport was only stimulated by a transmembrane potassium gradient, while (3)H-L: -leucine uptake was enhanced by either a sodium or potassium gradient. These responses suggest the possible presence of a potassium-dependent transporter that accommodates either amino acid and a sodium-dependent system restricted only to L: -leucine. Uptake of (3)H-L: -leucine was significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) by several metallic cations (e.g., Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), or Co(2+)) at external pH values of 7.0 or 5.0 (internal pH 7.0), suggesting a potential synergistic role of the cations in the transmembrane transfer of amino acids. (3)H-L: -histidine influxes (15 suptakes) were hyperbolic functions of external [zinc] or [manganese], following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent affinity constant (e.g., K (m)) for manganese was an order of magnitude smaller (K (m) = 0.22 ?M Mn) than that for zinc (K (m) = 1.80 ?M Zn), while no significant difference (P > 0.05) occurred between their maximal transport velocities (e.g., J (max)). These results suggest that a number of cation-dependent nutrient transport systems occur on the shrimp brush border membrane and aid in the absorption of these important dietary elements. PMID:21983793

Simmons, Tamla; Mozo, Julie; Wilson, Jennifer; Ahearn, Gregory A

2012-02-01

320

Diseases of the eye of farmed shrimp Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

Lesions were found in the eyes of cultured shrimp Penaeus monodon that displayed non-specific signs of disease, including lethargy, dark pigmentation, brown gills, empty midgut, anorexia, white tail muscle, necrosis of uropods and fouled cuticle. Eye lesions were associated with sexual development in moribund shrimp in at least 1 disease event. Suppurative inflammation, granuloma and malacia were observed in histological examination of the eye and the causative agents of lesions appear to be Vibrio spp. and a rod-shaped virus (similar to Lymphoid Organ Virus, Gill-Associated Virus [GAV] and Yellow-Head Virus). Suppurative inflammation was characterised by edema, infiltration of haemocytes and local sites of abscesses. Eyes with granuloma usually appeared white in pond-side examinations, and histology showed that fibrous tissue replaced ommatidia, ganglia and internal structures of the eye. Malacia of the eye was characterised by necrosis of nervous tissue, vacuolation and vascular proliferation in the medulla ganglia. Levels of presumptive Vibrionaceace were high in moribund specimens and Gram-negative rods were observed in some specimens as free particles in the interstitial fluid and haemolymph in the eye. Transmission electron microscopy showed that nerve cells in the fasciculated zone (near the basement membrane) contained cytoplasmic vesicles (1 to 3 microm in diameter) with particles (15 to 26 nm in diameter) and rod-shaped nucleocapsids. The rods were similar to those of GAV and were 130 to 260 nm long, 10 to 16 nm in diameter and had helical symmetry with a screw-like thread (2.4 to 3.5 nm pitch). Also, unidentified enveloped virions, averaging 74 nm in diameter, were observed in cytoplasmic vesicles in the fasciculated zone. In conclusion, it is suggested that bacterial and viral infections of the eye could result in impaired neuroendocrine functions, which may cause a range of clinical signs of disease. PMID:11206731

Smith, P T

2000-12-21

321

Measurement of pollution levels of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in water, soil, sediment, and shrimp to identify possible impacts on shrimp production at Jiquilisco Bay.  

PubMed

This study aims to identify levels of several organochlorine and organophosphorus compounds in shrimp-raising areas of coastal El Salvador, to assess potential impacts on shrimp growth and survival that hamper the sustainability of aquaculture in the region. The paper reports the current levels of ?-HCH, 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, parathion, methyl parathion, and etoprophos in soils (depth 20 cm), sediments (depth 5 cm), shrimp (Penaeus sp.), and water of three rearing ponds and also in the sediment (depth 5 cm) and water surrounding those ponds in Jiquilisco Bay. Sampling was carried out during the dry (January-March) and rainy (June-August) seasons of 2008. The presence of pesticides in the samples of water, shrimp, and sediment at shrimp ponds was not detected in either season; however, in soil samples (depth 20 cm) taken from these ponds, heptachlor, endrin, dieldrin, 4,4'-DDD, and 4,4'-DDT were identified at concentrations below the method limit of quantification (LOQ), and 4,4'-DDE was found in a concentration falling in the range from 3.85 to 19.61 ng/g. In samples of water taken at the bay water intakes to the rearing ponds, we observed dieldrin concentrations in the range between 0.085 ng/mL and 0.182 ng/mL during the dry season. In the samples of sediments taken in the surrounding areas of shrimp ponds, we found-for both seasons-that in 60 % of the samples, 4,4'-DDE was present in concentrations ranging from 3.75 ng/g to 30.97 ng/g. Additionally, in the rainy season, we observed heptachlor in sediment at concentrations below the method quantification limit. It was concluded that organochlorine compounds from pesticides are still present in Jiquilisco Bay, trapped in deep sediment, even though they have been banned since the 1980s. These were not detected in shrimp tissue, surface water, and shallow sediment in rearing ponds, and hence, we do not believe their presence has any major impact on shrimp production in sampled areas. PMID:22573096

Nomen, Rosa; Sempere, Julià; Chávez, Francisco; de López, Nelly Amaya; Rovira, Ma Dolores

2012-09-01

322

Occurrence, movements, and behavior of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in association with the shrimp fishery in Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-print Network

individuals were often seen feeding behind shrimp boats (28% of non-mother/calf groups). Seventy-four percent of the photo-identified dolphins were seen in association with shrimp boats. Dolphins never sighted with shrimp boats were infrequent visitors... to the study area. Dolphins did not appear to alter their movements in response to the different stages of shrimp boat operation. The large percentage of mother/calf pair sightings may indicate a strategy by some females to deal with the caloric burden...

Fertl, Dagmar Catherine

2012-06-07

323

Peptidomic analysis of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) hemolymph by magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peptides in shrimp hemolymph play an important role in the innate immune response. Analysis of hemolymph will help to detect and identify potential novel biomarkers of microbial infection. We used magnetic bead-based purification (ClinProt system) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to characterize shrimp hemolymph peptides. Shrimp serum and plasma were used as the source of samples for comparative analysis, and it was found that serum was more suitable for shrimp hemolymph peptidomic analysis. To screen potential specific biomarkers in serum of immune-challenged shrimps, we applied magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS to serum samples from 10 immune-challenged and 10 healthy shrimps. The spectra were analyzed using FlexAnalysis 3.0 and ClinProTools 2.1 software. Thirteen peptide peaks significantly different between the two groups were selected as candidate biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infection. The diagnostic model established by genetic algorithm using five of these peaks was able to discriminate LPS-challenged shrimps from healthy control shrimps with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. Our approach in MALDITOF MS-based peptidomics is a powerful tool for screening bioactive peptides or biomarkers derived from hemolymph, and will help to enable a better understanding of the innate immune response of shrimps.

Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

2013-03-01

324

Resistance to the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in two freshwater shrimps.  

PubMed

Aphanomyces astaci, the causal agent of the crayfish plague, has recently been confirmed to infect also freshwater-inhabiting crabs. We experimentally tested the resistance of freshwater shrimps, another important decapod group inhabiting freshwaters, to this pathogen. We exposed individuals of two Asian shrimp species, Macrobrachium dayanum and Neocaridina davidi, to zoospores of the pathogen strain isolated from Procambarus clarkii, a known A. astaci carrier likely to get into contact with shrimps. The shrimps were kept in separate vessels up to seven weeks; exuviae and randomly chosen individuals were sampled throughout the experiment. Shrimp bodies and exuviae were tested for A. astaci presence by a species-specific quantitative PCR. The results were compared with amounts of A. astaci DNA in an inert substrate to distinguish potential pathogen growth in live specimens from persisting spores or environmental DNA attached to their surface. In contrast to susceptible crayfish Astacus astacus, we did not observe mortality of shrimps. The amount of detected pathogen DNA was decreasing steadily in the inert substrate, but it was still detectable several weeks after zoospore addition, which should be considered in studies relying on molecular detection of A. astaci. Probably due to moulting, the amount of A. astaci DNA was decreasing in N. davidi even faster than in the inert substrate. In contrast, high pathogen DNA levels were detected in some non-moulting individuals of M. dayanum, suggesting that A. astaci growth may be possible in tissues of this species. Further experiments are needed to test for the potential of long-term A. astaci persistence in freshwater shrimp populations. PMID:25064254

Svoboda, J; Mruga?a, A; Kozubíková-Balcarová, E; Kouba, A; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J; Petrusek, A

2014-09-01

325

An Oxidant and Solvent-Stable Protease Produced by Bacillus cereus SV1: Application in the Deproteinization of Shrimp Wastes and as a Laundry Detergent Additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current increase in amount of shrimp wastes produced by the shrimp industry has led to the need in finding new methods\\u000a for shrimp wastes disposal. In this study, an extracellular organic solvent- and oxidant-stable metalloprotease was produced\\u000a by Bacillus cereus SV1. Maximum protease activity (5,900 U\\/mL) was obtained when the strain was grown in medium containing 40 g\\/L shrimp

Laila Manni; Kemel Jellouli; Olfa Ghorbel-Bellaaj; Rym Agrebi; Anissa Haddar; Alya Sellami-Kamoun; Moncef Nasri

2010-01-01

326

A novel integrase-containing element may interact with Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) to cause slow growth in giant tiger shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  From 2001-2003 monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) caused severe economic losses for Thai shrimp farmers who cultivated the\\u000a native, giant tiger shrimp, and this led them to adopt exotic stocks of the domesticated whiteleg shrimp as the species of\\u000a cultivation choice, despite the higher value of giant tiger shrimp. In 2008, newly discovered Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) was\\u000a proposed as a

Wattana Panphut; Saengchan Senapin; Siriporn Sriurairatana; Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul; Timothy W Flegel

2011-01-01

327

Effect of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) muscle stored on ice.  

PubMed

The effect of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of raw and cooked white shrimp was studied. Hue angle was greater (p???0.05) for stressed raw shrimp compared to control (greener color); whereas a lower angle was detected for cooked stressed shrimp (redder/orange coloration). In addition, hue angle increased (p???0.05) over the ice storage period for control and stressed shrimp (raw and/or cooked). Muscle hardness and shear force showed no differences when comparing control and stressed shrimp (raw and/or cooked). However, during ice storage, shear force increased (p???0.05) by 22% and 9% for control and stressed raw shrimp, respectively; in contrast, shear force and muscle hardness decreased for cooked shrimp (p???0.05). Control showed more (p???0.05) elasticity than stressed cooked shrimp. Stressed raw shrimp showed a water holding capacity 10.8% lower (p???0.05) than control. However, during the storage, water holding capacity increased (p???0.05) reaching similar values to control after day 4. Muscle protein solubility of stressed shrimp was 31% lower than control; however, no differences (p?>?0.05) were observed after the second day. The thermal stability of myosin (T max) showed differences (p???0.05) among control and stressed shrimp, whereas no differences for ?H were observed. Results showed the influence of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of white shrimp muscle. PMID:23685566

García-Sifuentes, Celia Olivia; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Scheuren-Acevedo, Susana María; Carvallo-Ruiz, Gisela; Garcia-Sanchez, Guillermina; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Hernández-López, Jorge

2013-06-01

328

A cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, for identification of genes relevant to testicular development in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

Background Poor reproductive maturation in captive male broodstock of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is one of the serious problems to the farming industries. Without genome sequence, EST libraries of P. monodon were previously constructed to identify transcripts with important biological functions. In this study, a new version of cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, was constructed from the Peneaus monodon EST libraries of 12 tissues, containing 5,568 non-redundant cDNA clones from 10,536 unique cDNA in the P. monodon EST database. UniShrimpChip was used to study testicular development by comparing gene expression levels of wild brooders from the West and East coasts of Thailand and domesticated brooders with different ages (10-, 14-, 18-month-old). Results The overall gene expression patterns from the microarray experiments revealed distinct transcriptomic patterns between the wild and domesticated groups. Moreover, differentially expressed genes from the microarray comparisons were identified, and the expression patterns of eight selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Among these, expression levels of six subunits (CSN2, 4, 5, 6, 7a, and 8) of the COP9 signalosome (CSN) gene family in wild and different ages of domesticated brooders were examined by RT-qPCR. Among the six subunits, CSN5 and CSN6 were most highly expressed in wild brooders and least expressed in the 18-month-old domesticated group; therefore, their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Conclusions This study is the first report to employ cDNA microarray to study testicular development in the black tiger shrimp. We show that there are obvious differences between the wild and domesticated shrimp at the transcriptomic level. Furthermore, our study is the first to investigate the feasibility that the CSN gene family might have involved in reproduction and development of this economically important species. PMID:21486443

2011-01-01

329

Quantification of viable Brochothrix thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and salmon by real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Brochothrix thermosphacta, a Gram-positive bacterium, is considered as the predominant spoilage microbiota of modified atmosphere packing (MAP) shrimp and fish. Traditional methods currently used to detect B. thermosphacta in foods are time-consuming and labour-intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time PCR quantification method combined with a propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment step to monitor the population of B. thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and salmon. The specificity of the two primers MO405 and MO404 used to amplify a 70 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was demonstrated by using purified DNA from 30 strains, among 21 bacterial species including 22 reference strains. Using these primers for real-time PCR and in pure culture, a good correlation was obtained between real-time PCR and the conventional plating method. Quantification was linear over 7-log units using artificially inoculated samples. The method performed successfully when tested on naturally contaminated cooked shrimp and fresh salmon, with a minimum threshold of 1.9×10² CFU/g for accurate quantification of B. thermosphacta. The correlation between the B. thermosphacta counts obtained by real-time PCR and plate counts on naturally contaminated shrimp and salmon was high (R²=0.895). Thus, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on B. thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and fresh salmon. PMID:22265298

Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Macé, Sabrina; Guilbaud, Morgan; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Ferchichi, Mounir; Prévost, Hervé; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier

2012-05-01

330

Quality evaluation of farmed whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, treated with different slaughter processing by infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The present study was to evaluate two slaughter processing methods (ice water immersion (T-1) and individual beheaded (T-2)) on whiteleg shrimp quality farmed in freshwater culture systems using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) technology. In addition, the corresponding physical, chemical and microbial properties of shrimp samples were also determined. No significant differences were observed in pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbutiric acid (TBA) and K value as well as the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash between groups of T-1 and T-2. However, significantly higher springiness and chewiness (P<0.05) were observed in T-1 as compared to those of T-2. As for the result of total viable counts (TVC), significantly lower value (P<0.05) was shown in T-1 than that of T-2, indicating that the quality and shelf life of whiteleg shrimp killed by ice water immersion could be improved and prolonged. Furthermore, all the samples were successfully divided into two categories regarding the two slaughter methods by principal component analysis (PCA) according to the infrared spectra. By analysis of the regression coefficients of PLS-DA, it can be supposed that the quality differences of whiteleg shrimp with different slaughter processing are largely caused by structural changes of their protein and fat. All together, our results indicated that the springiness and chewiness of whiteleg shrimp with different processing could be correctly distinguished using infrared spectroscopy. PMID:24423537

Fu, Ling-lin; Chen, Xiaojing; Wang, Yanbo

2014-05-15

331

Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.  

PubMed

The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 ?g(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics. PMID:21807199

Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

2011-09-15

332

Toxicity of the insecticide etofenprox to three life stages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.  

PubMed

Opportunities for environmental contamination by the insecticide etofenprox are increasing as its uses expand from primarily indoor residential to rice cultivation and mosquito control. To provide toxicity data for sensitive saltwater species, effects of etofenprox were assessed using three life stages of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Adults, larvae, and embryos were tested in aqueous exposures, while adults and larval shrimp were also tested in the presence of sediment. In addition, sublethal cellular stress biomarkers, glutathione and lipid peroxidation, were examined. Larval shrimp was the most sensitive life stage, with 96-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 0.89 microg/l, compared with 1.26 microg/l for adults and 100 microg/l for embryos. Presence of sediment significantly decreased toxicity of etofenprox to both adult and larval shrimp. Etofenprox exposure (100 micog/l) increased time to hatch in embryos. Lipid peroxidation levels were reduced in adult and larval shrimp after 96 h exposure to etofenprox, while no effect on glutathione was detected. The results of this study provide new information on the toxicity of etofenprox to estuarine invertebrates. These data may prove beneficial to the regulation of this pesticide and management of its uses in coastal areas. PMID:20300745

DeLorenzo, Marie E; De Leon, Ryan G

2010-05-01

333

Two cysteine proteinases respond to bacterial and WSSV challenge in Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.  

