Sample records for shrimp branchinecta sandiegonensis

  1. Optimized DNA extraction methods for encysted embryos of the endangered fairy shrimp, Branchinecta sandiegonensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison N. Steele; Marie A. Simovich; Domenica Pepino; Kathleen McNamara Schroeder; Amy G. Vandergast; Andrew J. Bohonak

    2009-01-01

    The San Diego fairy shrimp Branchinecta sandiegonensis is a federally endangered species endemic to vernal pools in southern California, USA. Filling events in these habitats are\\u000a highly variable, with some pools failing to hold water long enough for reproduction over many successive years. Studies of\\u000a this species are thus hindered by the relatively rare appearance of aquatically active life history

  2. Optimized DNA extraction methods for encysted embryos of the endangered fairy shrimp, Branchinecta sandiegonensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, A.N.; Simovich, M.A.; Pepino, D.; Schroeder, K.M.; Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The San Diego fairy shrimp Branchinecta sandiegonensis is a federally endangered species endemic to vernal pools in southern California, USA. Filling events in these habitats are highly variable, with some pools failing to hold water long enough for reproduction over many successive years. Studies of this species are thus hindered by the relatively rare appearance of aquatically active life history phases. Because diapausing cysts are abundant and present at all times, they provide an underutilized opportunity for both species identification and genetic studies. However, methods for extracting DNA from cysts are technically challenging because of their structure and size. Here we present a protocol for extracting DNA from B. sandiegonensis cysts in sufficient quantities for "DNA Barcoding", microsatellite analysis and other genotyping and sequencing applications. The technique will aid in population genetic studies and species identification (since taxonomic keys only distinguish among adults), and will be applicable to other crustaceans with similar diapausing cysts. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  3. Feeding behaviour in the Antarctic fairy shrimp, Branchinecta gaini

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Hawes

    2008-01-01

    Direct observations of feeding behaviour in Branchinecta gaini are described. B. gaini possess sophisticated food manipulation behaviours, using their abdominal appendages to ‘scrape’ at and carry away food items.\\u000a Scraping behaviour was employed by animals for both detrital feeding and the cannibalisation of dead conspecifics. In the\\u000a absence of like observations from other non-raptatory species of Branchinecta, it appears that

  4. Uptake of lead, cadmium and zinc by the fairy shrimp, Branchinecta longiantenna (Crustacea: Anostraca)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Mizutani; Eric Ifune; Andrew Zanella; Clyde Eriksen

    1991-01-01

    Individuals of the fairy shrimp, Branchinecta longiantenna, were subjected to 5 concentrations (0.1 to 15 mg l-1) of Pb in diluted habitat water at 13 °C. Lead concentrations (mg kg-1 wet weight) in the animals were determined at 2-day intervals by digestion in nitric acid followed by atomic absorption analysis. The shrimp were also subjected to 0.1 mg l-1 media

  5. Branchinecta belki n. sp. (Branchiopoda: Anostraca), a new fairy shrimp from Mexico, hybridizing with B. packardi Pearse under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro M. Maeda-Martinez; Hortencia Obregon-Barboza; Henri J. Dumont

    1992-01-01

    A new fairy shrimp,Branchinecta belki n.sp., endemic to the south of Coahuila state is described and figured. A total of nine species of phyllopods, including the new species, occur in ponds in the type area.

  6. Identification of co-occurring Branchinecta fairy shrimp species from encysted embryos using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Vandergast, A G; Wood, D A; Simovich, M; Bohonak, A J

    2009-05-01

    Morphological identification of many fairy shrimp species is difficult because distinguishing characters are restricted to adults. We developed two multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays that differentiate among three Branchinecta fairy shrimp with distributional overlap in southern California vernal pools. Two of the species are federally listed as threatened. Molecular identification of Branchinecta from cysts allows for species surveys to be conducted during the dry season, expanding the timeframe for population assessment and providing a less intrusive method of sampling sensitive vernal pool habitats. PMID:21564739

  7. Identification of co-occurring Branchinecta fairy shrimp species from encysted embryos using multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Wood, D.A.; Simovich, M.; Bohonak, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Morphological identification of many fairy shrimp species is difficult because distinguishing characters are restricted to adults. We developed two multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays that differentiate among three Branchinecta fairy shrimp with distributional overlap in southern California vernal pools. Two of the species are federally listed as threatened. Molecular identification of Branchinecta from cysts allows for species surveys to be conducted during the dry season, expanding the timeframe for population assessment and providing a less intrusive method of sampling sensitive vernal pool habitats. ?? Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. The osmotic adaptation of the fairy shrimp Branchinecta campestris Lynch to saline astatic waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDMUND S. BROCH

    1969-01-01

    The fairy shrimp Branchinectu campestris was found in association with Artemia sulinu (L.) in four saline astatic lakes in Okanogan County, Washington, and in British Columbia. In all four lakes sulfate was the predominant ion making up in milliequivalencc 48% of the total ions. The predominant cations sodium and magnesium occurred in varying pro- portions. The osmotic concentration of Penley

  9. Genetic utility of natural history museum specimens: endangered fairy shrimp (Branchiopoda, Anostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Adam R.; Campo, Daniel; Wetzer, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We examined the potential utility of museum specimens as a source for genetic analysis of fairy shrimp. Because of loss of their vernal pool habitat, some fairy shrimp (including Branchinecta sandiegonensis and Branchinecta lynchi) are listed as threatened or endangered in Southern California by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Management of those species requires extensive population genetics studies and the resolution of important genetic complexity (e.g. possible hybridization between endangered and non-endangered species). Regulations mandating deposition of specimens of listed species have resulted in thousands of specimens accessioned into the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County that have been preserved in a variety of solutions. We subsampled those specimens, as well as other Anostraca with known collection and preservation histories, to test their potential for genetic analysis by attempting DNA extraction and amplification for mt16SrDNA. Fixation and preservation in not denatured ethanol had a far greater sequencing success rate than other (and unknown) fixatives and preservatives. To maximize scientific value we recommend field preservation in 95% not denatured ethanol (or, if pure ethanol is unavailable, high-proof drinking spirits, e.g. Everclear™, or 151 proof white rum), followed by storage in 95% not denatured ethanol. PMID:25561827

  10. Life cycle of Boeckella poppei Mrazek and Branchinecta gaini Daday (King George Island, South Shetlands)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnieszka Pociecha; Henri J. Dumont

    2008-01-01

    In Lake Wujka, a shallow, polymictic Antarctic lake situated at 15 m from the seashore, several yearly cohorts occur of the\\u000a copepod Boeckella poppei and one of the fairy shrimp Branchinecta gaini. There is circumstantial evidence that the two species compete for food, and perhaps adult fairy shrimp feed on the nauplii\\u000a of the copepod. Both species are positively influenced by

  11. 77 FR 36287 - Receipt of Application for the Amendment of the Incidental Take Permit for the Multiple Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...include the federally listed endangered San Diego fairy shrimp (Branchinecta sandiegonensis) and the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), an MSCP Subarea Plan covered species. More details on the specific parcels and their locations are...

  12. Habitat Ephemerality and Hatching Fractions of a Diapausing Anostracan

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    County inhabited by the endemic fairy shrimp Branchinecta sandiegonensis (Branchiopoda: Anostraca Marie A Simovich2 , Thomas E. Philippi3 , Ellen T. Bauder4 , and Jacob A. Moorad5 Keywords:Branchinectasandiegonensis,diapause,fairy shrimp,SanDiegoCounty,vernalpool Extended Abstract Diapause allows aquatic organisms to survive periods

  13. MICROSATELLITE LETTERS Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci

    E-print Network

    Bohonak, Andrew J.

    . Bohonak Department of Biology, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Dr., San Diego, CA 92182 of Biology, University of San Diego, 5998 Alcala´ Park, San Diego, CA 92110, USA e-mail: simo in the endangered San Diego fairy shrimp (Branchinecta sandiegonensis) Joelle M. Andrews · Andrew J. Bohonak · Marie

  14. JOURNAL OF CRUSTACEAN BIOLOGY, 33(5), 730-740, 2013 LANDSCAPE HOMOGENIZATION THREATENS THE GENETIC INTEGRITY OF THE

    E-print Network

    Bohonak, Andrew J.

    Alcala Park, San Diego, CA 92110, USA 2 Department of Biology, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile) Marie A. Simovich 1, , Kathryn B. Davis 1 , and Andrew J. Bohonak 2 1 University of San Diego, 5998 INTEGRITY OF THE ENDANGERED SAN DIEGO FAIRY SHRIMP BRANCHINECTA SANDIEGONENSIS (BRANCHIOPODA: ANOSTRACA

  15. A NEW GIANT SPECIES OF PREDATORY FAIRY SHRIMP FROM IDAHO, USA (BRANCHIOPODA: ANOSTRACA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Christopher Rogers; Dana L. Quinney; James Weaver; Jørgen Olesen

    2006-01-01

    A previously unknown species of giant fairy shrimp is described. Branchinecta raptor n. sp. is highly adapted to a predatory mode of life. In both sexes, the first four pairs of thoracopods bear elongated, curved, heavily chitinized endopods, which are modified for grasping prey. Both sexes have elongated, ''whip-like'' cercopods nearly as long as the abdomen that are used for

  16. Acute toxicity of ten chemicals to fairy shrimp relative to other crustaceans and mollusks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several species of fairy shrimp in the genus Branchinecta (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) are protected under the federal Endangered Species Act due to destruction of seasonal wetland habitats in Oregon and California, making protection of the hydrology and water quality of the limited...

  17. Population structure of the vernal pool fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi) at two spatial scales

    E-print Network

    McClintock, Kelly Marie

    2012-01-01

    migration-drift equilibrium and population genetic structuregenetic patterns of these two markers could be due to a slower approach to equilibriumgenetic distance between pools will exhibit a patterns of isolation by distance indicative of a gene flow drift equilibrium

  18. Fairy, tadpole, and clam shrimps (Branchiopoda) in seasonally inundated clay pans in the western Mojave Desert and effect on primary producers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fairy shrimps (Anostraca), tadpole shrimps (Notostraca), clam shrimps (Spinicaudata), algae (primarily filamentous blue-green algae [cyanobacteria]), and suspended organic particulates are dominant food web components of the seasonally inundated pans and playas of the western Mojave Desert in California. We examined the extent to which these branchiopods controlled algal abundance and species composition in clay pans between Rosamond and Rogers Dry Lakes. We surveyed branchiopods during the wet season to estimate abundances and then conducted a laboratory microcosm experiment, in which dried sediment containing cysts and the overlying algal crust were inundated and cultured. Microcosm trials were run with and without shrimps; each type of trial was run for two lengths of time: 30 and 60 days. We estimated the effect of shrimps on algae by measuring chlorophyll content and the relative abundance of algal species. Results We found two species of fairy shrimps (Branchinecta mackini and B. gigas), one tadpole shrimp (Lepidurus lemmoni), and a clam shrimp (Cyzicus setosa) in our wet-season field survey. We collected Branchinecta lindahli in a pilot study, but not subsequently. The dominant taxa were C. setosa and B. mackini, but abundances and species composition varied greatly among playas. The same species found in field surveys also occurred in the microcosm experiment. There were no significant differences as a function of experimental treatments for either chlorophyll content or algal species composition (Microcoleus vaginatus dominated all treatments). Conclusions The results suggest that there was no direct effect of shrimps on algae. Although the pans harbored an apparently high abundance of branchiopods, these animals had little role in regulating primary producers in this environment. PMID:21143855

  19. Susceptibility of Ephemeral Pool Hexarthra to Predation by the Fairy Shrimp Branchinecta mackini : can Predation Drive Local Extinction?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Starkweather

    2005-01-01

    Isolated rock pools in the US desert southwest often develop dense populations of a lithophilic species of the rotifer Hexarthra. I hypothesized that rotifers persist in these isolated ponds due to the absence of either competition with or predation by potentially sympatric crustaceans, especially anostracans. I tested the latter idea with laboratory and field experiments, in each case exposing rotifers

  20. Punching Shrimp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-06-28

    Legendary boxer Muhammad Ali used to brag that he could "float like a butterfly and sting like a bee." But to be a true champion, a prizefighter should really try to "punch like a mantis shrimp." This Science Update examines the research behind copying this mechanism for application to machinery design.

  1. 77 FR 3279 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...take (collect individuals and cysts) the vernal pool fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi), and remove and reduce to possession...take (collect individuals and cysts) the vernal pool fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi), and remove and reduce to...

  2. SHRIMPS (ARTHROPODA: CRUSTACEA: PENAEIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pollution ecology of penaeid shrimps involving industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, petroleum, heavy metals, biological agents, and interactions of the above is discussed. Penaeid shrimps, within their geographic distribution, can serve as valid indicators of the presenc...

  3. Shrimp Farming in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Lovelle

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project on culturing shrimp. Presents observational labs and the experimentation procedure. Provides general information about shrimp, their life span, optimum temperatures, and other important information. (YDS)

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF SHRIMP BACULOVIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research undertaken involved the partial characterization of a baculovirus of the pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum. The significance of the study is related to the fact that the shrimp baculovirus is morphologically similar to insect vaculoviruses which were considered unique to...

  5. Shrimp Farming in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lovelle Ruggiero

    2000-01-01

    In inquiry-based instruction, discovery and learning belong to the students. In this exploration, jumbo shrimp are the source of inspiration. The magic in this project lies not in successfully culturing these shrimp, known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii

  6. Socioeconomic impacts of shrimp culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Primavera

    1997-01-01

    Farmed shrimp contributed 27% of total world shrimp production in 1995 with a volume of 712 000 tonnes. Undoubtedly, the shrimp culture industry earns valuable foreign exchange for developing countries and generates jobs across the industry from fry gatherers to growers and processors. However, grave socio-economic consequences -including conversion, expropriation and privatization of mangroves and other lands; salinization of water

  7. Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, S C

    2000-01-01

    Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or live in sparse groupings and have large anterior eyes, the basic retinal adaptations are the same across species. Retinal adaptations in adult vent shrimp include the loss of dioptrics, enlargement of both the rhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors and the light-sensitive rhabdomere therein, attenuation of the arhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors, reduction of black screening pigment, development of a white diffusing layer behind the photoreceptors, and the loss of rhabdom turnover. PMID:11079388

  8. Color Control in Shrimp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary-Jane O'Halloran (Dalhousie University; )

    1990-01-01

    This resource is a detailed manual for instructing a laboratory exercise in invertebrate marine physiology. Students investigate the environmental and physiological causes of color change in shrimp. This exercise is suitable for introductory animal or invertebrate physiology courses, and could be adapted further to explore the ecological consquences of color change.

