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The present study updates the information on the red shrimp fishery in the waters of the Balearic Islands in the middle of the Western Mediterranean, from its beginning to the present. Also, the development of the fishery and the biology of the shrimp population exploited from 1992 to 1997 is analysed.The red shrimp (Aristeusantennatus) is one of the most
Aina Carbonell; Maria Carbonell; Montserrat Demestre; Antoni Grau; Sebastià Monserrat
We performed a multidisciplinary study characterizing the relationships between hydrodynamic conditions (currents and water masses) and the presence and abundance of the deep-water rose shrimpAristeusantennatus in a submarine canyon (Blanes canyon in the NW Mediterranean Sea). This species is heavily commercially exploited and is the main target species of a bottom trawl fishery. Seasonal fluctuations in landings are
F. Sardà; N. Bahamón; G. Rotllant; M. M. Flexas; J. D. Sánchez; D. Zúñiga; J. Coenjaerts; D. Orellana; G. Jordà; J. Puigdefábregas; A. Sánchez-Vidal; A. Calafat; D. Martín; M. Espino
Polychlorodibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) are among the more toxic anthropogenic contaminants. They are fat-soluble and accumulate in animal tissues. Exposure to PCDD/Fs can cause several endocrine, reproductive and developmental problems in animals, including human beings. Several studies have demonstrated that fish and invertebrates living in association with sediments are exposed to and accumulate contaminants, but to date there have been no studies of PCDD/Fs contamination in deep-sea regions. Specimens of Aristeusantennatus (Risso, 1816) were collected from depths of 600-2500 m at different points in the Mediterranean Sea, from the western basin off the coast of Barcelona to the central basin off the Peloponnesian Peninsula, with otter trawl gear. Amounts of PCDD/Fs were measured in different animal tissues by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). This is the first study to report the presence of PCDD/Fs in deep-sea organisms dwelling at depths below 600 m. A. antennatus presented levels of PCDD/Fs of the same order of magnitude, or slightly higher, as those found in shallow-water species ( Melicertus kerathurus) with respect to land-generated contamination. This highlights the widespread distribution of these pollutants and the potential threat posed to the biodiversity of fragile and vulnerable ecosystems such as the deep-sea. PCDD/F levels detected in the edible parts (muscle) of the commercial shrimp A. antennatus were clearly below the toxic limit value established by European legislation. Levels followed the trend muscleshrimp specimens was characterized mainly by octachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (OCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) congeners. Moreover, non 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners bioaccumulated in this species, as observed in shallow-water crustaceans. PCDD/Fs were found in the shrimp A. antennatus throughout the Mediterranean Sea. Total PCDD/Fs burdens were higher in shrimps caught in the western Mediterranean than in those caught at eastern Mediterranean sites. There was a tendency for higher levels of PCDD/F contamination in samples obtained from deeper (2500 m) than from shallower sites (600 m).
Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) are among the more toxic anthropogenic contaminants. They are fat-soluble and accumulate in animal tissues. Exposure to PCDD\\/Fs can cause several endocrine, reproductive and developmental problems in animals, including human beings. Several studies have demonstrated that fish and invertebrates living in association with sediments are exposed to and accumulate contaminants, but to date there have
Guiomar Rotllant; Esteban Abad; Francisco Sardà; Manuela Ábalos; Josep Rivera
The aim of this study was to analyse the main factors affecting catch rates of the most important decapod crustaceans of the bottom trawl fishery in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, western Mediterranean. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) data (kg\\/fishing day\\/boat) of deep water rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris, Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, and red shrimps, Aristaemorpha foliacea and Aristeusantennatus, were
Composition and spatial diversity patterns of retained and discarded catches in the deep-water shrimp (family Aristeidae) trawling fishery off Brazil were assessed by observers on-board commercial operations in 2005 and 2006. These trawls caught 19 440?kg and 180 076 individuals of which 76·0 and 65·2%, respectively, were discarded at sea. Finfishes represented 54% of the numerical catch but were almost fully discarded (98%). Crustaceans represented 40% of the numerical catch and were mostly retained (80%). The scarlet shrimp Aristaeopsis edwardsiana comprised approximately half of the retained catch. The remainder of the retained proportion comprised mainly the red giant shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea, the alistado shrimpAristeus antillensis and small quantities of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi and gulf hake Urophycis mystacea. Discards comprised 108 species including 72 fish species, 19 crustaceans and 10 cephalopods. The large-scaled lanternfish Neoscopelus macrolepidotus was dominant in the discards, followed by the benthopelagic fishes Monomitopus agassizii, Synagrops bellus, Dibranchus atlanticus and Gadella imberbis and various macrurid species. This fishery was restricted to a limited bathymetric range (700-800?m), where discrete megafauna assemblages exist and may have been significantly affected. PMID:24090549
Perez, J A A; Pereira, B N; Pereira, D A; Schroeder, R
Legendary boxer Muhammad Ali used to brag that he could "float like a butterfly and sting like a bee." But to be a true champion, a prizefighter should really try to "punch like a mantis shrimp." This Science Update examines the research behind copying this mechanism for application to machinery design.
Contents: Shrimp biology and habits; Licenses and regulations; Types of shrimp trawls; Selecting a trawl net; Rigging the trawl net; Preparing the boat for trawling; Setting and towing the shrimp trawl; Hauling back the net; Culling and storing the catch;...
Venezuela's shrimp industry is dominated by its trawler fleet, which caught more than 8,600 metric tons of shrimp in 1989. In comparison, the shrimp culture industry harvests only small quantities. Various groups have been attempting to culture shrimp in ...
In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will design a test to determine the optimum salinity for hatching brine shrimp. In the second brine shrimp lesson of the series, students will raise these brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.
France is promoting a shrimp culture industry in its Western Hemisphere Overseas Department, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique. They have focused almost exclusively on freshwater shrimp. The French have made considerable technical progress, althou...
The pollution ecology of penaeid shrimps involving industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, petroleum, heavy metals, biological agents, and interactions of the above is discussed. Penaeid shrimps, within their geographic distribution, can serve as valid ...
The pollution ecology of penaeid shrimps involving industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, petroleum, heavy metals, biological agents, and interactions of the above is discussed. Penaeid shrimps, within their geographic distribution, can serve as valid indicators of the presenc...
Chile has not yet developed a shrimp aquaculture industry. A variety of factors suggest that the country has a limited potential to culture shrimp. Indigenous species are untried in pond culture. Climatic factors, especially low seasurface temperatures, a...
|Describes a project on culturing shrimp. Presents observational labs and the experimentation procedure. Provides general information about shrimp, their life span, optimum temperatures, and other important information. (YDS)|
This paper describes an implementation of stream sockets for the SHRIMP multicomputer. SHRIMP supports protected, user-level data transfer, allows user-level code to perform its own buffer management, and separates data transfers from control transfers so that data transfers can be done without the interrupting the receiving node's CPU. Our sockets implementation exploits all of these features to provide high performance.
Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten
Latin America is a leading world producer of cultured shrimp. Growers in the region reported major pond harvest increases during the 1980s. The 1990 regional cultured shrimp harvest was more than 100,000 metric tons, a 1,000 percent increase over the less...
Farmed shrimp contributed 27% of total world shrimp production in 1995 with a volume of 712 000 tonnes. Undoubtedly, the shrimp culture industry earns valuable foreign exchange for developing countries and generates jobs across the industry from fry gatherers to growers and processors. However, grave socio-economic consequences -including conversion, expropriation and privatization of mangroves and other lands; salinization of water
Penaeid shrimp aquaculture expanded significantly over the past two decades. However, shrimp farmers have suffered significant economic losses because of viral diseases. Researchers from the U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) have developed novel approaches to mitigate the devastating impact of shrimp viruses, including the use of specific pathogen free (SPF) and specific pathogen resistant (SPR) shrimp, as well as
Shaun M. Moss; Steve M. Arce; Dustin R. Moss; Clete A. Otoshi
White shrimp, brown shrimp, pink shrimp and blue crabs together produce an annual average of 93% of the ex-vessel value of marine products landed in Georgia. Shrimp landings (mostly white shrimp) account for 82%, while blue crab landings account for 11%. ...
|Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)|
The Alabama cave shrimp, Palaemonias alabamae Smalley, is an albinistic troglobitic (cave-dwelling) shrimp known from five caves (three cave systems or three groundwater basins) in Madison County, Alabama. A member of the shrimp family Atyidae, it is one ...
The objective of this project is to test, evaluate and document the effectiveness of electronic shrimp trawling in North Carolina's shrimp fishery. The principle of operation is that of establishing a predetermined D.C. voltage at a fixed frequency and di...
The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of shrimp aquaculture from the perspectives of economics. It is offered as a contribution to the on-going policy debate on this globally important industry. The paper is organised into four sections: the benefits of shrimp aquaculture, the problems of shrimp aquaculture, economic development perspectives on shrimp aquaculture, and conclusions. Four
Arthur E. Neiland; Neill Soley; Joan Baron Varley; David J. Whitmarsh
Along the shore in Hawaii, the ponds imbedded in lava rocks contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life in these pools are hundreds of tiny red shrimp. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), molecular biologist Scott Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.
A semi automatic shrimp straightening machine controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC) was designed and developed. The machine consisted of three main parts, a shrimp conveyor, a shrimp pressing straightening part and the controller. The machine had three operation steps. In the first step, a pneumatic cylinder retreated at the stroke of 5 cm to move the conveyor with
Latin America is a Leading world producer of cultured shrimp. Shrimp farmers in the region harvested over 50,000 metric tons (t) of shrimp in 1986, a 40 percent increase over the 37,000 t of shrimp cultured in 1985. Ecuador dominates the region's shrimp c...
Latin America is a leading world producer of cultured shrimp. Shrimp farmers in the region harvested over 50,000 metric tons (t) of shrimp in 1986, a 40 percent increase over the 37,000 t of shrimp cultured in 1985. Ecuador dominates the region's shrimp c...
Snapping shrimp produce a loud crackling noise that is intense enough to disturb underwater communication. This sound originates from the violent collapse of a large cavitation bubble generated under the tensile forces of a high-velocity water jet formed when the shrimp's snapper-claw snaps shut (Fig. 1). Here we show that a short, intense flash of light is emitted as the bubble collapses, indicating that extreme pressures and temperatures of at least 5,000 K (ref. 4) must exist inside the bubble at the point of collapse. We have dubbed this phenomenon 'shrimpoluminescence' - the first observation, to our knowledge, of this mode of light production in any animal - because of its apparent similarity to sonoluminescence, the light emission from a bubble periodically driven by ultrasound. PMID:11586346
Analysis of abundance and size frequency data on decapod crustacean species in two different habitats (inside and outside a submarine canyon) in the Western Mediterranean during two near-continuous 24-h sampling periods using commercial bottom trawls provided an indication of migratory ability and ac tivity of the numerically dominant species. Certain nektobenthic species (e.g. Aristeusantennatus) carried out migrations up the
Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Bou-Olayan, A.H. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait); Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)
The prevalence of parasites and symbionts in various penaeid shrimps, including the native wild Farfantepenaeus aztecus (brown shrimp), F. duorarum (pink shrimp), and F. brasiliensis (pinkspotted shrimp) and the nonnative cultured Litopenaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp), along with those in the native wild Palaemonetes pugio (daggerblade grass shrimp), are reported. The native wild shrimp were collected from five sites on
Victor Manuel Vidal-Martínez; Ana María Jiménez-Cueto; Raúl Simá-Álvarez
Sorption isotherms of shrimp heads ( adsorption and desorption ) were analyzed by the microclimate method as temperatures of 30, 45 and 60°C and conditions for shrimp heads conservation by drying were determined. Equilibrium time was reduced from normally 2–3 weeks to only 5–8 days by employing sulfuric acid at different concentrations and vacuum. The results were adjusted by Henderson
M. S. Salgado Cervantes; I. Andrade Gonzalez; K. N. Waliszewski Kubiak; M. A. Garcia Alvarado
Summary The effects of mercury pollution on the allozymic variation of 15 phosphoglucomutase (PGM) genotypes was tested in the Mediterranean shrimpPalaemon elegans in 79 laboratory tests involving 2765 shrimps, with 1560 survivors (767 test and 793 control). Our results indicate differential tolerance of genotypes in variable mercury concentrations, suggesting that they are adaptive. The genetic structure can possibly be explored
Abstract Abstract—ShrimpShrimp wastewater was was studied by by using using photosynthetic bacteria sludge method. method. The results results indicated that this method method got got better better effects effects than single sludge sludge or only only photosynthetic bacteria treatment. The removal removal removal of of the CODcr could could reach 63%, 63%, the removal of the the NH3-N could
Jin Hang; Zhao Yu; Lei Xiaochun; Xue Guoxin; Tang Yanjun; He Yixin
In less than 30 yr, the penaeid shrimp culture industries of the world developed from their experimental beginnings into major industries providing hundreds of thousands of jobs, billions of U.S. dollars in revenue, and augmentation of the world's food supply with a high value crop. Concomitant with the growth of the shrimp culture industry has been the recognition of the
Development of shrimp aquaculture has been associated with increases in infectious diseases and environmental degradation. An effective alternative to chemicals and antibiotics used for the prevention of these problems is to administer probiotics into the rearing system. Three bacterial genera, Bacillus, Vibrio, and Pseudomonas, are commonly administered as probiotics in shrimp aquaculture. Candidate probiotics are species specific and need to
This paper examines the impetus for the development and subsequent rise of the shrimp aquaculture industry and continues by exploring a model that seeks to improve shrimp farmers' harvests by identifying specific variables affecting shrimp growth. Evidence reviewed from 1980 through today suggest that technological advancements, reduced prices, and increases in both the supply and demand for shrimp are positively
...A-549-822] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Final Partial...
The first line of defense against microbial infections in animals is innate immune response which triggers diverse humoral and cellular activities via signal transduction pathways. Toll, IMD and JAK/STAT pathways are regarded as the main pathways regulating the immune response of invertebrates. This paper reviews the main progress of the investigation on the immune response to pathogen's infection in shrimp and supposes that these three signal pathways exist in shrimp. Most of the components (proteins or genes) involved in Toll pathway of Drosophila have been cloned also in shrimp which suggested the existence of Toll pathway in shrimp. The data update shows that the Toll pathway of shrimp is responsive not only to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, but also to WSSV. Challenge of WSSV can lead to the variation of transcription level of all identified components in shrimp Toll pathway, which supported that Toll pathway in shrimp played important roles during WSSV infection. Two major homologs to the components of IMD pathway of Drosophila, IMD and Relish, have been identified in shrimp, which indicated that IMD pathway should be existed in shrimp and might play important roles in regulating the immune response of shrimp to bacteria and virus infection. Relish in IMD pathway and dorsal in Toll pathway of shrimp were both involved in the immune response of shrimp to bacteria and virus infection, which implied that these two pathways are not completely separated during the immune response of shrimp. The transcription of STAT in shrimp was modulated after WSSV infection, which suggested that a putative JAK/STAT pathway might exist in shrimp and be very important to virus infection. Study on the signaling pathway regulating the immune response in shrimp could help us to understand the innate immune system, and would provide instructions to shrimp disease control. Obviously, to get more clear ideas about the innate immunological pathways in shrimp, more solid functional studies should be done in the future. PMID:22967763
Several laboratory experiments with shrimp (Pandalus borealis) larvae were conducted to estimate (1) the minimum daily number of food items (Artemia nauplii) required to be captured and ingested to insure survival, (2) the probabilities for one larva to c...
Major objectives of this study were to minimize the conflict between commercial and recreational user groups occurring in both the crab and shrimp fisheries; reduce potential damage to crab stocks through excessive handling by commercial and recreational ...
The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council requested that the Southeast Fisheries Center (SEFC) convene a small group of shrimp specialists to undertake two tasks. These tasks were: (1) to draft scientific definitions of overfishing for each of the shr...
Technological advances in network and processor speeds do not lead to equally large improvements in the performance of client-server systems. For instance, hardware performance improvements do not translate into faster user applications. This is primarily because software overhead dominates communication. The Shrimp project at Princeton University seeks solutions to this problem. Shrimp (Scalable High-Performance Really Inexpensive Multiprocessor) supports protected user-level
Stefanos N. Damianakis; A. Biles; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten
Shrimp aquaculture is one of the major food-producing industries in the world. However, it is being impacted by several problems\\u000a including diseases, antibiotic use, and environmental factors. The extent of the effects of these problems in the immune system\\u000a of the shrimp at the molecular level is just beginning to be understood. Here, we review the gene expression profile of
Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...
Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...
The weight of shelled shrimp is an important parameter for grading process. The weight prediction of shelled shrimp by contour\\u000a area is not accurate enough because of the ignorance of the shrimp thickness. In this paper, a multivariate prediction model\\u000a containing area, perimeter, length, and width was established. A new calibration algorithm for extracting length of shelled\\u000a shrimp was proposed,
Laboratory microcosms were used to assess whether tadpole shrimp, Triops sp., affect community structure of other native macroinvertebrates in playa lakes of the Southern High Plains of Texas. Removal of tadpole shrimp shortly after hatching reduced abundances of many taxa, and decreased subsequent taxonomic richness and diversity. For many invertebrates, the presence of tadpole shrimp in low numbers had a
Susan Harrell Yee; Michael R. Willig; Daryl L. Moorhead
A cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis) was co-cultured with black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) for water quality control. We evaluated the effects of: (1) three S. platensis trial conditions on inorganic nitrogen concentrations at one shrimp density (S. platensis trial conditions included: absent, nonharvested and semicontinuous harvesting) and (2) two shrimp densities on inorganic nitrogen concentrations, with and without S. platensis. Semicontinuous
...false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. 102.55 Section 102.55...55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The common on usual...except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is not in raw frozen form, shall...
...2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and...Shellfish Â§ 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of Â§...
Populations of marine red yeast from shrimps and the environments of shrimp culture were investigated from various areas at Zhanjiang in China. All strains were studied for the production of biomass and carotenoids. We isolated 88 marine red yeast strains and the average populations of marine red yeast in seawater and the water from shrimp culture ponds were 70.0 and 172.4 CFU per 100 ml water, respectively. For shrimp samples, average populations of marine red yeast from gills, intestines, and stomachs were 178.0, 15.0, and 8.0 CFU per shrimp, respectively. The isolates were grouped into nine species belonging to three genera as follows: Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, and Sporidiobolus. R. sphaerocarpum had the highest average biomass yield (10.3 ± 0.88 g/l), followed by S. ruineniae (10.1 g/l) and Rh. mucilaginosa (9.9 ± 1.75 g/l). R. paludigenum had the highest average carotenoid yield (2.83 ± 0.589 mg/l), followed by S. pararoseus (2.72 mg/l) and R. sphaerocarpum (2.59 ± 0.454 mg/l). The results showed that marine red yeasts were normal microbial components in the environments of shrimp culture and shrimps, and carotenoids are abundant in these marine red yeast. PMID:21369806
The culture of penaeid shrimp world-wide is primarily dependent on wild-caught broodstock which has an enormous potential to introduce new pathogens, particularly viruses, into culture systems. Of the 13 viruses described for cultured penaeid shrimp, seven have been described within the past 5 years; the most devastating viral epidemics on record for cultured penaeid shrimp have also occurred within the
Worldwide increases in shrimp culture have caused concern about potential environmental impacts, particularly water pollution resulting from discharge of nitrogenous wastes from shrimp farms. This study describes development of a simulation model representing the effect of feed nutritional quality, feed physical characteristics, and feeding strategies on nitrogen dynamics and growth of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in intensive systems
Ruby A. Montoya; A. L. Lawrence; W. E. Grant; M. Velaso
Bacteriological quality of individually quick frozen (IQF) shrimp products produced from aquacultured tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has been analysed in terms of aerobic plate count (APC), coliforms, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes. Eight hundred forty-six samples of raw, peeled, and deveined tail-on (RPTO), 928 samples of cooked, peeled, and deveined tail-on (CPTO), 295 samples of headless, undeveined
Evidence has been obtained relevant to the hypothesis that early hatching of shrimp larvae such as might occur after a warm winter, can lead to failure to find food and subsequent starvation. Several related topics have also been studied. These include a ...
Diseases are a major constraint on the intensive production of shrimps. Conditions in production ponds favour disease development, and epidemics of several previously unreported diseases have occurred and caused severe losses. When elimination, eradication or cultural control is difficult, selective breeding for host resistance to the pathogen may be an attractive option for disease control. However, host resistance is not
James Cock; Thomas Gitterle; Marcela Salazar; Morten Rye
Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine were measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.
The mesopelagic shrimp Sergestes similis emits ventrally directed bioluminescence that closely matches the intensity of downward-directed illumination and is able to rapidly modify its light output to match changes in background intensity. Masking experiments show that the photoreceptors involved are the compound eyes or adjacent tissues. Light emission originates from modified portions of the hepatopancreas and is similar to oceanic
The incidence of antibiotic resistance was compared in bacteria isolated from pond water, pond sediment, water and sediment from the receiving environment (area where water from pond drains, which is 0 and 50 m away from the exit gate, in this study) and cultured shrimp from ponds that have not used any antimicrobials, ponds that have previously used antimicrobials and
Two hundred to three hundred shrimp fry per litre could be transported in plastic bag inflated with oxygen with 95% survival within 8 hours. A density of 500 to 600 fry per litre could still be transported within 24 hours with the same survival rate if th...
...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing...of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Ecuador. The period of investigation is January...of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador,'' dated concurrently with this...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23,...
...Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis...shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead...shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely...
...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...
Shrimp culture technology has resulted in development of a major shrimp farming industry worldwide. Without the shrimp farming\\u000a industry, increasing demands for shrimp by consumers could not be met, resulting in increased pressure on wild shrimp resources.\\u000a Unfortunately, there are realized and potential adverse environmental effects on estuarine ecosystems as a result of shrimp\\u000a farming. The effects can be categorized
J. Stephen Hopkins; Paul A. Sandifer; M. Richard DeVoe; A. Frederick Holland; Craig L. Browdy; Alvin D. Stokes
Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly\\u000a in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The\\u000a growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production\\u000a methods.
This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The\\u000a culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle,\\u000a water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation.\\u000a Constricted tagelus,Sinonovacula constricta, was selected
Laminin receptor (Lamr) in shrimp was previously proposed to be a potential receptor protein for Taura syndrome virus (TSV) based on yeast two-hybrid assays. Since shrimp Lamr bound to the VP1 capsid protein of TSV, we were interested to know whether capsid/envelope proteins from other shrimp viruses would also bind to Lamr. Thus, capsid/envelope encoding genes from 5 additional shrimp viruses were examined. These were Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV), and yellow head virus (YHV). Protein interaction analysis using yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that Lamr specifically interacted with capsid/envelope proteins of RNA viruses IMNV and YHV but not MrNV and not with the capsid/envelope proteins of DNA viruses PstDNV and WSSV. In vitro pull-down assay also confirmed the interaction between Lamr and YHV gp116 envelope protein, and injection of recombinant Lamr (rLamr) protein produced in yeast cells protected shrimp against YHV in laboratory challenge tests. PMID:21414409
The nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are dependent upon the function of their salt gland to maintain osmotic pressure within narrow limits. A number of drugs interfere with this function and are lethal to the nauplii. Saliva and serum from normal persons, patients with cystic fibrosis, and obligate heterozygotes were tested for lethal effect against brine shrimp nauplii. At salt concentrations between 100 mM and 2.5 no difference was found among the phenotypes. At lower concentrations a difference was noted occasionally between some normal subjects and some individuals carrying one or two genes for cystic fibrosis. Data from an independent series of experiments indicate that the naupliar deaths result from distorted ratios of Na+/K+ and not from a specific gene product. No difference was noted in the O2 uptake of nauplii treated with saliva or serum obtained from normal subjects, patients with cystic fibrosis, or obligate heterozygotes. PMID:1187245
A number of studies have found high levels of mercury (Hg) in deep-sea organisms throughout the world's oceans, but the underlying causes are not clear as there is no consensus on the origin and cycling of Hg in the ocean. Recent findings suggested that Hg accumulation may increase with increasing forage depth and pointed to the deep-water column as the origin of most Hg in marine biota, especially its organic methylmercury (MeHg) form. In the present study, we determined the total mercury (THg) levels in 12 deep-sea fish species and a decapod crustacean and investigated their relationship with the species' nitrogen stable isotope ratio (?(15)N) as an indicator of their trophic level, average weight and habitat depth. THg levels ranged from 0.27 to 4.42 ?g/g w.w. and exceeded in all, except one species, the recommended 0.5 ?g/g w.w. guideline value. While THg levels exhibited a strong relationship with ?(15)N values and to a lesser extent with weight, the habitat depth, characterized as the species' depth of maximum abundance (DMA), had also a significant effect on Hg accumulation. The fish species with a shallower depth range exhibited lower THg values than predicted by their trophic level (?(15)N) and body mass, while measured THg values were higher than predicted in deeper-dwelling fish. Overall, the present results point out a potential risk for human health from the consumption of deep-sea fish. In particular, for both, the red shrimpAristeusantennatus, which is one of the most valuable fishing resources of the Mediterranean, as well as the commercially exploited fish Mora moro, THg levels considerably exceeded the recommended 0.5?g/g w.w. limit and should be consumed with caution. PMID:23178837
Gulf Coast Shrimp Data is published monthly and includes an annual summary reported by depth and area of capture, species, size, number of trips, and days fished. The monthly issues contain two tables on the commercial shrimp landings by U.S. craft at U.S...
Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays for the evaluation and monitoring of the health status of shrimp are available. The defence mechanisms of crustaceans are
The cumulative environmental effects of low salinity shrimp farming in the Bangpakong River Basin, eastern Thailand, were investigated using a GIS-assisted approach. Water supply, water quality, and agricultural land use were used to represent key environmental resources. Shrimp farming is a major consumer of freshwater, but cumulative effects on water supplies are probably negligible because of ample rainfall and similar
|This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…
|Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…
Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…
Design and construction of a portable, inexpensive hatching system for brine shrimp Artemia spp. is described. The system design is based on batch culture methodology, which is easily customized to the feeding requirements of a larval system and optimizes the nutritional value of brine shrimp. This system can be set up quickly and provides stable temperature and aeration under a
Shrimp waste, which is produced in large quantities in the Indian seafood processing industries, is one of the important sources of natural carotenoids. Studies were carried out to assess the extractability of shrimp waste carotenoids in different organic solvents and solvent mixtures and to optimize the extraction conditions for maximum yield. A 50:50 mixture of isopropyl alcohol and hexane gave
In the past decade, viral diseases have had a profound and global effect on commercial shrimp farming. Regional farming industries in both hemispheres have suffered economically significant and prolonged viral epidemics resulting in declining shrimp farm production and even collapse. Ozone applications have been extensively examined as a means of disinfection and general disease control in relatively small hatchery systems
The paper reviews and evaluates shrimp pond culture in the Philippines and its ecological and socioeconomic effects. The intertwined histories of the country's mangrove forests and culture ponds are treated in depth; brackishwater aquaculture and the different shrimp culture systems are described. Intensive farming is discussed in terms of feed and water requirements, chemical inputs and waste production, and the
A demonstration project of a new type Shrimp Detector/Monitor has been completed. The test project proved the efficiency of the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in detecting shrimp, in identifying the number and size, in real time, but indicated that improvement could be effected which would enhance the operation. Data obtained from the test cruises indicate significant savings in diesel fuel will occur for those trawlers using the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in place of the usual trynet operation; 25% savings for the series model number 400, (the prototype tested) and expected 35%+ if the advanced series model number 500 were used. Fabrication and operational costs for the Shrimp Monitor/Detector are reasonable and well within the financial abilities of the usual large offshore trawler. Research and testing during this program resulted in the design of an advanced model incorporating significant improvements, and fabrication was commenced but the extra cost involved beyond the set value of this contract made the further experiments non-viable. Recommendations have been submitted for an extended program to fabricate and test the advanced model series number 500 which may be of more value and interest, market use, to the operating offshore shrimp trawlers. A marketing/sales program will be instituted to place the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in the commercial area serving the shrimp fleet.
Serious production losses have occurred in shrimp producing countries around the world, principally due to poor rearing environments and pathogenic disease. In response to this, shrimp farmers are changing their culture methods. To understand the source and sink of nutrients which affect pondwater quality and effluent impact, the nitrogen, phosphorus and solids budget have been constructed for water exchange systems.
The present investigation was undertaken to study the shrimp trawl fishery in the west coast of Sri Lanka with special emphasis on formulation of predictive models for shrimp abundance. The shrimp trawling in the shallow seas off west coast of Sri Lanka is the major fishing activity exploiting the parent population of the penaeid shrimps (comprised mainly of Metapenaeus dobsoni,
The reproductive readiness of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (formerly Penaeus vannamei) cultured in brackish water was characterized by applying morphological, physiological, and molecular tools. The shrimp were cultured on two commercial shrimp farms in brackish water that was pumped from artesian wells that tap into a geothermal aquifer. The shrimp populations exhibited a bimodal growth curve with the females
S. Parnes; E. Mills; C. Segall; S. Raviv; C. Davis; A. Sagi
...The frozen warmwater shrimp...Penaeus indicus). Frozen shrimp and prawns...scope. In addition, food preparations (including...processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns...or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp...Comment 12: Income Tax Preference Under Chapter V...