PubMed

The cDNAs encoding CathL and legumain from Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcCathL, FcLegu) were obtained. Both FcCathL and FcLegu mRNA were expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas of unchallenged shrimp. Time-course analysis of FcCathL showed that FcCathL was upregulated in the hepatopancreas of shrimp challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 12 h. FcLegu mRNA in hepatopancreas was down-regulated by Vibrio. FcLegu transcript first declined from 2 h to 6 h and then recovered from 12 h to 24 h in hepatopancreas challenged with WSSV. FcCathL protein was detected in the hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gill, stomach, and intestine of unchallenged shrimp. Three bands of FcCathL protein detected in some tissues may represent preproenzyme, single chain and mature double chain form respectively. In hepatopancreas, FcLegu was detected in the proenzyme form. In other tissues, only active form could be detected. The protein of FcLegu was down-regulated by Vibrio or WSSV challenge in the stomach and gills. FcCathL and FcLegu were proposed to play a role in shrimp innate immunity for the first time. PMID:20362060

Ren, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Sun, Yun-Dong; Sun, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Zong-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

2010-10-01

334

Environmental mutagenicity and toxicity caused by sodium metabisulfite in sea shrimp harvesting in Piauí, Brazil.  

PubMed

Sodium metabisulfite is used in marine shrimp harvesting to prevent the occurrence of black spots. Shrimps are soaked in a sodium metabisulfite solution in ice, which is disposed of in sewages that run into marine canals, creating an environmental hazard. This study evaluates the toxicity and mutagenicity caused by sodium metabisulfite in sea waters and sediments collected in a shrimp farm in Cajueiro da Praia (Luis Correia), state of Piauí, Brazil, using the Allium cepa assay. Water and sediment samples were collected in the dry and in the rainy seasons, in three sites: upstream the shrimp farm (Site 1), at the point sodium metabisulfite is discharged (Site 2), and 100 m downstream the farm (Site 3). Three sample dilutions were used (50%, 25% and 10%) for all samples. A negative control (well water) and a positive control (copper sulfate 0.0006 mg mL?¹) were used in each experiment. At the end of the 72-h exposure period, onion roots were measured and removed. Mutagenicity analysis included the determination of mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations and the detection of micronuclei; analysis of root size and mitotic index were used as an index of toxicity. The A. cepa assay revealed that the water and sediments samples collected in the Piauí coast contaminated with sodium metabisulfite induce toxicity. The results demonstrate that the assay may be used as a regular tool in the analysis of water parameters in shrimp farms in the coast of Piauí state, and in strategies to preserve the region's marine ecosystem. PMID:21056453

da Costa Machado Matos Carvalho, Ivana Mara; Cavalcante, Ana Amélia Melo; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Pereira, Danilo Leôncio Aguiar; Rocha, Francisco Cézar Costa; Oliveira, Francisco Massal de; Da Silva, Juliana

2011-02-01

335

Melanization reaction products of shrimp display antimicrobial properties against their major bacterial and fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Melanization is a rapid defense mechanism in invertebrates. The substrate specificity of phenoloxidases (POs) and the role of melanization reaction products were investigated in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Two PmPOs (PmproPO1 and PmproPO2) were found to display a substrate specificity towards monophenols and diphenols, and exhibit relatively weak activity against 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI). Systemic infection of the PmproPO1/2 co-silenced shrimp with the fungus, Fusarium solani, led to a significantly increased mortality, suggesting an important role of PmproPOs in shrimp's defense against fungal infection. Using l-DOPA, dopamine or DHI as a substrate, the melanization reaction products exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activities towards Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Vibrioparahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), whereas the lower effect was detected against the fungus (F. solani). SEM analysis revealed the morphological changes and damage of cell membranes of V. harveyi and F. solani after treatment with shrimp melanization reaction products. Together, these findings demonstrate the crucial functions of the proPO system and the importance of melanization reaction products in the shrimp's immune defense. PMID:25043262

Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Amparyup, Piti; Suriyachan, Chawapat; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

2014-11-01

336

77 FR 21679 - Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions of Bycatch Reduction Device...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BB61 Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery Management...devices (BRDs) for use in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and South Atlantic...

2012-04-11

337

Extraction of astaxanthin from giant tiger ( Panaeus monodon) shrimp waste using palm oil: Studies of extraction kinetics and thermodynamic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of extraction of astaxanthin from giant tiger (Panaeus monodon) shrimp waste using palm oil was conducted to determine the extraction kinetics and thermodynamic parameters. Two extraction models were proposed: mass transfer kinetic model and reaction kinetic model. It was found that both of mass transfer and reaction kinetic control the extraction of astaxanthin from shrimp waste using palm oil.

Akdes Dewi Handayani; Sutrisno; Nani Indraswati; Suryadi Ismadji

2008-01-01

338

77 FR 34935 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony...CIT's remand order in Amanda Foods (Vietnam) Ltd., et al. v. United States...shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam covering the period of review...

2012-06-12

339

PARTICLE REMOVAL RATES BY THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS, ITS BURROW, AND A COMMENSAL CLAM: EFFECTS ON ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant intertidal inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the bivalve Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities by the shrimp and by its commensal clam, as well as particle se...

340

DEVELOPMENT OF A PCR BASED PROTOCOL FOR WSSV SCREENING FOR MAJOR CRUSTACEANS INHABITING IN CULTURED SHRIMP FARM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islam, M. N., Hossain, M. A. and Ahsan, M. N. 2007. Development of a PCR Based Protocol for WSSV Screening for Major Crustaceans Inhabiting in Cultured Shrimp Farm. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 2(4): 9-17 The array of prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in cultured tiger shrimp, Bagda (Penaeus monodon) and non cultured Metapenaeus monoceros & crab, Scylla

M. N. ISLAM; M. A. HOSSAIN; M. N. AHSAN

2007-01-01

341

Effects of the 1981 Closure on the Texas Shrimp Fishery ALBERT C. JONES, EDWARD F. KLIMA, and JOHN R. POFFENBERGER  

E-print Network

, and location of fishing) were col- lected in each of the Gulf States (Texas to Florida) by interviewing dealersEffects of the 1981 Closure on the Texas Shrimp Fishery ALBERT C. JONES, EDWARD F. KLIMA, and JOHN shrimp, Pe- naeus aztecus, in the FCZ off the coast of Texas during the time of year when large numbers

342

Current status of genetics and genomics of reared penaeid shrimp: information relevant to access and benefit sharing.  

PubMed

At present, research and progress in shrimp genomics and genetics show significant developments. Shrimp genetics and genomics also show immense potential for an increased production in a way that meets shrimp culture progress goals for the third millennium. This review article aims to provide an overview of its current status and future direction, discusses questions that need focused research to address them, and summarizes areas where genetics and genomics knowledge can make a positive difference to shrimp culture sustainability. Sustainable progress of penaeid shrimps will depend upon feasible solutions for environmental, research, economic, consumer problems, proper development, and planning policy enforcement. It is recommended that increased funding for biotechnology research and progress be directed to expand worldwide commercial shrimp culture and address environmental and public health issues. For any researcher or shrimp company member who has attempted to or whom would like to thoroughly search the literature to gain a complete understanding of the current state of shrimp genetics and genomics, this publication will be an invaluable source of reference materials, some of which is reported here for the first time. PMID:23529408

Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Feng, Tingting; Xiang, Jianhai

2013-08-01

343

On predatory tendencies in the feeding ecology of the fairy shrimp Streptocephalus proboscideus (Frauenfeld, 1873) (Crustacea: Anostraca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits of the filter-feeding fairy shrimp Streptocephalus proboscideus are documented experimentally by offering them ciliates, Volvox, rotifers, nematodes and small crustaceans as prey. Escape capabilities (e.g. swimming speed) rather than size or shape were found to determine these animals' vulnerability to predation by the fairy shrimp. Ingestion rates for Volvox increased hyperbolically with size and, at the high

Johan Mertens; N. Munuswamy; Christine Walsche; Henri J. Dumont

1990-01-01

344

Comparison of the Parasites of Pond-Reared and Wild Pink Shrimp (Penaeus duorarum Burkenroad) in South Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum Burkenroad, from natural populations in Biscayne Bay and from cultured populations in ponds operated by the University of Miami at Turkey Point, Florida, were examined for parasites during the summer of 1969. Parasites, with percentage incidence in parentheses, found in pond-reared shrimp were: the gregarines Cephalolobus penaeus Kruse, 1959 (11%), and Nematopsis penaeus Kruse, 1959 (20%);

John B. Villella; Edwin S. Iversen; Carl J. Sindermann

1970-01-01

345

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of protein-bound residues in shrimp dosed with nitrofurans.  

PubMed

An analytical method was developed for the determination of bound residues of the nitrofuran drugs furazolidone, nitrofurazone, furaltadone, and nitrofurantoin with a sensitivity of 1 ppb in shrimp. In this procedure, shrimp tissue is prewashed with solvents followed by overnight acid hydrolysis, during which the side chains of the bound residues are released and simultaneously derivatized with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. After liquid-liquid extraction cleanup, the derivatives are detected and quantitated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The method was validated using control shrimp fortified with each side-chain analyte at 1, 2, and 4 ppb. Method accuracies were >80% with coefficients of variation of <20% for all four analytes. Tissues from dosed shrimp were assayed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for recovering bound residues of nitrofurans. In shrimp dosed with nitrofurans, nitrofurantoin exhibited the lowest level of bound residues. PMID:16277385

Chu, Pak-Sin; Lopez, Mayda I

2005-11-16

346

Vibrio vulnificus as a health hazard for shrimp consumers.  

PubMed

Over the last 30 years, a number of Vibrio species found in the aquatic environment have been indicated as cause of disease in human beings. Vibrio vulnificus is an emergent pathogen, an invasive and lethal marine bacterium related to wound infection and held accountable for gastroenteritis and primary septicemia. It occurs quite frequently in marine organisms, mainly in mollusks. This study aimed at isolating and identifying strains of V. vulnificus based upon the analysis of twenty samples of seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller), purchased at the Mucuripe fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil). TCBS agar was used to isolate suspect strains. Seven of twenty-nine strains isolated from six different samples were confirmed as such by means of biochemical evidence and thus submitted to biological assays to determine their virulence. The susceptibility of the V. vulnificus strains to a number of antibiotics was tested. None of the V. vulnificus strains showed signs of virulence during a 24-hour observation period, possibly due to the shedding of the capsules by the cells. As to the results of the antimicrobial susceptibility tests, the seven above-mentioned V. vulnificus strains were found to be sensitive to nitrofurantoin (NT), ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GN) and chloramphenicol (CO) and resistant to clindamycin (CI), penicillin (PN) and ampicillin (AP). PMID:11696848

do Nascimento, S M; dos Fernandes Vieira, R H; Theophilo, G N; Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, D; Vieira, G H

2001-01-01

347

Physicochemical and functional characteristics of radiation-processed shrimp chitosan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of gamma irradiation on chitosan samples were determined in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Shrimp chitosan was extracted from shell using a chemical process involving demineralization, deproteinization, decolorization and deacetylation. Commercial snow chitosan was also used. Samples (in a solid state) were given irradiation dose of 25 kGy at a dose rate of 1.1013 kGy/h in air and 0 kGy samples were used as controls. Results showed that moisture contents were between 8.690% and 13.645%. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in the degree of deacetylation of the chitosan samples. Significant differences ( P<0.05) were observed in the viscosity and viscosity-average molecular weight of the chistosan samples. Viscosity and molecular weight decreased when the samples were given the irradiation dose of 25 kGy. Chitosan samples had low antioxidant activity compared with BHT. Water binding capacity ranged from 582.40% to 656.75% and fat binding capacity was between 431.00% and 560.55%. Irradiation had a major effect on the viscosity and the viscosity-average molecular weight of the chitosan samples.

Ocloo, F. C. K.; Quayson, E. T.; Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Quarcoo, E. A.; Asare, D.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Woode, B. K.

2011-07-01

348

Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp  

PubMed Central

Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remarkably rare in nature and relatively inaccessible due to its changing habitats over the course of ontogeny. The mid-water marine species Cerataspis monstrosa (Gray 1828) is an armored crustacean larva whose adult identity has remained a mystery for over 180 years. Our phylogenetic analyses, based in part on recent collections from the Gulf of Mexico, provide definitive evidence that the rare, yet broadly distributed larva, C. monstrosa, is an early developmental stage of the globally distributed deepwater aristeid shrimp, Plesiopenaeus armatus. Divergence estimates and phylogenetic relationships across five genes confirm the larva and adult are the same species. Our work demonstrates the diagnostic power of molecular systematics in instances where larval rearing seldom succeeds and morphology and habitat are not indicative of identity. Larval–adult linkages not only aid in our understanding of biodiversity, they provide insights into the life history, distribution, and ecology of an organism. PMID:23145324

Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

2012-01-01

349

Phylogenetic relationships within the snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus (Decapoda: Alpheidae).  

PubMed

The snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus (Alpheidae) is one of the most speciose decapod genera, with over 160 described species worldwide. Most species live in symbiotic relationships with other marine organisms, such as sponges, corals and crinoids, and some sponge-dwelling species have a highly organized, social structure. The present study is the first worldwide molecular phylogenetic analysis of Synalpheus, based on >2,200 bp of sequence data from two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and two nuclear (PEPCK and 18S) loci. Our molecular data show strong support for monophyly of three out of six traditionally recognized morphology-based species groups: the S. brevicarpus, S. comatularum and S. gambarelloides groups. The remaining three species groups (S. paulsoni, S. neomeris and S. coutierei groups) are non-monophyletic in their current composition and will need to be either abandoned or taxonomically redefined. We also identified potential cryptic species of Synalpheus in our dataset, using intraspecific and interspecific sequence variation in COI from the taxonomically well-studied S. gambarelloides group to establish a genetic divergence threshold. We then used both genetic divergence and tree-based criteria (reciprocal monophyly) to identify potential cryptic species in the remaining taxa of the genus. Our results suggest the presence of multiple cryptic lineages in Synalpheus, underlining the need for more integrative taxonomic studies-including morphological, ecological, molecular, and color pattern data-in this biologically interesting genus. PMID:24680914

Hultgren, Kristin M; Hurt, Carla; Anker, Arthur

2014-08-01

350

Insights into the antiviral functions of the RNAi machinery in penaeid shrimp.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, RNA interference pathways have emerged in eukaryotes as critical regulators of many diverse biological functions including, among others, transcriptional gene regulation, post-transcriptional gene silencing, heterochromatin remodelling, suppression of transposon activity, and antiviral defences. Although this gene silencing process has been reported to be relatively well conserved in species of different phyla, there are important discrepancies between plants, invertebrates and mammals. In penaeid shrimp, the existence of an intact and functional RNAi machinery is supported by a rapidly growing body of evidence. However, the extent to which this process participates to the host immune responses remains poorly defined in this non-model organism. This review summarizes our current knowledge of RNAi mechanisms in shrimp and focuses on their implication in antiviral activities and shrimp immune defences. PMID:22732509

Labreuche, Yannick; Warr, Gregory W

2013-04-01

351

Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

2008-05-01

352

Effluents of shrimp farms and its influence on the coastal ecosystems of Bahía de Kino, Mexico.  