  9. Color Control in Shrimp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary-Jane O'Halloran (Dalhousie University; )

    1989-06-06

    Sand shrimp, Crangon septemspinosus, are capable of varying their color or shading in response to several environmental changes (background color, light intensity, light wavelength, and temperature). The degree of color change can be determined quantitatively by examining the chromatophores under a dissecting microscope and staging the amount of pigment dispersion, (b) the location or type of receptors involved, and (c) the type of communication between receptors and effectors.

  10. Foreign Fishery Developments Japanese Frozen Shrimp

    E-print Network

    of frozen shrimp in 1978 amounted to 143,962 t, a new all-time high surpassing by 15 percent the previousForeign Fishery Developments Japanese Frozen Shrimp Imports Continue to Climb Japanese imports. Japanese imports of frozen shrimp have increased remarkably since the liberalization of shrimp imports

  11. Substrate Selection by Ghost Shrimp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Sue Diggs (Monterey High School)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to determine if ghost shrimp show a preference for a particular substrate surface under artificial conditions. Ghost shrimp are geographically widespread. They are an important source of food for many fish, mammals, and birds. Ghost shrimp are omnivorous, seldom predaceous. Their preferred food is aquatic vegetation. Ecologically, they are considered scavengers. Therefore, they contribute to an efficient flow of energy within aquatic habitats. Economically, they have become a favorite source of live food for aquarium fish and are sold in pet stores and are harvested for bait for sport fishing.

  12. Science Nation: Disappearing Red Shrimp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Along the shore in Hawaii, the ponds imbedded in lava rocks contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life in these pools are hundreds of tiny red shrimp. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), molecular biologist Scott Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.

  13. Introduction The primary pink shrimp, Farfante-

    E-print Network

    in part by the establishment of sanctuaries which The U.S. Gulf of Mexico Pink Shrimp, Farfantepenaeus.hart@noaa.gov). ABSTRACT--U.S. Gulf of Mexico, pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, catch statistics have been collected

  14. CONJOINED TWIN ADULT SHRIMP (DECAPODA: PENAEIDAE)

    E-print Network

    NOTES CONJOINED TWIN ADULT SHRIMP (DECAPODA: PENAEIDAE) A two-headed roughback shrimp by preservation. Antennules, anten- FIGURE I.-Conjoined twin Trackype1UUi'1U1 simi/is in diagrammatic lateral view

  15. AQUATIC BIOLOGY Vol. 7: 93105, 2009

    E-print Network

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    and the fairy shrimp Branchinecta paludosa. MAAs were detected in all populations, pro- viding the first records of high concentrations of these compounds in the genus Daphnia (1 µg mg­1 ) and in the fairy shrimp

  16. THE UNITED STATES SHRIMP INDUSTRY

    E-print Network

    for administrative or legislative action. It is issued in limited quantities for official use of Federal, State or cooperating agencies and in processed form for economy and to avoid delay in publication . #12;United StatesBioner SURVEY OF THE UNITED STATES SHRIMP INDUSTRY VOLUME II Prepared in Branch of Economics Bureau

  17. Ex-vessel demand by size for the Gulf shrimp

    E-print Network

    Chui, Margaret Kam-Too

    1980-01-01

    . MODEL FORMULATION Literature Review. The Restricted Model Dependent Variable. Independent Variables: Related to Supplies. Other Independent Variables Demand for Large Gulf Shrimp. Demand for Medium Gulf Shrimp Demand for Small Gulf Shrimp.... Unrestricted Model Zero-One Variables. Demand for Large Gulf Shrimp. Demand for Medium Gulf Shrimp Demand for Small Gulf Shrimp. 6 10 ll 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 21 22 23 III. STATISTICAL ANALVSIS. 25 The Data Estimation Procedure Ordinary...

  18. Marginalization or Empowerment? Women's Involvement in Shrimp Cultivation and Shrimp Processing Plants in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadeka Halim

    Shrimp production in the coastal areas (Khulna, Satkhira, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar districts) has led to the change of the total landscape. Various environmental studies have been conducted to highlight the impact of shrimp production, which is quite evident from the disappearance of the mangrove forests and their conversion into shrimp farms. This ecological change is a major factor behind

  19. Biological treatment of shrimp production wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raj Boopathy

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in consumer demand for shrimp, which has resulted in its worldwide aquaculture\\u000a production. In the United States, the stringent enforcement of environmental regulations encourages shrimp farmers to develop\\u000a new technologies, such as recirculating raceway systems. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density\\u000a shrimp yields. The system also

  20. Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Olayan, A.H. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait); Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Mercury selection of allozyme genotypes in shrimps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Nevo; T. Perl; A. Beiles; D. Wool

    1981-01-01

    Summary The effects of mercury pollution on the allozymic variation of 15 phosphoglucomutase (PGM) genotypes was tested in the Mediterranean shrimpPalaemon elegans in 79 laboratory tests involving 2765 shrimps, with 1560 survivors (767 test and 793 control). Our results indicate differential tolerance of genotypes in variable mercury concentrations, suggesting that they are adaptive. The genetic structure can possibly be explored

  2. Function of shrimp STAT during WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-06-01

    JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays key roles in the antiviral immunity of mammals, fish and insect. However, limited knowledge is known about the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp although virus disease has caused severe mortality in shrimp aquaculture. In order to understand the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp, dsRNA interfering technique was used to silence the expression of STAT gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, and the mortality of shrimp was detected after WSSV infection. Furthermore, the expressions of some potential target genes regulated by STAT or genes related to RNA interfering pathway were detected in STAT silenced shrimp during WSSV infection. The WSSV copy number in STAT silenced shrimp was 10(2)-10(3) copies/ng DNA which was much lower than that in the control. The mortality in STAT silenced shrimp caused by WSSV infection decreased very significantly compared to their controls. The function of STAT was verified in vitro cultured cells of hematopoietic tissue of crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by adding specific inhibitor of STAT3(S3I-201), and the cultured cells treated with S3I-201 showed much less WSSV copy number than their controls, which further suggested that STAT might be helpful for the replication of WSSV. Expression analysis on the potential STAT target genes and genes in RNA interfering pathway provide important information for understanding the functional mechanism of STAT in antiviral immunity of shrimp. PMID:24727196

  3. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...filled in with the words “breaded shrimp sticks” or “breaded shrimp cutlets” depending...prepared in a shape other than that of sticks or cutlets “breaded shrimp ___ made...type used in the words “breaded shrimp sticks” or the other comparable words...

  4. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...filled in with the words “breaded shrimp sticks” or “breaded shrimp cutlets” depending...prepared in a shape other than that of sticks or cutlets “breaded shrimp ___ made...type used in the words “breaded shrimp sticks” or the other comparable words...

  5. Evaluation of Toxicity of Some Saponins on Brine Shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Min Zhao; Guo-Wei Qin; Li-Guang Lou

    1999-01-01

    Toxicity of several types of saponins (1–11) against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) were evaluated. As a result, it was found that most tested compounds were not toxic to brine shrimp at high enough concentration. The most toxic saponin (1) to brine shrimp showed also cytotoxicity towards HL-60 tumor cell line using MTT assay. Brine shrimp model may thus be used

  6. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  7. 77 FR 40848 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from India. The period of review (POR) is February...the antidumping duty order on shrimp from...

  8. 78 FR 15691 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from India. The review covers 195 producers/ exporters...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India, 77 FR 73619 (December 11,...

  9. 76 FR 12025 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from India with respect to 202 companies.\\1\\ The...on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from India. See Notice of Amended Final...

  10. 75 FR 41813 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from India. This review covers 159 producers/exporters...duty order with respect to shrimp from India produced and exported by Devi Sea...

  11. 77 FR 13275 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from India. The respondents which the Department...on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from India.\\1\\ [[Page 13276

  12. An investigation into the non-shrimp biological communities of a shrimp culture pond

    E-print Network

    Pressly, Bennie Lee

    1983-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE NOh-SHRIMP BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES OF A SHRIMP CULTURE POND A Thesis by BENNIE LEE PRESSLY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major Subject: Oceanography AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE NON-SHRIMP BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES OF A SHRIMP CULTURE POND A Thesis by BENNIE LEE PRESSLY Approved as to style and content by: Rezne 1. Darnell (Chai an f Committee) Willis E...

  13. Antiviral defense in shrimp: from innate immunity to viral infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Huang, Tianzhi; Zhang, Xiaobo; He, Jian-Guo

    2014-08-01

    The culture of penaeid shrimp is rapidly developing as a major business endeavor worldwide. However, viral diseases have caused huge economic loss in penaeid shrimp culture industries. Knowledge of shrimp innate immunity and antiviral responses has made important progress in recent years, allowing the design of better strategies for the prevention and control of shrimp diseases. In this study, we have updated information on shrimp antiviral immunity and interactions between shrimp hosts and viral pathogens. Current knowledge and recent progress in immune signaling pathways (e.g., Toll/IMD-NF-?B and JAK-STAT signaling pathways), RNAi, phagocytosis, and apoptosis in shrimp antiviral immunity are discussed. The mechanism of viral infection in shrimp hosts and the interactions between viruses and shrimp innate immune systems are also analyzed. PMID:24886688

  14. Signaling pathways regulating innate immune responses in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-04-01

    The first line of defense against microbial infections in animals is innate immune response which triggers diverse humoral and cellular activities via signal transduction pathways. Toll, IMD and JAK/STAT pathways are regarded as the main pathways regulating the immune response of invertebrates. This paper reviews the main progress of the investigation on the immune response to pathogen's infection in shrimp and supposes that these three signal pathways exist in shrimp. Most of the components (proteins or genes) involved in Toll pathway of Drosophila have been cloned also in shrimp which suggested the existence of Toll pathway in shrimp. The data update shows that the Toll pathway of shrimp is responsive not only to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, but also to WSSV. Challenge of WSSV can lead to the variation of transcription level of all identified components in shrimp Toll pathway, which supported that Toll pathway in shrimp played important roles during WSSV infection. Two major homologs to the components of IMD pathway of Drosophila, IMD and Relish, have been identified in shrimp, which indicated that IMD pathway should be existed in shrimp and might play important roles in regulating the immune response of shrimp to bacteria and virus infection. Relish in IMD pathway and dorsal in Toll pathway of shrimp were both involved in the immune response of shrimp to bacteria and virus infection, which implied that these two pathways are not completely separated during the immune response of shrimp. The transcription of STAT in shrimp was modulated after WSSV infection, which suggested that a putative JAK/STAT pathway might exist in shrimp and be very important to virus infection. Study on the signaling pathway regulating the immune response in shrimp could help us to understand the innate immune system, and would provide instructions to shrimp disease control. Obviously, to get more clear ideas about the innate immunological pathways in shrimp, more solid functional studies should be done in the future. PMID:22967763

  15. ECOLOGY OF HAWAIIAN SERGESTID SHRIMPS (PEDAEIDEA: SERGESTIDAE)

    E-print Network

    Luther, Douglas S.

    ECOLOGY OF HAWAIIAN SERGESTID SHRIMPS (PEDAEIDEA: SERGESTIDAE) A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED and migration, population size, seasonal size-frequency distribution and diet. Hawaiian sergestids occur, which lives two years. One species, ~. fulgens, apparently does not reproduce in Hawaiian waters

  16. COBALT60 Gamma Irradiation of Shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy L. B. Sullivan; N. L. B

    1993-01-01

    Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine were

  17. Systems analysis of a shrimp mariculture system

    E-print Network

    Farnsworth, John Terry

    1979-01-01

    literature review of' shrimp mariculture, shrimp physiology, phytoplankton models and water qual' ty models formed the basis for analysis of' the interrelationships in a mariculture system. The general ecological black box model was broken... Phytoplankton Models. Zooplankton Models. Bacterial Models. Review oT Water Quality Models. Hydrology. Temperature. Nitrogen Ammonia Nitrite Nitrate Dissolved Oxygen. Phosphate Model Carbon Model. III. MODEL FORMULATION. General Ecological Model...

  18. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  19. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

  20. Proceedings of the Latin American Shrimp Culture Congress

    E-print Network

    by protecting shrimp from fish predators (Fuss and Ogren 1966, Minello et al. 1987). Burrowing may also affect growth in penaeid shrimps. Metabolic rates and oxygen consumption are reduced when shrimp burrow (Lakshmi in this species is affected by light intensity (Wickham and Minkler 1975), temperature (Aldrich et al. 1968

  1. Burrowing shrimp as foundation species in NE Pacific estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    My talk will be about the my research to characterize the role that burrowing shrimp play as foundation/engineering species in Pacific NW estuaries. My research has focused on measuring the abundance & distribution of two species (ghost shrimp & mud shrimp) at ecosystem scales, ...

