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1

Optimized DNA extraction methods for encysted embryos of the endangered fairy shrimp, Branchinecta sandiegonensis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The San Diego fairy shrimp Branchinecta sandiegonensis is a federally endangered species endemic to vernal pools in southern California, USA. Filling events in these habitats are highly variable, with some pools failing to hold water long enough for reproduction over many successive years. Studies of this species are thus hindered by the relatively rare appearance of aquatically active life history phases. Because diapausing cysts are abundant and present at all times, they provide an underutilized opportunity for both species identification and genetic studies. However, methods for extracting DNA from cysts are technically challenging because of their structure and size. Here we present a protocol for extracting DNA from B. sandiegonensis cysts in sufficient quantities for "DNA Barcoding", microsatellite analysis and other genotyping and sequencing applications. The technique will aid in population genetic studies and species identification (since taxonomic keys only distinguish among adults), and will be applicable to other crustaceans with similar diapausing cysts. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

Steele, A.N.; Simovich, M.A.; Pepino, D.; Schroeder, K.M.; Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.

2009-01-01

2

Identification of co-occurring Branchinecta fairy shrimp species from encysted embryos using multiplex polymerase chain reaction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Morphological identification of many fairy shrimp species is difficult because distinguishing characters are restricted to adults. We developed two multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays that differentiate among three Branchinecta fairy shrimp with distributional overlap in southern California vernal pools. Two of the species are federally listed as threatened. Molecular identification of Branchinecta from cysts allows for species surveys to be conducted during the dry season, expanding the timeframe for population assessment and providing a less intrusive method of sampling sensitive vernal pool habitats. ?? Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Vandergast, A.G.; Wood, D.A.; Simovich, M.; Bohonak, A.J.

2009-01-01

3

Genetic utility of natural history museum specimens: endangered fairy shrimp (Branchiopoda, Anostraca)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We examined the potential utility of museum specimens as a source for genetic analysis of fairy shrimp. Because of loss of their vernal pool habitat, some fairy shrimp (including Branchinecta sandiegonensis and Branchinecta lynchi) are listed as threatened or endangered in Southern California by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Management of those species requires extensive population genetics studies and the resolution of important genetic complexity (e.g. possible hybridization between endangered and non-endangered species). Regulations mandating deposition of specimens of listed species have resulted in thousands of specimens accessioned into the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County that have been preserved in a variety of solutions. We subsampled those specimens, as well as other Anostraca with known collection and preservation histories, to test their potential for genetic analysis by attempting DNA extraction and amplification for mt16SrDNA. Fixation and preservation in not denatured ethanol had a far greater sequencing success rate than other (and unknown) fixatives and preservatives. To maximize scientific value we recommend field preservation in 95% not denatured ethanol (or, if pure ethanol is unavailable, high-proof drinking spirits, e.g. Everclear™, or 151 proof white rum), followed by storage in 95% not denatured ethanol.

Wall, Adam R.; Campo, Daniel; Wetzer, Regina

2014-01-01

4

77 FR 36287 - Receipt of Application for the Amendment of the Incidental Take Permit for the Multiple Species...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the parcels include the federally listed endangered San Diego fairy shrimp (Branchinecta sandiegonensis) and the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), an MSCP Subarea Plan covered species. More details on the specific parcels and their...

2012-06-18

5

Acute toxicity of ten chemicals to fairy shrimp relative to other crustaceans and mollusks  

EPA Science Inventory

Several species of fairy shrimp in the genus Branchinecta (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) are protected under the federal Endangered Species Act due to destruction of seasonal wetland habitats in Oregon and California, making protection of the hydrology and water quality of the limited...

6

Heart ultrastructure in Branchinecta paludosa, Artemia salina, Branchipus schaefferi, and Streptocephalus sp. (Crustacea, Anostraca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heart ultrastructure of the anostracan Crustacea Branchinecta paludosa, Artemia salina, Branchipus schaefferi, and Streptocephalus sp. is essentially similar. All lack an endocardium and an epicardium, and the heart wall consists of a single layered myocardium. Only in the posterior end of the heart does the myocardium form a tube. In the remaining, anterior part of the heart, the myocardium

S. Økland; A. Tjønneland; L. N. Larsen; A. Nylund

1982-01-01

7

Fairy, tadpole, and clam shrimps (Branchiopoda) in seasonally inundated clay pans in the western Mojave Desert and effect on primary producers  

PubMed Central

Background Fairy shrimps (Anostraca), tadpole shrimps (Notostraca), clam shrimps (Spinicaudata), algae (primarily filamentous blue-green algae [cyanobacteria]), and suspended organic particulates are dominant food web components of the seasonally inundated pans and playas of the western Mojave Desert in California. We examined the extent to which these branchiopods controlled algal abundance and species composition in clay pans between Rosamond and Rogers Dry Lakes. We surveyed branchiopods during the wet season to estimate abundances and then conducted a laboratory microcosm experiment, in which dried sediment containing cysts and the overlying algal crust were inundated and cultured. Microcosm trials were run with and without shrimps; each type of trial was run for two lengths of time: 30 and 60 days. We estimated the effect of shrimps on algae by measuring chlorophyll content and the relative abundance of algal species. Results We found two species of fairy shrimps (Branchinecta mackini and B. gigas), one tadpole shrimp (Lepidurus lemmoni), and a clam shrimp (Cyzicus setosa) in our wet-season field survey. We collected Branchinecta lindahli in a pilot study, but not subsequently. The dominant taxa were C. setosa and B. mackini, but abundances and species composition varied greatly among playas. The same species found in field surveys also occurred in the microcosm experiment. There were no significant differences as a function of experimental treatments for either chlorophyll content or algal species composition (Microcoleus vaginatus dominated all treatments). Conclusions The results suggest that there was no direct effect of shrimps on algae. Although the pans harbored an apparently high abundance of branchiopods, these animals had little role in regulating primary producers in this environment. PMID:21143855

2010-01-01

8

Punching Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Legendary boxer Muhammad Ali used to brag that he could "float like a butterfly and sting like a bee." But to be a true champion, a prizefighter should really try to "punch like a mantis shrimp." This Science Update examines the research behind copying this mechanism for application to machinery design.

Science Update

2004-06-28

9

Brine Shrimp 1: Hatching Brine Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will design a test to determine the optimum salinity for hatching brine shrimp. In the second brine shrimp lesson of the series, students will raise these brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

10

Brine Shrimp 2: Brine Shrimp Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the second of two lessons on brine shrimp. In the first brine shrimp lesson, students determined the optimum salinity for hatching. In this lesson, students will raise brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This Science NetLinks lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

11

SHRIMPS (ARTHROPODA: CRUSTACEA: PENAEIDAE)  

EPA Science Inventory

The pollution ecology of penaeid shrimps involving industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, petroleum, heavy metals, biological agents, and interactions of the above is discussed. Penaeid shrimps, within their geographic distribution, can serve as valid indicators of the presenc...

12

CHARACTERIZATION OF SHRIMP BACULOVIRUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The research undertaken involved the partial characterization of a baculovirus of the pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum. The significance of the study is related to the fact that the shrimp baculovirus is morphologically similar to insect vaculoviruses which were considered unique to...

13

Color Control in Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sand shrimp, Crangon septemspinosus, are capable of varying their color or shading in response to several environmental changes (background color, light intensity, light wavelength, and temperature). The degree of color change can be determined quantitatively by examining the chromatophores under a dissecting microscope and staging the amount of pigment dispersion, (b) the location or type of receptors involved, and (c) the type of communication between receptors and effectors.

Mary-Jane O'Halloran (Dalhousie University; )

1989-06-06

14

Substrate Selection by Ghost Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this experiment is to determine if ghost shrimp show a preference for a particular substrate surface under artificial conditions. Ghost shrimp are geographically widespread. They are an important source of food for many fish, mammals, and birds. Ghost shrimp are omnivorous, seldom predaceous. Their preferred food is aquatic vegetation. Ecologically, they are considered scavengers. Therefore, they contribute to an efficient flow of energy within aquatic habitats. Economically, they have become a favorite source of live food for aquarium fish and are sold in pet stores and are harvested for bait for sport fishing.

Ms. Sue Diggs (Monterey High School)

2000-07-01

15

Monodon baculovirus of shrimp.  

PubMed

Among the viruses infecting penaeid shrimp, monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) otherwise known as Penaeus monodon singly enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (PmSNPV), is one of the widely reported and well described viruses. It is a rod-shaped, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus, and considered till recently, as the type A baculovirus. Besides MBV, two strains of SNPV are reported-plebejus baculovirus and bennettae baculovirus. MBV was reported to be originated from Taiwan and has wide geographic distribution and is reported to be enzootic in wild penaeids of the Indo-pacific coasts of Asia. The virus also has diverse host-range including a variety of cultured and captured shrimp species and freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MBV has been reported in all life stages of P. monodon with late larval, postlarval and young juvenile as the most susceptible stages/ages. However, MBV has not been documented in early larval stages. Although MBV has been reported to be tolerated well by shrimp, the infection has been attributed to decreased productivity. The target organs or tissues of MBV are the hepatopancreatic tubules and duct epithelium of postlarvae, juveniles and adults, and the anterior midgut epithelium of very young postlarvae. The prominent clinical sign of infection is the presence of multiple spherical inclusion bodies in the hepatopancreas and midgut epithelial cells. The major mode of transmission of the virus is horizontal through oral exposure to occlusion bodies, contaminated tissues or fomites. Minor morphometric variation of the virus has been reported among different isolates. The rod-shaped enveloped virus particles range from 265-324 nm in length and 42-77 nm in diameter. Although complete genome sequence of MBV is not available, nucleic acid of MBV is circular, double-stranded DNA with a genome size ranging from 80 to 160 kbp. The virus codes for a 53 kDa major polyhedrin polypeptide and two minor 47 and 49 kDa polypeptides. A variety of diagnostic tools have been reported for this virus including real-time PCR and LAMP-based detection. Taxonomic position is still uncertain and International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses lists MBV as a tentative species named PemoNPV in the genus Nucleopolyhedrovirus. However, according to the latest genomic information on the virus, it has been suggested to create a new group of non-occluded bacilliform viruses called nudiviruses with MBV as one of the members. The aim of the current work is to describe the knowledge on the status, distribution and host-range, pathology, transmission, virus structure and morphogenesis, genomic characteristics, diagnosis and the latest taxonomic position of MBV. PMID:23997439

Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M; Karunasagar, I

2012-09-01

16

Science Nation: Disappearing Red Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Along the shore in Hawaii, the ponds imbedded in lava rocks contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life in these pools are hundreds of tiny red shrimp. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), molecular biologist Scott Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.

17

CONJOINED TWIN ADULT SHRIMP (DECAPODA: PENAEIDAE)  

E-print Network

NOTES CONJOINED TWIN ADULT SHRIMP (DECAPODA: PENAEIDAE) A two-headed roughback shrimp by preservation. Antennules, anten- FIGURE I.-Conjoined twin Trackype1UUi'1U1 simi/is in diagrammatic lateral view

18

???????????????????????????????????????????? Design and Development of Shrimp Straightening Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi automatic shrimp straightening machine controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC) was designed and developed. The machine consisted of three main parts, a shrimp conveyor, a shrimp pressing straightening part and the controller. The machine had three operation steps. In the first step, a pneumatic cylinder retreated at the stroke of 5 cm to move the conveyor with

Prakarn Paemunkong

19

Polarization signals in mantis shrimps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While color signals are well known as a form of animal communication, a number of animals communicate using signals based on patterns of polarized light reflected from specialized body parts or structures. Mantis shrimps, a group of marine crustaceans, have evolved a great diversity of such signals, several of which are based on photonic structures. These include resonant scattering devices, structures based on layered dichroic molecules, and structures that use birefringent layers to produce circular polarization. Such biological polarizers operate in different spectral regions ranging from the near-UV to medium wavelengths of visible light. In addition to the structures that are specialized for signal production, the eyes of many species of mantis shrimp are adapted to detect linearly polarized light in the ultraviolet and in the green, using specialized sets of photoreceptors with oriented, dichroic visual pigments. Finally, a few mantis shrimp species produce biophotonic retarders within their photoreceptors that permit the detection of circularly polarized light and are thus the only animals known to sense this form of polarization. Mantis shrimps use polarized light in species-specific signals related to mating and territorial defense, and their means of manipulating light's polarization can inspire designs for artificial polarizers and achromatic retarders.

Cronin, Thomas W.; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Caldwell, Roy L.; Roberts, Nicholas; Marshall, Justin

2009-08-01

20

21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs ...Fish and Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp...

2011-04-01

21

21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs ...Fish and Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp...

2010-04-01

22

Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bou-Olayan, A.H. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait); Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

1995-04-01

23

Microbiological characteristics of Pacific shrimp (Pandalus jordani).  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms associated with Pacific shrimp (Pandalus jordani) were isolated and identified. Those on the iced raw shrimp, which yielded an average count of 1.6 x 10(6), were predominantly Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Flavobacterium-Cytophaga spp. The blanching and peeling reduced the microbial level to 3.3 x 10(4) and also selectively eliminated Moraxella spp. The microbial flora changed after each processing sequence, and the heat sensitivity and growth characteristics of the representative microbial groups suggested that the presence of Arthrobacter and Acinetobacter spp. in peeled shrimp may indicate inadequate cleaning of raw shrimp or a shorter blanching time. The presence of Moraxella and Flavobacterium-Cytophaga spp. would indicate the degree of secondary contamination, and the presence of Pseudomonas spp. would indicate the shelf-age of the processed shrimp. PMID:869532

Lee, J S; Pfeifer, D K

1977-01-01

24

Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

2013-01-01

25

78 FR 15691 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from India. The review covers 195 producers/ exporters...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India, 77 FR 73619 (December 11,...

2013-03-12

26

77 FR 40848 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from India. The period of review (POR) is February...the antidumping duty order on shrimp from...

2012-07-11

27

Microbial flora of fresh and stored shrimp  

E-print Network

, 700 480&000 720, 000 190, 000 170, 000 Shrimp was stored at 1 C for 7 days Table 6. Aerobic and anaerobic plate counts of fresh and stored shrimp sample 6 on plate count aSar prepared with different waters Shrimp Sample Conditions of plate... throughout this study. This project was partially funded by the National Science Foundation Sea Grant Program, Institutional Grant GH-59 made to Texas A&M University. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION P~ae REVIEN OF LITERATURE 1%TERIALS AND METHODS' ~ e...

Mroz, Eva

1970-01-01

28

Selenium requirement of shrimp Penaeus chinensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Penaeus chinensis were reared in fibreglass tanks for the study of their selenium requirements. The shrimp were fed semipurified diets containing graded levels of selenium, and weight gains, activities of glutatione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and selenium contents in muscle and hepatopancreas were determined. Weight gain and GSH-Px activity were the highest when the shrimp were fed diet containing 20 mg/kg selenium. Good linear correlation was found between GSH-Px activities and selenium contents in the diets, and the number of healthy shrimp. The experiment showed that 20 mg/kg selenium in the diet is optimal for the shrimp and that GSH-Px activity can be an important biochemical index of the selenium nutrition status of the animal.

Tian, Yuchuan; Liu, Fayi

1993-09-01

29

The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke  

E-print Network

We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

2011-01-01

30

Inshore Environmental Effects on Brown Shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, and White Shrimp, P. setiferus,  

E-print Network

, and field observations of all stages including sexually mature adults. The quantity of sources cited length (TL = tip of rostrum to tip of telson), adults as animals which are sexually mature, and juveniles in population abundance of white shrimp may have accelerated the research on the brown shrimp, particularly

31

Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

32

Shrimp Farms and Mangroves, Gulf of Fonseca  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For decades, astronauts on space missions have documented land use changes around the world. In this pair of images, astronauts track the development of shrimp farming along the Honduran coastline of the Gulf of Fonseca between 1989 and 2001. Mariculture, primarily shrimp farming, has become a leading agricultural effort in Honduras. The regional transformation of large tracts of coastal swamps into shrimp farms blossomed throughout the 1990s. The top image was taken with color infrared film in 1989. Dense vegetation, like the coastal mangrove swamps and the forested slopes of Volcan Cosiguina show up as dark red. The bottom image, taken with color visible film by the crew of the most recent Space Shuttle mission in December 2001 shows that hundreds of square kilometers of coastal swamp, primarily in Honduras, have been converted to shrimp ponds. These appear as the light-colored, rectilinear land use pattern. The Honduras shrimp farms were hit hard by flooding after Hurricane Mitch in 1998, and a devastating virus in 1999-2000. It is not known how many of the ponds in this view are still functional. A vigorous debate continues about the sustainability of the shrimp farms and the impacts to the environment and coastal ecosystem due to mangrove clearing and mariculture waste production. Apart from the shrimp farms, the other prominent feature on these images is the impressive volcano Cosiguina, which erupted explosively in 1859 (the largest recorded eruption in the Western Hemisphere). Photograph STS-108-717-85 was taken in the December 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. Photograph STS030-93-15 was taken in May 1989 using a Hasselblad camera and color infrared film. Both images are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

33

Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined

Joan A. Browder; Michael B. Robblee

2009-01-01

34

Burrowing shrimp as foundation species in NE Pacific estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

My talk will be about the my research to characterize the role that burrowing shrimp play as foundation/engineering species in Pacific NW estuaries. My research has focused on measuring the abundance & distribution of two species (ghost shrimp & mud shrimp) at ecosystem scales, ...

35

Tadpole shrimp structure macroinvertebrate communities in playa lake microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory microcosms were used to assess whether tadpole shrimp, Triops sp., affect community structure of other native macroinvertebrates in playa lakes of the Southern High Plains of Texas. Removal of tadpole shrimp shortly after hatching reduced abundances of many taxa, and decreased subsequent taxonomic richness and diversity. For many invertebrates, the presence of tadpole shrimp in low numbers had a

Susan Harrell Yee; Michael R. Willig; Daryl L. Moorhead

2005-01-01

36

Pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis for penaeid shrimp  

E-print Network

is insupportable due to the similarity of the cells in the control guts. The pH's of penaeid shrimp digestive tracts have not been determined by previous investigators. The ingestion 38 of indicators present in the pelletized ration appears to be an effective... of the shrimp which had been fed the BT. Histologic examination revealed BT within the lumen of the gut, but deterioration of the gut integrity could not be attributed to the bac- teria. The addition of 1. 3% borax to the pelletized ration did not enhance...

Lehrer, Janis Ellen

2012-06-07

37

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Northern Gulf of Mexico Brown Shrimp and White Shrimp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop estuarine habitat models for brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus). The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Turner, Robert Eugene; Brody, Michael S.

1983-01-01

38

76 FR 23972 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty orders on shrimp from Brazil, India, the PRC, Thailand, and...

2011-04-29

39

MFR PAPER 1171 Shrimp taste and vitamin  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1171 Shrimp taste and vitamin content did not differ markedly in thermal and microwave been done on vitamin anal '>es of \\egetables cooked b) micro~\\ ave and ~onven ti )nalmean hot spot. by employing peliodic stilTing. Vitamin selected for thi "tud) \\~e;e those \\\\ hich had been

40

Smart shrimp hatchery using Mikros platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been deployed to monitor the temperature and control the air conditions in a shrimp hatchery. The in-house nodes called Mikros are currently employed in the clustered WSNs. XBee platform is also included to the system as a cluster head and repeater. All data and control live onto the web application and iPhone

S. Charoenpanyasak; W. Suntiamorntut; T. Phatthanatraiwat; J. Ruksachum

2011-01-01

41

COBALT-60 Gamma Irradiation of Shrimp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine were measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

Sullivan, Nancy L. B.

42

Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of shrimp  

SciTech Connect

Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine was measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

Sullivan, N.L.B.

1993-01-01

43

GLUCOSE OXIDASE REDUCES OXIDATION IN FROZEN SHRIMP  

E-print Network

role oxygen can have during storage of foods (Scott, 1958). Glucose oxidase-catalase preparations are used to carry out the net reaction: 2 glucose + oxygen glucose oxidase > 2 gluconic acid. catalase of glucose oxidase -catalase would probably be more obvious in shrimp, which were packed in transparent bags

44

Pacific white shrimp culture in inland ponds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a tropical species grown throughout Latin America and now introduced into Asia, adapts to and grows well in low-salinity water. Pond culture of L. vannamei has expanded to inland regions across the southern US where low-salinity ground water is availa...

45

CO? efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO?) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO? efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO? efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO? m?² y?¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO? m?² y?¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO? emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y?¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO? emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO? released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

2013-01-01

46

78 FR 42492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from India.\\1\\ The period of review (POR) is...See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India; Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

2013-07-16

47

50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. 622.201 Section...Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ)....

2013-10-01

48

76 FR 18157 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Brazil, India and Thailand. The anniversary...Kate Johnson at (202) 482-4929 (Brazil), Henry Almond at (202)...

2011-04-01

49

75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

2010-08-11

50

75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

2010-09-21

51

75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23,...

2010-04-28

52

75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

2010-01-08

53

75 FR 17693 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Brazil, India and Thailand. The anniversary...Rebecca Trainor at (202) 482-4007 (Brazil), Elizabeth Eastwood at (202)...

2010-04-07

54

75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

2010-04-28

55

Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

1994-01-01

56

Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly\\u000a in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The\\u000a growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production\\u000a methods.

Mark Flaherty; Choomjet Karnjanakesorn

1995-01-01

57

Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The\\u000a culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle,\\u000a water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation.\\u000a Constricted tagelus,Sinonovacula constricta, was selected

Xiongfei Wu; Zhidong Zhao; Deshang Li; Kangmei Chang; Zhuanshang Tong; Liegang Si; Kaichong Xu; Bailin Ge

2005-01-01

58

A bio-economic model for penaeid shrimp mariculture systems  

E-print Network

Pound (Base Value: $0. 15) Ex-Ves el Price Per Pound of Tails (Base Value: $g. 25) Sensitivity Summary VI SUKV&RY, LINITATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 98 99 100 103 109 123 127 130 1)0 1/0 1/2 lgl 132 13lp 135 186 14. 2 VITA ix... varied for operations of 100, 500, and. 1000 acres, The table shrimp production system assumed. only one crop of 36 count (number per pound) shrimp. The bait shrimp production system assumed four crops of bait shrimp. Results from the analysis...

Adams, Charles M

1978-01-01

59

Vortex Formation with a Snapping Shrimp Claw  

PubMed Central

Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ?T*?4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

2013-01-01

60

Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.  

PubMed

Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ?T*?4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

2013-01-01

61

Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

2005-12-01

62

Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.  

PubMed

As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses. PMID:24751195

Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

2014-01-01

63

Sensory differentiation of shrimp using a trained descriptive analysis panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trained descriptive analysis panel evaluated raw and cooked sensory attributes for both fresh and frozen commercially available shrimp. While significant differences in sensory attributes existed among the type of frozen shrimp evaluated (Georgia white, Georgia brown, Gulf white, Gulf brown, Gulf pink, Honduras white, Belise white, Columbia white, and Burma black tiger), only appearance attributes could uniquely differentiate a

M. C. Erickson; M. A. Bulgarelli; A. V. A. Resurreccion; R. A. Vendetti; K. A. Gates

2007-01-01

64

CUTICULAR LESIONS INDUCED IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Adult grass shrimp were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ppm) of hexavalent chromium for 38 days. At the end of the exposure period, over 50% of the surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions that had many of the gross characteristics of 'shell disease.' Th...

65

STAGE I ZOEAE OF A CRANGONID SHRIMP, CRANGON FRANCISCORUM ANGUSTIMANA,  

E-print Network

NOTES STAGE I ZOEAE OF A CRANGONID SHRIMP, CRANGON FRANCISCORUM ANGUSTIMANA, HATCHED FROM OVIGEROUS FEMALES COLLECTED IN KACHEMAK BAY, ALASKA Information on the larval stages of crangonid shrimp ofthe North Pacific Ocean is meager. Need- ler (1941) described the first zoeal stage of Cran- gon septemspinosa (as

66

SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, Penaeus duorarum, AND FLEET  

E-print Network

and depth 10 Fleet concentrations 16 Shrimp discarding 16 Summary 22 Literature cited 23 Appendix 24 FIGURES 1. Map of south Florida showing the Tortugas fishing grounds 2 2. Important features of Tortugas 10 7. Relationship of depth of water and average size of female shrimp 10 8. Relationship of depth

67

LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP  

E-print Network

-year period in Texas. Material was obtained during each month of the year. Measurements of total lengthLENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP PENAEUS SETIFERUS Marine Biological, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP, PENAEUS SETIFERUS

68

Sanitation Guidelines for the Breaded-Shrimp Industry  

E-print Network

Sanitation Guidelines for the Breaded-Shrimp Industry UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES Sanitation Guidelines Dress 12 Habits 13 Supervision 14 in #12;#12;Sanitation Guidelines for the Breaded-Shrimp Industry

69

Model Merger Exercises for Chapter 5: The Brine Shrimp of Mono Lake  

E-print Network

Model Merger Exercises for Chapter 5: The Brine Shrimp of Mono Lake It is often useful to merge two of planktonic and benthic algae, brine shrimp, brine flies and a variety of migrating and nesting bird (see Figure 1) This exercise focuses on the brine shrimp (see Photo 1). Photo 1. The Brine Shrimp (photo

Ford, Andrew

70

Improvement on the technology of producing high quality seawater shrimp broodstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater shrimps are high economic valued species. Their natural catch has reached its maximum yield, about 1.6 - 1.8 million ton a year. Shrimp culture is an effective solution to satisfy the continued increasing demand of global markets on this valuable seafood. Shrimp culture, especially the culture of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), is a high profit business, but there are

Nguyen Tac An

2004-01-01

71

CO-OCCURRENCE OF WHITE SHRIMP, PENAEUS VANNAMEI, MORTALITIES AND MICROCYSTIN TOXIN IN A SOUTHEASTERN USA SHRIMP FACILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Various freshwater and marine algal toxins are known to affect plants, fishes, mammals, and invertebrates. During recent mortality events in Texas white shrimp aquaculture ponds, water and shrimp tissue samples were analyzed for cyanobacterial toxins and found to contain microcystin-LR. Cyanoprokar...

72

Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity  

PubMed Central

Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

2014-01-01

73

Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (<10 log CFU/g) during refrigerated (4°C) storage of cooked shrimp for 2 days. The redness, yellowness, and lightness were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for the cooked shrimp than for the uncooked shrimp on all days tested. The standard deviation for redness in the cooked shrimp was large, indicating a wide range of pink coloration on all days tested. The results suggest that boiling shrimp until they float will significantly reduce Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good indication of reduction of these pathogens because of the wide natural color variation. PMID:23317857

Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

2013-01-01

74

Description and analysis of the shrimp raceway run for the summer 1990, Shrimp Mariculture Project, Texas A&M University System  

E-print Network

widely used are: -The giant tiger shrimp (P. monodon), cultured in Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines. It is responsible for 33-: of the world shrimp Farming production. This species is the largest and has the fastest growth rate...

Mena, Luis

1991-01-01

75

EFFECTS OF GROUND ULV (ULTRA-LOW VOLUME) APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON ESTUARINE BIOTA. 3. RESPONSE OF CAGED PINK SHRIMP AND GRASS SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) were deployed in floating cages to determine if fenthion, in an actual-use application in the field, affected shrimp survival. After four ultra-low-volume ground applications (equivalent to llg/ha or 0...

76

78 FR 19639 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from India and Thailand. The anniversary month of...David Crespo at (202) 482-3693 (India) and Blaine Wiltse (202)...

2013-04-02

77

75 FR 53947 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China...of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23,...

2010-09-02

78

76 FR 23277 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China...of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, the PRC, India, Thailand, and...

2011-04-26

79

75 FR 27299 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China and Thailand...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China...on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China...on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, India, the PRC, and Thailand....

2010-05-14

80

COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

81

MAPPING BURROWING SHRIMP AND SEAGRASS IN YAQUINA ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing shrimp and seagrasses create extensive intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats within Pacific NW estuaries. Maps of their populations are useful to inform estuarine managers of locations that deserve special consideration for conservation, and to inform oyster farmers...

82

Editor's Comments On Eating Shrimp, and Some Other Matters  

E-print Network

\\,el Tap water. Salt bay leaf or IWO. Cloves. Olher spices accordm!! 10 Ihe C,)"~\\\\\\ him One COP) of ) e not content with the incomparable flavor of the shrimp itself, and icy beer. It would be ungentlemanly

83

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES ON THE BIOLOGY OF SHRIMP, FAMILY PENAEIDAE 1  

E-print Network

. 'VISBY. 1964. Effects of light and moon phase on the be- havior of pink shrimp. Proc. Gulf Carib. Fish. Divulg. 6(57), "" pp. 101 #12;ALDRICH, DAVID V. 1963. Physiology and behavior program. In Biologi- cal

84

GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BURROWING SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ghost shrimp, (Neotypaea californiensis) are burrowers, whose bioturbation and sediment destabilizations have a negative effect on mariculture of the commercially important oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Oyster farmers in Washington and Oregon estuaries have been poisoning these shr...

85

DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION TREATMENT OF GULF SHRIMP CANNERY WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This study reports on the operation of a plant scale dissolved air flotation system installed to define and evaluate attainable shrimp cannery wastewater treatment levels. The system was operated in all three modes of DAF pressurization. Destabilizing coagulants investigation inc...

86

Economic feasibility of commercial shrimp farming in Texas  

E-print Network

with Critical Factor for Net Cash Flow 26 Format of Net Present Value Analysis with Critical Factors for Total Assets 27 Wholesale Shrimp Prices for 51-65 Count P. setiferus (white shrimp) 1/68 ? June, 1$7$ CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The exponential growth... Literature Review Methodology FACTORS AFFECTING ASSETS, OPERATING EXPENSES AND REVENUE Assets Operating Expenses De scription o f Revenue 9 16 21 III THE MODEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2$ Data Inputs for the Mod, el Land and Improvements...

Williams, Robert James

2012-06-07

87

NORMAL POSTMORTEM CHANGES IN THE BROWN SHRIMP, PENAEUS AZTECUSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the normal rates and patterns of gross and histologic postmortem changes in the brown shrimp (Penaells a~.le(,lIs Ives). Experimental shrimp were held at 10°, 20°, or 30°C in water-saturated air or in seawater at a salinity of 30%0. Observations were made at O. 2. 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postmortem.

DONALD V. LIGHTNER

88

Diurnal and nocturnal catchability of Kuwait's commercial shrimps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In descending order of importance, the shrimps Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan, 1844; Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837); and Parapenaeopsis stylifera (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) account for over 95% of Kuwait's commercial landings. Throughout its range, P. semisulcatus is nocturnal, but Kuwait trawlers are active 24h a day during season. Historically, all scientific shrimp surveys in Kuwait have been conducted during daylight

J. M. Bishop; Y. Ye; A. H. Alsaffar; H. M. Al-Foudari; S. Al-Jazzaf

2008-01-01

89

Economic and financial implications of shrimp farming in West Texas  

E-print Network

Analysis. DESCRIPTION OF AQUACULTURE FACILITY Pond Construction Equipment Fixed Costs. Operational Costs Shrimp Price Biological Parameters RESULTS. 17 18 19 21 22 26 28 30 32 32 33 34 37 Deterministic Implications. Sensitivity... Illustration of mean, maximum, and minimum annual net returns for a simulated shrimp farm, 25 separate iterations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 INTRODUCTION West Texas is searching for new economic opportunities. Aquaculture using saline ground water may...

Britt, David Westbrook

1995-01-01

90

Detection of virus in shrimp using digital color correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of virus in shrimp tissue using digital color correlation is presented. Phase filters in three channels (red, green and blue) were used in order to detect HPV virus like target. These first results obtained showed that is possible to detect virus in shrimp tissue. More research must be made with color correlation in order to consider natural morphology of the virus, color, scale and rotation and noise in the samples.

Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina; Bueno-Ibarra, Mario A.

1999-07-01

91

Enhanced Cellular Immunity in Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after ‘Vaccination’  

PubMed Central

It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed ‘specific immune priming’, although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1?1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from ‘vaccinated’ shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either ‘immunised’ or non-immunised’ shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that ‘vaccination’ has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of ‘immune priming’ reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens. PMID:21698190

Roberts, Emily C.; Shields, Robin J.; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F.

2011-01-01

92

Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters  

E-print Network

HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis by BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982... Major Subject: Food Science and Technology HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Head of apartment) May 1982...

DeWitt, Bernard John

2012-06-07

93

Decline and local extinction of Caribbean eusocial shrimp.  

PubMed

The tropical shrimp genus Synalpheus includes the only eusocial marine animals. In much of the Caribbean, eusocial species have dominated the diverse fauna of sponge-dwelling shrimp in coral rubble for at least the past two decades. Here we document a recent, dramatic decline and apparent local extinction of eusocial shrimp species on the Belize Barrier Reef. Our collections from shallow reefs in central Belize in 2012 failed to locate three of the four eusocial species formerly abundant in the area, and showed steep declines in colony size and increases in frequency of queenless colonies prior to their disappearance. Concordant with these declines, several nonsocial, pair-forming Synalpheus species increased in frequency. The decline in eusocial shrimp is explained in part by disappearance of two sponge species on which they specialize. Eusocial shrimp collections from Jamaica in 2012 showed similar patterns of decline in colony size and increased queenlessness compared with prior Jamaican collections. The decline and local extinction of eusocial shrimp happened against a backdrop of changes in coral assemblages during recent decades, and may reflect changes in abundance and quality of dead coral substratum and succession of the diverse cryptic organisms living within it. These changes document potentially worrisome declines in a unique taxon of eusocial marine animals. PMID:23418429

Duffy, J Emmett; Macdonald, Kenneth S; Hultgren, Kristin M; Chak, Tin Chi Solomon; Rubenstein, Dustin R

2013-01-01

94

Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.  

PubMed

Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices. PMID:23239886

Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

2013-04-01

95

78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Final)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations...the subject investigations concerning Indonesia (78 FR 50379) and Thailand (78 FR...concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand (investigation Nos....

2013-09-06

96

78 FR 72635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') covering the period February 1, 2013...

2013-12-03

97

78 FR 59650 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') meets the statutory and regulatory...

2013-09-27

98

75 FR 27705 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty New...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February...

2010-05-18

99

75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on August 26, 2010, meets the...

2010-10-01

100

75 FR 844 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February...

2010-01-06

101

76 FR 36519 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...

2011-06-22

102

75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...

2010-09-14

103

76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on February 28, 2011, meets...

2011-03-23

104

78 FR 15699 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period of review (``POR'')...

2013-03-12

105

MORE THAN JUST BAIT: BURROWING SHRIMP AS ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS IN OREGON ESTUARIES - SEPTEMBER 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing shrimp may be most widely known as excellent fishing bait, but they also play important roles in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. These shrimps strongly affect carbon and nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, food web structure and dynamics, sediment stability,...

106

RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

107

ENHANCED ORGANIC MATTER REMINERALIZATION AND NUTRIENT TURNOVER BY POPULATIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN YAQUINA BAY, OR  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing, or thalassinid, shrimp structure large areas of intertidal habitat of Pacific Northwest estuaries. This field study utilized a combination of anoxic incubations, porewater dialysis peepers, and benthic chambers to quantify the role of burrowing shrimp species on OM dec...

108

An economic model incorporating shrimp growth and water quality parameters into a budget-simulation  

E-print Network

, the penaeid shrimps, have become poten- tial culture organisms along the Texas Gulf Coast. A high volume of sales is feasible since shrimp may be cultured in densities of approximately 40, 000 shrimo per acre (Parker) and since there ap- pears to be a high... of wind, water turnover rates, photosynthesis, decomposition, phytoplanktonic res- piration, and shrimp respiration. Several shrimp-growth models are currently being developed at Texas A&M University. Each of these models is concerned with dif- ferent...

Hanson, Jerrell Scott

2012-06-07

109

Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain.  