PubMed

The impact on coastal ecosystems of suspended solids, organic matter, and bacteria in shrimp farm effluents is presented. Sites around Bahía de Kino were selected for comparative evaluation. Effluent entering Bahia Kino (1) enters Laguna La Cruz (2). A control site (3) was outside the influence of effluents. Water quality samples were collected every two weeks during the shrimp culture period. Our data show that the material load in shrimp farm effluents changes biogeochemical processes and aquatic health of the coastal ecosystem. Specifically, the suspended solids, particulate organic matter, chlorophyll a, viable heterotrophic bacteria, and Vibrio-like bacteria in the bay and lagoon were two- to three-fold higher than the control site. This can be mitigated by improvements in the management of aquaculture systems. PMID:23861653

Barraza-Guardado, Ramón H; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A; López-Torres, Marco A; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Magallón-Barrajas, Francisco; Ibarra-Gámez, Cuauhtemoc

2013-01-01

353

Development of gene transfer technology for black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

An effective foreign gene transfer method for shrimp would have several potential uses in the shrimp culture industry, such as in preventing infectious diseases. We evaluated two gene transfer methods and used black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, as a model target species. For a promoter, we used the 1,592-bp promoter region of the EF-1alpha gene, a house-keeping gene, of kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. The promoter region was linked to either the gene for green fluorescence protein (GFP) or the gene for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). The fusion genes were designated pJEF-GFP and pJEF-CAT, respectively. The pJEF-GFP gene was introduced into fertilized eggs of black tiger shrimp by microinjection and particle gun bombardment. The survival rate of the microinjected eggs was 17.6%, and 1.0% of the treated embryos were found to be GFP-positive. However, the GFP-positive embryos were damaged and embryogenesis did not progress. The survival rate of the particle-bombarded eggs was 60.6%, and 0.42% of the treated embryos were found to be GFP-positive. Ubiquitous GFP expression was observed from 8 hr post-fertilization and these embryos developed and hatched normally. The pJEF-CAT gene was introduced into fertilized eggs of black tiger shrimp using the optimized conditions of the particle gun bombardment. CAT activity was observed from 1 to 7 days post-fertilization, with the highest activities being observed at 5 and 7 days post-hatching. PMID:16254920

Yazawa, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Keisuke; Koyama, Takashi; Ruangapan, Lila; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi

2005-12-01

354

Horizontally transferred genes in the genome of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, as the development of next-generation sequencing technology, a growing number of genes have been reported as being horizontally transferred from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, most of them involving arthropods. As a member of the phylum Arthropoda, the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has to adapt to the complex water environments with various symbiotic or parasitic microorganisms, which provide a platform for horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Results In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide HGT events in L. vannamei. Through homology search and phylogenetic analysis, followed by experimental PCR confirmation, 14 genes with HGT event were identified: 12 of them were transferred from bacteria and two from fungi. Structure analysis of these genes showed that the introns of the two fungi-originated genes were substituted by shrimp DNA fragment, two genes transferred from bacteria had shrimp specific introns inserted in them. Furthermore, around other three bacteria-originated genes, there were three large DNA segments inserted into the shrimp genome. One segment was a transposon that fully transferred, and the other two segments contained only coding regions of bacteria. Functional prediction of these 14 genes showed that 6 of them might be related to energy metabolism, and 4 others related to defense of the organism. Conclusions HGT events from bacteria or fungi were happened in the genome of L. vannamei, and these horizontally transferred genes can be transcribed in shrimp. This is the first time to report the existence of horizontally transferred genes in shrimp. Importantly, most of these genes are exposed to a negative selection pressure and appeared to be functional. PMID:23914989

2013-01-01

355

Real-time assessment of the microbial quality of retail shrimp using CO2 evolution rate.  

PubMed

A real-time CO(2) evolution rate (CER) method together with conventional cultural and sensory techniques were utilized to determine the microbial quality and shelf life of several types of shrimp products: chloramphenicol (CAP) treated, imported farm raised, and domestic wild caught. Treatment with CAP was used to create different bacterial loads in shrimp samples to demonstrate the ability and sensitivity of the CER method for differentiating the bacterial activity in samples. Samples were divided into control (nontreated) and 0, 10, and 30 ppm of CAP treatment groups and stored at 4°C. The CER was recorded with a microrespirometer, and aerobic plate counts (APCs), olfactory sensory analyses, and pH measurements were recorded daily until spoilage occurred. The real-time CER results were highly correlated with the APCs (R(2) = 0.93) and readily distinguished the onset of spoilage in each of the treatment groups. CAP treatment at 10 and 30 ppm increased the sample shelf life by 2 and 3 days, respectively, compared with the nontreated samples. Untreated domestic wild-caught shrimp had a shelf life 1 day longer than that of the untreated imported farm-raised shrimp. No pattern of change in pH was noted throughout the storage period. When the olfactory sensory scores reached the marginally acceptable level, the mean CER was 27.23 ?l/h/g and the mean APC was 5.78 log CFU/g. A cutoff CER of 25.0 ?l/h/g was therefore selected to define acceptable raw shrimp. The CER method was a highly effective and sensitive real-time method for determining the microbial quality of raw shrimp. PMID:23212016

Alderees, Fahad; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

2012-12-01

356

The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO4-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO3-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (Pshrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8 +/-1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (Pshrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system. PMID:12663210

Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan

2003-01-01

357

Acquisition of epibiotic bacteria along the life cycle of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

PubMed Central

The caridean shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the fauna at several Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites. This shrimp has an enlarged gill chamber, harboring a dense ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with mineral oxide deposits. Until now, their acquisition is not fully understood. At three hydrothermal vent sites, we analyzed the epibionts diversity at different moult stages and also in the first stages of the shrimp life (eggs, hatched eggs (with larvae) and juveniles). Hatched eggs associated with young larvae were collected for the first time directly from gravid females at the Logachev vent site during the Serpentine cruise. An approach using 16S rRNA clone libraries, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used. Molecular results and microscope observations indicated a switch in the composition of the bacterial community between early R. exoculata life cycle stage (egg libraries dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria) and later stages (juvenile/adult libraries dominated by the Epsilonproteobacteria). We hypothesized that the epibiotic phylotype composition could vary according to the life stage of the shrimp. Our results confirmed the occurrence of a symbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, but more complex than previously assumed. We revealed the presence of active type-I methanotrophic bacteria colonizing the cephalothorax of shrimps from the Rainbow site. They were also present on the eggs from the Logachev site. This could be the first ‘epibiotic' association between methanotrophic bacteria and hydrothermal vent crustacean. We discuss possible transmission pathways for epibionts linked to the shrimp life cycle. PMID:21993397

Guri, Mathieu; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valerie; Zbinden, Magali; Crassous, Philippe; Shillito, Bruce; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

2012-01-01

358

Culture of penaeid shrimp in brackfish water ponds receiving thermal effluents  

E-print Network

shelled) and then randomly testing 20-40 grams of the blended tissue. The tissue was analyzed for concentrations of aroclor 1254, dieldrin, toxaphene, and p, p'-DDE. The heavy metals analysis consisted of chopping the shelled shrimp into small portions... shelled) and then randomly testing 20-40 grams of the blended tissue. The tissue was analyzed for concentrations of aroclor 1254, dieldrin, toxaphene, and p, p'-DDE. The heavy metals analysis consisted of chopping the shelled shrimp into small portions...

Fredieu, Barbara Jane

2012-06-07

359

Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the distinct gene orders provide further evidences for the divergence between the two mud shrimp infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea, corroborating previous molecular phylogeny and justifying their infraordinal status. Mitochondrial genome sequences appear to be promising markers for resolving phylogenetic issues concerning decapod crustaceans that warrant further investigations and our present study has also provided further information concerning the mt genome evolution of the Decapoda. PMID:23153176

2012-01-01

360

Environmental Impact Assessment of Shrimp Culture Practice in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid unplanned expansion of coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh poses risks in degrading environment. The unsustainable aquaculture practices are suspected to impart significant nutrient load to the ecosystem. Nevertheless, shrimp production is very less and susceptible to sever mortality. For this, the study aimed to understand the management practices and nutrient flux from some represented shrimp ponds in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. A comprehensive study from 2002 to 2004 was done in an aquatic system comprising a river (Semi diurnal tidal system), a canal and 10 shrimp ponds along with wider area survey to verify the issues under a DFID-funded research project involving Nautilus Consultants Ltd. (UK). In the study area (Dumuria under the district Khulna) shrimp culture practices were mostly improved extensive. Shrimp were being produced without proper pond preparation, fry nursing, stocking or feed management due to lack of technical somehow and the risks involved with higher levels of investment. Consequently production rates were very low, averaging only 191 Kg/ha. Very high mortality of shrimp was reported in some of the farms using shallow ponds immediately after heavy rainfall. This may due to the sudden fluctuation of water pH and/or water temperature and salinity. The water quality in shrimp ponds during grow out period was in acceptable range except lower trend of DO and ammonia nitrogen. Year round water quality observations indicated that there were no major differences among the river, canal and pond water that might be due to the high water flushing rate (468%). The nutrient dynamics estimation indicates that 48.7 kg/ha/cycle of nitrogen and 28.96 kg/ha/cycle of phosphorus were added to the pond as an input mostly from fertilizer and feed. Among the inputs, only 33.4% of nitrogen and 6% of phosphorus were removed as harvested form. A large portion, 39.1% N and 92% P were remained in the sediments and unaccounted for. Average intake of nutrients through supply water was slightly higher than nutrient discharged through water outlet, which indicates a net retention of nutrients in the pond ecosystems. A large portion of this sediment nutrient eventually finds its routes into the wider aquatic system every year during pond preparation. Though the aquatic environment is able to accommodate the load from the present level of aquaculture practice, the assimilative power of aquatic environment is in danger of being degraded with the unplanned intensification of shrimp culture areas. In planning aquaculture and future development all the issues and impacts must be considered.

Islam, M. M.; Rouf, M. A.; Hambrey, J.

2008-12-01

361

A stochastic migration-death model of marked white shrimp populations in Moses Lake, Texas  

E-print Network

time while providing acceptable parameter estimates for the present two-compartment system: I) Plot Y&;(t) vs. t, where Y&;(t) denotes the observation that a marked shrimp released in area i was recaptured in area j and t is the days-at-large before... time while providing acceptable parameter estimates for the present two-compartment system: I) Plot Y&;(t) vs. t, where Y&;(t) denotes the observation that a marked shrimp released in area i was recaptured in area j and t is the days-at-large before...

Rawles, Steven Douglas

2012-06-07

362

Acute toxicity of Roundup and carbosulfan to the Thai fairy shrimp, Branchinella thailandensis.  

PubMed

The potential risk of herbicides and insecticides sprayed near pools to non-target fairy shrimp has not been assessed in Thailand. The acute toxicity of Roundup (isopropylamine salt 48% w/v) herbicide and carbosulfan (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl (dibutylaminothio) methylcabamate 20% w/v) insecticide were evaluated in 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours static bioassay using nauplii fairy shrimp, Branchinella thailandensis. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated after probit transformation of resulting data. Median 24 hours lethal concentrations were 0.319 and 0.702 ppm for Roundup and carbosulfan, respectively. PMID:23885411

Boonsoong, B; Bullangpoti, V

2012-01-01

363

Isolation and characterization of two actins of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two actin genes named actinT1 and actinT2 were isolated and sequenced from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, by screening from a shrimp eyestalk cDNA library. L. vannamei\\u000a actinT1 cDNA has a 1,128-bp open reading frame encoding for 376 amino acids while L. vannamei\\u000a actinT2 cDNA has a 1,131-bp open reading frame coding for 377 amino acids. Alignment of the

Piera S. Sun; Marcus Soderlund; Nel C. Venzon Jr; Dailin Ye; Yuanan Lu

2007-01-01

364

An evaluation of the potential use of sail power in the commercial shrimp fishery of Texas  

E-print Network

and "trash fish" are discarded through the scuppers back into the sea. A crew of three is used on almost all of the shrimp boats; a crew of two was noted on one boat only. The crew consists of a rigger, a header, and the captain, who is able to perform... and "trash fish" are discarded through the scuppers back into the sea. A crew of three is used on almost all of the shrimp boats; a crew of two was noted on one boat only. The crew consists of a rigger, a header, and the captain, who is able to perform...

Brown, Bernard Pierce

2012-06-07

365

Transformation of the matrix structure of shrimp shells during bacterial deproteination and demineralization  

PubMed Central

Background After cellulose and starch, chitin is the third-most abundant biopolymer on earth. Chitin or its deacetylated derivative chitosan is a valuable product with a number of applications. It is one of the main components of shrimp shells, a waste product of the fish industry. To obtain chitin from Penaeus monodon, wet and dried shrimp shells were deproteinated with two specifically enriched proteolytic cultures M1 and M2 and decalcified by in-situ lactic acid forming microorganisms. The viscosity of biologically processed chitin was compared with chemically processed chitin. The former was further investigated for purity, structure and elemental composition by several microscopic techniques and 13C solid state NMR spectroscopy. Results About 95% of the protein of wet shrimp shells was removed by proteolytic enrichment culture M2 in 68 h. Subsequent decalcification by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) took 48 h. Deproteination of the same amount of dried shrimps that contained a 3 × higher solid content by the same culture was a little bit faster and was finished after 140 h. The viscosity of chitin was in the order of chemically processed chitin > bioprocessed chitin > commercially available chitin. Results revealed changes in fine structure and chemical composition of the epi-, exo- and endocuticle of chitin from shrimp shells during microbial deproteination and demineralization. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) overlays and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis, it was found that most protein was present in the exocuticle, whereas most chitin was present in the endocuticle. The calcium content was higher in the endocuticle than in the exocuticle.13C solid state NMR spectra of different chitin confirmed?shrimp shell waste resulted in a chitin with high purity. Its viscosity was higher than that of commercially available chitin but lower than that of chemically prepared chitin in our lab. Nevertheless, the biologically processed chitin is a promising alternative for less viscous commercially available chitin. Highly viscous chitin could be generated by our chemical method. Comprehensive structural analyses revealed the distribution of the protein and Ca matrix within the shrimp shell cuticle which might be helpful in developing shrimp waste processing techniques. PMID:24093594

2013-01-01

366

A technique for modeling exotic shrimp escapes in Matagorda and San Antonio Bays, Texas  

E-print Network

staff of Texas Parks and Wildlife Department who helped me fill in the gaps in my knowledge about shrimp behavior and shrimp mariculture. I would also like to thank Dr. Ruben Solis and Dr. Jun j i Matsumoto of the Environmental Section of the Texas... hydrodynamic model used by the Texas Water Development Board to study salinity and fresh water inflows to Texas bays and estuaries (Matsumoto 1993). TxBLEND also provides input to the previously mentioned Spi l lSim model. Numerous models were reviewed less...

Shaw, Andrew J

2012-06-07

367

[Influence of lecithotrofic feeding on growth and development of larvae of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii].  

PubMed

In the giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man), lecithotrofic feeding was discovered at the zoea I stage, and facultative lecithotrofic feeding was found at the zoea II stage. Cases of the completion of the first two stages without feeding were detected. However, a delay in feeding at the zoea II stage caused the inhibition of the growth and development of larvae. In this connection, we recommend to introduce food to the aquaculture of the giant freshwater shrimp on the end of the first day after hatching, when the first zoea II larvae emerge. PMID:21786650

Borisov, R R; Kriakhova, N V

2011-01-01

368

Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (? 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant ? 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The ? 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant flora indicated that sewage N extended further from the creek mouths than shrimp N. The combination of physical/chemical and biological indicators used in this study was effective in distinguishing the composition and subsequent impacts of aquaculture and sewage effluent on the receiving waters.

Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

2001-01-01

369

Signal Analysis for Assessment and Prediction of the Artificial Habitat in Shrimp Aquaculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel work for prediction of artificial habitat in shrimp aquaculture based on environmental signal analysis. The physical-chemical variables that are involved into the system are studied for modeling and predicting environmental patterns.The prediction model is built using AR models that reconstruct a partial section of a particular measured signal. The physical-chemical variables are classified based on the negative ecological impact using a new statistical model that calculates the frequency and the deviation of the measurements. A fuzzy inference system processes the level classifications using aquaculture rules that define all the cases calculating the condition of the shrimp habitat.