Although a large portion of the world's farmed shrimp is produced in Asia, shrimp culture operations do not succeed over the entire area. There have been several problems and impediments that are yet to be resolved. One of these problems is disease. Several shrimp diseases have threatened shrimp production, but the most devastating ones are the viral diseases, namely, yellow-head
Shrimp is one of the most important fishery products of Persian Gulf coastal provinces of Iran. Sea foods are prone to bacterial contamination and could cause health risk to the consumers. To examine shrimp caught off the south coast of Iran, 770 samples of fresh shrimp collected from either sea or shrimp farm were tested for possible presence of Vibrio
Hedayat Hosseini; A. Majid Cheraghali; Rozbeh Yalfani; Vadood Razavilar
An ecological survey was carried out to determine the sediment concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish and shrimp including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus×O. nilotica), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), gei wai shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and caridean shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) in the traditional tidal shrimp ponds (gei wais) of Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. The
We have found that two very common species of North Atlantic shallow water shrimp, Palaemon adspersus and Palaemon elegans, remove and feed on ectoparasites on plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.). The relationship could be mutualistic, as we did not observe any attempts by the fishes to feed on the shrimps. The ectoparasites removed included monogenean worms (Gyrodactylus sp.) and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus pectoralis). An experiment showed that there were 65% more Gyrodactylus parasites on the fishes that had been apart from compared with those that had been together with shrimps for 48?h. Shrimps on coral reefs are known for cleaning fishes, but that shrimps in temperate waters show parasite-cleaning behaviour is, to our knowledge, a new observation.
Ostlund-Nilsson, Sara; Becker, Justine H.A; Nilsson, Goran E
We have found that two very common species of North Atlantic shallow water shrimp, Palaemon adspersus and Palaemon elegans, remove and feed on ectoparasites on plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.). The relationship could be mutualistic, as we did not observe any attempts by the fishes to feed on the shrimps. The ectoparasites removed included monogenean worms (Gyrodactylus sp.) and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus pectoralis). An experiment showed that there were 65% more Gyrodactylus parasites on the fishes that had been apart from compared with those that had been together with shrimps for 48h. Shrimps on coral reefs are known for cleaning fishes, but that shrimps in temperate waters show parasite-cleaning behaviour is, to our knowledge, a new observation. PMID:17148231
Ostlund-Nilsson, Sara; Becker, Justine H A; Nilsson, Göran E
Lectins play important roles in many biological processes, including protein trafficking, cell signaling, pathogen recognition, as effector molecules, and so on, because of their capacity to bind carbohydrates. Presently, seven groups of lectins have been identified in shrimp: C-type, L-type, P-type, M-type, fibrinogen-like domain lectins, galectins, and calnexin/calreticulin. These lectins have different structures, diverse expression patterns, and multiple functions in the shrimp immune response. This review summarizes the research progress and analyzes the diversity of shrimp lectins, focusing mainly on the C-type lectin family. Shrimp C-type lectins show considerable diversity in their domain architectures, sugar substrates, tissue distributions, expression patterns responding to pathogen challenge and functions in shrimp immunity. PMID:22561073
Dried shrimp is a high-value fishery product of Thailand. Boiling shrimp in salt solution is an important step during the production of dried shrimp and affects significantly the quality of dried shrimp. However, not much information is so far available on the effects of various boiling parameters on the quality changes of shrimp, especially in terms of the changes of
Transglutaminase (TGase) is known to be involved in blood coagulation, a conserved defence mechanism among invertebrates. Gene silencing of TGase was previously shown to render shrimp susceptible to both bacterial and viral infections suggesting that TGase is an essential component of the shrimp immune system. Here, we examine the effects of the absence of TGase on the transcriptomic profile of kuruma shrimp by microarray analysis, focussing on genes that are involved in shrimp immunity. Total RNAs from shrimp haemocytes injected with dsRNA specific for TGase and control samples were isolated at 3 and 7 days p.i. and analyzed by microarray. Results revealed that TGase silencing affects the expression of genes in shrimp and caused significant down-regulation of the expressions of crustin and lysozyme. Furthermore, TGase-depleted samples were found to have lower haemocyte counts and higher total bacterial counts in their haemolymph. These results suggest that TGase is an important component of the shrimp immune response and is involved in the regulation of some immune-related genes particularly antimicrobial peptides. PMID:22306779
Ingested pollutants may elicit digestive toxicity following incorporation into consumer tissues. This post-assimilatory toxicity may include tissue damage influencing synthesis of digestive enzymes, gut transit time and absorption of nutrients as well as pollutants by the gut epithelium. This study investigated impacts of chronic field exposure on gut residence time (GRT), feces elimination rate (FER), extracellular digestive protease activities and gut pH in grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. Adult shrimp were collected from differentially impacted sites within the New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and fed prepared meals containing fluorescent or near-infrared markers and analyzed for digestive toxicity. Relationships between digestive parameters and assimilation efficiencies (AE) for Cd, Hg and organic carbon reported previously were also analyzed. Minimum GRT did not vary significantly for field-collected shrimp, but was positively correlated with Cd, but not Hg or carbon, AE. FER was not impacted by field exposure. Digestive protease activities exhibited a marked decrease in grass shrimp from impacted field sites relative to reference shrimp. Relationships between the assimilation of elements and digestive physiology in field-collected shrimp suggest that digestive plasticity (increasing GRT) may be important in compensating for post-assimilatory digestive toxicity (reduced protease activities) in order to maintain nutrient assimilation. Stress-induced variability in digestive function among grass shrimp populations may, in turn, enhance the assimilation of non-essential elements, such as Cd. PMID:21946169
Seebaugh, David R; L'Amoreaux, William J; Wallace, William G
The quality and safety of a cooked food product depends on many variables, including the cooking method and time-temperature combinations employed. The overall heating profile of the food can be useful in predicting the quality changes and microbial inactivation occurring during cooking. Mathematical modeling can be used to attain the complex heating profile of a food product during cooking. Studies were performed to monitor the product heating profile during the baking and boiling of shrimp and the baking and pan-frying of salmon. Product color, texture, moisture content, mass loss, and pressed juice were evaluated during the cooking processes as the products reached the internal temperature recommended by the FDA. Studies were also performed on the inactivation of Salmonella cocktails in shrimp and salmon. To effectively predict inactivation during cooking, the Bigelow, Fermi distribution, and Weibull distribution models were applied to the Salmonella thermal inactivation data. Minimum cooking temperatures necessary to destroy Salmonella in shrimp and salmon were determined. The heating profiles of the 2 products were modeled using the finite difference method. Temperature data directly from the modeled heating profiles were then used in the kinetic modeling of quality change and Salmonella inactivation during cooking. The optimum cooking times for a 3-log reduction of Salmonella and maintaining 95% of quality attributes are 100, 233, 159, 378, 1132, and 399 s for boiling extra jumbo shrimp, baking extra jumbo shrimp, boiling colossal shrimp, baking colossal shrimp, baking Atlantic salmon, and pan frying Atlantic Salmon, respectively. PMID:23387897
Brookmire, Lauren; Mallikarjunan, P; Jahncke, M; Grisso, R
A large portion of the shrimp harvested in the Gulf of Mexico are treated with sodium bisulfite to prevent melanosis. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the need for this additive and regards a one minute dip in a 1.2% sodium bisulfite solution as current good manufacturing practice. Recently, sulfites have come under close scrutiny by regulatory authorities because they have been implicated as causing severe reaction in asthmatics. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, efficient method for determining SO/sub 2/ in shrimp and to determine the stability of SO/sub 2/ in shrimp during frozen storage.
The effect of various shrimp processing procedures on the quality and quantity of extracted chitin from the shells of Northern Species Pandalus borealis was investigated. The shrimp were caught from the Northern Shrimp Fishery in 2001 and processed using two different procedures. The first procedure involved cooking in boiling salt water on board the vessel, then packing on ice until
...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for...certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Thailand covering the period February 1, 2008...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Preliminary Results of...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits...frozen warmwater shrimp From India and Thailand covering the period February 1, 2010...Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits...warmwater shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand covering the period February 1, 2009...Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...
...Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...
...Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...
...Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States...
...Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States...
...Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...
Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...
This study reports on the operation of a plant scale dissolved air flotation system installed to define and evaluate attainable shrimp cannery wastewater treatment levels. The system was operated in all three modes of DAF pressurization. Destabilizing coagulants investigation inc...
Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...
The North Carolina shrimp resource consists of three major species, brown (Penaeus aztecus), pink (P. duorarum), and white (P. setiferus). Together, they comprise the state's most important fishery. Two of these species exist in Pamlico Sound, the princip...
The trophic relationships of decapod crustaceans on Le Danois bank (NE of Iberian Peninsula, NE Atlantic Ocean) were studied within the framework of the multidisciplinary project ECOMARG during two surveys, one in October 2003 and the other in April 2004. The diets of eleven species of decapods were analyzed and, within a rather continuous gradient of food source exploitation, 3 trophic groups were identified: (1) plankton feeders, comprising the shrimps Acanthephyra pelagica, Sergia robusta, and Pasiphaea tarda, which preyed on meso-bathypelagic taxa such as euphausiids and calanoids; (2) benthos feeders, comprising the crangonids Pontophilus norvegicus and Pontophilus spinosus, the crab Geryon trispinosus and the shrimpAristeusantennatus; and (3) an intermediate group, including the rest of species, with mixed diets that included detritus. Among the third group, anomurans ( Munida tenuimana, Pagurus alatus, and Parapagurus pilosimanus) consumed phytoplanktonic detritus in April, suggesting a link with peaks of surface Chl a occurring between March and April in the study area. Gut pigment and isotopic (? 13C/? 15N correlations) analyses revealed that assemblages inhabiting the top of the bank (455-612 m) and the inner basin (642-1048 m, close to the Lastres canyon head) had different food sources, with species inhabiting the deepest region exhibiting a stronger dependence on marine snow derivatives. These results are consistent with the higher proportion of mud and sediment organic matter (OM) content in the inner basin (82.2% pellites; 6.3% OM at 1028 m) compared to the top of the Le Danois bank (only 13.9% pellites; 2.8% OM at 485 m), which is a hydrodynamically more active zone. Exploitation of different food sources is also consistent with differences in the trophic level of species, inferred from stable ? 15N isotope analyses, which yield values ranging from 6.88‰ for the hermit crab P. alatus to 13.52‰ for the crangonid shrimp P. norvegicus. Stomach fullness was higher in April 2004 than in October 2003, both between and within species of the dominant decapods, including detritus feeders ( M. tenuimana) and benthos feeders (e.g. G. trispinosus, P. norvegicus). Most species exhibited a parallel increase in their density in April 2004, with a significant positive correlation between density and stomach fullness. This increase coincides with a peak of surface Chl a concentration occurring in March-April.
Cartes, Joan E.; Huguet, C.; Parra, S.; Sanchez, F.
Oral administration of crude fucoidan (CF) extracted from Sargassum polycystum can reduce the impact of White Spot Syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in Penaeus monodon. Crude fucoidan mixed with diet for shrimps weighing of 5–8 and 12–15 g was fed before and after WSSV infection. After 10 days of infection, the maximum survival rates of shrimps of 5–8 and 12–15 g
Background and purpose Shrimp culture has been expanded rapidly in recent years in coastal wetland zone of Vietnam due to favorable natural conditions.\\u000a However, this industry has caused several negative impacts to the environment. One of the critical issues is the excessive\\u000a application of antibiotics including human medicines. These chemicals could be released from shrimp ponds and then accumulated\\u000a and contaminated
Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies
Bärbel Kaufmann; Valorie D. Bowman; Yi Li; Jozsef Szelei; Peter J. Waddell; Peter Tijssen; Michael G. Rossmann
Thailand is the world’s largest producer of cultured shrimp. Despite problems with poor environmental conditions and outbreaks of disease that have led to the large-scale abandonment of culture areas along the coast, production has remained high. A primary factor has been the establishment of marine shrimp farming in Thailand’s rice growing Central Plain. This paper describes the development of inland
This document provides an explanation on how shrimp trawler owners\\/operators can analyze the effects of changing costs and ex-vessel prices on the profitability of operating a shrimp trawler. An Excel spreadsheet is provided with sample boat costs and revenues. The spreadsheet allows the trawler owner\\/operator to enter costs and revenues data for their own vessel. This can be used to
Mark S. Henry; Wilder N. Ferreira; David L. Barkley
In descending order of importance, the shrimps Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan, 1844; Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837); and Parapenaeopsis stylifera (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) account for over 95% of Kuwait's commercial landings. Throughout its range, P. semisulcatus is nocturnal, but Kuwait trawlers are active 24h a day during season. Historically, all scientific shrimp surveys in Kuwait have been conducted during daylight
J. M. Bishop; Y. Ye; A. H. Alsaffar; H. M. Al-Foudari; S. Al-Jazzaf
This study aimed to determine the occurrence and respiration activity of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in shrimp shell\\u000a waste and to evaluate the role of chitinolytic bacteria and fungi in its decomposition. The highest levels of bacteria were\\u000a found in shrimp heads sections and the lowest in exoskeletons. The level of fungi was much lower, with the highest proportion\\u000a present
Maria Swiontek Brzezinska; El?bieta Lalke-Porczyk; Wojciech Donderski; Maciej Walczak
...Final)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations...the subject investigations concerning Indonesia (78 FR 50379) and Thailand (78 FR...concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand (investigation Nos....
... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. 622...COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations Â§ 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access....
The influence of methoprene, an insect growth regulator used in mosquito control, on larval development of the estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) was examined in the laboratory. o grass shrimp larvae successfully completed metamorphosis when continuously exposed to 1000 ...
Common shrimp trawl designs employed in the southeastern United States shrimp fishery are the flat, balloon, semiballoon, job, and super X-3. Recent innovations in trawl design and rigging, including the twin trawl rigging and tongue trawl design, have im...
J. W. Watson I. K. Workman C. W. Taylor A. F. Serra
A model is developed that predicts brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, harvest in Pamlico Sound, NC, using environmental factors in late spring. Salinity and temperature conditions during April and May in the brown shrimp nursery areas are the most important p...
J. H. Hunt R. J. Carroll V. Chinchilli D. Frankenberg
Burrowing, or thalassinid, shrimp structure large areas of intertidal habitat of Pacific Northwest estuaries. This field study utilized a combination of anoxic incubations, porewater dialysis peepers, and benthic chambers to quantify the role of burrowing shrimp species on OM dec...
Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of dithiocarbamates (Aquatreat and Busan) to molting grass shrimp and the effects of these fungicides on regenerative limb growth in grass shrimp. Results indicate that both dithiocarbamate f...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on August 26, 2010, meets the...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period of review (``POR'')...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') meets the statutory and regulatory...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on February 28, 2011, meets...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the First Five-year...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). On the basis of the notice of intent to...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty New...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February...
Soil salinity and sodicity are environmental problems in the shrimp farming areas of the Cai Nuoc district, Ca Mau province,\\u000a Vietnam. In 2000, farmers in the district switched en masse from rice cropping to shrimp culture. Due to recent failure in\\u000a shrimp farming, many farmers wish to revert to a rotational system with rice in the wet season and shrimps
Nguyen Tho; N. Vromant; Nguyen Thanh Hung; L. Hens
The prophenoloxidase (proPO) system of the brown shrimp Penaeus californiensis was activated using different preparations and inductors. In shrimp, this system is confined inside the hemocytes and can be obtained by lysing or centrifuging the cells. In both cases, the shrimp proPO system showed a high spontaneous activation because the proPO activating enzyme was also released. In addition, the shrimp
Jorge Hernández-López; Teresa Gollas-Galván; Francisco Vargas-Albores
This study analyzed water and soil quality and environmental impacts of shrimp farming in the southwestern coastal region\\u000a of Bangladesh. Shrimp farming in the region is very traditional in nature where two culture systems viz. shrimp–rice and shrimp-only\\u000a are being practiced, which are characterized by lower production, repeated stocking, irregular feeding, and fertilizing. Water\\u000a quality in both farming systems was
In search of means to reduce the by-catch of juvenile flatfish in the shrimp fishery, vibrations and changes in current velocity\\u000a caused by shrimp trawls were investigated in the field and in the laboratory. Buried as well as emerged shrimps (Crangon crangon) exhibit tailflips 5–10 cm before being touched by the rollers of a shrimp gear approaching them at a
White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei held in 25‰ seawater at 27 °C or 28 °C were injected with TSB-grown Vibrio alginolyticus at 1×104 colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp?1 or 1×105 cfu shrimp?1, and then cultivated onward at water temperatures varying from 20 to 34 °C. Over 24–144 h, mortality of V. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held at 34 °C or 32 °C was significantly
Grass shrimp, Palaemonetespugio, are common inhabitants of salt marshes along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America. Grass shrimp embryos are brooded externally on the abdomen of adult females for about 2 weeks prior to hatching. In South Carolina, the spring spawning period for grass shrimp coincides with the period of peak pesticide application on crops grown along the
Shrimp production in Thailand has historically been undertaken in the saline and brackish waters of coastal mangroves. In recent years rising demand and prices for shrimp and falling productivity of mangrove areas have motivated an expansion of shrimp production into the fresh-water margins of river estuaries that were previously used for rice cultivation. Generalised additive models, which offer a comprehensive
Thai shrimp farm owners' cost efficiency goals complement the needs for a conjugal home and workplace by migrant couple workers from Laos, Myanmar and northeast Thailand, which in turn has created a 'migrant slot' among Surat Thani Province's shrimp farms. The conjugal workforce in shrimp farms is however differentiated by the creation of the female worker subject, publicly defined as
In 1992 and 1993, a 7 months study was carried out in a major shrimp-producing area in Southern Thailand to study the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella. A total of 158 samples were examined including water, sediment, shrimp, pelleted feed, shrimp gut, and chicken manure. Salmonella was not recovered from any sample type studied. V. cholerae O1 was isolated
A. Dalsgaard; H. H. Huss; A. H-Kittikun; J. L. Larsen
Shrimp are one of the most economically valued and internationally traded fisheries products in the world, but there are persistent concerns over the environmental impact of shrimp fisheries, particularly the bycatch. In the Gulf of Maine (GOM), the northern shrimp Pandalus borealis are fished by two types of gear–trawls and traps. Bycatch rates for the trawl fishery were studied previously,
Kuwait has been self-sufficient to fulfill its requirement of shrimp consumption. Thirteen species of penaeid shrimp are known to occur in Kuwait waters. Two of the species, namely Penaeus semisulcatus and Metapenaeus affinis, are being caught in bulk. Approximately 3 Gg of shrimp have been caught annually by artisanal as well as industrial fishing units as 24 dhow boats and
The caridean shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Gibbes) displays protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism with out-crossing, but not all males become simultaneous hermaphrodites (euhermaphrodites). In this laboratory study, we attempted to determine why some shrimp remain males. In our experiment, we grew L. wurdemanni from post-larvae to adults in several group sizes and observed their reproductive function. We found that all shrimp reared in
...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping...on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review (POR) of February...on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 2, 2012, the Department...
The objectives of this study were to observe foraminiferal colonization patterns and behavior in shrimp ponds in New Caledonia during a shrimp-growing (farming) cycle. Weekly collecting at 10 stations in 8 shrimp ponds yielded a total of 170 samples accompanied by environmental data. Seawater pumped from the nearby ocean filled the ponds at the beginning of the growth cycle and
Juvenile king mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla and Spanish mackerel S. maculatus are caught by commercial shrimp trawlers in South Carolina. Our study documented the extent and duration of this bycatch during the commercial shrimp trawling season in South Carolina waters. Sampling was conducted onboard commercial shrimp vessels based in McClellanville, South Carolina, during 1991 and on vessels based in McClellanville, Charleston,
The current decline in shrimp farm production has been related to a variety of issues associated with survivability of shrimp grown in the aquaculture setting. The presence of Vibrio pathogens has been identified as a cause of high mortality in the post larval and juvenile shrimp in aquaculture. The use of bacteriophage to control infections has seen increased interest with
The CTM (Critical Thermal Maxima) values for coon stripe shrimp increase with an increase in shrimp size. The CTM values for coon strip shrimp increase with an increase in the rate at which the temperature is elevated. Coon stripe shrimp are more resistan...
Over the past decade, viral pathogens have caused mass mortalities of farmed shrimp throughout the major shrimp farming regions of the world. In addition, the global shrimp farming industry has been criticized for negatively impacting coastal environments. These issues have raised concerns about the sustainability of traditional shrimp farming practices, and have prompted farmers and researchers to develop biosecure technologies
The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.
Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing métier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested métier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers of Chennai (former Madras). Research took place in 2007 and 2008 (N = 137). Results suggest a general satisfaction with being in the fishery. However, a little over three-fifths of fishers said they would be willing to change fishing métier and about one-half said they would leave the occupation. About one-half also said they would not advise a young person to enter the occupation. The tendency to move away from the fishery is argued to reflect a growing pessimism about the future of the shrimp trawl fisheries, but also an increasing awareness of other economic opportunities. PMID:22997478
Biosynthesis of nucleoside triphosphates is critical for bioenergetics and nucleic acid replication, and this is achieved by nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK). As an emerging biological model and the global importance of shrimp culture, we have addressed the study of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) NDK. We demonstrated its activity and affinity towards deoxynucleoside diphosphates. Also, the quaternary structure obtained by gel filtration chromatography showed that shrimp NDK is a trimer. Affinity was in the micro-molar range for dADP, dGDP, dTDP and except for dCDP, which presented no detectable interaction by isothermal titration calorimetry, as described previously for Plasmodium falciparum NDK. This information is particularly important, as this enzyme could be used to test nucleotide analogs that can block white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral replication and to study its bioenergetics role during hypoxia and fasting. PMID:22528393
Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Sugich-Miranda, Rocio; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique F; Castillo-Yañez, Francisco J; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R
Development of new economically feasible ecofriendly products from agricultural wastes or byproducts for shrimp farm wastewater treatment is the objective of our continued research. Ammonia is a nitrogenous toxicant, which is commonly found in wastewater from shrimp farms. In the present study, we explored the possibility of the use of simply and inexpensively prepared bagasse products so that this abundant crop byproduct could be used to remove ammonia from shrimp farm wastewater. Bagasse, a natural highly fibrous lignocellulosic byproduct of sugarcane, was converted into five different products. Experimental results have shown that ammonia is efficiently removed from wastewater by four bagasse products with a dose of 1 to 6 g/L within 24 hours. The effect of bagasse products on other water quality parameters and growth kinetics of biofilm bacteria onto bagasse fiber have also been studied. Efficacies of products were compared by using statistical analysis. Products developed from bagasse are useful and economical. PMID:17120454
Krishnani, Kishore K; Parimala, V; Gupta, B P; Azad, I S; Meng, Xiaoguang; Abraham, M
Closed-polyculture of Chinese penaeid shrimp, Taiwan red tilapia, and molluscans(constricted tagelus and bay scallop) was studied from 1995 to 1997 with the enclosure-experiment method, on a shrimp farm in Haiyang County, Shandong Province. Four structure-optimized closed-polyculture systems, i. e., the “shrimp-tagelus” system, the “shrimp-scallop” system, the “shrimp-tilapia” system and the “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system, were worked out. All these polyculture systems were superior to shrimp monoculture system in economic and ecological efficiencies. The order of these polyculture systems in efficiencies was “shrimptilapia-tagelus” > “shrimp-tagelus”>“shrimp-tilapia”>“shrimp-scallop”. The “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system raised the production by 28% and the utilization efficiency of input nitrogen by 85%. These closed-polyculture systems reduced the nitrogen discharge ratio to 6% 8%, instead of 40% 90% in the usual open culture systems. The ecological features of the systems were also investigated and many meaningful results have been obtained. The mechanism enhancing the efficiencies of these systems, the ways to enhance the efficiencies further and those to reuse the sedimented materials are disscussed.
White shrimp Penaeus setiferus, were grown in monoculture or in polyculture with blue shrimp P. stylirostris, or striped mullet Mugil cephalus in 0.1-ha earthen ponds receiving heated effluent from the Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou Generating Station east of Baytown, Texas during 1978 and 1979. No detrimental effect of either species on white shrimp survival or yield was found. Blue shrimp was greater than that of white shrimp in the same ponds. Total yield was increased by polyculture. An experiment was performed in which blue shrimp were stocked conventionally into ponds, or stocked in three successive increments (staggered stocking study). A preliminary experiment was made in 1978, followed by a more expanded version in 1979. Staggered stocking increased pond yields compared to expected values from the control pond yields. There was no detrimental effect of staggered stocking on shrimp survival. Pond salinities were much lower in 1979 than in 1978, associated with lower shrimp growth, survival and yield. A distribution study performed in the staggered stocking study ponds revealed that blue shrimp in mixed-size culture tend to segregate by size, and that small shrimp show somewhat different distribution patterns and temporal activity patterns than large shrimp. All the organisms used also served as biological monitors of water quality. No detectable levels of pesticides were found in any of the cultured animals. The only heavy metal found in higher concentrations than in previous years at this site was chromium.
The major impediment to the culture of penaeid shrimp in captivity in the United States has been an inability to obtain ovarian maturation and spawning. Lipid profiles of tissues (gonads, hepatopancreas, and tail muscle) of Penaeus setiferus caught at sea have shown that cholesterol is the dominant sterol and that polyunsaturated fatty acids known to be essential in man comprise a significant portion of the fatty acid fraction. A prioprietary marine ration contains cholesterol, but is devoid of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Ovarian maturation and spawning were obtained when the shrimp diet was supplemented with an annelid rich in lipids containing these compounds. The biochemical significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:7410512
Middleditch, B S; Missler, S R; Hines, H B; McVey, J P; Brown, A; Ward, D G; Lawrence, A L
Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thaïland ``PENAEUS MONODON'' Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and the organoleptic properties of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the extension of shelf-life based on mesophiles content was from 33 days for the control to more than 47 days for the irradiated shrimps stored at 3 +/- 1°C. The results of sensory evaluation gave slightly fresher odor for the control than the irradiated shrimps. On day one, this effect was more apparent. The results of hedonic tests showed that the irradiated shrimps were acceptable during storage. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the combined treatments (freezing plus irradiation) of precooked shrimps are useful for increasing the storage life of shrimps without affecting consumer acceptability.
Gagnon, M.; Lacroix, M. L.; Charbonneau, R.; Jobin, M.; Thibault, C.; Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.
Despite the ubiquity of obligate mutualisms on coral reef ecosystems, little is known about the evolution of many participating species. The shrimp gobies, known primarily from the coral reef habitats of the Indo-Pacific, are small benthic fishes that participate in a remarkable mutualism with alpheid shrimp. In this mutualism, the shrimp build and maintain a burrow that is guarded by the goby, and the shrimp and goby engage in an intricate tactile communication system. The mutualism is obligate for most shrimp gobies as participating species are highly vulnerable to predation when separated from a shrimp partner. We use phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data to infer evolutionary relationships among shrimp gobies, and between shrimp gobies and their non-mutualistic gobiid relatives. We show that the mutualist shrimp association has arisen twice among gobies, once in a clade composed of Amblyeleotris, Ctenogobiops, and Vanderhorstia, and a second time in a clade including Cryptocentrus, Mahidolia, Tomiamichthys and Stonogobiops. We then compare the evolution of traits within each shrimp goby clade and consider their intrarelationships. We document cryptic diversity among shrimp gobies, with three distinct clades delineated among Mahidolia mysticina specimens captured at the same locality, paired with the same shrimp species. Mahidolia is placed as sister to the Cryptocentrus species Cryptocentrus cinctus; both exhibit pronounced dichromatism, occurring in both brown and yellow (xanthic) forms. We additionally clarify species identities within Amblyeleotris, confirming that widespread similar species Amblyeleotris fasciata, Amblyeleotris steinitzi and Amblyeleotris wheeleri are all distinct. We hypothesize that the flexibility of gobiid gobies and alpheid shrimp to interact with mutualist partners, as well as the apparently highly beneficial nature of mutualism between them, has contributed to the dual evolution of shrimp-association among Indo-Pacific gobies. PMID:21315161
Thacker, Christine E; Thompson, Andrew R; Roje, Dawn M
The compound eyes of mantis shrimps (stomatopod crustaceans) include an unparalleled diversity of visual pigments and spectral receptor classes in retinas of each species. We compared the visual pigment and spectral receptor classes of 12 species of gonodactyloid stomatopods from a variety of photic environ- ments, from intertidal to deep water ( 4 50m), to learn how spectral tuning in
Thomas W. Cronin; N. Justin Marshall; Roy L. Caldwell
From international colloquium: the identification of irradiated ; foodstuffs; Karlsruhe, Germany (24 Oct 1973). Type Crangon vulgaris shrimps were ; irradiated with 100, 250 and 500 krad of gamma rays several hours after the catch. ; It was found that, although spectropolarimetry given lower optical rotation ; values after irradiation, it can only be used for comparative studies. A ;
|This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…
Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael
Effluent from intensively managed shrimp ponds was examined during harvest when ponds were drained. Concentrations of nutrients and solids in effluents were significantly higher during the final 20 cm of discharge (16% of pond volume), but greatest increases occurred during the final 5 cm of discharge (3.9% of pond volume). When the final 20 cm of pond discharge was allowed
D. R. Teichert-Coddington; D. B. Rouse; A. Potts; C. E. Boyd
The semi-intensive monoculture of the tiger shrimp was demonstrated in an earth pond of the Brackishwater Aquaculture Development Centre from 1 December 1979 to 31 March 1980. The size of the pond is 2500 sq m. Within four months rearing without the nurse...