PubMed

In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management. PMID:25198861

Dabade, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Rob; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

2014-09-01

110

Coming out of their homesteads? : Employment for rural women in shrimp aquaculture in coastal Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangladesh has experienced a rapid expansion of shrimp farming in the coastal regions in recent years. The increase in both area and production has been influenced by the financial profit motive of rural farmers coupled with high international demands for shrimps and ecological congeniality for shrimp aquaculture. In the past the traditional farming systems in the coastal belts of Bangladesh

M. Akhter Hamid; Mohammad Alauddin

1998-01-01

111

50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. 622...208 Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod end of a rock shrimp trawl net in the South...

2013-10-01

112

50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

2010-10-01

113

50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

2011-10-01

114

50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

2012-10-01

115

Environmental mutagenicity and toxicity caused by sodium metabisulfite in sea shrimp harvesting in Piauí, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium metabisulfite is used in marine shrimp harvesting to prevent the occurrence of black spots. Shrimps are soaked in a sodium metabisulfite solution in ice, which is disposed of in sewages that run into marine canals, creating an environmental hazard. This study evaluates the toxicity and mutagenicity caused by sodium metabisulfite in sea waters and sediments collected in a shrimp

Ivana Mara da Costa Machado Matos Carvalho; Ana Amélia Melo Cavalcante; Alisson Ferreira Dantas; Danilo Leôncio Aguiar Pereira; Francisco Cézar Costa Rocha; Francisco Massal de Oliveira; Juliana Da Silva

2011-01-01

116

78 FR 76106 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-570-893] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's...antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's...Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the People's...available, in accordance with section 776(a) and (b) of...

2013-12-16

117

Mangroves as filters of shrimp pond effluent: predictions and biogeochemical research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary estimates of the ratio of mangrove forest: shrimp pond area necessary to remove nutrients from shrimp pond effluent are made using budgets of nitrogen and phosphorus output for semi-intensive and intensive shrimp ponds combined with estimates of total net primary production in Rhizophora-dominated mangrove forests in tropical coastal areas. If effluent is delivered directly to mangrove forest plots, it

A. I. Robertson; M. J. Phillips

1995-01-01

118

RADIATION PASTEURIZATION OF SHRIMP. Final Summary Report for the Period, January-December 1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation processing of shrimp was investigated as a means of extending ; refrigerated storage life from 15 to 30 days or longer. Doses of Co⁶° ; gamma radiation of 50,000 to 100,000 rads resulted in an increase in the iced ; storage life of shrimp of from 2 to 7 weeks, as compared to unirradiated controls. ; The shrimp were

A. F. Novak; J. A. Liuzzo

1963-01-01

119

Metals in Shrimp Culture Areas from the Gulf of Fonseca, Central America. I. Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp aquaculture is a prominent industrial activity in the Gulf of Fonseca, which is shared by Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. The shrimp culture area in Honduras is widely extended and mainly located in the Departments of Valle and Choluteca, receiving waters from Choluteca, Sampile, Goascoran, Nacaome and Negro Rivers. Three thousands tons of shrimps were produced during 1993. In

G. Carbonell; C. Ramos; J. V. Tarazona

1998-01-01

120

Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)  

EPA Science Inventory

The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

121

77 FR 36998 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY...as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Written...for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Form may be...annual Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Form....

2012-06-20

122

78 FR 40436 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY...as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Written...for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Form may be...annual Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Form....

2013-07-05

123

[Detection of allergenic substances (shrimp, crab) in processed seafood].  

PubMed

We have carried out a study (2009-2012) on processed seafood products in order to determine the level of contamination with shrimp and crab. In 2010-2012, after the Allergy Labeling Regulation went into effect, the detection rate of crustacean protein in processed seafood products including small fish, such as niboshi, tukudani and so on (both boiled and dried), was 63%. Detection rates for processed seafood products in which crustacean protein levels were below 1 ?g/g were 36% with and 58% without advisory labels, allowing us to conclude that 60% of labels were adequate. On the other hand, the detection rate for processed seafood products with crustacean protein levels higher than the baseline of 10 ?g/g was 9%, of which 60% carried no advisory labels. The rate of shrimp DNA detection using the Akiami primer in processed foods containing shrimp and crab was high (73%). This suggests that it is necessary to test these products using the Akiami primer for supplemental analyses of shrimp DNA. The PCR analysis for crab DNA detection failed due to combined detection of mantis shrimp DNA, which accounted for 8% of the total detected. PMID:24598226

Watanabe, Hiroko; Saita, Kiyotaka; Akaboshi, Chie; Ohsawa, Nobuhiko; Hashiguchi, Shigeki; Miyazawa, Maki

2014-01-01

124

Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses  

PubMed Central

Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2014-01-01

125

Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.  

PubMed

Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2014-02-12

126

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

2010-01-01

127

Nutritional Contribution of Phytoplankton to the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

E-print Network

. In 2009, shrimp aquaculture yields were estimated at 3.1 million metric tons (MMT) with total farmed shrimp landings valued at US$ 12.9 billion (FAO 2011). Until 2001, black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was the main species cultured comprising 70... to begin culturing the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In 2003, the production of L. vannamei exceeded black tiger shrimp by 309,172 MT (59% of world production - FAO 2011) and it is projected that for 2013, this species will represent about...

Sanchez Corrales, Dagoberto Raul

2012-07-16

128

Summary of studies on closed-polyculture of penaeid shrimp with fishes and moluscans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closed-polyculture of Chinese penaeid shrimp, Taiwan red tilapia, and molluscans(constricted tagelus and bay scallop) was studied from 1995 to 1997 with the enclosure-experiment method, on a shrimp farm in Haiyang County, Shandong Province. Four structure-optimized closed-polyculture systems, i. e., the “shrimp-tagelus” system, the “shrimp-scallop” system, the “shrimp-tilapia” system and the “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system, were worked out. All these polyculture systems were superior to shrimp monoculture system in economic and ecological efficiencies. The order of these polyculture systems in efficiencies was “shrimptilapia-tagelus” > “shrimp-tagelus”>“shrimp-tilapia”>“shrimp-scallop”. The “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system raised the production by 28% and the utilization efficiency of input nitrogen by 85%. These closed-polyculture systems reduced the nitrogen discharge ratio to 6% 8%, instead of 40% 90% in the usual open culture systems. The ecological features of the systems were also investigated and many meaningful results have been obtained. The mechanism enhancing the efficiencies of these systems, the ways to enhance the efficiencies further and those to reuse the sedimented materials are disscussed.

Li, De-Shang; Dong, Shuang-Lin

2000-03-01

129

Cost and returns budgets for penaeid shrimp culture operations  

E-print Network

the method of Primavera (1978). Maturation animals are fed a diet of fresh frozen squid (~Loli o ~s . ), fresh frozen juvenile shrimp (Penaeus ~s . ), and fresh frozen bloodworms (Glycera dibranchiata) in a 2:1:1 ratio. Production per tank 21 td bit b P... for each piece of equipment. The maturation ration for broodstock consists of squid, juven- ile shrimp, and bloodworms and have per kilogram prices of $1. 65, $2. 75, and $22. 00, respectively. Squid are fed twice a day at ap- proximately 150g per...

Johns, M. A.

2012-06-07

130

Ex-vessel demand by size for the Gulf shrimp  

E-print Network

EX-VESSEL DEMAND BY SIZE FOR THE GULF SHRIMP A Thesis by MARGARET RAM-TOO CHUI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major... Subject: Agricultural Economics EX-VESSEL DEMAND BY SIZE FOR SHRIMP IN THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by MARGARET KAM-TOO CHUI Approved as to style and content by: ai an of Committee) (Hea f ep tment) (Member) (Member) August 1980 ABSTRACT Ex...

Chui, Margaret Kam-Too

2012-06-07

131

Phylogeny and evolution of Indo-Pacific shrimp-associated gobies (Gobiiformes: Gobiidae).  

PubMed

Despite the ubiquity of obligate mutualisms on coral reef ecosystems, little is known about the evolution of many participating species. The shrimp gobies, known primarily from the coral reef habitats of the Indo-Pacific, are small benthic fishes that participate in a remarkable mutualism with alpheid shrimp. In this mutualism, the shrimp build and maintain a burrow that is guarded by the goby, and the shrimp and goby engage in an intricate tactile communication system. The mutualism is obligate for most shrimp gobies as participating species are highly vulnerable to predation when separated from a shrimp partner. We use phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data to infer evolutionary relationships among shrimp gobies, and between shrimp gobies and their non-mutualistic gobiid relatives. We show that the mutualist shrimp association has arisen twice among gobies, once in a clade composed of Amblyeleotris, Ctenogobiops, and Vanderhorstia, and a second time in a clade including Cryptocentrus, Mahidolia, Tomiamichthys and Stonogobiops. We then compare the evolution of traits within each shrimp goby clade and consider their intrarelationships. We document cryptic diversity among shrimp gobies, with three distinct clades delineated among Mahidolia mysticina specimens captured at the same locality, paired with the same shrimp species. Mahidolia is placed as sister to the Cryptocentrus species Cryptocentrus cinctus; both exhibit pronounced dichromatism, occurring in both brown and yellow (xanthic) forms. We additionally clarify species identities within Amblyeleotris, confirming that widespread similar species Amblyeleotris fasciata, Amblyeleotris steinitzi and Amblyeleotris wheeleri are all distinct. We hypothesize that the flexibility of gobiid gobies and alpheid shrimp to interact with mutualist partners, as well as the apparently highly beneficial nature of mutualism between them, has contributed to the dual evolution of shrimp-association among Indo-Pacific gobies. PMID:21315161

Thacker, Christine E; Thompson, Andrew R; Roje, Dawn M

2011-04-01

132

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.  

PubMed

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

2010-01-01

133

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

PubMed Central

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

2010-01-01

134

Recent population expansion and connectivity in the hydrothermal shrimp  

E-print Network

-sea hydrothermal vents are unstable habitats that are both spatially and temporally fragmented. In vent species of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata, which forms high-density local populations on hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic ridge. Location Deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Methods We used

Teixeira, Sara

135

Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

1999-01-01

136

The Freshwater Shrimps Of Curaçao, West Indies (decapoda, Caridea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a é eld survey and review of existing records I here report on the occurrence of ten freshwater shrimp species in Curaç ao. Four species constitute new and\\/or previously unpublished records for the island. Existing records for the neighbouring islands of Bonaire and Aruba are reviewed. The most common species are Macrobrachium carcinus , M. crenulatum,

Adolphe O. Debrot

2003-01-01

137

CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia  

PubMed Central

The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y?1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

2013-01-01

138

Diel and Seasonal Occurrence of Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum  

E-print Network

of Tampa Bay, Florida SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT-FISHERIES Na 561 UNI ITATES DEPARTMEJfMOF^J>}^ FISH Habitats of Tampa Bay, Florida By CARL H. SALOMAN Contribution No. 37, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum Burkenroad, in Two Divergent Habitats of Tampa Bay, Florida By CARL H. SALOMAN

139

The Lobster and Shrimp Fisheries in Hawaii The Lobster Fishery  

E-print Network

The Lobster and Shrimp Fisheries in Hawaii The Lobster Fishery Introduction The commercial lobster, and commercial trapping be gan in 1977 (Uchida and Tagami, 1984). Since 1983, the lobster fleet has ranged from 9 Center Na tional Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 2570 Dole Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822-2396. Mention

140

Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

2010-01-01

141

JANUARY TO APRIL DISTRIBUTION OF THE COMMON SHRIMP ON THE  

E-print Network

. 171 Washington, D. C. April 1956 #12;M/V Pelican of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service ABSTRACT or brown shrimps (P . aztecus and P. duorarum) occur on the Shelf outside the present limits of the fishery. Milton J. Lindner, Edgar M. Smith, and Edgar L. Raymond, Master of the Pelican, contributed much

142

Introduction Bycatch in shrimp trawls is a signifi-  

E-print Network

Texas and southwestern Florida. Gear information, such as net characteris- tics, bycatch reduction plan in 1992 to identify, develop, and evaluate gear options to reduce bycatch in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlan- tic shrimp fisheries (NMFS5; Hoar et al.6). More than 150 bycatch reduction device (BRD

143

Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water coral (CWC) reefs are heterogeneous ecosystems comprising numerous microhabitats. A typical European CWC reef provides various biogenic microhabitats (within, on and surrounding colonies of coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, or formed by their remains after death). These microhabitats may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic microhabitats (soft sediment, hard ground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across CWC reefs have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC microhabitat categories at the Røst Reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled in June 2007. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with microhabitat. Shrimp abundances at the Røst Reef were on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef microhabitats than in non-biogenic microhabitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea microhabitat (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis microhabitat (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa microhabitat (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic microhabitat, shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. CWC reef microhabitats appear to support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic microhabitats at the Røst Reef, at least at the time of survey.

Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

2013-09-01

144

Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water coral reefs are highly heterogeneous ecosystems comprising of a range of diverse microhabitats. In a typical European cold-water coral reef various biogenic habitats (live colonies of locally common coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, dead coral structure, coral rubble) may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic habitats (soft sediment, hardground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across these microhabitats have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC habitat categories at the Røst reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with habitat. We found shrimp abundances at the Røst reef to be on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef habitats than in non-biogenic habitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea habitats (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis habitats (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa habitats (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic habitats shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. We conclude that CWC reef habitats clearly support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic habitats on the Norwegian margin.

Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

2013-02-01

145

Design and Test of a Topless Shrimp Trawl to Reduce Pelagic Fish Bycatch in the Gulf of Maine Pink Shrimp Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new innovative topless shrimp trawl was designed and tested in the flume tank, and at sea to evaluate its potential of reducing finfish bycatch in the pink shrimp fishery in the Gulf of Maine. The trawl design removed the square and the top part of the section after the square (first belly section), to become \\

Pingguo He; David Goethel; Tracey Smith

2007-01-01

146

Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis).  

PubMed

Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced and studied. Different recipes were used to study the effect of preserving parameters (organic acids, pH and NaCl) on growth of microorganisms and shelf life at 7-8 degrees C or 12 degrees C. Particularly, brines with different concentrations of (i) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids or (ii) acetic, citric and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora of the industrially processed brined shrimp. In addition, shelf life of brined shrimp was affected by the types and concentrations of organic acids and by the storage temperature as expected. The effect of MAP was less pronounced. Eighty-two isolates from the spoilage microflora of brined shrimp were identified and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus sakei constituted the dominating microflora of shrimp in brines that contained benzoic, citric and sorbic acids as preservatives. L. sakei dominated the spoilage microflora of brined and drained MAP shrimp, and of brined shrimp preserved using acetic, citric and lactic acids, irrespective of packaging conditions. Shrimp in brine with benzoic, citric and sorbic acids prevented growth of L. monocytogenes during more than 40 days at 7 degrees C when the preserving parameters resembled those of commercial products. However, small changes in the preserving parameters and, particularly, reduced concentrations of benzoic acid led to growth of L. monocytogenes in brined shrimp. The present study provides significant new information on microbial changes, shelf life and growth of L. monocytogenes in brined shrimp. This information can facilitate development of new and safe brined shrimp products. PMID:18456355

Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, Jette; Modberg, Anne; Vest, Mette Bohn; Bøknaes, Niels; Koort, Joanna; Björkroth, Johanna; Dalgaard, Paw

2008-06-10

147

Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus  

PubMed Central

Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7?35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a “vaccine component” to modulate the immunity of shrimp. PMID:23894531

Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

2013-01-01

148

The culture of Penaeid shrimp in ponds receiving heated discharge water from a steam electric generating station, and their use as indicators of water quality  

E-print Network

shrimp in pond 6 stocked at 5, 000 shrimp/ha with a survaval of 80. 6% 48 Growth and condition data for fed brown shrimp in pond 7 stocked at 5, 000 shrimp/ha with a survival of 81. 0% . . 49 Type and composition of food used in all experiments... at 500 shrimp/ha with a survival of 100m 65 17 Growth and condition data for fed white shrimp in pond 7 stocked at 500 shrimp/ha with a survival of 100% 66 18 Summary of results of the white shrimp experiment based on data collected on October 17...

Reitsema, Lawrence Alan

2012-06-07

149

Biological control of Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) by the tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus (Notostraca: Triopsidae).  

PubMed

Laboratory oviposition choice tests and behavioral observations indicated that the activity of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus (LeConte), near the water surface deterred gravid Culex quinquefasciatus Say from ovipositing. In the cities of Oasis and Riverside, Calif., tadpole shrimp significantly reduced the abundance of immature mosquitoes (Cx. tarsalis Coquillett and Cx. quinquefasciatus) probably due to lowered oviposition rates, as well as tadpole shrimp predation. Generally, mosquito oviposition rates in field ponds with tadpole shrimp were lower than that of controls, except when tadpole shrimp were very young (4 d after flooding) or when their abundance had declined late in the flooding period. When analyzed by pond, tadpole shrimp size was correlated inversely with abundance; however, differences in size or abundance did not affect their capacity to reduce mosquito populations. PMID:2033616

Tietze, N S; Mulla, M S

1991-01-01

150

Food habits of the mantis shrimp, Squilla empusa Say, in Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-print Network

were fed pieces of squid, fish or shrimp several times a week. Experimental tanks were set up with a shell hash or gravel substrate and artificial U-shaped burrows made out of PVC (polyvinyl chloride). [Matsuura and Hamano (1984) showed that mantis... (6. 91%) had empty stomachs (see Table V). Food types found in stomachs of mantis shrimp included fish, penaeid shrimp, xanthid crabs, amphipods, other crustaceans, bivalve mollusc shells, a few gastropod mollusc shells, squid, nematodes...

Cappola, Valerie Ann

2012-06-07

151

Application of Nucleic-acid-based Therapeutics for Viral Infections in Shrimp Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral infections are one of the major reasons for the huge economic losses in shrimp farming. The control of viral diseases\\u000a in shrimp remains a serious challenge for the shrimp aquacultural industry, with major pathogens, such as the white spot syndrome\\u000a virus, yellow head virus, Taura syndrome virus, hepatopancreatic parvovirus, and baculoviruses, being geographically widespread.\\u000a In the absence of a

Mudagandur S. Shekhar; Yuanan Lu

2009-01-01

152

Identification of the Major Brown Shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) Allergen as the Muscle Protein Tropomyosin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp, a major seafood allergen, was investigated as a model food allergen. Extracts from both shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) meat and cooking fluid contain a substantial and similar amount of allergenic activity. A 36-kD allergen, demonstrated in both extracts by SDS-PAGE\\/Western blot analysis, reacted with 28\\/34 (82%) sera from shrimp-sensitive, skin test and RAST-positive, individuals. This allergen, named Pen a I,

C. B. Daul; M. Slattery; G. Reese; S. B. Lehrer

1994-01-01

153

Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey  

SciTech Connect

The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

2000-04-01

154

A stochastic migration-death model of marked white shrimp populations in Moses Lake, Texas  

E-print Network

from i to j in At is a binomial event. Therefore Prob (one shrimp moves from i to 3 ~ X;(t)) "i (t) kji~t(1-kjidt) 18 If one considers only single order of magnitude at terms as having practical significance, then the expansion of the above... migra- ting in At is equal to o(at). There are 3 ways for the number of shrimp in area i, X;(t), to change in At; area i may gain a shrimp from another area or it may lose a shrimp by migration to area j or to system exterior (k0; ). Again we assert...

Rawles, Steven Douglas

1983-01-01

155

68 FR 48592 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AM23 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Amendment 10 AGENCY: National...for the shrimp fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; request for...

2003-08-14

156

69 FR 1538 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AM23 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Amendment 10 AGENCY: National...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Amendment 10), as...

2004-01-09

157

71 FR 56039 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AS15 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Amendment 13 AGENCY: National...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Amendment 13), as...

2006-09-26

158

68 FR 56252 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AM23 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Amendment 10 AGENCY: National...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Amendment 10), as...

2003-09-30

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67 FR 51074 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AO51 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Amendment 11 AGENCY: National...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Amendment 11), as...

2002-08-07

160

64 FR 23039 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AK32 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Certification of Bycatch Reduction...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP), NMFS proposes...

1999-04-29

161

63 FR 18139 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AH52 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Amendment 9 AGENCY: National...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP). Amendment 9...

1998-04-14

162

67 FR 8503 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AO51 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Amendment 11 AGENCY: National...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Amendment 11), as...

2002-02-25

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71 FR 17062 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AS15 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Amendment 13 AGENCY: National...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Amendment 13), as...

2006-04-05

164

64 FR 37690 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AK32 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Certification of Bycatch Reduction...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP), NMFS establishes...

1999-07-13

165

73 FR 8219 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AU59 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Revisions to Bycatch Reduction...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2008-02-13

166

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE-SCALE NITROGEN DYNAMICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

167

IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON C, N CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

168

IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

169

76 FR 67418 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to December 9, 2011. The period of...

2011-11-01

170

76 FR 55350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to November 9, 2011. The period of...

2011-09-07

171

76 FR 73594 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to January 9, 2012. The period of...

2011-11-29

172

77 FR 63786 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony...Review of Grobest & I Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd., and Notice of Amended...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period...

2012-10-17

173

78 FR 57352 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Re...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Re-conducted...Review of Grobest & I-Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd. and Intent Not To Revoke...shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of...

2013-09-18

174

76 FR 49729 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of Antidumping...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...

2011-08-11

175

75 FR 28760 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AY58 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2010-05-24

176

Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds  

PubMed Central

Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp. PMID:24135910

López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Suárez-Jiménez, Guadalupe-Miroslava; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

2013-01-01

177

Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface\\u000a salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable\\u000a when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond\\u000a sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just

Forrest E. Dierberg; Woraphan Kiattisimkul

1996-01-01

178

Concurrent production of chitin from shrimp shells and fungi.  

PubMed

Crustacean shells constitute the traditional and current commercial source of chitin. Conversely, the control of fungal fermentation processes to produce quality chitin makes fungal mycelia an attractive alternative source. Therefore, the exploitation of both of these sources to produce chitin in a concurrent process should be advantageous and is reported here. Three proteolytic Aspergillus niger (strains 0576, 0307 and 0474) were selected from a screening for protease activity from among 34 zygomycete and deuteromycete strains. When fungi and shrimp shell powder were combined in a single reactor, the release of protease by the fungi facilitated the deproteinization of shrimp-shell powder and the release of hydrolyzed proteins. The hydrolyzed proteins in turn were utilized as a nitrogen source for fungal growth, leading to a lowering of the pH of the fermentation medium, thereby further enhancing the demineralization of the shrimp-shell powder. The shrimp-shell powders and fungal mycelia were separated after fermentation and extracted for chitin with 5% LiCl/DMAc solvent. Chitin isolates from the shells were found to have a protein content of less than 5%, while chitin isolates from the three fungal mycelia strains had protein content in the range of 10-15%. The relative molecular weights as estimated by GPC for all chitin samples were in the 10(5) dalton range. All samples displayed characteristic profiles for chitin in their FTIR and solid-state NMR spectra. All chitin samples evaluated with MTT and Neutral Red assays with three commercial cell lines did not display cytotoxic effects. PMID:11376610

Teng, W L; Khor, E; Tan, T K; Lim, L Y; Tan, S C

2001-06-01

179

An environmental simulation of a shrimp mariculture pond  

E-print Network

Zooplankton O IO CL Ill Qp ir Shrimp O (0 O n. E Ll dl C3 Settling Feces & Mortalities Grazing Cll f4 EO I L3 Detritus Pool Benthic Fauna Intr oduc ed Feed Figure 1. Pond Model Biomass Flows Photosynthesis Dissolved Oxygen... the fluctuations of oxygen in the pond in response to photosynthesis and metabolism. Primary Producers (Phytoplankton) Primary producers include all photosynthetic organisms in a pond. While this ignores the competition i' or nutrients within phytoplankton...

Whitson, John Lee

2012-06-07

180

U-Pb SHRIMP dating of uraniferous opals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U-Pb and U-series analyses of four U-rich opal samples using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) demonstrate the potential of this technique for the dating of opals with ages ranging from several tens of thousand years to millions of years. The major advantages of the technique, compared to the conventional thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), are the high spatial resolution (???20 ??m), the ability to analyse in situ all isotopes required to determine both U-Pb and U-series ages, and a relatively short analysis time which allows obtaining a growth rate of opal as a result of a single SHRIMP session. There are two major limitations to this method, determined by both current level of development of ion probes and understanding of ion sputtering processes. First, sufficient secondary ion beam intensities can only be obtained for opal samples with U concentrations in excess of ???20 ??g/g. However, this restriction still permits dating of a large variety of opals. Second, U-Pb ratios in all analyses drifted with time and were only weakly correlated with changes in other ratios (such as U/UO). This drift, which is difficult to correct for, remains the main factor currently limiting the precision and accuracy of the U-Pb SHRIMP opal ages. Nevertheless, an assumption of similar behaviour of standard and unknown opals under similar analytical conditions allowed successful determination of ages with precisions of ???10% for the samples investigated in this study. SHRIMP-based U-series and U-Pb ages are consistent with TIMS dating results of the same materials and known geological timeframes. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Nemchin, A.A.; Neymark, L.A.; Simons, S.L.

2006-01-01

181

Beneficial effects of Bacillus licheniformis on the intestinal microflora and immunity of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

When Bacillus licheniformis was administered to the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, although the total bacterial counts in the intestinal tract of the shrimp remained constant, Vibrio numbers significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Haemocyte counts together with phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of the shrimp were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in treatments than in the control. Thus, administration of B. licheniformis can improve the white shrimp's intestinal microflora and its immune ability. PMID:17333467

Li, Ke; Zheng, Tianling; Tian, Yun; Xi, Feng; Yuan, Jianjun; Zhang, Guozheng; Hong, Huasheng

2007-04-01

182

Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a 'primate-like' awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

Marshall, N J; Land, M F; Cronin, T W

2014-01-01

183

Investigation of the fate of trifluralin in shrimp.  

PubMed

Juvenile Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were exposed to trifluralin at 0.1 and 0.01 mg L(-1) for 72 h under controlled conditions. Samples of shrimp and tank water were collected at intervals up to 48 days after exposure. Analysis of the shrimp tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-qToF-MS) in combination with profiling and metabolite identification software (Agilent MET-ID and Mass Profiler Professional) detected the presence of parent trifluralin together with two main transformation products (TPs), 2-ethyl-7-nitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzimidazole (TP1) and 2-amino-6-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)propylamine (TP2). The highest concentration of trifluralin, determined by GC-MS, was 120 ?g kg(-1) at 0 day withdrawal. Residues of trifluralin (CC? = 0.25 ?g kg(-1), CC? = 0.42 ?g kg(-1)) were detectable for up to 7 days after exposure. Similarly, the highest concentrations of TP1 and TP 2, determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), were 14 and 18 ?g kg(-1), respectively. Residues of TP1 (CC? = 0.05 ?g kg(-1), CC? = 0.09 ?g kg(-1)) and TP2 (CC? = 0.1 ?g kg(-1), CC? = 0.17 ?g kg(-1)) were detectable for up to 4 and 24 withdrawal days, respectively. PMID:23339341

Chan, Danny; Fussell, Richard J; Hetmanski, Mike T; Sinclair, Chris J; Kay, Jack F; Grant, Andrew; Sharman, Matthew

2013-03-13

184

Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

2014-01-01

185

Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".  

PubMed

Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:25083808

Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

2015-02-01

186

An Assessment of the Economic Importance of the San Carlos Island Shrimp Processing Industry to the Lee County Economy  

E-print Network

to the Lee County Economy Chuck Adams, David Mulkey, and Alan Hodges Food and Resource Economics Department the shrimp processing industry on San Carlos Island contributes to the Lee County economy. Most of the shrimp of the revenues earned on a trip are spent within the Lee County economy. During seasons when shrimp landings

Florida, University of

187

Feeding biology of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata at hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly described species of shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata Williams and Rona, 1986, dominates the megafaunal community at two hydrothermal vent sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Behavioral observations and gut-content analyses indicate, that these shrimp ingest large amounts of sulfide particles from black smoker chimneys. We found no evidence for chemoautotrophic endosymbionts in R. exoculata, based on analyses of morphology, stable

C. L. Dover; B. Fry; J. F. Grassle; S. Humphris; P. A. Rona

1988-01-01

188

ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF LESIONS IN GILLS OF A MARINE SHRIMP EXPOSED TO CADMIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Pathologic black gills of pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, exposed to 763 micrograms/l of cadmium chloride for 15 days were studied with transmission electron microscopy and were compared with normal gills of control pink shrimp. Local as well as extensive areas of cell death and n...

189

59 FR- Foreign Fishing; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fishing; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP). This rule increases the...exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico and eliminates the total...

1994-12-28

190

59 FR- Foreign Fishing; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fishing; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP). This rule would increase...exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico and would eliminate the total...

1994-09-12

191

BIOACCUMULATION OF KEPONE BY GRASS SHRIMP (PALAEMONETIS PUGIO): IMPORTANCE OF DIETARY ACCUMULATION AND INGESTION RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The relative extent of dietary accumulation and bioconcentration of Kepone by grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) was quantitatively evaluated at food rations of 4 and of the average wet weight of the shrimp. 14C]Kepone was utilized to determine bioconcentration and dietary accumul...

192

FEEDING RATES OF THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the clam Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities of the shrimp and its commensal clam, as well as particle settlement within t...

193

Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality\\/sediment parameters, as

A. B. Jones; M. J. O'Donohue; J. Udy; W. C. Dennison

2001-01-01

194

USE OF THE GRASS SHRIMP 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO' IN A LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology for using the estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) in life-cycle toxicity tests was successfully developed. Life-cycle exposures of juvenile shrimp (12 to 19 mm in rostrum-telson length) to the chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide endrin were begun in November 1...

195

ECOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF A PELAGIC MYSID SHRIMP; ESTIMATES FROM GROWTH, ENERGY BUDGET, AND MORTALITY STUDIES'  

E-print Network

in food chains, and numbers of conjunctions in food webs depend on the amount of energy passed through composition, and energy content, we have constructed an energy budget for the pelagic mysid shrimpECOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF A PELAGIC MYSID SHRIMP; ESTIMATES FROM GROWTH, ENERGY BUDGET

196

Spectral Sensitivity of Vision and Bioluminescence in the Midwater Shrimp Sergestes similis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the oceanic midwater environment, many fish, squid, and shrimp use luminescent countershading to remain cryptic to silhouette-scanning predators. The mid- water penaeid shrimp, Sergestes similis Hansen, responds to downward-directed light with a dim bioluminescence that dynamically matches the spectral radiance of oceanic down- welling light at depth. Although the sensory basis of lumi- nescent countershading behavior is visual, the

S. M. LINDSAY; T. M. FRANK; J. KENT; J. C. PARTRIDGE; M. I. LATZ

197

Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

2010-01-01

198

DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE HUMPY SHRIMP, PANDALUS GONIURUS, REARED IN SITU  

E-print Network

DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE HUMPY SHRIMP, PANDALUS GONIURUS, REARED IN SITU IN KACHEMAK BAY not been verified by rearing the larvae from known parentage. Larvae ofP. goniurus were reared in situ of describing pandalid shrimp larvae reared in the laboratory from known par- entage. I have reported on larvae

199

Genetic diversity of wild and cultured Black Tiger Shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) in the Philippines using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six microsatellites were used to study (1) the genetic diversity of wild Penaeus monodon shrimp from four geographic regions (Palawan, Quezon, Capiz and Negros Occidental-W) in the Philippines, and (2) its association with the status of mangroves and intensity of shrimp culture systems in these regions. Two cultured populations (Negros Occidental-C and Antique) were used for comparison. All six microsatellite

Zhenkang Xu; Jurgenne H Primavera; Leobert D de la Pena; Priscilla Pettit; Jane Belak; Acacia Alcivar-Warren

2001-01-01

200

Comparing the efficiency of chitosan with chlorine for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand is one of the leading exporters of frozen shrimp to many countries. Chlorine is the decontaminating agent most frequently used in the frozen shrimp industries to kill potential pathogens. However, long time contact to chlorine causes severe respiratory tract damage. In this study, chitosan was compared to chlorine for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In vitro investigation, chitosan could reduce more

S. Chaiyakosa; W. Charernjiratragul; K. Umsakul; V. Vuddhakul

2007-01-01

201

Effect of gamma-irradiation on frozen shrimps for decontamination of pathogenic bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve samples of imported frozen shrimps were used in this study. The total aerobic bacteria were at 2 × 10 4 to 6 × 10 6 per gram. A few of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from many samples. However, Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples. After exposure to 4-5 kGy of gamma-rays, the total aerobic bacteria in frozen shrimps were reduced by approximately 2-3 log cycles. The dose necessary to reduce the vibrio isolates and Aeromonas hydrophila at a level of below 10 -4 per gram was about 3 kGy in frozen shrimps, whereas about 3.5 kGy was required for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, unpleasant off-odor was clearly detected in the non-frozen shrimps irradiated at 2.5 kGy. On the other hand, off-odor was negligible in the frozen product below 5 kGy irradiation. No remarkable changes of peroxide values were also obtained up to 9 kGy of irradiation in the frozen shrimps. However peroxide values of non-frozen shrimps were clearly increased even irradiated at 4 kGy. Trimethylamine content was not changed at doses below 10 kGy in both of frozen and non-frozen shrimps. Shelf-life of defrosted shrimps were extended ca. 2 times under non-frozen market conditions.

Ito, Hitoshi; Rashid, Harun Or; Sangthong, Naruemon; Adulyatham, Pitaya; Rattagool, Pongpen; Ishigaki, Isao

1993-07-01

202

Effect of cryogenic freezing on salmonella and listeria recovery from inoculated shrimp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the United States, shrimp is number one in seafood consumption. Shrimp is usually imported frozen, and the Food and Drug Administration has isolated Salmonella spp. from this frozen product. This research was conducted to determine the effect of two cryogenic freezing protocols (time and tempe...

203

The American brine shrimp as an exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypersaline environments and salterns present in the western Mediterranean region (including Italy, southern France, the\\u000a Iberian Peninsula and Morocco) contain autochthonous forms of the brine shrimp Artemia, with parthenogenetic diploid and tetraploid strains coexisting with the bisexual species A. salina. Introduced populations of the American brine shrimp A. franciscana have also been recorded in these Mediterranean environments since the

Francisco Amat; Francisco Hontoria; Olga Ruiz; Andy J. Green; Marta I. Sánchez; Jordi Figuerola; Francisco Hortas

2005-01-01

204

Immunity enhancement in black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) by a probiont bacterium ( Bacillus S11)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and growth of Penaeus monodon fed the probiont Bacillus S11 in two 90-day culture trials were increased compared with non-treated shrimp. Bacillus S11 also efficiently activated and increased the engulfment of foreign particles (phagocytic activity) as measured by % phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI) in hemolymph. Phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities increased with age in all shrimp, but were even

Sirirat Rengpipat; Sombat Rukpratanporn; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul; Piamsak Menasaveta

2000-01-01

205

Ex-situ bioremediation of shrimp culture effluent using constructed microbial mats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In coastal countries, marine shrimp industry poses a problem with respect to the waste effluent disposal into the ocean as well as the nearby area. Constructed microbial mats offer an interesting alternative for shrimp culture effluents. The treatment concept relies on the immobilization of natural marine microbial consortium on glass wool to mitigate the levels of dissolved nitrogen from a

J. Paniagua-Michel; O. Garcia

2003-01-01

206

76 FR 12025 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

The Department of Commerce (Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from India with respect to 202 companies.\\1\\ The respondents which the Department selected for individual examination are Apex Exports (Apex) and Falcon Marine Exports Limited (Falcon). The respondents which were not selected for individual......

2011-03-04

207

METHOD OF DETERMINING CAROTENOID CONTENTS OF ALASKA PINK SHRIMP AND REPRESENTATIVE VALVES FOR  

E-print Network

of the proper ace- tone solution: 1. 75 % acetone for canned shrimp with liquor. 2. 65% acetone for frozen cooked or raw meats. 3. 50 % acetone for raw shrimp with shells on. The silica gel, which serves until dripping ceases. Rinse container and filter as needed with 50% acetone. Discard colorless filtrate

208

Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

209

76 FR 12054 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...subject merchandise and the raw shrimp input are both sold...reported per-unit factor- consumption rates by publicly available...which to value the main input, raw shrimp. Domestic Producers...withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on or after the...