Hernández, José Juan Carbajal; Sanchez Fernandez, Luis Pastor; Oropeza Rodríguez, José Luis; Felipe Riverón, Edgardo Manuel

370

The effect of cooking preparations on the residual sulfite concentrations in shrimp  

E-print Network

when shrimp was boiled shell-off. During the first minute, 25. 9$ of the original concentration was lost and a total loss of 40. 6$ was observed after five minutes of cooking time. This is most probably due to the removal of the shel 1 prior... Range Test f' or Residual Sulfite in Shrimp as a Function of Preparation Time Cooking Procedure Time (min) Boiled Shel 1-on (sulfite ppm) Boiled Shell-off (sulfite ppm) Breaded Deep Fried (sulf'ite ppm) 0 ? 1 0-2 0-3 0-4 0-5 96 ' 5 b 61. 6...

Lally, Audrey Ann

2012-06-07

371

The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions  

PubMed Central

The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to “perceive” forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of Artemia for the well-being of human populations. PMID:22737126

Gajardo, Gonzalo M.; Beardmore, John A.

2012-01-01

372

A Novel Viral Responsive Protein Is Involved in Hemocyte Homeostasis in the Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon*  

PubMed Central

A novel viral responsive protein, namely hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP), was characterized for its role in the response of shrimp to white spot syndrome virus infection. The full-length cDNAs of HHAP from the black tiger shrimp (PmHHAP), Penaeus monodon, and the fresh water crayfish (PlHHAP), Pacifastacus leniusculus, were obtained and showed high sequence identity to a hypothetical protein from various organisms, with the highest identity to the hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC006773 from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (54% amino acid sequence identity). Transcripts of PmHHAP were expressed in various shrimp tissues with the highest expression in hematopoietic tissue, whereas the transcripts of PlHHAP were found in the hematopoietic and nerve tissues. Upon white spot syndrome virus infection, a high up-regulation level of shrimp hemocytic HHAP mRNA and protein was observed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. Gene silencing of PmHHAP by RNA interference resulted in a significant decrease in the number of circulating hemocytes and 100% shrimp mortality within 30 h of the double-stranded PmHHAP RNA injection (but not in control shrimp), indicating that HHAP is essential for shrimp survival. Interestingly, severe damage of hemocytes was observed in vivo in the PmHHAP knockdown shrimp and in vitro in shrimp primary hemocyte cell culture, suggesting that PmHHAP plays an important role in hemocyte homeostasis. Thus, it is speculated that the up-regulation of PmHHAP is an important mechanism to control circulating hemocyte levels in crustaceans during viral infection. PMID:20444692

Prapavorarat, Adisak; Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Soderhall, Kenneth; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

2010-01-01

373

The stability of adenosine deaminase and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase as potential spoilage indicators for postmortem ice stored shrimp  

E-print Network

(Pandalus borealis), caught in Canada, at a level of 92 pmole/100 g of shrimp tissue. Since the activity of the enzymes involved at each step of the metabolic pathway are temperature dependent, Arai (1966b) observed an accumulation and sub- sequent...-life of shrimp from various locations on the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. J. Milk Food Technol. 36(9):463. Collins, J. and Kelley, C. 1969. Alaska pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis: Effects of heat treatment on color and machine peelability. U. S. Fish. Wi' dl...

Cheuk, Wai Lun

2012-06-07

374

Maintenance of androdioecy in the freshwater shrimp Eulimnadia texana: sexual encounter rates and outcrossing success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clam shrimp Eulimnadia texana has a rare mating system known as androdioecy, in which males and hermaphrodites cooccur but there are no pure females. In this species, reproduction takes place by outcrossing between males and hermaphrodites, or by selfing within a hermaphrodite; this system provides a unique opportunity to examine the adaptive significance of out-crossing and selfing in animals.

Vicky G. Hollenbeck; William R. Gould; Naida Zuckera

2002-01-01

375

Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000

A. R. Syahmi; S. Vijayarathna; S. Sasidharan; L. Y. Latha; Y. P. Kwan; Y. L. Lau; L. N. Shin; Y. Chen

2010-01-01

376

Antibacterial and brine shrimp lethality tests of biflavonoids and derivatives of Rheedia gardneriana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves from Rheedia gardneriana yielded volkensiflavone (1), fukugetin (2), fukugiside (3), GB2a-I-7-O-glucoside (4) and epicatechin (5). Compounds 1–5, and some derivatives of 1 and 2 were evaluated for lethality to brine shrimp larvae and for antibacterial activity.

Luiz G. Verdi; Moacir G. Pizzolatti; Ana Beatriz P. Montanher; Inês M. C. Brighente; Artur Smânia Júnior; Elza de F. A. Smânia; Edesio L. Simionatto; Franco Delle Monache

2004-01-01

377

Effects of toxic Alexandrium species on the survival and feeding rates of brine shrimp, Artemia salina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton is an important link between phytoplankton and higher consumers in the marine food chain. To investigate the harmful effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium species on zooplankton, 4 strains of Alexandrium spp., isolated from the Chinese coast, were used to test the species' effects on the survival and feeding rates of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina. The experiment was

Wu Zhenxing; Zou Yinglin; Zhu Mingyuan; Wang Zongling; Wang Dan

2006-01-01

378

Bioactivity of carpeting: Utilizing the brine shrimp bioassay to assess potential for poor indoor air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to adapt an existing methodology, the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, for use in predicting the potential for carpeting to contribute to poor indoor air quality. New carpet has frequently been cited as a source which caused deterioration of the indoor air quality. The volatile organic compounds that off-gas from the carpeting have been thought

Lila C Albin

1997-01-01

379

An Application of the Brine Shrimp Bioassay for General Screening of Brazilian Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Extracts of eleven species of Brazilian flora were subjected to a bioscreening study to detect cytotoxic activity by the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The plants studied were: Baccharis pseudotenuifo- lia, Baccharis ligustrina, Baccharis platypoda, Baccharis coridifolia, Polygala paniculata, Polygala sabulosa, Croton celtidifolius, Cyathea phalerata, Trichilia catigua, Eugenia uniflora and Schinus molle. The results obtained for the crude extracts of

Ana Beatriz; PIMENTEL MONTANHER; Moacir Geraldo PIZZOLATTI

380

Life history divergence of sympatric diploid and polyploid populations of brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study how polyploidy affects life history patterns in animals, we have examined sympatric diploid and polyploid brine shrimp (Artemia parthenogenetica) from China, Italy and Spain under laboratory conditions. At optimal temperature and salinity (25°C and 90 ppt), diploids from the three populations had much higher intrinsic rates of increase, higher fecundity, faster developmental rates, and larger brood

Lei Zhang; Charles E. King

1993-01-01

381

The lysosome and lysozyme response in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis to Vibrio anguillarum and laminarin stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of laminarin and Vibrio anguillarum on neutral red retention (NRR) time of lysosome and lysozyme activity in blood cells was investigated in Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. In addition, the variation of total haemocyte counts (THC) and differential haemocyte counts (DHC) were dtermined simultaneously. The results showed that the lysosome membrane stability was significantly elongated with the longest NRR

Cui-Luan Yao; Chang-Gong Wu; Jian-Hai Xiang; Fuhua Li; Zhi-Yong Wang; Xuezhe Han

2008-01-01

382

ENHANCED ORGANIC MATTER REMINERALIZATION AND NUTRIENT TURNOVER BY BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS IN YAQUINA BAY, OR  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing thalassinid shrimp are major ecological components of Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and where they structure large areas of intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat. These crustaceans occur in dense beds (>250 m-2) and dig extensive burrow systems (>1 m) controlling ...

383

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and pond environment in northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to test the susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains isolated from the water, bottom sediments and individuals cultivated in shrimp farm ponds, to antibiotics belonging to different families, namely B-Lactams: Imipenem (IPM; 10 ? g), Ampicillin (AMP; 10 ? g), Cephalothin (CEP; 30 ? g), Cefoxitin (FOX; 30 ? g), Ceftriaxone (CRO; 30 ? g); Tetracycline: Tetracycline (TCY;

Regine H. S. Dos F. Vieira; Edirsana M. R. Carvalho; Fátima C. T. Carvalho; Camila M. Silva; Oscarina V. Sousa; Dália P. Rodrigues

2010-01-01

384

Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima aerial parts, antimicrobial activity and characterisation of isolated active fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz. is an ornamental plant, shrub or a small tree belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The plant has been used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, skin diseases and so on. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of C. pulcherrima was tested using an Artemia salina (brine shrimp) bioassay. Further, the

Sumitra Chanda; Yogesh Baravalia

2011-01-01

385

Toxicity and distribution of Aroclor ® 1254 in the pink shrimp Penaeus duorarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor® 1254 was released in an accidental leakage of heat-exchange fluid from an industrial plant, into the Escambia River, near Pensacola, Florida, USA. This material was carried downstream, and is now found in the fauna of Escambia Bay and its contiguous waters, prime nursery areas for fishes and invertebrates such as penaeid shrimp. The significance of pollution

D. R. Nimmo; R. R. Blackman; A. J. Wilson; J. Forester

1971-01-01

386

Optimization of bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR against shrimp bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Aquaculture is one amongst the growing and major food producing sectors. Shrimp culture is one of the subsectors of aquaculture that attracts more attention because of the economic interest. However, the shrimp culture systems have been facing severe consequences and economical losses due to disease outbreaks. Risk of disease outbreak can be combated with the application of probiotics. For economically viable production of such probiotic products, the present study provides information on the optimization and partial purification of bacteriocin produced by a goat milk isolate Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR against the shrimp bacterial pathogens. Results Bacteriocin production was estimated as a measure of bactericidal activity (arbitrary Unit/ml) over the test strains. The optimum culture conditions and media components for maximum bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR were: pH: 5.0, temperature: 30°C, carbon source: lactose; nitrogen source: ammonium acetate; NaCl: 3.0% and surfactant: Tween 80. MRS medium was found to extend better bacteriocin production than other tested media. Upon partial purification of bacteriocin, the SDS-PAGE analysis had manifested the presence of two peptide bands with the molecular weight of 39.26 and 6.38 kDa, respectively. Conclusion The present results provide baseline trend for the statistical optimization, scale up process and efficient production of bacteriocin by the candidate bacterial strain Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR which could be used to replace the usage of conventional chemotherapeutics in shrimp culture systems. PMID:23725298

2013-01-01

387

The Commercial Bait Shrimp Fishery in Galveston Bay, Texas, 1959-87  

E-print Network

population, though at dif ferent stages of the life cycle. The bait catch, iflarge enough, could depress research program of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (now NMFS) which began in the late 1950's. 'Kennedy Fisheries Review20 #12;Table 1.~Galveaton Bay bait shrimp Index values from 1960 to 1987 used to predict

388

Microbial floc meal as a replacement ingredient for fish meal and soybean protein in shrimp feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial flocs produced in suspended growth bioreactors could offer the shrimp industry a novel alternative feed. In this study, microbial flocs were produced in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) using tilapia effluent and sugar as a growth media. It was determined that 1kg of microbial floc could be produced per 1.49kg of sucrose. These microbial flocs were tested as an ingredient

David D. Kuhn; Gregory D. Boardman; Addison L. Lawrence; Lori Marsh; George J. Flick Jr.

2009-01-01

389

Genetic mapping of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon with amplified fragment length polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report construction of an initial genetic linkage map for the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Mapping was carried out using polymorphic markers derived from 23 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) primer pairs. These were analysed on three reference families of known pedigree. A total of 673 polymorphic AFLP loci that conformed to expected Mendelian segregation ratios were scored in

Kate Wilson; Yutao Li; Vicki Whan; Sigrid Lehnert; Keren Byrne; Stephen Moore; Siriporn Pongsomboon; Anchalee Tassanakajon; George Rosenberg; Elizabeth Ballment; Zahra Fayazi; Jennifer Swan; Matthew Kenway; John Benzie

2002-01-01

390

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

391

A STUDY OF THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN'S OF THE COMMON MARINE SHRIMP, PENAEUS SETIFERUS (LINNAEUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In connection with the investigations of the common commercial shrimp, Penaeus setiferus (Linnaeus) , carried on by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, studies have been made of the structure of the reproductive organs and accessory sex characters and the general nature of the reproductive process. This report gives information on the anatomy and histology of the male and

JOSEPH E. KING

392

Phylogenetic evidence for an ancient rapid radiation of Caribbean sponge-dwelling snapping shrimps (Synalpheus)  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic evidence for an ancient rapid radiation of Caribbean sponge-dwelling snapping shrimps in the morphologically well-defined gambarelloides species group, a putative clade of obligate sponge associates is strikingly similar to patterns documented from fossil data for several other Caribbean reef

Duffy, J. Emmett

393

California Freshwater Shrimp Project: An Eco-Action Project with Real Life Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California Freshwater Shrimp Project is an example of a student-initiated, eco-action project. Students, from a fourth grade class in the Ross Valley School District in San Rafael, California, were linked to their community and environment through their work in rehabilitating habitat and educating the public. The paper gives an overview of a…

Rogers, Laurette H.

394

Cloning and molecular characterization of heat shock cognate 70 from tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

We cloned the complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) of the heat shock cognate 70 (hsc70) gene of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). It was 2207 bp long and included a 1959-bp coding region, a 40-bp flanking region at the 5? end, and a 208-bp flanking region at the 3? end. The deduced, 652–amino acid sequence had a molecular mass of 71?481 Da and an estimated isoelectric point (pI) of 5.2. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the gene is clustered with the hsc70 proteins of invertebrates and vertebrates. In native gel electrophoresis, recombinant P monodon hsc70 expressed in an Escherichia coli system is tightly associated with carboxymethylated ?-lactalbumin (CMLA), which indicates that hsc70 probably functions as a chaperone. In an in vitro adenosine triphosphatase assay, recombinant hsc70 hydrolyzed adenosine triphosphate to adenosine-5?-diphosphate and increased hydrolysis activity by binding to unfolded peptide, CMLA. In situ hybridization using an antisense riboprobe revealed that the hsc70 gene was active in most tissues of unstressed shrimp. The expression of hsc70 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in hemocytes increased 2- to 3-fold at the first hour after shrimp experienced heat shock and 0.5-hour recovery. Hsc70 mRNA decreased gradually to the background level. Cloning and characterizing the P monodon hsc70 gene is the first, crucial step in studying the relationship of heat shock proteins with the stress or immune responses of shrimp. PMID:15633291

Lo, Wan-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Liao, I-Chiu; Song, Yen-Ling

2004-01-01

395

DOSE/DOSE-RATE RESPONSES OF SHRIMP LARVAE TO UV-B RADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 W sq m (DNA) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activi...

396

Economic valuation of a mangrove ecosystem threatened by shrimp aquaculture in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Mangrove ecosystems in Sri Lanka are increasingly under threat from development projects, especially aquaculture. An economic assessment is presented for a relatively large (42 ha) shrimp culture development proposed for the Rekawa Lagoon system in the south of Sri Lanka, which involved an extended cost-benefit analysis of the proposal and an estimate of the "total economic value" (TEV) of a mangrove ecosystem. The analysis revealed that the internal benefits of developing the shrimp farm are higher than the internal costs in the ratio of 1.5:1. However, when the wider environmental impacts are more comprehensively evaluated, the external benefits are much lower than the external costs in a ratio that ranges between 1:6 and 1:11. In areas like Rekawa, where agriculture and fisheries are widely practiced at subsistence levels, shrimp aquaculture developments have disproportionately large impacts on traditional livelihoods and social welfare. Thus, although the analysis retains considerable uncertainties, more explicit costing of the environmental services provided by mangrove ecosystems demonstrates that low intensity, but sustainable, harvesting has far greater long-term value to local stakeholders and the wider community than large shrimp aquaculture developments. PMID:16151655

Gunawardena, M; Rowan, J S

2005-10-01

397

The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of

Ying-Feng Lin; Shuh-Ren Jing; Der-Yuan Lee

2003-01-01

398

A phage-displayed peptide can inhibit infection by white spot syndrome virus of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot disease, caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), results in devastating losses to the shrimp farming industry around the world, and no effective treatments have been found. Control focuses on exclusion of the virus from culture ponds but, once introduced, spread is often rapid and uncontrollable. The purpose of this study was to select a phage-displayed peptide that

Guohua Yi; Juan Qian; Zhiming Wang; Yipeng Qi

2003-01-01

399

Hydrological and Water Quality Indices as management tools in marine shrimp culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous monitoring of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of pond, effluent and inlet waters helps not only to predict and control negative conditions for shrimp farming, but also avoids environmental damages and collapse of the production process. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of implementing a Water Quality Index (WQI) as a tool to

N. C. Ferreira; C. Bonetti; W. Q. Seiffert

2011-01-01

400

Mercury content of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) reared in a wastewater-seawater aquacultural system  

SciTech Connect

Penaeus vannamei were reared in two ponds, one receiving 10% wastewater in seawater and no feed, and the other receiving only seawater and a prepared commercial feed. The pond receiving the wastewater had significantly more mercury in the sediment, yet shrimp in this pond did not accumulate significant amounts of the mercury in their edible tissue.