Adult ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Thalassinidea; Callichirus islagrande) live in burrows that can extend over a meter in depth. Mating presumably occurs in these burrows but has never been directly observed in C. islagrande or any other thalassinidean. A variety of possible mating systems is ...
The SHRIMP cluster-computing system has progressed to a point of relative maturity; a variety of applications are running on a 16-node system. We have enough experience to understand what we did right and wrong in designing and building the system. In this paper we discuss some of the lessons we learned about computer architecture, and about the challenges involved in
Matthias A. Blumrich; Richard D. Alpert; Yuqun Chen; Douglas W. Clark; Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Liviu Iftode; Kai Li; Margaret Martonosi; Robert A. Shillner
The SHRIMP multicomputer provides virtual memory-mapped communication (VMMC), which supports protected, user-level message passing, allows user programs to perform their own buffer management, and separates data transfers from control transfers so that a data transfer can be done without the intervention of the receiving node CPU. An important question is whether such a mechanism can indeed deliver all of the
Edward W. Felten; Richard D. Alpert; Angelos Bilas; Matthias A. Blumrich; Douglas W. Clark; Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Liviu Iftode; Kai Li
Whether clinical white spots in shrimp appear only because of white spot disease (WSD) is a question needed to be asked in the light of new causes for development of white spots. The answer is 'no'. In fact, white spots could be due to WSD caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or bacterial disease or high water pH. Most
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a common cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in people, is frequently isolated from a variety of seafood, including shrimp. The virulence of clinical V. parahaemolyticus strains is commonly associated with expression of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), which are encoded by the tdh and trh genes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of total and toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp caught off the south coast of Iran. Three hundred freshly caught shrimp from four different species, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus indicus, and Penaeus merguiensis, were collected in three provinces along Persian Gulf in the south coast of Iran. Shrimp were collected at the end of each month from July 2008 to July 2009. The samples were analyzed for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and the occurrence of toxigenic strains. Using conventional bacteriological techniques, 29 V. parahaemolyticus isolates were identified in which 28 strains were confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the tlh gene of V. parahaemolyticus. Using polymerase chain reaction assays targeting the tdh and trh genes, five (1.7%) and two (0.7%) isolates were tdh positive and trh positive, respectively. The tdh-positive isolates were commonly detected in summer, whereas no toxigenic strain was isolated in winter. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the presence of toxigenic tdh- and trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains in the seafood in Iran. PMID:20528175
Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Doosti, Abbas; Gholampour, Ahmad Reza
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), when discharged into a river or lake, accumulate on the sediment because of their low solubility, finally assuming relatively high concentrations. Thus there are numerous ways by which PCBs can find their way into marine food products. When shrimp were exposed to i00 ppb of Aroclor 125A for ~ hours, they accumulated 1300 ppb of PCBs in
|Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…
|This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…
Microflora associated with larval stages of shrimp could affect the health and development of the larvae. Some bacteria such as luminous Vibrio harveyi cause serious mortalities. Consequent to the ban on use of most antibiotics in aquaculture, there is a need for alternate technologies for control of bacterial pathogens. Bacteriophages have a potential to control bacterial pathogens. This paper reports
Indrani Karunasagar; M. M. Shivu; S. K. Girisha; G. Krohne; Iddya Karunasagar
Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993. Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies. As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.
Cold-water coral reefs are highly heterogeneous ecosystems comprising of a range of diverse microhabitats. In a typical European cold-water coral reef various biogenic habitats (live colonies of locally common coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, dead coral structure, coral rubble) may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic habitats (soft sediment, hardground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across these microhabitats have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC habitat categories at the Røst reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with habitat. We found shrimp abundances at the Røst reef to be on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef habitats than in non-biogenic habitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea habitats (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis habitats (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa habitats (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic habitats shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. We conclude that CWC reef habitats clearly support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic habitats on the Norwegian margin.
Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.
Cold-water coral (CWC) reefs are heterogeneous ecosystems comprising numerous microhabitats. A typical European CWC reef provides various biogenic microhabitats (within, on and surrounding colonies of coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, or formed by their remains after death). These microhabitats may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic microhabitats (soft sediment, hard ground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across CWC reefs have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC microhabitat categories at the Røst Reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled in June 2007. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with microhabitat. Shrimp abundances at the Røst Reef were on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef microhabitats than in non-biogenic microhabitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea microhabitat (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis microhabitat (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa microhabitat (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic microhabitat, shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. CWC reef microhabitats appear to support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic microhabitats at the Røst Reef, at least at the time of survey.
Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.
Impacts of operating the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant on fish and opossum shrimp (mysis relicta) were investigated from 1981 to 1985 at Twin Lakes, Colorado to determine any negative effects on the Twin Lakes fishery. Daytime generation cycles entrained shrimp at densities averaging 0.05 to 0.23 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Eight hour daytime generation cycles would entrain 50,000 to 300,000 shrimp at these rates. Generation cycles which occurred after dark entrained many times more shrimp with densities as high as 1.21 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Entrainment density during nighttime pump-back cycles was much greater; averaging 2 to 17 shrimp/m/sup 3/ discharged. Six to 44 million shrimp were entrained during typical 8 h pump-back cycles. Differences between daytime and nighttime entrainment rates appeared to be caused by migration of shrimp into the water column at night making them more vulnerable to entrainment. Losses were estimated to have reduced Lower Twin Lake shrimp abundance by 39% in 1985.
Toxic microalgae outbreaks have caused significant economic losses in the Mexican aquaculture industry. Blooms that involve PSP and NSP phycotoxins are two of the most dangerous, causing harmful effects to the environment, economy and public health. The exact metabolic mechanism of these toxins in shrimp still remains unknown. Because shrimp consume microalgae their edible tissues are clearly possible vectors for
Jesús Pérez Linares; José Luis Ochoa; Ana Gago Martínez
An exponential model adequately characterized the size composition (expressed as a regression of transformed cumulative percentage ofweighton size category) ofreported annual catches ofbrown and white shrimp in Texas and Louisiana from 1959 to 1976. Louisiana catches contained considerably greater proportions of small shrimp than did Texas catches. For both species and States, there was a significant trend toward increase in
CHARLES W. CAILLOUET; FRANK J. PATELLA; WILUAM B. JACKSON
Rising concern over pesticide usage near estuarine systems and evidence of physical and physiological impacts on estuarine organisms have strengthened the need to better identify the ecological effects of nonpoint source runoff. Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes spp., are ecologically important and abundant marsh inhabitants that may be impacted by anthropogenic contamination. Populations of grass shrimp were sampled monthly, over a period of ten years, at four sites in South Carolina with varying upland land use characteristics. Spatial and temporal trends in grass shrimp densities were noted over time and between sites. Agricultural and golf course land usage corresponded with decreased grass shrimp population levels, overall shrimp size, and percentage of gravid females. Conservation methods, such as the use of best management practices (BMPs) and integrated pesticide management (IPM) at agricultural fields, corresponded with increased grass shrimp population density. PMID:21676755
Leight, Andrew K; Scott, Geoffrey I; Fulton, Michael H; Daugomah, James W
Viral infections are one of the major reasons for the huge economic losses in shrimp farming. The control of viral diseases\\u000a in shrimp remains a serious challenge for the shrimp aquacultural industry, with major pathogens, such as the white spot syndrome\\u000a virus, yellow head virus, Taura syndrome virus, hepatopancreatic parvovirus, and baculoviruses, being geographically widespread.\\u000a In the absence of a
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a natural microflora of marine and coastal water bodies and associated with mortality of larval shrimp in penaeid shrimp\\u000a in ponds. Bacteriophages occur virtually in all places where their hosts exist. In this study, total distribution of V. parahaemolyticus and its phages were examined in shrimp ponds, seawater, estuary, animal surface, and tissues. Total vibrio count in sediments\\u000a of
K. M. Alagappan; B. Deivasigamani; S. T. Somasundaram; S. Kumaran
In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 ? g\\/L (95% CI 0.56–1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 ? g\\/L (95% CI 1.09–2.47) and
Peter B. Key; Katy W. Chung; John J. Venturella; Brian Shaddrick; Michael H. Fulton
Two bacterial cultures were isolated and tested for degradation of shrimp shell waste. According to morphological examination,\\u000a physiological tests, and applied molecular techniques, isolates were identified as Bacillus cereus and Exiguobacterium acetylicum. Both strains were cultivated separately in flasks with 100 mL of shrimp shell waste broth (3% of washed, dried and ground\\u000a shrimp shell waste in tap water, pH 7.0)
Iryna Sorokulova; April Krumnow; Ludmila Globa; Vitaly Vodyanoy
A new emerging disease in shrimp, first reported in 2009, was initially named early mortality syndrome (EMS). In 2011, a more descriptive name for the acute phase of the disease was proposed as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS). Affecting both Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp P. monodon, the disease has caused significant losses in Southeast Asian shrimp farms. AHPNS was first classified as idiopathic because no specific causative agent had been identified. However, in early 2013, the Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory at the University of Arizona was able to isolate the causative agent of AHPNS in pure culture. Immersion challenge tests were employed for infectivity studies, which induced 100% mortality with typical AHPNS pathology to experimental shrimp exposed to the pathogenic agent. Subsequent histological analyses showed that AHPNS lesions were experimentally induced in the laboratory and were identical to those found in AHPNS-infected shrimp samples collected from the endemic areas. Bacterial isolation from the experimentally infected shrimp enabled recovery of the same bacterial colony type found in field samples. In 3 separate immersion tests, using the recovered isolate from the AHPNS-positive shrimp, the same AHPNS pathology was reproduced in experimental shrimp with consistent results. Hence, AHPNS has a bacterial etiology and Koch's Postulates have been satisfied in laboratory challenge studies with the isolate, which has been identified as a member of the Vibrio harveyi clade, most closely related to V. parahemolyticus. PMID:23836769
Tran, Loc; Nunan, Linda; Redman, Rita M; Mohney, Leone L; Pantoja, Carlos R; Fitzsimmons, Kevin; Lightner, Donald V
Shellfish allergy affects approximately 2% of the population and can cause immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria, swelling, difficulty breathing, and, in some cases, anaphylaxis. Tropomyosin is the major shrimp allergen and binds IgE in two-thirds of patients. A total of 38 shrimp-allergic patients and 20 negative control subjects were recruited and evaluated on the basis of history, skin prick testing, specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in response to shrimp tropomyosin or shrimp tropomyosin-derived peptides. Of the classically allergic patients by history, 59% tested positive for serum shrimp IgE antibodies. Of patients with shrimp-specific IgE in sera, 70% also had significant IgE levels specific for shrimp tropomyosin. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from classically shrimp-allergic patients proliferated in a dose-dependent manner in response to to tropomyosin. In addition, a T-cell line derived from a shrimp-allergic patient proliferated specifically in response to tropomyosin-derived peptides. These studies suggest a strategy for immunotherapy using a tropomyosin-derived T-cell epitope vaccination. PMID:22244920
Wang, Shuping; Delgado, Julio C; Ravkov, Eugene; Eckels, David D; Georgelas, Ann; Pavlov, Igor Y; Cusick, Matthew; Sebastian, Kate; Gleich, Gerald J; Wagner, Lori A
The rapid expansion of commercial culture of penaeid shrimp is threatened by Vibrio diseases affecting survival and growth. These opportunistic microorganisms are considered part of the normal ecosystem of penaeid shrimp and cause diseases only under conditions that favor them over the host. Shrimp larvae show different susceptibility to these pathogenic agents. In the present work, we report on a comparative study of the susceptibility of all American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larval substages to four potentially pathogenic Vibrio species (V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and V. penaeicida). Strains of these bacterial species were used to infect nauplii, protozoea I-III, mysis I-III, and postlarvae 1 by immersion challenge at 10(3), 10(5), or 10(7) cfu mL(-1) for 30 min. V. alginolyticus infection had no significant effect on survival rate, compared to control, in all shrimp larvae and at all doses tested. Shrimp larvae infected with V. alginolyticus showed a high survival rate compared to other Vibrio species at the three dose levels. V. penaeicida produced a significant mortality effect (P < 0.01) in all shrimp substages and only in postlarvae 1 at low infection dose (10(3) cfu mL(-1)). V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus induced significant mortality rates (P < 0.01) only at high doses in shrimp larvae. In summary, shrimp larvae demonstrated an age susceptibility that depends on the Vibrio species and dose level. PMID:12009802
All the physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, LEC, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and nutrients like total phosphorus, inorganic phosphate, nitrite and silicate studied in relation to shrimp farming. There are as many as 42 shrimp farms situated on the banks of Vellar estuary. These farms discharge the used water into the estuary, which may influence the biota there. In the present study the physico-chemical feature in relation to shrimp farming were studied in 3 stations of the estuary. When compared with the previous data from Vellar estuary there was no much difference in physico-chemical characteristics due to shrimp farming. PMID:12974418
Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp. PMID:24135910
Extracellular traps (ETs) are formed from the DNA, histones and cytoplasmic antimicrobial proteins that are released from a range of vertebrate immune-cells in response to pathogenic stimulation. This novel defense mechanism has not been demonstrated in invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the formation of ETs in the crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei. We found that stimulation of shrimp hemocytes with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and live Escherichia coli all led to the formation of the characteristic ET fibers made from host cell DNA. After E. coli stimulation, we found that histone proteins were co-localized with these extracellular DNA fibers. The results further showed that E. coli were trapped by these ET-like fibers and that some of the trapped bacteria were permeabilized. All of these results are characteristic of the ETs that are seen in vertebrates and we therefore conclude that shrimp are also capable of forming extracellular traps. PMID:23817142
Lysozymes are key proteins to invertebrates in the innate immune responses against bacterial infections. A lysozyme gene isolated\\u000a from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was cloned, sequenced and characterized. The cDNA consists of a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature peptide of\\u000a 140 amino acids. The lysozyme is presumed to be a chicken-type lysozyme for it possesses two
Ye Xing; Gao Feng-Ying; Zheng Qing-Mei; Bai Jun-Jie; Wang Huan; Lao Hai-Hua; Jian Qing
Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface\\u000a salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable\\u000a when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond\\u000a sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just
The network interfaces of existing multicomputers require a significant amount of software overhead to provide protection and to implement message passing protocols. This paper describes the design of a low-latency, high-bandwidth, virtual memory-mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer project at Princeton University. Without sacrificing protection, the network interface achieves low latency by using virtual memory mapping and write-latency hiding
Matthias A. Blumrich; Kai Li; Richard Alpert; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Jonathan Sandberg
The evolutionary relationships among 13 species representing all six subgenera of the shrimp genusPenaeuswere examined using 558 bp of mitochondrial (mt) DNA from the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Analyses of this sequence revealed high genetic divergence between species (d=8–24%), a finding which contrasts with previous work, which indicated that genetic diversity, based on electrophoretic analysis of allozymes, was extremely
John D. Baldwin; Anna L. Bass; Brian W. Bowen; Wallis H. Clark
A stochastic simulation model was developed to examine the impact of risky economic variables on the profitability of a small-scale shrimp farm. Sources of risk included input and output prices, random-kill events, and hurricane damages. Success was measured using the probability distribution of the net present value (NPV). A baseline model that assumed capital costs of $493,993, a stocking density
Jennifer L. Clark; Richard N. Weldon; Charles M. Adams; Ferdinand F. Wirth
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD\\/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America, Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations
Leeuwen van S. P. J; M. J. M. van Velzen; C. P. Swart; Veen van der I; W. A. Traag; J. de Boer
Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...
...to characterize catch and bycatch within the shrimp fisheries...information about the catch, bycatch, discards, and the ability to reduce bycatch for species taken by the shrimp...grouper, and require any sea turtles taken incidentally...
Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...
Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...
...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Re-conducted...Review of Grobest & I-Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd. and Intent Not To Revoke...shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of...
...Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Vietnam AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') in which it preliminarily determined that...
...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony...Review of Grobest & I Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd., and Notice of Amended...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to November 9, 2011. The period of...
In view of potential utilization of shrimp waste, shrimp chitin (SC) and shrimp chitin hydrolysate (SCH) were prepared from 3 kinds of shrimp species, namely: black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, endeavour shrimp Metapenaeus endeavouri and giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The effects of 5% SC and SCH (dry weight) on the state of water and on the denaturation of wanieso lizardfish Saurida wanieso myofibrillar protein (Mf) were evaluated based on changes in Mf Ca-ATPase activity and the amount of unfreezable water during frozen storage. Each effect was compared with those of Mf without additives (control) and Mf with glucose. The changes in Ca-ATPase activity of control and Mf with SC during frozen storage were exhibited biphasic pattern while those of SCH and glucose exhibited monophasic pattern. The amount of unfreezable water of Mf with SC was lower than that of control while those of Mf with SCH and glucose were higher than that of control. Present findings suggested that the preventive effect of SCH on freeze-induced denaturation of Mf is caused by the stabilizing the hydrated water molecule surrounding the Mf.
The commercial culture of shrimp in low water salinities has been successfully achieved. However, there are no long-term studies on the growth response of shrimp culture in freshwater. In the present study white shrimp Penaeus vannamei was cultured in freshwater (0 ppt) at three densities (90, 130 and 180 shrimp m?2) and comparisons made of the resulting growth, length–weight relationship and
Marcelo Araneda; Eduardo P. Pérez; Eucario Gasca-Leyva
Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic) and T. spongicola (Mediterranean). The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs) suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae) and Synalpheus (Alpheidae). The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation.
Although many crustacean neuroendocrine hormones have been reported, the enzymes responsible for post-translational modification of neuroendocrine hormones have rarely been characterized. A prohormone convertase 2 (PC2)-like enzyme has been isolated from the optic lobe of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon and referred as PmPC2. The full length cDNA sequence of PmPC2 has been identified and found to resemble evolutionarily conserved PC2 enzymes of vertebrates and invertebrates. PmPC2 was expressed in all larval developmental stages and in neuroendrocrine cells in the adult optic lobe. Its expression was found to be negatively related with shrimp body weight by qPCR (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry results using an anti-rPmPC2 antibody with adult shrimp revealed high staining intensity in specific neurosecretory cells including the sinus gland, the organ of Hanström (also referred to as the medullar terminalis X-organ) and the organ of Bellonci (also referred to as the sensory or X-organ). By using the yeast two hybrid technique, PmPC2 was found to bind with P. monodon hyperglycemic hormone (Pem-CHH1) that plays an important role in glucose metabolism. Since PmPC2 is a subtilisin-like serine proteinase, it is expected to cleave the synthetic substrate, pyr-RTKR-MCA, but the expressed recombinant catalytic domain of PmPC2 (rPmPC2-cat) showed no enzymatic activity as expected. In vivo injection of dsRNA-PmPC2 resulted in reduced transcripts for both PmPC2 and Pem-CHH1 on day 3 post injection, but there was no accompanying reduction of glucose level in the hemolymph. Taken together, PmPC2 localization, expression and activity suggest that it has a function(s) in the shrimp neuroendrocrine system and that it may not only activate Pem-CHH1 but also affect its expression. However, there is no obvious explanation for the negative correlation between PmPC2 expression level and shrimp body weight. PMID:22634957
Fluxes of suspended solids, chlorophyll a and nutrients (phosphorus, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia) were estimated in a semi-intensive shrimp farm in north-west Mexico for two consecutive cycles of production encompassing both the dry and wet seasons. A mass balance model was developed for nitrogen and phosphorus and fluxes estimated included shrimp feed, fertilization, shrimp stocked, harvest, macrofauna associated, water exchange,
F. Páez-Osuna; S. R. Guerrero-Galván; A. C. Ruiz-Fernández; R. Espinoza-Angulo
The influence of stocking density in tidal ponds on the concentration of trace metals and macroelements in three shrimp tissues was evaluated. Brown shrimps Penaeus californiensis were stocked in three 1 ha earthen-bottom tidal ponds at densities of 4, 8, and 10 shrimps per m2. After 4 months, the animals were collected, weighed, and dissected for metal determination (copper, cadmium,
Lia Méndez; Baudilio Acosta; Elena Palacios; Francisco Magallón
The rapid expansion of shrimp culture has brought concern about potential environmental impacts caused by phosphorus wastes discharged from shrimp farms. This study describes development of a simulation model representing the effect of feed nutritional quality, feed physical characteristics, and feeding strategies on phosphorus dynamics in intensive Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture systems, receiving dry feeds in the absence
Gregarines from Nematopsis genus are a common intestinal parasite infection in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, that is cultured on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Slow growth and mortalities of white shrimp have been associated with gregarine infections. Control of gregarine infections in Mexican shrimp farms with antibiotics by empirical methods is becoming increasingly important. However, no effective chemotherapeutic control
Emma J. Fajer-Ávila; María Soledad Morales Covarrubias; Selene Abad-Rosales; Ana Roque; Pablo Meza-Bojórquez; Crisantema Hernández-González
...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...
...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...
Brazilian shrimp culture industry has a great economic importance mainly to the northeast region. However, the accelerated development of this activity has resulted in the emergency of outbreaks of diseases from farming shrimp, and as a consequence the use of antimicrobial drugs to minimize the potential adverse effect under the shrimp production. The inappropriate use of antibiotics in aquaculture is
Rosa Helena Rebouças; Oscarina Viana de Sousa; Anahy Sousa Lima; Fabio Roger Vasconcelos; Patricia Barroso de Carvalho; Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes Vieira
Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect further into Central- and South-America. In cultured shrimp WSSV infection can reach a cumulative mortality of up to
SUMMARY 1. Migratory shrimps are often major biotic components of tropical stream communities, yet spatial and temporal patterns of their migration have yet to be described. This information is of increasing importance given the continued fragmentation of tropical streams by damming and water abstraction\\/diversion, which can disrupt migratory life cycles. 2. Larval amphidromous shrimps are released by adult females in
J. G. M ARCH; J. P. B ENSTEAD; C. M. P RINGLE; F. N. S CATENA
The sponge-dwelling shrimp Synalpheus regalis and several congeners exhibit monogynous, eusocial colony structures, and field data suggest that these social species may have a competitive advantage in crowded environments. We explored mechanisms of colony defense, a likely contributor to such a social advantage, by measuring responses of resident shrimp to conspecific and heterospecific intruders in experimental nests. To test for
Emmett J. Duffy; Cheryl L. Morrison; Kenneth S. Macdonald
Brine shrimp larvae have been used as a bioassay for a variety of toxic substances. The method has also been applied to plant extracts in order to facilitate the isolation of biologically active compounds. In this study, the plants in the family Meliaceae have been selected to test for brine shrimp lethality activity based on taxonomic approach including Azedirachta indica,
The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the clam Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities of the shrimp and its commensal clam, as well as particle settlement within t...
Infectious diseases especially those caused by bacterial and viral pathogens are serious loss factors in shrimp farming. In this study, bacteria were isolated from the gut and hepatopancreas of stressed shrimps obtained from a commercial farm. The isolates were screened on Thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS) agar plates for the selection of Vibrio species. Presumptive vibrios were characterized through tests for hemolytic and enzymatic activity, hydrophobicity, growth and molecular identification. Three experimental infections were conducted in order to confirm the pathogenicity of selected bacterial strains VHPC18, VHPC23, VHPC24 and VIC30. In the third experimental challenge the LD50 was obtained, it lasted 10 days with 10 shrimp, weighing 6.9+1. Ig, per tank. The treatments in triplicate were: (1) saline solution (control group); (2) 2xl0(5)CFU/shrimp; (3) 4xl05CFU/shrimp; (4) 2x10(6)CFU/shrimp; (5) 4x10(6)CFU/shrimp, and (6) 8x10(6)CFU/shrimp. In all challenges, water parameters measured during the experimental period remained within optimum ranges. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the mixture of four vibrio isolates, identified as Vibrio sinaloensis, was virulent for L. vannamei. The LD50 value was 1.178x10(5)CFU/g body weight. V sinaloensis may act as opportunistic pathogens for cultured L. vannamei. PMID:23894929
del Carmen Flores-Miranda, Ma; Luna-González, Antonio; Córdova, Angel I Campa; Fierro-Coronado, Jesús A; Partida-Arangure, Blanca O; Pintado, José; González-Ocampo, Héctor A
Survival and growth of Penaeus monodon fed the probiont Bacillus S11 in two 90-day culture trials were increased compared with non-treated shrimp. Bacillus S11 also efficiently activated and increased the engulfment of foreign particles (phagocytic activity) as measured by % phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI) in hemolymph. Phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities increased with age in all shrimp, but were even
Six microsatellites were used to study (1) the genetic diversity of wild Penaeus monodon shrimp from four geographic regions (Palawan, Quezon, Capiz and Negros Occidental-W) in the Philippines, and (2) its association with the status of mangroves and intensity of shrimp culture systems in these regions. Two cultured populations (Negros Occidental-C and Antique) were used for comparison. All six microsatellite
Zhenkang Xu; Jurgenne H Primavera; Leobert D de la Pena; Priscilla Pettit; Jane Belak; Acacia Alcivar-Warren
...certain exporters have not sold subject...Shrimp from the People's Republic of...Receivers From the People's Republic of...Additionally, we have revised the wage...provided written arguments regarding this...margin.\\14\\ We have not received any...Shrimp From the People's Republic...
This study, consisting of two experiments, was carried out at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand, to investigate the growth performance of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), water quality and nutrient budget in different stocking combinations of tilapia-shrimp polyculture. Both experiments were conducted in nine 200-m2 earthen ponds with three treatments in triplicate each, namely: a)
Yang Yi; Kevin Fitzsimmons; Wanwisa Saelee; Potjanee Clayden
The hypersaline environments and salterns present in the western Mediterranean region (including Italy, southern France, the\\u000a Iberian Peninsula and Morocco) contain autochthonous forms of the brine shrimp Artemia, with parthenogenetic diploid and tetraploid strains coexisting with the bisexual species A. salina. Introduced populations of the American brine shrimp A. franciscana have also been recorded in these Mediterranean environments since the
Francisco Amat; Francisco Hontoria; Olga Ruiz; Andy J. Green; Marta I. Sánchez; Jordi Figuerola; Francisco Hortas
Effluent waters from shrimp aquaculture, which can contain elevated levels of phosphorus, ammonia, nitrate, and organics, must be managed properly if shrimp aquaculture is to achieve sustainability. Constructed wetlands are ecologically beneficial, low cost treatment alternatives proven capable of reducing suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals from wastewater of many sources. The goal of this
David Rogers Tilley; Harish Badrinarayanan; Ronald Rosati; Jiho Son
An efficient multiresidue method for analysis of fluoroquinolones in shrimp has been developed in which quantitation by fluorescence and confirmation by MSn is achieved simultaneously. In this method, shrimp tissue is extracted with ammoniacal acetonitrile, the extract defatted, and then evaporated...
Recent studies on salmon and shrimp have shown that reduced feed intake and growth caused by the consumption of low-quality ¢sh meals, manufac- tured from spoiled ¢sh, were not due to the presence of biogenic amines. Moreover, an improvement in weight gain was seen in blue shrimp fed a diet supple- mented with cadaverine plus histamine. It was not clear,
Mireya Tapia-Salazar; Trevor K Smith; Andrew Harris; Lucia-Elizabeth Cruz-Suarez; Denis Ricque-Marie
Of principal concern to those who regulate shrimp harvesting gear are the quantity and composition of nontargeted species (bycatch) harvested by any allowable gear type. The use of skimmer trawls in the Florida shrimp fishery is a contested issue, in part because little bycatch characterization data exist for this gear. We characterized skimmer trawl bycatch and evaluated the efficiency of
Daniel A. Warner; Anne L. McMillen-Jackson; Theresa M. Bert; Charles R. Crawford
The Pacific shrimp fishery is the most economically important and ecologically impactful fishery in Mexico. Strong export markets have had a tremendous influence on the technological development and structure of this fishery. This article describes the historical development, current status, ecological impacts and management of the open ocean trawling component of the shrimp fishery in the Sonoran waters of the
Baited traps were used to survey deepwater shrimps in Vanuatu in the Southwestern Pacific. Mean catch rates varied from 0.04 kg per trap in the 200-300 m depth range to 2.83 kg per trap in the 500-600 m depth range. Seven species of carid shrimp were prov...