2011-03-04

210

78 FR 50389 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Export Restraints on Raw and Unprocessed Shrimp...withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on or after the date of...not deveined, cooked or raw, or otherwise processed...containing egg and/or milk, and par-fried. The...Export Restraints on Raw, Unprocessed Shrimp...

2013-08-19

211

Competition in phenotypically variable and uniform populations of the tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus (Notostraca: Triopsidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history parameters (growth, reproduction, and survival) were measured from one genetically heterogeneous and three homogeneous populations of tadpole shrimp (Triops longicaudatus) raised under three competitive levels: 5, 10, and 16 shrimp per 38-1 aquarium. Comparisons were made between the homogeneous populations (three monomorphic selfing lines) and a heterogeneous population (a mixture of the three lines) to test for increased productivity

Clay Sassaman

1990-01-01

212

Velocity Measurements of a Pistol Shrimp's Micro Water Jet Using High Speed PIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pistol shrimp generates a high speed micro water jet that was studied experimentally using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The pistol shrimp, with an average size of about 5.5 cm, is considered to be one of the loudest animals in the world. The sound generated can reach intensity levels as high as 200 db. In the past, it was

J. Torres; S. Wong; M. Zarzecki; Y. Cheng; F. J. Diez

2007-01-01

213

Effect of peach gum polysaccharides on quality changes of white shrimp.  

PubMed

Peach gum polysaccharides (PGPs) have both antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In this study, the retardation effect of the PGPs on the quality changes of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during refrigerated storage was investigated. Shrimp samples were untreated with different concentrations of the PGPs solution and then they were stored under refrigerated conditions for 10 days. During refrigerated storage, shrimp samples were taken periodically and their total viable count, pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen, and overall acceptability score were evaluated. Compared to the control, treatment of the PGPs solution effectively retarded bacterial growth and pH changes, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen, and increased overall acceptability score of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during refrigerated storage. The results indicate that treatment of PGPs could be a promising means to preserve white shrimp (P. vannamei). PMID:25450827

Yao, Xing-Cun; Chang, Cheng-Fei; Wu, Sheng-Jun

2015-01-01

214

Predation by dipteran larvae on fairy shrimp (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Utah rock pools  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of experiments examined how ecological factors affect notonectid foraging success on fairy shrimp. Variation in pond depth over natural ranges had no direct effect on notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. Decreases in water clarity over natural ranges led to decreased notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. This corresponds with the observation that six weeks after the fairy shrimp hatched they were more likely to be present in cloudy ponds than in ponds containing clearer water. If correct, this is a situation where physical factors have a major effect on how a biological interaction influences the local distribution of species. It appears water depth indirectly affects notonectid foraging rates, as shallow ponds are apparently made cloudy by wind-driven waves disturbing the bottom mud. These results suggest the notonectid-fairy shrimp interaction will not be a constant for any given pond, but will depend on abiotic factors like amount of rainfall and frequency of windy conditions.

Graham, T.B.

1994-01-01

215

Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

1992-01-01

216

Evaluate of heavy metal concentration in shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab (Portunus pelagicus) with INAA method.  

PubMed

The level of the heavy metal in green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab (Portunus pelagicus) caught off the Persian Gulf near Bushehr province were investigated. This study was performed to evaluate instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to analyze heavy metal concentration in crab and shrimp whole body tissue. The order of the swimmer crab and shrimp heavy metal concentrations were Zn>Fe>As>Mn>Co and Fe>Zn>Mn>As>Co, respectively. The results showed swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) and shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) caught off Persian gulf, were contaminated with high level of As (21.38±3.31ppm and 8.28±2.82 ppm, respectively). High levels of As and Mn were noted in crabs and shrimp, respectively. PMID:23487484

Heidarieh, Marzieh; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Behgar, Mehdi; Ziaei, Farhood; Akbari, Zahra

2013-12-01

217

Bioturbating shrimp alter the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in coastal marine sediments.  

PubMed

Bioturbation is a key process in coastal sediments, influencing microbially driven cycling of nutrients as well as the physical characteristics of the sediment. However, little is known about the distribution, diversity and function of the microbial communities that inhabit the burrows of infaunal macroorganisms. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to investigate variation in the structure of bacterial communities in sediment bioturbated by the burrowing shrimp Upogebia deltaura or Callianassa subterranea. Analyses of 229 sediment samples revealed significant differences between bacterial communities inhabiting shrimp burrows and those inhabiting ambient surface and subsurface sediments. Bacterial communities in burrows from both shrimp species were more similar to those in surface-ambient than subsurface-ambient sediment (R=0.258, P<0.001). The presence of shrimp was also associated with changes in bacterial community structure in surrounding surface sediment, when compared with sediments uninhabited by shrimp. Bacterial community structure varied with burrow depth, and also between individual burrows, suggesting that the shrimp's burrow construction, irrigation and maintenance behaviour affect the distribution of bacteria within shrimp burrows. Subsequent sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from surface sediments revealed differences in the relative abundance of bacterial taxa between shrimp-inhabited and uninhabited sediments; shrimp-inhabited sediment contained a higher proportion of proteobacterial sequences, including in particular a twofold increase in Gammaproteobacteria. Chao1 and ACE diversity estimates showed that taxon richness within surface bacterial communities in shrimp-inhabited sediment was at least threefold higher than that in uninhabited sediment. This study shows that bioturbation can result in significant structural and compositional changes in sediment bacterial communities, increasing bacterial diversity in surface sediments and resulting in distinct bacterial communities even at depth within the burrow. In an area of high macrofaunal abundance, this could lead to alterations in the microbial transformations of important nutrients at the sediment-water interface. PMID:20596074

Laverock, Bonnie; Smith, Cindy J; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve; Gilbert, Jack A

2010-12-01

218

Immune response and disease resistance of shrimp fed biofloc grown on different carbon sources.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to document the immunological effects of growing shrimp in biofloc systems. The experiment consisted of four types of biofloc systems in which bioflocs were produced by daily supplementation of four different carbon sources, i.e. molasses, tapioca, tapioca-by-product, and rice bran, at an estimated C/N ratio of 15 and a control system without any organic carbon addition. Each biofloc system was stocked with Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles that were reared for 49 days. The use of tapioca-by-product resulted in a higher survival (93%) of the shrimp as compared to the other carbon sources and the control. The highest yield and protein assimilation was observed when tapioca was used as the carbon source. After 49 days, phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the shrimp grown in all biofloc systems was higher than that of the shrimp from the control system. Following a challenge test by injection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), the levels of PO and respiratory burst (RB) activity in the shrimp of all biofloc treatments were higher than that of the challenged shrimp from the control treatment. An increased immunity was also suggested by the survival of the challenged shrimp from the experimental biofloc groups that was significantly higher as compared to the challenged shrimp from the control treatment, regardless of the organic carbon source used to grow the bioflocs. Overall, this study demonstrated that the application of biofloc technology may contribute to the robustness of cultured shrimp by immunostimulation and that this effect is independent of the type of carbon source used to grow the flocs. PMID:25218685

Ekasari, Julie; Hanif Azhar, Muhammad; Surawidjaja, Enang H; Nuryati, Sri; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

2014-12-01

219

Strike mechanics of an ambush predator: the spearing mantis shrimp.  

PubMed

Ambush predation is characterized by an animal scanning the environment from a concealed position and then rapidly executing a surprise attack. Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) consist of both ambush predators ('spearers') and foragers ('smashers'). Spearers hide in sandy burrows and capture evasive prey, whereas smashers search for prey away from their burrows and typically hammer hard-shelled, sedentary prey. Here, we examined the kinematics, morphology and field behavior of spearing mantis shrimp and compared them with previously studied smashers. Using two species with dramatically different adult sizes, we found that strikes produced by the diminutive species, Alachosquilla vicina, were faster (mean peak speed 5.72±0.91 m s(-1); mean duration 3.26±0.41 ms) than the strikes produced by the large species, Lysiosquillina maculata (mean peak speed 2.30±0.85 m s(-1); mean duration 24.98±9.68 ms). Micro-computed tomography and dissections showed that both species have the spring and latch structures that are used in other species for producing a spring-loaded strike; however, kinematic analyses indicated that only A. vicina consistently engages the elastic mechanism. In the field, L. maculata ambushed evasive prey primarily at night while hidden in burrows, striking with both long and short durations compared with laboratory videos. We expected ambush predators to strike with very high speeds, yet instead we found that these spearing mantis shrimp struck more slowly and with longer durations than smashers. Nonetheless, the strikes of spearers occurred at similar speeds and durations to those of other aquatic predators of evasive prey. Although counterintuitive, these findings suggest that ambush predators do not actually need to produce extremely high speeds, and that the very fastest predators are using speed to achieve other mechanical feats, such as producing large impact forces. PMID:23175528

deVries, M S; Murphy, E A K; Patek, S N

2012-12-15

220

Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban.  

PubMed

The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union therefore took measures to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on ships and ultimately banned these paints in 2003. Despite sufficient data on OT concentrations in marine gastropods, data are scarce for other species such as the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), a dominant crustacean species in North Sea inshore benthic communities. The present study provides the first spatial overview of OT concentrations in North Sea brown shrimp. We have compared these data with historical concentrations in shrimp as well as with sediment concentrations. We have also addressed the effect on the shrimp stock and any human health risks associated with the OT concentrations found. TBT and TPhT in shrimp tail muscle ranged from 4 to 124 and from 1 to 24 ?g kg(-1) DW, respectively. High levels are accumulated in estuarine areas and are clearly related with sediment concentrations (biota-sediment accumulation factor ~10). Levels have decreased approximately 10-fold since the ban took effect, coinciding with a recovery of the shrimp stock after 30 years of gradual regression. Furthermore, the OT levels found in brown shrimp no longer present a human health risk. PMID:22154339

Verhaegen, Y; Monteyne, E; Neudecker, T; Tulp, I; Smagghe, G; Cooreman, K; Roose, P; Parmentier, K

2012-03-01

221

Characterization of Intestinal Bacteria in Wild and Domesticated Adult Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2014-01-01

222

Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).  

PubMed

The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2014-01-01

223

Effect of chitosan-based edible coating on preservation of white shrimp during partially frozen storage.  

PubMed

Chitosan and chitooligosaccharides are preservatives with proven antibacterial activity, while glutathione has antioxidant activity. This study investigated the effects of chitosan coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione (0.8% glutathione+1% chitooligosaccharides+1% chitosan) on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Chitosan-based coating treatments effectively inhibited bacterial growth, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen and malondialdehyde, and basically maintained the sensory properties of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Therefore, chitosan-based edible coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione could be a promising antimicrobial and oxidant method to prevent metamorphism of white shrimp with extended shelf life. PMID:24491494

Wu, Shengjun

2014-04-01

224

Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen  

SciTech Connect

Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G. (INRS); (Purdue)

2010-11-16

225

Stability studies on astaxanthin extracted from fermented shrimp byproducts.  

PubMed

To the best of our knowledge, stability studies on astaxanthin contained in carotenoproteins extracted from lactic acid fermented shrimp byproduct have never been reported. Carotenoprotein powder, containing 1% free astaxanthin, was subjected to oxidation factors of illumination, oxygen availability, and temperature, using synthetic astaxanthin as a control. The individual effects as well as first and second degree interactions were studied on natural and synthetic free astaxanthin stability. Air and full light were the two individual factors with the highest effects on astaxanthin oxidation. Sixty-two and 46% natural and synthetic astaxanthin, respectively, oxidized when exposed to air for 8 weeks of storage, whereas 35 and 28% of natural and synthetic astaxanthin, respectively, oxidized under full light. Ninety-seven and 88% of natural and synthetic astaxanthin, respectively, oxidized under a combination of full light, air, and 45 degrees C at 8 weeks of storage. Storage in the dark, nonoxygen, and 25 degrees C were the treatments that efficiently minimized astaxanthin oxidation. Natural astaxanthin from fermented shrimp byproduct presented moderate stability levels. Although natural astaxanthin oxidized faster than the synthetic pigment, its stability may improve by antioxidant and polymer addition. PMID:19548684

Armenta, Roberto E; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel

2009-07-22

226

An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures.  

PubMed

This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25°C to 80°C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26±0.89GPa at 25°C that reduces to 7.61±0.65GPa at 80°C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38±2.3GPa at 25°C to 24.58±1.71GPa at 80°C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. PMID:25686945

Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

2015-04-01

227

Transboundary movement of shrimp viruses in crustaceans and their products: a special risk?  

PubMed

Shrimp and shrimp products form the most valuable internationally traded fisheries commodity, and the volumes are huge, estimated to be about 3.6 million tonnes. However, despite the existence under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) and the activities of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), viral shrimp epizootics have spread and continue to spread, affecting world production. Though most attention has focussed on the movement of live shrimp product, the spread of new and emerging diseases through other crustaceans and their nonviable products is of increasing concern. The risks associated with the unrestricted movement of nonviable product will be outlined and measures that can be taken to mitigate the risk are discussed. Ultimately, for crustacean diseases, the paradigm under which the OIE has operated for the past 80 years needs to change. PMID:22434004

Jones, Brian

2012-06-01

228

Effect of naphthalene and phenanthrene on the grass shrimp palaemonetes pugio (Holthuis)  

E-print Network

' d ftddl . * 1 I! ~1". I i mercury (Vernberg and 7ernberg, 1972) and cadmium (0'Hara, 1973), porcelain crabs petrolisthes armatus exposed to mercury (Roesijadi et al. , 1974), juvenile pink shrimp Penaeus duorarum e . Posed 'to polychlorinated...

Young, Gene Paul

1977-01-01

229

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO CHROMIUM, PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND DITHIOCARBAMATES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report deals with the histopathological/ultrastructural changes in various tissues of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) exposed to hexavalent chromium, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and two dithiocarbamate formulations: Aquatreat DNM-30 (15% sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate plus 15...

230

Productivity and Profitability of South Carolina Shrimp Vessels, 1971-75  

E-print Network

, the productivity of conven- tional capital (i.e., nonlabor capital) and human capital (i.e., labor) were estimtated.l that shrimping labor is earning less than its opportunity income. as is new capital investment, hut

231

Science Sampler: Bringing scientific inquiry alive using real grass shrimp research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the Nat

Curran, Mary C.; Partridge, Michael; Aultman, Terry

2010-03-01

232

Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of

Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith; Ackerson, Nicole

2010-12-01

233

75 FR 42070 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Action Committee (``AHSTAC'') is the petitioner in the underlying investigation. The members of AHSTAC are: Nancy Edens; Papa Rod, Inc., Carolina Seafoods; Bosarge Boats, Inc.; Knight's Seafood Inc.; Big Grapes, Inc.; Versaggi Shrimp...

2010-07-20

234

The American brine shrimp as an exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean  

E-print Network

The American brine shrimp as an exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean Francisco Amat March 2004 Key words: Artemia, aquaculture, salterns, western Mediterranean Abstract The hypersaline environments and salterns present in the western Mediterranean region (including Italy, southern France

Green, Andy J.

235

Does dinoflagellate bioluminescence deter shrimp grazing? An investigation into the Burglar Alarm Hypothesis  

E-print Network

). Investigations into some bioluminescent fungi and bacteria support this hypothesis; there is evidence;4 lignin (Lingle 1993). Similarly, in bacteria, bioluminescence has been linked to oxidation reactions1 Does dinoflagellate bioluminescence deter shrimp grazing? An investigation into the Burglar Alarm

236

50 CFR Figures 19a and 19b to Part... - Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details 19a Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL...

2012-10-01

237

50 CFR Figures 19a and 19b to Part... - Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details 19a Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL...

2013-10-01

238

78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination...imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of...Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and...

2013-02-15

239

78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of...Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and...

2013-01-04

240

78 FR 50110 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. Nos. 701-TA-491-497 (Final)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Commission Determination To Deny a Request To Hold a Portion of a Hearing In...

2013-08-16

241

U.S. southeastern shrimp and reef fish resources and their management  

E-print Network

gear types. Five hundred forty-eight sea turtle captures were documented aboard commercial shrimp vessels from 1992 through 2005. Ratio estimation reflected higher catch rates in nets not equipped with turtle excluder devices (TEDs). Two alternative...

Scott-Denton, Elizabeth

2009-05-15

242

Feeding hermit crabs to shrimp broodstock increases their risk of WSSV infection.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a serious shrimp pathogen that has spread globally to all major shrimp farming areas, causing enormous economic losses. Here we investigate the role of hermit crabs in transmitting WSSV to Penaeus monodon brooders used in hatcheries in Vietnam. WSSV-free brooders became PCR-positive for WSSV within 2 to 14 d, and the source of infection was traced to hermit crabs being used as live feed. Challenging hermit crabs with WSSV confirmed their susceptibility to infection, but they remained tolerant to disease even at virus loads equivalent to those causing acute disease in shrimp. As PCR screening also suggests that WSSV infection occurs commonly in hermit crab populations in both Vietnam and Taiwan, their use as live feed for shrimp brooders is not recommended. PMID:22535869

Chang, Yun-Shiang; Liu, Wang-Jing; Chen, Tsan-Chi; Chan, Tin-Yam; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chuang, Jie-Cheng; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang; Wang, Han-Ching

2012-04-26

243

Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

2002-01-01

244

Bioaccumulation of cyanuric acid in edible tissues of shrimp following experimental feeding.  

PubMed

Due to concerns that cyanuric acid (CYA)-contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food chain, a method to quantify CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp was previously developed and validated. This paper provides further data on the deliberate feeding of CYA to shrimp to determine the extent of residue accumulation in edible tissue. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed for the analysis of CYA in shrimp tissue. Edible tissue of shrimp fed 1666 or 3333 mg kg?¹ CYA in their diet (approximately 55 and 124 mg kg?¹ body weight) contained 0.767 and 0.406 mg kg?¹ CYA, respectively. The residue levels are below the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake level for CYA and are generally considered unlikely to pose a human health risk. PMID:20936555

Karbiwnyk, Christine M; Williams, Rodney R; Andersen, Wendy C; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Madson, Mark R; Miller, Keith E; Reimschuessel, Renate

2010-12-01

245

78 FR 15686 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Department selected for individual examination are Marine Gold Products Limited (Marine Gold), and Thai Union Frozen Products Public Co...shrimp from Thailand produced and exported by Marine Gold. Finally, the Department also preliminarily...

2013-03-12

246

ASPECTS OF BROWN SHRIMP, PENAEUS AZTECUS, GROWTH IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO  

E-print Network

importance of brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus (Ives 1891), has precipitated sev- eral studies of the growth rate for individuals of that species. Definition ofthe growth rate is neces- sary in order to develop

247

50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the...

2010-10-01

248

50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the...

2011-10-01

249

21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...this chapter. (6) Sampling and acceptance procedure. A lot...defectives does not exceed the acceptance number in the sampling plans given in paragraph...of the shrimp. (2) Sampling and acceptance procedure: A...

2010-04-01

250

Genetic characterization of the burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis) in Washington and Oregon estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

The Ghost shrimp, (Neotrypaea californiensis) are burrowers, which have a wide demographic distribution along the United States Pacific Coast. Our study used genetic analysis to estimate the source populations of larvae recruiting into estuaries to allow a greater understanding ...

251

Seizing a species : the story of the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp harvest  

E-print Network

In the early 1950s, C.C. "Sparkplug" Sanders began harvesting brine shrimp from Utah's Great Salt Lake. Sanders built up a small business selling their eggs, called "cysts, to aquarium stores across the country. During the ...

Wotipka, Samuel Alex

2014-01-01

252

A real-time PCR for the detection of infectious myonecrosis virus in penaeid shrimp.  

PubMed

Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) is a recently observed shrimp virus, which threats the cultured Litopenaeus vannamei and can cause huge economic loss in shrimp farming industry. The specific aim of this study was to develop a new sensitive real-time PCR method for the specific detection of shrimp IMNV. A real-time PCR assay with a pair of primers to specifically amplify a 101bp IMNV cDNA fragment and a corresponding TaqMan probe was developed, which shown to be specific for IMNV without cross reaction with DNA samples prepared from four other shrimp viruses including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic virus (IHHNV). The method could detect as low as one single copy of IMNV plasmid cDNA. PMID:23639336

Liu, Hong-Ling; Yan, Dong-Chun; Sun, Hu-Shan; Wang, Yi-Yan; Wang, Lei

2013-07-01

253

Requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis O'sbeck for potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis were studied. Orthogonal design was employed in this experiment. The composition of the basal diet consisted of fish meal, peanut cake, corn meal, soybean cake, wheat bran, vitamin mix and mineral mix, and supplementations of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine in the basal diet were made according to the L9(34) orthogonal table. The results indicated that iodine supplementation improved growth of the shrimp significantly and raised survival very significantly, iodine requirement of the shrimp was 0.003%; sodium requirement was 0.87% or less; and that 1.1 1.3% potassium and 0.18 0.38% magnesium in the diet were proper nutrition supplements for the shrimp.

Liu, Fa-Yi; Li, He-Fang; Wang, Hui-Liang; Liang, De-Hai; Tian, Yu-Chuan

1995-06-01

254

Distribution, relative abundance and species composition of shrimp, crabs and fish in the intake area, discharge canal and cooling lake of the Cedar Bayou generating station, Baytown, Texas  

E-print Network

frequencies by date and station of brown shrimp caught by trawl (one square = one shrimp; stations 1-8 = cooling lake, 11-12 = intake area, 12-13 = discharge canal). Length frequencies by date and station of brown shrimp caught by seine (one square = one... shrimp; stations 9-10 = cooling lake, 11-12 = intake area) Length frequencies by date and station of white shrimp caught by trawl (one square = one shrimp; stations 1-8 = cooling lake, 11-12 = intake area, 13-14 = discharge canal) . Length frequencies...

St. Clair, Lou Ann

1978-01-01

255

Catch, survey and life-history data for shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) off Jan Mayen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jan Mayen area has an extreme environment with low temperatures and infrequent, but abrupt temperature changes. The shrimp population here is considered to be on its edge of distribution. The life-history parameters are in the same range as in other high-latitude shrimp populations and are characterized by slow growth, large size at maturation and extended longevity. Irregular and sporadic commercial exploitation limit fishing mortality and give the population life-history parameters not previously seen in other areas. The Jan Mayen shrimp are large compared to, e.g., the Barents Sea shrimp and can reach a maximum carapace length ( Lmax) of 37 mm and an age of 10-11 years. The large size at sex transformation ( L50, >24 mm) and analyses of length-frequency distributions indicate that the shrimp may be 6-7 years of age before changing sex. The change in Lmax and L50 observed during the study period is probably caused by increased natural mortality due to sudden temperature changes or due to increased predation, rather than increased growth rates. The life-history strategy of shrimp in the Jan Mayen area can be explained by factors such as depth, temperature and population density variations caused by fluctuation in recruitment and mortality. The shrimp fisheries in the Jan Mayen area began in the late 1970s and reached an annual landing of 2000 tonnes in 1985, and since then landings have oscillated around 500 tonnes depending on a combination of factors. The survey indices of stock biomass varied between 3000 and 6600 tonnes. For most years, the highest shrimp densities are at a depth of 200-299 m, while large shrimp (and therefore also female shrimp) are dominant at depths greater than 300 m. Fish community data were studied as the composition of the demersal fish community is an integrated response to environmental conditions and as predation affects the shrimp stock. Polar cod and capelin are the most abundant fish species in the study area. A high number of blue whiting was registered in 1979, but the number declined in 1980 and 1981 as temperature decreased. During the surveys in 1994 and 1995, no blue whiting was registered. A few individuals were found again in the 1999 samples. The number of Greenland halibut has declined from the beginning of the 1980s to the 1990s.

Nilssen, Einar M.; Aschan, Michaela M.

2009-10-01

256

Assimilation and subcellular partitioning of elements by grass shrimp collected along an impact gradient.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to polluted field conditions can impact metal bioavailability in prey and may influence metal transfer to predators. The present study investigated the assimilation of Cd, Hg and organic carbon by grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, collected along an impact gradient within the New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary. Adult shrimp were collected from five Staten Island, New York study sites, fed (109)Cd- or (203)Hg-labeled amphipods or (14)C-labeled meals and analyzed for assimilation efficiencies (AE). Subsamples of amphipods and shrimp were subjected to subcellular fractionation to isolate metal associated with a compartment presumed to contain trophically available metal (TAM) (metal associated with heat-stable proteins [HSP - e.g., metallothionein-like proteins], heat-denatured proteins [HDP - e.g., enzymes] and organelles [ORG]). TAM-(109)Cd% and TAM-(203)Hg% in radiolabeled amphipods were approximately 64% and approximately 73%, respectively. Gradients in AE-(109)Cd% ( approximately 54% to approximately 75%) and AE-(203)Hg% ( approximately 61% to approximately 78%) were observed for grass shrimp, with the highest values exhibited by shrimp collected from sites within the heavily polluted Arthur Kill complex. Population differences in AE-(14)C% were not observed. Assimilated (109)Cd% partitioned to the TAM compartment in grass shrimp varied between approximately 67% and approximately 75%. (109)Cd bound to HSP in shrimp varied between approximately 15% and approximately 47%, while (109)Cd associated with metal-sensitive HDP was approximately 17% to approximately 44%. Percentages of assimilated (109)Cd bound to ORG were constant at approximately 10%. Assimilated (203)Hg% associated with TAM in grass shrimp did not exhibit significant variation. Percentages of assimilated (203)Hg bound to HDP ( approximately 47%) and ORG ( approximately 11%) did not vary among populations and partitioning of (203)Hg to HSP was not observed. Using a simplified biokinetic model of metal accumulation from the diet, it is estimated that site-specific variability in Cd AE by shrimp and tissue Cd burdens in field-collected prey (polychaetes Nereis spp.) could potentially result in up to approximately 3.2-fold differences in the dose of Cd assimilated by shrimp from a meal in the field. The results of this study also suggest that chronic field exposure can impact mechanisms of metal transport across the gut epithelium that do not influence carbon assimilation. Differences in the assimilation and subcellular partitioning of metal may have important implications for metal toxicity in impacted shrimp populations. PMID:19473712

Seebaugh, David R; Wallace, William G

2009-06-28

257

Intraspecific variation in the marine shrimps Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris and Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei  

E-print Network

INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN THE MARINE SHRIMPS PENAEUS (LITOPENAEUS) STYLIROSTRIS PENAEUS (LITOPENAEUS) VANNAMEI A Thesis by SCOTT EDWARD HORTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... HORTON Approved as to style and content by: Davi J Sc mi y, S Chairma of Committe ison L. awrence, nda H. Pequegna , 0 Ho ce R. ur e, Ent Wa ace ussman, WFS Head of Department December 1981 ABSTRACT INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN THE MARINE SHRIMPS...

Horton, Scott Edward

2012-06-07

258

Genome-wide discovery of novel and conserved microRNAs in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Of late years, a large amount of conserved and species-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) have been performed on identification from species which are economically important but lack a full genome sequence. In this study, Solexa deep sequencing and cross-species miRNA microarray were used to detect miRNAs in white shrimp. We identified 239 conserved miRNAs, 14 miRNA* sequences and 20 novel miRNAs by bioinformatics analysis from 7,561,406 high-quality reads representing 325,370 distinct sequences. The all 20 novel miRNAs were species-specific in white shrimp and not homologous in other species. Using the conserved miRNAs from the miRBase database as a query set to search for homologs from shrimp expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 32 conserved computationally predicted miRNAs were discovered in shrimp. In addition, using microarray analysis in the shrimp fed with Panax ginseng polysaccharide complex, 151 conserved miRNAs were identified, 18 of which were significant up-expression, while 49 miRNAs were significant down-expression. In particular, qRT-PCR analysis was also performed for nine miRNAs in three shrimp tissues such as muscle, gill and hepatopancreas. Results showed that these miRNAs expression are tissue specific. Combining results of the three methods, we detected 20 novel and 394 conserved miRNAs. Verification with quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR) and Northern blot showed a high confidentiality of data. The study provides the first comprehensive specific miRNA profile of white shrimp, which includes useful information for future investigations into the function of miRNAs in regulation of shrimp development and immunology. PMID:25227525

Xi, Qian-Yun; Xiong, Yuan-Yan; Wang, Yuan-Mei; Cheng, Xiao; Qi, Qi-En; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-Bo; Wang, Li-Na; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Liu, Li

2015-01-01

259

Electrical Conductivity of Frozen Shrimp and Flounder at Different Temperatures and Voltage Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical conductivity (EC) is an important property during ohmic thawing of seafood. EC of frozen flounder, tiger and white shrimp, and shrimp shells at different voltages and temperatures (T) was measured. The materials were homogenized in a blender. PVC tubes (lengths: 4.1 to 5.6 cm, diameter: 1.5 cm) were filled with the material and fitted with circular stainless steel electrodes

Diego A. Luzuriaga; Murat O. Balaban

1996-01-01

260

Effects of a probiotic bacterium on black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon survival and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus S11 bacterium isolated from black tiger shrimp habitats was added to shrimp feed as a probiotic in three forms: fresh cells, fresh cells in normal saline solution, and a lyophilized form. After a 100-day feeding trial with probiotic supplemented and non-supplemented (control) feeds, Penaeus monodon (from PL30) exhibited no significant difference (p>0.05) in growth, survival nor external appearance between

Sirirat Rengpipat; Wannipa Phianphak; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul; Piamsak Menasveta

1998-01-01

261

The effect of light intensity on the growth of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific growth rate (SGRd) of juvenile Fenneropenaeus chinensis shrimp was measured over 35 days under different light intensities: 0, 50, 300, 1300 and 5500 lx. The SGRd of the shrimp under 5500 lx was only 29.4%, 27.1%, 21.1% and 19.7% of those under 0, 1300, 50 and 300 lx, respectively (P<0.05). The maximal and minimal feed intake (FId) of

Fang Wang; Shuanglin Dong; Shaoshuai Dong; Guoqiang Huang; Changbo Zhu; Yingchun Mu

2004-01-01

262

Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

Klerks, P.L.; Felder, D.L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P.W.

2007-01-01

263

Morphological stasis and phylogenetic relationships in Tadpole shrimps, Triops (Crustacea: Notostraca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tadpole shrimp (Triops) is a well-known ‘living fossil’ whose fundamental morphology has been unchanged for over 170 million years. Thus, tadpole shrimps are suitable subjects for the study of morphological stasis. We were able to obtain samples of three species ofTriops(T. granarius, T. longicaudatusandT. cancriformis) from four regions in Japan. Taxonomic species were identified by diagnostic morphology. We inferred

NOBUMITSU SUNO-UCHI; FUMIYO SASAKI; SATOSHI CHIBA; MASAKADO KAWATA

1997-01-01

264

[Bacterial community structure in intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei].  

PubMed

The composition of bacterial community in the intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei under laboratory culture condition was determined using the 16S rDNA clone library. 16s rRNA gene was amplified and a library was constructed by using the genomic DNA extracted from the bacteria in the shrimp intestine as template. 12 different RFLP patterns of the clones were obtained by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using Afa I and Msp I. Compared with the published sequences in GenBank database, sequencing results of cloned 16S rDNA amplicons revealed a diverse community including gamma-proteobacteria and Firmicutes in the intestine of artificial diet-fed shrimp. Results showed that the Firmicutes group can be a dominant component (75.4%) in the shrimp intestinal microflora and other clones belong to gamma-proteobacteria (24.6%) which were identified as Shewanella sp., Pantoea sp., Aranicola sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Vibrio sp., respectively. These results provide the first comprehensive description of microbial diversity of the white shrimp intestine and suggest that most of the bacteria associated with shrimp intestine are uncultured and novel species. PMID:17944366

Li, Ke; Zheng, Tian-ling; Tian, Yun; Yuan, Jian-jun

2007-08-01

265

Pulsed Ultraviolet Light Reduces Immunoglobulin E Binding to Atlantic White Shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) Extract  

PubMed Central

Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel food processing and preservation technology, has been shown to reduce allergen levels in peanut and soybean samples. In this study, the efficacy of using PUV to reduce the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin (36-kDa), and to attenuate immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to shrimp extract was examined. Atlantic white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) extract was treated with PUV (3 pulses/s, 10 cm from light source) for 4 min. Tropomyosin was compared in the untreated, boiled, PUV-treated and [boiled+PUV]-treated samples, and changes in the tropomyosin levels were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). IgE binding of the treated extract was analyzed via immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using pooled human plasma containing IgE antibodies against shrimp allergens. Results showed that levels of tropomyosin and IgE binding were reduced following PUV treatment. However, boiling increased IgE binding, while PUV treatment could offset the increased allergen reactivity caused by boiling. In conclusion, PUV treatment reduced the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin, and decreased the IgE binding capacity of the shrimp extract. PMID:21845146

Shriver, Sandra; Yang, Wade; Chung, Si-Yin; Percival, Susan

2011-01-01

266

Effects of three Caribbean cleaner shrimps on ectoparasitic monogeneans in a semi-natural environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most research on cleaning symbioses on coral reefs has focused on fish clients being cleaned by smaller fishes. While many shrimps and other crustaceans are reported as cleaners, whether they remove parasites from fish hosts and can effectively regulate populations of ectoparasites is unclear. The effects of Pederson shrimp ( Periclimenes pedersoni) , spotted shrimp ( P. yucatanicus), and banded coral shrimp ( Stenopus hispidus), on the parasitic monogenean Neobenedenia melleni on a host reef fish, blue tang ( Acanthurus coeruleus), were investigated. The abundance and size of N. melleni from fish with and without access to shrimps in a semi-natural macrocosm was quantified. P. pedersoni had a strong effect on both the abundance and size of parasites. In contrast, P. yucatanicus and S. hispidus had no effect on the abundance of parasites but had a small yet statistically significant effect on average size. These data suggest that P. pedersoni can play a significant role in the biological regulation of at least some ectoparasites on Caribbean reef fishes, but further suggest that some other shrimps regarded as “cleaners” may have little or no effectiveness at removing parasites and underscore the need for further verification before this term is applied.

McCammon, A.; Sikkel, P. C.; Nemeth, D.

2010-06-01

267

Use of acidic electrolyzed water ice for preserving the quality of shrimp.  

PubMed

Electrolyzed water ice is a relatively new concept developed in food industry in recent years. The effect of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) ice on preserving the quality of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Physical, chemical, and microbiological changes of the shrimp were examined during the storage. The results showed that compared with tap water (TW) ice, AEW ice displayed a potential ability in limiting the pH changes of shrimp flesh and significantly (p < 0.05) retarded the changes of color difference and the formation of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN). And AEW ice treatment had no adverse effects on the firmness of shrimp. Conventional plate count enumeration and PCR-DGGE demonstrated that AEW ice had a capability of inhibiting growth of bacteria on raw shrimp, and the maximum reductions of population reached >1.0 log CFU/g (>90%) on the sixth day. Moreover, AEW ice was clearly more efficient in maintaining the initial attachments between muscle fibers in shrimp according to histological section analysis. On the basis of above analysis, AEW ice can be a new alternative of traditional sanitizer to better preserve the quality of seafood in the future. PMID:23947475

Lin, Ting; Wang, Jing Jing; Li, Ji Bing; Liao, Chao; Pan, Ying Jie; Zhao, Yong

2013-09-11

268

Effect of stocking density on extensive production of freshwater shrimp in coal mine reclamation ponds  

SciTech Connect

The use of post-mining reclamation ponds for the production of freshwater shrimp was evaluated by examining different stocking densities. Juvenile shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) averaging 0.5g each were stocked into four existing ponds at Peabody`s Ken Surface Mine at 6,175; 12,350; 18,500; and 24,700/ha (2,500, 5,000, 7,500, and 10,000/acre) on June 1, 1995. Shrimp were fed twice a week for 103 days, with harvest conducted September 13, 1995. Survival averaged 40%, overall. Average individual weight size was inversely related to stocking density ranging from 52 g (8.7 shrimp/lb) at 6,175/ha to 20.3 g (22.7 shrimp/lb) at 18,500/acre. Total production was directly related to stocking density ranging from 97 kg/ha (86 lbs/acre) at low density to 211 kg/ha (188 lbs/acre) at 18,500/ha shrimp acre. The major difficulty was at harvest due to difficulty in draining ponds. Construction of designed culture ponds with gravity drains during reclamation could greatly enhance survival, harvestability, and commercial feasibility.