Landau, M.; Pierce, R.

1986-10-01

401

Iron oxide deposits associated with the ectosymbiotic bacteria in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rimicaris exoculata shrimp is considered as a primary consumer that dominates the fauna of most Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) hydrothermal ecosystems. These shrimps harbour in their gill chambers an important ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with iron oxide deposits. The structure and elemental composition of the mineral concretions associated with these bacteria have been investigated by using LM, ESEM, TEM STEM and EDX microanalyses. The nature of the iron oxides in shrimps obtained from the Rainbow vent field has also been determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. This multidisciplinary approach has revealed that the three layers of mineral crust in the Rimicaris exoculata shrimps consist of large concretions formed by aggregated nanoparticles of two-line ferrihydrite and include other minor elements as Si, Ca, Mg, S and P, probably present as silicates cations, sulphates or phosphates respectively that may contribute to stabilise the ferrihydrite form of iron oxides. TEM-observations on the bacteria have revealed their close interactions with these minerals. Abiotic and biotic precipitation could occur within the gill chamber of Rimicaris exoculata, suggesting the biologically-mediated formation of the iron oxide deposits. The difference of the bacterial density in the three-mineral crust layers could be correlated to the importance of the iron oxide concretions and suggest that the first mineral particles precipitates on the lower layer which could be considered as the most likely location of iron-oxidizing bacteria.

Corbari, L.; Cambon-Bonavita, M.-A.; Long, G. J.; Grandjean, F.; Zbinden, M.; Gaill, F.; Compère, P.

2008-09-01

402

THE INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN PINK SHRIMP 'PENAEUS DUORARUM' BY METHYL PARATHION AND ITS OXON  

EPA Science Inventory

The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, E.C.3.1.1.7, (AChE) activity in the ventral nerve cord of pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) by methyl parathion (MPT) and methyl paraoxon (MPO) was investigated. When the animals were exposed to these compounds in water (in vivo), AChE activit...

403

Molecular cloning, expression analysis and characterization of peroxiredoxin during WSSV infection in shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.  

PubMed

Innate immunity is the first line of defense in shrimps against invading pathogenic microorganisms. Peroxiredoxins (PRX) are the family of antioxidant proteins that play a crucial role in reduction of oxidative stress in host during viral infection. Peroxiredoxin from Fenneropenaeus indicus was identified, cloned and expressed in prokaryotic expression system. The Fi-PRX protein consists of two conserved Cys residues and belongs to typical 2-cys PRX family. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a close evolutionary relatedness of Fi-PRX with the PRX from Drosophila melanogaster PRX1 and distant origin with PRX sequences from other shrimp isolates Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus japonicus. Fi-PRX transcripts are constitutively expressed in hemocytes and tissues (gills, heart and muscle) and down regulated during 12 h, 24 h and 48 h of WSSV challenged shrimps. Fi-PRX protein levels correlated well with the corresponding levels of Fi-PRX transcripts in hemocytes and tissues of WSSV challenged shrimps. Recombinant Fi-PRX reduces insulin only in the presence of DTT suggesting that the antioxidant function of the protein is thiol dependent. These findings suggest that antioxidant activity of Fi-PRX play a significant role in neutralization of excessive free radicals and ROS generated during viral invasion. PMID:21964313

Kiruthiga, C; Rajesh, S; Rashika, V; Priya, R; Narayanan, R B

2012-01-01

404

A New Species of Streptocephalus Fairy Shrimp (Crustacea, Anostraca) with Tetrahedral Cysts from Central Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new species of fairy shrimp, Streptocephalus siamensis n. sp., is described from five temporary pools in Suphan Buri and Kanchana Buri Provinces, central Thailand. It sometimes co-occurs with its congener, S. sirindhornae . This new species belongs to the subgenus Parastreptocephalus which is defined by bearing tetrahedral cysts. This is the third anostracan species reported from Thailand.

Sanoamuang, La-Orsri; Saengphan, Nukul

2006-06-01

405

Productivity and Profitability of South Carolina Shrimp Vessels, 1971-75  

E-print Network

-cust anall'sis indicated 8 This paper presents a profitability and productivity analysis of the SouthI Productivity and Profitability of South Carolina Shrimp Vessels, 1971-75 T M JONES, J W. HUBBARD from /97/ to 1975. Smaller vessels � 55 feet) were mure profitable, and averaged /4 years aida than

406

Farm level and geographic predictors of antibiotic use in Sri Lankan shrimp farms.  

PubMed

Black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon farming is important for Sri Lanka's rural development plans. Consumer confidence is critical for the development and maintenance of export and domestic shrimp markets. Public concern about the use of antimicrobial drugs and chemicals on shrimp farms, however, could threaten market access. We sought to identify high-risk areas and farm-level risk factors for antimicrobial use to inform the core messages and strategic placement of extension programs to help farmers develop best management practices for antimicrobial use. We undertook a survey of 603 operating farms within the Puttalam district over 42 weeks. Lower stocking density and early harvest were associated with a lower risk of antimicrobial use, whereas standard management practices, including water treatment, feed supplements, probiotic use, pond fertilizing, disinfectant use, and pesticide use, were associated with increased risk. Spatial cluster detection found three significant clusters of antimicrobial-using farms. Antimicrobials were more likely to be used in areas with lower farm density. Some of our counterintuitive findings are discussed from a socioecological perspective. A comprehensive understanding of why antimicrobials are used on shrimp farms requires an evaluation of the physical, epidemiological, and socioeconomic factors. PMID:22779210

Munasinghe, Nalaka; Stephen, Craig; Robertson, Colin; Abeynayake, Preeni

2012-03-01

407

Reactivity of Shrimp Allergy-Related IgE Antibodies to Krill Tropomyosin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Krill, which morphologically resembles small shrimp, represents small ocean crustaceans and has been used for human consumption in Japan and some other countries. The major allergen in crustaceans has been reported to be tropomyosin, but the allergenicity of krill tropomyosin remains uncertain. Methods: Amino acid sequences of tropomyosin in two species of krill (Euphausia superba and E. pacifica) were

Shigeru Nakano; Toshio Yoshinuma; Toshihiro Yamada

2008-01-01

408

Modeling Shrimp Biomass and Viral Infection for Production of Biological Countermeasures  

E-print Network

Modeling Shrimp Biomass and Viral Infection for Production of Biological Countermeasures H. T of large quantities of therapeutic and/or preventative countermeasures. We couple equations for biomass machinery in an existing biomass for the production of a vaccine or antibody by infection using a virus

409

Relationship between land use classification and grass shrimp Palaemonetes spp. population metrics in coastal watersheds.  

PubMed

Estuaries in the southeastern USA have experienced increased loading of contaminants from nonpoint source runoff as well as changes in habitat (e.g., loss of wetlands) due to urbanization. These changes may pose significant risks to estuarine fauna, including crustaceans. Several studies have shown relationships between land use classification and levels of stress in estuarine populations. The grass shrimp of the genus Palaemonetes is one of the dominant species found in estuarine tidal creeks, accounting for more than 50 % of all macropelagic fauna. Grass shrimp populations were sampled monthly for 3 years at six estuarine creeks on Kiawah Island, SC. Creek watersheds were estimated using National Aerial Photograph Program color infrared and low-altitude true color aerial photography combined with in situ differentially corrected global positioning system mapping of engineered features. Land classifications delineated included water, marsh, buildings, roads, and lawns. Pairwise comparisons for grass shrimp densities among sites showed significant differences on an annual and seasonal basis. Significant relationships (p < 0.05) between land class variables and grass shrimp density were identified both annually and seasonally. These findings suggest an influence of land use on Palaemonetes spp. populations. PMID:24464399

Daugomah, James W; Key, P B; West, J B; Shea, N R; McDaniel, S; Pennington, P L; Fulton, M H

2014-06-01

410

77 FR 73619 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...determined that Apex Frozen Foods Private Limited (Apex Frozen...warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count...this order. In addition, food preparations, which are not...that is subjected to IQF freezing immediately after...

2012-12-11

411

Heat-shock response and temperature resistance in the deep-sea vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata swarms around hydrothermal black smoker chimneys at most vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This species maintains close proximity to the hydrothermal fluid, where temperatures can reach 350°C and steep thermal and chemical gradients are expected. We performed in vivo experiments in pressurized aquaria to determine the upper thermal limit (critical thermal maximum (CTmax)) of R.

Juliette Ravaux; Françoise Gaill; Nadine Le Bris; Pierre-Marie Sarradin; Didier Jollivet; Bruce Shillito; Quai St-Bernard; Batiment A

2003-01-01

412

Organic Coasts? Regulatory Challenges of Certifying Integrated Shrimp-Mangrove Production Systems in Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vietnamese government aims to expand the scale of Naturland certified organic production in integrated shrimp-mangrove farming systems across the coast of Ca Mau province by 2015. In doing so the division between public and private regulation has become blurred. We analyze the government's goal by examining the regulatory challenges of using…

Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Bush, Simon R.; Mol, Arthur P. J.; van Dijk, Han

2012-01-01

413

A Simple PCR Procedure to Detect White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) of Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricious)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-stop, single tube and semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique with simple procedure was developed for simultaneous detection and grading the level of white spot syndrome infection in penaeid shrimp, Penaeus monodon. In this PCR procedure, three sense primers and one antisense primer with uniform annealing temperature of 55 °C were used. These primers amplify three PCR products (500,

A. S. Sahul Hameed; V. Parameswaran; S. Syed Musthaq; R. Sudhakaran; G. Balasubramanian; K. Yoganandhan

2005-01-01

414

Population structure in the freshwater shrimp (Paratya australiensis) inferred from allozymes and mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, an allozyme study was conducted on the genetic structure of a population of the common atyid shrimp, Paratya australiensis, in the Conondale Range, south-eastern Queensland with two subcatchments each within two river drainages sampled. The allozyme study revealed a high degree of population structure, with the data interpreted as reflecting a pattern of restricted contemporary gene flow, primarily

D A Hurwood; J M Hughes; S E Bunn; C Cleary

2003-01-01

415

Mitochondrial DNA signatures of restricted gene flow within divergent lineages of an atyid shrimp (Paratya australiensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured spatial genetic structure within three previously described mitochondrial lineages of the atyid shrimp, Paratya australiensis, occurring in upland streams of two major catchments within the Sydney Water Supply Catchment, New South Wales, Australia. In all three lineages, there was significant spatial structuring of genetic variation between catchments. In two lineages, recurrent but restricted maternal gene flow has apparently

A M Baker; D A Hurwood; M Krogh; J M Hughes

2004-01-01

416

Biochemical responses during starvation and subsequent recovery in postlarval Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postlarval shrimp, Penaeus vannamei Boone, 1931, were held individually in cages and exposed to two feeding regimes. One group was starved for 12 d and then fed during the following 12 d. A second group was fed throughout the 24 d study. Four individuals were sampled from each of the two groups on Days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12,

K. C. Stuck; S. A. Watts; S. Y. Wang

1996-01-01

417

Involvement of Viral MicroRNA in the Regulation of Antiviral Apoptosis in Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Viruses, in particular DNA viruses, generate microRNAs (miRNAs) to control the expression of host and viral genes. Due to their essential roles in virus-host interactions, viral miRNAs have attracted extensive investigations in recent years. To date, however, most studies on viral miRNAs have been conducted in cell lines. In this study, the viral miRNAs from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were characterized in shrimp in vivo. On the basis of our previous study and small RNA sequencing in this study, a total of 89 putative WSSV miRNAs were identified. As revealed by miRNA microarray analysis and Northern blotting, the expression of viral miRNAs was tissue specific in vivo. The results indicated that the viral miRNA WSSV-miR-N24 could target the shrimp caspase 8 gene, and this miRNA further repressed the apoptosis of shrimp hemocytes in vivo. As a result, the number of WSSV copies in shrimp in vivo was significantly increased compared with the control level (WSSV only). Therefore, our study presents the first report on the in vivo molecular events of viral miRNA in antiviral apoptosis. PMID:24352447

Huang, Tianzhi; Cui, Yalei

2014-01-01

418

Morphological asymmetry of the abdomen and behavioral laterality in atyid shrimps.  

PubMed

Morphological asymmetry and behavioral laterality in vertebrate species have been intensively studied in recent years, while comparable invertebrate studies are rare. Here we demonstrate asymmetry in the curvature of the abdomen and laterality in evasive responses for two atyid shrimps, Limnocaridina latipes and Neocaridina denticulata. The frequency distributions of the angle of the abdominal curvature in both species were discretely bimodal, suggesting that the two populations are composed of both left- and right-type individuals. In N. denticulata, behavioral analysis using high-speed filming illustrated that the escape direction for each individual, evoked by a sudden non-lateralized stimulus, was correlated with its abdominal curvature: left- (right-) type shrimp jumped back-leftward (-rightward) significantly more than often. A crossing experiment with N. denticulata indicated that the trait frequency in the F1 generation from two left-type parents differed significantly from that of the F1 generation from two right-type parents, and that the trait frequency for the F1 generation from parents of different laterality types did not deviate from random. That is, offspring laterality type is affected by the lateralities of the parents, indicating that abdominal dimorphism in shrimp is genetically derived. These results suggest that shrimp have an innate laterality that controls their escape direction, which in turn may affect prey-predator interactions in the aquatic community. PMID:18459817

Takeuchi, Yuichi; Tobo, Shoko; Hori, Michio

2008-04-01

419

Differential immune responses of the green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulate) to dipropyl phthalate.  

PubMed

This study set out to understand the sublethal effect of xenobiotic phthalate esters (PAEs) on the relationship between the susceptibility of shrimp to bacterial infection and the immune response of the shrimp. Neocaridina denticulate were exposed to different concentrations of the PAE dipropyl phthalate (DPrP), and mortality and six immune parameters were measured on days 1, 3, 5, and 10 after exposure. On days 1 and 3 after exposure, shrimp exposed to 0, 1, 5, 10, and 50 mg/L of DPrP and challenged with Aeromonas veronii experienced 14% and 16%, 16% and 16%, 18% and 18%, 34% and 24%, and 38% and 26% mortality, respectively. On day 1, five immune parameters (acid phosphatase, AcP; ?-glucuronidase, ?-Glu; phenoloxidase, PO; superoxide dismutase, SOD; and haemocyanin mRNA) were significantly altered in the all of the groups treated with DPrP compared to the untreated shrimp and were elevated in the 10 mg/L- and 50 mg/L-treated groups. Beta-Glu activity and haemocyanin mRNA levels were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the increased susceptibility of N. denticulate exposed to DPrP is short-term and may be related to the increased expression of DPrP-induced immune mediators. PMID:21740974

Sung, Hung-Hung; Lin, Yi-Hsiu; Hsiao, Chun-Yi

2011-09-01

420

A new nodavirus is associated with covert mortality disease of shrimp.  