  2. Biological treatment of shrimp production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Raj

    2009-07-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in consumer demand for shrimp, which has resulted in its worldwide aquaculture production. In the United States, the stringent enforcement of environmental regulations encourages shrimp farmers to develop new technologies, such as recirculating raceway systems. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. The system also produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and organic carbon, which make waste management costs prohibitive. Shrimp farmers have a great need for a waste management method that is effective and economical. One such method is the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same reactor to take the place of multiple reactors in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor system. This is achieved through reactor operation in sequences, which includes fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. A laboratory scale SBR was successfully operated using shrimp aquaculture wastewater. The wastewater contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactors sequentially, namely, aerobic and anoxic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon. Ammonia in the waste was nitrified within 4 days. The denitrification of nitrate was achieved by the anoxic process, and 100% removal of nitrate was observed within 15 days of reactor operation. PMID:19396482

  3. Vulnerability of coastal livelihoods to shrimp farming: Insights from Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Jessica; Flaherty, Mark; Murray, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Millions of people around the world depend on shrimp aquaculture for their livelihoods. Yet, the phenomenal growth of shrimp farming has often given rise to considerable environmental and social damage. This article examines the impacts of commercial, export-oriented shrimp aquaculture on local livelihood vulnerability by comparing the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of shrimp farm employees with non-farm employees in rural Mozambique. Exposure to stressors was similar between the two groups. Shrimp farm employees had higher assets and higher adaptive capacity than non-farm employees. However, because their income is heavily dependent on a single commodity, shrimp farm employees were highly susceptible to the boom crop nature of intensive shrimp farming. The implications for aquaculture policy and vulnerability research are discussed. The article argues that coastal vulnerability is dynamic, variable, and influenced by multiple processes operating at multiple scales. PMID:25391555

  4. Pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis for penaeid shrimp

    E-print Network

    Lehrer, Janis Ellen

    1979-01-01

    PATHOGENICITY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS FOR PENAEID SHRIMP A Thesis by JANIS ELLEN LEHRER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SC1ENCE August 1979... Major Subject: Biology PATHOGENICITY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS FOR PENAEID SHRIMP A Thesis by JANIS ELLEN LEHRER Approved as to style and content by: r. ohn R. Schwarz (C Chairman of Committee) P4Lf. ks~ Dr. S. M. (C5-Chai n of C 'ttee) Dr...

  5. 76 FR 23972 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand...warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China (PRC...antidumping duty orders on shrimp from Brazil, India, the PRC, Thailand, and Vietnam,...

  6. Probiotics in shrimp aquaculture: avenues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ninawe, A S; Selvin, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    As an alternative strategy to antibiotic use in aquatic disease management, probiotics have recently attracted extensive attention in aquaculture. However, the use of terrestrial bacterial species as probiotics for aquaculture has had limited success, as bacterial strain characteristics are dependent upon the environment in which they thrive. Therefore, isolating potential probiotic bacteria from the marine environment in which they grow optimally is a better approach. Bacteria that have been used successfully as probiotics belong to the genus Vibrio and Bacillus, and the species Thalassobacter utilis. Most researchers have isolated these probiotic strains from shrimp culture water, or from the intestine of different penaeid species. The use of probiotic bacteria, based on the principle of competitive exclusion, and the use of immunostimulants are two of the most promising preventive methods developed in the fight against diseases during the last few years. It also noticed that probiotic bacteria could produce some digestive enzymes, which might improve the digestion of shrimp, thus enhancing the ability of stress resistance and health of the shrimp. However, the probiotics in aquatic environment remain to be a controversial concept, as there was no authentic evidence / real environment demonstrations on the successful use of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in vivo. The present review highlights the potential sources of probiotics, mechanism of action, diversity of probiotic microbes and challenges of probiotic usage in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:19514908

  7. How Snapping Shrimp Snap: Through Cavitating Bubbles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Versluis; Barbara Schmitz; Anna von der Heydt; Detlef Lohse

    2000-01-01

    The snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis) produces a loud snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of its snapper claw. One of the effects of the snapping is to stun or kill prey animals. During the rapid snapper claw closure, a high-velocity water jet is emitted from the claw with a speed exceeding cavitation conditions. Hydrophone measurements in conjunction with time-controlled

  8. Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.L.B.

    1993-01-01

    Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine was measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

  9. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. 622.201 Section...Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ)....

  10. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. 622.201 Section...Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ)....

  11. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

  12. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23,...

  13. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

  14. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

  15. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...A-552-802] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...is extending the time limit for the preliminary...shipper review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp...Viet''). See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...19, 2011. Statutory Time Limits Section...

  16. 75 FR 844 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ...is extending the time limit for the preliminary...shipper review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp...Ltd. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...Department extended the time limit for issuing the...106 days. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

  17. 77 FR 2958 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...is extending the time limit for the preliminary...duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp...duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...Department extended the time limit for the preliminary...1\\ See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

  18. 75 FR 20563 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...A-552-802] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...is extending the time limit for the final results...shipper review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp...Ltd. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...Statutory Time Limits In...

  19. 76 FR 41760 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ...A-552-802] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...is extending the time limit for the final results...shipper review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...1\\ See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...Statutory Time Limits Section...

  20. 75 FR 33375 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration, OMB...Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration. OMB...sea turtles. Respondents are shrimp exporters and government officials in...

  1. 78 FR 39824 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration ACTION...Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration OMB...sea turtles. Respondents are shrimp exporters and government officials in...

  2. 75 FR 10338 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration, OMB...Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration OMB...sea turtles. Respondents are shrimp exporters and government officials in...

  3. 78 FR 15800 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration ACTION...Information Collection: Shrimp Importer's/ Exporter's Declaration. OMB Control Number...sea turtles. Respondents are shrimp exporters and government officials in...

  4. 76 FR 51940 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

  5. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United...warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be...

  6. 78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from India. For information on the estimated subsidy...programs. In addition to the Government of India, the company respondents in this...

  7. 75 FR 17693 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Brazil, India and Thailand. The anniversary month of...Elizabeth Eastwood at (202) 482-3874 (India), and Kate Johnson at (202)...

  8. 78 FR 42492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from India.\\1\\ The period of review (POR) is...See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India; Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  9. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  10. 77 FR 20358 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  11. 75 FR 37757 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  12. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  13. 78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  14. 75 FR 47546 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  15. 77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  16. 75 FR 3446 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  17. 78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  18. 78 FR 33349 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Indonesia: Negative Preliminary Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  19. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  20. 75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  1. 75 FR 54847 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  2. 78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  3. 78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  4. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  5. 75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  6. 76 FR 12033 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  7. 77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  8. 75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  9. 75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  10. 76 FR 40881 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  11. 77 FR 73619 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  12. 77 FR 13082 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  13. 75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  14. Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Flaherty; Choomjet Karnjanakesorn

    1995-01-01

    Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly\\u000a in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The\\u000a growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production\\u000a methods.

  15. Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun; Malfatti, Francesca; Azam, Farooq

    2011-07-01

    Microorganisms play integral roles in the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish and shellfish production. We quantified the pathways of shrimp fecal bacterial activities and their role in C- and N-flux partitioning relevant to culturing Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in RAS. Freshly produced feces from P. vannamei contained 0.6-7 × 10(10) bacteria g(-1) dry wt belonging to Bacteroidetes (7%), Alphaproteobacteria (4%), and, within the Gammaproteobacteria, almost exclusively to the genus Vibrio (61%). Because of partial disintegration of the feces (up to 27% within 12 h), the experimental seawater became inoculated with fecal bacteria. Bacteria grew rapidly in the feces and in the seawater, and exhibited high levels of aminopeptidase, chitinase, chitobiase, alkaline phosphatase, ?- and ?-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Moreover, fecal bacteria enriched the protein content of the feces within 12 h, potentially enriching the feces for the coprophagous shrimp. The bacterial turnover time was much faster in feces (1-10 h) than in mature RAS water (350 h). Thus, shrimp fecal bacteria not only inoculate RAS water but also contribute to bacterial abundance and productivity, and regulate system processes important for shrimp health. PMID:21426366

  16. Shrimp viral diseases, import risk assessment and international trade.

    PubMed

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Ababouch, Lahsen

    2012-09-01

    Shrimp is an important commodity in international trade accounting for 15 % in terms of value of internationally traded seafood products which reached $102.00 billion in 2008. Aquaculture contributes to over 50 % of global shrimp production. One of the major constraints faced by shrimp aquaculture is the loss due to viral diseases like white spot syndrome, yellow head disease, and Taura syndrome. There are several examples of global spread of shrimp diseases due to importation of live shrimp for aquaculture. Though millions of tonnes of frozen or processed shrimp have been traded internationally during the last two decades despite prevalence of viral diseases in shrimp producing areas in Asia and the Americas, there is no evidence of diseases having been transmitted through shrimp imported for human consumption. The guidelines developed by the World Animal Health Organisation for movement of live animals for aquaculture, frozen crustaceans for human consumption, and the regulations implemented by some shrimp importing regions in the world are reviewed. PMID:23997438

  17. Risk of spread of penaeid shrimp viruses in the Americas by the international movement of live and frozen shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lightner, D V; Redman, R M; Poulos, B T; Nunan, L M; Mari, J L; Hasson, K W

    1997-04-01

    Within the past decade, viral diseases have emerged as serious economic impediments to successful shrimp farming in many of the shrimp-farming countries of the world. In the western hemisphere, the viral agents of Taura syndrome (TS) and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis have caused serious disease epizootics throughout the shrimp-growing regions of the Americas and Hawaii, while in Asia the viral agents of white spot syndrome (WSS) and yellow head (YH) have caused pandemics with catastrophic losses. The international transfer of live shrimp for aquaculture purposes is an obvious mechanism by which the viruses have spread within and between regions in which they have occurred. Shrimp-eating gulls, other seabirds and aquatic insects may also be factors in the spread of shrimp viruses between and within regions. Another potentially important mechanism for the international spread of these pathogens is the trade in frozen commodity shrimp, which may contain viruses exotic to the importing countries. The viral agents of WSS, YH and TS have been found, and demonstrated to be infectious, in frozen shrimp imported into the United States market. Mechanisms identified for the potential transfer of virus in imported frozen products to domestic populations of cultured or wild penaeid shrimp stocks include: the release of untreated liquid or solid wastes from shrimp importing and processing plants directly into coastal waters, improper disposal of solid waste from shrimp importing and processing plants in landfills so that the waste is accessible to gulls and other seabirds, and the use of imported shrimp as bait by sports fishermen. PMID:9329114

  18. Limnol. Oceanogr., 44(3), 1999, 487493 1999, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Bohonak, Andrew J.

    and Oceanography, Inc. Dispersal of the fairy shrimp Branchinecta coloradensis (Anostraca): Effects of hydroperiod of fairy shrimp (Anostraca) from permanent ponds and lakes is hypothesized to be the result of vertebrate of the fairy shrimp Branchi- necta coloradensis into permanent and temporary ponds in small chambers

  19. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (crustacea: decapoda: caridea).

    PubMed

    De Grave, Sammy; Smith, Kevin G; Adeler, Nils A; Allen, Dave J; Alvarez, Fernando; Anker, Arthur; Cai, Yixiong; Carrizo, Savrina F; Klotz, Werner; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Page, Timothy J; Shy, Jhy-Yun; Villalobos, José Luis; Wowor, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats). PMID:25807292

  20. Dead Shrimp Blues: A Global Assessment of Extinction Risk in Freshwater Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats). PMID:25807292

  1. The complete mitochondrial genomes of the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Varela-Romero, Alejandro; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Anduro-Corona, Iván; Vega-Heredia, Sarahí; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis E; De la Rosa-Vélez, Jorge; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2009-03-01

    Mitochondria play key roles in many cellular processes. Description of penaeid shrimp genes, including mitochondrial genomes are fairly recent and some are focusing on commercially important shrimp as the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that is being used for aquaculture not only in America, but also in Asia. Much less is known about other Pacific shrimp such as the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris. We report the complete mitogenomes from these last two Pacific shrimp species. Long DNA fragments were obtained by PCR and then used to get internal fragments for sequencing. The complete F. californiensis and L. stylirostris mtDNAs are 15,975 and 15,988 bp long, containing the 37 common sequences and a control region of 990 and 999 bp, respectively. The gene order is identical to that of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Secondary structures for the 22 tRNAs are proposed and phylogenetic relationships for selected complete crustacean mitogenomes are included. Phylogenomic relationships among five shrimp show strong statistical support for the monophyly of the genus across the analysis. Litopenaeus species define a clade, with close relationship to Farfantepenaeus, and both clade with the sister group of Penaeus and Fenneropenaeus. PMID:20403743

  2. Abundance of Ohio shrimp (Macrobrachium ohione) and Glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) in the unimpounded Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barko, V.A.; Hrabik, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Large rivers of the United States have been altered by construction and maintenance of navigation channels, which has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Using 7 y of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program data collected from the unimpounded upper Mississippi River, we investigated Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance collected from four physical habitats of the unimpounded upper Mississippi River: main channel border, main channel border with wing dike, open side channel and closed side channel. Our objective was to assess associations between Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance, environmental measurements and the four habitats to better understand the ecology of these species in a channelized river system. Ohio Shrimp were most abundant in the open side channels, while Glass Shrimp were most abundant in the main channel border wing dike habitat. Thirty-two percent of the variance in Glass Shrimp abundance was explained by year 1995, year 1998, water temperature, depth of gear deployment, Secchi disk transparency and river elevation. Approximately 8% of variation in Ohio Shrimp abundance was explained by Secchi disk transparency. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was greatest in 1998 for Glass Shrimp but lowest in 1997. Conversely, CPUE was greatest in 1996 for Ohio Shrimp and lowest in 2000. Both species exhibited inter-annual variability in CPUE. Long-term impacts of river modifications on aquatic invertebrates have not been well documented in many large, river systems and warrants further study. The findings from this study provide ecological information on Glass and Ohio Shrimp in a channelized river system.

  3. Protein quality of shrimp-waste meal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Fanimo; O. O. Oduguwa; A. O. Onifade; T. O. Olutunde

    2000-01-01

    Protein quality of shrimp waste meal (SWM) was assessed in a balanced experiment with rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into 5 equal treatment groups of 6 rats, kept in individual perforated perspex cages and fed 4 different 10% protein diets consisting of (1) fish meal (FM), (2) SWM, (3) SWM+lysine+methionine, (4) SWM+methionine and (5) a nitrogen-free basal diet. SWM

  4. Microbial flora of fresh and stored shrimp

    E-print Network

    Mroz, Eva

    1970-01-01

    primarily by the appearance in some samples of high percentages of Bacillus, Lactobacillus and Flavobacterium species. Based upon limited data, sample preparation of shrimp by washing gave somewhat higher viable counts as compared with blending. iv AC... will consist of the following genera: Pseudomonas, Achromo- bacter Co ebacterium, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Uibrio $1, 4, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15) . The level of these bacteria depends on freshness of fish, sanitary conditions during handling...