Tidwell, J.H.; Wynne, F.; Coyle, S.D. [Kentucky State Univ., Frankfort, KY (United States). Aquaculture Research Center; Grey, B. [Peabody Coal Co., Rockport, KY (United States); McGuire, J.

1998-12-31

269

Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical, microbial quality and shelf life of shrimp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study the combined effect of gamma irradiation (1, 3 and 5 kGy) and storage at two temperatures: refrigeration (+4 °C) and frozen (-18 °C), on the shelf-life extension of fresh shrimp meat was investigated. The study was based on microbiological and physicochemical changes occuring in the shrimp samples. Total volatile base nitrogen values and trimethylamine values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly lower than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures, and the rate of decrease was more pronounced in samples irradiated at the higher dose (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly higher than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). pH values of shrimp samples were affected significantly by both irradiating dose and storage temperatures (p<0.05). Microbial counts for non-irradiated shrimp samples were higher than the respective irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). The results revealed that irradiation at high dose (5 kGy) might enhance lipid oxidation, although the growth of microorganisms and protein oxidation was inhibited.

Hocao?lu, Asl?; Sükrü Demirci, Ahmet; Gümüs, Tuncay; Demirci, Mehmet

2012-12-01

270

Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed.  

PubMed

Lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extract was prepared using distilled water as a medium. An extraction yield of 26.16g/100g of seed was obtained after extraction at room temperature for 12h. Total phenolic and mimosine contents in the lead seed extract powder (LSEP) were 17.4g GAE/100g and 8.8g/100g, respectively. LSEP at different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v) showed inhibitory activity towards polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose dependent manner. When the whole Pacific white shrimp were treated with 0.25% and 0.5% (w/v) LSEP, the shrimp treated with 0.5% LSEP had the lower melanosis score throughout the storage of 12days and showed a higher score for colour and odour, as well as overall likeness, compared with the control (without treatment) and 1.25% sodium metabisulphite treated samples at day 12 (P<0.05). Meat of shrimps treated with LSEP at both levels had the increase in mimosine content up to 8days, suggesting the migration of mimosine into shrimp muscle during extended storage. Therefore, 0.5% LSEP can be used as a novel melanosis inhibitor for Pacific white shrimp. PMID:25212152

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

2011-09-15

271

Abundance and seasonal migrations of the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) within Iraqi waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration of Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) from the Arabian Gulf to nursery grounds in the inland waters of Iraq extends from May\\/June to January\\/February. Shrimp ranging in size from 3–125 mm total length were found in inland waters. In the shallow waters of the Al-Assaflya small-sized shrimp only were caught, while in the Marshes large-sized shrimp were abundant. Maximum numbers

S. D. Salman; M. H. Ali; A. H. Y. Al-AdhubI

1990-01-01

272

A different form of color vision in mantis shrimp.  

PubMed

One of the most complex eyes in the animal kingdom can be found in species of stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimp), some of which have 12 different photoreceptor types, each sampling a narrow set of wavelengths ranging from deep ultraviolet to far red (300 to 720 nanometers). Functionally, this chromatic complexity has presented a mystery. Why use 12 color channels when three or four are sufficient for fine color discrimination? Behavioral wavelength discrimination tests (?? functions) in stomatopods revealed a surprisingly poor performance, ruling out color vision that makes use of the conventional color-opponent coding system. Instead, our experiments suggest that stomatopods use a previously unknown color vision system based on temporal signaling combined with scanning eye movements, enabling a type of color recognition rather than discrimination. PMID:24458639

Thoen, Hanne H; How, Martin J; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Marshall, Justin

2014-01-24

273

Cation-dependent nutrient transport in shrimp digestive tract.  

PubMed

Purified epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were produced from the hepatopancreas of the Atlantic White shrimp, Litopeneaus setiferus, using standard methods originally developed for mammalian tissues and previously applied to other crustacean and echinoderm epithelia. These vesicles were used to study the cation dependency of sugar and amino acid transport across luminal membranes of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. (3)H-D: -glucose uptake by BBMV against transient sugar concentration gradients occurred when either transmembrane sodium or potassium gradients were the only driving forces for sugar accumulation, suggesting the presence of a possible coupled transport system capable of using either cation. (3)H-L: -histidine transport was only stimulated by a transmembrane potassium gradient, while (3)H-L: -leucine uptake was enhanced by either a sodium or potassium gradient. These responses suggest the possible presence of a potassium-dependent transporter that accommodates either amino acid and a sodium-dependent system restricted only to L: -leucine. Uptake of (3)H-L: -leucine was significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) by several metallic cations (e.g., Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), or Co(2+)) at external pH values of 7.0 or 5.0 (internal pH 7.0), suggesting a potential synergistic role of the cations in the transmembrane transfer of amino acids. (3)H-L: -histidine influxes (15 suptakes) were hyperbolic functions of external [zinc] or [manganese], following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent affinity constant (e.g., K (m)) for manganese was an order of magnitude smaller (K (m) = 0.22 ?M Mn) than that for zinc (K (m) = 1.80 ?M Zn), while no significant difference (P > 0.05) occurred between their maximal transport velocities (e.g., J (max)). These results suggest that a number of cation-dependent nutrient transport systems occur on the shrimp brush border membrane and aid in the absorption of these important dietary elements. PMID:21983793

Simmons, Tamla; Mozo, Julie; Wilson, Jennifer; Ahearn, Gregory A

2012-02-01

274

Dietary effect of Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immune gene expression in white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of a Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immunostimulatory response in white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Shrimps with an average initial weight of 0.5 ± 0.04 g were collected and acclimatized for 10 days. Four experimental diets including a control diet, a probiotic diet and 0.25 and 0.5% of R. coreanus ethanolic extract (RcEE) diets were used to feed the shrimps. After 8 weeks of culture, shrimp fed with probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet had showed significant enhancement in the growth while shrimp fed with 0.5% RcEE diet showed significantly increased expression of immune genes and antioxidant enzymes activities. One week of challenge experiments for all the four diets fed shrimps showed decreased cumulative mortality in the 0.5% RcEE diets fed shrimps, when compared with the probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet fed shrimp groups. The results indicates that R. coreanus ethanolic extract could be used as a herbal immunostimulant for shrimps to increase its immunity and disease resistance against the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus. PMID:23811352

Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Jang, Yeoung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kang, Bong-Jo; Heo, Moon-Soo

2013-09-01

275

LINKING HABITAT CHANGE AND NUTRIENT DYNAMICS: COMPARISON OF FOOD WEBS AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN BURROWING SHRIMP- AND OYSTER-DOMINATED HABITATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Endemic thalassinid burrowing shrimps are simultaneously dominant ecosystem engineering species and economic pests within Pacific estuaries. Dense populations of two shrimps (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) commonly occupy >75% of intertidal and shallow subti...

276

Prospects for surviving climate change in Antarctic aquatic species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maritime Antarctic freshwater habitats are amongst the fastest changing environments on Earth. Temperatures have risen around 1°C and ice cover has dramatically decreased in 15 years. Few animal species inhabit these sites, but the fairy shrimp Branchinecta gaini typifies those that do. This species survives up to 25°C daily temperature fluctuations in summer and passes winter as eggs at temperatures

Lloyd S Peck

2005-01-01

277

Resistance to the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in two freshwater shrimps.  

PubMed

Aphanomyces astaci, the causal agent of the crayfish plague, has recently been confirmed to infect also freshwater-inhabiting crabs. We experimentally tested the resistance of freshwater shrimps, another important decapod group inhabiting freshwaters, to this pathogen. We exposed individuals of two Asian shrimp species, Macrobrachium dayanum and Neocaridina davidi, to zoospores of the pathogen strain isolated from Procambarus clarkii, a known A. astaci carrier likely to get into contact with shrimps. The shrimps were kept in separate vessels up to seven weeks; exuviae and randomly chosen individuals were sampled throughout the experiment. Shrimp bodies and exuviae were tested for A. astaci presence by a species-specific quantitative PCR. The results were compared with amounts of A. astaci DNA in an inert substrate to distinguish potential pathogen growth in live specimens from persisting spores or environmental DNA attached to their surface. In contrast to susceptible crayfish Astacus astacus, we did not observe mortality of shrimps. The amount of detected pathogen DNA was decreasing steadily in the inert substrate, but it was still detectable several weeks after zoospore addition, which should be considered in studies relying on molecular detection of A. astaci. Probably due to moulting, the amount of A. astaci DNA was decreasing in N. davidi even faster than in the inert substrate. In contrast, high pathogen DNA levels were detected in some non-moulting individuals of M. dayanum, suggesting that A. astaci growth may be possible in tissues of this species. Further experiments are needed to test for the potential of long-term A. astaci persistence in freshwater shrimp populations. PMID:25064254

Svoboda, J; Mruga?a, A; Kozubíková-Balcarová, E; Kouba, A; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J; Petrusek, A

2014-09-01

278

Fairy, tadpole, and clam shrimps (Branchiopoda) in seasonally inundated clay pans in the western Mojave Desert and effect on primary producers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fairy shrimps (Anostraca), tadpole shrimps (Notostraca), clam shrimps (Spinicaudata), algae (primarily filamentous blue-green algae [cyanobacteria]), and suspended organic particulates are dominant food web components of the seasonally inundated pans and playas of the western Mojave Desert in California. We examined the extent to which these branchiopods controlled algal abundance and species composition in clay pans between Rosamond and Rogers

WN Brostoff; JG Holmquist; J Schmidt-Gengenbach; PV Zimba

2010-01-01

279

Differences in prey capture in grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, collected along an environmental impact gradient.  

PubMed

The waterways and associated salt marshes along the western border of Staten Island, New York (Arthur Kill) have long been under environmental duress. Environmental threats include industrial and municipal discharges, oil spills, and possible leachate from landfills. These impacts are compounded due to the low flushing of this body of water. Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, inhabiting the Arthur Kill are, therefore, potentially at risk of exposure to metal and organic pollutants. Successful prey capture (of live brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana) was used to compare the relative health of shrimp collected from three sites along an environmental impact gradient. Study sites included a relatively unimpacted harbor (Great Kills Harbor, GK) and two creeks adjoining the Arthur Kill (Nassau Creek, NC, and Richmond Creek, RC). Shrimp originating from GK exhibited a rate of prey capture (6.3 prey h(-1)) that was about two times greater (p < 0.05) than that of shrimp originating from a creek behind a series of landfills (RC, 3.2 prey h(-1)). The rate of prey capture for shrimp collected from a creek impacted by historic smelting activities (NC) was intermediate (5.4 prey h(-1)). Laboratory studies with shrimp from a pristine site (Tuckerton, NJ) exposed to RC conditions (i.e., sediment and water) for eight weeks indicate that reduced prey capture can be induced in healthy shrimp. Finally, video analysis suggests that reduced prey capture in RC shrimp may not be the result of less effort, but rather the combination of (1) 80% fewer (p < 0.05) prey being captured with a lunge type of attack and (2) a greater reliance (p < 0.05) on a less efficient grab type of foraging behavior (64% success rate for RC versus 87% success rate for GK; p = 0.058). These results indicate that sublethal toxicity in environmentally impacted populations can occur and that prey capture may be used to assay the relative health of field specimens. Additionally, impaired prey capture may have important implications for the energy flow within impacted environments. PMID:15025167

Perez, M H; Wallace, W G

2004-01-01

280

A cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, for identification of genes relevant to testicular development in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

Background Poor reproductive maturation in captive male broodstock of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is one of the serious problems to the farming industries. Without genome sequence, EST libraries of P. monodon were previously constructed to identify transcripts with important biological functions. In this study, a new version of cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, was constructed from the Peneaus monodon EST libraries of 12 tissues, containing 5,568 non-redundant cDNA clones from 10,536 unique cDNA in the P. monodon EST database. UniShrimpChip was used to study testicular development by comparing gene expression levels of wild brooders from the West and East coasts of Thailand and domesticated brooders with different ages (10-, 14-, 18-month-old). Results The overall gene expression patterns from the microarray experiments revealed distinct transcriptomic patterns between the wild and domesticated groups. Moreover, differentially expressed genes from the microarray comparisons were identified, and the expression patterns of eight selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Among these, expression levels of six subunits (CSN2, 4, 5, 6, 7a, and 8) of the COP9 signalosome (CSN) gene family in wild and different ages of domesticated brooders were examined by RT-qPCR. Among the six subunits, CSN5 and CSN6 were most highly expressed in wild brooders and least expressed in the 18-month-old domesticated group; therefore, their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Conclusions This study is the first report to employ cDNA microarray to study testicular development in the black tiger shrimp. We show that there are obvious differences between the wild and domesticated shrimp at the transcriptomic level. Furthermore, our study is the first to investigate the feasibility that the CSN gene family might have involved in reproduction and development of this economically important species. PMID:21486443

2011-01-01

281

Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from digestive tract of wild shrimp on growth and survival of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged with Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Two hundred and two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from digestive tracts of cultivated and wild adult shrimp, including Litopenaeus vannamei, Metapenaeus brevicornis and Penaeus merguiensis were selected based on their antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. LAB strain of MRO3.12 exhibiting highest reduction of V. harveyi was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum MRO3.12 based on the nucleotide sequence of its 16S rDNA, which showed 99% (780/786 bp) homology to L. plantarum strain L5 (GenBank accession number DQ 239698.1). Co-cultivation of V. harveyi and L. plantarum MRO3.12 showed complete reduction of V. harveyi at 24 h under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, whereas L. plantarum increased from 5.29 to 9.47 log CFU ml(-1). After 6-week feeding trial with L. plantarum supplemented diet, white shrimp (L. vannamei) exhibited significant differences (p < 0.05) in relative growth rate (% RGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival compared to the control group fed with non-supplemented diet. LAB-fed group showed 98.89% survival, whereas only 68.89% survival was observed in the control group. LAB from the digestive tract of probiotic-fed shrimp showed higher level of 5.0 ± 0.14 log CFU/g than the non-supplemented ones (3.34 ± 0.21 log CFU/g). However, total bacterial and non-fermenting vibrios counts decreased in shrimps fed on L. plantarum. Ten days after infection with V. harveyi (5.3-5.5 log CFU ml(-1)), significant survival (p < 0.05) of 77% was observed in LAB supplemented shrimp, while only 67% survival was observed in the control. PMID:22126856

Kongnum, Khanitta; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat

2012-01-01

282

Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

283

76 FR 61668 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary...Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice...2011). Extension of Time Limit of Preliminary...October 2011 (for India). The Department thus requires additional time to conduct its...

2011-10-05

284

PARTICLE REMOVAL RATES BY THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS, ITS BURROW, AND A COMMENSAL CLAM: EFFECTS ON ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant intertidal inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the bivalve Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities by the shrimp and by its commensal clam, as well as particle se...

285

72 FR 58031 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AU59 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revision of...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2007-10-12

286

77 FR 34935 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony...CIT's remand order in Amanda Foods (Vietnam) Ltd., et al. v. United States...shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam covering the period of review...

2012-06-12

287

Determination of oxytetracycline residue in shrimp using a portable time-resolved analyzer and HPLC-MS/MS validation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oxytetracycline (OTC) is the most prominent antibiotic in shrimp aquaculture. In this work, OTC residue in shrimp muscle is determined using a portable analyzer built in this laboratory based on europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). First, OTC is extracted in McIlvaine buffer at pH 4.0 with 0.1 ...

288

Antimicrobial effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmonella contamination of raw shrimp is a food safety concern in the U.S. and other countries. This research evaluated the effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere (MA) and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp. Growth profiles of a Salmonella spp. cocktail (6 strains),...

289

Input Use and Incentives in the Caribbean Shrimp Fishery: The Case of the Trinidad and Tobago Fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economic factors that influence output in the Trinidad and Tobago shrimp fishery using a Generalized Leontief production function. Factors such as output prices and the use of inputs in the fishery are assessed. The artisanal and industrial fleets operate in a largely open-access fishery, which is seasonal. While shrimp is the main targeted species, various fish

Sharon D. Hutchinson

2008-01-01

290

ASPECTS OF THE HOST - COMMENSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A PALAEMONID SHRIMP ('PONTONIA DOMESTICA') AND THE PEN SHELL ('ATRINA RIGIDA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Sixty pen shells (Atrina rigida), were collected and examined to determine the prevalence and morphometrics of the commensal shrimp (Pontonia domestica). The spatial and sexual distribution within the shell of the host, and the reproductive states of the shrimp were also investig...

291

Biological pumps at the sediment-water interface: Mechanistic evaluation of the alpheid shrimp Alpheus mackayi and its irrigation pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-burrowing crustaceans are common on all coasts. In a series of model experiments conducted at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology from March to October 1977, the effect of the alpheid shrimp Alpheus mackayi Banner and Banner, on material fluxes across the sediment-water interface has been determined. Viewed as a “biological pump”, the shrimp's irrigation pattern was not random, but

G. Gust; J. T. Harrison

1981-01-01

292

75 FR 20548 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...rule is to improve bycatch reduction in the shrimp fishery, reduce...BRD achieves a 30-percent reduction in the weight of finfish bycatch...to maintain adequate bycatch reduction in the shrimp fishery, reduce...Any decision to use this gear would be expected to...

2010-04-20

293

Redox conditions and heavy metals distribution in mangrove forests receiving shrimp farm effluents (Teremba bay, New Caledonia)  

E-print Network

1 Redox conditions and heavy metals distribution in mangrove forests receiving shrimp farm rocks and lateritic soils that are exploited for their richness in some heavy metals. We will endeavour heavy metals distributions in mangroves receiving shrimp farm effluents. Materials and methods Samples

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

Effects of the 1981 Closure on the Texas Shrimp Fishery ALBERT C. JONES, EDWARD F. KLIMA, and JOHN R. POFFENBERGER  

E-print Network

Fisheries Center and was composed of specific data collection and analytical efforts. Two fishery research on temporal changes of the area's shrimp population. In addi- tion, data on fishery activity (catch, ef- fortEffects of the 1981 Closure on the Texas Shrimp Fishery ALBERT C. JONES, EDWARD F. KLIMA, and JOHN

295

Penaeidins, antimicrobial peptides with chitin-binding activity, are produced and stored in shrimp granulocytes and released after microbial challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penaeidins are members of a new family of antimicrobial peptides isolated from a crustacean, which present both Gram-positive antibacterial and antifungal activities. We have studied the localization of synthesis and storage of penaeidins in the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. The distribution of penaeidin transcripts and peptides in various tissues reveals that penaeidins are constitutively synthesized and stored in the shrimp haemocytes.

Delphine Destoumieux; Marcello Muñoz; Céline Cosseau; Jenny Rodriguez; Philippe Bulet; Michel Comps; Evelyne Bachère

2000-01-01

296

Occurrence of Deferribacterales and Entomoplasmatales in the deep-sea Alvinocarid shrimp Rimicaris exoculata gut.  

PubMed

Abstract The phylogenetic diversity of the gut microbial population of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata was determined. The presence of micro-organisms in the hindgut of the shrimp was determined, and their morphology illustrated for the first time by transmission electron microscopy. DNA was extracted from the fore-, mid- and hindgut of shrimps collected at the Rainbow site, at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (16S rDNA) were analyzed. Seven different bacterial phylotypes were identified from the 90 clones screened. The sequences were affiliated to three major groups: epsilon-Proteobacteria (48,8%), Entomoplasmatales (23.3%) and representatives of the new phylum Deferribacteres (26.6%). These results show that the diversity in the shrimp gut is very low compared to that of the surrounding medium. Furthermore, the presence of groups that are not found in the external medium (Spiroplasma sp. and Geovibrio sp.) suggests the existence of a local microflora. The potential roles of these bacteria are discussed, involving the shrimp diet and metal bioremediation. PMID:19719579

Zbinden, Magali; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

2003-10-01

297

A physical model of the extreme mantis shrimp strike: kinematics and cavitation of Ninjabot.  

PubMed

To study the mechanical principles and fluid dynamics of ultrafast power-amplified systems, we built Ninjabot, a physical model of the extremely fast mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda). Ninjabot rotates a to-scale appendage within the environmental conditions and close to the kinematic range of mantis shrimp's rotating strike. Ninjabot is an adjustable mechanism that can repeatedly vary independent properties relevant to fast aquatic motions to help isolate their individual effects. Despite exceeding the kinematics of previously published biomimetic jumpers and reaching speeds in excess of 25 m s(-1) at accelerations of 3.2 × 10(4) m s(-2), Ninjabot can still be outstripped by the fastest mantis shrimp, Gonodactylus smithii, measured for the first time in this study. G. smithii reached 30 m s(-1) at accelerations of 1.5 × 10(5) m s(-2). While mantis shrimp produce cavitation upon impact with their prey, they do not cavitate during the forward portion of their strike despite their extreme speeds. In order to determine how closely to match Ninjabot and mantis shrimp kinematics to capture this cavitation behavior, we used Ninjabot to produce strikes of varying kinematics and to measure cavitation presence or absence. Using Akaike Information Criterion to compare statistical models that correlated cavitation with a variety of kinematic properties, we found that in rotating and accelerating biological conditions, cavitation inception is best explained only by maximum linear velocity. PMID:24503516

Cox, S M; Schmidt, D; Modarres-Sadeghi, Y; Patek, S N

2014-03-01

298

Environmental mutagenicity and toxicity caused by sodium metabisulfite in sea shrimp harvesting in Piauí, Brazil.  

PubMed

Sodium metabisulfite is used in marine shrimp harvesting to prevent the occurrence of black spots. Shrimps are soaked in a sodium metabisulfite solution in ice, which is disposed of in sewages that run into marine canals, creating an environmental hazard. This study evaluates the toxicity and mutagenicity caused by sodium metabisulfite in sea waters and sediments collected in a shrimp farm in Cajueiro da Praia (Luis Correia), state of Piauí, Brazil, using the Allium cepa assay. Water and sediment samples were collected in the dry and in the rainy seasons, in three sites: upstream the shrimp farm (Site 1), at the point sodium metabisulfite is discharged (Site 2), and 100 m downstream the farm (Site 3). Three sample dilutions were used (50%, 25% and 10%) for all samples. A negative control (well water) and a positive control (copper sulfate 0.0006 mg mL?¹) were used in each experiment. At the end of the 72-h exposure period, onion roots were measured and removed. Mutagenicity analysis included the determination of mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations and the detection of micronuclei; analysis of root size and mitotic index were used as an index of toxicity. The A. cepa assay revealed that the water and sediments samples collected in the Piauí coast contaminated with sodium metabisulfite induce toxicity. The results demonstrate that the assay may be used as a regular tool in the analysis of water parameters in shrimp farms in the coast of Piauí state, and in strategies to preserve the region's marine ecosystem. PMID:21056453

da Costa Machado Matos Carvalho, Ivana Mara; Cavalcante, Ana Amélia Melo; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Pereira, Danilo Leôncio Aguiar; Rocha, Francisco Cézar Costa; Oliveira, Francisco Massal de; Da Silva, Juliana

2011-02-01

299

Melanization reaction products of shrimp display antimicrobial properties against their major bacterial and fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Melanization is a rapid defense mechanism in invertebrates. The substrate specificity of phenoloxidases (POs) and the role of melanization reaction products were investigated in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Two PmPOs (PmproPO1 and PmproPO2) were found to display a substrate specificity towards monophenols and diphenols, and exhibit relatively weak activity against 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI). Systemic infection of the PmproPO1/2 co-silenced shrimp with the fungus, Fusarium solani, led to a significantly increased mortality, suggesting an important role of PmproPOs in shrimp's defense against fungal infection. Using L-DOPA, dopamine or DHI as a substrate, the melanization reaction products exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activities towards Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Vibrioparahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), whereas the lower effect was detected against the fungus (F. solani). SEM analysis revealed the morphological changes and damage of cell membranes of V. harveyi and F. solani after treatment with shrimp melanization reaction products. Together, these findings demonstrate the crucial functions of the proPO system and the importance of melanization reaction products in the shrimp's immune defense. PMID:25043262

Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Amparyup, Piti; Suriyachan, Chawapat; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

2014-11-01

300

Comparative Transcriptomic Characterization of the Early Development in Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research. PMID:25197823

Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Huang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-01-01

301

Two cysteine proteinases respond to bacterial and WSSV challenge in Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.  

PubMed

The cDNAs encoding CathL and legumain from Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcCathL, FcLegu) were obtained. Both FcCathL and FcLegu mRNA were expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas of unchallenged shrimp. Time-course analysis of FcCathL showed that FcCathL was upregulated in the hepatopancreas of shrimp challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 12 h. FcLegu mRNA in hepatopancreas was down-regulated by Vibrio. FcLegu transcript first declined from 2 h to 6 h and then recovered from 12 h to 24 h in hepatopancreas challenged with WSSV. FcCathL protein was detected in the hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gill, stomach, and intestine of unchallenged shrimp. Three bands of FcCathL protein detected in some tissues may represent preproenzyme, single chain and mature double chain form respectively. In hepatopancreas, FcLegu was detected in the proenzyme form. In other tissues, only active form could be detected. The protein of FcLegu was down-regulated by Vibrio or WSSV challenge in the stomach and gills. FcCathL and FcLegu were proposed to play a role in shrimp innate immunity for the first time. PMID:20362060

Ren, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Sun, Yun-Dong; Sun, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Zong-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

2010-10-01

302

Cholesterol oxidation and astaxanthin degradation in shrimp during sun drying and storage.  

PubMed

Dried salted shrimps are made from raw shrimps, which are cooked and dried under direct sunlight. The preparation and storage include treatments and conditions that can promote oxidative changes in different components. The aim of this study was to monitor the formation of major cholesterol oxidation products and the changes in the astaxanthin content and fatty acid profile in dried salted shrimp during cooking, sun drying and storage. During sun drying, most of the astaxanthin (75%) was degraded in cooked shrimp, while cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) showed a dramatic increase (8.6-fold), reaching a total concentration of 372.9 ± 16.3 ?g/g of lipids. Further storage favoured both astaxanthin degradation (83%) and COPs formation (886.6 ± 97.9 ?g/g of lipids after 90 days of storage). The high degradation of astaxanthin and the elevated formation of COPs during sun drying and storage indicate the necessity to re-evaluate the processing and storage conditions of salted dried shrimp. PMID:24128553

Hernández Becerra, Josafat A; Ochoa Flores, Angélica A; Valerio-Alfaro, Gerardo; Soto-Rodriguez, Ida; Rodríguez-Estrada, María T; García, Hugo S

2014-02-15

303

Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.  

PubMed

The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 ?g(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics. PMID:21807199

Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

2011-09-15

304

Growing backwards: an inverted role for the shrimp ortholog of vertebrate myostatin and GDF11.  

PubMed

Myostatin (MSTN) and growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) are closely related proteins involved in muscle cell growth and differentiation as well as neurogenesis of vertebrates. Both MSTN and GDF11 negatively regulate their functions. Invertebrates possess a single ortholog of the MSTN/GDF11 family. In order to understand the role of MSTN/GDF11 in crustaceans, the gene ortholog was identified and characterized in the penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon. The overall protein sequence and specific functional sites were highly conserved with other members of the MSTN/GDF11 family. Gene transcripts of pmMstn/Gdf11, assessed by real-time PCR, were detected in a variety of tissue types and were actively regulated in muscle across the moult cycle. To assess phenotypic function in shrimp, pmMstn/Gdf11 gene expression was downregulated by tail-muscle injection of sequence-specific double-stranded RNA. Shrimp with reduced levels of pmMstn/Gdf11 transcripts displayed a dramatic slowing in growth rate compared with control groups. Findings from this study place the MSTN/GDF11 gene at the centre of growth regulation in shrimp, but suggest that, compared with higher vertebrates, this gene has an opposite role in invertebrates such as shrimp, where levels of gene expression may positively regulate growth. PMID:21795562

De Santis, Christian; Wade, Nicholas M; Jerry, Dean R; Preston, Nigel P; Glencross, Brett D; Sellars, Melony J

2011-08-15

305

Diet supplemented with probiotic for Nile tilapia in polyculture system with marine shrimp.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a probiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum) supplemented diet on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in a polyculture system with marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as regards culture performance, hematology, and gut bacterial microbiota. Ten 20-m² pens were arranged in one earthen pond and stocked with 2 fish (41.9 g) m(-2) and 10 shrimp (2.3 g) m(-2), in total of 40 Nile tilapias and 200 shrimp per experimental unit. Tilapia groups in five of the experimental units were fed a commercial diet supplemented with L. plantarum and the other five with an unsupplemented commercial diet (control). After 12 weeks of culture, the tilapia groups fed the probiotic-supplemented diet presented values 13.6, 7.5, and 7.1% higher for feed efficiency, yield, and final weight, respectively. Viable culturable heterotrophic bacteria counts were reduced, and the number of lactic acid bacteria was increased in the gut of fish and shrimp fed the probiotic-supplemented diet. Hematological analyses showed higher number of thrombocytes and leukocytes in tilapia fed the supplemented diet. L. plantarum utilized in this study colonized the gut of tilapia and shrimp and resulted in reduced number of total bacteria and increased tilapia final weight and feed efficiency. PMID:21347844

Jatobá, Adolfo; Vieira, Felipe do Nascimento; Buglione-Neto, Celso Carlos; Mouriño', José Luiz Pedreira; Silva, Bruno Corrêa; Seiftter, Walter Quadros; Andreatta, Edemar Roberto

2011-12-01

306

Comparative transcriptomic characterization of the early development in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research. PMID:25197823

Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Huang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-01-01

307

Nursery function of an estuarine tidal marsh for the brown shrimp Crangon crangon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brown shrimp Crangon crangon migrates into the brackish part of the Westerschelde estuary (southwest Netherlands) shortly after metamorphosis and uses the tidal marsh habitat as a nursery until reaching a total length of about 15 mm. The importance of the marsh as a nursery was evaluated by estimating foraging activity, predation mortality and residence time. In early postlarval stages, C. crangon utilised the intertidal creeks of an estuarine tidal marsh from early spring (March-April) until late autumn (October-November). Postlarval shrimp leaving the marsh with the ebb tide always had significantly more food in their stomachs than shrimp entering the marsh with the incoming flood water. Predation upon the shrimp population was relatively low during most months, but in increased between August and October when common gobies, Pomatoschistus microps, were present in high densities. There was also predation by the small seabass Dicentrarchus labrax. The marsh creeks function both as foraging areas and as predation refuge. Depending on temperature, postlarval shrimp stayed in the marsh for a period of two to three weeks. Quantitatively, the value of the marsh as a nursery area had changed drastically during a second year of sampling, illustrating high natural year-to-year variability. However, the seasonal pattern remained. Recruitment to the subtidal adult population represents an export of animals from the marsh to the estuary. This export is negligible in terms of biomass (as compared to the total biomass of the estuarine population) but it may be important in terms of numbers of individuals.

Cattrijsse, André; Dankwa, Hederick R.; Mees, Jan

1997-12-01

308

Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp  

PubMed Central

Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remarkably rare in nature and relatively inaccessible due to its changing habitats over the course of ontogeny. The mid-water marine species Cerataspis monstrosa (Gray 1828) is an armored crustacean larva whose adult identity has remained a mystery for over 180 years. Our phylogenetic analyses, based in part on recent collections from the Gulf of Mexico, provide definitive evidence that the rare, yet broadly distributed larva, C. monstrosa, is an early developmental stage of the globally distributed deepwater aristeid shrimp, Plesiopenaeus armatus. Divergence estimates and phylogenetic relationships across five genes confirm the larva and adult are the same species. Our work demonstrates the diagnostic power of molecular systematics in instances where larval rearing seldom succeeds and morphology and habitat are not indicative of identity. Larval–adult linkages not only aid in our understanding of biodiversity, they provide insights into the life history, distribution, and ecology of an organism. PMID:23145324

Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

2012-01-01

309

Developmental and comparative aspects of brine shrimp tubulin.  

PubMed

Tubulin from embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia has been purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatography on phosphocellulose P11 and DEAE-cellulose, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and assembly-disassembly of microtubules. Peptide mapping indicated that Artemia and bovine brain tubulin were very similar in spite of differences in the electrophoretic behaviour of tubulin from these two organisms. Isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were used to resolve and identify several Artemia isotubulins . The isotubulin composition and the quantity of tubulin did not change during pre-emergence development of Artemia embryos. Formation of microtubules with tubulin purified from embryos at different stages of development did not require glycerol or microtubule-associated proteins and formation of structurally normal microtubules was actually hindered by glycerol and Mg2+. The characteristics of Artemia tubulin, in concert with the unusual life history of Artemia, suggest that this organism will be very useful for the study of tubulin gene expression and tubulin utilization during embryo development. PMID:6721849

Macrae, T H; Ludueña, R F

1984-04-01

310

Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in shrimp.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid method for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in shrimp is described. For sample preparation, the quick and simple QuEChERS procedure was used. Reverse-phase chromatography using an octadecyl silica (C18) column and water/acetonitrile gradient elution was used to separate analyte mixtures. After separation, PAHs were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) equipped with the atmospheric pressure photoionization (PhotoSpray APPI) source operating in the positive-ion mode. In this methodology, all 16 common PAHs were used and toluene served as a charged dopant to efficiently ionize analyte molecules through secondary reactions. Spikes were performed at 0.2 and 1 ?g/g with and without primary and secondary amine (PSA) sorbent cleanup. Recoveries of PAHs were good, with ion ratios that agreed well between the spikes and standards. Without cleanup at 0.2 ?g/mL, seven compounds had relatively low recovery (49-69%) and one compound, naphthalene, had a somewhat high recovery of 129%. At 1 ?g/mL without cleanup, only three compounds had slightly lower recovery (66-67%). When PSA cleanup was performed, all PAH recoveries were within 75-125% at both spike levels. PMID:21062062

Smoker, Michael; Tran, Kevin; Smith, Robert E

2010-12-01

311

Phylogenetic relationships within the snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus (Decapoda: Alpheidae).  

PubMed

The snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus (Alpheidae) is one of the most speciose decapod genera, with over 160 described species worldwide. Most species live in symbiotic relationships with other marine organisms, such as sponges, corals and crinoids, and some sponge-dwelling species have a highly organized, social structure. The present study is the first worldwide molecular phylogenetic analysis of Synalpheus, based on >2,200 bp of sequence data from two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and two nuclear (PEPCK and 18S) loci. Our molecular data show strong support for monophyly of three out of six traditionally recognized morphology-based species groups: the S. brevicarpus, S. comatularum and S. gambarelloides groups. The remaining three species groups (S. paulsoni, S. neomeris and S. coutierei groups) are non-monophyletic in their current composition and will need to be either abandoned or taxonomically redefined. We also identified potential cryptic species of Synalpheus in our dataset, using intraspecific and interspecific sequence variation in COI from the taxonomically well-studied S. gambarelloides group to establish a genetic divergence threshold. We then used both genetic divergence and tree-based criteria (reciprocal monophyly) to identify potential cryptic species in the remaining taxa of the genus. Our results suggest the presence of multiple cryptic lineages in Synalpheus, underlining the need for more integrative taxonomic studies-including morphological, ecological, molecular, and color pattern data-in this biologically interesting genus. PMID:24680914

Hultgren, Kristin M; Hurt, Carla; Anker, Arthur

2014-08-01

312

Proficiency study for the determination of nitrofuran metabolites in shrimps.  