PubMed

A new nodavirus, named covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV), is associated with covert mortality disease of shrimp which has caused serious loss in China since 2009. Histopathological examination of shrimp suffering the disease revealed coagulative necrosis of striated muscle similar to typical histopathology features of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). However, shrimp suffering this disease tested negative for IMNV, MrNV and PvNV by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Additionally, eosinophilic inclusions were found in epithelium of the tubules in the hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ, and mass karyopyknotic nuclei existed in the muscle and lymphoid organ. The tubular epithelium of the hepatopancreas showed significant atrophy. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA of infected shrimp. Sequencing and alignment analysis showed that one clone with an 1185 bp insert (designated CMNV-7) shared 54?, 53? and 39?% identity with the amino acid sequences of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Flock House virus, black beetle virus and MrNV. The results of fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the hepatopancreas, striated muscle and lymphoid organ were positively reacting tissues. The mean size of negative-stained virus particles was 32 nm. In addition, a nested RT-PCR assay was developed for CMNV, and the RT-PCR detection results revealed that Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Litopenaeus vannamei and Marsupenaeus japonicus suffering from this disease were CMNV-positive. PMID:25205685

Zhang, Qingli; Liu, Qun; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Haolin; Liu, Sun; Zhu, Luoluo; Yang, Bing; Jin, Jiting; Ding, Lixue; Wang, Xiuhua; Liang, Yan; Wang, Qintao; Huang, Jie

2014-12-01

421

A new snapping shrimp (Crustacea Decapoda, Alpheidae, Alpheus) from the estuarine mudflats of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new snapping shrimp, Alpheus lutosus spec. nov., is described from the intertidal mudflats of Bubiyan Island, northern Kuwait, south of the vast Shatt-Al-Arab delta. The new species appears to be closely related to Alpheus hoplocheles Coutière, 1897 from similar estuarine habitats in China and Japan, differing mainly in the absence of a sharp distolateral tooth on the palm of

A. Anker; Grave De S

2009-01-01

422

RESPIRATORY AND BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES OF THE GRASS SHRIMP 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO' TO CADMIUM AND REDUCED DISSOLVED OXYGEN  

EPA Science Inventory

Adult grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were collected during July and August, 1973, and exposed for 48-hr periods to a series of sublethal cadmium (Cd) concentrations: 0.1 and 0.56 mg/l for metabolic studies; and 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.56 mg/l for locomotor studies. Treatment e...

423

Inadvertent consequences of fishing: the case of the sex-changing shrimp.  

PubMed

The Hokkai shrimp Pandalus latirostris starts life as a male, but eventually turns into a female given the right size and social conditions. The traps used in the fishery targeting this species selectively retain the larger females, leaving a severely male-biased sex ratio in nature and social conditions that bear no resemblance to those that prompted (or prevented) sex change. Photo: Susumu Chiba Chiba, S., Yoshino, K., Kanaiwa, M., Kawajiri, T. & Goshima, S. (2013) Maladaptive sex ratio adjustment by a sex-changing shrimp in selective fishing environments. Journal of Animal Ecology, 82, 631-640. Fishing can have many unintended consequences. In this issue, Chiba et al. (2013) demonstrate that size-selective harvesting of a sex-changing shrimp effectively voids their normally adaptive adjustments to population sex ratio. The shrimp's 'decision' to change sex depends largely on the relative abundance of mature males and females in early summer, before fishing begins. However, fishing traps selectively retain females, leading to heavily male-biased sex ratios at the onset of autumn breeding that are different from the ratios that influenced sex-change decisions. Although this phenomenon is not yet expressed in catch trends, maladaptive sex-change decisions could ultimately affect population productivity and persistence. PMID:24499309

Côté, Isabelle M

2013-05-01

424

Different bacterial lipopolysaccharides as toxicants and stressors in the shrimp Palaemon elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the in vivo haemocytic response of shrimp, Palaemon elegans (Rathke) to different types of LPS injection. In particular it investigates to what degree and speed the haemocytopenia varies between LPSs from different sources. It further compares the tolerated doses of different LPSs in these animals and finds substantial differences in the various toxicity types. The work then

S. Lorenzon; P. Pasqual; E. A. Ferrero

2002-01-01

425

The ontogeny of facultative superposition optics in a shrimp eye: hatching through metamorphosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary report on this research has appeared in the form of an abstract (Douglass 1985)Compound eyes of larval and first postlarval grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio Holthuis) were studied with light and electron microscopy following adaptation to darkness or bright light. Larvae have well-developed apposition eyes, including 3 main types of accessory screening and reflecting pigments and a fourth class

John K. Douglass; Richard B. Forward

1989-01-01

426

Detection of major capsid protein of infectious myonecrosis virus in shrimps using monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) has been causing a progressive disease in farm-reared shrimps in Brazil and Indonesia. Immunodiagnostic methods for IMNV detection, although reliable, are not employed currently because monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against this virus are not available. In this study, a fragment of the IMNV major capsid protein gene, comprising amino acids 300-527 (IMNV(300-527)), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of the recombinant IMNV(300-527) fragment displayed a high degree of identity to the major capsid protein of IMNV isolates from Brazil (99%) and Indonesia (98%). Ten MAbs were generated against the expressed fragment, and eight of these, mostly IgG(2a) or IgG(2b), were able to bind to IMNV in tissue extracts from shrimps infected naturally in immunodot-blot assays. Six of these MAbs recognized a approximately 100 kDa protein in a Western-blot, which is the predicted mass of IMNV major capsid protein, and also bound to viral inclusions present in muscle fibroses and in coagulative myonecrosis, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Among all those MAbs created, four did not cross-react with non-infected shrimp tissues; this observation supports their applicability as a sensitive and specific immunodiagnosis of IMNV infection in shrimps. PMID:20678523

Seibert, Caroline H; Borsa, Mariana; Rosa, Rafael D; Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo; Pereira, Alitiene M L; Grisard, Edmundo C; Zanetti, Carlos R; Pinto, Aguinaldo R

2010-10-01

427

The Role of Bacteria in the Uptake of Hexoses from Seawater by Postlarval Penaeid Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The uptake of hexoses from dilute solutions in seawater by postlarval penaeid shrimp was measured at salinities from 10-40o/oo. Uptake of D-mannitol was less than that of D-glucose but greater than that of both L-glucose and 3-0-methyl-D-glucose, which di...

F. L. Castille, A. L. Lowrence

1979-01-01

428

Purification and identification of a clotting protein from the hemolymph of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clotting protein (CP) plays important and diverse roles in crustaceans, such as coagulation and lipid transportation. A clotting protein was purified from the hemolymph of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (named as Fc-CP) with Q sepharose HP anion-exchange chromatography and phenyl sepharose HP hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Fc-CP was able to form stable clots in vitro in the presence of hemocyte lysate and Ca2+, suggesting that the clotting reaction is catalyzed by a Ca2+-dependent transglutaminase in shrimp hemocytes. The molecular mass of Fc-CP was 380 kDa under non-reducing conditions and 190 kDa under reducing conditions as was determined with SDS-PAGE. CP exists as disulfide-linked homodimers and oligomers. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Fc-CP was identical to that of shrimps including Penaeus monodon, Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Litopenaeus vannamei; and similar to that of other decapods. The purified Fc-CP was digested with trypsin and verified on an ABI 4700 matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. Our results will aid to better understanding the coagulation mechanism of shrimp hemolymph.

Wang, Baojie; Peng, Hongni; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

2013-09-01

429

77 FR 12543 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Riverside Fairy Shrimp  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the coast. Most of the additional complexes identified since the time of listing...additional occupied vernal pools and pool complexes containing Riverside fairy shrimp existed...Federalism), E.O. 12988 (Civil Justice Reform), E.O. 13211 (Energy,...

2012-03-01

430

EFFECTS OF AERIAL THERMAL FOG APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON CAGED PINK SHRIMP, MYSIDS AND SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mosquito control applications of fenthion by aerial thermal fog equipment were studied at two sites in Collier County, FL, for sprays that occurred on 20 and 23 June 1984. Acute, lethal effects of fenthion deposited in these estuarine habitats were assessed for caged pink shrimp ...

431

ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

432

A NEW GIANT SPECIES OF PREDATORY FAIRY SHRIMP FROM IDAHO, USA (BRANCHIOPODA: ANOSTRACA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously unknown species of giant fairy shrimp is described. Branchinecta raptor n. sp. is highly adapted to a predatory mode of life. In both sexes, the first four pairs of thoracopods bear elongated, curved, heavily chitinized endopods, which are modified for grasping prey. Both sexes have elongated, ''whip-like'' cercopods nearly as long as the abdomen that are used for

D. Christopher Rogers; Dana L. Quinney; James Weaver; Jørgen Olesen

2006-01-01

433

Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus az-tecus) have an estuarine-depen-  

E-print Network

- stream of Mississippi River inflows that fertilize the Louisiana coastal zone (Moore et al., 1970). Nutrient loading from the Mississippi River has increased at least 2­4 times in recent decades in contrast in fertilization of the coastal zone may be affecting off- shore shrimp dynamics. In this study, Mississippi River

434

Assessment of bycatch associated with the inshore shrimp fishery in Matagorda Bay, Texas  

E-print Network

with the inshore shrimp fishery, characterize the composition of this bycatch, and identify temporal relationships of constituent species. Monthly mean bycatch biomass levels ranged from 3.32 (December 1998) to 8.71 kg (August 1998) and were highest during summer...

Sparks, Debbie Laura

2012-06-07

435

Insights into the Prostanoid Pathway in the Ovary Development of the Penaeid Shrimp Penaeus monodon  

PubMed Central

The prostanoid pathway converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into bioactive lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins, all of which play vital roles in the immune and reproductive systems in most animal phyla. In crustaceans, PUFAs and prostaglandins have been detected and often associated with female reproductive maturation. However, the presence of prostanoid biosynthesis genes remained in question in these species. In this study, we outlined the prostanoid pathway in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon based on the amplification of nine prostanoid biosynthesis genes: cytosolic phospholipase A2, hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin D synthase, prostaglandin E synthase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, prostaglandin E synthase 3, prostaglandin F synthase, thromboxane A synthase and cyclooxygenase. TBLASTX analysis confirmed the identities of these genes with 51-99% sequence identities to their closest homologs. In addition, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), which is a product of the prostaglandin F synthase enzyme, was detected for the first time in P. monodon ovaries along with the previously identified PUFAs and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) using RP-HPLC and mass-spectrometry. The prostaglandin synthase activity was also observed in shrimp ovary homogenates using in vitro activity assay. When prostaglandin biosynthesis was examined in different stages of shrimp ovaries, we found that the amounts of prostaglandin F synthase gene transcripts and PGF2? decreased as the ovaries matured. These findings not only indicate the presence of a functional prostanoid pathway in penaeid shrimp, but also suggest a possible role of the PGF2? biosynthesis in shrimp ovarian development. PMID:24116186

Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Danwisetkanjana, Kannawat; Pinkaew, Decha; Kirtikara, Kanyawim; Vichai, Vanicha

2013-01-01

436

78 FR 56217 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC859 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and Southern Atlantic States AGENCY...exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and South Atlantic,...

2013-09-12

437

[Progebiophilus bruscai (Isopoda:Bopyridae) parasitizing the shrimp Upogebia dawsoni (Thalassinoidea:Upogebiidae), in Baja California Sur, Mexico)].  

PubMed

Parasitism of the isopod Progebiophilus bruscai Salazar-Vallejo & Leija-Tristán over the common mud shrimp, Upogebia dawsoni Williams, was analysed in the Ensenada and Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Mud-shrimps were collected in three similar sites that differ in grain size and in the anthropogenic organic matter enrichment. Four-hundred-nine mud-shrimps were collected; the largest abundance was registered in the organically enriched site, but they were significantly smaller and more heavily parasited than the animals from the site lacking such organic enrichment. The size of the parasite is clearly dependent on the size of the mud-shrimp. This is the first study of the upogebiid-bopyris relationship in Mexico. PMID:1844147

Leija-Tristán, A; Salazar-Vallejo, S I

1991-06-01

438

Application of lactic acid in combination with melanosis inhibitors to improve shelf life of Texas brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus)  

E-print Network

The shelf life of fresh shrimp stored on ice is limited by two factors: melanosis (blackspot) and microbial spoilage. In this study L-lactic acid was tested, alone and in combination with sodium bisulfite and 4-hexylresorcinol, to determine...

Benner, Ronald Allen

2012-06-07

439

77 FR 66434 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...submitted by Red Garden. Second, the Department relied on the publicly ranged financial statement data for Devi Sea Foods Ltd. (``Devi''), rather than data for Nekkanti, as the basis for calculating the raw shrimp SV. Third, the...

2012-11-05

440

78 FR 16754 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Anti- Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp From Vietnam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative...is providing notice that the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') has requested the establishment of a...

2013-03-18

441

76 FR 27991 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony...CIT's remand order in Amanda Foods (Vietnam) Ltd., et al., v. United States...redetermination''); see also Amanda Foods (Vietnam) Ltd., et al., v. United...

2011-05-13

442

Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture  

E-print Network

We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA...

Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Ryan, Doan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Jason A., Sawyer; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

2014-07-28

443

Bioconcentration of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in the marine shrimp Palaemonetes varians: a radiotracer study.  

PubMed

Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved [(14)C]C??-6-linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were determined in the shrimp Palaemonetes varians using environmentally relevant exposure concentration. The shrimp concentrated LAS from seawater with a mean BCF value of 120 L kg(-1) after a 7-day exposure. Uptake biokinetics were best described by a saturation model, with an estimated BCFss, of 159 ± 34 L kg(-1), reached after 11.5 days. Shrimp weight influenced significantly BCF value with smaller individuals presenting higher affinity to LAS. To the light of a whole body autoradiography, major accumulation of LAS occurred in the cephalothorax circulatory system (gills, heart, hepatopancreas) and ocular peduncle, but not in the flesh, limiting potential transfer to human consumers. LAS depuration rate constant value of the shrimp was 1.18 ± 0.08 d(-1) leading to less than 1% of remaining LAS in its tissues after 8 days of depuration. PMID:25016418

Renaud, Florent; Warnau, Michel; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Temara, Ali; Rouleau, Claude; Metian, Marc

2014-08-15

444

Thai plants from Doi Tung: brine shrimp lethality, antioxidative activity and combination effect with L-ascorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of 18 Thai plants from Doi Tung, the north of Thailand, were examined for brine shrimp lethality and antioxidative activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. In brine shrimp lethality, the highly toxic plant extracts were Mitrephora wangii (LC50 14.8?µg?mL) and Hydrocotyle javanica (LC50 13.3?µg?mL). The extracts of Sageretia cordifolia, Ulmus lancaefolia and Acer chiangdaoense exhibited highly antioxidative activities with

Patcharawan Tanamatayarat; Uthai Sotanaphun; Onoomar Poobrasert

2012-01-01

445

Thai plants from Doi Tung: brine shrimp lethality, antioxidative activity and combination effect with L-ascorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of 18 Thai plants from Doi Tung, the north of Thailand, were examined for brine shrimp lethality and antioxidative activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. In brine shrimp lethality, the highly toxic plant extracts were Mitrephora wangii (LC50 14.8?µg?mL) and Hydrocotyle javanica (LC50 13.3?µg?mL). The extracts of Sageretia cordifolia, Ulmus lancaefolia and Acer chiangdaoense exhibited highly antioxidative activities with

Patcharawan Tanamatayarat; Uthai Sotanaphun; Onoomar Poobrasert

2011-01-01

446

Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strain M0605, Which Causes Severe Mortalities of Shrimps in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), also known as early mortality syndrome (EMS), causes high mortalities in cultured shrimps in Asia (L. Tran et al., Dis. Aquat. Organ. 105:45–55, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02621). Here, we report the draft genome sequence of one Mexican strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that causes similar clinical signs in diseased shrimps. PMID:24604636

Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia; Lozano, Rodolfo; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel

2014-01-01

447

Persistence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus delays mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

Background Persistent infection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) (also called IHHNV) and its non-infectious inserts in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) genome are commonly found without apparent disease. Here, we introduced the method of multiplex PCR in order to differentiate shrimp with viral inserts from ones with the infectious virus. The method allowed us to study the effect of pre-infection of IHHNV, in comparison to IHHNV inserts, on WSSV resistance in P. monodon. Results A multiplex PCR system was developed to amplify the entire IHHNV genome, ensuring the accurate diagnosis. Field samples containing IHHNV DNA templates as low as 20 pg or equivalent 150 viral copies can be detected by this method. By challenging the two groups of diagnosed shrimp with WSSV, we found that shrimp with IHHNV infection and those with viral inserts responded to WSSV differently. Considering cumulative mortality, average time to death of shrimp in IHHNV-infected group (day 14) was significantly delayed relative to that (day 10) of IHHNV-inserted group. Real-time PCR analysis of WSSV copy number indicated the lower amount of WSSV in the IHHNV-infected group than the virus-inserted group. The ratio of IHHNV: WSSV copy number in all determined IHHNV-infected samples ranged from approximately 4 to 300-fold. Conclusion The multiplex PCR assay developed herein proved optimal for convenient differentiation of shrimp specimens with real IHHNV infection and those with insert types. Diagnosed shrimp were also found to exhibit different WSSV tolerance. After exposed to WSSV, the naturally pre-infected IHHNV P. monodon were less susceptible to WSSV and, consequently, survived longer than the IHHNV-inserted shrimp. PMID:23414329

2013-01-01

448

Effect of sodium tripolyphosphate treatment on the moisture content of peeled and deveined shrimp during frozen storage  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE TREATMENT ON THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP DURING FROZEN STORAGE A Thesis by CHYI CHIENG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECT OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE TREATMENT ON THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP DURING FROZEN STORAGE A Thesis by CHYI CHIENG...