  5. Comparative advantage analysis of shrimp production in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Xinhua

    2008-01-01

    Shrimp is a fi sheries commodity of great importance in the international aquatic product trade, particularly to Asia and some South American nations. Shrimp products are a universally popular food commodity consumed through out the globe and rarely restricted by gender, age and religion etc. The USA anti- dumping case against Asian countries has brought about much public and governmental

  6. White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection of Cultured Shrimp in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Bin Zhan; Yuan-Hong Wang; John L. Fryer; Kai-Kang Yu; Hideo Fukuda; Qing-Xian Meng

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 and 1994, an epizootic of disease (white spot) occurred among cultured shrimp in China, resulting in mass mortality. During the periods of outbreak epizootiological surveys were undertaken. Based on these surveys it is known that the disease occurred among populations of cultured Penaeus chinensis, P. japonicus, and P. monodon, infecting shrimp from 2.4 cm to adult. The disease

  7. The nutritional requirements of the Japanese shrimp Penaeus japonicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. GUILLAUME

    1989-01-01

    Penaeus japonicus is probably the best known species among penaeids or even among shrimps. In juveniles, the protein requirement was best studied and Japanese shrimp appears as the most demanding penaeid species. Some discrepan- cies remain among estimations of the protein requirement. They may be related to several factors such as energy level of the diet, digestibility or biological value

  8. CUTICULAR LESIONS INDUCED IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult grass shrimp were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ppm) of hexavalent chromium for 38 days. At the end of the exposure period, over 50% of the surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions that had many of the gross characteristics of 'shell disease.' Th...

  9. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  10. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  11. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  12. The Impact of Ingredient Particle Size on Shrimp Feed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard G. Obaldo; Warren G. Dominy; Jesse H. Terpstra; Jeffrey J. Cody; Keith C. Behnke

    1999-01-01

    Diet ingredients consisting of a mixture of fish meal, hard red winter wheat, shrimp meal, and soybean meal were ground from an initial particle size of 603 ? to 586, 521, 408, 272,124, and 69 ? geometric mean particle diameter to evaluate their effects on pellet properties, shrimp growth and survival, and cost of grinding. Results indicated that pellet water

  13. Predicting shrimp growth: Artificial neural network versus nonlinear regression models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Run Yu; PingSun Leung; Paul Bienfang

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of artificial neural networks (ANN) as an alternative to the traditional statistical regression techniques for the purpose of predicting shrimp growth in a commercial setting. Empirical data collected from a commercial shrimp farm in Hawaii was used for this evaluation. Eight regression functional forms (i.e., linear, polynomial, log reciprocal, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, logistic and exponential)

  14. A critical review of shrimp pond culture in the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Honculada Primavera

    1993-01-01

    The paper reviews and evaluates shrimp pond culture in the Philippines and its ecological and socioeconomic effects. The intertwined histories of the country's mangrove forests and culture ponds are treated in depth; brackishwater aquaculture and the different shrimp culture systems are described. Intensive farming is discussed in terms of feed and water requirements, chemical inputs and waste production, and the

  15. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...dorsal tract, back vein, or sand vein). (ii) Deveined shrimp...not less than 95 percent by weight of shrimp prepared by removing...not less than 95 percent by weight of shrimp with no readily visible... Size Maximum percent by weight of broken shrimp a Extra...

  16. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...dorsal tract, back vein, or sand vein). (ii) Deveined shrimp...not less than 95 percent by weight of shrimp prepared by removing...not less than 95 percent by weight of shrimp with no readily visible... Size Maximum percent by weight of broken shrimp a Extra...

  17. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...dorsal tract, back vein, or sand vein). (ii) Deveined shrimp...not less than 95 percent by weight of shrimp prepared by removing...not less than 95 percent by weight of shrimp with no readily visible... Size Maximum percent by weight of broken shrimp a Extra...

  18. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...dorsal tract, back vein, or sand vein). (ii) Deveined shrimp...not less than 95 percent by weight of shrimp prepared by removing...not less than 95 percent by weight of shrimp with no readily visible... Size Maximum percent by weight of broken shrimp a Extra...

  19. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...dorsal tract, back vein, or sand vein). (ii) Deveined shrimp...not less than 95 percent by weight of shrimp prepared by removing...not less than 95 percent by weight of shrimp with no readily visible... Size Maximum percent by weight of broken shrimp a Extra...

  20. Valuation of shrimp ecosystem services – a case study in Leizhou City, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-Yan Liu; Wei-Na Wang; Chun-Xiao Ou; Jin-Xuan Yuan; An-Li Wang; Hai-Sheng Jiang; Ruyong Sun

    2010-01-01

    The economic valuation of ecosystem services is an effective way to understand the multiple benefits provided. Effluent and other environmental problems must be properly managed if shrimp aquaculture is to achieve sustainability. Evaluation of shrimp ecosystems can facilitate voluntary improvements in the environmental performance of shrimp farms. This study evaluated shrimp ecosystem services in Leizhou City, Guangdong Province, using the

  1. Improved Shrimp Growout Systems for Disease Prevention and Environmental Sustainability in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piamsak Menasveta

    2002-01-01

    Although a large portion of the world's farmed shrimp is produced in Asia, shrimp culture operations do not succeed over the entire area. There have been several problems and impediments that are yet to be resolved. One of these problems is disease. Several shrimp diseases have threatened shrimp production, but the most devastating ones are the viral diseases, namely, yellow-head

  2. 78 FR 76106 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...Administration [A-570-893] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's...subject to the order is certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the PRC...subject to the order at the time of this CCR was originally conducted...dusted shrimp. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...

  3. Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Mark; Karnjanakesorn, Choomjet

    1995-01-01

    Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production methods. The conversion of near-shore areas to shrimp culture, however, is proving to have many consequences that impinge on the environmental integrity of coastal areas. This paper reviews the development of Thailand's marine shrimp culture industry and examines the nature of the environmental impacts that are emerging. It then discusses the implications these have for rural poor and the long-term viability of the culture industry.

  4. CO-OCCURRENCE OF WHITE SHRIMP, PENAEUS VANNAMEI, MORTALITIES AND MICROCYSTIN TOXIN IN A SOUTHEASTERN USA SHRIMP FACILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various freshwater and marine algal toxins are known to affect plants, fishes, mammals, and invertebrates. During recent mortality events in Texas white shrimp aquaculture ponds, water and shrimp tissue samples were analyzed for cyanobacterial toxins and found to contain microcystin-LR. Cyanoprokar...

  5. Suppression of Shrimp Melanization during White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-03-01

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. PMID:25572398

  6. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  7. Culture of penaeid shrimp in brackfish water ponds receiving thermal effluents

    E-print Network

    Fredieu, Barbara Jane

    1978-01-01

    shrimp experiment showed no signs of benthic populations in any stage of development in the ponds. Survival rates in the brown and pink shrimp experiment averaged 75% for the brown shrimp and 23% for the pink shrimp. Final mean length and weight... (temperature, con- ductivity, dissolved oxygen, and pH) were measured at least 6 days a week. Cold weather conditions combined with low conductivity probably posed the biggest problem in the white shrimp experiment. Survival rates in this experiment...

  8. Shrimp farming in Latin America: Current status, opportunities, challenges and strategies for sustainable development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos G. Wurmann; Raul M. Madrid; Andre M. Brugger

    2004-01-01

    Shrimp farming in Latin America and the Caribbean (hereinafter, LA&C) is a complex, diverse and dynamic activity, occurring in 22 out of 36 countries, producing 231,000 tons, valued at US$ 1.2 billion in 2002. Farmed shrimp represents 52% of all shrimp volumes produced regionally, and almost 18% of all shrimp and prawn (S&P, hereinafter) cultivated worldwide. Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

  9. Beyond Symbiosis: Cleaner Shrimp Clean Up in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Hutson, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to “client” organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  10. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, K. H. (principal investigator)

    1978-01-01

    An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production, based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurements of shoreline length and area of marsh having more than 5.0 km shoreline/sq km for the coast of Louisiana, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield. The mathematical model relating these parameters and the shrimp production is consistent with an energy flow model describing the interaction of detritus producing marshlands with shrimp nursery grounds and inshore shrimping areas. The analysis supports the basic hypothesis and further raises the possibility of applications to coastal zone management requirements.

  11. Optimum cooking conditions for shrimp and Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Brookmire, Lauren; Mallikarjunan, P; Jahncke, M; Grisso, R

    2013-02-01

    The quality and safety of a cooked food product depends on many variables, including the cooking method and time-temperature combinations employed. The overall heating profile of the food can be useful in predicting the quality changes and microbial inactivation occurring during cooking. Mathematical modeling can be used to attain the complex heating profile of a food product during cooking. Studies were performed to monitor the product heating profile during the baking and boiling of shrimp and the baking and pan-frying of salmon. Product color, texture, moisture content, mass loss, and pressed juice were evaluated during the cooking processes as the products reached the internal temperature recommended by the FDA. Studies were also performed on the inactivation of Salmonella cocktails in shrimp and salmon. To effectively predict inactivation during cooking, the Bigelow, Fermi distribution, and Weibull distribution models were applied to the Salmonella thermal inactivation data. Minimum cooking temperatures necessary to destroy Salmonella in shrimp and salmon were determined. The heating profiles of the 2 products were modeled using the finite difference method. Temperature data directly from the modeled heating profiles were then used in the kinetic modeling of quality change and Salmonella inactivation during cooking. The optimum cooking times for a 3-log reduction of Salmonella and maintaining 95% of quality attributes are 100, 233, 159, 378, 1132, and 399 s for boiling extra jumbo shrimp, baking extra jumbo shrimp, boiling colossal shrimp, baking colossal shrimp, baking Atlantic salmon, and pan frying Atlantic Salmon, respectively. PMID:23387897

  12. COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

  13. 78 FR 19639 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from India and Thailand. The anniversary month of...David Crespo at (202) 482-3693 (India) and Blaine Wiltse (202)...

  14. 76 FR 23277 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand...warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...warmwater shrimp from Brazil, the PRC, India, Thailand, and Vietnam, in which...

  15. 75 FR 53947 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand...warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand...Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From India, 69 FR 76916 (December 23,...

  16. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  17. MAPPING BURROWING SHRIMP AND SEAGRASS IN YAQUINA ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp and seagrasses create extensive intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats within Pacific NW estuaries. Maps of their populations are useful to inform estuarine managers of locations that deserve special consideration for conservation, and to inform oyster farmers...

  18. DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION TREATMENT OF GULF SHRIMP CANNERY WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reports on the operation of a plant scale dissolved air flotation system installed to define and evaluate attainable shrimp cannery wastewater treatment levels. The system was operated in all three modes of DAF pressurization. Destabilizing coagulants investigation inc...

  19. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, K. H. (principal investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production. It was based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurement of shoreline length and areas of marsh having more than 5.0 kilometers of shoreline per square kilometer of area for the Louisiana coast, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield.

  20. Antimicrobial Interventions to Reduce Listeria spp. Contamination on Shrimp

    E-print Network

    Wong, Tsui-Yin

    2010-01-14

    The effects of selected antimicrobials, applied singularly or in combination, and frozen or refrigerated storage conditions on the survival of Listeria spp. on inoculated shrimp was evaluated in this study. A combination of 0.5% CPC (Cetylpyridinium...

  1. EENY-220 Terrestrial Amphipods or “Lawn Shrimp ” (Crustacea:

    E-print Network

    Amphipoda Talitridae; Thomas R. Fasulo

    Amphipods comprise an order of crustacea, shrimp-like in form, which contains mostly marine and freshwater forms. While some species are terrestrial, they still require moist habitats. These terrestrial species are sometimes referred to

  2. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BURROWING SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ghost shrimp, (Neotypaea californiensis) are burrowers, whose bioturbation and sediment destabilizations have a negative effect on mariculture of the commercially important oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Oyster farmers in Washington and Oregon estuaries have been poisoning these shr...

  3. 77 FR 29586 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction AGENCY...and wing nets (butterfly trawls) rigged for fishing to use turtle excluder devices (TEDs) in their nets, and announced...

  4. Detection of virus in shrimp using digital color correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina; Bueno-Ibarra, Mario A.

    1999-07-01

    Detection of virus in shrimp tissue using digital color correlation is presented. Phase filters in three channels (red, green and blue) were used in order to detect HPV virus like target. These first results obtained showed that is possible to detect virus in shrimp tissue. More research must be made with color correlation in order to consider natural morphology of the virus, color, scale and rotation and noise in the samples.

  5. Effect of Fucoidan on Disease Resistance of Black Tiger Shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilaiwan Chotigeat; Suprapa Tongsupasupbsu; Kidchakan Supamataya; Amornrat Phongdara

    2004-01-01

    Oral administration of crude fucoidan (CF) extracted from Sargassum polycystum can reduce the impact of White Spot Syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in Penaeus monodon. Crude fucoidan mixed with diet for shrimps weighing of 5–8 and 12–15 g was fed before and after WSSV infection. After 10 days of infection, the maximum survival rates of shrimps of 5–8 and 12–15 g

  6. An environmental simulation of a shrimp mariculture pond

    E-print Network

    Whitson, John Lee

    1989-01-01

    AN ENVIRONMENTAL SIMULATION OF A SHRIMP MARICULTURE POND A Thesis JOHV LEE ttHITSO'V Submitted to the Office of Oraduate Studies of Texas AA-. M I. niversity in partial fulfillment of the reqmrements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIEVCE... December 1989 lfajor Subject: SVildlife and Fisheries Sciences AN ENVIRONMENTAL SIMULATION OF A SHRIMP MARICULTURE POND A Thesis by JOHV LEE O'HITSOV Approved as to style and content by: A. Lawrence (Co-Chair of Committee) Ora, nt (Co...