PubMed

A proficiency test for the determination of nitrofuran metabolites in shrimp tissue was organized in the first half of 2003. This test was intended to allow the participants to use their routine method and to assess their competence on this specific analysis. The participation in this proficiency test was offered to all the National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) of the European Union (EU) in charge of the analysis of nitrofurans, to Official Laboratories of the then 10 Candidate Countries for entry in EU and to some countries exporting food to the EU. The participants (20) analysed nitrofuran metabolites in eight randomly coded frozen samples including three blank samples. All participants performed a confirmatory method using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to detect total nitrofuran metabolite residues. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the results were investigated. Qualitatively, 16 laboratories out of 20 gave the correct interpretation of the results in term of compliant/non-compliant sample. Quantitatively, laboratory performance was evaluated by calculating the z-scores. PMID:16766456

Hurtaud-Pessel, D; Verdon, E; Blot, J; Sanders, P

2006-06-01

313

Structural characterization of the lipovitellin from the shrimp Macrobrachium borellii.  

PubMed

In oviparous species, proteins and lipids are found in the vitellus forming lipoproteins called lipovitellins. They are an important energy source for embryos development and larvae growth and survival. We have previously isolated and partially characterized the sole egg cytosolic lipovitellin from the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium borellii. It is a native protein of 440 kDa, composed of two subunits of 94 and 112 kDa. In the present work we studied size, shape and structure of M. borellii lipovitellin using electron microscopy, crosslinking reagents, MALDI-TOF, circular dichroism, fluorescence and partial proteolysis. The results showed that lipovitellin has a quasi spherical morphology with an estimated diameter of 18.5+/-3.5 nm. It appears to be composed of two subunits of 94 kDa, and one of 112 kDa. The larger subunit is more susceptible to trypsinolysis, indicating that it is less compactly folded and/or more exposed to the aqueous medium than the 94 kDa subunits. The hetero-trimer is held together by non-covalent interactions. Peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-TOF, produced 42 polypeptides matching to a vitellogenin of a related species (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Circular dichroism indicated that this protein contains 35.7% alpha-helix, 16.6% beta-sheet and 20% turns. Tryptophan fluorescence emission, at a maximum of 334 nm, indicated that the environment polarity of these aromatic residues is similar to that of other crustacean lipoproteins. PMID:17030141

Garcia, C F; Cunningham, M; Soulages, J L; Garda, H A; Pollero, R

2006-01-01

314

Effect of the addition of four potential probiotic strains on the survival of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) following immersion challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

Four bacterial strains isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of adult shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, Vibrio alginolyticus UTM 102, Bacillus subtilis UTM 126, Roseobacter gallaeciensis SLV03, and Pseudomonas aestumarina SLV22, were evaluated for potential use as probiotics for shrimp. In vitro studies demonstrated antagonism against the shrimp-pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus PS-017. Feeding shrimp with diets containing the potential probiotics showed the best feed conversion ratio in comparison with the control groups. After feeding with the potential probiotics for 28 days, challenge by immersion indicated effectiveness at reducing disease caused by V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp. PMID:17544437

Balcázar, José Luis; Rojas-Luna, Tyrone; Cunningham, David P

2007-10-01

315

Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

2008-05-01

316

Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)  

PubMed Central

An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

2010-01-01

317

Preliminary mechanism of acidic electrolyzed water ice on improving the quality and safety of shrimp.  

PubMed

Preliminary mechanism of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) ice on improving the quality and safety of shrimp was investigated by examining the physicochemical and microbiological changes, sarcoplasmic proteins and enzymatic activities. The results showed that compared with tap water (TW) ice, AEW ice had an obvious (p<0.05) capability in limiting the changes of pH and shrinkage of muscle fibers in shrimp. Plate count enumeration and PCR-DGGE indicated that AEW greatly inhibited growth of bacteria on shrimp. Additionally, AEW ice had no adverse effects on sarcoplasmic proteins by SDS-PAGE method. And AEW ice displayed inhibitory activity (p<0.05) toward cathepsin B and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), although it did not present positive effects on inhibiting cathepsin D, acid phosphatase and lipase activity. Thus, this study brought new evidence to further demonstrate that AEW ice can serve as a promising technology for improving the quality of aquatic products in food industry. PMID:25624241

Wang, Meng; Wang, Jing Jing; Sun, Xiao Hong; Pan, Ying Jie; Zhao, Yong

2015-06-01

318

Ultraviolet irradiation and gradient temperature assisted autolysis for protein recovery from shrimp head waste.  

PubMed

A novel autolysis method using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and gradient temperature was investigated to efficiently recover proteins from the head of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. The proteolytic activity of shrimp head subjected to 30W UV irradiation for 20 min was increased by 62%, compared with that of untreated samples. After irradiation, the enzymes remained active across a wide range of temperatures (45-60°C) and pH (7-10). An orthogonal design was used to optimize autolysis condition. After 5h autolysis, protein recovery from the UV-heat treated samples was up to 92.1%. These results indicate the potential of using UV irradiation in combination with gradient temperatures to improve recovery of proteins from shrimp head waste. PMID:24996316

Cao, Wenhong; Tan, Caiyun; Zhan, Xiaojian; Li, Huiyi; Zhang, Chaohua

2014-12-01

319

Maladaptive sex ratio adjustment by a sex-changing shrimp in selective-fishing environments.  

PubMed

1. Selective harvesting is acknowledged as a serious concern in efforts to conserve wild animal populations. In fisheries, most studies have focused on gradual and directional changes in the life-history traits of target species. While such changes represent the ultimate response of harvested animals, it is also well known that the life history of target species plastically alters with harvesting. However, research on the adaptive significance of these types of condition-dependent changes has been limited. 2. We explored the adaptive significance of annual changes in the age at sex-change of the protandrous (male-first) hermaphroditic shrimp and examined how selective harvesting affects life-history variation, by conducting field observations across 13 years and a controlled laboratory experiment. In addition, we considered whether plastic responses by the shrimp would be favourable, negligible or negative with respect to the conservation of fishery resources. 3. The age at sex-change and the population structure of the shrimp fluctuated between years during the study period. The results of the field observations and laboratory experiment both indicated that the shrimp could plastically change the timing of sex-change in accordance with the age structure of the population. These findings provide the first concrete evidence of adult sex ratio adjustment by pandalid shrimp, a group that has been treated as a model in the sex allocation theory. 4. The sex ratio adjustment by the shrimp did not always seem to be sufficient, however, as the supplement of females is restricted by their annual somatic growth rate. In addition, adjusted sex ratios are further skewed by the unintentional female-selectivity of fishing activity prior to the breeding season, indicating that the occurrence of males that have postponed sex-change causes sex ratio adjustment to become unfavourable. 5. We conclude that the plastic responses of harvested animals in selective fishing environments must be considered in efforts to conserve wild animal resources, because such responses can become maladaptive. PMID:23163795

Chiba, Susumu; Yoshino, Kenji; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Kawajiri, Toshifumi; Goshima, Seiji

2013-05-01

320

Endogenous Molecules Induced by a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) Elicit Innate Immunity in Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Invertebrates rely on an innate immune system to combat invading pathogens. The system is initiated in the presence of cell wall components from microbes like lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ?-1,3-glucan (?G) and peptidoglycan (PG), altogether known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), via a recognition of pattern recognition protein (PRP) or receptor (PRR) through complicated reactions. We show herein that shrimp hemocytes incubated with LPS, ?G, and PG caused necrosis and released endogenous molecules (EMs), namely EM-L, EM-?, and EM-P, and found that shrimp hemocytes incubated with EM-L, EM-?, and EM-P caused changes in cell viability, degranulation and necrosis of hemocytes, and increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity and respiratory burst (RB) indicating activation of immunity in vitro. We found that shrimp receiving EM-L, EM-?, and EM-P had increases in hemocyte count and other immune parameters as well as higher phagocytic activity toward a Vibrio pathogen, and found that shrimp receiving EM-L had increases in proliferation cell ratio and mitotic index of hematopoietic tissues (HPTs). We identified proteins of EMs deduced from SDS-PAGE and LC-ESI-MS/MS analyses. EM-L and EM-P contained damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) including HMGBa, HMGBb, histone 2A (H2A), H2B, and H4, and other proteins including proPO, Rab 7 GPTase, and Rab 11 GPTase, which were not observed in controls (EM-C, hemocytes incubated in shrimp salt solution). We concluded that EMs induced by PAMPs contain DAMPs and other immune molecules, and they could elicit innate immunity in shrimp. Further research is needed to identify which individual molecule or combined molecules of EMs cause the results, and determine the mechanism of action in innate immunity. PMID:25517999

Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Kitikiew, Suwaree; Li, Hui-Fang; Bai, Jia-Chin; Tseng, Kuei-Chi; Lin, Bo-Wei; Liu, Po-Chun; Shi, Yin-Ze; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

2014-01-01

321

Histopathological and biochemical evidence of hepatopancreatic toxicity caused by cadmium in white shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common pollutants in the environment and induces a range of tissue changes or damages and organ dysfunction. The histopathological effects of Cd and lipid peroxidation (LPO) on hepatopancreas of the freshwater shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus, were studied. Shrimp were obtained from two lagoons with contrasting environmental quality, De los Padres (LP, impacted site) and Nahuel Rucá (NR, reference site), and were exposed to 3.06 and 12.24µgCdL(-1) for 3, 7, 10 and 15 days. The health status of both populations was also evaluated by histological analysis of control individuals. After exposure, shrimp were transferred to clean water for 28 days to evaluate the recuperation capacity of hepatopancreas. Control shrimp from NR exhibited a normal hepatopancreas structure; unlike control shrimp from LP which showed several alterations. These results were attributed to the different environmental quality of lagoons. The exposure to Cd resulted in several alterations in the histological structure of the hepatopancreas of both populations. The observed alterations included haemocytic and connective infiltrations in the intertubular space, erosioned microvilli, ripple of basal lamina, atrophied epithelium and necrosis, however, the latter was only observed in shrimp from LP. The exposure also caused an increase of LPO levels in both populations. P. argentinus was able to repair the hepatopancreas structure from the damage caused by Cd, evidenced by the histopathological results and LPO levels. Obtained results are indicating that the histological analysis of the hepatopancreas proved to be a highly sensitive method for evaluating water quality, in both environmental and laboratory conditions. PMID:25521337

Chiodi Boudet, L N; Polizzi, P; Romero, M B; Robles, A; Marcovecchio, J E; Gerpe, M S

2015-03-01

322

Molecular phylogeny and in situ detection of the etiologic agent of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in shrimp.  

PubMed

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a severe disease of farm-raised Penaeus vannamei that has been associated with mortality losses ranging from 20 to 95%. NHP was first recognized in Texas in 1985 (S. K. Johnson, p. 16, in Handbook of Shrimp Diseases, 1989) and is an economically important disease that has limited the ability to culture shrimp in Texas. The putative cause of NHP is a gram-negative, pleomorphic, intracellular, rickettsia-like bacterium that remains uncultured in part because of the absence of established shrimp cell lines. The inability to culture the NHP bacterium necessitated the use of molecular methods for phylogenetic placement of the NHP bacterium. The gene encoding the 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) of this shrimp pathogen was amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the cloned 16S rDNA indicates that the NHP bacterium is a member of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria. Within the alpha subclass, the NHP bacterium is shown to be most closely related to bacterial endosymbionts of protozoa, Caedibacter caryophila and Holospora obtusa. Also, the NHP bacterium is distinct from but related to members of the typhus group (Rickettsia typhi and R. prowazekii) and spotted fever group (R. rickettsii) of the family Rickettsiaceae. Fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide DNA probes that bind to variable regions (V2, V6, and V8) of 16S rRNA of the NHP bacterium were used to detect the bacterium in infected shrimp by in situ hybridization. This technique provided direct visual evidence that the 16S rDNA that was amplified, cloned, and sequenced was derived from the intracellular bacterium that infects the hepatopancreas of farm-raised P. vannamei shrimp. PMID:8795235

Loy, J K; Dewhirst, F E; Weber, W; Frelier, P F; Garbar, T L; Tasca, S I; Templeton, J W

1996-09-01

323

Acquisition of epibiotic bacteria along the life cycle of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

PubMed Central

The caridean shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the fauna at several Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites. This shrimp has an enlarged gill chamber, harboring a dense ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with mineral oxide deposits. Until now, their acquisition is not fully understood. At three hydrothermal vent sites, we analyzed the epibionts diversity at different moult stages and also in the first stages of the shrimp life (eggs, hatched eggs (with larvae) and juveniles). Hatched eggs associated with young larvae were collected for the first time directly from gravid females at the Logachev vent site during the Serpentine cruise. An approach using 16S rRNA clone libraries, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used. Molecular results and microscope observations indicated a switch in the composition of the bacterial community between early R. exoculata life cycle stage (egg libraries dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria) and later stages (juvenile/adult libraries dominated by the Epsilonproteobacteria). We hypothesized that the epibiotic phylotype composition could vary according to the life stage of the shrimp. Our results confirmed the occurrence of a symbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, but more complex than previously assumed. We revealed the presence of active type-I methanotrophic bacteria colonizing the cephalothorax of shrimps from the Rainbow site. They were also present on the eggs from the Logachev site. This could be the first ‘epibiotic' association between methanotrophic bacteria and hydrothermal vent crustacean. We discuss possible transmission pathways for epibionts linked to the shrimp life cycle. PMID:21993397

Guri, Mathieu; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valérie; Zbinden, Magali; Crassous, Philippe; Shillito, Bruce; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

2012-01-01

324

An Integrin from Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Mediated Microbial Agglutination and Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Background Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte migration, and complement receptor-dependent phagocytosis. In invertebrates, as a cell adhesion receptor, ? integrins play an important role for the balanced activation of immune defense responses especially during the encounter of infections. The present study attempts to characterize the immune functions of shrimp integrin (LvIntegrin) to have better understanding on the immune system and its regulation mechanisms in shrimps. Methodology A shrimp integrin was identified from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvIntegrin). Its full-length cDNA was of 2621 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2439 bp encoding a polypeptide of 812 amino acids. The mRNA expression of LvIntegrin was significantly up-regulated at 3, 6 and 12 h after Listonella anguillarum challenge. The cDNA fragment encoding ? integrin domains (?A and hybrid domain) of LvIntegrin was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS. The recombinant protein (rLvIntegrin) could significantly agglutinate the tested microbe including E. coli JM109, L. anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Candida dattiladattila in the presence of divalent cations. Moreover, when NIH3T3 cells were cultured with rLvIntegrin, the proliferation rate increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions LvIntegrin, a shrimp ? integrin was identified from L. vannamei, shared several highly conserved features. LvIntegrin exhibited broad-spectrum agglutination activity towards both bacteria and fungi and could improve the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, indicating that LvIntegrin is involved in the immune response against microbe challenge and regulation of cell proliferation as a cell adhesion receptor in shrimp. PMID:22792387

Zhang, Ying; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Wu, Ning; Zhou, Zhi; Song, Linsheng

2012-01-01

325

Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the distinct gene orders provide further evidences for the divergence between the two mud shrimp infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea, corroborating previous molecular phylogeny and justifying their infraordinal status. Mitochondrial genome sequences appear to be promising markers for resolving phylogenetic issues concerning decapod crustaceans that warrant further investigations and our present study has also provided further information concerning the mt genome evolution of the Decapoda. PMID:23153176

2012-01-01

326

Environmental Impact Assessment of Shrimp Culture Practice in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid unplanned expansion of coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh poses risks in degrading environment. The unsustainable aquaculture practices are suspected to impart significant nutrient load to the ecosystem. Nevertheless, shrimp production is very less and susceptible to sever mortality. For this, the study aimed to understand the management practices and nutrient flux from some represented shrimp ponds in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. A comprehensive study from 2002 to 2004 was done in an aquatic system comprising a river (Semi diurnal tidal system), a canal and 10 shrimp ponds along with wider area survey to verify the issues under a DFID-funded research project involving Nautilus Consultants Ltd. (UK). In the study area (Dumuria under the district Khulna) shrimp culture practices were mostly improved extensive. Shrimp were being produced without proper pond preparation, fry nursing, stocking or feed management due to lack of technical somehow and the risks involved with higher levels of investment. Consequently production rates were very low, averaging only 191 Kg/ha. Very high mortality of shrimp was reported in some of the farms using shallow ponds immediately after heavy rainfall. This may due to the sudden fluctuation of water pH and/or water temperature and salinity. The water quality in shrimp ponds during grow out period was in acceptable range except lower trend of DO and ammonia nitrogen. Year round water quality observations indicated that there were no major differences among the river, canal and pond water that might be due to the high water flushing rate (468%). The nutrient dynamics estimation indicates that 48.7 kg/ha/cycle of nitrogen and 28.96 kg/ha/cycle of phosphorus were added to the pond as an input mostly from fertilizer and feed. Among the inputs, only 33.4% of nitrogen and 6% of phosphorus were removed as harvested form. A large portion, 39.1% N and 92% P were remained in the sediments and unaccounted for. Average intake of nutrients through supply water was slightly higher than nutrient discharged through water outlet, which indicates a net retention of nutrients in the pond ecosystems. A large portion of this sediment nutrient eventually finds its routes into the wider aquatic system every year during pond preparation. Though the aquatic environment is able to accommodate the load from the present level of aquaculture practice, the assimilative power of aquatic environment is in danger of being degraded with the unplanned intensification of shrimp culture areas. In planning aquaculture and future development all the issues and impacts must be considered.

Islam, M. M.; Rouf, M. A.; Hambrey, J.

2008-12-01

327

The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

1996-06-01

328

Experimental studies on the bioaccumulation and bioavailability of colloidally-bound trace metals to penaeid shrimp  

E-print Network

; Furness and Rainbow 1990). ML -M2++L 2-+L 2 d d s 11 L 2-+ M2+ ~ Adsorption and Carrier Mediated Flux M2+ Ld2-+M2+ MLdo M2+ ~ Lipid Permeation MLI ~ Complex Permeation MtH20)62+ MtH2O)6 + ~ Ion Channel M2+ M2+ ' ~ Ion Pump M2+~. M2 M ++L ML... data are shown in Table 6; the Ksw value is related to the shrimp mass specific rate CF value for whole shrimp when equilibrium concentrations are achieved (Hamelink et al. 1994). 27 2400 2ppp 110mA 1600 1200 2000 203HS 1500 1000 500 300...

Carvalho, Roberta Anne

1996-01-01

329

Acute toxicity of Roundup and carbosulfan to the Thai fairy shrimp, Branchinella thailandensis.  

PubMed

The potential risk of herbicides and insecticides sprayed near pools to non-target fairy shrimp has not been assessed in Thailand. The acute toxicity of Roundup (isopropylamine salt 48% w/v) herbicide and carbosulfan (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl (dibutylaminothio) methylcabamate 20% w/v) insecticide were evaluated in 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours static bioassay using nauplii fairy shrimp, Branchinella thailandensis. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated after probit transformation of resulting data. Median 24 hours lethal concentrations were 0.319 and 0.702 ppm for Roundup and carbosulfan, respectively. PMID:23885411

Boonsoong, B; Bullangpoti, V

2012-01-01

330

Transformation of the matrix structure of shrimp shells during bacterial deproteination and demineralization  

PubMed Central

Background After cellulose and starch, chitin is the third-most abundant biopolymer on earth. Chitin or its deacetylated derivative chitosan is a valuable product with a number of applications. It is one of the main components of shrimp shells, a waste product of the fish industry. To obtain chitin from Penaeus monodon, wet and dried shrimp shells were deproteinated with two specifically enriched proteolytic cultures M1 and M2 and decalcified by in-situ lactic acid forming microorganisms. The viscosity of biologically processed chitin was compared with chemically processed chitin. The former was further investigated for purity, structure and elemental composition by several microscopic techniques and 13C solid state NMR spectroscopy. Results About 95% of the protein of wet shrimp shells was removed by proteolytic enrichment culture M2 in 68 h. Subsequent decalcification by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) took 48 h. Deproteination of the same amount of dried shrimps that contained a 3 × higher solid content by the same culture was a little bit faster and was finished after 140 h. The viscosity of chitin was in the order of chemically processed chitin > bioprocessed chitin > commercially available chitin. Results revealed changes in fine structure and chemical composition of the epi-, exo- and endocuticle of chitin from shrimp shells during microbial deproteination and demineralization. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) overlays and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis, it was found that most protein was present in the exocuticle, whereas most chitin was present in the endocuticle. The calcium content was higher in the endocuticle than in the exocuticle.13C solid state NMR spectra of different chitin confirmed?shrimp shell waste resulted in a chitin with high purity. Its viscosity was higher than that of commercially available chitin but lower than that of chemically prepared chitin in our lab. Nevertheless, the biologically processed chitin is a promising alternative for less viscous commercially available chitin. Highly viscous chitin could be generated by our chemical method. Comprehensive structural analyses revealed the distribution of the protein and Ca matrix within the shrimp shell cuticle which might be helpful in developing shrimp waste processing techniques. PMID:24093594

2013-01-01

331

[Influence of lecithotrofic feeding on growth and development of larvae of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii].  

PubMed

In the giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man), lecithotrofic feeding was discovered at the zoea I stage, and facultative lecithotrofic feeding was found at the zoea II stage. Cases of the completion of the first two stages without feeding were detected. However, a delay in feeding at the zoea II stage caused the inhibition of the growth and development of larvae. In this connection, we recommend to introduce food to the aquaculture of the giant freshwater shrimp on the end of the first day after hatching, when the first zoea II larvae emerge. PMID:21786650

Borisov, R R; Kriakhova, N V

2011-01-01

332

BAC end sequencing of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: a glimpse into the genome of Penaeid shrimp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the genome of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). To address this, we conducted BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequencing of L. vannamei. We selected and sequenced 7 812 BAC clones from the BAC library LvHE from the two ends of the inserts by Sanger sequencing. After trimming and quality filtering, 11 279 BAC end sequences (BESs) including 4 609 pairedends BESs were obtained. The total length of the BESs was 4 340 753 bp, representing 0.18% of the L. vannamei haploid genome. The lengths of the BESs ranged from 100 bp to 660 bp with an average length of 385 bp. Analysis of the BESs indicated that the L. vannamei genome is AT-rich and that the primary repeats patterns were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and low complexity sequences. Dinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were the most common SSR types in the BESs. The most abundant transposable element was gypsy, which may contribute to the generation of the large genome size of L. vannamei. We successfully annotated 4 519 BESs by BLAST searching, including genes involved in immunity and sex determination. Our results provide an important resource for functional gene studies, map construction and integration, and complete genome assembly for this species.

Zhao, Cui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Chengzhang; Huan, Pin; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai; Huang, Chao

2012-05-01

333

Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Epidemics of epizootics and occurrence of multiresistant antibiotics of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture have put forward a development of effective probiotics for the sustainable culture. This study examined the effectiveness of forms of mixed Bacillus probiotics (probiotic A and probiotic B) and mode of probiotic administration on growth, bacterial numbers and water quality during rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in two separated experiments: (1) larval stages and (2) postlarval (PL) stages. Forms of Bacillus probiotics and modes of probiotic administration did not affect growth and survival of larval to PL shrimp. The compositions of Bacillus species in probiotic A and probiotic B did not affect growth and survival of larvae. However, postlarvae treated with probiotic B exhibited higher (P<0.05) growth than probiotic A and controls, indicating Bacillus probiotic composition affects the growth of PL shrimp. Total heterotrophic bacteria and Bacillus numbers in larval and PL shrimp or culture water of the treated groups were higher (P<0.05) than in controls. Levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of the treated shrimp were significantly decreased, compared to the controls. Microencapsulated Bacillus probiotic was effective for rearing of PL L. vannamei. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of PL shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp and culture water and enhanced water quality for the levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of culture water. PMID:22595137

Nimrat, Subuntith; Suksawat, Sunisa; Boonthai, Traimat; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

2012-10-12

334

Geographical distribution of pelagic decapod shrimp in the Atlantic Ocean.  

PubMed

Ninety-one species of pelagic decapod shrimp were identified in 938 midwater-trawl collections taken between 1963 and 1974 from the North and South Atlantic. Distributional maps are provided for the most frequently occurring species. Nighttime abundance of most species was greatest within the upper 200 m. Degree of geographical overlap was estimated using the geometric mean of the proportion of joint occurrences with a value ? 0.5 deemed significant. Geographical distributions tended to be unique, and only 31 species had values ? 0.5 with one or more other species. Species within genera and within phylogenetic subgroups of Sergia were generally parapatric or partially overlapping in distribution. Five geographical groupings of co-occurring species across genera were identified: Subpolar-Temperate, Southern Hemisphere, Central, Tropical, Eastern Tropical and Western Tropical. The two species of the Southern Hemisphere group are circumpolar at temperate latitudes. The 12 species of the Central group occurred throughout the subtropical and tropical North and South Atlantic. The eight species of the Tropical group occurred broadly across the equatorial Atlantic and Caribbean with ranges usually extending into the Gulf of Mexico and northward in the Gulf Stream. The two species of the Western Tropical group occurred most often in the western tropics, but there were scattered occurrences at subtropical latitudes. The four species of the Eastern Tropical group were endemic to the Mauritanian Upwelling and the Angola-Benguela Frontal zones off western Africa. Two of the three species in the Subpolar-Temperate group had bipolar distributions, and all three occurred in the Mediterranean and in the Mauritanian Upwelling zone. Most Central, Tropical and Western Tropical species were present in the in the Gulf of Mexico. The 10 species from the Mediterranean were a mixture of Subpolar-Temperate, Central and benthopelagic species. Patterns of distribution in Atlantic pelagic decapods closely parallel those of other pelagic taxa, but myctophid fishes from the same collections appear to partition subtropical regions more finely. PMID:25543573

Judkins, David C

2014-01-01

335

The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions  

PubMed Central

The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to “perceive” forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of Artemia for the well-being of human populations. PMID:22737126

Gajardo, Gonzalo M.; Beardmore, John A.

2012-01-01

336

Cloning of profilin (FcPFN) from the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis , a highly expressed protein in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated and characterized the profilin (FcPFN) cDNA from hemocytes ofFenneropenaeus chinensis, a unique shrimp species from the Yellow Sea. The FcPFN cDNA consists of 830 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 125 amino acids,\\u000a having a predicted isoelectric point of 5.06. The deduced amino acid sequence of FcPFN shows 36% and 90% amino acid sequence\\u000a identity to the profilin

H. J. Kong; G. E. Hong; H. K. Cho; B. H. Nam; Y. O. Kim; W. J. Kim; S. J. Lee; K. K. Kim

2009-01-01

337

Comparative morphological studies on four populations of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four populations (a total of 677 specimens) of the hydrothermal shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata from three Mid-Atlantic Ridge vent fields were studied: Broken Spur (29°N), TAG (26°N), and "14-45" (14°N). Five morphological characters were analysed: number of dorsolateral spines on telson, telative carapace width, relative abdominal length, presence of "abnormal telson", and fat content. Dependences of each character upon shrimp size were analysed. Division of the shrimp ontogenesis on the basis of general morphology is proposed. Phenotypic analysis based upon five selected characters revealed statistically significant divergence between two populations within the same vent field TAG. Probable causes of observed divergence are discussed.

Vereshchaka, A. L.

1997-11-01

338

Organization and promoter analysis of a tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon single WAP domain-containing protein gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main function of the single whey acidic protein domain (SWD)-containing protein in shrimp is unknown. To elucidate the\\u000a function of the SWD-containing protein in vivo, the SWD-containing protein gene was isolated and characterized. A 9.3-kb shrimp SWD-containing protein gene, and a 3.9-kb\\u000a 3?-flanking region. The shrimp SWD-containing protein gene contained three exons and two introns. Different fragments of the

Jyh Yih Chen; Chen Jian Chyi; Lin Sheng Hwa; Pan Chia Yu; Kuo Ching Ming

2006-01-01

339

EFFECTS OF AERIAL THERMAL FOG APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON CAGED PINK SHRIMP, MYSIDS AND SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mosquito control applications of fenthion by aerial thermal fog equipment were studied at two sites in Collier County, FL, for sprays that occurred on 20 and 23 June 1984. Acute, lethal effects of fenthion deposited in these estuarine habitats were assessed for caged pink shrimp ...

340

Phylogeography and local endemism of the native Mediterranean brine shrimp Artemia salina (Branchiopoda: Anostraca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent appreciation of the ecological impacts of zooplanktonic species invasions. The North American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is one such alien invader in hyper-saline water ecosystems at a global scale. It has been shown to outcompete native Artemia species, leading to their local extinction. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1

JOAQUÍN MUÑOZ; AFRICA GÓMEZ; ANDY J. GREEN; JORDI FIGUEROLA; FRANCISCO AMAT; CIRO RICO

2008-01-01

341

MINUTES OF THE STAKEHOLDER MEETINGS ON THE REPORT OF THE JSA SHRIMP VIRUS WORK GROUP  

EPA Science Inventory

Minutes of the Stakeholder Meetings on the Report of the JSA Shrimp Virus Work Group - Availability September 1997 (EPA/600/R-97/136) This document is comprised of five pieces as follows: Minutes of the Stakeholder Meetings on the Report o...

342

NONINDIGENOUS PATHOGENIC SHRIMP VIRUS INTRODUCTIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES: DEVELOPING A QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Nonindigenous Pathogenic Shrimp Virus Introductions into the United States: Developing a Qualitative Ecological Risk Assessment. Austin, R.K.; van der Schalie, W.R.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC; Menzie, C.; Menzie-Cura and Associates, Chelmsford, MA; Fair...

343

Evaluating a quantitative methionine requirement for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 10-wk feeding trial was conducted as a third study (all conducted in our laboratory) to determine a quantitative requirement of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei for sulfur amino acid methionine. Juvenile shrimp (mean weight 0.61 +/- 0.13 g) were reared in 110-L aquaria in a seawater recirculating sy...

344

A trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene from Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis.  

PubMed

Trehalose is an important disaccharide and plays a key role in many organisms under different stress conditions. In the study, a gene (FcTPS) encoded trehalose-6-phosphate synthase was reported from Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The full-length cDNA of FcTPS is 3,281 bp including a poly A-tail of 20 bp, encoding a putative protein of 844 amino acids. The predicted protein contains a glycol_transf_20 domain and a trehalose_PPase domain. Genomic structure of FcTPS is composed of three exons with 192, 157 and 2,912 bp and two introns with 1,057 and 568 bp. In the second intron, four different SSRs are found. Transcripts of FcTPS gene are constitutively expressed in various tissues, with strongest level in hepatopancreas. After the shrimp were challenged with WSSV or Vibrio and the expression of FcTPS in hepatopancreas were analyzed using real-time PCR, the result showed that FcTPS transcript was down-regulated significantly in response to the challenge of Vibro at the early of 5 h post-challenge and then up-regulated significantly at 14 h. In addition, the expression of FcTPS showed the same result after the shrimp were challenged with WSSV. These results provide some new information about the tissue distribution, expression profiles and potential function of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase in shrimp. PMID:23053931

Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Jing; Li, Fuhua; Sun, Yuying; Yang, Changjian; Xiang, Jianhai

2012-12-01

345

SHRIMP zircon dating and Sm\\/Nd isotopic investigations of Neoproterozoic granitoids, Eastern Desert, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing evidence for the involvement of pre-Neoproterozoic zircons in the Arabian–Nubian Shield, a Neoproterozoic crustal tract that is generally regarded to be juvenile. The source and significance of these xenocrystic zircons are not clear. In an effort to better understand this problem, older and younger granitoids from the Egyptian basement complex were analyzed for chemical composition, SHRIMP

Ewais M. M. Moussa; Robert J. Stern; William I. Manton; Kamal A. Ali

2008-01-01

346

Maintenance of androdioecy in the freshwater shrimp Eulimnadia texana: sexual encounter rates and outcrossing success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clam shrimp Eulimnadia texana has a rare mating system known as androdioecy, in which males and hermaphrodites cooccur but there are no pure females. In this species, reproduction takes place by outcrossing between males and hermaphrodites, or by selfing within a hermaphrodite; this system provides a unique opportunity to examine the adaptive significance of out-crossing and selfing in animals.

Vicky G. Hollenbeck; William R. Gould; Naida Zuckera

2002-01-01

347

An Economic Analysis of Texas Shrimp Season Closures WADE GRIFFIN, HOLLY HENDRICKSON, CHRIS OLIVER, GARY MATLOCK,  

E-print Network

An Economic Analysis of Texas Shrimp Season Closures WADE GRIFFIN, HOLLY HENDRICKSON, CHRIS OLIVER to the Gulf ofMexico. In 1981 the closure was extended to 200 miles to include the U.S. Exclusive Economic, and economic rent attributable to the Texas closure. Four additional analyses were conducted to esti mate

348

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF GRASS SHRIMP,  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF GRASS SHRIMP, PALAEMONETES VULGARIS in the laboratory in a factorial experiment employing three temperatures (20°,25°, and 30°C) and six salinities (5,10,15,20,25, and 30%.). Temperature and salinity exerted significant effects at the 1% level on sur- vival of larvae

349

Culturable fungal diversity of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone from breeding farms in brazil.  

PubMed

Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers. PMID:24031604

Cruz da Silva, Lidiane Roberta; Camilo de Souza, Odacy; Dos Santos Fernandes, Maria José; Massa Lima, Débora Maria; Rodrigues Coelho, Rosalie Reed; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria

2011-01-01

350

TROPHIC ACCUMULATION AND DEPURATION OF MERCURY BY BLUE CRABS (CALLINECTES SAPIDUS) AND PINK SHRIMP (PENAEUS DUORARUM).  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury concentrations in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) collected from an area of mercury-contaminated sediments in Lavaca Bay, TX, USA, are more than an order of magnitude greater than concentrations in penaeid shrimp from the same area. Laboratory feeding experiments using ...

351

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

352

The By-catch From the Artisanal Shrimp Trawl Fishery, Gulf of Paria, Trinidad  

E-print Network

The By-catch From the Artisanal Shrimp Trawl Fishery, Gulf of Paria, Trinidad VISHWANIE MAHARAJ in the GulfofParia, Trinidad. From August 1986 to May 1987, 34 late evening-early morning trawl trips were made, Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881. In Trinidad, the artisanal

353

Evolution of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda, Malacostraca) in the light of new Mesozoic fossils  

PubMed Central

Background We describe new specimens of Mesozoic mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda, Malacostraca) that exhibit morphological and developmental information previously unknown. Results Specimens assigned to the taxon Sculda exhibit preserved pleopods, thoracopods including all four raptorial limbs as well as details of antennae and antennulae. The pleopods and the antennulae resemble those of the modern mantis shrimps, but the raptorial limbs are not as differentiated as in the modern species. In some specimens, the first raptorial limb (second thoracopod) is not significantly larger than the similar-sized posterior three pairs (as in extant species), but instead these appendages become progressively smaller along the series. In this respect they resemble certain Palaeozoic stomatopods. Another specimen, most likely belonging to another species, has one pair of large anterior raptorial thoracopods, a median-sized pair and two more pairs of small-sized raptorial appendages and, thus, shows a new, previously unknown type of morphology. A single specimen of Pseudosculda laevis also exhibits the size of the raptorial limbs; they are differentiated as in modern species, one large pair and three small pairs. Furthermore, we report additional larval specimens and show also post-larval changes, e.g., of the tail fan. Conclusions These new data are used to reconsider the phylogeny of Stomatopoda. We still need a strict taxonomical revision of the Mesozoic mantis shrimps, but this first examination already demonstrates the importance of these fossils for understanding mantis shrimp evolution and the interpretation of evolutionary pathways of particular features. PMID:20858249

2010-01-01

354

Effects of feeding and predator exposure on photoresponses during diel vertical migration of brine shrimp larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of f&ding-starvation and exposure to a planktivorous fish (Atlantic menhaden larvae) on photoresponses involved in nocturnal diel vertical migration (DVM) of brine shrimp (Artemia) naupliar larvae were measured in a laboratory system that mimics the distribution of underwater angular light. Exposure to predators activated photoresponses involved in the descent response to an increase in light intensity (as at sunrise)

RICHARD B. FORWARD; WILLIAM F. HETTLER

1992-01-01

355

Biochemical responses during starvation and subsequent recovery in postlarval Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postlarval shrimp, Penaeus vannamei Boone, 1931, were held individually in cages and exposed to two feeding regimes. One group was starved for 12 d and then fed during the following 12 d. A second group was fed throughout the 24 d study. Four individuals were sampled from each of the two groups on Days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12,

K. C. Stuck; S. A. Watts; S. Y. Wang

1996-01-01

356

Differences in Prey Capture in Grass Shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, Collected Along an Environmental Impact Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waterways and associated salt marshes along the western border of Staten Island, New York (Arthur Kill) have long been under environmental duress. Environmental threats include industrial and municipal discharges, oil spills, and possible leachate from landfills. These impacts are compounded due to the low flushing of this body of water. Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, inhabiting the Arthur Kill are,

M. H. Perez; W. G. Wallace

2004-01-01

357

Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000

A. R. Syahmi; S. Vijayarathna; S. Sasidharan; L. Y. Latha; Y. P. Kwan; Y. L. Lau; L. N. Shin; Y. Chen

2010-01-01

358

A new nodavirus is associated with covert mortality disease of shrimp.  