Chieng, Chyi

2012-06-07

449

Elevated standard metabolic rate in a freshwater shrimp ( Palaemonetes paludosus) exposed to trace element-rich coal combustion waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

I conducted a transplant experiment to determine whether standard metabolic rate (SMR) of a freshwater shrimp (Palaemonetes paludosus) would be affected by exposure to trace element-enriched coal combustion waste (`coal ash'). Shrimp were transplanted into replicate cages in a coal ash-polluted site and a reference site for 8 months. The coal ash-polluted site was characterized by elevated sediment concentrations of

Christopher L Rowe

1998-01-01

450

Toxicity of the mosquito control insecticide phenothrin to three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used as a contact insecticide in mosquito control programs. This study compared the toxicity of phenothrin to adult, larval and embryonic grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and examined oxidative stress responses in adult and larval grass shrimp. The adult 24-h LC50 was 0.341 ?g\\/L (95 % confidence intervals 0.282–0.412) and the 96-h LC50 was 0.161 ?g\\/L

Peter B. Key; Katy W. Chung; Jennifer Hoguet; Yelena Sapozhnikova; Marie E. DeLorenzo

2011-01-01

451

RFLP analysis of the mtDNA control region in white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) populations from the eastern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

White shrimp (Litopenaeus\\u000a vannamei) population genetic structure from the eastern Pacific was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis\\u000a of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Four localities were surveyed with four endonucleases (Alu I, Taq I, Spe I, Ssp I) yielding 48 composite haplotypes. White shrimp showed high average within-locality haplotype (0.823) and nucleotide (5.41%)\\u000a diversities and also high average

R. Valles-Jimenez; P. M. Gaffney; R. Perez-Enriquez

2006-01-01

452

Spatial distribution of brown shrimp ( Farfantepenaeus aztecus ) on the northwestern Gulf of Mexico shelf: effects of abundance and hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used fishery-independent hydrographic and bottom trawl surveys on the northwestern Gulf of Mexico shelf from 1983-2000 to test for density dependence and effects of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen ? 2.0 mg·L-1 )o n the spatial distribution of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus). Spatial distribution of shrimp was positively related to abundance on the Texas shelf but negatively related to abundance on

J. Kevin Craig; Larry B. Crowder; Tyrrell A. Henwood

2005-01-01

453

Impacts of cyclic hypoxia on reproductive and gene expression patterns in the grass shrimp: field versus laboratory comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of organisms able to act as biological indicators of hypoxia exposure is important given the increasing frequency\\u000a of hypoxic events worldwide. Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, are ubiquitous estuarine residents in the southeastern US, where they commonly experience cyclic hypoxia. We hypothesized\\u000a that reproductive and gene expression patterns of grass shrimp in cyclic hypoxic field sites relative to normoxic sites

Nancy J. Brown-PetersonC; C. Steve Manning; Nancy D. Denslow; Marius Brouwer

2011-01-01

454

Characterization of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? and its role in immunomodulation by dsRNA-mediated gene silencing.  

PubMed

The full sequence of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? (LV-B) is 2879bp which encodes 787 amino acids (aa) of the open reading frame (ORF). The mature protein (764 aa) contains (1) an extracellular domain (ED) of 692 aa, (2) a transmembrane domain (TD) of 23 aa, and (3) a cytoplasmic domain (CD) of 49 aa. The cloned LV-B grouped together with crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus integrin ? (PL-B1), but was far away from vertebrate integrin ?1, ?3, ?5, ?6, ?7, and ?8, and another L. vannamei integrin ? (LV). A Southern blot analysis indicated that the cloned LV-B was a single copy of genomic DNA. LV-B mRNA was expressed in all tissues, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. LV-B was downregulated in shrimp 24 and 96h after having received white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LV-B expression by haemocytes of shrimp was higher in the postmoult (A and B) stage, and lower in the premoult (D2/D3) stage. LV-B expression was significantly higher by shrimp reared in 2.5‰ and 5‰ salinities. Shrimp injected with integrin ? dsRNA showed gene silencing of integrin ? after 36h. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed decreased hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), the total haemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), and lysozyme activity, but showed increased RB/HC, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity/HC, and the phenoloxidase (PO) activity/GC. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed upregulated expressions of lipopolysaccharide- and ?-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), prophenoloxidase I (proPO I), proPO II, proPO-activating enzyme (ppA), ?2-macroglobulin (?2-M), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). It was concluded that integrin ? plays important roles in proPO activation, phagocytosis, and the antioxidant system for immunomodulation in shrimp. PMID:23376419

Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Tsui, Wen-Ching

2013-06-01

455

License Buyback Programs in Commercial Fisheries: An Application to the Shrimp Fishery in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

L. Griffin Committee Members, H. Alan Love W. Douglass Shaw Head of Department, John P. Nichols May 2009 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics iii ABSTRACT License Buyback Programs in Commercial Fisheries: An Application to the Shrimp... L. Griffin Committee Members, H. Alan Love W. Douglass Shaw Head of Department, John P. Nichols May 2009 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics iii ABSTRACT License Buyback Programs in Commercial Fisheries: An Application to the Shrimp...

Mamula, Aaron T.

2010-01-16

456

Investigations on helminths from the hepatopancreas of the brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus ives, from Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATIONS ON HELMINTHS FROM THE HEPATOPANCREAS OF THE BROWN SHRIMP, PENAEVS AZ2'ECUS IVES, FROM GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS A Thesis By CLIFTON CLYDE CORKERN, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6iM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1970 Major Sub j cot: Biology INVESTIGATIONS ON HELMINTHS FROM THE HEPATOPANCREAS OF THE BROWN SHRIMP, PENAEUS AZTECUS IVES) FROM GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS A Thesis CLIFTON CLYDE CORKERN...

Corkern, Clifton Clyde

2012-06-07

457

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome stability maintained over six passages through three different penaeid shrimp species.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replicates rapidly, can be extremely pathogenic and is a common cause of mass mortality in cultured shrimp. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences present in the open reading frame (ORF)94, ORF125 and ORF75 regions of the WSSV genome have been used widely as genetic markers in epidemiological studies. However, reports that VNTRs might evolve rapidly following even a single transmission through penaeid shrimp or other crustacean hosts have created confusion as to how VNTR data is interpreted. To examine VNTR stability again, 2 WSSV strains (PmTN4RU and LvAP11RU) with differing ORF94 tandem repeat numbers and slight differences in apparent virulence were passaged sequentially 6 times through black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, Indian white shrimp Feneropenaeus indicus or Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. PCR analyses to genotype the ORF94, ORF125 and ORF75 VNTRs did not identify any differences from either of the 2 parental WSSV strains after multiple passages through any of the shrimp species. These data were confirmed by sequence analysis and indicate that the stability of the genome regions containing these VNTRs is quite high at least for the WSSV strains, hosts and number of passages examined and that the VNTR sequences thus represent useful genetic markers for studying WSSV epidemiology. PMID:25144114

Sindhupriya, M; Saravanan, P; Otta, S K; Amarnath, C Bala; Arulraj, R; Bhuvaneswari, T; Praveena, P Ezhil; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G

2014-08-21

458

A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.  

PubMed

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

459

A shrimp C-type lectin inhibits proliferation of the hemolymph microbiota by maintaining the expression of antimicrobial peptides.  

PubMed

Some aquatic invertebrates such as shrimp contain low albeit stable numbers of bacteria in the circulating hemolymph. The proliferation of this hemolymph microbiota in such a nutrient-rich environment is tightly controlled in healthy animals, but the mechanisms responsible had remained elusive. In the present study, we report a C-type lectin (MjHeCL) from the kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) that participates in restraining the hemolymph microbiota. Although the expression of MjHeCL did not seem to be modulated by bacterial challenge, the down-regulation of its expression by RNA interference led to proliferation of the hemolymph microbiota, ultimately resulting in shrimp death. This phenotype was rescued by the injection of recombinant MjHeCL, which restored the healthy status of the knockdown shrimp. A mechanistic analysis revealed that MjHeCL inhibited bacterial proliferation by modulating the expression of antimicrobial peptides. The key function of MjHeCL in the shrimp immune homeostasis might be related to its broader recognition spectrum of the hemolymph microbiota components than other lectins. Our study demonstrates the role of MjHeCL in maintaining the healthy status of shrimp and provides new insight into the biological significance of C-type lectins, a diversified and abundant lectin family in invertebrate species. PMID:24619414

Wang, Xian-Wei; Xu, Ji-Dong; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Vasta, Gerardo Raul; Wang, Jin-Xing

2014-04-25

460

Detection of ctx gene positive non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in shrimp aquaculture environments.  

PubMed

Water and post-larvae samples from black tiger (Penaeus monodon) shrimp hatcheries; pond water, pond sediment and shrimp from aquaculture farms were screened for the presence of V. cholerae. A V. cholerae-duplex PCR method was developed by utilizing V. cholerae species specific sodB primers and ctxAB genes specific primers. Incidence of V. cholerae was not observed in shrimp hatchery samples but was noticed in aquaculture samples. The incidence of V. cholerae was higher in pond water (7.6%) than in pond sediment (5.2%). Shrimp head (3.6%) portion had relatively higher incidence than shrimp muscle (1.6%). All the V. cholerae isolates (n?=?42) belonged to non-O1/non-O139 serogroup, of which 7% of the V. cholerae isolates were potentially cholera-toxigenic (ctx positive). All the ctx positive V. cholerae (n?=?3) were isolated from the pond water. Since, cholera toxin (CT) is the major contributing factor for cholera gravis, it is proposed that the mere presence of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae need not be the biohazard criterion in cultured black tiger shrimp but only the presence of ctx carrying non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae may be considered as potential public health risk. PMID:24425944

Madhusudana, Rao B; Surendran, P K

2013-06-01

461

SHRIMP and electron microprobe chronology of UHT metamorphism in the Napier Complex, East Antarctica: implications for zircon growth at >1,000 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zircons in ultra-high-temperature (UHT) metamorphosed paragneisses from Mt. Riiser-Larsen in the Napier Complex, East Antarctica, were dated by using ion microprobe (SHRIMP) and electron microprobe (EMP). Both SHRIMP and EMP analyses yield consistent 2520–2460 Ma age populations for garnet–orthopyroxene-bearing paragneiss and leucosomes enclosed within. The peak UHT event was dated at 2480 Ma by SHRIMP analyses on metamorphic zircons from the garnet–orthopyroxene

Tomokazu Hokada; Keiji Misawa; Kazumi Yokoyama; Kazuyuki Shiraishi; Akira Yamaguchi

2004-01-01

462

Delivery of HUFA, probionts and biomedicine through bioencapsulated Artemia as a means to enhance the growth and survival and reduce the pathogenesity in shrimp Penaeus monodon postlarvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems in the shrimp culture industry is the difficulty in producing high-quality shrimp larvae. In larviculture,\\u000a quality feeds containing a high content of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) and ingredients that stimulate stress and\\u000a disease resistance are essential to produce healthy shrimp larvae. In the present study, Penaeus monodon postlarvae (PL15) were fed for 25 days on

G. Immanuel; T. Citarasu; V. Sivaram; M. Michael Babu; A. Palavesam

2007-01-01

463

Development of nitrifying and photosynthetic sulfur bacteria based bioaugmentation systems for the bioremediation of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide in shrimp culture.  

E-print Network

??This thesis entitled Development of nitrifying ans photosynthetic sulfur bacteria based bioaugmentation systems for the bioremediation of ammonia and hydregen sulphide in shrimp culture. the… (more)

Manju, N J

2007-01-01

464

Strategy for the identification of key odorants: application to shrimp aroma.  

PubMed

The GC-SNIF technique was used to obtain the olfactograms of shrimps, and their impact odorants were identified by MS hyphenated to the GC/olfactometric system and by comprehensive two-dimensional GC hyphenated to a time-of-flight MS. Confirming these identifications by their linear retention indices required application of a new strategy to compare retention indices between both instruments and with the in-house database. The aldehydes were confirmed by using their pentafluorophenylhydrazone derivatives, and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl pyrazine had to be resolved from co-eluting compounds and then identified by multidimensional GC hyphenated to an MS and a sniff port. In both shrimp products, the most important odorants were trimethylamine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl pyrazine, together with common carbonyl compounds. PMID:19651413

Rochat, S; Egger, J; Chaintreau, A

2009-09-01

465

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese ghost shrimp Nihonotrypaea japonica (Crustacea, Decapoda, Axiidea).  

PubMed

We determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the Japanese ghost shrimp Nihonotrypaea japonica (Ortmann 1891) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Axiidea). The N. japonica mt genome is first represented in infraorder Axiidea, which, together with infraorder Gebiidea, belonged to infraorder Thalassinidea until recently. The genome sequence of N. japonica is 15,274 bp in size, and the gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity are partially different from that of the Japanese mud shrimp, Upogebia major, which belongs to the infraorder Gebiidea. We present the mt genome of N. japonica, which could provide useful molecular information to construct a stable classification for infraorder Thalassinidea and to better understand the phylogenetic relationship of Thalassinidea with other decapod groups. PMID:23305386

Kim, Sanghee; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Se-Joo; Choi, Han-Gu; Min, Gi-Sik

2013-06-01

466

Task-specific ionic liquid-assisted extraction and separation of astaxanthin from shrimp waste.  

PubMed

Astaxanthin, as an outstanding antioxidant reagent, was successfully extracted from shrimp waste by the ionic liquids based ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Seven kinds of imidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were investigated in this work and one task-specific ionic liquid in ethanol with 0.50molL(-1) was selected as the solvent. At the optimized ultrasonic extraction conditions, the extraction amount of astaxanthin increased 98% (92.7microg g(-1)) compared to the conventional method (46.7microg g(-1)). Furthermore, the extracted solution was isolated through the solid-phase extraction with a molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent. After loading the samples on molecularly imprinted polymer cartridge, the different washing and elution solvents, such as water, methanol, n-hexane, acetone and dichloromethane, were evaluated, and finally, astaxanthin was separated from the shrimp waste extract. PMID:20638917

Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Zhou, Jun; Row, Kyung Ho

2010-08-15

467

Review of Dscam-mediated immunity in shrimp and other arthropods.  