  7. Diurnal and nocturnal catchability of Kuwait's commercial shrimps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Bishop; Y. Ye; A. H. Alsaffar; H. M. Al-Foudari; S. Al-Jazzaf

    2008-01-01

    In descending order of importance, the shrimps Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan, 1844; Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837); and Parapenaeopsis stylifera (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) account for over 95% of Kuwait's commercial landings. Throughout its range, P. semisulcatus is nocturnal, but Kuwait trawlers are active 24h a day during season. Historically, all scientific shrimp surveys in Kuwait have been conducted during daylight

  8. Variation of shrimp texture with rigor-mortis

    E-print Network

    Wilaichon, Wunwiboon

    1976-01-01

    t '' t tissue pH. Possibly different levels of lactic acid affected the pH of freshly caught shrimp, depending on the amount of struggle before death. The pH of shrimp during postmortem aging was probably infuenced by the amount of glycogen remaining... viii INTRODUCTION. LITERATURE REVIEW. Relationship of Texture and Rigor-Mortis. . Other Factors Affecting Texture. Warner-Bratzler Shear. EXPERIMENTAL 10 Materials. 10 Methods. 12 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. 21 Postmortem pH. 21 The Duration...

  9. 75 FR 75965 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  10. 76 FR 64307 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  11. 75 FR 36635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  12. 75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  13. 76 FR 30648 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  14. 76 FR 45775 - Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern brown...

  15. Decline and Local Extinction of Caribbean Eusocial Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, J. Emmett; Macdonald III, Kenneth S.; Hultgren, Kristin M.; Chak, Tin Chi Solomon; Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2013-01-01

    The tropical shrimp genus Synalpheus includes the only eusocial marine animals. In much of the Caribbean, eusocial species have dominated the diverse fauna of sponge-dwelling shrimp in coral rubble for at least the past two decades. Here we document a recent, dramatic decline and apparent local extinction of eusocial shrimp species on the Belize Barrier Reef. Our collections from shallow reefs in central Belize in 2012 failed to locate three of the four eusocial species formerly abundant in the area, and showed steep declines in colony size and increases in frequency of queenless colonies prior to their disappearance. Concordant with these declines, several nonsocial, pair-forming Synalpheus species increased in frequency. The decline in eusocial shrimp is explained in part by disappearance of two sponge species on which they specialize. Eusocial shrimp collections from Jamaica in 2012 showed similar patterns of decline in colony size and increased queenlessness compared with prior Jamaican collections. The decline and local extinction of eusocial shrimp happened against a backdrop of changes in coral assemblages during recent decades, and may reflect changes in abundance and quality of dead coral substratum and succession of the diverse cryptic organisms living within it. These changes document potentially worrisome declines in a unique taxon of eusocial marine animals. PMID:23418429

  16. Decline and local extinction of Caribbean eusocial shrimp.

    PubMed

    Duffy, J Emmett; Macdonald, Kenneth S; Hultgren, Kristin M; Chak, Tin Chi Solomon; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2013-01-01

    The tropical shrimp genus Synalpheus includes the only eusocial marine animals. In much of the Caribbean, eusocial species have dominated the diverse fauna of sponge-dwelling shrimp in coral rubble for at least the past two decades. Here we document a recent, dramatic decline and apparent local extinction of eusocial shrimp species on the Belize Barrier Reef. Our collections from shallow reefs in central Belize in 2012 failed to locate three of the four eusocial species formerly abundant in the area, and showed steep declines in colony size and increases in frequency of queenless colonies prior to their disappearance. Concordant with these declines, several nonsocial, pair-forming Synalpheus species increased in frequency. The decline in eusocial shrimp is explained in part by disappearance of two sponge species on which they specialize. Eusocial shrimp collections from Jamaica in 2012 showed similar patterns of decline in colony size and increased queenlessness compared with prior Jamaican collections. The decline and local extinction of eusocial shrimp happened against a backdrop of changes in coral assemblages during recent decades, and may reflect changes in abundance and quality of dead coral substratum and succession of the diverse cryptic organisms living within it. These changes document potentially worrisome declines in a unique taxon of eusocial marine animals. PMID:23418429

  17. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

    2013-04-01

    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices. PMID:23239886

  18. ENHANCED ORGANIC MATTER REMINERALIZATION AND NUTRIENT TURNOVER BY POPULATIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing, or thalassinid, shrimp structure large areas of intertidal habitat of Pacific Northwest estuaries. This field study utilized a combination of anoxic incubations, porewater dialysis peepers, and benthic chambers to quantify the role of burrowing shrimp species on OM dec...

  19. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  20. Disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, following the dietary

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Louis E.

    to Schizophyllum commune glucan significantly increased resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSVDisease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, following the dietary for its impact on disease resistance in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Animals were fed

  1. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...discharges resulting from the processing of shrimp in non-remote Alaska. The effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100...STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY ...discharges resulting from the processing of shrimp in remote Alaska. The effluent...

  3. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on February 28, 2011, meets...

  4. 78 FR 72635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') covering the period February 1, 2013...

  5. 78 FR 59650 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') meets the statutory and regulatory...

  6. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on August 26, 2010, meets the...

  7. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ...Final)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations...the subject investigations concerning Indonesia (78 FR 50379) and Thailand (78 FR...concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand (investigation Nos....

  8. MORE THAN JUST BAIT: BURROWING SHRIMP AS ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS IN OREGON ESTUARIES - SEPTEMBER 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp may be most widely known as excellent fishing bait, but they also play important roles in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. These shrimps strongly affect carbon and nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, food web structure and dynamics, sediment stability,...

  9. Cleavage and gastrulation in the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Malacostraca, Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata)

    E-print Network

    Hertzler, Philip L.

    Cleavage and gastrulation in the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Malacostraca, Decapoda most malacostracan crustaceans develop through superficial cleavage, in the Amphipoda, Euphausiacea, and Dendrobranchiata (Decapoda) cleavage is complete. Euphausiaceans and dendrobranchiate shrimp share a similar early

  10. Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain.

    PubMed

    Dabade, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Rob; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management. PMID:25198861

  11. Wickliffe & Jodice: Seabirds at shrimp trawlers near South Carolina 31 Marine Ornithology 38: 3139 (2010)

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    Wickliffe & Jodice: Seabirds at shrimp trawlers near South Carolina 31 Marine Ornithology 38: 31 in such systems. South Carolina has a long history of shrimp trawling. Despite an economic decline in the shrimp and South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, G-27 Lehotsky Hall, Clemson University

  12. Occurrence of Deferribacterales and Entomoplasmatales in the deep-sea Alvinocarid shrimp Rimicaris exoculata gut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magali Zbinden; Marie-Anne Cambon-Bonavita

    2003-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of the gut microbial population of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata was determined. The presence of micro-organisms in the hindgut of the shrimp was determined, and their morphology illustrated for the first time by transmission electron microscopy. DNA was extracted from the fore-, mid- and hindgut of shrimps collected at the Rainbow site, at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge,

  13. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

  14. Effects of the insecticide permethrin on three life stages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. DeLorenzo; L. Serrano; K. W. Chung; J. Hoguet; P. B. Key

    2006-01-01

    Toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin was assessed using three life stages of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Adult and larval shrimp were tested with and without sediment. An aqueous embryo test was also conducted. Cellular stress biomarkers, glutathione, and lipid peroxidation, were assessed. Larval shrimp were the most sensitive life stage with a 96-h lethal concentration (LC50) value

  15. Detection of new hosts for white spot syndrome virus of shrimp using nested polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anirban Chakraborty; Biju Joseph; S. K. Otta; Indrani Karunasagar; Iddya Karunasagar

    2001-01-01

    The presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp in various marine crustaceans was studied by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The incidence of the virus in non-cultured crustaceans from shrimp farms was also studied. The results indicate that wild-caught asymptomatic marine shrimp such as Metapenaeus dobsoni, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, Solenocera indica and Squilla mantis carry WSSV. This virus could

  16. 50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. 622...208 Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod end of a rock shrimp trawl net in the South...

  17. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

  18. 50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. 622...208 Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod end of a rock shrimp trawl net in the South...

  19. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

  20. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

  1. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-639 Stock Assessment of Pink Shrimp

    E-print Network

    NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-639 Stock Assessment of Pink Shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum Stock Assessment of Pink Shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico for 2011 By Rick A A. 2012. Stock Assessment of Pink Shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico

  2. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-638 Stock Assessment of Brown Shrimp

    E-print Network

    NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-638 Stock Assessment of Brown Shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus Stock Assessment of Brown Shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico for 2011 By Rick A A. 2012. Stock Assessment of Brown Shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico

  3. 78 FR 13324 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...single entity. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...Rescission, Extension of Time Limits for the Final Results...Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...to the order is certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...subject to the order at the time of this CCR was...

  4. 76 FR 65178 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ...A-552-802] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...decided to extend the time limit for the preliminary...duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp...duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...31, 2011. Statutory Time Limits In...

  5. 76 FR 36519 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...A-552-802] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...is extending the time limits for the final results...administrative review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...Vietnam. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...July 5, 2011. Statutory Time Limits In...

  6. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ...A-552-802] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...is extending the time limit for the preliminary...administrative review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...the review for certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...31, 2010. Statutory Time Limits In...

  7. 75 FR 27705 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...is extending the time limit for the final results...shipper review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp...Ltd. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...Department extended the time limit to complete its...30 days. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

  8. Mangroves as filters of shrimp pond effluent: predictions and biogeochemical research needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Robertson; M. J. Phillips

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary estimates of the ratio of mangrove forest: shrimp pond area necessary to remove nutrients from shrimp pond effluent are made using budgets of nitrogen and phosphorus output for semi-intensive and intensive shrimp ponds combined with estimates of total net primary production in Rhizophora-dominated mangrove forests in tropical coastal areas. If effluent is delivered directly to mangrove forest plots, it

  9. State of the art of immunological tools and health control of penaeid shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny Rodriguez; Gilles Le Moulla

    Shrimp farming constitutes an important source of revenue and employment in many develop- ing countries. However, infectious diseases have affected the profitability of the shrimp industry. For this reason, disease prevention is a priority and shrimp immunology has become a prime area of research. In such a perspective, studies into the value of cellular and humoral parameters as indicators of

  10. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  11. The atyid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) rostrum: phylogeny versus adaptation, taxonomy versus trophic ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jure Jugovic; Simona Prevorcnik; Gregor Aljancic; Boris Sket

    2010-01-01

    Cave shrimps of the subgenus Troglocaris (Atyidae), exhibit high variability in rostral length and dentition. In shrimp populations that co-occur with the amphibian predator Proteus anguinus, longer rostra armed with more numerous teeth are recorded. These shrimps are also larger than those living in a presumably Proteus-free environment. Discrepancies between molecularly established phylogenetic relationships and distributions of rostral length, as

  12. Evaluating the impact of seismic prospecting on artisanal shrimp fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriguetto-Filho, José M.; Ostrensky, Antonio; Pie, Marcio R.; Silva, Ubiratã A.; Boeger, Walter A.

    2005-09-01

    The constant need to discover new hydrocarbon deposits is causing the use of air-guns to become a very widespread method of seismic prospecting. However, there is still disagreement regarding their impact on the marine environment. This uncertainty is particularly severe in the case of shellfish, which account for a substantial share of commercial fisheries and seafood trade in many parts of the world. In this paper we report on the first study to explicitly assess the impact of seismic prospecting on shrimp resources. We measured bottom trawl yields of a nonselective commercial shrimp fishery comprising the Southern white shrimp, Litopenaeus schmitti, the Southern brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Atlantic Seabob, Xyphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda: Penaeidae), before and after the use of an array of four synchronized air-guns, each with 635 in 3 of total capacity, 2.000 psi, and peak pressure of 196 dB (re 1 ?Pa at 1 m). Our results did not detect significant deleterious impact of seismic prospecting on the studied species, suggesting that shrimp stocks are resilient to the disturbance by air-guns under our experimental conditions.

  13. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  14. Growth and reproductive performance of broodstock shrimp reared in a biosecure recirculating aquaculture system versus a flow-through pond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clete A. Otoshi; Steve M. Arce; Shaun M. Moss

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, viral pathogens have caused mass mortalities of farmed shrimp throughout the major shrimp farming regions of the world. In addition, the global shrimp farming industry has been criticized for negatively impacting coastal environments. These issues have raised concerns about the sustainability of traditional shrimp farming practices, and have prompted farmers and researchers to develop biosecure technologies

  15. Description and analysis of the shrimp raceway run for the summer 1990, Shrimp Mariculture Project, Texas A&M University System

    E-print Network

    Mena, Luis

    1991-01-01

    water visibility and productivity, but with low chemical and organic pollutants. C. TYPES OP GROWOUT OPERATIONS In general, shrimp growout culture is classified into extensive, semi-intensive, and intensive techniques (Lawrence et al. 1985... ABSTRACT DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE SHRIMP RACEWAY RUN FOR THE SUMMER 1990, SHRIMP MARICULTURE PROSPECT, TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY SYSTEM. Luis Mena Licenciature in Biology, Universidad de Costa Rica The objectives of this work are to present general...

  16. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  17. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  18. JOUSEHOLD CONSUMER PREFERENCE ~EADED SHRIMP& BREADED FISH STICKS

    E-print Network

    . D. C. September 1955 HOUSEHOLD CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR BREADED SERIMP AND BREADm FISH STICKS Part 2 survey of household consumer preferences for breaded shrimp and breaded f ish sticks . The survey and shellfish was obtained also. Important developments in the marketing of fishery products have occurred i n

  19. The Lobster and Shrimp Fisheries in Hawaii The Lobster Fishery

    E-print Network

    The Lobster and Shrimp Fisheries in Hawaii The Lobster Fishery Introduction The commercial lobster fishery in Hawaii is a trap fishery which harvests several lobster species in the North western Hawaiian, from Nihoa Island to Kure Atoll (Fig. 1). The fishery targets two species: the endemic spiny lobster

  20. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE FAIRY SHRIMP POPULATIONS OF NORTHEASTERN OHIO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RALPH W. DEXTER; CHARLES H. KUEHNLE

    1951-01-01

    Over a period of ten years, 1941-1950 inclusive, fairy shrimps have been collected from certain temporary pools and ponds in Portage, Summit, Stark, and Crawford Counties of Northeastern Ohio. Reports on the annual survey for the first six years have already been published (Dexter and Sheary, 1943; Dexter, 1943, 1946; Dexter and Kuehnle, 1948). The present paper summarizes studies of

  1. Morphometric differentiation in small juveniles of the pink spotted shrimp

    E-print Network

    306 Morphometric differentiation in small juveniles of the pink spotted shrimp (Farfantepenaeus-Farfante (1969, 1970, 1971a) described diagnostic charac- ters of the genus Farfantepenaeus that allowed (RL/CL). In addition, she classified Farfantepenaeus into two groups according to the shape

  2. 78 FR 9024 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...Incidental Bycatch and Mortality of Sea Turtles in the Southeastern U.S. Shrimp Fisheries...which could result in mortality of sea turtles. Based on new information discussed...not reflect actual fishery impacts on sea turtles. At the time the DEIS was...