PubMed

A new nodavirus, named covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV), is associated with covert mortality disease of shrimp which has caused serious loss in China since 2009. Histopathological examination of shrimp suffering the disease revealed coagulative necrosis of striated muscle similar to typical histopathology features of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). However, shrimp suffering this disease tested negative for IMNV, MrNV and PvNV by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Additionally, eosinophilic inclusions were found in epithelium of the tubules in the hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ, and mass karyopyknotic nuclei existed in the muscle and lymphoid organ. The tubular epithelium of the hepatopancreas showed significant atrophy. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA of infected shrimp. Sequencing and alignment analysis showed that one clone with an 1185 bp insert (designated CMNV-7) shared 54?, 53? and 39?% identity with the amino acid sequences of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Flock House virus, black beetle virus and MrNV. The results of fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the hepatopancreas, striated muscle and lymphoid organ were positively reacting tissues. The mean size of negative-stained virus particles was 32 nm. In addition, a nested RT-PCR assay was developed for CMNV, and the RT-PCR detection results revealed that Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Litopenaeus vannamei and Marsupenaeus japonicus suffering from this disease were CMNV-positive. PMID:25205685

Zhang, Qingli; Liu, Qun; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Haolin; Liu, Sun; Zhu, Luoluo; Yang, Bing; Jin, Jiting; Ding, Lixue; Wang, Xiuhua; Liang, Yan; Wang, Qintao; Huang, Jie

2014-12-01

359

Optimization of bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR against shrimp bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Aquaculture is one amongst the growing and major food producing sectors. Shrimp culture is one of the subsectors of aquaculture that attracts more attention because of the economic interest. However, the shrimp culture systems have been facing severe consequences and economical losses due to disease outbreaks. Risk of disease outbreak can be combated with the application of probiotics. For economically viable production of such probiotic products, the present study provides information on the optimization and partial purification of bacteriocin produced by a goat milk isolate Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR against the shrimp bacterial pathogens. Results Bacteriocin production was estimated as a measure of bactericidal activity (arbitrary Unit/ml) over the test strains. The optimum culture conditions and media components for maximum bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR were: pH: 5.0, temperature: 30°C, carbon source: lactose; nitrogen source: ammonium acetate; NaCl: 3.0% and surfactant: Tween 80. MRS medium was found to extend better bacteriocin production than other tested media. Upon partial purification of bacteriocin, the SDS-PAGE analysis had manifested the presence of two peptide bands with the molecular weight of 39.26 and 6.38 kDa, respectively. Conclusion The present results provide baseline trend for the statistical optimization, scale up process and efficient production of bacteriocin by the candidate bacterial strain Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR which could be used to replace the usage of conventional chemotherapeutics in shrimp culture systems. PMID:23725298

2013-01-01

360

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED REFRIGERATED  

E-print Network

and in ice for 11.5 days. Chemical tests for spoilage indicated that shrimp held in carbon dioxide modified, yield, solids, carotenoids, protein, salt, and pH are given. When expressed on a constant basis (salt Service, NOAA. 73 #12;tubes in the heat exchanger were made of titanium to avoid corrosion. Carbon dioxide

361

Guianas-Brazil Shrimp Fishery and Related U.S. Research Activity  

E-print Network

Guianas-Brazil Shrimp Fishery and Related U.S. Research Activity Alexander Dragovich-free fishery began to crumble in 1970, as Brazil declared a 200-mile economic zone. To fish in Brazilian waters in the series of 2- and I-year agreements was signed on 9 May 1972 between the United States and Brazil

362

Physiological mechanisms in the control of bioluminescent countershading in a midwater shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the oceanic midwater environment, most animals have evolved an extraordinary anti?predation behavior using bioluminescent countershading (counterillumination) to help them remain cryptic to visual predators. For the midwater penaeid shrimp, Sergestes similis, the interaction of both hormonal and neural systems may be involved in the control of counterillumination. S. similis responds to downward?directed illumination, detected by the eyes, with light

Michael I. Latz

1995-01-01

363

Impact of Exposure to Bacteria on Metabolism in the Penaeid Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

E-print Network

Impact of Exposure to Bacteria on Metabolism in the Penaeid Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei DAVID A Carolina 29412 Abstract. We hypothesized that aggregation of bacteria and hemocytes at the gill, which was determined during the first 4 h after injection and after 24 h. Injection of bacteria decreased oxygen uptake

Burnett, Louis E.

364

The use of live shrimp for bait in recreational fishing has resulted in  

E-print Network

-bait shrimp trawling on seagrass beds and fish bycatch in Tampa Bay, Florida David L. Meyer Mark S. Fonseca that of Tampa Bay, are typically short, 5­20 and 2­ 15 min, respectively, to reduce debris collection and both following cap- ture by a trawl. Methods Sampling was done in August and November 1990 in Tampa Bay, Florida

365

A Review of Grass Shrimp, Palaemonetes spp., as a Bioindicator of Anthropogenic Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal systems are ecologically important environments due to their diversity and productivity, but they can also serve as sinks for pollutants transported via runoff and atmospheric deposition. Grass shrimp, of the genus Palaemonetes, are a common inhabitant of East and Gulf coast estuaries of the United States and are proposed in this paper as a bioindicator of human impacts on

Peter B. Key; Edward F. Wirth; Michael H. Fulton

2006-01-01

366

One type of VEGFR is involved in WSSV infection to the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

VEGF signaling pathway plays vital roles in many physiological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, cell-cell communication, vessel permeability and virus-host interaction in mammalian species. However, the VEGF signaling pathway and its biological function are still poorly understood in crustaceans. In the present study, an essential member of VEGF signaling pathway, VEGF receptor (LvVEGFR), was isolated from Penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its function during virus infection was analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvVEGFR possessed all common features of VEGFRs reported in other species, including a signal peptide, six IG-like domains, one immunoglobulin subtype 2 domain, a transmembrane domain, a juxtamembrane domain, a protein kinase domain separated by a kinase insert sequence, one ATP binding site and one tyrosine-protein kinase active site. LvVEGFR is mainly expressed in hemocytes and intestine. The transcriptional level of LvVEGFR could be obviously up-regulated in hemocytes and intestine after WSSV infection. Silencing of LvVEGFR gene by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) interference could not only lead to a decrease of virus copy number in WSSV infected shrimp, but also reduce the mortality of shrimp during WSSV infection. These data suggested that VEGF signaling pathway might play an important role during viral infection to shrimp. PMID:25576099

Li, Shihao; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2015-05-01

367

Mercury content and their risk assessment in farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from NW Mexico.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the total mercury content in hepatopancreas and edible muscle of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultured along the NW coast of Mexico, and to evaluate the potential human health risk due to their consumption. Samples were obtained between May and June 2010 in 26 shrimp farms from the three most important shrimp-producing states of NW Mexico, and total Hg was analyzed after reduction with SnCl2 in a mercury analyzer. The ranges of Hg concentrations of the hepatopancreas were 0.101±0.03-0.184±0.13?gg(-1) in Sonora, 0.077±0.055-0.813±0.363?gg(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.139±0.037-0.791±0.33?gg(-1) in Nayarit. In the muscle, values were from 0.078±0.02 to 0.539±0.09?gg(-1) in Sonora, 0.154±0.03-0.861±0.423?gg(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.121±0.041-1.48±0.44?gg(-1) in Nayarit. Considering the concentrations of Hg in the muscle and the national consumption rate, shrimp farmed in NW Mexico does not represent a risk for human health (HQ<1). PMID:25303662

Delgado-Alvarez, C G; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Osuna-López, J I; Voltolina, D; Frías-Espericueta, M G

2015-01-01

368

Culturable fungal diversity of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone from breeding farms in brazil  

PubMed Central

Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers. PMID:24031604

Cruz da Silva, Lidiane Roberta; Camilo de Souza, Odacy; dos Santos Fernandes, Maria José; Massa Lima, Débora Maria; Rodrigues Coelho, Rosalie Reed; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria

2011-01-01

369

In vitro gastric and intestinal digestions of pulsed light-treated shrimp extracts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel technology most commonly used for microbial inactivation, has recently been employed to effectively mitigate food allergens in peanuts, soybean, shrimp, and almond. Putative mechanisms for the efficacy of PUV in reducing allergen reactivity, include photother...

370

Relationship between land use classification and grass shrimp Palaemonetes spp. population metrics in coastal watersheds.  

PubMed

Estuaries in the southeastern USA have experienced increased loading of contaminants from nonpoint source runoff as well as changes in habitat (e.g., loss of wetlands) due to urbanization. These changes may pose significant risks to estuarine fauna, including crustaceans. Several studies have shown relationships between land use classification and levels of stress in estuarine populations. The grass shrimp of the genus Palaemonetes is one of the dominant species found in estuarine tidal creeks, accounting for more than 50 % of all macropelagic fauna. Grass shrimp populations were sampled monthly for 3 years at six estuarine creeks on Kiawah Island, SC. Creek watersheds were estimated using National Aerial Photograph Program color infrared and low-altitude true color aerial photography combined with in situ differentially corrected global positioning system mapping of engineered features. Land classifications delineated included water, marsh, buildings, roads, and lawns. Pairwise comparisons for grass shrimp densities among sites showed significant differences on an annual and seasonal basis. Significant relationships (p < 0.05) between land class variables and grass shrimp density were identified both annually and seasonally. These findings suggest an influence of land use on Palaemonetes spp. populations. PMID:24464399

Daugomah, James W; Key, P B; West, J B; Shea, N R; McDaniel, S; Pennington, P L; Fulton, M H

2014-06-01

371

Geological Society of America SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology of the anorthosite-mangerite-  

E-print Network

Geological Society of America Memoir 197 2004 SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology of the anorthosite to the anorthosite-mangerite- charnockite-granite (AMCG) suite of the Adirondack Mountains are consistent with prior of the suite. This result differs from recent assertions that Adirondack anorthosites were emplaced at ca. 1050

Soja, Constance M.

372

Farm level and geographic predictors of antibiotic use in Sri Lankan shrimp farms.  

PubMed

Black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon farming is important for Sri Lanka's rural development plans. Consumer confidence is critical for the development and maintenance of export and domestic shrimp markets. Public concern about the use of antimicrobial drugs and chemicals on shrimp farms, however, could threaten market access. We sought to identify high-risk areas and farm-level risk factors for antimicrobial use to inform the core messages and strategic placement of extension programs to help farmers develop best management practices for antimicrobial use. We undertook a survey of 603 operating farms within the Puttalam district over 42 weeks. Lower stocking density and early harvest were associated with a lower risk of antimicrobial use, whereas standard management practices, including water treatment, feed supplements, probiotic use, pond fertilizing, disinfectant use, and pesticide use, were associated with increased risk. Spatial cluster detection found three significant clusters of antimicrobial-using farms. Antimicrobials were more likely to be used in areas with lower farm density. Some of our counterintuitive findings are discussed from a socioecological perspective. A comprehensive understanding of why antimicrobials are used on shrimp farms requires an evaluation of the physical, epidemiological, and socioeconomic factors. PMID:22779210

Munasinghe, Nalaka; Stephen, Craig; Robertson, Colin; Abeynayake, Preeni

2012-03-01

373

DIET OF PACIFIC COD, GADUS MACROCEPHALUS, AND PREDATION ON THE NORTHERN PINK SHRIMp,  

E-print Network

DIET OF PACIFIC COD, GADUS MACROCEPHALUS, AND PREDATION ON THE NORTHERN PINK SHRIMp, PANDALUS BOREALIS, IN PAVLOF BAY, ALASKA W. D. ALBERS AND P. J. ANDERSON! ABSTRACf Analysis of 455 Pacific cod more frequently with increasing cod size (30-69 cm fork length). Euphausids decreased in frequency

374

Old and Unreported Collections of Alpheid Shrimp from the Zoologisches Museum, Berlin, Principally from Melanesia 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously unstudied collections of 70 species of alpheid shrimp held by the Zoologisches Museum (East Berlin) are reported upon. Except for four species from the west coast of the Americas, all specimens were from the Indo-Pacific faunal realm, and principally came from the area of the Pacific south ofthe equatorand west ofthe International Date Line known as Melanesia (exclusive of

ALBERT H. BANNER; DORA M. BANNER

375

Application of the microsatellite technique for analyzing genetic diversity in shrimp breeding programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microsatellite technique was employed to demonstrate the use of genetic markers as a genetic analysis tool to manage breeding programs of cultured species. This technique was used on a total of 312 P. vannamei shrimp from Population 1 (Sinaloa, Mexico), Population 2 (Ecuador), Population 3 (hybrid of Population 1 X Population 2), Population 4 (Oaxaca, Mexico), a Guatemalan stock,

Greg M. Wolfus; Denise K. Garcia; Acacia Alcivar-Warren

1997-01-01

376

Selenium Biotransformations in an Engineered Aquatic Ecosystem for Bioremediation of Agricultural Wastewater via Brine Shrimp  

E-print Network

occurring trace element mainly found in soils derived from marine sediments, including Cretaceous shale, or elemental Se) or partially incorporated into organic Se mainly as selenomethionine. Brine shrimp and brine that more than a billion people worldwide ingest insufficient amounts of Se in their diet (less than 10 g Se

377

The effect of cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation on the survival of Salmonella on frozen shrimp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unfortunately, contraction of foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood, including shrimp, is an occasional occurrence. Cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation are safe and effective technologies that can be used to control and inactivate pathogenic bacteria in foods. In this stu...

378

Genetic mapping of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon with amplified fragment length polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report construction of an initial genetic linkage map for the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Mapping was carried out using polymorphic markers derived from 23 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) primer pairs. These were analysed on three reference families of known pedigree. A total of 673 polymorphic AFLP loci that conformed to expected Mendelian segregation ratios were scored in

Kate Wilson; Yutao Li; Vicki Whan; Sigrid Lehnert; Keren Byrne; Stephen Moore; Siriporn Pongsomboon; Anchalee Tassanakajon; George Rosenberg; Elizabeth Ballment; Zahra Fayazi; Jennifer Swan; Matthew Kenway; John Benzie

2002-01-01

379

Identification of Immune-Related Genes in Hemocytes of Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expressed sequence tag (EST) library was constructed from hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to identify genes associated with immunity in this economically important species. The number of complementary DNA clones in the constructed library was approximately 4 2 105. Of these, 615 clones having inserts larger than 500 bp were unidirectionally sequenced and analyzed by homology

Premruethai Supungul; Sirawut Klinbunga; Rath Pichyangkura; Sarawut Jitrapakdee; Ikuo Hirono; Takashi Aoki; Anchalee Tassanakajon

2002-01-01

380

SELECTION OF VEGETATED HABITAT BY BROWN SHRIMp, PENAEUS AZTECUS, IN A GALVESTON BAY SALT MARSH  

E-print Network

SELECTION OF VEGETATED HABITAT BY BROWN SHRIMp, PENAEUS AZTECUS, IN A GALVESTON BAY SALT MARSH Ro. Penaeu8 aztecu8. in vegetated and nonvegetated habitats ofa Galveston West Bay salt marsh were compared and less apparent attraction to vegetation in the outer bayside part ofthe marsh to that ofhighest numbers

381

A Comparison of Salt Marsh Construction Costs with the Value of Exported Shrimp Production  

E-print Network

ARTICLE A Comparison of Salt Marsh Construction Costs with the Value of Exported Shrimp Production to coastal salt marshes. Continuing wetland loss in Galveston Bay, Texas (USA) has led to the development of various salt marsh restoration projects. These constructed wetlands often attempt to mimic natural marsh

382

The Potential Use of Electricity to Control Burrowing Shrimp in Oyster Aquaculture Beds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thalassinid shrimp cause significant problems for oyster aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest (USA) where oysters succumb to the physical disruption of the sediment by the burrowing activity of these animals. While electrofishing is a commonly used technique to capture fish and some invertebrates i...

383

SHRIMP dating of titanite from metasyenites in the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SHRIMP dating of titanite from metasyenites in the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt yields a mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 2010.3 ±4.5 Ma calculated from 23 analyses. This age, combined with petrographic and field observations, suggests the metamorphism in the syenites occurred during Palaeoproterozoic event.

Rigby, M. J.; Armstrong, R. A.

2011-01-01

384

FORAGING ECOLOGY OF SEABIRDS IN RELATION TO COMMERCIAL SHRIMP TRAWLER ACTIVITY  

E-print Network

where populations of two common seabirds, brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) and royal terns species to species. Brown pelicans consumed more discards than predicted based on their frequency while as well as brown pelicans forage at trawlers frequently enough that changes in the size of the shrimp

Jodice, Patrick

385

Integrated treatment of shrimp effluent by sedimentation, oyster filtration and macroalgal absorption: a laboratory scale study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent water from shrimp ponds typically contains elevated concentrations of dissolved nutrients and suspended particulates compared to influent water. Attempts to improve effluent water quality using filter feeding bivalves and macroalgae to reduce nutrients have previously been hampered by the high concentration of clay particles typically found in untreated pond effluent. These particles inhibit feeding in bivalves and reduce photosynthesis

A. B. Jones; W. C. Dennison; N. P. Preston

2001-01-01

386

Fisheries biology, ecology and recreational harvesting of ghost shrimp (trypaea australiensis) in south-eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burrowing ghost shrimp, Trypaea australiensis Dana 1852, are a popular bait organism harvested from estuarine intertidal sediments in eastern Australia by recreational and commercial fishers. Previous investigations concerning the biology and ecology of this species have been limited in this region, particularly for south-eastern Australia. Despite considerable public concern about the species, catches of T. australiensis are largely unregulated, at

Douglas Rotherham

2004-01-01

387

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Vibrio Harveyi Isolated from Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus Monodon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a total of 30 luminous bacteria were successfully isolated from the hepatopancreas of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Kedah, Terengganu and Johore. Based on the Baumann and Schubert (12) scheme, all isolates were identified as V. harveyi. Thirty biochemical and physiological tests were carried out to reveal the similarity and differentiatial phenotypes among the isolates. Although

Najiah Musa; Lee Seong Wei; Wendy Wee

2008-01-01

388

Are midwater shrimp trapped in the craters of submarine volcanoes by hydrothermal venting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology of Kick’em Jenny (KEJ) submarine volcano, part of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc and located off the coast of Grenada in the Caribbean Sea, was studied during a cruise in 2003. Hydrothermal venting and an associated biological assemblage were discovered in the volcanic crater (?250m depth). Warm water with bubbling gas emanated through rock fissures and sediments. Shrimp

Karen F. Wishner; Jason R. Graff; Joel W. Martin; S. Carey; H. Sigurdsson; B. A. Seibel

2005-01-01

389

ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

390

77 FR 12801 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results, Partial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...determines that the respondents in this review did not make sales in the United States at prices...to submit statements certifying that they did not enter, export or sell subject merchandise...review only covers suspended entries that did not include dusted shrimp, but cash...

2012-03-02

391

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE BIOLOGY OF THE ROYAL RED SHRIMP, Hymenopenaeus robustus SMITH'  

E-print Network

on total length. Spawning probably occurs throughout the year, but the peak is between January and May. Year classes are evident in the length distributions. Recruitment on the fishing grounds begins when the shrimp are approaching 1 year of age and are less than 100 mm total length. They reach maturity at about

392

A new snapping shrimp (Crustacea Decapoda, Alpheidae, Alpheus) from the estuarine mudflats of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new snapping shrimp, Alpheus lutosus spec. nov., is described from the intertidal mudflats of Bubiyan Island, northern Kuwait, south of the vast Shatt-Al-Arab delta. The new species appears to be closely related to Alpheus hoplocheles Coutière, 1897 from similar estuarine habitats in China and Japan, differing mainly in the absence of a sharp distolateral tooth on the palm of

A. Anker; Grave De S

2009-01-01

393

Effect of initial glucose concentration and inoculation level of lactic acid bacteria in shrimp waste ensilation.  

PubMed

Fermentation conditions and microorganisms were determined, based on acid production, glucose concentration as carbohydrate source. Inoculation levels to obtain a stable shrimp waste silage were also determined. Shrimp waste ensilation was an efficient method of preservation, allowing the recovery of chitin and another added-value products such as pigments, proteins and enzymes. From the various lactic acid bacteria tested, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus sp. (B2) were the best lactic acid producers, although small quantities of acetic acid were detected in samples inoculated with Lactobacillus pentosus. Therefore B2 was chosen for the analysis of glucose consumption as well as for the determination of optimum inoculation levels. The best results were obtained at 10% (w/w wet basis) and 5% (v/w wet basis) respectively. Presence of starters and initial glucose concentration were critical factors in the fermentation of shrimp waste. High initial glucose and starter concentrations reduced the time and increased the amount of lactic acid produced. The fermentation pattern changed during ensilation from hetero to homofermentative. Shrimp waste ensilation prevented the growth of spoilage microorganisms keeping their microbial counts steady and pH values within the acid region. PMID:11240204

Shirai, K; Guerrero, I; Huerta, S; Saucedo, G; Castillo, A; Obdulia Gonzalez, R; Hall, G M.

2001-03-01

394

The Potential Use of Electricity to Control Burrowing Shrimp in Oyster Aquaculture Beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalassinidean shrimp cause significant problems for oyster aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest (USA), where oysters succumb to the physical sediment disruption generated by the burrowing activity of these animals. Although electrofishing is a commonly used technique to capture fish and some invertebrates in freshwater, applications in marine systems are limited due to the high conductivity of the water medium. Experiments

Brett Dumbauld; Lisa Harlan

2009-01-01

395

A NEW SHRIMP (DECAPODA, DENDROBRANCHIATA, PENAEOIDEA) FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF YUNNAN, SOUTHWEST CHINA  

E-print Network

of the marine ecosystem between Eastern and Western Tethys. INTRODUCTION THE TRIASSIC Period was a pivotal timeA NEW SHRIMP (DECAPODA, DENDROBRANCHIATA, PENAEOIDEA) FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF YUNNAN, SOUTHWEST collected from the Middle Triassic Member II of the Guanling Formation in the vicinity of the city of Luxi

Benton, Michael

396

Probiotics in the intestinal tract of juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: modulation of the bacterial community.  

PubMed

Molecular analysis of the 16S rDNA of the intestinal microbiota of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was examined to investigate the effect of a Bacillus mix (Bacillus endophyticus YC3-b, Bacillus endophyticus C2-2, Bacillus tequilensisYC5-2) and the commercial probiotic (Alibio(®)) on intestinal bacterial communities and resistance to Vibrio infection. PCR and single strain conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses were then performed on DNA extracted directly from guts. Injection of shrimp with V. parahaemolyticus at 2.5 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) per shrimp followed 168 h after inoculation with Bacillus mix or the Alibio probiotic or the positive control. Diversity analyses showed that the bacterial community resulting from the Bacillus mix had the highest diversity and evenness and the bacterial community of the control had the lowest diversity. The bacterial community treated with probiotics mainly consisted of ?- and ?-proteobacteria, fusobacteria, sphingobacteria, and flavobacteria, while the control mainly consisted of ?-proteobacteria and flavobacteria. Differences were grouped using principal component analyses of PCR-SSCP of the microbiota, according to the time of inoculation. In Vibrio parahaemolyticus-infected shrimp, the Bacillus mix (~33 %) induced a significant increase in survival compared to Alibio (~21 %) and the control (~9 %). We conclude that administration of the Bacillus mix induced modulation of the intestinal microbiota of L. vannamei and increased its resistance to V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:23161451

Luis-Villaseñor, Irasema E; Castellanos-Cervantes, Thelma; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Carrillo-García, Angel E; Campa-Córdova, Angel I; Ascencio, Felipe

2013-02-01

397

Effect of individual quick freezing (IQF) on Salmonella recovery and texture of shrimp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shrimp ranks first in United States seafood consumption and is imported frozen. The Food and Drug Administration has identified Salmonella spp. as a contaminant of this frozen import product. This research was conducted to determine the effect of various individual quick freezing protocols (time an...

398

ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL FOR AUGMENTATIVE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN ESTUARINE OYSTER AQUACULTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two species of burrowing shrimp cause oyster mortality in aquaculture operations and have been managed using the pesticide carbaryl for the last 40 years, primarily in Washington state coastal estuaries. In a search for alternatives to pesticide use, an assessment of the presence and prevalence of ...

399

THE INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN PINK SHRIMP 'PENAEUS DUORARUM' BY METHYL PARATHION AND ITS OXON  

EPA Science Inventory

The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, E.C.3.1.1.7, (AChE) activity in the ventral nerve cord of pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) by methyl parathion (MPT) and methyl paraoxon (MPO) was investigated. When the animals were exposed to these compounds in water (in vivo), AChE activit...

400

Study on shrimp waste water and vermicompost as a nutrient source for bell peppers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aquaculture industry generates significant nutrient-rich wastewater that is released into streams and rivers causing environmental concern. The objective of this controlled environment study was to evaluate the effect of waste shrimp water (SW), vermicompost (VC), at rates of 10%, 20%, 40%, and ...

401

ENHANCED ORGANIC MATTER REMINERALIZATION AND NUTRIENT TURNOVER BY BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS IN YAQUINA BAY, OR  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing thalassinid shrimp are major ecological components of Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and where they structure large areas of intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat. These crustaceans occur in dense beds (>250 m-2) and dig extensive burrow systems (>1 m) controlling ...

402

Mercury and arsenic in green tiger shrimp from the Persian Gulf.  

PubMed

Mercury and arsenic pollution has been recognized as a potential environmental and public health problem for over 40 years. The major source of exposure to mercury and arsenic for humans is the ingestion of sea food. Concentrations of mercury and arsenic in the muscle samples of green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) from the Persian Gulf were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of metals in muscle samples were 49-115 µg kg(-1) for mercury, 115-131 µg kg(-1)for arsenic, with means of 82.7 and 251.6 µg kg(-1), respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference of mercury and arsenic concentration in shrimp muscles between selected stations (Bushehr, Khuzestan, and Hormozgan provinces). No significant difference was found among heavy metal contents of male and female shrimps. The results of this study indicate that the green tiger shrimp from the Persian Gulf have concentrations well below the maximum permissible levels for mercury (500 µg kg(-1)) and arsenic (6000 µg kg(-1)), according to international standards, with no health risk of consumers. PMID:22782706

Raissy, Mehdi; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Nadeali, Vahid; Ansari, Mahsa; Shakerian, Amir

2014-04-01

403

76 FR 20627 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...deveined, cooked or raw, or otherwise processed...containing egg and/or milk, and par-fried. The...reported per-unit factor-consumption rates by publicly available...To value Quoc Viet's raw shrimp input, we used...from warehouse, for consumption on or after the...

2011-04-13

404

75 FR 12206 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...reported per-unit factor- consumption rates by publicly available...values to value the input. Raw Shrimp Value The Department...withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption, in accordance with 19 CFR...withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on or after the...

2010-03-15

405

Inhibition of ovarian development by methyl farnesoate in the tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl farnesoate (MF), a putative crustacean hormone, is the immediate precursor of insect juvenile hormone III (JHIII) in the biosynthetic pathway. We examined whether MF, shown to inhibit adult metamorphosis in several crustacean species, is a juvenilizing factor in the tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. Oocyte production was chosen as a parameter for measuring reproductive development. MF was administered to juveniles

B. Tsukimura; W. K. Nelson; C. J. Linder

2006-01-01

406

Sensitivity of Metabolic Rate, Growth, and Fecundity of Tadpole Shrimp Triops Zongicaudatus to Environmental Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of fluctuations of ambient oxy- gen tensions and temperature on the rate of oxygen con- sumption (Vo,) was determined for the tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. Vo2 was oxygen dependent up to 185 torr Paz, and Qlo for oxygen consumption between 20\\

DAVID A. SCHOLNICK

407

CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON TWO SPECIES OF MYSID SHRIMP: 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' AND 'MYSIDOPSIS BIGELOWI'  

EPA Science Inventory

Two species of mysid shrimp, the sub-tropical Mysidopsis bahia and the northern temperate Mysidopsis bigelowi, were exposed simultaneously to cadmium (as CdC12) in a continuous-flow bioassay system to determine the effect on survival and reproductive success. Temperature and sali...

408

Ferritin protect shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from WSSV infection by inhibiting virus replication.  

PubMed

Iron is considered as an essential element for all living organisms. Therefore, limiting iron availability may be key part of the host's innate immune response to various pathogens. Ferritin is a major iron storage protein in living cells and plays an important role in iron homeostasis. One way the host can transiently reduce iron bioavailability is by ferritin over expression. In invertebrates, ferritin was found to be up-regulated after pathogens challenge and is considered to be an important element in the innate immune system. This study was designed to investigate the involvement of ferritin in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei defense against WSSV. We discovered that the viral load of shrimp injected with recombinant ferritin protein was lower than that of control group. The suppression of ferritin by dsRNA increased susceptibility to WSSV with 3-fold high viral copies. The present study documented that ferritin protected shrimp L. vannamei from WSSV by inhibiting virus replication. We presume that ferritin reduce iron availability, leading to inhibit the activity of ribonucleotide reductase and delay the replication of virus genome. This study provided new insights into the understanding of molecular responses and defense mechanisms in shrimp against WSSV. PMID:25449379

Ye, Ting; Wu, Xiaoting; Wu, Wenlin; Dai, Congjie; Yuan, Jianjun

2015-01-01

409

Relative importance of dissolved and food pathways for lead contamination in shrimp.  

PubMed

The relative importance of dissolved and food pathways and the influence of food type in the bioaccumulation and retention of lead in the shrimp Palaemonetes varians were examined using a radiotracer method. Shrimp were exposed to 210Pb-labelled seawater or fed two types of 210Pb-labelled food, viz. mussels or worms. The amount of radiotracer accumulated by shrimp was examined over a 7-day period, followed by a 1-month and a 7-day depuration period for the dissolved and food source, respectively. Steady state in the uptake was reached after 2 days exposure to dissolved lead, with a resultant estimated concentration factor of 98+/-3. Transfer factors following ingestion of contaminated mussels and worms were lower than unity for both food types, with lead transfer from worms being significantly higher than that from mussels. Accumulation of dissolved Pb by shrimp was found to occur mainly through adsorption on the exoskeleton with a minor accumulation in the internal tissues probably resulting from the intake of seawater for osmoregulation. In contrast, lead taken up from contaminated food was readily absorbed and bound in the internal tissues of P. varians. Although the transfer of lead to P. varians through the ingestion of contaminated food was low (TF<1%), it still represented 4 to 8% of the lead content in the prey which is a significant additional contribution of lead to the shrimp body burden. Independent of food type, following ingestion of contaminated food, approximately 23-27% of total lead accumulated in shrimp was located in the edible parts (e.g. muscle). Therefore, the food pathway is suggested to be a significant contributor to the lead transfer to humans through ingestion of contaminated shrimp. After exposure to contaminated food, lead loss kinetics were described by a two-component model, whereas Pb loss following direct uptake from seawater was best described by a three-component model. The additional compartment representing 64% of total Pb retained and characterized by a turnover<10 min, corresponded to lead weakly adsorbed on the exoskeleton and incorporated in the hepatopancreas. Nevertheless, a significant fraction of lead accumulated from the dissolved (2%) and food (52-57%) pathways remained irreversibly retained in the tissues, suggesting that this organism could also serve as an effective long-term bioindicator of lead contamination in marine waters. PMID:14643781

Boisson, F; Cotret, O; Teyssié, J-L; El-Baradeï, M; Fowler, S W

2003-12-01

410

Cadmium resistance in an oligochaete and its effect on cadmium trophic transfer to an omnivorous shrimp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It has been demonstrated that the deposit-feeding oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri inhabiting Foundry Cove (FC), a severely cadmium (Cd)-contaminated cove located on the Hudson River, New York, USA, has evolved resistance to Cd. In this study we investigate how this resistance influences Cd trophic transfer from this oligochaete to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. Cadmium-resistant worms collected from FC and nonresistant worms collected from an adjacent unpolluted site were investigated for differences in Cd tolerance, accumulation, subcellular distribution and bioavailability to shrimp. FC worms were more tolerant of Cd, surviving twice as long as worms from the unpolluted site during a toxicity bioassay. The 7 d concentration factor of Cd-resistant worms was 4 times greater than that of nonresistant worms (2020 vs 577). There were also differences between worm populations with respect to subcellular Cd distributions. Cd-resistant worms produced metallothionein-like proteins (MT) as well as metal-rich granules (MRG) for Cd storage and detoxification; nonresistant worms only produced MT. These differences in subcellular Cd distributions led to large differences in Cd bioavailability to shrimp; shrimp fed Cd-resistant worms absorbed 21% of the ingested Cd, while those fed nonresistant worms absorbed roughly 4 times that amount (~75%). These absorption efficiencies were in good agreement with the proportions of Cd bound to the worm's most biologically available subcellular fractions (i.e. the cytosol and organelles). Although Cd-resistant worms predominantly stored the toxic metal in biologically unavailable MRG, their increased accumulation of Cd would still result in substantial trophic transfer to shrimp because of the storage of Cd in the biologically available fractions. This work demonstrates that the evolution of Cd resistance can have profound implications for Cd bioavailability and cycling within aquatic ecosystems.

Wallace, W.G.; Lopez, G.R.; Levinton, J.S.

1998-01-01

411

Insights into the Prostanoid Pathway in the Ovary Development of the Penaeid Shrimp Penaeus monodon  

PubMed Central

The prostanoid pathway converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into bioactive lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins, all of which play vital roles in the immune and reproductive systems in most animal phyla. In crustaceans, PUFAs and prostaglandins have been detected and often associated with female reproductive maturation. However, the presence of prostanoid biosynthesis genes remained in question in these species. In this study, we outlined the prostanoid pathway in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon based on the amplification of nine prostanoid biosynthesis genes: cytosolic phospholipase A2, hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin D synthase, prostaglandin E synthase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, prostaglandin E synthase 3, prostaglandin F synthase, thromboxane A synthase and cyclooxygenase. TBLASTX analysis confirmed the identities of these genes with 51-99% sequence identities to their closest homologs. In addition, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), which is a product of the prostaglandin F synthase enzyme, was detected for the first time in P. monodon ovaries along with the previously identified PUFAs and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) using RP-HPLC and mass-spectrometry. The prostaglandin synthase activity was also observed in shrimp ovary homogenates using in vitro activity assay. When prostaglandin biosynthesis was examined in different stages of shrimp ovaries, we found that the amounts of prostaglandin F synthase gene transcripts and PGF2? decreased as the ovaries matured. These findings not only indicate the presence of a functional prostanoid pathway in penaeid shrimp, but also suggest a possible role of the PGF2? biosynthesis in shrimp ovarian development. PMID:24116186

Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Danwisetkanjana, Kannawat; Pinkaew, Decha; Kirtikara, Kanyawim; Vichai, Vanicha

2013-01-01

412

Mercury contamination of fish and shrimp samples available in markets of Mashhad, Iran.  