This work deals with phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) loads resulting from shrimp farming in the NW coast of Mexico and a mass balance model for N and P is presented. Using such a model and the feed coefficients obtained in the NW region, nutrient loads for all shrimp farms in each state were estimated. The P and N loads
Federico Páez-Osuna; Saúl R. Guerrero-Galván; Ana C. Ruiz-Fernández
This study investigated the toxicity of various concentrations of technical resmethrin and Scourge® on adult and larval Palaemonetespugio, a common grass shrimp species. Two types of tests were conducted for each of the resmethrin formulations using adult and larval grass shrimp life stages, a 96-h static renewal aqueous test without sediment, and a 24-h static nonrenewal aqueous test with sediment.
PETER KEY; MARIE DELORENZO; KRISTEN GROSS; KATY CHUNG; ALLAN CLUM
This study investigated the effects of increased temperature and salinity, two potential impacts of global climate change, on the toxicity of two common pesticides to the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Larval and adult grass shrimp were exposed to the fungicide chlorothalonil and the insecticide Scourge® under standard toxicity test conditions, a 10°C increase in temperature, a 10 ppt increase
Marie E. DeLorenzo; Sarah C. Wallace; Loren E. Danese; Thomas D. Baird
Cooked and peeled cold-water shrimp (Pandalus jordani) naturally contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes were obtained from a processor for a series of studies to determine the level of contamination and growth characteristics of this bacterium in the naturally contaminated product. L. monocytogenes was isolated from every 25-g sample of individually quick frozen (IQF) shrimp that was tested. The level of contamination
R. N. Paranjpye; M. E. Peterson; F. T. Poysky; M. W. Eklund
Shrimps caught at sea were boiled in seawater, air blast or nitrogen frozen, glazed and then packed in plastic bags with a low oxygen transmission rate. The bags were either flushed with nitrogen (modified atmosphere packaging) or with atmospheric air before sealing. The shrimps were then stored for up to 12 months in a freezer cabinet at ?17°C with fluctuating
L. S Bak; A. B Andersen; E. M Andersen; G Bertelsen
Since 1992, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) have caused mortalities in cultured shrimp throughout Asia. By 1995, WSSV was detected in Texas and South Carolina, and the virus has also been recently reported in Central and South America (Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Panama, Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador). The importation of live infected shrimp is the principal
Standard minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) studies were conducted in vitro on eleven prospective antimicrobials and one reference antimicrobial. The compounds were tested against a standardized battery of 13 gram-negative bacterial isolates associated with shrimp disease. Two additional bacterial organisms not associated with shrimp, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were also tested as system controls. The compounds tested were chloramphenicol (reference),
Leone L. Mohney; Thomas A. Bell; Donald V. Lightner
Vitellin from the ovaries of the shrimp Metapenaeus ensis was isolated using gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. Gel filtration revealed the presence of three peaks in an extract of mature ovaries. Two of these peaks were hardly noticeable in ovaries from immature shrimp. One of these was identified to be vitellin based on the results of Sudan black B
The Alabama cave shrimp is a rare, troglobitic cave shrimp that survives in only two of its three known locations. The population in its type locality, Shelta Cave, has not been seen since the early 1970s. Population levels in Bobcat Cave and the HGB (R. ...
The effects of temperature changes on oxygen consumption of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis Osbeck) were studied. The response of oxygen consumption to a temperature rise was conformed to partial metabolic compensation. No compensatory response was observed at lower temperature. A sudden temperature increase by 12 °C resulted an overshoot in oxygen consumption in shrimp adapted to 19 °C, while a
The traditional procedure for chitosan production involves use of a strong acid (HCl) for demineralization of chitin. This study reports application of a mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus lactis) fermentation in demineralization of chitin for chitosan production from shrimp waste. Chitosan produced from shrimp waste with lactic acid bacteria fermentation at 30°C for
|This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the…
Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) account for about one-third of the commercial shrimp harvest in the South Atlantic Region; the landing were worth $20 million in 1982. In the South Atlantic Region, commercially importance
S. C. Larson; M. J. Van Den Avyle; E. L. Jr. Bozeman
Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) account for about one-third of the commercial shrimp harvest in the South Atlantic Region; the landing were worth $20 million in 1982. In the South Atlantic Region, commercially importance brown shrimp fishing grounds extend from Fort Pierce, Florida, to Pamlico Sound and Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina. Most of the commercial harvest is taken inside the 10-fathom contour. Brown shrimp are omnivorous and eat food items ranging from detritus to small invertebrates and fishes. Many predators, including fishes and crustaceans, feed on brown shrimp. Brown shrimp survival is reduced by adverse temperature or salinities. Intertidal vegetation is an important characteristic of brown shrimp nursery areas. The suitability of some estuaries as nursery areas may be reduced by bulkheading, ditching, disposal of dredged materials, and drainage from agricultural and silvicultural areas. Existing estuarine areas must be preserved to ensure the continued production of brown shrimp. 57 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Larson, S.C.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Bozeman, E.L. Jr.
The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...
Northern shrimp from offshore waters in the Gulf of Maine were studied to determine their occurrence and to learn some major features of their life history. The area sampled extends from Nova Scotia, Canada, to Long Island, New York. Northern shrimp were found only in the western portion of the Gulf of Maine, where they were present throughout the year,
The greatest threat to the future of world shrimp aquaculture is disease, in particular the virulent untreatable viruses, infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), taura syndrome virus (TSV), yellow head virus (YHV), and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). To overcome these hazards, the industry of the future must be based on: (i) specific pathogen-free and genetically improved shrimp stocks;
Twelve samples of imported frozen shrimps were used in this study. The total aerobic bacteria were at 2 × 104 to 6 × 106 per gram. A few of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from many samples. However, Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples. After exposure to 4-5 kGy of gamma-rays, the total aerobic bacteria in frozen shrimps were reduced by approximately 2-3 log cycles. The dose necessary to reduce the vibrio isolates and Aeromonas hydrophila at a level of below 10-4 per gram was about 3 kGy in frozen shrimps, whereas about 3.5 kGy was required for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, unpleasant off-odor was clearly detected in the non-frozen shrimps irradiated at 2.5 kGy. On the other hand, off-odor was negligible in the frozen product below 5 kGy irradiation. No remarkable changes of peroxide values were also obtained up to 9 kGy of irradiation in the frozen shrimps. However peroxide values of non-frozen shrimps were clearly increased even irradiated at 4 kGy. Trimethylamine content was not changed at doses below 10 kGy in both of frozen and non-frozen shrimps. Shelf-life of defrosted shrimps were extended ca. 2 times under non-frozen market conditions.
Interest in enclosed biosecure superintensive shrimp production systems has grown in response to disease problems, environmental concerns and an imperative to increase system productivity for increasingly competitive markets. The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program has maintained a long-term research a...
Shrimp culture is a very important economic activity in the world and the fastest growing industry in Northeastern Brazil. Problems with diseases are common in aquaculture and at the least seven species of Vibrio bacteria have been documented infecting shrimps during different culture stages. Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been widely used against these pathogens. In the present study the distribution and
A. C. Nogueira-Lima; T. C. V. Gesteira; J. Mafezoli
Growth overfishing in the brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, fishery in inshore (estuarine) and offshore (Gulf of Mexico) territorial waters of Texas and Louisiana, and adjoining waters of the United States’ (U.S.) Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and its potentially detrimental economic consequences to the harvesting sector, have not been among major concerns of Federal and State shrimp management agencies. Three possible
In minimal-exchange, superintensive culture systems, the flocculated (biofloc) particles that accumulate may provide benefits for cultured shrimp; however, excessive particle accumulation can hinder shrimp performance. Also, the shrimp aquaculture industry is reliant on marine fish-based feeds. Using these products can lead to exploitation of marine resources, the introduction of contaminants to cultured shrimp, and unstable production costs. This study examined
Andrew J. Ray; Beth L. Lewis; Craig L. Browdy; John W. Leffler
The flour of the shrimp is the waste of dry shrimp ground with good characteristics of conservation, obtaining itself from heads, abdomen or the whole shrimp according to the chemical characteristics of the product. A Seasoning was elaborated from a crop shrimp (Penaeus sp) heads flour a mixing process in a small scale, carried out in the Institute of Science
Ricardo D. ANDRADE; Everaldo J. MONTES; Milena M. CHÁVEZ
The level of the heavy metal in green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab (Portunus pelagicus) caught off the Persian Gulf near Bushehr province were investigated. This study was performed to evaluate instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to analyze heavy metal concentration in crab and shrimp whole body tissue. The order of the swimmer crab and shrimp heavy metal concentrations were Zn>Fe>As>Mn>Co and Fe>Zn>Mn>As>Co, respectively. The results showed swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) and shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) caught off Persian gulf, were contaminated with high level of As (21.38±3.31ppm and 8.28±2.82 ppm, respectively). High levels of As and Mn were noted in crabs and shrimp, respectively. PMID:23487484
Two peptones were extracted from raw shrimp waste after autolytic digestion. Digests were derived from shrimp heads and shrimp hulls, both of which are by-products of the shrimp processing industry. Digests were evaluated for suitability in supporting growth of microorganisms by measuring the total cell mass produced by five genera of bacteria and five genera of fungi in broths formulated from the peptones. Comparison was made to five commercially available medium preparations and a catfish peptone. A 0.5% solution of the lyophilized shrimp head digest, heated at 121 C for 15 min, resulted in a cloudy suspension. However, the digest supported excellent growth of fungi and good growth of bacteria. A heated 0.5% solution of the hull digest was clear and supported good growth of both bacteria and fungi.
Stephens, N L; Bough, W A; Beuchat, L R; Heaton, E K
Two batches of shrimp were cultivated in a total of 4 culture ponds from March 28 to June 13, and July 17 to September 11, 1997. Vibrio spp. were isolated from the pond water and the hepatopancreas of healthy and diseased shrimp using thiosulfate–citrate–bile salt–sucrose agar plate, and then identified using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. In each culture
Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) larvae were first cultivated for 1 month in the same pond and then at postlarval 43 were transferred into three different culture ponds (E2, E4, and W4). Vibrio spp. from the pond water and shrimp hepatopancreas were isolated and identified using thiosulfate-citrate-bile salt-sucrose (TCBS) agar and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) analysis. For the initial 60
The present study investigates the protection of shrimp Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using antiviral plant extract derived from Cyanodon dactylon and the modulation of the shrimp non-specific immunity. To determine the antiviral activity, the shrimp were treated by both in vitro (intramuscular injection) and in vivo (orally with feed) methods at the concentration of 2mg per animal and 2% of the plant extract incorporated with commercially available artificial pellet feed, respectively. The antiviral activity of C. dactylon plant extract was confirmed by PCR, bioassay and Western blot analysis. In the present study, anti-WSSV activity of C. dactylon plant extract by in vivo and in vitro methods showed strong antiviral activity and the immunological parameters such as proPO, O(2)(-), NO, THC and clotting time were all significantly (P<0.05) higher in the WSSV-infected shrimp treated with plant extract when compared to control groups. These results strongly indicate that in vivo and in vitro administration of C. dactylon plant extract enhances immunity of the shrimp. Based on the present data and the advantages of plant extract available at low price, we believe that oral administration of C. dactylon plant extract along with the pellet feed is a potential prophylactic agent against WSSV infection of shrimp. PMID:18834943
Balasubramanian, G; Sarathi, M; Venkatesan, C; Thomas, John; Hameed, A S Sahul
RNAi activation in shrimp through dsRNA injection has been well demonstrated but oral delivery of dsRNA remains controversial. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether RNAi was induced in shrimp by ingestion of bacteria expressing dsRNA. We fed shrimp, Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei, with inactivated bacteria expressing dsRNA specific to the shrimp genes (Rab7 and STAT). Forty-eight hours after 6 day-continuous feeding, the level of the targeted gene transcript was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Significant reduction of Rab7 as well as STAT transcript was observed when compared to that of control shrimp fed with bacteria containing the empty vector or bacteria expressing non-related dsRNA (GFP). Moreover, the suppression was detected not only in the hepatopancreas but also in the gills indicating the successful systemic induction of RNAi via oral delivery of dsRNA. Our results suggested that RNAi in shrimp could be triggered by ingestion of dsRNA expressing bacteria. Therefore, oral feeding is a practical approach which can be used to deliver dsRNA for further viral inhibition in farmed shrimp. PMID:23201581
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme environments that have a high concentration of hydrogen sulphide. However, abundant unique invertebrates including shrimps of the family Bresiliidae have been found in such environments. The bresiliid shrimps are believed to have radiated in the Miocene (less than 20?Myr); however, the period when and the mechanisms by which they dispersed across the hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in oceans worldwide have not been clarified. In the present study, we collected the deep-sea blind shrimp Alvinocaris longirostris from the hydrothermal vent site in the Okinawa Trough and carried out the first investigation of the 18S rRNA gene of a bresiliid shrimp. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bresiliid shrimp is situated at an intermediate lineage within the infraorder Caridea and shows monophyly with palaemonid shrimps, which live in shallow sea and freshwater. Furthermore, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were analysed to determine the phylogenetic relationship with known bresiliid shrimps. A. longirostris of the Okinawa Trough had two haplotypes of the COI gene, one of which was identical to the Alvinocaris sp. of the cold seeps in Sagami Bay. These results indicate that a long-distance dispersal of A. longirostris occurred possibly within the last 100?000 years.
Autolytic activity of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mince in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl was investigated. Pacific white shrimp mince exhibited the maximum autolytic activity at 35 and 40 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl, respectively, as evidenced by the highest TCA-soluble peptide content and the greatest disappearance of myosin heavy chain (MHC). The autolysis was more pronounced in the acidic pH values, followed by alkaline pH ranges. Pepstatin A showed the highest inhibition toward autolysis in the acidic condition, revealing that aspartic proteinase was dominant in shrimp muscle. Nevertheless, soybean trypsin inhibitor effectively inhibited the autolysis at neutral and alkaline pH values, suggesting that serine proteinase was present in shrimp mince but contributed to autolysis at a lower extent in shrimp meat. Autolysis in shrimp meat could be inhibited partially by all protein additives, including bovine plasma protein (BPP), egg white (EW), and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The inhibition of autolysis increased when the level of protein additives increased with the concomitant increase in band intensity of MHC retained. WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince. PMID:18298747
Eakpetch, P; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K
An ecological survey was carried out to determine the sediment concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish and shrimp including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. nilotica), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), gei wai shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and caridean shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) in the traditional tidal shrimp ponds (gei wais) of Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. The sediments collected from the landward sites contained higher nutrient contents, as well as zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) than those collected from the seaward sites, but vice versa for lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). However, the concentrations of all metals were exceptionally high in the two sites located outside the reserve, suggesting that waters from Deep Bay might be the possible source of metal contamination affecting the reserve. All metals studied seemed to accumulate in the viscera of fish. Body size was the determining factor for the accumulation of heavy metals in caridean shrimp and gei wai shrimp but not fish. Concentrations of the metals studied in tissues of grey mullet and gei wai shrimp were found to be safe for human consumption. Concentrations of Cr in tilapia whole body (0.68-1.10 mg kg(-1) wet weight) were close to or over the guideline value of 1 mg kg(-1) set by the Food Adulteration (Metallic Contamination) Regulations of Hong Kong. Tilapia flesh and small caridean shrimp collected from gei wais were contaminated by Cr and Pb but still fit for human consumption. Caution is required if large caridean shrimp is to be consumed in large amounts continuously because the concentration of Pb exceeded the maximum permitted concentration (6 mg kg(-1)). The rather high Cr concentrations in tilapia whole body should not be overlooked as the fish will serve as a food source for migratory birds visiting the site. PMID:16528597
Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a ?-barrel “jelly roll” motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a “domain-swapped” conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.
Kaufmann, Barbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G.
Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a ?-barrel "jelly roll" motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a "domain-swapped" conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins. PMID:20702621
Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G
Vertebrates detect viral infection predominantly by sensing viral nucleic acids to produce type I interferon (IFN). In invertebrates, it has been believed that the IFN system is absent and RNA interference is a sequence-specific antiviral pathway. In this study, we found that injection of nucleic acid mimics poly(I:C), poly(C:G), CL097, poly C and CpG-DNA, afforded shrimp antiviral immunity, which is similar to the vertebrate IFN system. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method, 480 expression sequence tags were identified to be involved in the poly(I:C)-induced antiviral immunity of the model crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei, and 41% of them were new genes. In the SSH libraries, several IFN system-related genes such as dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and IFN?-inducible protein 30 were identified. L. vannamei IKK?, whose vertebrate homologs are central regulators of the IFN-producing pathway, could significantly activate IFN reporter genes in HEK293T cells. In crustacean databases, many genes homologous to genes of the vertebrate IFN response, such as IRFs, PKR, ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific) and other interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were discovered. These results suggest that shrimp may possess nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity. PMID:23773856
Two growth experiments were conducted to estimate the minimal dietary vitamin A requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. In expt. 1, purified diets containing 0, 1,500, 3,000, 15, 000, 30,000, 45,000 and 60,000 retinol equivalent (RE)/kg (i.e., 0, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 150,000, 200,000 IU/kg) of supplemental vitamin A (retinyl acetate) were fed to P. monodon (mean initial weight 0.97 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk. In expt. 2, diets with 0, 600, 1,200, 1,800, 2,400, 3,000, 3,600, and 4,500 RE/kg (i.e. , 0, 2,000, 4,000, 6,000, 8,000, 10,000, 12,000, 15,000 IU/kg) of supplemental vitamin A were fed to the shrimp (mean weight 0.68 +/- 0.01 g) for 6 wk. The basal unsupplemented diet contained 54 RE vitamin A/kg, and supplemental levels were confirmed by analysis. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. In expt. 1, shrimp fed diets supplemented with 300 RE vitamin A/kg had significantly greater weight gain (P < 0.05) than those fed the unsupplemented control diet and diets supplemented with >===" BORDER="0">30,000 RE vitamin A/kg. Survival rate was higher in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1,500-30,000 RE vitamin A/kg than shrimp fed the control diet. Highest blood triglyceride concentration and body lipid concentration were in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 45,000 and 60,000 RE vitamin A/kg, respectively. Eye vitamin A concentration and hepatopancreatic total lipid concentration in shrimp generally increased as dietary vitamin A supplementation increased. In expt. 2, feed efficiency was highest in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 2,400, 3,000, 3,600 and 4,500 RE vitamin A/kg, followed by shrimp fed diets with 600 and 1,200 RE vitamin A/kg and finally the unsupplemented control group. Shrimp fed diets supplemented with vitamin A had significantly higher survival percentages than those fed the unsupplemented control diet. Weight gain percentage of the shrimp analyzed by broken-line regression indicated that the minimal dietary vitamin A concentration in growing P. monodon is 2,511 RE/kg ( approximately 8, 400 IU/kg). PMID:10613772
Toxic microalgae outbreaks have caused significant economic losses in the Mexican aquaculture industry. Blooms that involve PSP and NSP phycotoxins are two of the most dangerous, causing harmful effects to the environment, economy and public health. The exact metabolic mechanism of these toxins in shrimp still remains unknown. Because shrimp consume microalgae their edible tissues are clearly possible vectors for human toxic syndrome. This study examined and verified the toxicological effects for white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to different cell densities of Gymnodinium catenatum and Karenia brevis. Acute assays demonstrated good survival rates of shrimp at low densities of dinoflagellates (10(3) cell/L), while mortality and abnormal behavior were observed with higher densities (>10(4) cell/L). Chronic assays showed significant differences in survival rates, percentage of feed and weight gain of organisms exposed to the dinoflagellates with respect to controls. Furthermore, PSP and NSP toxins were detected in all the edible tissues. Gastric glands and muscle retained toxins for a longer period of time compared to other tissues, even after a depuration period. Histology damages were observed in the heart, gastric gland and brain. This study strongly supports that shrimp represent a potential risk for humans as unconventional vectors of phycotoxins. PMID:19028514
Pérez Linares, Jesús; Ochoa, José Luis; Gago Martínez, Ana
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia,...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...retarded, by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia,...
...in the Memorandum to Paul Piquado, Assistant Secretary for Import Administration, ``Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Thailand, and Socialist Republic of Vietnam--Final...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...reason of subsidized imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...to be subsidized by the Governments of Ecuador and Indonesia. 1...
...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations...retarded by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen...subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and...
This study investigated the feasibility of using Yucca schidigera extract (YUPE) to reduce ammonia pollution resulting from shrimp farming. YUPE was added at ratios of 18, 36, and 72 mg L(-1) to effluent from an experimental shrimp culture system containing total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) of 0.592, 0.672, and 0.718 mg L(-1). TAN reduction increased with an increase in YUPE, and at 18 mg L(-1) reduced TAN by 71-72% and 86-87% at 6 and 24h, respectively. Shrimp feed containing YUPE at 300, 600, and 1200 mg kg(-1) was submerged, allowing the ammonia to leach out. The addition of YUPE in feed reduced TAN leaching by 50-83% compared with the control. The application of YUPE in water or feed could considerably reduce the accumulation of ammonia in waste water discharge during shrimp production, thereby providing a feasible solution to ammonia pollution in coastal environments. PMID:22440573
Northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis, were reared in situ in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, from Stage I (first zoeal) through Stage VIII (second juvenile). Each of the six larval stages and first juvenile stage is described and illustrated, and a brief description ...
Shrimp melanosis, commonly known as 'blackspot' is a harmless but objectionable surface dicoloration caused by polyphenoloxidase enzyme systems which remain active during refrigeration or ice storage. In the early 1950's sulfiting agents, particularily so...
The report provides an update on the potentials and conflicts faced by the domestic shrimp industry with special attention directed toward future actions which may significantly impact respective segments of the industry. Volume One of Three analyses the ...
...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures Â§ 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are...
Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delta using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing (HyMap) and (ii) to investigate links between the variation of foliar nitrogen mapped and local environmental variables. In this study, multivariate prediction models achieved a higher level of accuracy than narrow-band vegetation indices, making multivariate modeling the best choice for mapping. The variation of foliar nitrogen concentration in mangroves was significantly influenced by the local environment: (1) position of mangroves (seaward/landward), (2) distance to the shrimp ponds, and (3) predominant mangrove species. The findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbances, in this case shrimp ponds, influence nitrogen variation in mangroves. Mangroves closer to the shrimp ponds had higher foliar nitrogen concentrations. PMID:24103095
Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; Gils, Hein van; Schlerf, Martin; Heitkönig, Ignas M A
This study explored whether Crassostrea gigas oysters can be used as a bioindicator of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp farm water canals. Bioassays showed that C. gigas can accumulate WSSV in their gills and digestive glands but do not become infected, either by exposure to seawater containing WSSV or by cohabitation with infected shrimp. The use of a WSSV nested PCR to screen oysters placed in water canals at the entry of a shrimp farm allowed WSSV to be detected 16 d prior to the disease occurring. The finding that C. gigas can concentrate small amounts of WSSV present in seawater without being harmed makes it an ideal sentinel species at shrimp farms. PMID:22535870
Vazquez-Boucard, C; Escobedo-Fregoso, C; Duran-Avelar, Ma de J; Mercier, L; Llera-Herrera, R; Escobedo-Bonilla, C; Vibanco-Perez, N
This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of
Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) account f...
Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) account f...
The inhibitory effect of mimosine on polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from the cephalothorax of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied. Mimosine showed inhibitory activity toward PPO from white shrimp with an apparent molecular weight of 210 kDa as evidenced by the decrease in the activity staining band, as compared to the control. An inhibition kinetic study revealed that mimosine exhibited the mixed type reversible inhibition on PPO from white shrimp with a Ki value of 3.7 mM. Mimosine showed copper (Cu2+) reduction and chelating capacity in a dose dependent manner. Mimosine could react with the intermediate browning product, thereby rendering lower red-brown color formation. Therefore, mimosine could inhibit PPO by different modes of inhibition and could be used to prevent melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp. PMID:21863871
|Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)|
Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.
This report deals with the histopathological/ultrastructural changes in various tissues of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) exposed to hexavalent chromium, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and two dithiocarbamate formulations: Aquatreat DNM-30 (15% sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate plus 15...
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a serious shrimp pathogen that has spread globally to all major shrimp farming areas, causing enormous economic losses. Here we investigate the role of hermit crabs in transmitting WSSV to Penaeus monodon brooders used in hatcheries in Vietnam. WSSV-free brooders became PCR-positive for WSSV within 2 to 14 d, and the source of infection was traced to hermit crabs being used as live feed. Challenging hermit crabs with WSSV confirmed their susceptibility to infection, but they remained tolerant to disease even at virus loads equivalent to those causing acute disease in shrimp. As PCR screening also suggests that WSSV infection occurs commonly in hermit crab populations in both Vietnam and Taiwan, their use as live feed for shrimp brooders is not recommended. PMID:22535869
Chronic exposure to polluted field conditions can impact metal bioavailability in prey and may influence metal transfer to predators. The present study investigated the assimilation of Cd, Hg and organic carbon by grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, collected along an impact gradient within the New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary. Adult shrimp were collected from five Staten Island, New York study sites, fed (109)Cd- or (203)Hg-labeled amphipods or (14)C-labeled meals and analyzed for assimilation efficiencies (AE). Subsamples of amphipods and shrimp were subjected to subcellular fractionation to isolate metal associated with a compartment presumed to contain trophically available metal (TAM) (metal associated with heat-stable proteins [HSP - e.g., metallothionein-like proteins], heat-denatured proteins [HDP - e.g., enzymes] and organelles [ORG]). TAM-(109)Cd% and TAM-(203)Hg% in radiolabeled amphipods were approximately 64% and approximately 73%, respectively. Gradients in AE-(109)Cd% ( approximately 54% to approximately 75%) and AE-(203)Hg% ( approximately 61% to approximately 78%) were observed for grass shrimp, with the highest values exhibited by shrimp collected from sites within the heavily polluted Arthur Kill complex. Population differences in AE-(14)C% were not observed. Assimilated (109)Cd% partitioned to the TAM compartment in grass shrimp varied between approximately 67% and approximately 75%. (109)Cd bound to HSP in shrimp varied between approximately 15% and approximately 47%, while (109)Cd associated with metal-sensitive HDP was approximately 17% to approximately 44%. Percentages of assimilated (109)Cd bound to ORG were constant at approximately 10%. Assimilated (203)Hg% associated with TAM in grass shrimp did not exhibit significant variation. Percentages of assimilated (203)Hg bound to HDP ( approximately 47%) and ORG ( approximately 11%) did not vary among populations and partitioning of (203)Hg to HSP was not observed. Using a simplified biokinetic model of metal accumulation from the diet, it is estimated that site-specific variability in Cd AE by shrimp and tissue Cd burdens in field-collected prey (polychaetes Nereis spp.) could potentially result in up to approximately 3.2-fold differences in the dose of Cd assimilated by shrimp from a meal in the field. The results of this study also suggest that chronic field exposure can impact mechanisms of metal transport across the gut epithelium that do not influence carbon assimilation. Differences in the assimilation and subcellular partitioning of metal may have important implications for metal toxicity in impacted shrimp populations. PMID:19473712
Summary Creation of a shirmp cell line has been an elusive goal. This failure may be due to the composition of the cell culture medium,\\u000a which may be inadequate to support primary cultured cells. Shrimp hemolymph should contain the nutritional components needed\\u000a to support cell growth and division. We report here the comprehensive biochemical analysis of hemolymph from the blue shrimp,Penaeus
Chisato Shimizu; Hiroko Shike; Kurt R. Klimpel; Jane C. Burns
Abstract: This paper describes the integration of an information visualization tool, called SHriMPViews, with IBM WebSphere Studio Application Developer Integration Edition, whichwas developed with Eclipse technology. Although SHriMP was originally developedfor visualizing programs, it is content-independent. We have re-targeted SHriMP forvisualizing flow diagrams. Flow diagrams, as supported by WebSphere Studio ApplicationDeveloper Integration Edition, can be hierarchically composed, thus...
This study was aimed at investigating the cytotoxicity of nitrite on haemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Total haemocyte count (THC), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA damaged cell ratio and apoptotic cell ratio of shrimp were determined after exposure to different concentrations of nitrite-N (0, 1, 10 and 20mgL?1) for 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48h. There
The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the peroxiredoxin (Prx) gene from black tiger shrimp\\u000a (Penaeus monodon). The full length cDNA of black tiger shrimp Prx (PmPrx) contained a 5? untranslated region (UTR) of 51 bp, an ORF (open\\u000a reading frame) of 582 bp encoding a polypeptide of 193 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of
Estuarine hypoxia (<4.0 mg O2\\/litre) caused by eutrophication has been linked to mass mortality of fish and Crustacea. However, there is little information on the hypoxia tolerance of New Zealand's estuarine mysid shrimps and\\/or if these species exhibit behavioural and physiological responses to low dissolved oxygen. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the native mysid shrimp Tenagomysis novae?zealandiae was tolerant of dissolved oxygen
Our field study showed that the total amount of sediment disturbed in Corpus Christi Bay each year by shrimp trawling is 10-100\\u000a times greater than that dredged in an average year for maintenance of shipping channels. The maximum concentrations of suspended\\u000a sediment measured in the trails of the shrimp boats were comparable of the dredge operating in the same area.