PubMed

Although true adaptive immunity is only found in vertebrates, there is increasing evidence that shrimp and other arthropods exhibit immune specificity and immune memory. The invertebrate immune response is now called "innate immunity with specificity" or "immune priming", and its underlying mechanisms are still unclear. However, while vertebrate antibodies have no invertebrate homolog, the Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam), which is a hypervariable protein created by alternative splicing, can function as a pathogen-specific recognizing molecule in arthropods. Here we review our current understanding of the Dscam-mediated immune responses in arthropods, especially in shrimp, and show that Dscam may be involved in both general innate immunity and the pathogen-specific immune response. PMID:24727482

Ng, Tze Hann; Chiang, Yi-An; Yeh, Ying-Chun; Wang, Han-Ching

2014-10-01

468

Rapid detection of shrimp white spot syndrome virus by real time, isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture industry, and thus far there are no efficient therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus. In this study, we present the development of a novel real time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for WSSV detection on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The RPA sensitivity, specificity and rapidity were evaluated by using a plasmid standard as well as viral and shrimp genomic DNAs. Compared with qPCR, the RPA assay revealed more satisfactory performance. It reached a detection limit up to 10 molecules in 95% of cases as determined by probit analysis of 8 independent experiments within 6.41 ± 0.17 min at 39 °C. Consequently, this rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point of care diagnostics. PMID:25121957

Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

2014-01-01

469

Reproduction obstacles for the female green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata) after exposure to chlordane and lindane.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chlordane and lindane on reproduction obstacles and endocrine disruption in female green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata). Individuals of N. denticulata, a common inhabitant of freshwater systems in Taiwan, was exposed to different levels of chlordane (1 and 10 ngl(-1)) and lindane (0.1 and 1 microgl(-1)). The reproductive ability and reproductive hormone levels were observed after exposure. According to our findings, an increase in estrogen, induction of a vitellogenin-like protein, and changes in reproductive performance were observed in both chlordane- and lindane-treated shrimp. Thus, it was concluded that chlordane and lindane may cause some reproduction obstacles and disruption of endocrine functions in N. denticulata. PMID:16574190

Huang, Da-Ji; Chen, Hon-Cheng; Wu, Jui-Pin; Wang, Shu-Yin

2006-06-01

470

Bacillus sp. LT3 improves the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii by enhancing the innate immune response and by decreasing the activity of shrimp-associated vibrios.  

PubMed

Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus are amongst the most intensively studied group of bacteria for use as probiotics in aquaculture. However, the exact mechanism of action of these bacteria is often not well described, and the microbiota that are naturally present in cultures of test organisms often compromise the interpretation of the results. The present study aimed to evaluate the putative probiotic effect of Bacillus sp. LT3 in a model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. The strain significantly increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii when administered 6h before the challenge. Under these conditions, LT3 was able to colonize the brine shrimp gastrointestinal tract and to decrease the in vivo pathogen activity as indicated by the bioluminescence of the V. campbellii associated with brine shrimp larvae. In order to investigate the effect of the Bacillus strain on the innate immune system of the brine shrimp larvae, prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase mRNA levels were monitored, while heat shock protein 70 mRNA levels were measured as an indicator of physiological stress. Interestingly, 12h after challenge, the prophenoloxidase mRNA level in the larvae pre-treated with LT3 and challenged with V. campbellii was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other treatments. Further, a decreased mRNA level of transglutaminase gene and heat shock protein 70 gene suggested that pretreatment with LT3 results in less stress and tissue damage in the brine shrimp larvae upon V. campbellii challenge. These results indicated that Bacillus sp. LT3 could improve the survival of brine shrimp larvae when challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii, both by decreasing the in vivo activity of the pathogen and by priming the innate immune response through activating the prophenoloxidase system. PMID:25190276

Niu, Yufeng; Defoirdt, Tom; Baruah, Kartik; Van de Wiele, Tom; Dong, Shuanglin; Bossier, Peter

2014-10-10

471

The effect of environmental salinity on the flavor characteristics of penaeid shrimp  

E-print Network

for levels of free amino acids (FAA). Selected samples were frozen and later analyzed for specific amino acid canposition. Shrimp subjected to decreasing salinities showed corresponding decreases in free amino acid concentration, with minimum values being... reached in 24 to 48 hours. Likewise, with increasing salinities there was a corresponding increase in the free amino acid concentration, with maximum values reached in 24 hours. Glycine, proline, arginine, serine/threonine, and alanine made the most...

McCoid, Valerie Zullo

2012-06-07

472

Toxicity of Organophosphates on Morphology and Locomotor Behavior in Brine Shrimp, Artemia salina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity and hatching success of four organophosphorus insecticides—acephate (ACEP), chlorpyrifos (CPP), monocrotophos\\u000a (MCP), and profenofos (PF)—was studied in a short-term bioassay using brine shrimp, Artemia salina. Fifty percent hatchability inhibition concentration and median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated after probit transformation of the resulting data. Among the insecticides tested, CPP is found to\\u000a be the most toxic

J. Venkateswara Rao; P. Kavitha; N. M. Jakka; V. Sridhar; P. K. Usman

2007-01-01

473

Optical motility test for the detection of trichothecenes using brine shrimps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new optical bio-assay using brine shrimp larvae (Anemia salina L.) has been successfully applied for monitoring the presence of highly toxic trichothecenes. The motility of the swimming animals\\u000a was determined instead of their lethality. This permits more objective and precise results. The inhibition of the motility\\u000a can be seen earlier, than the death of animals in toxicity tests. The

R. Schmidt; Hans W. Schmidt

1985-01-01

474

Bioactivity guided cytotoxic activity of Clitoria ternatea utilizing brine shrimp lethality bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crude methanol extract of leaves, seeds and stem-bark of Clitoria ternatea demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity in a brine shrimp lethality bioassay test. The LC50 values of the crude methanol extract of leaves, seeds and stem-bark were found to be 25.82, 110.92, 179.89 jlgmlml respectively Among them crude methanol extract of leaves (25.82 jlgmlml) and methanol fraction of leaves

AKM Shahidur Rahman; Rama Saha; Nirupama Talukder; SMA Khaleque; Husne Ara Ali

2009-01-01

475

Respiratory and behavioral responses of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio to cadmium and reduced dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were collected during July and August, 1973, and exposed for 48-h periods to a series of sublethal cadmium (Cd) concentrations: 0.1 and 0.56 mg l-1 for metabolic studies; and 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.56 mg l-1 for locomotor studies. Treatment effects were tested singly and in combination at selected dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ranging from

M. Hutcheson; D. C. Miller; A. Q. White

1985-01-01

476

Genetic population structure of an anchialine shrimp, Metabetaeus lohena (Crustacea: Alpheidae), in the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Anchialine habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, characterized as coastal bodies of land-locked salt or brackish water that fluctuate with the tides due to subterranean connections, are the only ecosystems of this type found within the United States. These habitats are currently subject to anthropogenic impacts that threaten their future existence. Previous research has shown strong genetic population structure of an endemic atyid shrimp, Halocaridina rubra, in these habitats. The native alpheid shrimp, Metabetaeus lohena, whose known range entirely overlaps that of H. rubra, has feeding and reproductive behaviors that are biologically distinct from H. rubra. Its historic scarcity and status as a candidate for the US Fish and Wildlife Department's Endangered Species List, make M. lohena an ideal species to compare against the known genetic structure of H. rubra. We investigated the population structure of this native anchialine shrimp to test the hypothesis that genetic population structure differs between the two shrimp species and that M. lohena is genetically unstructured across its range. A survey of 605 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 127 individuals collected at 7 sites spanning the islands of O'ahu, Maui and Hawaii revealed 43 haplotypes. The most common haplotype was represented in similar proportions from all sites sampled, accounting for 44% of the surveyed sequences. Analyses of molecular variation (AMOVA), pairwise PhiST values, Bayesian estimates of migration (M), Mantel tests and Nested Clade Analyses (NCAs) all failed to reveal evidence of major barriers to gene flow among most populations separated by inter-island channels. This lack of genetic structure in M. lohena is found to be in stark contrast with the highly structured population of H. rubra, and may be attributed to oceanic dispersal strategies and/or a recent introduction to the Hawaiian Islands. PMID:20411714

Russ, Atlantis; Santos, S R; Muir, C

2010-03-01

477

Transcriptome Analysis on Chinese Shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis during WSSV Acute Infection  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have discovered a lot of immune-related genes responding to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in crustacean. However, little information is available in relation to underlying mechanisms of host responses during the WSSV acute infection stage in naturally infected shrimp. In this study, we employed next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic techniques to observe the transcriptome differences of the shrimp between latent infection stage and acute infection stage. A total of 64,188,426 Illumina reads, including 31,685,758 reads from the latent infection group and 32,502,668 reads from the acute infection group, were generated and assembled into 46,676 unigenes (mean length: 676 bp; range: 200–15,094 bp). Approximately 24,000 peptides were predicted and classified based on homology searches, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous groups of proteins, and biological pathway mapping. Among which, 805 differentially expressed genes were identified and categorized into 11 groups based on their possible function. Genes in the Toll and IMD pathways, the Ras-activated endocytosis process, the RNA interference pathway, anti-lipopolysaccharide factors and many other genes, were found to be activated in shrimp from latent infection stage to acute infection stage. The anti-bacterially proPO-activating cascade was firstly uncovered to be probably participated in antiviral process. These genes contain not only members playing function in host defense against WSSV, but also genes utilized by WSSV for its rapid proliferation. In addition, the transcriptome data provides detail information for identifying novel genes in absence of the genome database of shrimp. PMID:23527000

Sun, Zheng; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2013-01-01

478

Bacterial Population in Intestines of the Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under Different Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length?=?442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities. PMID:23577162

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2013-01-01

479

Molecular cloning and characterization of prophenoloxidase in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA encoding shrimp, Penaeus monodon, prophenoloxidase (proPO) was obtained by screening a hemocyte library by plaque hybridization using a proPO cDNA fragment from freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, as a probe. The 3,002bp cDNA contains an open reading frame of 2,121bp and a 881bp 3?-untranslated region. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence (688 amino acids) is 78,700Da

Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; Lage Cerenius; Kenneth Söderhäll

1999-01-01

480

Immunomodulation by dietary ? -1, 3-glucan in the brooders of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the effectiveness of ?-1,3-glucan derived from Schizophyllum commune in enhancing shrimp survival as well as haemocyte phagocytosis and superoxide anion production in brooder Penaeus monodon. Pond-reared P. monodon adults (135±25g) stocked in outdoor or indoor tanks were fed either a test diet containing ?-1,3-glucan (2·0g kg?1) or a glucan-free control diet for 40 days. Their survival

Cheng-Fang Chang; Houng-Yung Chen; Mao-Sen Su; I-Chiu Liao

2000-01-01

481

Uptake of arsenate, trimethylarsine oxide, and arsenobetaine by the shrimp Crangon crangon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common shrimp, Crangon crangon (L.), were exposed to inorganic arsenic (arsenate), trimethylarsine oxide, or arsenobetaine in sea water (100??g As l?1) or in food (1?mg As g?1?wet wt) for up to 24?d, followed by 16 d depuration in clean sea water with undosed food, in order to determine the efficiency\\u000a of uptake and retention of the compounds. Accumulation of arsenic

D. A. Hunter; W. Goessler; K. A. Francesconi

1998-01-01

482

Humic substances increase survival of freshwater shrimp Caridina sp. D to acid mine drainage.  

PubMed

Humic substances (HS) are known to decrease the toxicity of heavy metals to aquatic organisms, and it has been suggested that they can provide buffering protection in low pH conditions. Despite this, little is known about the ability for HS to increase survival to acid mine drainage (AMD). In this study, the ability of HS to increase survival of the freshwater shrimp (Caridina sp. D sensu Page et al. in Biol Lett 1:139-142, 2005) to acid mine drainage was investigated using test waters collected from the Mount Morgan open pit in Central Queensland with the addition of Aldrich humic acid (AHA). The AMD water from the Mount Morgan open pit is highly acidic (pH 2.67) as well as contaminated with heavy metals (1780 mg/L aluminum, 101 mg/L copper [Cu], 173 mg/L manganese, 51.8 mg/L zinc [Zn], and 51.8 mg/L iron). Freshwater shrimp were exposed to dilutions in the range of 0.5 % to 5 % AMD water with and without the addition of 10 or 20 mg/L AHA. In the absence of HS, all shrimp died in the 2.5 % AMD treatment. In contrast, addition of HS increased survival in the 2.5 % AMD treatment by ?66 % as well as significantly decreased the concentration of dissolved Cu, cobalt, cadmium, and Zn. The decreased toxicity of AMD in the presence of HS is likely to be due to complexation and precipitation of heavy metals with the HS; it is also possible that HS caused changes to the physiological condition of the shrimp, thus increasing their survival. These results are valuable in contributing to an improved understanding of potential role of HS in ameliorating the toxicity of AMD environments. PMID:23135152

Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

2013-02-01

483

Task-specific ionic liquid-assisted extraction and separation of astaxanthin from shrimp waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astaxanthin, as an outstanding antioxidant reagent, was successfully extracted from shrimp waste by the ionic liquids based ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Seven kinds of imidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were investigated in this work and one task-specific ionic liquid in ethanol with 0.50molL?1 was selected as the solvent. At the optimized ultrasonic extraction conditions, the extraction amount of astaxanthin

Wentao Bi; Minglei Tian; Jun Zhou; Kyung Ho Row

2010-01-01

484

Effect of temperature on chitin and astaxanthin recoveries from shrimp waste using lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chitin and astaxanthin recoveries by lactic acid fermentation of shrimp wastes (Litopenaeus sp) were conducted in bed-column reactors at 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45°C. The response surface methodology showed that the fermentations carried out in the 27–36°C temperature range with lactic acid above 0.319mmol\\/g resulted in the highest demineralization. The maximal deproteinizations were attained from 30

Neith Pacheco; Mónica Garnica-González; Jessica Y. Ramírez-Hernández; Belem Flores-Albino; Miquel Gimeno; Eduardo Bárzana; Keiko Shirai

2009-01-01

485

Diversity and distribution of deep-sea shrimps in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica.  

PubMed

Although decapod crustaceans are widespread in the oceans, only Natantia (shrimps) are common in the Antarctic. Because remoteness, depth and ice cover restrict sampling in the South Ocean, species distribution modelling is a useful tool for evaluating distributions. We used physical specimen and towed camera data to describe the diversity and distribution of shrimps in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. Eight shrimp species were recorded: Chorismus antarcticus; Notocrangon antarcticus; Nematocarcinus lanceopes; Dendrobranchiata; Pasiphaea scotiae; Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri; Petalidium sp., and a new species of Lebbeus. For the two most common species, N. antarcticus and N. lanceopes, we used maximum entropy modelling, based on records of 60 specimens and over 1130 observations across 23 sites in depths from 269 m to 3433 m, to predict distributions in relation to environmental variables. Two independent sets of environmental data layers at 0.05° and 0.5° resolution respectively, showed how spatial resolution affected the model. Chorismus antarcticus and N. antarcticus were found only on the continental shelf and upper slopes, while N. lanceopes, Lebbeus n. sp., Dendrobranchiata, Petalidium sp., Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri, and Pasiphaea scotiae were found on the slopes, seamounts and abyssal plain. The environmental variables that contributed most to models for N. antarcticus were depth, chlorophyll-a concentration, temperature, and salinity, and for N. lanceopes were depth, ice concentration, seabed slope/rugosity, and temperature. The relative ranking, but not the composition of these variables changed in models using different spatial resolutions, and the predicted extent of suitable habitat was smaller in models using the finer-scale environmental layers. Our modelling indicated that shrimps were widespread throughout the Ross Sea region and were thus likely to play important functional role in the ecosystem, and that the spatial resolution of data needs to be considered both in the use of species distribution models. PMID:25051333

Basher, Zeenatul; Bowden, David A; Costello, Mark J

2014-01-01

486

Cloning and characterization of a ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein from shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?-1,3-d-glucan binding protein (?GBP), one kind of the pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), was cloned and characterized from the\\u000a Chinese Shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis, and named as Fc?GBP-HDL. The results indicated that the full length cDNA of 6713 bp had an open reading frame encoded a\\u000a polypeptide of 2139 amino acids with two glucanase-like motifs and one RGD motif, while without signal

Xiaofang LaiJie; Jie Kong; Qingyin Wang; Weiji Wang; Xianhong Meng

487