PubMed

Fish and shrimp are common healthy sources of protein to a large percentage of the world's population. Hence, it is vital to evaluate the content of possible contamination of these marine-foods. Six species of fishes and two species of shrimps were collected from the local markets of Mashhad, Iran. The mercury (Hg) concentration of samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a mercuric hydride system (MHS 10). High concentration of total Hg was found in Clupeonella cultriventris caspia (0.93 ± 0.14 ?g/g) while the lowest level was detected in Penaeus indicus (0.37 ± 0.03 ?g/g). Mean Hg levels in fish and shrimp samples were 0.77 ± 0.08 ?g/g and 0.51 ± 0.05 ?g/g, respectively. Farmed species (except for P. indicus) and all samples from Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea had mean mercury concentrations above 0.5 ?g/g, which is the maximum standard level recommended by Joint FAO/WHO/Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). All samples had also mean Hg concentrations that exceeded EPA's established safety level of 0.3 ?g/g. A little more extensive analysis of data showed that weekly intake of mercury for the proportion of the Iranian population consuming Hg contaminated fish and shrimp is not predicted to exceed the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes recommended by JECFA. However, the Iranian health and environmental authorities should monitor Hg contamination of the fishes and shrimps before marketing. PMID:23903758

Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed-Reza; Moradi, Valiollah; Mokhtari, Mehrangiz; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad

2013-09-01

413

Microbial population, physicochemical quality, and allergenicity of molluscs and shrimp treated with cobalt-60 gamma radiation.  

PubMed

Frozen molluscs (squid, octopuses, and cuttlefish) and crustaceans (shrimp) were irradiated using a cobalt-60 gamma source, at different doses, in order to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on their microbial population, organoleptic characteristics, lipid profile, and tropomyosin content. Irradiation of shrimp and squid with either 2.5 or 4.7 kGy reduced mesophilic bacteria contamination to low or nondetectable levels, respectively, whereas irradiation of octopus and cuttlefish with the same doses reduced the bacterial population. Irradiation treatment had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the total lipid content and the major detected classes of polar and neutral lipids, whereas it significantly (P < 0.05) increased the contents of neutral lipids in octopus mantle and in shrimp muscle and cephalothorax samples. The total fatty acid content and the omega-3: omega-6 fatty acid ration was not affected. A dose-dependent significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids:saturated fatty acids was observed. With the increase in radiation dose, redness (a) and yellowness (b) values showed a variation, whereas the lightness (L) value was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in mollusc mantles and shrimp muscle and increased in shrimp cephalothorax. The total of color changes ( delta E) increased (P < 0.05) as the dose increased. Significant (P < 0.05) changes in textural properties were observed with radiation treatment in octopus tentacles and in squid and cuttlefish mantle. The amount of tropomyosin, which is the major mollusc and crustacean allergen in the irradiated organisms, was reduced by gamma radiation, depending on the dose. PMID:17477267

Sinanoglou, Vassilia J; Batrinou, Anthimia; Konteles, Spyros; Sflomos, Konstantinos

2007-04-01

414

75 FR 62099 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary...reviews within the statutory time period is not practicable...petitioner for Apex Exports in India. [[Page 62100

2010-10-07

415

Temperature and Salinity Effects on the Growth and Survival of Juvenile Penaeid Shrimps: Implications for the Influence of River  

E-print Network

Temperature and Salinity Effects on the Growth and Survival of Juvenile Penaeid Shrimps estuaries for wetland restoration. These freshwater flows directly alter the temperature and salinity temperature and salinity) affected by freshwater inflows. We also will test the validity

416

Influence of hydrological seasonality on sandbank benthos: algal biomass and shrimp abundance in a large neotropical river  

E-print Network

In this study, I examined the influence of hydrological seasonality on spatiotemporal variation of algal biomass and shrimp abundance on sandbanks of the Cinaruco River in southwestern Venezuela. Seasonal variations of abiotic and biotic variables...

Montoya Ceballos, Jose Vicente

2009-05-15

417

78 FR 16754 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Anti- Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp From Vietnam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative...is providing notice that the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') has requested the establishment of a...

2013-03-18

418

76 FR 27991 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony...CIT's remand order in Amanda Foods (Vietnam) Ltd., et al., v. United States...redetermination''); see also Amanda Foods (Vietnam) Ltd., et al., v. United...

2011-05-13

419

FIELD CONFIRMATION OF A LABORATORY-DERIVED HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF FENTHION TO PINK SHRIMP, 'PENAEUS DUORARUM'  

EPA Science Inventory

Field studies were conducted to determine if laboratory protocols accurately predict shrimp mortality under field conditions. Fenthion, a mosquitocide, was applied to coastal marshes in several truck-mounted ultra-low volume (ULV) adulticide operations, and by direct application ...

420

Carnobacterium species: effect of metabolic activity and interaction with Brochothrix thermosphacta on sensory characteristics of modified atmosphere packed shrimp.  

PubMed

The importance of carnobacteria as spoilage microorganisms or potential protective cultures in food is not resolved, and little is known about their metabolism during growth in specific products. This study used chromatographic techniques including GC-MS and HPLC to evaluate the spoilage metabolism of Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, and Carnobacterium mobile. Metabolic activity was studied in cooked and peeled modified atmosphere packed (MAP) shrimp at 5 degrees C as carnobacteria has been anticipated to contribute to spoilage of shrimp products. C. divergens and C. maltaromaticum caused sensory spoilage of shrimps and generated ammonia, tyramine, and various alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. The effects of Carnobacterium species on the growth and metabolism of Brochothrix thermosphacta were also evaluated, but metabiosis between the two groups of bacteria was not observed. C. mobile and a specific cluster of C. maltaromaticum isolates (cluster L) did not cause sensory spoilage of shrimp. PMID:19127732

Laursen, Birgit Groth; Leisner, Jørgen Johannes; Dalgaard, Paw

2006-05-17

421

78 FR 56217 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-XC859 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and Southern Atlantic States AGENCY...exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and South Atlantic,...

2013-09-12

422

EFFECTS OF FOOD AVAILABILITY ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH, AND REPRODUCTION OF THE GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO: A LABORATORY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Grass shrimp are abundant, ecologically important inhabitants of estuarine ecosystems; adults and embryos have been used extensively in laboratory experiments, including studies of the impacts of environmental toxicants. However, optimal laboratory feeding conditions for grass sh...

423

Bioconcentration of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in the marine shrimp Palaemonetes varians: a radiotracer study.  

PubMed

Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved [(14)C]C??-6-linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were determined in the shrimp Palaemonetes varians using environmentally relevant exposure concentration. The shrimp concentrated LAS from seawater with a mean BCF value of 120 L kg(-1) after a 7-day exposure. Uptake biokinetics were best described by a saturation model, with an estimated BCFss, of 159 ± 34 L kg(-1), reached after 11.5 days. Shrimp weight influenced significantly BCF value with smaller individuals presenting higher affinity to LAS. To the light of a whole body autoradiography, major accumulation of LAS occurred in the cephalothorax circulatory system (gills, heart, hepatopancreas) and ocular peduncle, but not in the flesh, limiting potential transfer to human consumers. LAS depuration rate constant value of the shrimp was 1.18 ± 0.08 d(-1) leading to less than 1% of remaining LAS in its tissues after 8 days of depuration. PMID:25016418

Renaud, Florent; Warnau, Michel; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Temara, Ali; Rouleau, Claude; Metian, Marc

2014-08-15

424

Ontogenetic changes in biochemical composition during larval and early postlarval development of Lepidophthalmus louisianensis, a ghost shrimp with abbreviated development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in growth and biochemical composition during the transition from egg through zoea to decapodid in the ghost shrimp, Lepidophthalmuslouisianensis (Schmitt, 1935), were documented in terms of dry weight, lipid classes, fatty acid composition, and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratios. Larvae of the ghost shrimp were mass-reared in the laboratory (28°C; 20‰ S) from hatching to the decapodid stage. Iatroscan

S. F Nates; C. L McKenney Jr

2000-01-01

425

A pharmacological and behavioural study on beta, beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-treated brine shrimp Artemia salina L.  

PubMed

The neurotoxic substance beta, beta-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN), which induces hyperkinesia in some mammals, was found to be neurotoxic to the brine shrimp Artemia salina L. (Crustacea, Anostraca) inducing discoordination of limb-movement and sedation of motility. Up to 9 metabolities of IDPN were detected in Artemia, including beta-alanine, cyanoacetic acid, and beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN). Brine shrimp, especially nauplius (1 day), may be a useful test animal for the biological assay of IDPN. PMID:7423551

Schott, K; Schneider, G; Oepen, H

1980-09-01

426

Detection of V. harveyi in shrimp postlarvae and hatchery tank water by the Most Probable Number technique with PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

V. harveyi is the cause of serious disease in the shrimp industry in Thailand during cultivation. In this study, the gyrB gene of V. harveyi NICA, isolated from shrimp in Thailand, was sequenced. A pair of specific primers (A2B3) was designed that allowed amplification of a 363 bp gene fragment of V. harveyi. No cross reaction was detected in 17 other

Sawitree Thaithongnum; Pimonsri Ratanama; Karnchana Weeradechapol; Ampaitip Sukhoom; Varaporn Vuddhakul

2006-01-01

427

Distribution and abundance of shrimps, crabs, and fishes in the cooling lake of the Cedar Bayou Electric Power Station  

E-print Network

Copyright by William Benjamin Jackson 1974 DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF SHRIMPS, CRABS, AND FISHES IN THE COOLING LAKE OF THE CEDAR BAYOU ELECTRIC POWER STATION A Thesis by WILLIAM BENJAMIN JACKSON Submitted to the Graduate College... of Texas AFM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Fisheries Sciences DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF SHRIMPS, CRABS, AND FISHES IN THE COOLING LAKE OF THE CEDAR BAYOU...

Jackson, William Benjamin

1974-01-01

428

Organization and promoter analysis of a tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon single WAP domain-containing protein gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main function of the single whey acidic protein domain (SWD)-containing protein in shrimp is unknown. To elucidate the function of the SWD-containing protein in vivo, the SWD- containing protein gene was isolated and characterized. A 9.3-kb shrimp SWD-containing protein gene fragment was sequenced, including a 0.9-kb 5'-flanking region, the 4.5-kb SWD-containing pro- tein gene, and a 3.9-kb 3'-flanking region.

Jyh Yih CHEN; Jian Chyi CHEN; Sheng Hwa LIN; Chia Yu PAN; Ching Ming KUO

2006-01-01

429

Zircon SHRIMP UPb dating of meta-diorite from the basement of the Songliao Basin and its geological significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basement of the Songliao Basin mainly contains low-grade metamorphic rocks and granites. It has been long disputed whether\\u000a the basin has Precambrian metamorphic basement. This is a report of zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating results of a meta-diorite sample,\\u000a which was taken from the Si-5 drilling hole in the southern portion of the Songliao Basin. The SHRIMP analyses indicate that

Ying Wang; Fuqin Zhang; Dawei Zhang; Laicheng Miao; Tiesheng Li; Hangqiang Xie; Qingren Meng; Dunyi Liu

2006-01-01

430

Disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, following the dietary administration of a yeast culture food supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A yeast culture feed supplement (Diamond V XP Yeast Culture®, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, Iowa [IA]) was assessed for its impact on disease resistance in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Animals were fed a standard shrimp pellet diet supplemented with 0% (control with 1% grain carrier), 0.5% (with 0.5% carrier), or 1.0% XP daily for 4 weeks. To

Joseph E. Burgents; Karen G. Burnett; Louis E. Burnett

2004-01-01

431

Effects of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Effects of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were studied. Shrimp soaked in 2.5% NaCl containing both compounds at different levels of pH (5.5, 7, 8.5, 10 and 11.5) showed an increase in the weight gain and cooking yield and a reduced cooking loss as pH of solutions increased (p<0.05). Increases in pH and salt content in soaked shrimp muscle were obtained with increasing pH (p<0.05). Higher pH of soaking solution partially solubilized proteins in the muscle as well as carotenoproteins. pH of solutions above 8.5 led to the pronounced leaching of pigments, associated with the lowered redness of cooked shrimp. Shear force of raw and cooked shrimp continuously decreased as pH of solution increased (p<0.05). Solution containing 2.5% NaCl and 2.0% NaHCO3 (pH 8.5) was recommended for treatment of white shrimp as a promising alternative for phosphates to increase the yield and to lower cooking loss without any negative effect on sensory properties. PMID:21917644

Chantarasuwan, C; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W

2011-08-01

432

Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

2015-02-01

433

A Galectin from the Kuruma Shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) Functions as an Opsonin and Promotes Bacterial Clearance from Hemolymph  

PubMed Central

Galectins are a lectin family characterized by a conserved sequence motif in the carbohydrate recognition domain, which preferential binds to galactosyl moieties. However, few studies about the biological roles of galectins in invertebrates have been reported except for the galectin (CvGal1) from the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Furthermore, galectins have been described in only a few crustacean species, and no functional studies have been reported so far. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized a galectin from the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus, which we designated MjGal. Upon Vibrio anguillarum challenge, expression of MjGal was up-regulated mostly in hemocytes and hepatopancreas, and the protein bound to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria through the recognition of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively. By also binding to the shrimp hemocyte surface, MjGal functions as an opsonin for microbial pathogens, promoting their phagocytosis. Further, as shown by RNA interference, MjGal participates in clearance of bacteria from circulation, and thereby contributes to the shrimp’s immune defense against infectious challenge. Elucidation of functional and mechanistic aspects of shrimp immunity will enable the development of novel strategies for intervention in infectious diseases currently affecting the shrimp farming industry worldwide. PMID:24618590

Xu, Sen; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Vasta, Gerardo Raul; Wang, Jin-Xing

2014-01-01

434

Enhancement of immunity and disease resistance in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, by the probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20.  

PubMed

Effects of Bacillus subtilis E20 isolated from fermented soybean on immune parameters and the disease resistance of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 98 days of B. subtilis E20 feeding were evaluated in this study. Shrimp fed B. subtilis E20-containing diets at concentrations of 10(6) (E206), 10(7) (E207), and 10(8) (E208)cfu kg(-1), respectively, had significantly increased survival rates of 13.3%, 16.7%, and 20%, compared to the control (fed no probiotic) after being challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus. There were no significant differences in the total hemocyte count, respiratory burst, or superoxide dismutase glutathione peroxidase among all treatments. Shrimp fed a higher concentration of the probiotic (E208) exhibited significant increases in phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency compared to control shrimp. In addition, B. subtilis E20 showed a weaker inhibitory effect against the growth of Aeromona hydrophila with around a 0.3-cm inhibitory zone, but showed no inhibitory effects against other selected pathogens, such as white shrimp pathogens: V. alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. These results suggest that the increased resistance of shrimp after B. subtilis E20 consumption occurs through immune modifications, such as increases in phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency against V. alginolyticus. PMID:19111620

Tseng, Deng-Yu; Ho, Pei-Lin; Huang, Sung-Yan; Cheng, Sheng-Chi; Shiu, Ya-Li; Chiu, Chiu-Shia; Liu, Chun-Hung

2009-02-01

435

A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with “Bacterial White Tail Disease” of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

436

Influence of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus (Notostraca:Triopsidae), stocking rate on Culex tarsalis development in experimental field microcosms.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of 5 tadpole shrimp (TPS) stocking rates to reduce cohorts of Culex tarsalis was studied in field microcosms (0.81-m2). Larval/pupal abundance in microcosms containing greater than 5 TPS/m2 was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower than that of controls lacking tadpole shrimp due to predation. Adult mosquito abundances captured in emergence units above the microcosms stocked with tadpole shrimp were significantly (P less than 0.05) lower than that of controls at rates greater than or equal to 10 TPS/m2. Tadpole shrimp growth during 17 days of this study was inversely proportional to their stocking rate, and a linear relationship between size and stocking rate was plotted. Tadpole shrimp stocking rates also influenced rate of mosquito development, causing significantly (P less than 0.05) shorter periods for 50% emergence where shrimp were present when compared with that of controls. Adult male Cx. tarsalis emerged significantly earlier then females in microcosms stocked at 5 TPS/m2, while no significant (P greater than 0.05) differences were detected between the sexes at the remaining predator stocking rates. PMID:2370535

Tietze, N S; Mulla, M S

1990-06-01

437

Detection of ctx gene positive non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in shrimp aquaculture environments.  

PubMed

Water and post-larvae samples from black tiger (Penaeus monodon) shrimp hatcheries; pond water, pond sediment and shrimp from aquaculture farms were screened for the presence of V. cholerae. A V. cholerae-duplex PCR method was developed by utilizing V. cholerae species specific sodB primers and ctxAB genes specific primers. Incidence of V. cholerae was not observed in shrimp hatchery samples but was noticed in aquaculture samples. The incidence of V. cholerae was higher in pond water (7.6%) than in pond sediment (5.2%). Shrimp head (3.6%) portion had relatively higher incidence than shrimp muscle (1.6%). All the V. cholerae isolates (n?=?42) belonged to non-O1/non-O139 serogroup, of which 7% of the V. cholerae isolates were potentially cholera-toxigenic (ctx positive). All the ctx positive V. cholerae (n?=?3) were isolated from the pond water. Since, cholera toxin (CT) is the major contributing factor for cholera gravis, it is proposed that the mere presence of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae need not be the biohazard criterion in cultured black tiger shrimp but only the presence of ctx carrying non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae may be considered as potential public health risk. PMID:24425944

Madhusudana, Rao B; Surendran, P K

2013-06-01

438

Protein turnover, amino acid profile and amino acid flux in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: effects of dietary protein source.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary protein on protein synthesis and growth of juvenile shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated using three different diets with equivalent protein content. Protein synthesis was investigated by a flooding dose of tritiated phenylalanine. Survival, specific growth and protein synthesis rates were higher, and protein degradation was lower, in shrimps fed a fish/squid/shrimp meal diet, or a 50% laboratory diet/50% soybean meal variant diet, than in those fed a casein-based diet. The efficiency of retention of synthesized protein as growth was 94% for shrimps fed the fish meal diet, suggesting a very low protein turnover rate; by contrast, the retention of synthesized protein was only 80% for shrimps fed the casein diet. The amino acid profile of the casein diet was poorly correlated with that of the shrimps. 4 h after a single meal the protein synthesis rates increased following an increase in RNA activity. A model was developed for amino acid flux, suggesting that high growth rates involve a reduction in the turnover of proteins, while amino acid loss appears to be high. PMID:12235191

Mente, Eleni; Coutteau, Peter; Houlihan, Dominic; Davidson, Ian; Sorgeloos, Patrick

2002-10-01

439

Effect of brine marination on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat shrimp (Pandalus borealis).  

PubMed

The effect of brine marination at chill temperatures on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat cold water shrimp was studied. Survival and growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined. The effect of brine composition and pH was determined in 12 screening experiments without addition of shrimp. Sixteen challenge tests with shrimp were then carried out to examine the effect of brine composition and storage temperature on survival and growth during processing and subsequent storage of brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Different brines with (i) acetic and lactic acids (AL) or (ii) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids (BCS) were studied. V. parahaemolyticus was inactivated in brine AL without shrimp whereas concentrations of all the examined microorganisms were reduced in brine BCS. A significant effect of brine pH on inactivation was observed and inactivation during chill marination of shrimp in brine was reduced compared to the effect of brine alone. This was explained by a relatively fast increase of pH in the brine during marination of shrimp. For shrimp in brine BCS, reductions were observed for V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella, whereas inactivation in shrimp was only noticed for Salmonella in brine AL. The observed reductions were too small to be used in practise for decontamination of shellfish. None of the examined pathogens was able to grow at 7°C in brined and drained MAP shrimp that resembled commercial products. However, reducing the concentration of acetic and lactic acids by 50% resulted in relatively fast growth of L. monocytogenes in brined and drained MAP shrimp at 7°C. Growth of S. aureus and Salmonella was observed in similar products stored at 15°C. V. parahaemolyticus was reduced in brined and drained MAP shrimp stored at both 7 and 15°C. Based on the results of the present study, L. monocytogenes was identified as the greatest potential risk with respect to the safety of brined and drained MAP shrimp. The potential of L. sakei as spoilage bacterium in brined and drained MAP shrimp was confirmed. Importantly, growth rates of L. sakei and L. monocytogenes in brined and drained MAP shrimp were predicted accurately by available mathematical models. Thus, these models can be used for product development and establishment of shell-life for ready-to-eat shrimp taking into account both quality and safety aspects. PMID:22564452

Mejlholm, Ole; Devitt, Tina D; Dalgaard, Paw

2012-06-15

440

Bacillus sp. LT3 improves the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii by enhancing the innate immune response and by decreasing the activity of shrimp-associated vibrios.  

PubMed

Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus are amongst the most intensively studied group of bacteria for use as probiotics in aquaculture. However, the exact mechanism of action of these bacteria is often not well described, and the microbiota that are naturally present in cultures of test organisms often compromise the interpretation of the results. The present study aimed to evaluate the putative probiotic effect of Bacillus sp. LT3 in a model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. The strain significantly increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii when administered 6h before the challenge. Under these conditions, LT3 was able to colonize the brine shrimp gastrointestinal tract and to decrease the in vivo pathogen activity as indicated by the bioluminescence of the V. campbellii associated with brine shrimp larvae. In order to investigate the effect of the Bacillus strain on the innate immune system of the brine shrimp larvae, prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase mRNA levels were monitored, while heat shock protein 70 mRNA levels were measured as an indicator of physiological stress. Interestingly, 12h after challenge, the prophenoloxidase mRNA level in the larvae pre-treated with LT3 and challenged with V. campbellii was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other treatments. Further, a decreased mRNA level of transglutaminase gene and heat shock protein 70 gene suggested that pretreatment with LT3 results in less stress and tissue damage in the brine shrimp larvae upon V. campbellii challenge. These results indicated that Bacillus sp. LT3 could improve the survival of brine shrimp larvae when challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii, both by decreasing the in vivo activity of the pathogen and by priming the innate immune response through activating the prophenoloxidase system. PMID:25190276

Niu, Yufeng; Defoirdt, Tom; Baruah, Kartik; Van de Wiele, Tom; Dong, Shuanglin; Bossier, Peter

2014-10-10

441

Athanas manticolus sp. nov., a new stomatopod-associated alpheid shrimp from Vietnam (Crustacea, Decapoda).  

PubMed

A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Athanas Leach, 1814 is described based on a single specimen, an ovigerous female from Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam. Athanas manticolus sp. nov. differs from all other species of Athanas by the presence of a small post-rostral tubercle, combined with a minutely toothed rostrum, reduced extra-corneal teeth, and the absence of infra-corneal and supra-corneal teeth. In addition, the new species is characterised by its unique colour pattern, particularly by the red chromatophores disposed in randomly oriented, short, narrow streaks. As its name suggests, A. manticolus sp. nov. is commensally associated with the burrows of the nannosquillid mantis shrimp Bigelowina phalangium (Fabricius, 1798). PMID:24872072

Duriš, Zdenek; Anker, Arthur

2014-01-01

442

Reprint of "Review of Dscam-mediated immunity in shrimp and other arthropods"  

PubMed

Although true adaptive immunity is only found in vertebrates, there is increasing evidence that shrimp and other arthropods exhibit immune specificity and immune memory. The invertebrate immune response is now called "innate immunity with specificity" or "immune priming", and its underlying mechanisms are still unclear. However, while vertebrate antibodies have no invertebrate homolog, the Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam), which is a hypervariable protein created by alternative splicing, can function as a pathogen-specific recognizing molecule in arthropods. Here we review our current understanding of the Dscam-mediated immune responses in arthropods, especially in shrimp, and show that Dscam may be involved in both general innate immunity and the pathogen-specific immune response. PMID:25083806

Ng, Tze Hann; Chiang, Yi-An; Yeh, Ying-Chun; Wang, Han-Ching

2015-02-01

443

Extraction of antioxidant and ACE inhibitory peptides from Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were extracted and isolated from two different types of Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes, Kapi Ta Dam (Kp-B6) and Kapi Ta Deang (Kp-R6). Compounds with masses less than 500Da were found to be predominantly presented in both extracts. Following fractionation with sequential anion exchange chromatography and solid phase extraction (C18 matrix), three dipeptides were identified. Ser-Val and Ile-Phe were shown to exhibit ACE inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 60.68±1.06 and 70.03±1.45?M, respectively. Trp-Pro was shown to have high 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity (EC50 17.52±0.46?M). These results indicate that Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes are potential sources of bioactive peptides possessing ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities. PMID:25624254

Kleekayai, Thanyaporn; Harnedy, Pádraigín A; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey A; CunhaNeves, Adriana; Suntornsuk, Worapot; FitzGerald, Richard J

2015-06-01

444

Industrial transformation and shrimp aquaculture in Thailand and Vietnam: pathways to ecological, social, and economic sustainability?  

PubMed

Shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam is in the process of being transformed into a major industry around the intensification of the production system. The experiences of other countries in the region, especially in Thailand where high input production systems dominate, suggests that now is a critical time for intervention to redirect industry into pathways that are more sustainable ecologically, socially, and economically. In Thailand, years of experience with intensified systems and a complex industrial organization has not led to sustainable solutions. The challenge here is for society to regain control and then to redirect the transformation along more efficient and benign pathways. Our analyses suggest that current pathways in both countries are unlikely to lead to a sustainable industry. A complete transformation of the way shrimp are grown, fed, processed, distributed, and regulated is needed. PMID:12174602

Lebel, Louis; Tri, Nguyen Hoang; Saengnoree, Amnuay; Pasong, Suparb; Buatama, Urasa; Thoa, Le Kim

2002-06-01

445

Biochemical characterisation of chymotrypsin from the midgut gland of yellowleg shrimp, Penaeus californiensis.  

PubMed

Chymotrypsin from shrimp, Penaeus californiensis, was compared to Bos taurus chymotrypsin, and its structure-function relationship was studied. Catalytic efficiency toward synthetic substrate is lower, but it has a broad specificity and higher activity toward protein substrates, including collagen. It is active at pH 4-10 and fully active up to 50°C for 2h and at least nine days at room temperature. The activation peptide is twice as long as bovine chymotrypsinogen, has less disulfide bridges, and is a single polypeptide. Only one activation step is necessary from chymotrypsinogen to the mature enzyme. Postmortem implications in muscle softening and melanisation, resistance to temperature and pH and efficiency with proteinaceous substrates make chymotrypsin useful as a biotechnological tool in food processing. This makes shrimp processing wastes useful as a material for production of fine reagents. PMID:25466006

Navarrete-Del-Toro, Maria A; García-Carreño, Fernando L; Hernández-Cortés, Patricia; Molnár, Tamas; Gráf, Laszlo

2015-04-15

446

Rapid detection of shrimp white spot syndrome virus by real time, isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture industry, and thus far there are no efficient therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus. In this study, we present the development of a novel real time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for WSSV detection on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The RPA sensitivity, specificity and rapidity were evaluated by using a plasmid standard as well as viral and shrimp genomic DNAs. Compared with qPCR, the RPA assay revealed more satisfactory performance. It reached a detection limit up to 10 molecules in 95% of cases as determined by probit analysis of 8 independent experiments within 6.41 ± 0.17 min at 39 °C. Consequently, this rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point of care diagnostics. PMID:25121957

Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

2014-01-01

447

Costs and benefits of freedom from shrimp diseases in the European Union.  

PubMed

The growth in penaeid shrimp aquaculture has been mirrored by the emergence of a number of serious diseases, some of which (e.g. white spot syndrome virus - WSSV) spread rapidly across the globe through movement of infected stock. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) lists six penaeid shrimp pathogens of which three are notifiable in the EU: WSSV (listed as non-exotic to the EU), Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and yellow head disease (YHD) (both listed as exotic). EU Member States (MS) must determine a status for non-exotic diseases (e.g. disease free, unknown, infected). In developing a policy for WSSV, import risk analysis (IRA) can be used to systematically assess the risks of introduction and justify risk mitigation to maintain freedom. OIE guidelines recommend that countries assess the risk of disease introduction via commodities, not listed by the OIE as safe, and apply sanitary measures if necessary. The sanitary measures necessary to maintain freedom from WSSV may not be compatible with current EU animal health legislation. The recent revision by OIE of products listed as safe for international trade strengthens the case for the risks of TSV and YHD introduction into the EU to be assessed. Freedom from WSSV is an important criterion for the development of shrimp aquaculture in the EU. However, in developing disease control policy, governments need to balance the potentially competing interests of all stakeholders, including consumers. Thus economic modelling of the impact of possible sanitary measures on consumer prices of imported products is needed to support decision making. The creation of disease free compartments and post-import risk mitigation for commodities may create the conditions conducive to the development of shrimp aquaculture whilst minimising the costs of maintaining disease freedom. PMID:22434006

Peeler, Edmund J

2012-06-01

448

Relative Uptake of Urea and Ammonium by Dinoflagellates or Cyanobacteria in Shrimp Mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative role of the organic nitrogen source, urea, versus ammonium as a nitrogen source for two species of dinoflagellates was compared with one species of cyanobacteria. Experiments were conducted opportunistically in nutrient-rich marine water during blooms of 34either cyanobacteria or dinoflagellates in outdoor mesocosms. These replicate mesocosms, which were stocked with shrimp fed high-protein formulated feeds, contained high biomasses

Michele A. Burford

2005-01-01

449

Relationship Between Body Size, Growth Rate, and Maximal Enzyme Activities in the Brine Shrimp, Artemia franciscana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activity-body size relationships for eight en- zymes (citrate .vynthu.w, CS; luctate dchydrogenase, LDH; pyruvale kinaw, PK; alunine uminotrun&wse, ala AT; aspartate uminotran.~~~~ruse, asp AT; glutamate dl>hy- drogenuse, GDH; glztcose-6-phosphate dehydrogenuse, G6Pdh; and nucleosidc diphosphate kinase, NDPK) were examined in the brine shrimp, Artemia,\\/~unciscana. The animals were fed on the alga Dunaliella salina, which was provided in three concentrations representing a

JOHN A. BERGES; JOHN C. ROFF; JAMES S. BALLANTYNE

1990-01-01

450

Phylogeny of the cave shrimp Troglocaris: Evidence of a young connection between Balkans and Caucasus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remarkably discontinuous distribution of the cave shrimp genus Troglocaris in South France, West Balkans, and West Caucasus has long been considered a biogeographic enigma. To solve it, its phylogeny was reconstructed by analyzing sequences from two mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I and 16S rRNA) and one nuclear gene (28S rRNA) using maximum likelihood, parsimony and Bayesian inference. The genus was

Valerija Zakšek; Boris Sket; Peter Trontelj

2007-01-01

451

Polyculture of indigenous marine fishes stocked with penaeid shrimp in thermally enriched brackish water ponds  

E-print Network

of the same species (juveniles and adults) . However, feeding type distinctions are often not definite; fish adapt to their surroundings and exploit unusual sources when preferred foods are unavailable (Reich 1975) . The most successful combination...POLYCULTURE OF INDIGENOU MARINE FISHES STOCKED WITH PENAEID SHRIMP Ii~J THERMALLY ENRICHED BRACKISH RATER PONDS A Thesis by KAREN SUE ROSSBERG Submitted by the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial ulfillment of the requirement...

Rossberg, Karen Sue

2012-06-07

452

Drying Kinetics and Quality of Shrimp Undergoing Different Two-Stage Drying Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative two-stage drying concept is presented in this article. The work considered drying of shrimp using a superheated steam dryer followed by a heat pump (SSD\\/HPD) or a hot air dryer (SSD\\/AD) both from drying kinetics and dried product quality points of view. The experiments were performed using the first-stage superheated steam drying temperature of 140°C while the second-stage

Yuvanaree Namsanguan; Warunee Tia; Sakamon Devahastin; Somchart Soponronnarit

2004-01-01

453

Leading Students to Investigate Diffusion as a Model of Brine Shrimp Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating experimental biology laboratory exercises with mathematical modeling can be an effective tool to enhance mathematical\\u000a relevance for biologists and to emphasize biological realism for mathematicians. This paper describes a lab project designed\\u000a for and tested in an undergraduate biomathematics course. In the lab, students follow and track the paths of individual brine\\u000a shrimp confined in shallow salt water in

Brynja R. Kohler; Rebecca J. Swank; James W. Haefner; James A. Powell

2010-01-01

454

Toxicity of Organophosphates on Morphology and Locomotor Behavior in Brine Shrimp, Artemia salina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity and hatching success of four organophosphorus insecticides—acephate (ACEP), chlorpyrifos (CPP), monocrotophos\\u000a (MCP), and profenofos (PF)—was studied in a short-term bioassay using brine shrimp, Artemia salina. Fifty percent hatchability inhibition concentration and median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated after probit transformation of the resulting data. Among the insecticides tested, CPP is found to\\u000a be the most toxic

J. Venkateswara Rao; P. Kavitha; N. M. Jakka; V. Sridhar; P. K. Usman

2007-01-01

455

West Greenland''s Cod-to-Shrimp Transition: Local Dimensions of Climatic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. West Greenland's transition from a cod-fishing to a shrimp-fishing economy, ca. 1960-90, provides a case study in the human dimensions of climatic change. Physical, biological, and social systems interacted in complex ways to affect coastal communities. For this integrated case study, we examine linkages between atmospheric conditions (including the North Atlantic Oscillation), ocean circulation, ecosystem conditions, fishery activities, and

Lawrence C. Hamilton; Benjamin C. Brown; Rasmus Ole Rasmussen

2003-01-01

456

Bacterial Population in Intestines of the Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under Different Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length?=?442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities. PMID:23577162

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2013-01-01

457

Oxygen, carbon, and sulfur cycling in the sediments of hyper-eutrophic mesocosms (shrimp mariculture ponds)  

E-print Network

demand. Sulfate reducing bacteria played a relatively minor role in the breakdown of organic matter and consumption of oxygen in King Ranch ponds. At the Laguna Madre Shrimp Farm, sulfide oxidation accounted for greater than 50/o of the sediment... oxygen demand. Differences between the two pond systems could be attributed to the grain size of the sediment and bioturbation by invertebrate communities. There was little evidence that sulfide created stressful conditions at the sediment...