  3. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

  4. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...removed from the still frozen shrimp material (between...determine the exact dip time required for “debreading...necessary. The correct dip time is the minimum time of immersion in the copper...units are still solidly frozen and only a slight trace...

  5. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y?1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  6. A Filamentous Bacterium on the Brine Shrimp and Its Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mobashir A. Solangi; Robin M. Overstreet; Ann L. Gannam

    1979-01-01

    A strain of a colorless, filamentous bacterium (tentatively identified as Leucothrix mucor) heavily infests the brine shrimp, Artemia salina. Its ultrastructure, unlike that of some other strains, does not reveal a distinct middle layer between its outer cell wall layer and cytoplasmic membrane, irregular blebs extending from the cell layers, or an external sheath. An entire infestation, represented as a

  7. Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Hisem; Pavel Hrouzek; Petr Tomek; Jana Tomší?ková; Eliška Zapom?lová; Kate?ina Skácelová; Alena Lukešová; Ji?í Kopecký

    2011-01-01

    Heterocytous cyanobacteria from various habitats were screened for toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina and the murine lymphoblastic cell line Sp\\/2 in order to compare these two testing models for evaluation of risk posed by cyanobacteria to human health. Methanol extracts of biomass and cultivation media were tested for toxicity and selected extracts were fractionated to determine the active fraction.

  8. Recent population expansion and connectivity in the hydrothermal shrimp

    E-print Network

    Teixeira, Sara

    -sea hydrothermal vents are unstable habitats that are both spatially and temporally fragmented. In vent species of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata, which forms high-density local populations on hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic ridge. Location Deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Methods We used

  9. Economic and financial implications of shrimp farming in West Texas

    E-print Network

    Britt, David Westbrook

    1995-01-01

    that shrimp farming at this time is relatively risky with a limited return on investment in West Texas. Risk was included for survival, growth rate, and price. A final risk analysis incorporated catastrophic events whereby there was a 5% percent probability...

  10. Halogenated contaminants in farmed salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, S P J; van Velzen, M J M; Swart, C P; van der Veen, I; Traag, W A; de Boer, J

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America. Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations than omnivorous species. (ii) Contaminant concentrations generally decreased per species in the following order of salmon > trout > tilapia approximately equal to pangasius approximately equal to shrimp. (iii) Most contaminant concentrations decreased in the following order of PCBs approximately equal to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) > hexachlorobenzene approximately equal to pentachlorobenzene approximately equal to dieldrin approximately equal to PBDEs approximately equal to alpha-HBCD approximately equal to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) > World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ) [PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs]. (iv) Contaminant concentrations were very low (mostly <1 ng/g wet weight) and far below the European and Dutch legislative limits. (v) Contaminant concentrations in farmed shrimp, pangasius, and tilapia were lower than those in wild fish, whereas contaminant concentrations in farmed salmon and trout were higher than those in lean wild marine fish. From the five species investigated, salmon is predominantly responsible (97%) for human exposure to the sum of the investigated contaminants. The contribution of trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp is small (3%) because contaminant concentrations and consumption volumes were much lower. PMID:19569323

  11. Design and Test of a Topless Shrimp Trawl to Reduce Pelagic Fish Bycatch in the Gulf of Maine Pink Shrimp Fishery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pingguo He; David Goethel; Tracey Smith

    2007-01-01

    A new innovative topless shrimp trawl was designed and tested in the flume tank, and at sea to evaluate its potential of reducing finfish bycatch in the pink shrimp fishery in the Gulf of Maine. The trawl design removed the square and the top part of the section after the square (first belly section), to become \\

  12. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7?35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a “vaccine component” to modulate the immunity of shrimp. PMID:23894531

  13. The effect of copper on the color of shrimps: redder is not always healthier.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500-700 nm): P=0.0015; red chroma (625-700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  14. The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P?=?0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  15. Snapping shrimp prefer natural as opposed to artificial materials as their habitat in laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Lai Kean; Ghazali, Shahriman M.

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzed the habitat selection behavior of the snapping shrimp, Alpheus spp., comparing natural shelters (Rocks with oysters attached on the surface Sh; rocks with smooth surface, Ro and coral rubble, Co with plastic bottle. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the habitat preference, effect of photoperiod and shrimp orientation at shelter. The current study indicated that snapping shrimp preferred natural materials but rejected plastic bottle as their shelter. Among the natural shelters, coral rubble was the most preferred habitat followed by shell and rock. Photoperiod showed minimum effect on the shrimp where they spend most of the time inside and underneath the shelters. In conclusion the current study showed that snapping shrimp preferred coral rubble as opposed to other natural material and plastic bottle. The result also suggested that plastic debris in the marine environment is not an alternative habitat for snapping shrimp.

  16. Construction and Characterization of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Library of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojun Zhang; Yang Zhang; Chantel Scheuring; Hong-Bin Zhang; Pin Huan; Bing Wang; Chengzhang Liu; Fuhua Li; Bin Liu; Jianhai Xiang

    2010-01-01

    The pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is one of the most economically important marine aquaculture species in the world. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization,\\u000a genome analysis, physical mapping, and molecular selection breeding of marine shrimp, we have developed the techniques to\\u000a isolate high-quality megabase-sized DNA from hemocyte nuclear DNA of female shrimp and constructed a bacterial artificial\\u000a chromosome (BAC)

  17. Assessing the Shelf Life of Retail Shrimp Using Real-time Microrespirometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fahad Alderees

    2010-01-01

    Shrimp is the most consumed seafood item in the United States (U.S.). Currently 90% of the shrimp consumed in the U.S. is imported from a few Asian countries. When imported shrimp arrives to its destination, it probably contains a load of microbial contamination due to the post-harvest processing steps such as transportation, handling, preparation, beheading, peeling, deveining, packaging and storage

  18. The Shrimp Caridina nilotica in Lake Victoria (East Africa), Before and After the Nile Perch Increase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frans Witte; Jan H. Wanink

    2006-01-01

    The shrimp Caridina nilotica is a major prey of the introduced Nile perch in Lake Victoria. In spite of heavy predation, the density of shrimps increased\\u000a after the Nile perch boom and the concomitant disappearance of the haplochromine cichlids. In the same period, the mean size\\u000a of gravid shrimps and the size at first maturity declined. This seems to indicate

  19. Visualizing Flow Diagrams in WebSphere Studio Using SHriMP Views

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Rayside; Marin Litoiu; Margaret-anne D. Storey; Casey Best; Robert Lintern

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of an information visualization tool, called SHriMP Views, with IBM WebSphere Studio Application Developer Integration Edition, which was developed with Eclipse technology. Although SHriMP was originally developed for visualizing programs, it is content-independent. We have re-targeted SHriMP for visualizing flow diagrams. Flow diagrams, as supported by WebSphere Studio Appli- cation Developer Integration Edition, can be

  20. Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

    2000-04-01

    The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

  1. Social and ecological challenges of market-oriented shrimp farming in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ngo Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the largest shrimp exporters in the world. Since 2010, Vietnam has earned about two billion dollars annually through shrimp exports. As a fertile area of greatest potential for agricultural production in Vietnam, the Mekong Delta has been a major contributor to the country's achievements, especially in the agricultural sector. During recent decades, trade liberation along with various policies in support of aquaculture has accelerated the development of shrimp production in the Delta. Based on an ethnographic study of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, I assert that along with great rewards arising from the expansion of shrimp farming areas, productivity, and export value, the shrimp industry has brought various environmental, economic and social challenges. Consequently, shrimp farming is a risky business and local inhabitants have relied on various strategies to cope with these challenges. Risk mitigation in shrimp production and labor migration are the two important strategies of local inhabitants for securing their livelihoods. Water pollution and poor quality post-larvae shrimp are direct consequences of market-oriented production. PMID:24386621

  2. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion reduces the allergic reactivity of shrimp extract proteins and tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Cristina; Zafra, Ma Paz; Sanz, Verónica; Mazzeo, Carla; Ibáñez, Ma Dolores; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-04-15

    Shrimp are highly allergenic foods. Current management are limited to the avoidance of foods. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a safe and effective therapy using modified allergens. This study focuses on assessing the potential for modification of the allergenicity of shrimp proteins following heat treatment or simulated gastric digestion. Shrimp proteins do not reduce their IgE reactivity after heat treatment but it is reduced by simulated gastric digestion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tropomyosin in shrimp extract is worse digested than purified tropomyosin. After 60 min of 10 U/?g pepsin digestion, a strong inhibition was produced in the in vivo skin reactivity of shrimp extracts and in activation of basophils from allergic patients. Immunisation experiments performed in rabbits demonstrated that digested boiled shrimp extract is able to induce IgG antibodies that block the IgE binding to the untreated boiled shrimp extract in shrimp-allergic patients. Building on our observations, digestion treatment could be an effective method for reducing shrimp allergenicity while maintaining the immunogenicity. PMID:25466048

  3. Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Suárez-Jiménez, Guadalupe-Miroslava; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp. PMID:24135910

  4. Mating behaviour, epibiotic growth, and the effect of salinity on grooming activity in the hermaphroditic shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni

    E-print Network

    Giri, Tuhin

    2004-09-30

    Many species of caridean shrimp are protandrous hermaphrodites, maturing initially as males but developing into females as they age and grow. A unique sexual system was recently discovered in the peppermint shrimp, Lysmata wurdemanni...

  5. 77 FR 64102 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ...7\\ The Domestic Producers are the Ad Hoc Shrimp Trade Action Committee members: Nancy Edens; Papa Rod, Inc.; Carolina Seafoods; Bosarge Boats, Inc.; Knight's Seafood Inc.; Big Grapes, Inc.; Versaggi Shrimp...

  6. 77 FR 63786 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony...Review of Grobest & I Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd., and Notice of Amended...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period...

  7. 78 FR 18958 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China and Diamond Sawblades and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...WTO'') in United States--Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp and Diamond...settlement panel in United States--Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp and Diamond...Department recalculated the weighted-average dumping margins from the antidumping...

  8. 76 FR 30034 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...Commercial Penaeid Shrimp Trawling Off South Carolina AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off South Carolina in the South Atlantic. NMFS previously...shrimp trawling in the EEZ off South Carolina on March 22, 2011. The...

  9. IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON C, N CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

  10. IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

  11. DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE-SCALE NITROGEN DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

  12. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Forrest E. Dierberg; Woraphan Kiattisimkul

    1996-01-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface\\u000a salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable\\u000a when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond\\u000a sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just

  13. Toxicity of Fusarium sambucinum Fuckel sensu lato to brine shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Schmidt; P. Zajkowski; J. Wink

    1995-01-01

    In a screening test sevenFusarium strains out of 17 proved to be toxic towards brine shrimp. Among these, fourF. sambucinum strains as well as threeF. venenatum isolates caused toxic effects. The chemical screening by TLC analysis revealed the presence of sambucinol and diacetoxyscirpenol\\u000a in the extracts of the toxic isolates ofF. venenatum 64537.

  14. Economic feasibility of commercial shrimp farming in Texas

    E-print Network

    Williams, Robert James

    1973-01-01

    corducive to harvesting and accessible to supplementary equipment. Since the model is based upon the Texas API University experimental shrimp farm, the location of 10 the facility must be near the sea water source. In recent years land prices in..., insurance for each crop would be approximately $ percent of the cost of the seed stock. Standard insurance companies can be used. for in- suring the facility and its supplementary equipment. Nost of the equipment will be insurable at standard rates...

  15. Effect of Shrimp Chitin and Shrimp Chitin Hydrolysate on the Freeze-Induced Denaturation, and on the Amount of Unfreezable Water of Wanieso Lizardfish Myofibrillar Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somjit, Kingduean; Kongpun, Orawan; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Hara, Kenji; Nozaki, Yukinori

    In view of potential utilization of shrimp waste, shrimp chitin (SC) and shrimp chitin hydrolysate (SCH) were prepared from 3 kinds of shrimp species, namely: black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, endeavour shrimp Metapenaeus endeavouri and giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The effects of 5% SC and SCH (dry weight) on the state of water and on the denaturation of wanieso lizardfish Saurida wanieso myofibrillar protein (Mf) were evaluated based on changes in Mf Ca-ATPase activity and the amount of unfreezable water during frozen storage. Each effect was compared with those of Mf without additives (control) and Mf with glucose. The changes in Ca-ATPase activity of control and Mf with SC during frozen storage were exhibited biphasic pattern while those of SCH and glucose exhibited monophasic pattern. The amount of unfreezable water of Mf with SC was lower than that of control while those of Mf with SCH and glucose were higher than that of control. Present findings suggested that the preventive effect of SCH on freeze-induced denaturation of Mf is caused by the stabilizing the hydrated water molecule surrounding the Mf.

  16. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, N. J.; Land, M. F.; Cronin, T. W.