This study examined effects of fenoxycarb, a carbamate insecticide, on larvae of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. In laboratory experiments, grass shrimp larvae were exposed to fenoxycarb from hatch to postlarval metamorphosis in a chronic, static renewal bio assay. LC50's ranged from 0.92 mg\\/L at 96 h to 0.35 mg\\/L at the end of the study (24 days). In assessing
A comparative studies regarding prevalence of microbial flora in the muscle of locally available tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and giant water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) have been analyzed in terms of aerobic plate count (APC), enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella-Shigella (SS) counts. The total counts ranged from 2.04x10 to 4.5x10 CFU\\/ml for shrimp and 1.08x10 to 1.2x10 CFU\\/ml for prawn. The total coliforms
This paper describes the design, implementationand performance of the NX message-passing interfaceon the Shrimp multicomputer. Our implementationexploits Shrimp's virtual memory-mapped communicationfacility. Unlike traditional methods, our implementationperforms buffer management at user levelwithout using a special message-passing processor, andrequires no CPU intervention upon message arrivalin the common cases. For a four-byte message, ourimplementation achieves a user-to-user...
Richard Alpert; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Kai Li
Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a severe disease of farm-raised Penaeus vannamei that has been associated with mortality losses ranging from 20 to 95%. NHP was first recognized in Texas in 1985 (S. K. Johnson,p.16,inHandbookofShrimpDiseases,1989)andisaneconomicallyimportantdiseasethathaslimited the ability to culture shrimp in Texas. The putative cause of NHP is a gram-negative, pleomorphic, intracel- lular, rickettsia-like bacterium that remains uncultured in part because
JAMES K. LOY; FLOYD E. DEWHIRST; WILLIAM WEBER; PAUL F. FRELIER; THEODORE L. GARBAR; SERBAN I. TASCA; ANDJOE W. TEMPLETON
Bacillus S11 bacterium isolated from black tiger shrimp habitats was added to shrimp feed as a probiotic in three forms: fresh cells, fresh cells in normal saline solution, and a lyophilized form. After a 100-day feeding trial with probiotic supplemented and non-supplemented (control) feeds, Penaeus monodon (from PL30) exhibited no significant difference (p>0.05) in growth, survival nor external appearance between
Using natural-abundance 13C\\/12C ratios as tracers, carbon turnover rates were determined for postlarval brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, in five laboratory growth experiments. Although tissue turnover in adult animals generally occurs during maintenance metabolism and is a function of time, turnover for young postlarval shrimp was accelerated during growth, and was primarily a function of weight gained rather than time. Metabolic
Derivation of Phanerozoic zircon 206Pb\\/238U ages by SHRIMP depends on calibration against an independently dated standard. The qualities of four different zircon standards (SL13, QGNG, AS3 and TEMORA 1) are assessed herein. Not all of these behave consistently on SHRIMP with respect to their ages as determined by IDTIMS. SL13, the most commonly used standard over the past decade and
Lance P Black; Sandra L Kamo; Ian S Williams; Roland Mundil; Donald W Davis; Russell J Korsch; Chris Foudoulis
Immune response in juvenile tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon fed with biofilm (BF) and free cells (FC) of Vibrio alginolyticus was studied by evaluating the hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and antibacterial activity. The above immune responses were higher in BF fed shrimp than that in FC fed or control shrimp. Among the different doses of BF of V. alginolyticus tested, 10(9) cfu g(-1) shrimp day(-1) for two weeks could evoke higher immune response. BF fed shrimp were more resistant to injection challenge with V. alginolyticus and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) with significantly higher RPS compared to that with FC fed and control shrimp. Better resistance was also reflected by rapid clearance of V. alginolyticus and WSSV from the hemolymph as confirmed by immunodot and histopathology. PMID:20638481
Sharma, S R Krupesha; Shankar, K M; Sathyanarayana, M L; Sahoo, A K; Patil, Rajreddy; Narayanaswamy, H D; Rao, Suguna
/ Intensive shrimp culture has been confined to relatively narrow bands of land along the seashores of tropical developing nations due to the need for large volumes of saltwater for water exchange during the culture period. Recent developments in Thailand suggest, however, that this close association could soon be a thing of the past. Large numbers of Thai farmers are adopting low-salinity culture systems that rely upon sea or salt pan water that is trucked inland. This development greatly increases the potential for establishing shrimp cultivation much further from the coast than previously believed possible. The migration of intensive shrimp farming into freshwater environments, however, raises serious concerns over the disposal of pond effluents and the impact of saltwater intrusion on surrounding agricultural activities. In the absence of effective government regulation of the expansion and operation of the shrimp culture industry, supporting local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and community initiatives may be the only means of minimizing the negative impacts of shrimp farming on rural communities.KEY WORDS: Aquaculture; Shrimp; Salinity; Thailand PMID:9732512
Duplicate static bioassays were conducted using a simulated refinery effluent on the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio, Hippolyte sp.) with the LC-50 values recorded at 4-, 8-, 24-, 48-, and 96-hr intervals. The stimulated refinery effluent contained phenol (0.10 mg/L), sulfide (0.17 mg/L), chromium (0.25 mg/L), ammonia (10 mg/L), No. 2 fuel oil (10 mg/L), and kaolinite (20 mg/L). This arbitrary reference mixture (ARM) contains approximately the concentration of compounds recommended by EPA for 1977. Of the six ARM components, No. 2 fuel oil was the most toxic followed in decreasing order by sulfide, ammonia, phenol, chromium, and kaolinite. Temperature was the most important environmental variable affecting short term toxicity of the ARM to the grass shrimp. Light intensity, photo-period, and salinity had no significant effect. There was no difference in sensitivity of grass shrimp collected from five locations along the gulf and eastern coasts of the United States. Similarly, there was no difference in the response of two grass shrimp genera, Palaemonetes and Hippolyte to the ARM and there was no differences among the three species of Palaemonetes tested. In comparing the sensitivities of the two genera of grass shrimp and the pinfish (Lagodon rhombroides) to the ARM, the grass shrimp were more sensitive. PMID:666364
Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish  and manipulate client behavior , respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish , yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp  Urocaridella sp. c  uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones , spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients. PMID:15854910
Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S
Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P < 0.05). In contrast to the other two treatments, mode-M had stable pH after 50 d cultivation of shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P < 0.05). Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.
Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel technology most commonly used for microbial inactivation, has recently been employed to effectively mitigate food allergens in peanuts, soybean, shrimp, and almond. Putative mechanisms for the efficacy of PUV in reducing allergen reactivity include photothermal, photochemical, and photophysical effects. To date, there are no published data highlighting the effects of in vitro simulated gastric and intestinal digestion on the stability of PUV reduced allergen reactivity of food. In this study, PUV-treated shrimp extracts were subjected to simulated gastric fluid containing pepsin and simulated intestinal fluid containing trypsin and chymotrypsin, and then tested for changes in allergen potency. SDS-PAGE showed no major band deviation between undigested and digested PUV-treated shrimp extracts. IgE binding to tropomyosin remained markedly decreased as seen in Western blot analysis. Total shrimp allergen reactivity remained unchanged following in vitro peptic digestion and was markedly reduced following in vitro intestinal digestion as illustrated in indirect ELISA. The PUV reduced shrimp allergens remained at a low level under the in vitro simulated digestive conditions. The results inferred that PUV could be a potential method to create less allergenic shrimp products that would remain at a low allergen level under human gastric and intestinal digestive conditions. PMID:22278049
Yang, Wade W; Shriver, Sandra K; Chung, Si-Yin; Percival, Susan; Correll, Melanie J; Rababah, Taha M
During the 1980s, a group of women from rural communities in the Mexican state of Sinaloa organized a grassroots social movement in order to gain legal access to the sale of shrimp. The movement reached its peak in 1984, with the formation of a shrimp traders union and the establishment of a shrimp marketplace in the tourist city of Mazatlán. Despite the long trajectory of the movement and the success of the shrimp market, these women and their work have been completely ignored by government agencies in charge of the development and management of the fishing industry. For the most part, one gets to read about the shrimp traders only in tourist-oriented brochures depicting them as a “local attraction,” something to be seen while one is touring the city on a private charter bus en route to the Archaeological Museum or to the upscale jewelry shops in the Golden Zone. In this article, I examine how women used their gender and their identity as rural workers to defy the state and its policies, overcome poverty, and take control of the local marketing of shrimp. Another objective of this article is to show why and how women engaged in collective action so they could be legitimized as workers and how gender shaped their individual experiences. PMID:22545273
High rates of fishery discards have been noted for penaeid shrimp fisheries worldwide and especially for the shrimp trawl fisheries of the southeastern U.S.A. Selective fishing gear, such as bycatch-reduction devices (BRDs), can significantly decrease bycatch and discards in shrimp trawl fisheries. The roller-frame trawl, a type of gear unique to Florida, is used in seagrass beds to harvest food
Charles R. Crawford; Philip Steele; Anne L. McMillen-Jackson; Theresa M. Bert
Tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon held in 25‰ seawater and 26 °C seawater were injected with Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae grown in TSB at a dose of 8.48×104 colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp?1, and then reared onward at water temperatures of 22, 26 (control), 30 and 34 °C. Over 24–96 h, the cumulative mortalities of P. damselae subsp. damselae-injected shrimp held in 22 and 34 °C
Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV) is one of the major causes of stunted shrimp in Thailand and leads to considerable economic losses in overall shrimp production. Present study shows that the double-stranded RNA corresponding to the non-structural protein gene (ns1) and structural protein gene (vp) of PmDNV effectively inhibit viral propagation in naturally pre-infected shrimp. Multiple application of dsRNA was performed
To evaluate the genotoxic, physiological and immunological effects of short-term acute low temperature stress on the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, we rapidly transferred shrimp from tanks at 23±2°C to aquaria at the same temperature (controls) or 12±2°C for 12h. Changes in the shrimp hemocyte respiratory burst activity and DNA damage were examined during and after exposure to the temperature
Jun Qiu; Wei-Na Wang; Li-juan Wang; Yu-Feng Liu; An-Li Wang
Migration of Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) from the Arabian Gulf to nursery grounds in the inland waters of Iraq extends from May\\/June to January\\/February. Shrimp ranging in size from 3–125 mm total length were found in inland waters. In the shallow waters of the Al-Assaflya small-sized shrimp only were caught, while in the Marshes large-sized shrimp were abundant. Maximum numbers
Purified epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were produced from the hepatopancreas of the Atlantic White shrimp, Litopeneaus setiferus, using standard methods originally developed for mammalian tissues and previously applied to other crustacean and echinoderm epithelia. These vesicles were used to study the cation dependency of sugar and amino acid transport across luminal membranes of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. (3)H-D: -glucose uptake by BBMV against transient sugar concentration gradients occurred when either transmembrane sodium or potassium gradients were the only driving forces for sugar accumulation, suggesting the presence of a possible coupled transport system capable of using either cation. (3)H-L: -histidine transport was only stimulated by a transmembrane potassium gradient, while (3)H-L: -leucine uptake was enhanced by either a sodium or potassium gradient. These responses suggest the possible presence of a potassium-dependent transporter that accommodates either amino acid and a sodium-dependent system restricted only to L: -leucine. Uptake of (3)H-L: -leucine was significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) by several metallic cations (e.g., Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), or Co(2+)) at external pH values of 7.0 or 5.0 (internal pH 7.0), suggesting a potential synergistic role of the cations in the transmembrane transfer of amino acids. (3)H-L: -histidine influxes (15 suptakes) were hyperbolic functions of external [zinc] or [manganese], following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent affinity constant (e.g., K (m)) for manganese was an order of magnitude smaller (K (m) = 0.22 ?M Mn) than that for zinc (K (m) = 1.80 ?M Zn), while no significant difference (P > 0.05) occurred between their maximal transport velocities (e.g., J (max)). These results suggest that a number of cation-dependent nutrient transport systems occur on the shrimp brush border membrane and aid in the absorption of these important dietary elements. PMID:21983793
Simmons, Tamla; Mozo, Julie; Wilson, Jennifer; Ahearn, Gregory A
Peptides in shrimp hemolymph play an important role in the innate immune response. Analysis of hemolymph will help to detect and identify potential novel biomarkers of microbial infection. We used magnetic bead-based purification (ClinProt system) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to characterize shrimp hemolymph peptides. Shrimp serum and plasma were used as the source of samples for comparative analysis, and it was found that serum was more suitable for shrimp hemolymph peptidomic analysis. To screen potential specific biomarkers in serum of immune-challenged shrimps, we applied magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS to serum samples from 10 immune-challenged and 10 healthy shrimps. The spectra were analyzed using FlexAnalysis 3.0 and ClinProTools 2.1 software. Thirteen peptide peaks significantly different between the two groups were selected as candidate biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infection. The diagnostic model established by genetic algorithm using five of these peaks was able to discriminate LPS-challenged shrimps from healthy control shrimps with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. Our approach in MALDITOF MS-based peptidomics is a powerful tool for screening bioactive peptides or biomarkers derived from hemolymph, and will help to enable a better understanding of the innate immune response of shrimps.
Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei
The immunostimulatory effects of orally administered Panax ginseng root or its polysaccharides (GSP) in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were investigated in this study. Shrimp were fed a diet containing 0.4 g kg?¹ GSP over a period of 84 days, during which the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and expressions of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (cyt-SOD), CAT, GSH-Px, and peroxiredoxin (Prx) genes were determined in various tissues of the shrimp. Results showed that the shrimp fed the GSP diet had significantly increased ACP and AKP activities in the gills. The GSP-fed shrimp also displayed significantly increased T-SOD and GSH-Px activities in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp; meanwhile there was enhanced CAT activity in the gills, but decreased MDA content in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscle. The mRNA expressions of cyt-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and Prx were significantly elevated in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp fed the GSP diet for 84 days, compared with that of the control. Therefore, GSP can be used as an immunostimulant for shrimp through dietary administration to increase immune enzyme activity and modify expression of immune genes in shrimp. PMID:21129487
Stable isotope methods can be used to determine the food sources and prey items of aquatic organisms accurately and reliably. This study examined the relative contribution of artificial foods (the formulated feed and Artemia) and natural foods to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond by using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. The results showed that the nutrition utilization efficiency of the harvested shrimp was low, only 33.18% of feed nitrogen and 21.73% of feed carbon being converted to shrimp flesh. Our stable isotope results showed that the shrimp obtained nutrition for maximum growth from artificial foods, whose contribution was 93.5%, with the remaining attributed to the natural foods. However, there was 0.94 t harvested shrimp derived from natural foods (the rest of 13.56 t harvested shrimp derived from artificial foods) in 1ha intensive pond with a shrimp production of 14.50 t ha-1. Therefore, unit area shrimp production can be increased by increasing the contribution proportion of natural foods in intensive shrimp farming.
Su, Yuepeng; Ma, Shen; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin
Background The present study investigated to what extent shrimp allergic individuals were IgE-sensitized to anisakis, crab and house dust mite and whether tropomyosin was responsible for IgE cross-reactivity. Methods 29 Individuals with self reported shrimp allergy were recruited by advertisements in local and national news-papers in Norway. Anamnesis was taken, skin prick tests (SPT) were performed and positive responders to shrimp were studied further with basophile activation test (BAT), ImmunoCAP analyses and western blotting. Results Of the 29 persons studied, 10 (34%) had positive SPT against shrimp and house dust mite, 9 (31%) against shrimp tropomyosin and 3 (10%) against anisakis. Individuals with positive SPT to shrimp all showed positive basophilic responses to house dust mite, while 43% responded to shrimp, 25% to anisakis and 36% to crab in BAT. Moreover, SPT, BAT as well as ImmunoCAP analyses showed a positive correlation of IgE-reactivity between anisakis and shrimp, house dust mite and crab. Immunoblot studies indicated that these responses are not completely explained by cross-reactivity towards tropomyosin. Conclusions The current study indicates a positive correlation between IgE-mediated reactions to shrimp, anisakis, house dust mite and crab, which may not be completely explained by cross-reactivity against tropomyosin.
Dooper, Maaike; Myrset, Heidi; Egaas, Eliann; van Do, Thien; Florvaag, Erik
Endemic thalassinid burrowing shrimps are simultaneously dominant ecosystem engineering species and economic pests within Pacific estuaries. Dense populations of two shrimps (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) commonly occupy >75% of intertidal and shallow subti...
A precollaborative study compared the accuracy and precision of official AOAC methods with other selected methods for determining net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp, assessed the ruggedness of the methods with respect to changes in the levels of the factors under study, and selected candidate methods for use in a collaborative study. Methods tested for determining deglazed (frozen) net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp were (1) AOAC Method 963.18 and (2) the Water Bath Dip Method. Methods tested for determining thawed net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp were (1) AOAC Method 967.13, (2) Modified AOAC Method(mnb) 967.13, (3) Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13, (4) the Codex Method, (5) the Air Thaw Method, and (6) Modified AOAC Method 963.18. The same methods except Modified AOAC Method 963.18 were tested for determining thawed net weight of block-glazed shrimp. A total of 864 0.45 kg (1 lb), 0.90 kg (2 lb), and 1.35 kg (3 lb) IQF-glazed shrimp test samples and 234 2.25 kg (5 lb) block-glazed shrimp test samples were collected. During sample preparation, test samples were subjected to either water with or without sodium tripolyphosphate (STP). During deglazing (IQF-glazed shrimp only) and/or thawing, test samples were allocated in a factorial design to assess the effects of STP presence (no STP and STP), sieve mesh sizes (2.83 and 2.38 mm; 0.11 and 0.09 in.), and sieve diameters (20 and 30 cm; 8 and 12 in.). During weighing, test samples were further allocated to a sequence of weighing procedures designed to assess the effects of using sieve weights (dry and wet) in combination with paper towel use (no and yes) and tared pan weights when calculating determined net weights. On the basis of the results of this precollaborative study, Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13 and the Air Thaw Method seem to be the best methods to determine net weight of IQF-glazed and block-glazed shrimp. Therefore, to validate method choices in the collaborative study, the authors recommend analysis of IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp test samples, each prepared with or without STP, by Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13 and the Air Thaw Method. To fulfill AOAC requirements, IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp test samples, each prepared with or without STP, must be analyzed by official methods: AOAC Method 963.18 (IQF-glazed shrimp only) and AOAC Method 967.13. During testing, sieve mesh size will be either 2.83 or 2.38 mm (0.11 or 0.09 in.), sieve diameter will be limited to 30 cm (12 in.), and weighing procedure will be limited to tared pan. PMID:9477564
The current increase in the amount of shrimp wastes produced by the shrimp industry has led to the need in finding new methods\\u000a for shrimp wastes disposal. In this study, Bacillus licheniformis RP1 was shown to produce proteases when grown in media containing shrimp wastes powder as a sole carbon and nitrogen source,\\u000a indicating that this bacteria could obtain its
Background From 2001-2003 monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) caused severe economic losses for Thai shrimp farmers who cultivated the\\u000a native, giant tiger shrimp, and this led them to adopt exotic stocks of the domesticated whiteleg shrimp as the species of\\u000a cultivation choice, despite the higher value of giant tiger shrimp. In 2008, newly discovered Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) was\\u000a proposed as a
The current increase in amount of shrimp wastes produced by the shrimp industry has led to the need in finding new methods\\u000a for shrimp wastes disposal. In this study, an extracellular organic solvent- and oxidant-stable metalloprotease was produced\\u000a by Bacillus cereus SV1. Maximum protease activity (5,900 U\\/mL) was obtained when the strain was grown in medium containing 40 g\\/L shrimp
Scattered reports of viral inserts in shrimp and insect genomes led to the hypothesis that random, autonomous insertion of such sequences occurs in these organisms and leads to specific, heritable immunity. To test the prediction regarding random insertion of viral sequences into the shrimp genome, we examined the giant tiger shrimp for random genomic insertions of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (also
Freshwater shrimp dominate the faunal biomass of many headwater tropical streams: however, their role in community organization is unclear. Enclosure\\/exclosure experiments in a montane Puerto Rican stream examined direct and indirect effects of two dominant taxa of atyid (Atyidae) shrimp, Atya lanipes Holthuis and Xiphocaris elongata Guerin-Meneville. Both shrimp taxa caused significant reductions in sediment cover on rock substrata, reducing
Catherine M. Pringle; Gail A. Blake; Alan P. Covich; Karen M. Buzby; Amy Finley
Nitric oxide (NO) is a well known essential molecule that is involved in multiple functions such as neuron transduction, cardiac disease, immune responses, etc.; nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a critical enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of it. A very few crustacean NOS molecules were biochemically characterized so far. In the present study, we cloned and characterized a NOS cDNA from haemocytes of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) (PmNOS). The full-length of PmNOS cDNA contained 3997 bp, including a 5'UTR of 249 bp, ORF of 3582 bp and a 3'UTR of 166 bp. The putative peptide was 1193 amino acid residues in length, with an estimated molecular weight of 134.7 kDa and pI 6.7. Structurally, PmNOS contained oxygenase and reductase domains at N-terminal and C-terminal, respectively, and connected with a calmodulin binding motif. The deduced amino acid sequence of PmNOS shared 98% identical to the Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) NOS. Phylogenetically, PmNOS clustered with invertebrate NOS, but not clustered with iNOS, eNOS or nNOS found in vertebrates. PmNOS mRNA was expressed in many tissues or organs including thoracic and ventral nerves, midgut, gill, eyestalk, haemocytes, subcuticular epithelium and heart, but not found in hepatopancreas, muscle and lymphoid organ. But there was no significant difference in PmNOS mRNA expression after stimulation with LPS either by different concentration or time course or against CpG-ODN 2006. The enzyme activities of rPmNOS or crude homogenates from different tissues were detected, and were shown its highest activity in thoracic and ventral nerves, moderate in midgut and haemocytes but the lowest activity were seen in muscle. The addition of NOS antibody against NADPH binding domain leads to less activity which suggested that NADPH was an essential cofactor for PmNOS catalytic activity. The calcium dependency of PmNOS was ascertained using calmodulin inhibitor, Trifluroperazine. To confirm the population of haemocyte which produce NOS, the florescence test was assayed, and it implicated that the production of NO was catalyzed by subset of granulocytic NOS. Since the MW range, inducible/noninducible transcript, calcium-dependent activity and tissue distribution, we suggest that PmNOS may recognize as an ancient NOS evolutionarily. PMID:23994281
In search of means to reduce the by-catch of juvenile flatfish in the shrimp fishery, vibrations and changes in current velocity caused by shrimp trawls were investigated in the field and in the laboratory. Buried as well as emerged shrimps ( Crangon crangon) exhibit tailflips 5 10 cm before being touched by the rollers of a shrimp gear approaching them at a speed of 0.5 m·sec-1, as was revealed by slow motion video recordings in aquaria under artificial light. Hence, the signal effective in triggering escape must be attenuated strongly with increasing distance. Sediment vibration, commonly assumed to be an important signal in triggering escape of shrimps, was found to decrease by a factor 100·m-1. Signals from the rollers of a commercial shrimp gear in operation (towing speed 1 m·sec-1) were directly recorded with an accelerometer. Their frequency ranged from 50 to 500 Hz and reached an acceleration of 40 m·sec-2 on soft bottom or up to 100 m·sec-2 on hard substrate. Accelerometers, which had been buried right at the surface of a tidal sand flat during low tide, produced only one sharp signal of 100 Hz with an acceleration of 24 m·sec-2, when a shrimp gear swept them on the submerged tidal flats. However, in aquaria short sinusoidal signals (<5 m·sec-2; 20 to 300 Hz) made buried shrimps and flatfish ( Pleuronectes platessa, Solea solea, Microstomus kitt) hide rather than flee. The vibrations recorded directly at the rollers and the underlying jolting movements of the rollers induce corresponding pulses in the water surrounding the rollers in a layer of approximately 10 15 cm. Similar water displacement of high acceleration was experimentally produced by a spring loaded transparent lucite piston (7 cm in diameter) fitted to an accelerometer. Accelerating this piston (12 116 m·sec-2, 50 200 Hz range) from 5 cm above towards the shrimp produced escape responses in up to 94% of the tests. Arthropods are known to perceive medium displacement rather than pressure. Hence, strong and rapidly rising water currents caused by the rollers rather than sediment vibration are assumed to mainly trigger the escape reaction, which makes Crangon accessible to the gear.
The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 ?g(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics. PMID:21807199
Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S
Intensive black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal (N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds. PMID:19189172
Sodium metabisulfite is used in marine shrimp harvesting to prevent the occurrence of black spots. Shrimps are soaked in a sodium metabisulfite solution in ice, which is disposed of in sewages that run into marine canals, creating an environmental hazard. This study evaluates the toxicity and mutagenicity caused by sodium metabisulfite in sea waters and sediments collected in a shrimp farm in Cajueiro da Praia (Luis Correia), state of Piauí, Brazil, using the Allium cepa assay. Water and sediment samples were collected in the dry and in the rainy seasons, in three sites: upstream the shrimp farm (Site 1), at the point sodium metabisulfite is discharged (Site 2), and 100 m downstream the farm (Site 3). Three sample dilutions were used (50%, 25% and 10%) for all samples. A negative control (well water) and a positive control (copper sulfate 0.0006 mg mL?¹) were used in each experiment. At the end of the 72-h exposure period, onion roots were measured and removed. Mutagenicity analysis included the determination of mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations and the detection of micronuclei; analysis of root size and mitotic index were used as an index of toxicity. The A. cepa assay revealed that the water and sediments samples collected in the Piauí coast contaminated with sodium metabisulfite induce toxicity. The results demonstrate that the assay may be used as a regular tool in the analysis of water parameters in shrimp farms in the coast of Piauí state, and in strategies to preserve the region's marine ecosystem. PMID:21056453
da Costa Machado Matos Carvalho, Ivana Mara; Cavalcante, Ana Amélia Melo; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Pereira, Danilo Leôncio Aguiar; Rocha, Francisco Cézar Costa; Oliveira, Francisco Massal de; Da Silva, Juliana
Dried salted shrimps are made from raw shrimps, which are cooked and dried under direct sunlight. The preparation and storage include treatments and conditions that can promote oxidative changes in different components. The aim of this study was to monitor the formation of major cholesterol oxidation products and the changes in the astaxanthin content and fatty acid profile in dried salted shrimp during cooking, sun drying and storage. During sun drying, most of the astaxanthin (75%) was degraded in cooked shrimp, while cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) showed a dramatic increase (8.6-fold), reaching a total concentration of 372.9±16.3?g/g of lipids. Further storage favoured both astaxanthin degradation (83%) and COPs formation (886.6±97.9?g/g of lipids after 90days of storage). The high degradation of astaxanthin and the elevated formation of COPs during sun drying and storage indicate the necessity to re-evaluate the processing and storage conditions of salted dried shrimp. PMID:24128553
Hernández Becerra, Josafat A; Ochoa Flores, Angélica A; Valerio-Alfaro, Gerardo; Soto-Rodriguez, Ida; Rodríguez-Estrada, María T; García, Hugo S
The cDNAs encoding CathL and legumain from Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcCathL, FcLegu) were obtained. Both FcCathL and FcLegu mRNA were expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas of unchallenged shrimp. Time-course analysis of FcCathL showed that FcCathL was upregulated in the hepatopancreas of shrimp challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 12 h. FcLegu mRNA in hepatopancreas was down-regulated by Vibrio. FcLegu transcript first declined from 2 h to 6 h and then recovered from 12 h to 24 h in hepatopancreas challenged with WSSV. FcCathL protein was detected in the hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gill, stomach, and intestine of unchallenged shrimp. Three bands of FcCathL protein detected in some tissues may represent preproenzyme, single chain and mature double chain form respectively. In hepatopancreas, FcLegu was detected in the proenzyme form. In other tissues, only active form could be detected. The protein of FcLegu was down-regulated by Vibrio or WSSV challenge in the stomach and gills. FcCathL and FcLegu were proposed to play a role in shrimp innate immunity for the first time. PMID:20362060
In 1992 and 1993, a 7 months study carried out in a major shrimp-producing area in Southern Thailand to study the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella. A total of 158 samples were examined including water, sediment, shrimp, pelleted feed, shrimp gut, and chicken manure. Salmonella was not recovered from any sample type studied. V. cholerae O1 was isolated from 2 (2%) and V. cholerae non-O1 was isolated from 35 (33%) of 107 samples examined. The occurrence of V. cholerae was not significantly influenced by water salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen or pH. There was no correlation between fecal coliform counts and the prevalence of V. cholerae. The results indicate that V. cholerae non-O1 is ubiquitous in aquatic environments where shrimp culture is practised under a variety of environmental conditions. The public health significance of non-O1 V. cholerae in shrimp culture remains to be determined. V. cholerae O1 and Salmonella do not appear to constitute a hygienic problem even if chicken manure was used as fertilizer. PMID:8751094
Dalsgaard, A; Huss, H H; H-Kittikun, A; Larsen, J L
Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, is the major species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable ($302 million in 1980) commercial fishery in the United States. It is heavily preyed on by many fishes. Spawning occurs offshore from about September to May and most postlarvae move into estuaries from February through April. Within the estuary they occupy shallow water near marshes with soft substrate. Juveniles emigrate from estuaries to offshore areas from May through August. They grow as fast as 3.3 mm per day in estuaries. Adults concentrate around the 55-m contour offshore. Postlarval and juvenile shrimp are normally taken in water temperatures above 10/sup 0/C and rapid growth occurs above 18/sup 0/C. Few shrimp are collected below 5 ppt salinity. Brown shrimp are benthic feeders and prefer soft substrates. High populations are associated with coastal marshes.