Ellis, Matthew Stewart

1992-01-01

458

Detection of Salmonella enterica serovars in shrimps in eight hours by multiplex PCR assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and sensitive multiplex PCR (MPCR)-based assay was developed for the detection of Salmonella serovars in shrimps within 8 h of pre-enrichment. Five sets of primers from different genomic sequences such as fimA, himA, hns, invA and hto genes were selected for the detection of serovars of Salmonella enterica such as S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A, S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis

Geevaretnam Jeyasekaran; Kannan Thirumalai Raj; Robinsondhas Jeya Shakila; Albin Jemila Thangarani; Durai Raj Sukumar

459

Effects of Ocean Acidification on Early Life Stages of Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and Mussel (Mytilus edulis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification (OA) resulting from anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) has already lowered and is predicted to further lower surface ocean pH. There is a particular need to study effects of OA on organisms living in cold-water environments due to the higher solubility of CO2 at lower temperatures. Mussel larvae (Mytilus edulis) and shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis) were kept

Renée Katrin Bechmann; Ingrid Christina Taban; Stig Westerlund; Brit Fjone Godal; Maj Arnberg; Sjur Vingen; Anna Ingvarsdottir; Thierry Baussant

2011-01-01

460

Molecular cloning and characterization of prophenoloxidase in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA encoding shrimp, Penaeus monodon, prophenoloxidase (proPO) was obtained by screening a hemocyte library by plaque hybridization using a proPO cDNA fragment from freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, as a probe. The 3,002bp cDNA contains an open reading frame of 2,121bp and a 881bp 3?-untranslated region. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence (688 amino acids) is 78,700Da

Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; Lage Cerenius; Kenneth Söderhäll

1999-01-01

461

Immunomodulation by dietary ? -1, 3-glucan in the brooders of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the effectiveness of ?-1,3-glucan derived from Schizophyllum commune in enhancing shrimp survival as well as haemocyte phagocytosis and superoxide anion production in brooder Penaeus monodon. Pond-reared P. monodon adults (135±25g) stocked in outdoor or indoor tanks were fed either a test diet containing ?-1,3-glucan (2·0g kg?1) or a glucan-free control diet for 40 days. Their survival

Cheng-Fang Chang; Houng-Yung Chen; Mao-Sen Su; I-Chiu Liao

2000-01-01

462

Diversity and Distribution of Deep-Sea Shrimps in the Ross Sea Region of Antarctica  

PubMed Central

Although decapod crustaceans are widespread in the oceans, only Natantia (shrimps) are common in the Antarctic. Because remoteness, depth and ice cover restrict sampling in the South Ocean, species distribution modelling is a useful tool for evaluating distributions. We used physical specimen and towed camera data to describe the diversity and distribution of shrimps in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. Eight shrimp species were recorded: Chorismus antarcticus; Notocrangon antarcticus; Nematocarcinus lanceopes; Dendrobranchiata; Pasiphaea scotiae; Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri; Petalidium sp., and a new species of Lebbeus. For the two most common species, N. antarcticus and N. lanceopes, we used maximum entropy modelling, based on records of 60 specimens and over 1130 observations across 23 sites in depths from 269 m to 3433 m, to predict distributions in relation to environmental variables. Two independent sets of environmental data layers at 0.05° and 0.5° resolution respectively, showed how spatial resolution affected the model. Chorismus antarcticus and N. antarcticus were found only on the continental shelf and upper slopes, while N. lanceopes, Lebbeus n. sp., Dendrobranchiata, Petalidium sp., Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri, and Pasiphaea scotiae were found on the slopes, seamounts and abyssal plain. The environmental variables that contributed most to models for N. antarcticus were depth, chlorophyll-a concentration, temperature, and salinity, and for N. lanceopes were depth, ice concentration, seabed slope/rugosity, and temperature. The relative ranking, but not the composition of these variables changed in models using different spatial resolutions, and the predicted extent of suitable habitat was smaller in models using the finer-scale environmental layers. Our modelling indicated that shrimps were widespread throughout the Ross Sea region and were thus likely to play important functional role in the ecosystem, and that the spatial resolution of data needs to be considered both in the use of species distribution models. PMID:25051333

Basher, Zeenatul; Bowden, David A.; Costello, Mark J.

2014-01-01

463

SHRIMP U–Pb ages and depth of emplacement of Ladakh Batholith, Eastern Ladakh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ladakh Batholith represents subduction-related Andean-type magmatism, intruding an island arc setting. The age and emplacement of the batholith was examined along the Kharu-Chang La section having a width of ?25km. The SHRIMP-II U–Pb zircon age from a granodiorite near its northern boundary with the Shyok Suture Zone (SSZ) is 60.1±0.9Ma, whereas, a diorite from its southern boundary close to

Sandeep Singh; Rajeev Kumar; Mark E. Barley; A. K. Jain

2007-01-01

464

Purification and characterization of a lectin from the white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus ( Crustacea decapoda) hemolymph  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 291-kDa lectin (LsL) was purified from the hemolymph of the white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus by affinity chromatography on glutaraldehyde-fixed stroma from rabbit erythrocytes. LsL is a heterotetramer of two 80-kDa and two 52-kDa subunits, with no covalently-liked carbohydrate, and mainly composed by aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine and alanine, with relatively lower methionine and cysteine contents. Edman degradation indicated

Juan Alpuche; Ali Pereyra; Concepción Agundis; Carlos Rosas; Cristina Pascual; Marie-Christine Slomianny; Lorena Vázquez; Edgar Zenteno

2005-01-01

465

Transcriptome Analysis on Chinese Shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis during WSSV Acute Infection  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have discovered a lot of immune-related genes responding to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in crustacean. However, little information is available in relation to underlying mechanisms of host responses during the WSSV acute infection stage in naturally infected shrimp. In this study, we employed next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic techniques to observe the transcriptome differences of the shrimp between latent infection stage and acute infection stage. A total of 64,188,426 Illumina reads, including 31,685,758 reads from the latent infection group and 32,502,668 reads from the acute infection group, were generated and assembled into 46,676 unigenes (mean length: 676 bp; range: 200–15,094 bp). Approximately 24,000 peptides were predicted and classified based on homology searches, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous groups of proteins, and biological pathway mapping. Among which, 805 differentially expressed genes were identified and categorized into 11 groups based on their possible function. Genes in the Toll and IMD pathways, the Ras-activated endocytosis process, the RNA interference pathway, anti-lipopolysaccharide factors and many other genes, were found to be activated in shrimp from latent infection stage to acute infection stage. The anti-bacterially proPO-activating cascade was firstly uncovered to be probably participated in antiviral process. These genes contain not only members playing function in host defense against WSSV, but also genes utilized by WSSV for its rapid proliferation. In addition, the transcriptome data provides detail information for identifying novel genes in absence of the genome database of shrimp. PMID:23527000

Sun, Zheng; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2013-01-01

466

Identification, tissue distribution and orexigenic activity of neuropeptide F (NPF) in penaeid shrimp.  

PubMed

The neuropeptide Fs (NPFs) are an invertebrate subgroup of the FMRFamide-like peptides, and are proposed by some to be the homologs of vertebrate neuropeptide Y. Although there is some information about the identity, tissue distribution and function of NPFs in insects, essentially nothing is known about them in crustaceans. We have identified and characterized NPF-encoding transcripts from the penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Melicertus marginatus. Two transcripts were identified from each species. For each shrimp species, the two transcripts differed from one another by the presence or absence of an insert in the portion of the open reading frame that encodes the NPF peptide. The two NPF isoforms are identical in L. vannamei and M. marginatus, with their predicted structures being KPDPSQLANMAEALKYLQELDKYYSQVSRPRFamide and KPDPSQLANMAEALKYLQELDKYYSQVSRPSPRSAPGPASQIQALENTLKFLQLQELGKLYSLRARPRFamide. RT-PCR tissue profiling showed both transcripts are broadly distributed within the nervous system of each species. The transcript encoding the shorter NPF was detected in some, but not all, midgut samples. The transcript encoding the longer NPF was absent in the midgut of both species, and neither transcript was detected in their skeletal muscle. Juvenile L. vannamei fed on a diet supplemented with the shorter NPF exhibited a marked increase in food intake relative to control individuals that did not receive the supplement; the NPF-fed shrimp also showed a significant increase in growth relative to the control group. Our data suggest that NPF is present in both the nervous system and midgut of penaeid shrimp, functioning, at least in part, as a powerful orexigenic agent. PMID:21430216

Christie, Andrew E; Chapline, M Christine; Jackson, James M; Dowda, Jenilee K; Hartline, Niko; Malecha, Spencer R; Lenz, Petra H

2011-04-15

467

Indirect Effects of Salinity and Temperature on Kuwait’s Shrimp Stocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discharge of the Shatt Al-Arab is believed to be a dominating component of the northern Arabian Gulf’s ecology and largely\\u000a responsible for productivity of Kuwait’s fisheries. With major construction of dams on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in\\u000a Turkey, river discharge has been substantially reduced, and flooding essentially eliminated. We attempted to relate river\\u000a flow and shrimp landings indirectly by

James Marcus Bishop; Weizhong Chen; Adel Hasan Alsaffar; Hussain Mahmoud Al-Foudari

468

L-Type lectin from the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus promotes hemocyte phagocytosis.  

PubMed

L-Type lectins (LTLs) contain a luminal carbohydrate recognition domain, which exhibits homology to leguminous lectins. These type I membrane proteins are involved in the early secretory pathway of animals, and have functions in glycoprotein sorting, trafficking and targeting. Recent studies suggest that LTLs may be involved in immune responses in vertebrates, but no functional studies have been reported. This study reports an LTL, designated as MjLTL1, from the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. MjLTL consists of a signal peptide, leguminous lectin domain, and transmembrane region. It was upregulated following challenge of shrimp with Vibrio anguillarum. MjLTL1 could agglutinate several bacteria with the presence of calcium, and bind to several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria through lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan binding. MjLTL1 could enhance the clearance of V. anguillarum in vivo. MjLTL1 silencing by RNA interference could impair bacterial clearance ability. Further study suggested that MjLTL1 promoted hemocyte phagocytosis. To analyze the possible mechanism, a disintegrin and metalloprotease-like protein (MjADAM) mediating the proteolytic release of extracellular domains from the membrane-bound precursors was also studied in the shrimp. MjADAM exhibited similar tissue location and expression profiles to MjLTL1. After knockdown of MjADAM, the hemocyte phagocytosis rate also declined significantly. ADAM was reported to have an ectodomain shedding function to LTL and release the ectodomain of the lectin from cell membrane. Therefore, our results suggest that the extracellular domain of MjLTL1 might be released from the cell surface as a soluble protein by MjADAM, and function as an opsonin involved in the antibacterial immune responses in shrimp. PMID:24508102

Xu, Sen; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Yan-Ran; Bi, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

2014-06-01

469

Effect of mass concentration of immobilized Spirulina platensis on nitrogen removal from simulated shrimp pond water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lerksasen, P. and Wantawin, C. Effect of mass concentration of immobilized Spirulina platensis on nitrogen removal from simulated shrimp pond water for Sp V-1, Sp IV-1 and Sp II-1 mat reactors adding five, four and two times of 0.2 OD 560 S. platensis respectively. In accordance with statistic, the results of nitrogen removal tests by applying those immobilized mats in

Patama Lerksasen; Chalermraj Wantawin

2007-01-01

470

Identification, tissue distribution and orexigenic activity of neuropeptide F (NPF) in penaeid shrimp  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The neuropeptide Fs (NPFs) are an invertebrate subgroup of the FMRFamide-like peptides, and are proposed by some to be the homologs of vertebrate neuropeptide Y. Although there is some information about the identity, tissue distribution and function of NPFs in insects, essentially nothing is known about them in crustaceans. We have identified and characterized NPF-encoding transcripts from the penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Melicertus marginatus. Two transcripts were identified from each species. For each shrimp species, the two transcripts differed from one another by the presence or absence of an insert in the portion of the open reading frame that encodes the NPF peptide. The two NPF isoforms are identical in L. vannamei and M. marginatus, with their predicted structures being KPDPSQLANMAEALKYLQELDKYYSQVSRPRFamide and KPDPSQLANMAEALKYLQELDKYYSQVSRPSPRSAPGPASQIQALENTLKFLQLQELGKLYSLRARPRFamide. RT-PCR tissue profiling showed both transcripts are broadly distributed within the nervous system of each species. The transcript encoding the shorter NPF was detected in some, but not all, midgut samples. The transcript encoding the longer NPF was absent in the midgut of both species, and neither transcript was detected in their skeletal muscle. Juvenile L. vannamei fed on a diet supplemented with the shorter NPF exhibited a marked increase in food intake relative to control individuals that did not receive the supplement; the NPF-fed shrimp also showed a significant increase in growth relative to the control group. Our data suggest that NPF is present in both the nervous system and midgut of penaeid shrimp, functioning, at least in part, as a powerful orexigenic agent. PMID:21430216

Christie, Andrew E.; Chapline, M. Christine; Jackson, James M.; Dowda, Jenilee K.; Hartline, Niko; Malecha, Spencer R.; Lenz, Petra H.

2011-01-01

471

Seabird use of discards from a nearshore shrimp fishery in the South Atlantic Bight, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shrimp trawling is common throughout the southeastern and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the USA and is the primary contributor to fisheries discards in these regions. Tens of thousands of nearshore seabirds nest near shrimp trawling grounds in the USA, but to date, there has been no assessment of the relationship between seabirds and shrimp trawlers. We examined the taxonomic composition of bycatch, rate at which seabirds scavenged bycatch, and energy density of discarded bycatch in a nearshore commercial shrimp fishery. Bycatch was primarily comprised of demersal fish that are not typically accessible to the plunge-diving and surface-feeding seabirds that occur in the area. Hence, seabird diets in the region appear to be broadened taxonomically by the availability of discards. Results from discard experiments indicated that 70% of the nearly 5,500 items discarded by hand were scavenged by seabirds and that the fate of a discarded item was most strongly predicted by its taxonomic order. Laughing gulls scavenged the greatest proportion of discards, although brown pelicans were the only species to scavenge more discards than predicted based upon their abundance. Because this is the first such study in the region, it is difficult to ascertain the extent or intensity of the impact that discards have on nearshore seabirds. Nonetheless, our results suggest that it will be difficult for managers to clearly understand fluctuations in local seabird population dynamics without first understanding the extent to which these species rely upon discards. This may be especially problematic in situations where seabird populations are recovering following natural or anthropogenic stressors. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Jodice, P.G.R.; Wickliffe, L.C.; Sachs, E.B.

2011-01-01

472

The effects of thermal amplitude on the growth of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck, 1765)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of thermal amplitude of diel fluctuating temperature on the growth, food consumption, food conversion efficiency and apparent digestibility coefficient of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck), with initial body weight of 0.36±0.04 g were studied at average temperature 25, 28 and 31 °C from May to July, 2000. Among four diel different fluctuation amplitudes of ±1, ±2, ±3 and ±4°C,

Xiangli Tian; Shuanglin Dong

2006-01-01

473

SHRiMP: Accurate Mapping of Short Color-space Reads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of Next Generation Sequencing technologies, capable of sequencing hundreds of millions of short reads (25–70 bp each) in a single run, is opening the door to population genomic studies of non-model species. In this paper we present SHRiMP - the SHort Read Mapping Package: a set of algorithms and methods to map short reads to a genome, even

Stephen M. Rumble; Phil Lacroute; Adrian V. Dalca; Marc Fiume; Arend Sidow; Michael Brudno

2009-01-01

474

Pathogenicity of a pseudomonad bacterium to larvae of penaeid and brine shrimp  

E-print Network

into body during shrimp ecdysis, or diffusion through cell membrane in an osmotic process. Studies on the patho- g 'tyof off k ho ' t th A ' 1bt (Homarus americanus) revealed that administration of the bacteria in food produced no adverse effects...- brates, such as American lobster (H. americanus) and 9'd* 9 (M ' e ' d )(L ', 1967). 6 . LM* contrary, Leong (personal communication) observed increased coagulation time of P. setiferus hemolymph to 4 hr or more when injected with heat...

Huang, Chu-Liang

2012-06-07

475

Metabolic, respiratory and cardiovascular responses to acute and chronic hypoxic exposure in tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus.  

PubMed

Hypoxic exposure experienced during sensitive developmental periods can shape adult physiological capabilities and define regulatory limits. Tadpole shrimp were reared under normoxic (19-21 kPa O(2)), moderate (10-13 kPa O(2)) or severe (1-3 kPa O(2)) hypoxic conditions to investigate the influence of developmental oxygen partial pressure (P(O(2))) on adult metabolic, respiratory and cardiovascular physiology. Developmental P(O(2)) had no effect on metabolic rate or metabolic response to hypoxic exposure in adults. All rearing groups decreased O(2) consumption as water P(O(2)) decreased. Heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output were independent of P(O(2)) down to 5 kPa O(2) in all rearing groups. Below this, cardiac output was maintained only in tadpole shrimp reared under severe hypoxic conditions. The enhanced ability to maintain cardiac output was attributed to an increase in hemoglobin concentration and O(2)-binding affinity in those animals. Oxygen-delivery potential was also significantly higher in the group reared under severe hypoxic conditions (1,336 microl O(2) min(-1)) when compared with the group reared under normoxic conditions (274 microl O(2) min(-1)). Differences among the rearing groups that were dependent on hemoglobin were not considered developmental effects because hemoglobin concentration could be increased within seven days of hypoxic exposure independent of developmental P(O(2)). Hypoxia-induced hemoglobin synthesis may be a compensatory mechanism that allows tadpole shrimp to regulate O(2) uptake and transport in euryoxic (O(2) variable) environments. The results of this study indicate that increased hemoglobin concentration, increased O(2)-binding affinity and transient decreases in metabolic demand may account for tadpole shrimp hypoxic tolerance. PMID:16621945

Harper, S L; Reiber, C L

2006-05-01

476

Metabolic, respiratory and cardiovascular responses to acute and chronic hypoxic exposure in tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxic exposure experienced during sensitive developmental periods can shape adult physiological capabilities and define regulatory limits. Tadpole shrimp were reared under normoxic (19-21·kPa O2), moderate (10-13·kPa O2) or severe (1-3·kPa O2) hypoxic conditions to investigate the influence of developmental oxygen partial pressure (PO2 2) on adult metabolic, respiratory and cardiovascular physiology. Developmental PO22 had no effect on metabolic rate or

S. L. Harper; C. L. Reiber

2006-01-01

477

An analysis of the impact of alternative import management policies for shrimp  

E-print Network

terms are allowed. Domestic producers are finding it difficult to compete with imports under hese conditions. In fact, the harvesting industry views the import problem as the principal threat to their recovery and well being. Although imports may...AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE IMPORT MANAGEMENT POLICIES FOR SHRIMP A Thesis by 3ANE CHADWICK HOPKINS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Hopkins, Jane Chadwick

2012-06-07

478

Toward shrimp without chemical additives: A combined freezing-MAP approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effects of freezing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) containing two different gas mixtures (100% N2 or 50% N2–50% CO2) on the chemical properties and melanosis of deep-water rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) was investigated and compared to both a traditional sulfiting treatment and vacuum packaging (VP). Changes in pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) levels

Gioacchino Bono; Cinzia Vita Badalucco; Salvatore Cusumano; Giovanni B. Palmegiano

479

Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-10-01

480

High salinity induced expression profiling of differentially expressed genes in shrimp (Penaeus monodon).  

PubMed

Four suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries were constructed to identify differentially expressed salinity stress responsive genes of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon exposed to high (55 ppt) salinity conditions. One each of the forward and reverse SSH cDNA libraries were developed from the gill and gut tissues of shrimp and clones having inserts larger than 300 bp were unidirectionally sequenced. Based on the sequence homology search, the identified genes were categorized for their putative functions related to a wide range of biological roles, such as nucleic acid regulation and replication, immune response, energy and metabolism, signal transduction, cellular process, structural and membrane proteins, stress and osmoregulation. Gene expression levels in response to high salinity conditions at 2 weeks post salinity stress for some of the differentially expressed genes (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?-subunit, glutathione peroxidase, intracellular fatty acid binding protein, elongation factor 2, 14-3-3 like protein, penaeidin, translationally controlled tumor protein, transglutaminase and serine proteinase inhibitor B3) identified from SSH cDNA libraries were analysed by real-time RT-PCR. The highest gene expression levels was observed for Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?-subunit in gill tissues (15.23-folds) and antennal glands (12.01-folds) and intracellular fatty acid binding protein in gut tissues (14.05-folds) respectively. The differential and significant levels of gene expression indicate the functional role of these genes in shrimp salinity stress adaptive mechanisms. PMID:24973887

Shekhar, M S; Kiruthika, J; Rajesh, S; Ponniah, A G

2014-09-01

481

Nickel(II) biosorption from aqueous solutions by shrimp head biomass.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates the capacity of shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) head to remove toxic Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Relevant parameters that could affect the biosorption process, such as shrimp head pretreatment, solution pH level, contact time and initial Ni(II) concentration, were studied in batch systems. An increase in Ni(II) biosorption capacity and a reduction in the time required to reach Ni(II) biosorption equilibrium was manifested by shrimp head biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.5 N NaOH for 15 min; this biomass was thereafter denominated APSH. The optimum biosorption level of Ni(II) ions onto APSH was observed at pH 7.0. Biosorption increased significantly with rising initial Ni(II) concentration. In terms of biosorption dynamics, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model described Ni(II) biosorption onto APSH best. The equilibrium data adequately fitted the Langmuir isotherm model within the studied Ni(II) ion concentration range. According to this isotherm model, the maximum Ni(II) biosorption capacity of APSH was 104.22 mg/g. Results indicate that APSH could be used as a low-cost, environmentally friendly, and promising biosorbent with high biosorption capacity to remove Ni(II) from aqueous solutions. PMID:25129383

Hernández-Estévez, Alejandro; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

2014-11-01

482

Leading students to investigate diffusion as a model of brine shrimp movement.  

PubMed

Integrating experimental biology laboratory exercises with mathematical modeling can be an effective tool to enhance mathematical relevance for biologists and to emphasize biological realism for mathematicians. This paper describes a lab project designed for and tested in an undergraduate biomathematics course. In the lab, students follow and track the paths of individual brine shrimp confined in shallow salt water in a Petri dish. Students investigate the question, "Is the movement well characterized as a 2-dimensional random walk?" Through open, but directed discussions, students derive the corresponding partial differential equation, gain an understanding of the solution behavior, and model brine shrimp dispersal under the experimental conditions developed in class. Students use data they collect to estimate a diffusion coefficient, and perform additional experiments of their own design tracking shrimp migration for model validation. We present our teaching philosophy, lecture notes, instructional and lab procedures, and the results of our class-tested experiments so that others can implement this exercise in their classes. Our own experience has led us to appreciate the pedagogical value of allowing students and faculty to grapple with open-ended questions, imperfect data, and the various issues of modeling biological phenomena. PMID:19816745

Kohler, Brynja R; Swank, Rebecca J; Haefner, James W; Powell, James A

2010-01-01

483

Phosphorus geochemistry in a Brazilian semiarid mangrove soil affected by shrimp farm effluents.  

PubMed

Wastewater discharge from shrimp farming is one of the main causes of eutrophication in mangrove ecosystems. We investigated the phosphorus (P) geochemistry in mangrove soils affected by shrimp farming effluents by carrying out a seasonal study of two mangrove forests (a control site (CS); a site affected by shrimp farm effluents (SF)). We determined the soil pH, redox potential (Eh), total organic carbon (TOC), total phosphorus (TP), and dissolved P. We also carried out sequential extraction of the P-solid phases. In SF, the effluents affected the soil physicochemical conditions, resulting in lower Eh and higher pH, as well as lower TOC and higher TP than in CS. Organic P forms were dominant in both sites and seasons, although to a lesser extent in SF. The lower TOC in SF was related to the increased microbial activity and organic matter decomposition caused by fertilization. The higher amounts of P oxides in SF suggest that the effluents alter the dominance of iron and sulfate reduction in mangrove soils, generating more reactive Fe that is available for bonding to phosphates. Strong TP losses were recorded in both sites during the dry season, in association with increased amounts of exchangeable and dissolved P. The higher bioavailability of P during the dry season may be attributed to increased mineralization of organic matter and dissolution of Ca-P in response to more oxidizing and acidic conditions. The P loss has significant environmental implications regarding eutrophication and marine productivity. PMID:24838803

Nóbrega, G N; Otero, X L; Macías, F; Ferreira, T O

2014-09-01

484

Colorado River Floods, Droughts, and Shrimp Fishing in the Upper Gulf of California, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate procedures that measure hydrologic variability would have great value for evaluating ecosystem impacts of upstream water use in the Colorado River Basin. Many local extractive income-based stakeholders rely directly or indirectly on ecosystem health and are adversely affected when the river does not flow. This study focuses on the impact of little or no Colorado River flow on the Mexican shrimp industry. Although there have been complaints that U.S. diversions of Colorado River flow have greatly impaired the shrimp fishery, this research demonstrates that freshwater rarely reaches the Gulf even during times of flooding, and that other factors such as overfishing may influence the instability of shrimp populations. Advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery was used to assess water volumes diverted away from the channel of the Colorado River and ultimately the Gulf of California during flooding periods. Analysis of data demonstrated that little freshwater actually reaches the Gulf even during floods because of its diversion into a large dry lake bed basin known as Laguna Salada. Fuller use of the Colorado River throughout its entire course to the sea is possible and could benefit a large cohort of users without catastrophic habitat destruction in delta ecosystems. Reconstruction of a natural earthen berm, as proposed by Ducks Unlimited, would maximize the use of floodwaters for ecosystem benefits. These findings have profound implications for local economic activities dependent on hydrologic resources in the Colorado River Delta and Upper Gulf.

All, John D.

2006-01-01

485

Protective effect of shrimp carotenoids against ammonia stress in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

This study is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of shrimp carotenoids on ammonia stress in common carp. Crude carotenoid extract from shrimp exoskeleton, astaxanthin and astaxanthin ester fractionated from crude extract was fed to the common carp fingerlings at 100 and 200ppm concentration by incorporating carotenoids into feed. Experimental and control fish were then exposed to sublethal dose of ammonia. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were measured to determine the effect of dietary carotenoid on defense status of fish. Activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured to determine the protective effect of carotenoids against tissue damage caused by the ammonia stress. TAS, catalase and SOD activity was higher in tissues from fish fed with the diet containing astaxanthin rich and astaxanthin ester rich extract compared to fish fed with control diet. TAS reduced in the tissues considerably after exposure to ammonia. However, TAS was still higher in tissues from fish fed with carotenoid containing diet than in tissues from fish fed with control diet. Eventhough there was an increase in the activities of ALT and AST due to stress by ammonia toxicity in all groups, fish fed with astaxanthin extract had lower activities and also prevented lipid peroxidation in the tissues. In conclusion, shrimp carotenoid increased the resistance of common carp fingerlings to ammonia induced stress. PMID:25011116

Rama, Sowmya; Manjabhat, Sachindra N

2014-09-01

486

Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

2015-01-01

487

Biodegradation and microbial community changes upon shrimp shell wastes amended in mangrove river sediment.  

PubMed

Chitin, a homopolymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) residues linked by beta 1-4 bonds, is the most abundant renewable natural resource after cellulose. It is widely distributed in nature as the integuments of crustaceans and insects and as a component of fungi and algae. This study investigated the effects of a bifunctional chitinase/lysozyme-producing strain, Pseudomonas aeruginosa K-187, on degradation of shrimp shells and the survival conditions of bacterial strains in mangrove river sediment of Tamsui River. The structures of the whole bacterial community of the samples were measured by using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technique. Results show that three bacterial strains (Acrobacter sp., Shewanella sp., and Marinobacterium sp.) which originated from the mangrove river sediment were found predominant in the 6 days-incubation sample of P. aeruginosa K-187 amended mangrove river sediment. Meanwhile, biomass, reducing sugar, and total sugar were found highest in the 6 weeks-incubation sample of shrimp shell powder and P. aeruginosa K-187-amended mangrove river sediment. According to the results, we assumed that the amendment of P. aeruginosa K-187 can enhance the biodegradation of shrimp shells in the seawater containing mangrove river sediment. We hope that these findings may provide some useful information for the reclamation of chitin-containing wastes in our environment. PMID:20512738

Chen, Wen-Ching; Tseng, Wan-Nine; Hsieh, Jia-Lin; Wang, Yei-Shung; Wang, San-Lang

2010-07-01

488

Efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water for reducing pathogenic bacteria contaminating shrimp.  

PubMed

Pathogenic contamination is a food safety concern. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) in killing pathogens, namely, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Escherichia coli in shrimp. Pure cultures of each pathogen were submerged separately in NEW containing five different chlorine concentrations: 10, 30, 50, 70, and 100 ppm. For each concentration, three submersion times were tested: 1, 3, and 5 min. The population of V. parahaemolyticus was rapidly reduced even at low concentrations, but prolonged contact times caused only a slight reduction. V. vulnificus was gradually inhibited with increasing NEW concentrations and contact times. For the V. parahaemolyticus applications of 70 ppm for 5 min and of 100 ppm for 3 min, each eliminated 7 log CFU/ml. For V. vulnificus, applications of 50 ppm for 3 min and 100 ppm for 1 min, each eliminated 7 log CFU/ml. Salmonella Enteritidis and E. coli were slightly reduced by NEW. Applications of 50 ppm for 15 min and 10 ppm for 30 min completely eliminated 4.16 log CFU/g of V. parahaemolyticus in inoculated shrimp, while only a 1-log CFU/g reduction of V. vulnificus was detected. Soaking shrimp in 10 ppm NEW for 30 min did not affect its sensory quality. Our results suggest NEW could be an alternative sanitizer to improve the microbiological quality of seafood. PMID:25474069

Ratana-Arporn, Pattama; Jommark, Naruemon

2014-12-01

489

Study of the bacterial ecosystem in tropical cooked and peeled shrimps using a polyphasic approach.  

PubMed

The characterization of the microbial ecosystem of cooked tropical shrimps was carried out using a polyphasic approach. First, culture-dependent methods were used for bacterial enumeration and the phenotypic and molecular identification of bacterial isolates. Then, culture-independent methods, including PCR-TTGE (V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene), provided a fingerprinting of bacterial DNA directly extracted from shrimps. Two batches of cooked and peeled tropical shrimps were stored at 5 and 15 degrees C for 5 and 3 weeks, respectively. Trained panelists carried out a sensory evaluation and microbiological enumerations were performed. When spoilage of samples was perceived, several colonies were isolated from the total viable count media. Thus, 137 bacterial strains were identified by phenotypic and molecular tests. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constituted the major group with the most represented genera being Carnobacterium (C. divergens, C. maltaromaticum and indiscernible C. alterfunditum/pleistocenium), Vagococcus (indiscernible V. carniphilus/fluvialis) and Enterococcus (E. faecalis and E. faecium). The other groups corresponded to Brochothrix thermosphacta and Enterobacteriaceae (Serratia liquefaciens). In PCR-TTGE profiles some of DNA fragments were assigned to those of standard strains (S. liquefaciens, B. thermosphacta, E. faecalis, C. divergens and C. maltaromaticum) or identified isolates from culture-dependent analysis (E. faecium). Other additional informations were provided by fragment cloning (Psychrobacter sp, Citrobacter gillenii and Firmicute). In conclusion, TTGE is an excellent tool to monitor the evolution of the microbial ecosystem in seafood products. PMID:18573557

Jaffrès, E; Sohier, D; Leroi, F; Pilet, M F; Prévost, H; Joffraud, J J; Dousset, X

2009-04-30

490

Immune responses and gene expression in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, induced by Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

The total haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Vibrio alginolyticus, as well as prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), serine protein (SP), and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA transcription of L. vannamei, and its susceptibility to V. alginolyticus when the shrimp were fed diets containing Lactobacillus plantarum at 0 (control), 10(7), and 10(10) cfu (kg diet) (-1) for 48 and 168 h were evaluated. The results indicated that PO activity, SOD activity, clearance efficiency to V. alginolyticus, proPO and PE mRNA transcription, and the survival rate after challenge with V. alginolyticus all significantly increased, but the total haemocyte counts significantly decreased in shrimp fed a diet containing Lac. plantarum at 10(10) cfu (kg diet) (-1) for 168 h. However, no significant differences in phagocytosis, LGBP, or SP mRNA expression of shrimp were observed among the different treatments. It was concluded that administration of Lac. plantarum in the diet at 10(10) cfu (kg diet) (-1) induced immune modulation and enhanced the immune ability of L. vannamei, and increased its resistance to V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:17337209

Chiu, Chiu-Hsia; Guu, Yuan-Kuang; Liu, Chun-Hung; Pan, Tzu-Ming; Cheng, Winton

2007-08-01

491

Biokinetics of radiocesium in shrimp (Palaemon adspersus): seawater and food exposures.  

PubMed

The bioaccumulation of (134)Cs was studied in the shrimp Palaemon adspersus (Rathke, 1837) using dissolved or food pathways. The uptake and loss kinetics (following seawater and food uptake) were followed for 27 and 38 days, respectively. The steady state concentration factor (CFss) value of (134)Cs in the whole body of the shrimp was found to be 15 ± 0.08. The loss kinetics of radiocesium was described by a two-component exponential model, with a biological half-life of 85.5 days for the whole body. The depuration kinetics of (134)Cs was best fitted to a single-component exponential model for both edible and inedible parts. The depuration kinetics of (134)Cs following exposure via pulse-chase feeding was also described by a two-component exponential model, with a biological half-life of 84.2 days. Assimilation efficiency (AE) was found to be 38.5%. Most of the radioactivity was accumulated in muscular tissues (the edible part) of the shrimp compared to the remaining soft parts. The average of the total body burden of (134)Cs eliminated with molting was %15.3 ± 8.1. PMID:24518935

Sezer, Narin; Belivermi?, Murat; K?l?ç, Önder; Topcuo?lu, Sayhan; Çotuk, Yavuz

2014-06-01

492

Variations in the microbial log reduction curves of irradiated cod fillets, shrimp, and their respective homogenates.  

PubMed Central

When cod (Gadus morhua morhua) and headless white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) were gamma irradiated with a series of low-ionizing radiation doses, a "shoulder(s)" was observed in the graph (log microbial counts versus dose) in the approximate range of 25 to 75 krads. When the microbiological survivors were differentiated into total counts, proteolytic and pseudomonad-type bacteria, it was observed that the pseudomonad-type bacteria were rapidly destroyed by 25 krads and that proteolytic bacteria were destroyed at a faster rate than the rest of the microorganisms. When cod fillets and shrimp were compared with their respective homogenates and irradiated at doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 150, 200, and 300 krads, the homogenates did not exhibit the characteristic shoulders. A further experiment was designed to test surface versus uniform dispersion of microorganisms on/in gelatin disks subjects to low doses of irradiation. Differences were found that may explain the observed differences between solid food materials such as fish fillets and shrimp and their homogenates. PMID:848955

Green, J H; Kaylor, J D

1977-01-01

493

Analysis of the marine shrimp culture production chain in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was elaborated to identify and describe the main links of the sea shrimp productive chain in the municipal district of Laguna, historically known as the main sea shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) production area in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The study, held from April to July 2005, previously identified the local productive process through observation, interviews and bibliographical research. Afterwards, specific questionnaires were elaborated for each of the several segments connected to the local activity. A total of 90 interviews were conducted, intending to map out the procedures and functionality of the productive chain, from the necessary inputs for production to the moment of shrimp acquisition by final consumers. Results indicated that the entire productive chain requires actions that range from improvement of sanitary and genetic conditions of larvae to product commercialization. Reduction of bureaucracy in public organs, better investment credit conditions, improvement in productive practices, training of technical and productive labor, and reduction of production costs will not occur until industrialization politics and commercialization of local production are standardized. PMID:19488633

Freitas, Rodrigo R; Vinatea, Luis; A Netto, Sérgio

2009-06-01

494

SEXUAL STERILIZATION OF THE DAGGERBLADE GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO (DECAPODA, PALAEMONIDAE) BY THE BOPYRID ISOPOD PROBOPYRUS PANDALICOLA (ISOPODA, BOPYRIDAE).  

PubMed

Abstract Probopyrus pandalicola is a bopyrid isopod that infects several palaemonid shrimp species, including the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. The parasite can have several negative effects on its host, including loss of hemolymph, reduced reproductive potential, and decreased molting frequency and growth. To date, there are conflicting reports on whether Probopyrus pandalicola affects the reproductive capability of both male and female daggerblade grass shrimp. The purpose of this study was to determine whether infection by Probopyrus pandalicola resulted in the sexual sterilization of Palaemonetes pugio, and if the reproductive capability of male and/or female shrimp was restored after the bopyrid was removed. We found that parasitized and deparasitized males were able to successfully fertilize the eggs of unparasitized females, as 18.9±7.1% and 42.7±5.2% of the females paired with them became ovigerous in 4 wk, respectively. Neither parasitized nor deparasitized females became ovigerous when placed with unparasitized males during the 4-wk period. However, 45.4±20.6% of deparasitized females did become ovigerous within 10 wk. Despite the fact that female shrimp are able to reproduce when no longer parasitized, the majority of females remain infected with the bopyrid for their entire lives. Therefore, the sexual sterilization of female shrimp could potentially have a significant impact on estuarine food webs, as grass shrimp are conduits of detrital energy and a food source for many recreationally and commercially important species in estuaries on the East Coast of the U.S.A. and in the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:25353615

Sherman, Michele B; Curran, Mary Carla

2014-10-29

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Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Hepatopancreas in Response to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Experimental Infection  

PubMed Central

Background The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is a worldwide cultured crustacean species with important commercial value. Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) h