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a ‘primate-like’ awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

  17. Chronic toxicity of nitrate to Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: Impacts on survival, growth, antennae length, and pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David D. Kuhn; Stephen A. Smith; Gregory D. Boardman; Matthew W. Angier; Lori Marsh; George J. Flick

    2010-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of nitrate (NO3?) has not been well documented in the culture of penaeid shrimp. To interpret this problem, lab-scale research was conducted in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) to determine the long-term impacts of nitrate on shrimp growth, survival, total mass of shrimp per system (shrimp biomass), antennae length, and tissue pathology. The first experiment, Trial (A), was performed

  18. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

  19. Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-10-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:24780624

  20. Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".

    PubMed

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-02-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:25083808

  1. These Squatters Are Not Innocent: The Evidence of Parasitism in Sponge-Inhabiting Shrimps

    PubMed Central

    ?uriš, Zden?k; Horká, Ivona; Jura?ka, Petr Jan; Petrusek, Adam; Sandford, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic) and T. spongicola (Mediterranean). The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs) suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae) and Synalpheus (Alpheidae). The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation. PMID:21814564

  2. Description of three ecology studies on brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus and white shrimp P. setiferus conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service, Galveston, Texas

    E-print Network

    Diego, Maria Eugenia de

    1984-01-01

    scientists on several different projects. Most of the projects were designed to study different aspects on the ecology of penaeid shrimp, mainly those that could affect shrimp populations and thus an important f1shery resource. This paper conta1ns... separate reports of the three main project on which I had the opportunity to work. The first one was a study on the abundance of brown shrimp, Panaeus aztecus, in vegetated and non- vegetated habitats in a Lou1siana salt marsh where the dominant species...

  3. Larviculture of native white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, and exotic white shrimp, P. vannanmei at Continental Fisheries, Limited, Panama City, Florida

    E-print Network

    Aranyakananda, Porcham

    1985-01-01

    in 1934 when Dr. Motosaku Fuginaga, Japan's fatner of shrimp mariculture, successfully spawned and partially reared larvae of penaeus j aponi cus ( Mock 1975 ) . In 1963 Dr . Fugi naga visited the United States and spent some time at the National... Marine Fisheries Service ( NMFS ) laboratory in Galveston, Texas. At this time Dr. Fuginaga and Mr. Harry Cook and others of the NMFS Galveston laboratory experimented witn Japanese methods and spawned and reared larvae of P. setiferus and P. aztecus...

  4. Predictive Computer Modeling of Growth and Feeding Rates for Pacific White Shrimp, Penaeus vanammei, in Hard Freshwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony F. Pegel; J. Richard Booth

    If the United States is to find its niche in shrimp aquaculture production, non-traditional methods of shrimp farming must be used to overcome the climatic incompatibility and strict environmental regulations. Non-traditional shrimp production must also find ways to significantly reduce capital and operational costs. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), which support high population densities and precise control of the suitable growth

  5. An Assessment of the Economic Importance of the San Carlos Island Shrimp Processing Industry to the Lee County Economy

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    to the Lee County Economy Chuck Adams, David Mulkey, and Alan Hodges Food and Resource Economics Department the shrimp processing industry on San Carlos Island contributes to the Lee County economy. Most of the shrimp of the revenues earned on a trip are spent within the Lee County economy. During seasons when shrimp landings

  6. Simulation of phosphorus dynamics in an intensive shrimp culture system: effects of feed formulations and feeding strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruby A. Montoya; A. L. Lawrence; M. Velasco

    2000-01-01

    The rapid expansion of shrimp culture has brought concern about potential environmental impacts caused by phosphorus wastes discharged from shrimp farms. This study describes development of a simulation model representing the effect of feed nutritional quality, feed physical characteristics, and feeding strategies on phosphorus dynamics in intensive Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture systems, receiving dry feeds in the absence

  7. First record of a parasitic septate gregarines (Apicomplexa: Sporozoea) in the shrimp Peneaus monodon in Sundarbans of West Bengal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Chakraborti; P. K. Bandyopadhyay

    2010-01-01

    Investigations on the incidence of septate gregarines in shrimp have immense importance because of severe pathogenicity of\\u000a the parasite. The septate gregarines infect the midgut of shrimp Peneaus monodon and severe infection disturbs the intestinal tissues. Mostly gregarines of the genus Nematopsis have been identified from cultured peneaid shrimp. It has worldwide in distribution. In India, gregarine parasites have so

  8. Non-Stationary Markov Process Analysis of the Size Distribution of Shrimp Processing Firms in the Southeast United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamady Diop; Wes R. Harrison; Walter R. Keithly

    2000-01-01

    The shrimp harvesting sector is the largest component of the Southeastern United States fishing industry, accounting for 57% of the total value of landings in the region in 1996. U.S. shrimp imports were valued at $2.6 billion in 1996. Together , domestic production and imports of raw products support a large shrimp processing sector, which provides several thousand jobs either

  9. 75 FR 37757 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...Administration [A-552-802] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...Notice of Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...antidumping duty order on frozen warmwater shrimp from...31, 2009. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...2010. Extension of the Time for the Final...

  10. 75 FR 34976 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...A-549-822 Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...Notice of Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...31, 2009. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...review. Extension of Time Limit for the Final...

  11. 76 FR 55350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...A-552-802] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary...decided to extend the time limit for the preliminary...order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp...2\\ See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...Statutory Time Limits Section...

  12. 75 FR 62099 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ...A-549-822] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...Notice of Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary...administrative review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...10, 2010. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...Extension of Time Limit of Preliminary...

  13. 76 FR 61668 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...A-549-822] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...Notice of Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary...duty orders on certain frozen warmwater shrimp From...31, 2011. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...2011). Extension of Time Limit of Preliminary...

  14. 75 FR 24883 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...A-552-802] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...Vietnam: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary...duty orders on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp are currently...respectively. Extension of Time Limits for...

  15. 75 FR 27299 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China and Thailand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China and...certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China (PRC...certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, India, the PRC, and Thailand. See Notice...

  16. Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

  17. The use of indole as a potential quality index for fresh, frozen, cooked and canned shrimp

    E-print Network

    Chang, Olivia Hui-Fen

    1981-01-01

    modified colorimetric method for the determination of indole in shrimp. In press. Cheuk, W. L. , Finne, G. and Nickelson, R. 1979, Sta'bility of adeno- sine deaminase and adenosine moncphosphate deaminase during ice storage of pink and brown shrimp from...

  18. Genetic diversity of wild and cultured Black Tiger Shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) in the Philippines using microsatellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenkang Xu; Jurgenne H Primavera; Leobert D de la Pena; Priscilla Pettit; Jane Belak; Acacia Alcivar-Warren

    2001-01-01

    Six microsatellites were used to study (1) the genetic diversity of wild Penaeus monodon shrimp from four geographic regions (Palawan, Quezon, Capiz and Negros Occidental-W) in the Philippines, and (2) its association with the status of mangroves and intensity of shrimp culture systems in these regions. Two cultured populations (Negros Occidental-C and Antique) were used for comparison. All six microsatellite

  19. Growth overfishing in the brown shrimp fishery of Texas, Louisiana, and adjoining Gulf of Mexico EEZ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C CAILLOUETJR; R. A. Hart; J. M. Nance

    2008-01-01

    Growth overfishing in the brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, fishery in inshore (estuarine) and offshore (Gulf of Mexico) territorial waters of Texas and Louisiana, and adjoining waters of the United States’ (U.S.) Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and its potentially detrimental economic consequences to the harvesting sector, have not been among major concerns of Federal and State shrimp management agencies. Three possible

  20. Immunity enhancement in black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) by a probiont bacterium ( Bacillus S11)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sirirat Rengpipat; Sombat Rukpratanporn; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul; Piamsak Menasaveta

    2000-01-01

    Survival and growth of Penaeus monodon fed the probiont Bacillus S11 in two 90-day culture trials were increased compared with non-treated shrimp. Bacillus S11 also efficiently activated and increased the engulfment of foreign particles (phagocytic activity) as measured by % phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI) in hemolymph. Phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities increased with age in all shrimp, but were even

  1. BIOACCUMULATION OF KEPONE BY GRASS SHRIMP (PALAEMONETIS PUGIO): IMPORTANCE OF DIETARY ACCUMULATION AND INGESTION RATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative extent of dietary accumulation and bioconcentration of Kepone by grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) was quantitatively evaluated at food rations of 4 and of the average wet weight of the shrimp. 14C]Kepone was utilized to determine bioconcentration and dietary accumul...

  2. FEEDING RATES OF THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the clam Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities of the shrimp and its commensal clam, as well as particle settlement within t...

  3. Modeling Shrimp Biomass and Viral Infection for Production of Biological Countermeasures

    E-print Network

    Modeling Shrimp Biomass and Viral Infection for Production of Biological Countermeasures H. T 29422 December 9, 2005 Abstract In this paper we develop a mathematical model for the rapid production production with those for vaccine production in shrimp that have been infected with a recombinant viral

  4. Mitochondrial Pseudogenes Are Pervasive and Often Insidious in the Snapping Shrimp Genus Alpheus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Williams; N. Knowlton

    2002-01-01

    Here we show that multiple DNA sequences, similar to the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, occur within single individuals in at least 10 species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus. Cloning of amplified products revealed the presence of copies that differed in length and (more frequently) in base substitutions. Although multiple copies were amplified in individual shrimp from total

  5. USE OF THE GRASS SHRIMP 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO' IN A LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology for using the estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) in life-cycle toxicity tests was successfully developed. Life-cycle exposures of juvenile shrimp (12 to 19 mm in rostrum-telson length) to the chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide endrin were begun in November 1...

  6. 77 FR 31062 - Programs To Reduce Incidental Capture of Sea Turtles in Shrimp Fisheries; Certifications Pursuant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...environments in 26 other countries and one economy do not pose a threat of the incidental...certified 26 shrimp harvesting nations and one economy as having fishing environments that do...Kingdom, and Uruguay. Ten nations and one economy only harvest shrimp using small...

  7. The Relationship Between Shrimp Yields and Intertidal Vegetation (Mangrove) Areas: A Reassessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Pauly; Jose Ingles

    1999-01-01

    Three data sets (one from a worldwide survey, one from Indonesia and one using Philippine data) are combined to derive a single relationship linking penaeid shrimp yield, intertidal vegetation area (mainly mangrove) and latitude. This relationship, being logarithmic, cannot be used to compute precise estimates of shrimp fishery losses, given destruction or reclamation of a given surface area of intertidal

  8. Pilot scale lactic acid fermentation of shrimp wastes for chitin recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis A Cira; Sergio Huerta; George M Hall; Keiko Shirai

    2002-01-01

    Lactic fermentation of shrimp waste on solid substrates was studied as a means of preservation for chitin recovery. Shrimp wastes were fermented in 100-g flasks with varying levels of inoculation with lactobacilli as well as different types and levels of carbohydrate. Sucrose was selected as the carbohydrate source in further experimental work due to its better acid production potential as

  9. Comparison of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation with Acid Treatments for Chitosan Production from Shrimp Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sureerat Phuvasate; Yi-Cheng Su

    2010-01-01

    The traditional procedure for chitosan production involves use of a strong acid (HCl) for demineralization of chitin. This study reports application of a mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus lactis) fermentation in demineralization of chitin for chitosan production from shrimp waste. Chitosan produced from shrimp waste with lactic acid bacteria fermentation at 30°C for

  10. Frozen Commodity Shrimp: Potential Avenue for Introduction of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Yellow Head Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Durand; K. F. J. Tang; D. V. Lightner

    2000-01-01

    Since 1992, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) have caused mortalities in cultured shrimp throughout Asia. By 1995, WSSV was detected in Texas and South Carolina, and the virus has also been recently reported in Central and South America (Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Panama, Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador). The importation of live infected shrimp is the principal

  11. Effect of cryogenic freezing on salmonella and listeria recovery from inoculated shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, shrimp is number one in seafood consumption. Shrimp is usually imported frozen, and the Food and Drug Administration has isolated Salmonella spp. from this frozen product. This research was conducted to determine the effect of two cryogenic freezing protocols (time and tempe...

  12. Probabilities of low nighttime temperatures during stocking and harvest seasons for inland shrimp culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: The pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is cultured in earthen ponds at inland sites across the southern US. The growing season in ponds is limited to periods when water temperatures permit shrimp survival and growth. Low nighttime air temperatures associated with cold f...

  13. Foreign Fishery Developments may have also affected 1984 pond pro-Ecuadorean Shrimp

    E-print Network

    Foreign Fishery Developments may have also affected 1984 pond pro- duction. Ecuadorean Shrimp the world's leading producer of farmed shrimp. Investors in Ecuador continued to build ponds in 1984 24,000 hectares of new ponds in 1984 (Table 2). Although complete statistical data was not available

  14. Characterization of the Taura syndrome virus isolate originating from the 2004 Texas Epizootic in cultured shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major viral pathogen of penaeid shrimp worldwide. A comprehensive investigation of the Texas isolate of TSV that caused epizootics in shrimp farms in Texas in 2004 (Us04Pv1) revealed that the virus was highly virulent in laboratory bioassays causing severe symptom dev...

  15. 75 FR 56988 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ...is extending the time limit for the preliminary...administrative review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...anniversary month. Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...administrative review on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the PRC within the original time limit because the...

  16. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF LESIONS IN GILLS OF A MARINE SHRIMP EXPOSED TO CADMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathologic black gills of pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, exposed to 763 micrograms/l of cadmium chloride for 15 days were studied with transmission electron microscopy and were compared with normal gills of control pink shrimp. Local as well as extensive areas of cell death and n...