Two bacterial cultures were isolated and tested for degradation of shrimp shell waste. According to morphological examination, physiological tests, and applied molecular techniques, isolates were identified as Bacillus cereus and Exiguobacterium acetylicum. Both strains were cultivated separately in flasks with 100 mL of shrimp shell waste broth (3% of washed, dried and ground shrimp shell waste in tap water, pH 7.0) at 37 degrees C. At determined periods of time, deproteinization and demineralization of residuals were measured. Fermentation of 3% shell waste with B. cereus indicated 97.1% deproteinization and 95% demineralization. For E. acetylicum, the level of deproteinization and demineralization was 92.8 and 92%, respectively. Protein content was reduced from 18.7 to 5.3% with B. cereus and to 7.3% with E. acetylicum. No additional supplements were used during the fermentation of shell waste. B. cereus strain showed higher efficacy in decomposition of shell waste and was used for large-scale fermentation in 12 L of 10% shrimp shell waste broth. Incubation of bacteria with shell waste during 14 days at 37 degrees C resulted in 78.6% deproteinization and 73% demineralization. High activity of isolated cultures in decomposition of shrimp shell waste suggests broad potential for application of these bacteria in environmentally friendly approaches to chitin extraction from chitin-rich wastes. PMID:19471983
The DNA and putative amino acid sequences of representative insect and shrimp parvoviruses (subfamily Densovirinae) were analyzed using computer programs. Shrimp viruses included hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) of Penaeus monodon (HPVmon) and P. chinensis (HPVchin), spawner-isolated mortality virus from P. monodon (SMVmon) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) from P. vannamei. Insect viruses included Aedes aegypti densovirus (AaeDNV), Aedes
Songsak Roekring; Linda Nielsen; Leigh Owens; Sa-nga Pattanakitsakul; Prida Malasit; T. W. Flegel
The competition among shrimp producing countries, the rapid advances in technology and the increase in market demand suggest that the shrimp industry at a global level and in Mexico in particular needs to take appropriate measures to maintain its viability and be able to compete successfully. This can be achieved by making better use of the available scarce resources and
The mutual attraction between the fish Cryptocentrus cryptocentrus and the shrimp Alpheus djiboutensis has been investigated experimentally. The fish is attracted to its partner visually, the shrimp is attracted chemically. The mutual attraction is reinforced by the strong negative phototactic reaction of both partners, orienting them towards the burrow.
The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant intertidal inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the bivalve Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities by the shrimp and by its commensal clam, as well as particle se...
The grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, plays a large role in the marine ecosystem, serving as a vital link in the food web between many other species. Marine parasites such as the bopyrid isopod, Probopyrus pandalicola, reduce shrimp growth and reproductive output and may also cause P. pugio to be more vulnerable to the lethal effects of contaminants. The purpose of
Christopher J. Williamson; Paul L. Pennington; Mary Carla Curran
Grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio) were reared separately through both embryonic and total larval development during exposure to fenoxycarb at measured concentrations of ?1. A fenoxycarb concentration of 888 ?g L ?1 significantly ( p ?1 had no significant ( p > 0.05) effect on complete embryonic development. Significantly fewer shrimp successfully metamorphosed to postlarvae when exposed through complete larval
C. L. McKenney; G. M. Cripe; S. S. Foss; S. R. Tuberty; M. Hoglund
The neritic waters of the state of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil is adjacent to the main nesting area of the olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) in the Western Atlantic Ocean and an important area for shrimp trawl fishery. To address the problem of incidental mortality of sea turtles captured during trawling and reduce the risk of overexploitation of shrimp
Augusto César Coelho Dias da Silva; Jaqueline Comin de Castilhos; Erik Allan Pinheiro dos Santos; Luciana Sonnewend Brondízio; Leandro Bugoni
Migration and distribution of two decapod shrimp, Penaeus setiferus and P. aztecus, in the cooling-water system of a power plant on the Texas coast were investigated, with emphasis on the seaward emigration from the cooling lake. Samples were collected every two weeks for a year by straining water leaving the lake over a drop structure, trawling in the cooling lake, and flushed from the intake screen. Shrimp catches at the drop structure were positively correlated with the standing population in the cooling lake. Significantly more shrimp passed over the drop structure nocturnally than diurnally. Shrimp caught at the drop structure diurnally averaged either smaller or similar in size to the shrimp taken there at night. The passage of a cold front enhanced migration and initially increased and then reduced the mean size of shrimp passing the drop structure. Higher percentages of the shrimp population in the cooling lake emigrated near new moon than full moon. The moon-phase effects appeared to be due to the moon cycle itself rather than to the intinsity of moon light. Significantly more shrimp of both species emigrated during the hours of ebbing than incoming tide. As the lake surface was above high tide level, an endogenous timing mechanism rather than evironmental factors associated with tidal rhythms controlled this emigration pattern. A temperature drop of up to 0.23 C/hour significantly increased P. aztecus emigration.
Oxytetracycline (OTC) is the most prominent antibiotic in shrimp aquaculture. In this work, OTC residue in shrimp muscle is determined using a portable analyzer built in this laboratory based on europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). First, OTC is extracted in McIlvaine buffer at pH 4.0 with 0.1 ...
With bacterial 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) as molecular marker and by using PCR-DGGE technique, the fingerprints of bacterial community were constructed to study the effects of applying streptomycin sulfate, terramycin, and penicillin on the bacterial community in shrimp hatchery system. Within the 120 h experimental period, significant difference in the diversity of the bacterial community was observed between the treatments applied with 0.5 mg x L(-1) of test antibiotics and the control. In the control, the band patterns in 0-30 h were clustered into one clade, and those in 56-120 h were clustered into another; while in the treatments applied with test antibiotics, the band patterns in 0-56 h were clustered into one clade, and those in 72-120 h were clustered into another. After the sequencing of DGGE bands, the BLAST-N searches for sequence similarity showed great diversity of bacterial species, including culturable bacteria (mainly Sulfitobacter sp., Rhodobacteraceae sp., Photobacterium damselae, Synechoccoccus sp., Actinomycetales, Flavobacteriaceae, Filamentous photosynthetic, Mucus, and Vibrio harveyi) and some uncultured marine bacteria, among which, Rhodobacteraceae sp., Photobacterium damselae, Actinomycetales, Flavobacteriaceae, Mucus, and two unculturable bacteria were less affected by the three antibiotics, while Sulfitobacter sp., Filamentous photosynthetic, and other eight unculturable marine bacteria changed in different spatiotemporal patterns with the kinds of test antibiotics. PMID:20077718
Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remarkably rare in nature and relatively inaccessible due to its changing habitats over the course of ontogeny. The mid-water marine species Cerataspis monstrosa (Gray 1828) is an armored crustacean larva whose adult identity has remained a mystery for over 180 years. Our phylogenetic analyses, based in part on recent collections from the Gulf of Mexico, provide definitive evidence that the rare, yet broadly distributed larva, C. monstrosa, is an early developmental stage of the globally distributed deepwater aristeid shrimp, Plesiopenaeus armatus. Divergence estimates and phylogenetic relationships across five genes confirm the larva and adult are the same species. Our work demonstrates the diagnostic power of molecular systematics in instances where larval rearing seldom succeeds and morphology and habitat are not indicative of identity. Larval-adult linkages not only aid in our understanding of biodiversity, they provide insights into the life history, distribution, and ecology of an organism. PMID:23145324
Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A
Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remarkably rare in nature and relatively inaccessible due to its changing habitats over the course of ontogeny. The mid-water marine species Cerataspis monstrosa (Gray 1828) is an armored crustacean larva whose adult identity has remained a mystery for over 180 years. Our phylogenetic analyses, based in part on recent collections from the Gulf of Mexico, provide definitive evidence that the rare, yet broadly distributed larva, C. monstrosa, is an early developmental stage of the globally distributed deepwater aristeid shrimp, Plesiopenaeus armatus. Divergence estimates and phylogenetic relationships across five genes confirm the larva and adult are the same species. Our work demonstrates the diagnostic power of molecular systematics in instances where larval rearing seldom succeeds and morphology and habitat are not indicative of identity. Larval–adult linkages not only aid in our understanding of biodiversity, they provide insights into the life history, distribution, and ecology of an organism.
Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A
We report the first complete genome sequence of a marine invertebrate virus. White spot bacilliform virus (WSBV; or white spot syndrome virus) is a major shrimp pathogen with a high mortality rate and a wide host range. Its double-stranded circular DNA genome of 305,107 bp contains 181 open reading frames (ORFs). Nine homologous regions containing 47 repeated minifragments that include direct repeats, atypical inverted repeat sequences, and imperfect palindromes were identified. This is the largest animal virus that has been completely sequenced. Although WSBV is morphologically similar to insect baculovirus, the two viruses are not detectably related at the amino acid level. Rather, some WSBV genes are more homologous to eukaryotic genes than viral genes. In fact, sequence analysis indicates that WSBV differs from all known viruses, although a few genes display a weak homology to herpesvirus genes. Most of the ORFs encode proteins that bear no homology to any known proteins, either suggesting that WSBV represents a novel class of viruses or perhaps implying a significant evolutionary distance between marine and terrestrial viruses. The most unique feature of WSBV is the presence of an intact collagen gene, a gene encoding an extracellular matrix protein of animal cells that has never been found in any viruses. Determination of the genome of WSBV will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of the WSBV virus and will also provide useful information concerning the evolution and divergence of marine and terrestrial animal viruses at the molecular level.
A liquid chromatographic method with mass spectrometric detection and identification (LC-MS) is presented for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP) in shrimp tissues. Homogenized shrimp samples were extracted with phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Clean-up was carried out on a C(18) SPE cartridge. Chloramphenicol was determined by LC-MS-ESI in negative mode. The column used was a Symmetry Shield with a mixture of acetonitrile-water (25:75) as mobile phase. Shrimp samples were fortified at CAP levels between 0.2 and 50 ng g(-1) with 5D-CAP as internal standard. At these levels, accuracies lay between 101 and 110% and between-day reproducibilities were lower than 7.1%, expressed as the variation coefficient of the mean. Limit of decision (CCalpha) was 0.02 ng g(-1). Limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.2 ng g(-1). PMID:12798162
This chapter describes the development and current situation of the offshore shrimp fisheries in Iceland, Greenland, Svalbard, Jan Mayen and the Norwegian Barents Sea area, with information on the biology of Pandalus borealis and its relation to the environment. Some additional information about the inshore shrimp fisheries of Iceland and Greenland of relevance to this study is also included. The Icelandic offshore shrimp fishery started in 1975 and has formed between 68% and 94% of the annual catch of shrimp since 1984. Landings peaked at 66,000 tons in 1997. The offshore fleet increased threefold from 1983 to 1987, and catch per unit of effort doubled. The first signs of overfishing were detected in 1987, when the first total allowable catch (TAC) was set, and catches decreased during the next few years despite the discovery of new fishing grounds. Good recruitment allowed catches to rise steadily from 1990 to 1996. However, catches and stock index have decreased markedly since then, with a minimum catch for the period 1998-2003 of 21,500 tons in 2000. It has been suggested that predation by cod is an important factor affecting shrimp stock size, but mortality from predation is slightly lower than fishing mortality, so that the impact of fishing cannot be disregarded. The Greenland offshore shrimp fishery is one of the largest in the North Atlantic and it generates 90% of the export value of the country. The fishery started in 1970 in West Greenland with landings of 1200 tons, but since 1974 it has formed between 59% and 89% of the annual shrimp catch. In 2004, landings reached 113,000 tons and the fishable stock was estimated at 300,000 tons. The significant spatial expansion of the fishery from the original fishing grounds off the Disko Island area to all of the West coast south of 75 degrees N and the fleet improvement over the past three decades have made possible this spectacular growth. Other fishing grounds off the East coast have been fished since 1978, mostly by foreign vessels. Catches in this area oscillated between 5000 and 15,000 tons during the period 1980-2004. The main problem of the shrimp fishery in Greenland is its overlapping with nursery areas of redfish, Greenland halibut, cod and other groundfish species, some of which show declining trends of biomass and abundance. This led to the implementation in 2000 of sorting grids and laws that forbid fishing when the bycatch exceeds legal limits. However, it is likely that ecological processes only partially understood, such as the trophic web and hydrography of the area, greatly influence the stock abundance of the demersal community. The offshore Norwegian fishery started in 1973. The main fishing grounds are off Svalbard and in the Barents Sea. Catches at Jan Mayen have never exceeded 5% of the total annual catch of northern shrimp. Large fluctuations in catches and stock size are the main characteristic of this fishery. Stock size seems to be largely dependent on the annual hydrographic variability in the area and trends in abundance of predator species, especially cod. However, shrimp mortality due to predation has been estimated to be the same as fishing mortality, and therefore fishing probably accounts for part of the observed variability in stock size. Large populations of juvenile cod, haddock, redfish and Greenland halibut are often found on the shrimp fishing grounds. The implementation of sorting grids in 1991 and a bio-economical model in 1993 to estimate allowable maximum catches of the commercial bycatch species have not solved the bycatch problem. All the commercial fish species present on the shrimp grounds are currently below safe biological limits. This is the only fishery within the studied area that is not regulated by means of a TAC system. PMID:17298891
Disease outbreaks caused by viral pathogens constitute a major limitation to development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. Many research have been conducted to better understand how host shrimp respond to viral infections with the aim of using the gained knowledge to develop better strategies for disease management and control. One approach has been to study the interactions between host and viral proteins, and particularly host virus-binding proteins that might play an important role in the viral infection process. Within the past five years, increasing numbers of virus-binding proteins (VBPs) have been reported in shrimp. Characterization of these molecules has emphasized on their potential therapeutic applications by demonstrating their activities in inhibition of viral replication via in vivo neutralization assay. However, signaling to induce innate antiviral immune responses as a consequence of binding between viral proteins and VBPs remain to be fully elucidated. PMID:23023111
For several decades inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems have been affected by a multitude of synthetic chemical substances. This is a consequence of population growth and increased industrial and agricultural activity. Many of these chemicals, the by-products of their production, and degradation products ultimately find their way into the aquatic environment as pollutants. The extent to which these pollutants affect the environment and its inhabitants depends largely upon the quantity and nature of the particular compounds involved. Halogenated hydrocarbons, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the pesticide DDT and its degradation products have received much attention as environmental pollutants. Because of the economic importance of the shrimping industry to southwest Louisiana, the objective of this study was to analyze shrimp collected from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex for the presence of selected chlorinated pesticides. The presence of these compounds within shrimp tissues would serve as an indicator for the extent of pollution throughout this important estuarine system.
Murray, H.E.; Beck, J.N. (McNeese State Univ., Lake Charles, LA (USA))
In euryhaline crustaceans, sensitivity to toxic trace metals may be linked to osmoregulation and salinity conditions. This study investigated if grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) populations from different salinity regimes differed in sensitivity to cadmium (Cd). Grass shrimp were collected in May 2011 from two marsh sites with average salinities of ~3.0 ppt and 24.0 ppt. Groups were acclimated for 3-32 weeks in either their respective native salinity (3.0 ppt ? 3.0 ppt and 24.0 ppt ? 24.0 ppt), or the average of the salinities of the two collection sites (3.0 ppt ? 13.5 ppt and 24.0 ppt ? 13.5 ppt). After acclimation, groups were exposed to equivalent free-ion Cd concentration (4.8 ± 0.3 mg/L, Cd(2+)) in their respective acclimated salinity to compare survival among salinity treatments. Results of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that 3.0 ppt ? 3.0 ppt shrimp were more sensitive to Cd(2+) than any other group (p < 0.0001). Additionally, 3.0 ppt ? 13.5 ppt shrimp were less sensitive to Cd(2+) than were 24.0 ppt ? 13.5 ppt shrimp (p = 0.0013). These results suggest that sensitivity of grass shrimp to Cd is dependent upon the salinity during exposure, and the salinity regime from which the tested population originated. The implication is that toxicity studies and risk assessments using euryhaline crustaceans should consider the salinity of test population collection sites when interpreting and comparing results. PMID:23212442
A real-time CO(2) evolution rate (CER) method together with conventional cultural and sensory techniques were utilized to determine the microbial quality and shelf life of several types of shrimp products: chloramphenicol (CAP) treated, imported farm raised, and domestic wild caught. Treatment with CAP was used to create different bacterial loads in shrimp samples to demonstrate the ability and sensitivity of the CER method for differentiating the bacterial activity in samples. Samples were divided into control (nontreated) and 0, 10, and 30 ppm of CAP treatment groups and stored at 4°C. The CER was recorded with a microrespirometer, and aerobic plate counts (APCs), olfactory sensory analyses, and pH measurements were recorded daily until spoilage occurred. The real-time CER results were highly correlated with the APCs (R(2) = 0.93) and readily distinguished the onset of spoilage in each of the treatment groups. CAP treatment at 10 and 30 ppm increased the sample shelf life by 2 and 3 days, respectively, compared with the nontreated samples. Untreated domestic wild-caught shrimp had a shelf life 1 day longer than that of the untreated imported farm-raised shrimp. No pattern of change in pH was noted throughout the storage period. When the olfactory sensory scores reached the marginally acceptable level, the mean CER was 27.23 ?l/h/g and the mean APC was 5.78 log CFU/g. A cutoff CER of 25.0 ?l/h/g was therefore selected to define acceptable raw shrimp. The CER method was a highly effective and sensitive real-time method for determining the microbial quality of raw shrimp. PMID:23212016
Selective harvesting is acknowledged as a serious concern in efforts to conserve wild animal populations. In fisheries, most studies have focused on gradual and directional changes in the life-history traits of target species. While such changes represent the ultimate response of harvested animals, it is also well known that the life history of target species plastically alters with harvesting. However, research on the adaptive significance of these types of condition-dependent changes has been limited. We explored the adaptive significance of annual changes in the age at sex-change of the protandrous (male-first) hermaphroditic shrimp and examined how selective harvesting affects life-history variation, by conducting field observations across 13 years and a controlled laboratory experiment. In addition, we considered whether plastic responses by the shrimp would be favourable, negligible or negative with respect to the conservation of fishery resources. The age at sex-change and the population structure of the shrimp fluctuated between years during the study period. The results of the field observations and laboratory experiment both indicated that the shrimp could plastically change the timing of sex-change in accordance with the age structure of the population. These findings provide the first concrete evidence of adult sex ratio adjustment by pandalid shrimp, a group that has been treated as a model in the sex allocation theory. The sex ratio adjustment by the shrimp did not always seem to be sufficient, however, as the supplement of females is restricted by their annual somatic growth rate. In addition, adjusted sex ratios are further skewed by the unintentional female-selectivity of fishing activity prior to the breeding season, indicating that the occurrence of males that have postponed sex-change causes sex ratio adjustment to become unfavourable. We conclude that the plastic responses of harvested animals in selective fishing environments must be considered in efforts to conserve wild animal resources, because such responses can become maladaptive. PMID:23163795
Vibrio species' infections are a common sequelae to environmental stress or other disease processes in shrimp, but the mechanism by which the shrimp eliminate the bacteria is poorly understood. In this study, the penetration, fate and the clearing of V. vulnificus were investigated in Penaeus monodon. A bacterial disease isolate from a shrimp farm was identified as V. vulnificus biotype I. Polyclonal antiserum was raised in rabbits against the bacterium and the specificity was verified by ELISA and immunoblot against a range of Vibrio spp. and other gram-negative bacteria. The bacteria were then administered to P. monodon juveniles by injection, immersion and oral intubation. An indirect immunoperoxidase technique was employed in a time course study to follow the bacteria and bacterial antigens in the tissue of the shrimp. Bacteria were cleared by a common route, regardless of the method of administration. Observations in immersion challenge were similar to a combination of those for oral and injection challenges. With immersion, bacteria entered the shrimp through damaged cuticle or via insertion points of cuticular setae. Shortly after entry, whole bacterial cells were observed in the haemolymph and connective tissue. They were either phagocytosed by haemocytes, or broken down outside host cells. Haemocytes containing bacterial cells or antigens (HCB) were observed in the connective tissue and haemolymph. HCB accumulated around the hepatopancreas, midgut, midgut-caecum, gills, heart and lymphoid organ. Free bacterial antigens also accumulated in the heart and lymphoid organ. Bacteria entering through the mouth by oral intubation or immersion were broken down so that only soluble or very fine particles entered the hepatopancreas. Bacterial antigens passed through the hepatopancreas into the haemolymph. Antigens were initially observed in the haemolymph sinuses and subsequently accumulated in the heart and lymphoid organ. Bacterial antigens were released from the shrimp, initially through the gills and subsequently through hepatopancreatic B-cells, branchial podocytes and sub-cuticular podocytes. PMID:12005240
Little is known about the genome of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). To address this, we conducted BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequencing of L. vannamei. We selected and sequenced 7 812 BAC clones from the BAC library LvHE from the two ends of the inserts by Sanger sequencing. After trimming and quality filtering, 11 279 BAC end sequences (BESs) including 4 609 pairedends BESs were obtained. The total length of the BESs was 4 340 753 bp, representing 0.18% of the L. vannamei haploid genome. The lengths of the BESs ranged from 100 bp to 660 bp with an average length of 385 bp. Analysis of the BESs indicated that the L. vannamei genome is AT-rich and that the primary repeats patterns were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and low complexity sequences. Dinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were the most common SSR types in the BESs. The most abundant transposable element was gypsy, which may contribute to the generation of the large genome size of L. vannamei. We successfully annotated 4 519 BESs by BLAST searching, including genes involved in immunity and sex determination. Our results provide an important resource for functional gene studies, map construction and integration, and complete genome assembly for this species.
In order to remove heavy metals (HMs) from contaminated shrimp pond at the highest concentrations found of; 0.75 mg\\/l Cd2+, 62.63 mg\\/l Pb2+, 34.60 mg\\/l Cu2+ and 58.50 mg\\/l Zn2+, two strains of purple nonsulfur bacteria isolated from shrimp ponds (NW16 and KMS24) were investigated for their ability\\u000a to immobilize HMs in 3% NaCl in both microaerobic-light and aerobic-dark conditions. Based on metabolic inhibition
The only reproducing population of Crangon allmanni within the German Bight is in the Helgoland Trench (HTR), a depression of more than 50 m depth south of Helgoland. In coastal and shallower offshore waters the shrimp is much rarer and is recorded in higher numbers only in early spring when the water is still cold. The life cycle of the HTR population lasts for about 1.5 years maximum. Recruitment takes place in summer, and these recruits form the reproducing population of the next year. The shrimps are sensitive to environmental stress and are therefore good indicators of environmental changes.
Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.
A study is presented on speciation of seawater with shrimps Crangon Crangon (L.) contaminated with cadmium in the presence and absence of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (a rough model of a chelate group of humic acids). Ultrafiltration and ion exchange Chelex columns were associated with atomic absorption (AA) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). The uptake and toxicity of cadmium were studied and the organs where this heavy metal accumulated were examined. It was noticed that the cadmium complex with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic was not available to the shrimps and that during the 5 days of the experiment cadmium was preferentially accumulated in the hepatopancreas and carapace.
Simoes Goncalves, M.L.S.; Vilhena, M.F.C.; Machado, L.M.V.F.; Pescada, C.M.R.; Legrand de Moura, M. (Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal))
Over 2,500 sand shrimp were collected between October 1958 and December 1960 from shallow waters along Delaware Bay shores\\u000a where salinity ranged from 4.4 to 31.4‰ and temperature extremes were 0.0 and 26.0°C.\\u000a \\u000a The growth rate ofC. septemspinosa was estimated to be about 1.6 mm per month and no seasonal variation was observed. The smallest shrimp collected was 6 mm
Penaeus vannamei lipase was purified from midgut gland of whiteleg shrimp. Pure lipase (E.C. 18.104.22.168) was obtained after Superdex 200 gel filtration and Resource Q anionic exchange. The pure lipase, which is a glycosylated molecule, is a monomer having a molecular mass of about 44.8 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. The lipase hydrolyses short and long-chain triacylglycerols and naphthol derivates at comparable rates. A specific activity of 1787 U?mg(-1) and 475 U?mg(-1) was measured with triolein and tributyrin as substrates, respectively, at pH?8.0 and 30°C in the absence of colipase. The lipase showed a K (m, app) of 3.22 mM and k (cat, app)/K (m, app) of 0.303?×?10(3)?mM(-1)?s(-1) using triolein as substrate. Natural detergents, such as sodium deoxycholate, act as potent inhibitors of the lipase. This inhibition can be reversed by adding fresh oil emulsion. Result with tetrahydrolipstatin, an irreversible inhibitor, suggests that the lipase is a serine enzyme. Peptide sequences of the lipase were determined and compared with the full-length sequence of lipase which was obtained by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The full cDNA of the pvl was 1,186 bp, with a deduced protein of 362 amino acids that includes a consensus sequence (GXSXG) of the lipase superfamily of ?/?-hydrolase. The gene exhibits features of conserved catalytic residues and high homology with various mammalian and insect lipase genes. A potential lid sequence is suggested for pvl. PMID:20464437
Rivera-Pérez, Crisalejandra; García-Carreño, Fernando L; Saborowski, Reinhard
The interaction between two species of gadoid and a shrimp stock was studied in a 40 km long two-armed fjord in north-west Iceland. On the basis of acoustic and trawl surveys in 2005 and 2006, immature cod Gadus morhua and haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus were found to migrate to the inner part of the fjord in late summer, concurrent with rising temperatures. At the same time, the local northern shrimp Pandalus borealis stock retreated into the north-east arm of the fjord. Vertical distribution of acoustic targets indicated that a significant and temporally variable fraction of the gadoids was inaccessible to the trawl. Shrimp was a significant part of the diet of immature G. morhua, except in June 2006 when euphausiids comprised most of the diet of both G. morhua and M. aeglefinus. Shrimp was only a minor part of the diet of M. aeglefinus. An on-off relationship was observed in the catches of gadoids and shrimp. In hauls with large catches of gadoids, few shrimp were found and vice versa, indicating avoidance reaction at this spatial scale. The cooling in winter may have driven the gadoids to the outer parts of the fjord, which in turn may have aided in the dispersal of the shrimp stock in the following months. PMID:21463310
Björnsson, B; Reynisson, P; Solmundsson, J; Valdimarsson, H
Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV) is one of the major causes of stunted shrimp in Thailand and leads to considerable economic losses in overall shrimp production. Present study shows that the double-stranded RNA corresponding to the non-structural protein gene (ns1) and structural protein gene (vp) of PmDNV effectively inhibit viral propagation in naturally pre-infected shrimp. Multiple application of dsRNA was performed by injection into the haemolymph. The total amount of virus in the hepatopancreas of treated shrimp was measured by semi-quantitative PCR and histological methods. Observations indicated that PmDNV was almost eradicated in comparison to the high viral propagation in the control groups (no dsRNA and non-related dsRNA-gfp). For heavily infected shrimp, simultaneously knock down of ns1 and vp genes exhibited greater potency for viral depletion than dsRNA-ns1 alone. Furthermore, typical hypertrophic nuclei were also reduced in treated shrimp. This study therefore demonstrates the first result of an effective anti-PmDNV therapy in naturally pre-infected shrimp. PMID:21586306
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolated from Penaeus monodon was found to be highly infective for the western Mediterranean shrimp, Palaemon sp. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it was demonstrated that such shrimp are not naturally carriers of WSSV. Following challenge with virus, mortality reached 100% 3.5-4 days after injection at 22 degrees C. Incubation of infected shrimp at 10 degrees C totally suppressed the mortality which rapidly developed when shrimp were returned to 18 or 22 degrees C. Preincubation of WSSV with mature synthetic mytilin significantly reduced shrimp mortality with a 50% efficient dose of about 5 microM. Survival of shrimp was not due to the development of an active mechanism of defence as re-injection of WSSV produced the same mortality pattern. Mortality was probably due to WSSV replication as dot blot failed to detect viral DNA in the injection sample but was positive 1 day post-injection. Protection by mytilin was by interaction at the virus level, preventing replication as no WSSV nucleic acid was detected by PCR even after 7 days in shrimp injected with WSSV preincubated with 10 or 50 microM mytilin. PMID:14986940
The intensification of shrimp farming has been related to the increasing use of chemotherapeutics and potentially suboptimal rearing conditions. For the purpose of assessing the stress level of cultured giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, a proteomic analysis (2D-DIGE) was performed on hemolymph. On the one hand, shrimp were exposed for 7 days to the antibiotics enrofloxacin or furazolidone via feed (4 g kg(-1)) under laboratory conditions. On the other hand, shrimp were submitted to enrofloxacin directly in field conditions in Vietnam, for which two different culture systems were distinguished (intensive and improved extensive). No significant different protein abundance pattern was induced by antibiotics under laboratory conditions, while only one protein spot displayed a 1.53-fold reduction in intensity after exposure to enrofloxacin in improved extensive ponds. When we compared the proteome of shrimp bred either in intensive or in improved extensive system, we observed 9 protein spots displaying significant difference in abundance. Among them, 3 spots of hemocyanin were under-expressed in shrimp from improved extensive ponds. At the opposite 2 spots corresponding to Sarcoplasmic Calcium-binding Protein (SCP) were less abundant in hemolymph of shrimp from intensive ponds. These results demonstrate that the very subtle effects of tested antibiotics on patterns of hemolymph protein expression are overwhelmed by the effects of conditions encountered in different production management systems, such as different oxygen and nitric concentrations. PMID:20655818
Silvestre, Frédéric; Huynh, Tu Thi; Bernard, Amandine; Dorts, Jennifer; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick
The cellular signal-transduction process is largely controlled by protein phosphorylation. Shrimp infected with yellow head virus show dramatic changes in their hemocyte phosphoproteomic patterns, and aberrant activation of phosphorylation-based signaling networks has been implicated in a number of diseases. In this study, we focused on phosphorylation of Penaeus monodon myosin regulatory light chain (PmMRLC) that is induced at an early hour post YHV infection and is concomitant with cellular actin remodeling. In shrimp cell cultures, this phosphorylation was inhibited by the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitors ML-7 and ML-9, suggesting that PmMLC phosphorylation is MLCK pathway-dependent. Blocking PmMRLC phosphorylation resulted in increased replication of YHV and reduction of phagocytic activities of shrimp hemocytes called semigranular cells (SGC) and granular cells (GC). Injection of MLCK inhibitors prior to YHV challenge resulted in dose-dependent elevation in quantity of YHV-positive GC and cytoplasmic YHV protein, coincident with high shrimp mortality. Altogether, we demonstrated that PmMRLC phosphorylation increases after YHV infection in shrimp and that inhibition of the phosphorylation leads to increased YHV replication, reduced hemocyte phagocytic activity (probably through actin remodeling) and subsequent shrimp death. Thus, further studies on the MLCK activation pathway may lead to new strategies in development and implementation of therapy for YHV infections in shrimp. PMID:23337109
They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, is the second most abundant species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable fishery in the United States. It serves as food for many fishes and is sold in the bait industry. Spawning occurs in at least 27 ppt salinity at water depths of 8 to 31 m, from April through September. Postlarvae move on flood tides into inshore estuarine nursery areas; peak abundances are in June and September. Juvenile white shrimp move farther inland than do brown shrimp and prefer shallow water with soft substrate. Growth of 1.6 mm per day occurs at water temperatures above 20/sup 0/C before the shrimp move offshore when inshore waters begin to cool in fall. Juveniles and adults return inshore when water temperatures increase in fall or the following spring. Survival at 8/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/C was related to temperature and salinities. Juvenile and adult white shrimp are omnivorous, selective-particulate, benthic feeders. Population abundance has been correlated with coastal marshes and freshwater inflows. Maintaining suitable nursery grounds will decide the future of Gulf Coast white shrimp resources. 71 refs. 2 figs.
Indian white shrimp (Penaeus indicus) stored in dry ice at the 1:1 ratio were found to be organoleptically suitable for consumption when they were stored for 24 h without reicing. Shrimp stored in water ice at the 1:1 ratio (as control) were acceptable up to 18 h. Shrimp stored in a combination of dry ice and water ice at the ratio of 1:0.2:0.5 were also found to be acceptable up to 24 h. Total bacterial load ranged from 10(6) to 10(9) cfu g(-1), while total psychrophiles ranged from 10(3) to 10(6) cfu g(-1). Total lactics were found in the levels of 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1). H(2)S producers were from 10(3) to 10(5) cfu g(-1). Lowest temperature of -4.8 degrees C was observed in shrimps stored in dry ice at 1:1 ratio. Bacterial flora associated with fresh raw shrimp were Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Flavobacterium and Serratia. Aeromonas constituted 38% of the flora in raw shrimp. Flavobacterium (43%), Pseudomonas (47%) and Pseudomonas (38%) were the dominant bacterial flora in the shrimp stored in dry ice at 1:1 ratio, in the combination package, and in water ice at 1:1 ratio, respectively. PMID:16943047
Occupational asthma is a major chronic health dilemma among workers involved in the seafood industry. Several proteins notoriously known to cause asthma have been reported in different seafood. This work involves the application of an allergenomics strategy to study the most potent allergens of northern shrimp. The proteins were extracted from shrimp tissue and profiled by gel electrophoresis. Allergenic proteins were identified based on their reactivity to patient sera and were structurally identified using tandem mass spectrometry. Northern shrimp tropomyosin, arginine kinase, and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein were found to be the most significant allergens. Multiple proteolytic enzymes enabled 100% coverage of the sequence of shrimp tropomyosin by tandem mass specrometry. Only partial sequence coverage was obtained, however, for the shrimp allergen arginine kinase. Signature peptides, for both tropomyosin and arginine kinase, were assigned and synthesized for use in developing the multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometric method. Subsequently, air samples were collected from a shrimp processing plant and two aerosolized proteins quantified using tandem mass specrometry. Allergens were detected in all areas of the plant, reaching levels as high as 375 and 480 ng/m(3) for tropomyosine and arginine kinase, respectively. Tropomyosine is much more abundant than arginine kinase in shrimp tissues, so the high levels of arginine kinase suggest it is more easily aerosolized. The present study shows that mass spectrometric analysis is a sensitive and accurate tool in identifying and quantifying aerosolized allergens. PMID:23268739
Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Kamath, Sandip D; Gagné, Sébastien; Lopata, Andreas L; Helleur, Robert
This study was undertaken to determine the concentration of cadmium in two shrimp species, namely, Penaeus semisulcatus and Penaeus monodon caught from the coastal areas in southern Iran. Cadmium concentration was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 91 shrimp samples after nitric acid/perchloric acid digestion. Accuracy of the analysis was checked by various methods including the use of reference material. The mean ± SD of cadmium concentrations in shrimp samples were 0.128 ± 0.144 (?g/g). The cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.010 to 0.96 ?g/g of the muscle tissues of shrimp. Higher cadmium concentration in shrimp samples was found in summer (significant p < 0.05). The results show that the mean concentration of cadmium in shrimp is lower than the maximum allowed levels according to International standards, although the concentration of cadmium in only one sample was more than the amount recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. Therefore, no risk to the consumer arises from the cadmium contents of the shrimp caught in these areas. PMID:22301817
Rahimi, E; Zaker, Sh; Farfani, M H Dehghani; Araghi, M Roghani; Vafaei, M; Goudarzi, M A
A novel viral responsive protein, namely hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP), was characterized for its role in the response of shrimp to white spot syndrome virus infection. The full-length cDNAs of HHAP from the black tiger shrimp (PmHHAP), Penaeus monodon, and the fresh water crayfish (PlHHAP), Pacifastacus leniusculus, were obtained and showed high sequence identity to a hypothetical protein from various organisms, with the highest identity to the hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC006773 from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (54% amino acid sequence identity). Transcripts of PmHHAP were expressed in various shrimp tissues with the highest expression in hematopoietic tissue, whereas the transcripts of PlHHAP were found in the hematopoietic and nerve tissues. Upon white spot syndrome virus infection, a high up-regulation level of shrimp hemocytic HHAP mRNA and protein was observed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. Gene silencing of PmHHAP by RNA interference resulted in a significant decrease in the number of circulating hemocytes and 100% shrimp mortality within 30 h of the double-stranded PmHHAP RNA injection (but not in control shrimp), indicating that HHAP is essential for shrimp survival. Interestingly, severe damage of hemocytes was observed in vivo in the PmHHAP knockdown shrimp and in vitro in shrimp primary hemocyte cell culture, suggesting that PmHHAP plays an important role in hemocyte homeostasis. Thus, it is speculated that the up-regulation of PmHHAP is an important mechanism to control circulating hemocyte levels in crustaceans during viral infection. PMID:20444692
This work constitutes a novel approach and methodology, e.g., the in vitro secretion method to isolate the androgenic polypeptide hormone (AH) from the androgenic gland of shrimp or prawns. Alternatively, the AH can be obtained recombinantly by cloning and expressing the AH gene. The AH polypeptide is used to produce phenotypic males, neomales, from genotypic female shrimp or prawns. The neomales find use in the production of sex-skewed and monosex offspring when mated with wild-type female shrimp or prawns. From the sequence of the purified AH polypeptide, oligonucleotide probes are synthesized to clone the AH encoding nucleic acid which is used for recombinant AH polypeptide expression.
Malecha; Spencer R. (Honolulu, HI); Sun; Piera S. (Honolulu, HI)
The paper examines the applicability of First World CZM policy for the Third World by focusing on Ecuador's shrimp mariculture, an industry whose explosive growth has reshaped the coastal zone and generated problems threatening loss of the resource base itself. This has led to recognized need for CZM and movement by development agencies to transfer the CZ policies of developed
Reports a study to determine species composition and weights of fish taken during trawling for shrimp by the commercial fishery in Georgia's close inshore waters. For all species combined and considering the State as a unit the average pounds per hour of ...
Trehalose is an important disaccharide and plays a key role in many organisms under different stress conditions. In the study, a gene (FcTPS) encoded trehalose-6-phosphate synthase was reported from Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The full-length cDNA of FcTPS is 3,281 bp including a poly A-tail of 20 bp, encoding a putative protein of 844 amino acids. The predicted protein contains a glycol_transf_20 domain and a trehalose_PPase domain. Genomic structure of FcTPS is composed of three exons with 192, 157 and 2,912 bp and two introns with 1,057 and 568 bp. In the second intron, four different SSRs are found. Transcripts of FcTPS gene are constitutively expressed in various tissues, with strongest level in hepatopancreas. After the shrimp were challenged with WSSV or Vibrio and the expression of FcTPS in hepatopancreas were analyzed using real-time PCR, the result showed that FcTPS transcript was down-regulated significantly in response to the challenge of Vibro at the early of 5 h post-challenge and then up-regulated significantly at 14 h. In addition, the expression of FcTPS showed the same result after the shrimp were challenged with WSSV. These results provide some new information about the tissue distribution, expression profiles and potential function of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase in shrimp. PMID:23053931
From 1995 to 1998, the Oceanic Institute operated a breeding program for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on a selection index weighted equally for growth and resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV). In 1998, two separate breeding lines were established. One line was selected 100% for growth (Growth line) and a second line was selected on an index weighted 70%
Brad J Argue; Steve M Arce; Jeffrey M Lotz; Shaun M Moss
The morphometric characteristics of several commercially important penaeid shrimps from the Zhujiang estuary, China, were studied. Morphometric equations were constructed for males and females of Penaeus chinensis, Penaeus penicillatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Metapenaeus ensis, Metapenaeus joyneri and Parapenaeopsis hungerfordi. Males were generally smaller than females. Differences in length-weight relationship between males and females were found in Metapenaeus affinis and Metapenaeus joyneri.
The moderated, but continual development of the shrimp aquaculture in Mexico, in conjuction with municipal and agriculture effluents, in the last decade has created the first symptoms of negative environmental impacts, due mainly to the discharge of nutrients and organic matter into adjacent coastal waters. Similarly, the increasing impairment of coastal water quality resulting from the discharge of domestic, agricultural
Federico Páez-Osuna; Saúl R Guerrero-Galván; Ana C Ruiz-Fernández
There has been a recent appreciation of the ecological impacts of zooplanktonic species invasions. The North American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is one such alien invader in hyper-saline water ecosystems at a global scale. It has been shown to outcompete native Artemia species, leading to their local extinction. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1
JOAQUÍN MUÑOZ; AFRICA GÓMEZ; ANDY J. GREEN; JORDI FIGUEROLA; FRANCISCO AMAT; CIRO RICO
Though some protein sources like squid and protein hydrolysates are assumed as growth enhancers for shrimp, little is known about the biochemical basis of this phenomenon. Low, heat-dried squid (Dosidicus gigas) (SQ) and two commercial protein hydrolysates from fish (FH) and krill (Euphasia sp.) (KH) were assayed in feeding trials with Penaeus vannamei. Feeds were prepared with the tested proteins
Julio Humberto Córdova-Murueta; Fernando Luis Garc??a-Carreño
Revegetation of red mud can be difficult without chemical or organic ameliorant for red mud. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the short-term effect of a commercial peat moss-shrimp wastes compost on the growth of pucinellia (Pucinellia distorts L.) in a bauxite residue (red mud) from the Alcan's Vaudreuil alumina refinery at Jonquière (Québec), Canada. Characterization of the red
Prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology on DNA extracted from the gills of wild black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon collected from 7 sampling sites in the Philippines. These 7 sampling sites are the primary sources of spawners and broodstock for hatchery use. During the dry season, WSSV was detected in shrimp from all sites except Bohol, but during the wet season it was not detected in any site except Palawan. None of the WSSV-PCR positive shrimp showed signs of white spots in the cuticle. Prevalence of WSSV showed seasonal variations, i.e. prevalence in dry season (April to May) was higher than in the wet season (August to October). These results suggest that WSSV has already become established in the local marine environment and in wild populations of P. monodon. Thus, broodstock collected during the dry season could serve as the main source of WSSV contamination in shrimp farms due to vertical transmission of the virus in hatcheries. PMID:18062468
de la Peña, Leobert D; Lavilla-Pitogo, Celia R; Villar, Corina Belle R; Paner, Milagros G; Sombito, Christopher D; Capulos, Geimbo C
Mercury and arsenic pollution has been recognized as a potential environmental and public health problem for over 40 years. The major source of exposure to mercury and arsenic for humans is the ingestion of sea food. Concentrations of mercury and arsenic in the muscle samples of green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) from the Persian Gulf were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of metals in muscle samples were 49-115 µg kg(-1) for mercury, 115-131 µg kg(-1)for arsenic, with means of 82.7 and 251.6 µg kg(-1), respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference of mercury and arsenic concentration in shrimp muscles between selected stations (Bushehr, Khuzestan, and Hormozgan provinces). No significant difference was found among heavy metal contents of male and female shrimps. The results of this study indicate that the green tiger shrimp from the Persian Gulf have concentrations well below the maximum permissible levels for mercury (500 µg kg(-1)) and arsenic (6000 µg kg(-1)), according to international standards, with no health risk of consumers. PMID:22782706
Raissy, Mehdi; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Nadeali, Vahid; Ansari, Mahsa; Shakerian, Amir
We report construction of an initial genetic linkage map for the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Mapping was carried out using polymorphic markers derived from 23 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) primer pairs. These were analysed on three reference families of known pedigree. A total of 673 polymorphic AFLP loci that conformed to expected Mendelian segregation ratios were scored in
Kate Wilson; Yutao Li; Vicki Whan; Sigrid Lehnert; Keren Byrne; Stephen Moore; Siriporn Pongsomboon; Anchalee Tassanakajon; George Rosenberg; Elizabeth Ballment; Zahra Fayazi; Jennifer Swan; Matthew Kenway; John Benzie
Structural specializations of chelipeds used by caridean shrimp in two kinds of grooming activity are described. In general body grooming, the chelipeds, and in some species, the last walking legs, nip, pick or brush material from the exoskeleton. When the cleaning chelipeds are the second pair, the carpal segment is multisegmented, increasing distal flexibility which aids in grooming. Tufts of
We purified and sequenced infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), a small DNA virus of shrimp, from wild Penaeus stylirostris. The virion has a buoyant density of 1.45 as determined by cesium chloride gradient. Analysis of 3873 nucleotides of the viral genome revealed three large open reading frames (ORFs) and parts of the noncoding termini of the viral genome.
Hiroko Shike; Arun K. Dhar; Jane C. Burns; Chisato Shimizu; Françoise X. Jousset; Kurt R. Klimpel; Max Bergoin
This study aimed to test the susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains isolated from the water, bottom sediments and individuals cultivated in shrimp farm ponds, to antibiotics belonging to different families, namely B-Lactams: Imipenem (IPM; 10 ? g), Ampicillin (AMP; 10 ? g), Cephalothin (CEP; 30 ? g), Cefoxitin (FOX; 30 ? g), Ceftriaxone (CRO; 30 ? g); Tetracycline: Tetracycline (TCY;
Regine H. S. Dos F. Vieira; Edirsana M. R. Carvalho; Fátima C. T. Carvalho; Camila M. Silva; Oscarina V. Sousa; Dália P. Rodrigues
United States research activity in connection with the Guianas-Brazil shrimp fishery is descried. The fishery's history is reviewed and catch and effort statistics are discussed. The fishery grounds extend from Trinidad south to the mouth of the Amazon Ri...
Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000
A. R. Syahmi; S. Vijayarathna; S. Sasidharan; L. Y. Latha; Y. P. Kwan; Y. L. Lau; L. N. Shin; Y. Chen
Polyculture of milkfish (Chanos chanos) and giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in brackish-water pond is a promising venture. Remarkable growth of these compatible species was noted during the rearing period of 4 months of which a total of 506 kg of mil...
Thalassinid shrimp cause significant problems for oyster aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest (USA) where oysters succumb to the physical disruption of the sediment by the burrowing activity of these animals. While electrofishing is a commonly used technique to capture fish and some invertebrates i...
Quantitative surveys of penaeoid shrimps (Farfantepenaeus duorarum, F. aztecus, Litopenaeus setiferus, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, Sicyonia brevirostris and Trachypenaeus similis) were conducted in Campeche Sound, southwestern Gulf of Mexico, in October and November 2002. A total of 20 stations were located along a bathymetric gradient ranging from 8 to 50m. Spatial patterns in density and individual size were evaluated by geostatistics and
Hugo Castrejón; Roberto Pérez-Castañeda; Omar Defeo
The study of the opossum shrimp (Mysis relicta) at Twin Lakes, Colo., is part of an investigation into the potential impacts of pumped-storage power generation on the two lakes. Since 1974, large and small benthic sled-type trawls have been used monthly t...
Two experiments were conducted in Choluteca, Honduras, to ascertain effects on yield and profitability of partial substitution of chicken litter for feed during initial growth of semiintensively cultured penaeid shrimp. In the first experiment, four management strategies based on various combinations of chicken litter (60 kg\\/hectare per week, total solids) and prepared feed were tested. After 99 d of growth,
David R. Teichert-Coddington; Bartholomew W. Green; Ralph W. Parkman
Carids are caught commercially off Alaska (Barr, 1970), California (Dahl strom, 1970), and Chile (Hancock and Henriquez, 1968). In several other areas experimental trapping for deepwater shrimps has been carried out: Hawaii (Struhsaker and Aasted, 1974), Guam (Wilder, 1977), New Caledonia (Intes, 1978), Fiji (Brown and King, 1979), and Western Samoa (King, 1980). The distribution of deepwater carids in the
Two species of burrowing shrimp cause oyster mortality in aquaculture operations and have been managed using the pesticide carbaryl for the last 40 years, primarily in Washington state coastal estuaries. In a search for alternatives to pesticide use, an assessment of the presence and prevalence of ...
Coastal systems are ecologically important environments due to their diversity and productivity, but they can also serve as sinks for pollutants transported via runoff and atmospheric deposition. Grass shrimp, of the genus Palaemonetes, are a common inhabitant of East and Gulf coast estuaries of the United States and are proposed in this paper as a bioindicator of human impacts on
Two groups of nauplii from the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) were enriched with different bacteria, and the dynamics of bacterial uptake by the nauplii were observed. This study showed that the efficiency of Artemia nauplii in bioencapsulating bacteria strongly depends on the type of bacteria used, time of exposure, and status (live or dead) of the bacteria.
Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Herrera-Vega, Maria A.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Roque, Ana
The uptake of hexoses from dilute solutions in seawater by postlarval penaeid shrimp was measured at salinities from 10-40o/oo. Uptake of D-mannitol was less than that of D-glucose but greater than that of both L-glucose and 3-0-methyl-D-glucose, which di...
Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 W sq m (DNA) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activi...
SUMMARY The posterior light organ and eyestalk of the midwater shrimp, Sergestes similis Hansen, are capable of 140° of angular movement within the body during pitch body tilt, maintaining the organs at near horizontal orienta- tions. Counter-rotations compensate for 74-80% of body inclination. These responses are statocyst mediated. Unilateral statolith ablation reduces compensation by 50%. There is no evidence for
Mosquito control applications of fenthion by aerial thermal fog equipment were studied at two sites in Collier County, FL, for sprays that occurred on 20 and 23 June 1984. Acute, lethal effects of fenthion deposited in these estuarine habitats were assessed for caged pink shrimp ...
Over 80% of the world shrimp production comes from developing countries. The nutrient-rich cash crop can provide a small plot entrepreneur with higher revenues than alternative crops; however, the extreme poor are unable to afford the necessary equipment to monitor the salinity concentration in the ponds. Consequently, their yields per volume are on average one-third the amount of their commercial
Adult grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were collected during July and August, 1973, and exposed for 48-hr periods to a series of sublethal cadmium (Cd) concentrations: 0.1 and 0.56 mg/l for metabolic studies; and 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.56 mg/l for locomotor studies. Treatment e...
Until about the 1930s, the Ohio shrimp, Macrobrachium ohione, was common in the Mississippi River between Chester and Cairo, and also occurred in the Ohio and lower Wabash rivers bordering southern Illinois, but since then, the species declined sharply in abundance. Two specimens were captured in May 2001 from the Ohio River at Joppa, Massac Co., Illinois, and represent the
The purpose of this study was to quantify the gene expression of lysozyme, an important antibacterial protein produced by shrimp hemocytes, within tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in response to a pathogen challenge. We quantified lysozyme transcripts with a real-time PCR method and used these data, along with total hemocyte counts, to infer patterns of hemocyte trafficking during the immune
Erin J. Burge; Daniel J. Madigan; Louis E. Burnett; Karen G. Burnett
The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...
In three coastal areas of the Republic of China, we found six species of anemoneshrimps and five of host sea anemones in 13 symbiotic combinations; four of the 13 combinations were previously documented. In the laboratory, we tested host preference of the three common shrimps, Periclimenes ornatus Bruce, P. brevicarpalis (Schenkel), and Thor amboinensis (De Man), for anemones of three
Grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were fed mercury (Hg)-contaminated oligochaetes for 15 days and analyzed for Hg, cadmium (Cd), and carbon assimilation efficiencies (AE) as well as toxicological end points related to digestion. Disproportionate increases in stable Hg concentrations in shrimp did not appear to be related to partitioning to trophically available Hg in worms. Hg AE by pre-exposed shrimp reached a plateau (approximately 53 %), whereas Cd AE varied (approximately 40-60 %) in a manner that was not dose-dependent. Carbon AE did not differ among treatments (approximately 69 %). Gut residence time was not impacted significantly by Hg pre-exposure (grand median approximately 465 min), however, there was a trend between curves showing percentages of individuals with markers in feces over time versus treatment. Feces-elimination rate did not vary with dietary pre-exposure. Extracellular protease activity varied approximately 1.9-fold but did not exhibit dose-dependency. pH increased over the range of Hg pre-exposures within the anterior (pH approximately 5.33-6.51) and posterior (pH approximately 5.29-6.25) regions of the cardiac proventriculus and Hg assimilation exhibited a negative relationship to hydrogen ion concentrations. The results of this study indicate that previous Hg ingestion can elicit post-assimilatory impacts on grass shrimp digestive physiology, which may, in turn, influence Hg assimilation during subsequent digestive cycles. PMID:22460304
Seebaugh, David R; Wallace, William G; L'amoreaux, William J; Stewart, Gillian M
This paper compares the trajectories over the last two decades of two export-oriented ‘boom crops’ in Southeast Asia: indsturial shrimp aquaculture and industrial plantation forestry. It focuses on differences in the establishment, operation and politics of these sectors to explain why they have experienced very different kinds of ‘booms.’
The objective of this work was to investigate the safety of export shrimp in Mexico detecting simultaneously Salmonella spp and Vibrio cholerae O1 using the PCR-RFLP and standard micro- biological methods. Segments of DNA localized in the inv A gene of Salmonella spp and ctx AB gene of Vibrio cholerae O1, were amplifi ed in the PCR reaction. Samples of
Lissette Pérez Casas; José Fernando Núñez Espinosa; Daniel A. Villagómez Zavala; Mireya Nicoli Tolosa; María Salud; Rubio Lozano
Burrowing thalassinid shrimp are major ecological components of Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and where they structure large areas of intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat. These crustaceans occur in dense beds (>250 m-2) and dig extensive burrow systems (>1 m) controlling ...
Twelve samples of imported frozen shrimps were used in this study. The total aerobic bacteria were at 2 × 104 to 6 × 106 per gram. A few of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from many samples. However, Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples. After exposure to
An investigation was conducted to determine the occurrence, resistant efficiency of bacteria collected from four shrimp farming zones, Vunh Tau (VT), Nha Trang (NT), Da Nang (DN) and Hue (HU) of Viet Nam against five commonly applied antibiotics (sulphamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP), norfloxacin (NFC), amoxillin (AXC) and streptomycin (SMC)) and bacterial degradation of antibiotic. Mud samples were employed to examine
The sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) developed at the Australian National University (ANU) was the first of the high-resolution ion microprobes. The impact of this instrument on geochronological research over the last twenty years has been immense. This is particularly so for lunar geochronology where it has opened up avenues of research that were not possible using conventional TIMS techniques.
The application of microsatellite markers for parentage determination is gaining both acceptance and popularity in aquaculture. In this study we used simulations and controlled matings to examine the potential of microsatellite markers in assigning parentage to Kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) progeny. Simulations based on allele frequency data from a captive population of P. japonicus demonstrated that at least five loci
Dean R Jerry; Nigel P Preston; Peter J Crocos; Sandy Keys; Jennifer R. S Meadows; Yutao Li
In this study, we describe an easy but efficient method to specifically target the intestinal resident microbiota in brine shrimp larvae during DGGE analysis, hereby excluding the interference of both transient (luminal) bacteria and body surface bacteria. This effective technique has several advantages over alternative methods, with respect of ease of use and rapidity. PMID:22366463
Niu, Yufeng; Defoirdt, Tom; Rekecki, Anamaria; De Schryver, Peter; Van den Broeck, Wim; Dong, Shuanglin; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Boon, Nico; Bossier, Peter
|The Vietnamese government aims to expand the scale of Naturland certified organic production in integrated shrimp-mangrove farming systems across the coast of Ca Mau province by 2015. In doing so the division between public and private regulation has become blurred. We analyze the government's goal by examining the regulatory challenges of using…
Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Bush, Simon R.; Mol, Arthur P. J.; van Dijk, Han
Feeding trials and digestibility studies were conducted in recirculatory systems to assess the effect of replacing fish meal with 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40% fermented shrimp head waste meal (FSHM) in practical diets for African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The different levels of FSHM were mixed with other ingredients to formulate 40% protein diets (Diets 1-6). The diets were
Shellfish are a common cause of adverse food reactions in hypersensitive individuals and shrimp is one of the most frequently reported causes of allergic reactions. A novel allergen from Penaeus monodon, designated Pen m 2, was identified by two-dimensional immunoblotting using sera from subjects with shrimp allergy, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the peptide digest. This novel allergen was then cloned and the amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence. The cloned cDNA encoded a 356-aa protein with an acetylated N terminus at Ala2, identified by postsource decay analysis. Comparison of the Pen m 2 sequence with known protein sequences revealed extensive similarity with arginine kinase (EC 22.214.171.124) from crustaceans. Pen m 2 was purified by anion exchange chromatography and shown to have arginine kinase activity and to react with serum IgE from shrimp allergic patients and induce immediate type skin reactions in sensitized patients. Using Pen m 2-specific antisera and polyclonal sera from shrimp-sensitive subjects in a competitive ELISA inhibition assay, Pen m 2 was identified as a novel cross-reactive Crustacea allergen. This novel allergen could be useful in allergy diagnosis and in the treatment of Crustacea-derived allergic disorders. PMID:12496430
Microalgae hold a key role in the diet of the world's highest-valued seafood species, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, but ingestion, digestion, and feeding mechanisms employed for consuming suspended microbes are not well studied. The goal of this work was to determine whether juvenile L. vannamei could consume and digest several microbes of varying sizes and structures in suspended monocultures.
|The findings of this second phase of a four-phase study of shrimp fishing focus on the effect of this occupation upon the family. Data were collected from a random sample of 87 boat captains, 73 wives, community personnel, and high school students in two Georgia coastal counties. The family structure reveals a traditional conception of male and…
The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were determined in the acid digest of sediment, shrimp and crab from a heavily polluted area using Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Model 560 and Graphite Furnace Model HGA 500. Results are presented in a table.
The polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor® 1254 was released in an accidental leakage of heat-exchange fluid from an industrial plant, into the Escambia River, near Pensacola, Florida, USA. This material was carried downstream, and is now found in the fauna of Escambia Bay and its contiguous waters, prime nursery areas for fishes and invertebrates such as penaeid shrimp. The significance of pollution
D. R. Nimmo; R. R. Blackman; A. J. Wilson; J. Forester
Penaeus vannamei were reared in two ponds, one receiving 10% wastewater in seawater and no feed, and the other receiving only seawater and a prepared commercial feed. The pond receiving the wastewater had significantly more mercury in the sediment, yet shrimp in this pond did not accumulate significant amounts of the mercury in their edible tissue.
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus, causing considerable mortality in shrimp. Two structural proteins of WSSV were identified. WSSV virions are enveloped nucleocapsids with a bacilliform morphology with an approximate size of 275 × 120 nm, and a tail-like extension at one end. The double-stranded viral DNA has an approximate size 290 kb. WSSV virions, isolated from
Mariëlle C. W van Hulten; Marcel Westenberg; Stephen D Goodall; Just M Vlak
|The California Freshwater Shrimp Project is an example of a student-initiated, eco-action project. Students, from a fourth grade class in the Ross Valley School District in San Rafael, California, were linked to their community and environment through their work in rehabilitating habitat and educating the public. The paper gives an overview of a…
In connection with the investigations of the common commercial shrimp, Penaeus setiferus (Linnaeus) , carried on by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, studies have been made of the structure of the reproductive organs and accessory sex characters and the general nature of the reproductive process. This report gives information on the anatomy and histology of the male and
Shrimp remains as one of the most popular and highest valued seafood selections throughout the world. Current annual world production from both wild harvest and farm culture is estimated at approximately 3,000,000 metric tones with an estimated production...
The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata swarms around hydrothermal black smoker chimneys at most vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This species maintains close proximity to the hydrothermal fluid, where temperatures can reach 350°C and steep thermal and chemical gradients are expected. We performed in vivo experiments in pressurized aquaria to determine the upper thermal limit (critical thermal maximum (CTmax)) of R.
Juliette Ravaux; Françoise Gaill; Nadine Le Bris; Pierre-Marie Sarradin; Didier Jollivet; Bruce Shillito; Quai St-Bernard; Batiment A
This report describes the results of two work units conducted under the Shrimp Population Studies in relation to the West Hackberry and Big Hill brine disposal sites. The work units supplemented the historical NMFS efforts for the construction of a Gulf-w...
W. J. Gazey B. J. Gallaway R. C. Fechhelm L. R. Martin L. A. Reitsema
The continuous monitoring of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of pond, effluent and inlet waters helps not only to predict and control negative conditions for shrimp farming, but also avoids environmental damages and collapse of the production process. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of implementing a Water Quality Index (WQI) as a tool to
Protein utilisation, lysine bioavailability and total tract apparent digestibility of shrimp meal (SM) were investigated using 12 crossbred castrated male pigs with an average initial body weight of 35kg. The experimental set-up was an incomplete block design with four diets and two periods of 14 days each. In each period, 7 days were for adaptation to diets and 7 days
We studied bisexual populations of Eastern Old World (EOW) brine shrimp (Artemia) from China (A. sinica and Artemia sp.), Kazakhstan (Artemia sp.) and Iran (A. urmiana), together with one population of Western Old World (WOW) A. tunisiana (Italy) and a New World (NW) population of A. franciscana (U.S.A.). Allozyme electrophoresis, discriminant analyses of morphometric characters, and laboratory tests for reproductive
The efferent duct of the maxillary gland of adult brine shrimp, Artemia salina, is specialized into two morphologically distinct regions: an efferent tubule and a terminal duct. The wall of the efferent tubule is composed of epithelial cells which possess an apical microvillous border and, more basally, membranous configurations with which large numbers of mitochondria are closely associated. These membranous
In order to study how polyploidy affects life history patterns in animals, we have examined sympatric diploid and polyploid brine shrimp (Artemia parthenogenetica) from China, Italy and Spain under laboratory conditions. At optimal temperature and salinity (25°C and 90 ppt), diploids from the three populations had much higher intrinsic rates of increase, higher fecundity, faster developmental rates, and larger brood
In a number of widely separated places in the tropics, both in the Atlantic and in the Indo-West Pacific, bright red coloured caridean shrimps have been reported from a most peculiar habitat. This habitat is formed by salt water pools which are seemingly shut off from the sea and are often situated at a considerable distance from the shore; these
Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...
Shell waste from shrimp Crangon crangon processing is a good source of chitin and proteins, contained on a dry basis of the offals in amounts 17.8% and 40.6%, respectively. The digestion of the shells with proteolytic enzymes allow to recovery of the chitin and nutritionally valuable protein hydrolysate. These products were prepared from the shells preliminarily demineralized with 10% HCl
Józef Synowiecki; Nadia Ali Abdul Quawi Al-Khateeb
A new snapping shrimp, Alpheus lutosus spec. nov., is described from the intertidal mudflats of Bubiyan Island, northern Kuwait, south of the vast Shatt-Al-Arab delta. The new species appears to be closely related to Alpheus hoplocheles Coutière, 1897 from similar estuarine habitats in China and Japan, differing mainly in the absence of a sharp distolateral tooth on the palm of
One hundred and seventeen samples of sea fish (100), shrimps (10) and bivalve molluscs (7) were sampled at fish markets (100 samples) and hotels (17 samples) along the sea side in Croatia within the period from May to July 2000. The samples were tested for the presence of Vibrio spp. Vibrio spp. was isolated in 23 (19.65%) of total count
Slavica Jakši?; Sun?ica Uhitil; T Petrak; D Bažuli?; Lada Gumhalter Karolyi
Background We describe new specimens of Mesozoic mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda, Malacostraca) that exhibit morphological and developmental information previously unknown. Results Specimens assigned to the taxon Sculda exhibit preserved pleopods, thoracopods including all four raptorial limbs as well as details of antennae and antennulae. The pleopods and the antennulae resemble those of the modern mantis shrimps, but the raptorial limbs are not as differentiated as in the modern species. In some specimens, the first raptorial limb (second thoracopod) is not significantly larger than the similar-sized posterior three pairs (as in extant species), but instead these appendages become progressively smaller along the series. In this respect they resemble certain Palaeozoic stomatopods. Another specimen, most likely belonging to another species, has one pair of large anterior raptorial thoracopods, a median-sized pair and two more pairs of small-sized raptorial appendages and, thus, shows a new, previously unknown type of morphology. A single specimen of Pseudosculda laevis also exhibits the size of the raptorial limbs; they are differentiated as in modern species, one large pair and three small pairs. Furthermore, we report additional larval specimens and show also post-larval changes, e.g., of the tail fan. Conclusions These new data are used to reconsider the phylogeny of Stomatopoda. We still need a strict taxonomical revision of the Mesozoic mantis shrimps, but this first examination already demonstrates the importance of these fossils for understanding mantis shrimp evolution and the interpretation of evolutionary pathways of particular features.
The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum (Burkenroad) lives in south Florida ecosystems in different salinity regimes ranging from brackish to hypersaline. In Florida Bay, the main nursery grounds, juveniles reside in 25–50 salinity; while 20km northwest of the Bay, juveniles inhabit more estuarine salinities between 5 and 15. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that the disparate salinity regimes in
Maria M. Criales; Ian C. Zink; Joan A. Browder; Thomas L. Jackson
Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...
...determines that the respondents in this review did not make sales in the United States at prices...to submit statements certifying that they did not enter, export or sell subject merchandise...review only covers suspended entries that did not include dusted shrimp, but cash...
Although much is known regarding photoperiodic effects on crustacean egg production, the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on reproduction has not been investigated. Likewise, little is known concerning the interaction between UV and xenobiotic exposure on crustacean reproductive cycles. In this study, male and female grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan (200 ng\\/l and 400
David C Volz; Edward F Wirth; Michael H Fulton; Geoffrey I Scott; David S Block; G. Thomas Chandler
The relative importance of dissolved and food pathways and the influence of food type in the bioaccumulation and retention of lead in the shrimp Palaemonetes varians were examined using a radiotracer method. Shrimp were exposed to 210Pb-labelled seawater or fed two types of 210Pb-labelled food, viz. mussels or worms. The amount of radiotracer accumulated by shrimp was examined over a 7-day period, followed by a 1-month and a 7-day depuration period for the dissolved and food source, respectively. Steady state in the uptake was reached after 2 days exposure to dissolved lead, with a resultant estimated concentration factor of 98+/-3. Transfer factors following ingestion of contaminated mussels and worms were lower than unity for both food types, with lead transfer from worms being significantly higher than that from mussels. Accumulation of dissolved Pb by shrimp was found to occur mainly through adsorption on the exoskeleton with a minor accumulation in the internal tissues probably resulting from the intake of seawater for osmoregulation. In contrast, lead taken up from contaminated food was readily absorbed and bound in the internal tissues of P. varians. Although the transfer of lead to P. varians through the ingestion of contaminated food was low (TF<1%), it still represented 4 to 8% of the lead content in the prey which is a significant additional contribution of lead to the shrimp body burden. Independent of food type, following ingestion of contaminated food, approximately 23-27% of total lead accumulated in shrimp was located in the edible parts (e.g. muscle). Therefore, the food pathway is suggested to be a significant contributor to the lead transfer to humans through ingestion of contaminated shrimp. After exposure to contaminated food, lead loss kinetics were described by a two-component model, whereas Pb loss following direct uptake from seawater was best described by a three-component model. The additional compartment representing 64% of total Pb retained and characterized by a turnover<10 min, corresponded to lead weakly adsorbed on the exoskeleton and incorporated in the hepatopancreas. Nevertheless, a significant fraction of lead accumulated from the dissolved (2%) and food (52-57%) pathways remained irreversibly retained in the tissues, suggesting that this organism could also serve as an effective long-term bioindicator of lead contamination in marine waters. PMID:14643781
Boisson, F; Cotret, O; Teyssié, J-L; El-Baradeï, M; Fowler, S W
The prostanoid pathway converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into bioactive lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins, all of which play vital roles in the immune and reproductive systems in most animal phyla. In crustaceans, PUFAs and prostaglandins have been detected and often associated with female reproductive maturation. However, the presence of prostanoid biosynthesis genes remained in question in these species. In this study, we outlined the prostanoid pathway in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon based on the amplification of nine prostanoid biosynthesis genes: cytosolic phospholipase A2, hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin D synthase, prostaglandin E synthase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, prostaglandin E synthase 3, prostaglandin F synthase, thromboxane A synthase and cyclooxygenase. TBLASTX analysis confirmed the identities of these genes with 51-99% sequence identities to their closest homologs. In addition, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), which is a product of the prostaglandin F synthase enzyme, was detected for the first time in P. monodon ovaries along with the previously identified PUFAs and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) using RP-HPLC and mass-spectrometry. The prostaglandin synthase activity was also observed in shrimp ovary homogenates using in vitro activity assay. When prostaglandin biosynthesis was examined in different stages of shrimp ovaries, we found that the amounts of prostaglandin F synthase gene transcripts and PGF2? decreased as the ovaries matured. These findings not only indicate the presence of a functional prostanoid pathway in penaeid shrimp, but also suggest a possible role of the PGF2? biosynthesis in shrimp ovarian development.
The prostanoid pathway converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into bioactive lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins, all of which play vital roles in the immune and reproductive systems in most animal phyla. In crustaceans, PUFAs and prostaglandins have been detected and often associated with female reproductive maturation. However, the presence of prostanoid biosynthesis genes remained in question in these species. In this study, we outlined the prostanoid pathway in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon based on the amplification of nine prostanoid biosynthesis genes: cytosolic phospholipase A2, hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin D synthase, prostaglandin E synthase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, prostaglandin E synthase 3, prostaglandin F synthase, thromboxane A synthase and cyclooxygenase. TBLASTX analysis confirmed the identities of these genes with 51-99% sequence identities to their closest homologs. In addition, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), which is a product of the prostaglandin F synthase enzyme, was detected for the first time in P. monodon ovaries along with the previously identified PUFAs and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) using RP-HPLC and mass-spectrometry. The prostaglandin synthase activity was also observed in shrimp ovary homogenates using in vitro activity assay. When prostaglandin biosynthesis was examined in different stages of shrimp ovaries, we found that the amounts of prostaglandin F synthase gene transcripts and PGF2? decreased as the ovaries matured. These findings not only indicate the presence of a functional prostanoid pathway in penaeid shrimp, but also suggest a possible role of the PGF2? biosynthesis in shrimp ovarian development. PMID:24116186
The prophenoloxidase (proPO) system is activated upon recognition of pathogens by pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), including a lipopolysaccharide- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP). However, shrimp LGBPs that are involved in the proPO system have yet to be clarified. Here, we focus on characterizing the role of a Penaeus monodon LGBP (PmLGBP) in the proPO system. We found that PmLGBP transcripts are expressed primarily in the hemocytes and are increased at 24 h after pathogenic bacterium Vibrio harveyi challenge. The binding studies carried out using ELISA indicated that recombinant (r)PmLGBP binds to ?-1,3-glucan and LPS with a dissociation constant of 6.86 × 10?7 m and 3.55 × 10?7 m, respectively. Furthermore, we found that rPmLGBP could enhance the phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocyte suspensions in the presence of LPS or ?-1,3-glucan. Using dsRNA interference-mediated gene silencing assay, we further demonstrated that knockdown of PmLGBP in shrimp in vivo significantly decreased the PmLGBP transcript level but had no effect on the expression of the other immune genes tested, including shrimp antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). However, suppression of proPO expression down-regulated PmLGBP, proPO-activating enzyme (PmPPAE2), and AMPs (penaeidin and crustin). Such PmLGBP down-regulated shrimp showed significantly decreased total PO activity. We conclude that PmLGBP functions as a pattern recognition protein for LPS and ?-1,3-glucan in the shrimp proPO activating system.
Fish and shrimp are common healthy sources of protein to a large percentage of the world's population. Hence, it is vital to evaluate the content of possible contamination of these marine-foods. Six species of fishes and two species of shrimps were collected from the local markets of Mashhad, Iran. The mercury (Hg) concentration of samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a mercuric hydride system (MHS 10). High concentration of total Hg was found in Clupeonella cultriventris caspia (0.93 ± 0.14 ?g/g) while the lowest level was detected in Penaeus indicus (0.37 ± 0.03 ?g/g). Mean Hg levels in fish and shrimp samples were 0.77 ± 0.08 ?g/g and 0.51 ± 0.05 ?g/g, respectively. Farmed species (except for P. indicus) and all samples from Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea had mean mercury concentrations above 0.5 ?g/g, which is the maximum standard level recommended by Joint FAO/WHO/Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). All samples had also mean Hg concentrations that exceeded EPA's established safety level of 0.3 ?g/g. A little more extensive analysis of data showed that weekly intake of mercury for the proportion of the Iranian population consuming Hg contaminated fish and shrimp is not predicted to exceed the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes recommended by JECFA. However, the Iranian health and environmental authorities should monitor Hg contamination of the fishes and shrimps before marketing. PMID:23903758
It has been demonstrated that the deposit-feeding oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri inhabiting Foundry Cove (FC), a severely cadmium (Cd)-contaminated cove located on the Hudson River, New York, USA, has evolved resistance to Cd. In this study we investigate how this resistance influences Cd trophic transfer from this oligochaete to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. Cadmium-resistant worms collected from FC and nonresistant worms collected from an adjacent unpolluted site were investigated for differences in Cd tolerance, accumulation, subcellular distribution and bioavailability to shrimp. FC worms were more tolerant of Cd, surviving twice as long as worms from the unpolluted site during a toxicity bioassay. The 7 d concentration factor of Cd-resistant worms was 4 times greater than that of nonresistant worms (2020 vs 577). There were also differences between worm populations with respect to subcellular Cd distributions. Cd-resistant worms produced metallothionein-like proteins (MT) as well as metal-rich granules (MRG) for Cd storage and detoxification; nonresistant worms only produced MT. These differences in subcellular Cd distributions led to large differences in Cd bioavailability to shrimp; shrimp fed Cd-resistant worms absorbed 21% of the ingested Cd, while those fed nonresistant worms absorbed roughly 4 times that amount (~75%). These absorption efficiencies were in good agreement with the proportions of Cd bound to the worm's most biologically available subcellular fractions (i.e. the cytosol and organelles). Although Cd-resistant worms predominantly stored the toxic metal in biologically unavailable MRG, their increased accumulation of Cd would still result in substantial trophic transfer to shrimp because of the storage of Cd in the biologically available fractions. This work demonstrates that the evolution of Cd resistance can have profound implications for Cd bioavailability and cycling within aquatic ecosystems.
...0648-XC859 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and Southern Atlantic States AGENCY...exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and South Atlantic,...
Field studies were conducted to determine if laboratory protocols accurately predict shrimp mortality under field conditions. Fenthion, a mosquitocide, was applied to coastal marshes in several truck-mounted ultra-low volume (ULV) adulticide operations, and by direct application ...
...DS404] WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp From Viet Nam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice; request for...
...DS404] WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp From Viet Nam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice; request for...
...interested parties were adequate, and that it was appropriate to conduct a full sunset review. See Memorandum to James C. Doyle: Adequacy Determination in Antidumping Duty Sunset Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist...
...Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory Â§ 408.110 ...processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions...shrimp in the Northern contiguous States, including Washington, Oregon, California,...
count shrimp, because it has the potential to be contaminated with Salmonella, an organism which can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with weakened immune systems. Healthy persons ...
...Anti- Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp From Vietnam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative...is providing notice that the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') has requested the establishment of a...
...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony...CIT's remand order in Amanda Foods (Vietnam) Ltd., et al., v. United States...redetermination''); see also Amanda Foods (Vietnam) Ltd., et al., v. United...
A reference and four geographical strains of brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) nauplii were evaluated as diets for the larvae of a marine fish, the Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia). The survival of fish fed the various strains was significantly different a...
The white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, is the most important commercial species in the Southeastern United States. It serves an important ecological role as food for other large invertebrates and fishes. Major bait industry is in northeast Florida and Georgia. Spawning occurs offshore within 9-m depth contour where salinities are at least 27 ppt. In spring, postlarval shrimp move with tidal currents into inshore estuarine waters. Juvenile white shrimp prefer shallow organic-rich substrate with low salinities (1-10 ppt). Nearshore soft sediment areas correlated well with white and brown shrimp distributions. Water temperature influences spawning, growth, habitat selection, emigration, and mortality. Low winter temperatures have greatly affected survival, recruitment, and harvest in the South Atlantic fishery. Maintaining suitable nursery grounds is a major concern for the furture of the fishery. 66 refs., 2 figs.
The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the Hsp90 gene from black tiger shrimp. The full length\\u000a cDNA of black tiger shrimp Hsp90 (btsHsp90) contained a 5? untranslated region (UTR) of 72 bp, an ORF (open reading frame)\\u000a of 2160 bp encoding a polypeptide of 720 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 83-kDa and a
Shigui Jiang; Lihua Qiu; Falin Zhou; Jianhua Huang; Yihui Guo; Keng Yang
The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the cyclophilin A (CypA) gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The full-length cDNA of black tiger shrimp CypA (btsCypA) contained a 5? untranslated region (UTR) of 81bp, an ORF (open reading frame) of 495bp encoding a polypeptide of 164 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of
The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the cyclin B gene from black tiger shrimp. The full\\u000a length cDNA of black tiger shrimp cyclin B (btscyclin B) contained a 5? untranslated region (UTR) of 102 bp, an ORF of 1,206 bp\\u000a encoding a polypeptide of 401 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 45 kDa and a
In order to find the immune-relevant factors responsible for the virus resistance in the WSSV-resistant shrimp, a suppression subtractive hybridization method was employed to identify differentially expressed genes and their expression profile in the hepatopancreas of the virus-resistant penaeid shrimp. Thirty five genes were identified from more than 400 clones, of which eight are found for the first time in
Deng Pan; Nanhai He; Zhiyuan Yang; Haipeng Liu; Xun Xu
Background Persistent infection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) (also called IHHNV) and its non-infectious inserts in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) genome are commonly found without apparent disease. Here, we introduced the method of multiplex PCR in order to differentiate shrimp with viral inserts from ones with the infectious virus. The method allowed us to study the effect of pre-infection of IHHNV, in comparison to IHHNV inserts, on WSSV resistance in P. monodon. Results A multiplex PCR system was developed to amplify the entire IHHNV genome, ensuring the accurate diagnosis. Field samples containing IHHNV DNA templates as low as 20 pg or equivalent 150 viral copies can be detected by this method. By challenging the two groups of diagnosed shrimp with WSSV, we found that shrimp with IHHNV infection and those with viral inserts responded to WSSV differently. Considering cumulative mortality, average time to death of shrimp in IHHNV-infected group (day 14) was significantly delayed relative to that (day 10) of IHHNV-inserted group. Real-time PCR analysis of WSSV copy number indicated the lower amount of WSSV in the IHHNV-infected group than the virus-inserted group. The ratio of IHHNV: WSSV copy number in all determined IHHNV-infected samples ranged from approximately 4 to 300-fold. Conclusion The multiplex PCR assay developed herein proved optimal for convenient differentiation of shrimp specimens with real IHHNV infection and those with insert types. Diagnosed shrimp were also found to exhibit different WSSV tolerance. After exposed to WSSV, the naturally pre-infected IHHNV P. monodon were less susceptible to WSSV and, consequently, survived longer than the IHHNV-inserted shrimp.
Methanolic extracts of 18 Thai plants from Doi Tung, the north of Thailand, were examined for brine shrimp lethality and antioxidative activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. In brine shrimp lethality, the highly toxic plant extracts were Mitrephora wangii (LC50 14.8?µg?mL) and Hydrocotyle javanica (LC50 13.3?µg?mL). The extracts of Sageretia cordifolia, Ulmus lancaefolia and Acer chiangdaoense exhibited highly antioxidative activities with
Methanolic extracts of 18 Thai plants from Doi Tung, the north of Thailand, were examined for brine shrimp lethality and antioxidative activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. In brine shrimp lethality, the highly toxic plant extracts were Mitrephora wangii (LC50 14.8?µg?mL) and Hydrocotyle javanica (LC50 13.3?µg?mL). The extracts of Sageretia cordifolia, Ulmus lancaefolia and Acer chiangdaoense exhibited highly antioxidative activities with
Phenothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used as a contact insecticide in mosquito control programs. This study compared the toxicity of phenothrin to adult, larval and embryonic grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and examined oxidative stress responses in adult and larval grass shrimp. The adult 24-h LC50 was 0.341 ?g\\/L (95 % confidence intervals 0.282–0.412) and the 96-h LC50 was 0.161 ?g\\/L
Peter B. Key; Katy W. Chung; Jennifer Hoguet; Yelena Sapozhnikova; Marie E. DeLorenzo
The immunostimulatory effects of orally administered Panax ginseng root or its polysaccharides (GSP) in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were investigated in this study. Shrimp were fed a diet containing 0.4 g kg?1 GSP over a period of 84 days, during which the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), as well
Xiao-Long Liu; Qian-Yun Xi; Lin Yang; Hong-Yi Li; Qing-Yan Jiang; Gang Shu; Song-Bo Wang; Ping Gao; Xiao-Tong Zhu; Yong-Liang Zhang
In this paper, the effects of soy and corn flour (5 and 10% w\\/w) addition to the batter formulation on the quality of deep fat-fried shrimp nuggets were evaluated. Rheological properties\\u000a of batters, coating pick-up, moisture content, and oil content of the samples were determined. Shrimp nuggets were fried at\\u000a 150 °C, 170 °C, 190 °C, for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min.
We present the first evidence of late Pan-African magmatism in the Jiamusi Massif of northeastern China. Recent SHRIMP U–Pb zircon studies of the Mashan Complex have identified a major ?500Ma granulite facies metamorphic event in the area, but no older igneous rocks have previously been dated. Two granitoid samples have been analysed using SHRIMP U–Pb zircon techniques: a deformed granitoid
A cDNA encoding a laminin receptor protein (Lamr) has been isolated from hemocytes of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Pv), based on primers designed from a previously published Lamr sequence of a Taura syndrome virus (TSV) binding protein of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Pm). The deduced amino acid sequence of PvLamr shares 97% identity with PmLamr
Saengchan Senapin; Kornsunee Phiwsaiya; Gun Anantasomboon; Thanawat Sriphaijit; Craig L. Browdy; Timothy W. Flegel
The Chinese shrimp Penaeus (Fenneropaeneus) chinensis is an important species in marine fishery and aquaculture in China. A female Chinese shrimp Penaeus (Fenneropaeneus) chinensis was captured from west coast of the Korean peninsula and mated with a “Yellow Sea No. 1” male to produce the first filial\\u000a generation (F1) 100 F2 full-sib progeny from brother-sister crosses between F1 families was
Bo Liu; Qingyin Wang; Jian Li; Ping Liu; Yuying He
DE FREITAS, D.M., and TAGLIANI, P.R.A., 2007. Spatial planning of shrimp farming in the Patos Lagoon Estuary (southern Brazil): an integrated coastal management approach. Journal of Coastal Research, S1(47), 136-140. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. In recent years, aquaculture has been growing all over the world. In the estuarine region of Patos Lagoon (southern Brazil), small pilot shrimp farms
The potency of oral administration of peptidoglycan (PG) derived from Bifidobacterium thermophilum was examined. PG was administered to kuruma shrimps through the diet at 0.2 mg\\/kg body weight\\/day for 7 consecutive days, alternated with 7 days without PG throughout a 95-day test period. The shrimps were sampled on day 65 and 95 and challenged by Vibrio penaeicida, which is highly
A process has been developed for the preparation of shelf-stable, ready-to-eat (RTE) shrimps using a combination of hurdles. The hurdles employed to cooked marinated shrimps included reduced water activity (0.85±0.02), packaging and ?-irradiation (2.5kGy). Microbiological analysis revealed a dose dependent reduction in total viable count and Staphylococcus species. In nonirradiated samples a visible mold growth was seen within 15 days
This study examined the effects of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide, on newly hatched to adult life stages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. In laboratory experiments, adult and 18?day old larval grass shrimp were exposed in separate 96?h acute toxicity tests to establish a range of LC50's for these two life stages. The adult 96?h LC50 was 0.37 ?g\\/L with
I conducted a transplant experiment to determine whether standard metabolic rate (SMR) of a freshwater shrimp (Palaemonetes paludosus) would be affected by exposure to trace element-enriched coal combustion waste (`coal ash'). Shrimp were transplanted into replicate cages in a coal ash-polluted site and a reference site for 8 months. The coal ash-polluted site was characterized by elevated sediment concentrations of
In order to gain a better understanding of the developmental processes of shrimp germ cells, the molecular cloning and characterization\\u000a of a meiosis-related gene, Dmc1, was carried out using the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The cDNA of the L. vannamei Dmc1 homologue (LvDmc1) was 1,647 bp long and contained a 1,023-bp open reading frame corresponding to 341 amino acid residues. The
Apoptosis is proposed to be a major cause of death in shrimp viral infections. From our previous study, an apoptosis-related gene, Pm-Alix, was identified from the black tiger shrimp. Its expression was high in defence-related tissues including haemocytes and the lymphoid organ. To clarify its possible role in shrimp, we used Pm-Alix as bait in a yeast two-hybrid analysis to search for Alix interacting proteins in shrimp. Two cDNA sequences discovered had homology to a predicted ubiquitin C of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and to a guanylyl cyclase of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. In vitro pull-down assays confirmed positive interaction between Pm-Alix and both proteins. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that Pm-Alix and the two binding partners were widely expressed in various tissues but more highly expressed in haemocytes. However, no significant positive or negative correlation was found in the expression of these genes as shrimp approached morbidity and death after challenge with white spot syndrome virus. Thus, the results suggested that Alix and its interacting partners did not play a direct role related to shrimp death. PMID:20412359
Sangsuriya, P; Rojtinnakorn, J; Senapin, S; Flegel, T W