  17. Onboard processing of deepwater pink shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris ) with liquid ice: Effect on quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Almudena Huidobro; María Elvira López-Caballero; Rogério Mendes

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effect on the quality of deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) of onboard chilling with liquid ice versus the traditional chilling with flaked ice. Quality was estimated by physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters after 24 h and 4 days of chilled storage. Application of liquid ice immediately after catch for the fast chilling of pink shrimp

  18. FISH PREDATION ON JUVENILE BROWN SHRIMp, PENAEUS AZTECUS IVES: EFFECTS OF TURBIDITY AND

    E-print Network

    FISH PREDATION ON JUVENILE BROWN SHRIMp, PENAEUS AZTECUS IVES: EFFECTS OF TURBIDITY AND SUBSTRATUM for burrowing. Regardless of the type of substratum, turbid water increased predation by southern flounder clear and turbid water, the presence of sand, whic1l allowed shrimp to burrow, decreased predation

  19. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED REFRIGERATED

    E-print Network

    PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED ahrimp,PandaluB borealis, were held in carbon dioxide modified refrigerated seawater for 12.5 days and in ice for 11.5 days. Chemical tests for spoilage indicated that shrimp held in carbon dioxide modified

  20. Brine Shrimp Lethality Activity of Thai Medicinal Plants in the Family Meliaceae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sirintorn Pisutthanana; Pinyupa Plianbangchang

    Brine shrimp larvae have been used as a bioassay for a variety of toxic substances. The method has also been applied to plant extracts in order to facilitate the isolation of biologically active compounds. In this study, the plants in the family Meliaceae have been selected to test for brine shrimp lethality activity based on taxonomic approach including Azedirachta indica,

  1. A comparison between two brine shrimp assays to detect in vitro cytotoxicity in marine natural products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Luis Carballo; Zaira L Hernández-Inda; Pilar Pérez; María D García-Grávalos

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The brine shrimp lethality assay is considered a useful tool for preliminary assessment of toxicity. It has also been suggested for screening pharmacological activities in plant extracts. However, we think that it is necessary to evaluate the suitability of the brine shrimp methods before they are used as a general bio-assay to test natural marine products for pharmacological activity.

  2. Feeding biology of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata at hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Dover; B. Fry; J. F. Grassle; S. Humphris; P. A. Rona

    1988-01-01

    A newly described species of shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata Williams and Rona, 1986, dominates the megafaunal community at two hydrothermal vent sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Behavioral observations and gut-content analyses indicate, that these shrimp ingest large amounts of sulfide particles from black smoker chimneys. We found no evidence for chemoautotrophic endosymbionts in R. exoculata, based on analyses of morphology, stable

  3. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from shrimp waste with vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Sachindra; N. S. Mahendrakar

    2005-01-01

    Shrimp waste is an important source of natural carotenoid. Studies were carried out to determine the extraction yield of shrimp waste carotenoids in different vegetable oils. Highest yield was obtained by extraction using refined sunflower oil compared to groundnut oil, gingelly oil, mustard oil, soy oil, coconut oil and rice bran oil. The extraction yield of carotenoids in sunflower oil

  4. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

  5. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. PMID:24111694

  6. Effects of a Fixed-Crest Weir on Brown Shrimp Penaeus aztecus Growth, Mortality, and Emigration in a Louisiana Coastal Marsh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Eric Knudsen; Ronald F. Paille; Barton D. Rogers; William H. Herke; James P. Geaghan

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the effects of water-control weirs on growth, emigration, and mortality of brown shrimp. Juvenile brown shrimp were captured, marked, and released in two shallowwater marsh ponds. One pond had a weir at its only exit. All surviving marked brown shrimp were recaptured as they emigrated from each pond. Shrimp remained in the weired pond 12–18 d longer after

  7. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems. PMID:20943254

  8. Predation by dipteran larvae on fairy shrimp (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Utah rock pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of experiments examined how ecological factors affect notonectid foraging success on fairy shrimp. Variation in pond depth over natural ranges had no direct effect on notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. Decreases in water clarity over natural ranges led to decreased notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. This corresponds with the observation that six weeks after the fairy shrimp hatched they were more likely to be present in cloudy ponds than in ponds containing clearer water. If correct, this is a situation where physical factors have a major effect on how a biological interaction influences the local distribution of species. It appears water depth indirectly affects notonectid foraging rates, as shallow ponds are apparently made cloudy by wind-driven waves disturbing the bottom mud. These results suggest the notonectid-fairy shrimp interaction will not be a constant for any given pond, but will depend on abiotic factors like amount of rainfall and frequency of windy conditions.

  9. Influence of ultrasonic treatment on the allergenic properties of Shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei) Allergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenxing, Li; Hong, Lin; Limin, Cao

    2006-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0°C or 50°C for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0°C. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50°C. In the determination of allergenicity with Ci-ELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.

  10. A study of the incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Malaysian shrimp undergoing processing for export.

    PubMed Central

    Cann, D. C.; Taylor, L. Y.; Merican, Z.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in products of the Malaysian export shrimp processing industry was investigated through the stages from the catch to that of the cooked, peeled and frozen product. The organism was commonly found in freshly caught and landed shrimp, and could be detected by enrichment culture at all stages of processing. The number of V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp varied from nil to 4x10(4), and 19 of the 50 serotypes in the current antigenic scheme were found, O1-K38 and O1-K32 occurring most often. All the isolates were Kanagawa-negative; one strain was a sucrose-positive variant. The study indicated that specifications of 10(2) g-1 for V. parahaemolyticus in raw tropical shellfish are too stringent but that the Malaysian shrimp industry should be able to meet this requirement for cooked shrimp. PMID:7310127

  11. Effect of peach gum polysaccharides on quality changes of white shrimp.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xing-Cun; Chang, Cheng-Fei; Wu, Sheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Peach gum polysaccharides (PGPs) have both antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In this study, the retardation effect of the PGPs on the quality changes of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during refrigerated storage was investigated. Shrimp samples were untreated with different concentrations of the PGPs solution and then they were stored under refrigerated conditions for 10 days. During refrigerated storage, shrimp samples were taken periodically and their total viable count, pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen, and overall acceptability score were evaluated. Compared to the control, treatment of the PGPs solution effectively retarded bacterial growth and pH changes, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen, and increased overall acceptability score of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during refrigerated storage. The results indicate that treatment of PGPs could be a promising means to preserve white shrimp (P. vannamei). PMID:25450827

  12. Immune response and disease resistance of shrimp fed biofloc grown on different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Ekasari, Julie; Hanif Azhar, Muhammad; Surawidjaja, Enang H; Nuryati, Sri; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to document the immunological effects of growing shrimp in biofloc systems. The experiment consisted of four types of biofloc systems in which bioflocs were produced by daily supplementation of four different carbon sources, i.e. molasses, tapioca, tapioca-by-product, and rice bran, at an estimated C/N ratio of 15 and a control system without any organic carbon addition. Each biofloc system was stocked with Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles that were reared for 49 days. The use of tapioca-by-product resulted in a higher survival (93%) of the shrimp as compared to the other carbon sources and the control. The highest yield and protein assimilation was observed when tapioca was used as the carbon source. After 49 days, phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the shrimp grown in all biofloc systems was higher than that of the shrimp from the control system. Following a challenge test by injection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), the levels of PO and respiratory burst (RB) activity in the shrimp of all biofloc treatments were higher than that of the challenged shrimp from the control treatment. An increased immunity was also suggested by the survival of the challenged shrimp from the experimental biofloc groups that was significantly higher as compared to the challenged shrimp from the control treatment, regardless of the organic carbon source used to grow the bioflocs. Overall, this study demonstrated that the application of biofloc technology may contribute to the robustness of cultured shrimp by immunostimulation and that this effect is independent of the type of carbon source used to grow the flocs. PMID:25218685

  13. [Exploitation of the shrimp trawl fishery in the period 1991-1999 at the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Tabash Blanco, Farid A

    2007-03-01

    In Costa Rica, the Gulf of Nicoya shrimp fishery originated in 1952 and represented one of the most important economic activities in the region. Nevertheless, overfishery reduced the captured volumes to levels that prevent this commercial activity. I analyzed official fishery statistics between 1991 and 1999. These species involved are: two species of white shrimp, (Litopenaeus occidentalis and L. stylirostris), the "titi" shrimp (Xiphopenaeus riveti), the brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus californiensis), the "pinki" shrimp (F. brevirostris) and the "fidel" shrimp (Solenocera agassizi). All the species reached the Maximum Sustainable Yield in the decades of 1970 and 1980 and are now found at over-exploitation levels. I recommend that this shrimp trawl fishery be completely closed down. PMID:18457129

  14. Isotopic Incorporation Rates and Discrimination Factors in Mantis Shrimp Crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    deVries, Maya S.; del Rio, Carlos Martínez; Tunstall, Tate S.; Dawson, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0–1 ‰ and 3–4 ‰, respectively). Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days) was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days). In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively). We compared the mantis shrimps’ incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals. PMID:25835953

  15. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Haryadi, D; Verreth, J A J; Verdegem, M C J; Vlak, J M

    2015-05-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina et al. 2013); therefore, it is a potential propagative vector for virus transmission. The major aim of this study was to determine whether WSSV can be transmitted from naturally infected Dendronereis spp. to specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) through feeding. WSSV was detected in naturally infected Dendronereis spp. and Penaeus monodon Fabricius from a traditional shrimp pond, and the positive animals were used in the current experiment. WSSV-infected Dendronereis spp. and P. monodon in a pond had a point prevalence of 90% and 80%, respectively, as measured by PCR. WSSV was detected in the head, gills, blood and mid-body of Dendronereis spp. WSSV from naturally infected Dendronereis spp was transmitted to SPF L. vannamei and subsequently from this shrimp to new naïve-SPF L. vannamei to cause transient infection. Our findings support the contention that Dendronereis spp, upon feeding, can be a source of WSSV infection of shrimp in ponds. PMID:24716813

  16. Purification and partial characterization of the plasma clotting protein from the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis.

    PubMed

    Perazzolo, Luciane M; Lorenzini, Daniel M; Daffre, Sirlei; Barracco, Margherita A

    2005-11-01

    A clotting protein (CP) was purified from the plasma of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis by sequential anion-exchange chromatography. The shrimp CP was able to form stable clots in vitro in the presence of hemocyte lysate and Ca2+, suggesting that the clotting reaction is catalyzed by a Ca2+-dependent transglutaminase present in shrimp hemocytes. Dansylcadaverine was incorporated into the shrimp CP in the presence of endogenous transglutaminase (hemocyte lysate), confirming that the shrimp purified CP is the substrate for the transglutaminase enzyme. The molecular mass of the CP was determined by gel filtration to be 341 kDa and 170 kDa by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. These results suggest that the shrimp CP consists of two identical subunits, covalently linked by disulphide bonds. The amino acid sequence at the N-terminus was 100% identical to that of the penaeids Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon and 66% to 80% identical to the CPs of other decapods. This is the first report of a CP characterization in an Atlantic penaeid species. Further studies, including a molecular cloning approach would enable to detect which tissues express the gene of the clotting protein. It would be also useful to understand the mechanism by which the coagulation time is delayed in shrimps under stress conditions. PMID:16153866

  17. Molecular cloning and characterisation of prophenoloxidase from haemocytes of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Yi; Cheng, Winton; Kuo, Ching-Ming

    2005-05-01

    cDNA encoding prophenoloxidase (proPO) of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA using oligonucleotide primers based on the proPO sequence of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus (accession no.: AF521949) and kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (accession no.: AB0733223). proPO of L. vannamei was constitutively expressed. The 2471-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2058 bp, a 96-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 317-bp 3'-untranslated region containing the poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence (686 amino acids) was 78.1 kDa with an estimated pI of 6.02. It contained putative copper binding sites, a complement-like motif (GCGWPQHM), a proteolytic activation site, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. However, no signal peptide sequence was detected in white shrimp proPO. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that white shrimp proPO is more closely related to the proPO of another penaeid than to that of a freshwater crayfish. White shrimp proPO mRNA was synthesized in haemocytes and not in the hepatopancreas or muscle. The activation responses of the proPO of the white shrimp to an exogenous protease (trypsin), a detergent (sodium dodecyl sulphate), and algal and microbial cell wall components (laminarin, sodium alginate, zymosan, and lipopolysaccharide), and its susceptibility to protease inhibitors in vitro resemble the proPO activation system of other crustaceans. These facts suggest that the proPO system in haemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei serves an important function in non-self recognition and host immune reactions. PMID:15683918

  18. Risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in shrimp farming in Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

    2006-01-01

    An ecological survey was carried out to determine the sediment concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish and shrimp including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. nilotica), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), gei wai shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and caridean shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) in the traditional tidal shrimp ponds (gei wais) of Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. The sediments collected from the landward sites contained higher nutrient contents, as well as zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) than those collected from the seaward sites, but vice versa for lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). However, the concentrations of all metals were exceptionally high in the two sites located outside the reserve, suggesting that waters from Deep Bay might be the possible source of metal contamination affecting the reserve. All metals studied seemed to accumulate in the viscera of fish. Body size was the determining factor for the accumulation of heavy metals in caridean shrimp and gei wai shrimp but not fish. Concentrations of the metals studied in tissues of grey mullet and gei wai shrimp were found to be safe for human consumption. Concentrations of Cr in tilapia whole body (0.68-1.10 mg kg(-1) wet weight) were close to or over the guideline value of 1 mg kg(-1) set by the Food Adulteration (Metallic Contamination) Regulations of Hong Kong. Tilapia flesh and small caridean shrimp collected from gei wais were contaminated by Cr and Pb but still fit for human consumption. Caution is required if large caridean shrimp is to be consumed in large amounts continuously because the concentration of Pb exceeded the maximum permitted concentration (6 mg kg(-1)). The rather high Cr concentrations in tilapia whole body should not be overlooked as the fish will serve as a food source for migratory birds visiting the site. PMID:16528597

  19. Characterization of Intestinal Bacteria in Wild and Domesticated Adult Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    PubMed Central

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

  20. The quality and safety of shrimp sold by roadside vendors in Texas

    E-print Network

    Lackey, Patrick A

    1980-01-01

    and adenosine monophosphate deaminase durzng ice storage of pink and brown shrimp from the Gulf of Mexico. J. Food Sci. 44:1625-1628. 2. Cobb, B. F. III, I. Alaniz, and C. Thompson, Jr. , 1973. Biochemica1. and microbial studies on shrimp: Volatile nitrogen.... Better methods in handling, storage and sanitation will improve the public health and freshness quality of both roadside and store- bought shrimp. 19 REFERENCES 1. Cheuk, W. L. , G. Finne, and R. Nickelson II, 1979. Stability of adenosine diaminase...

  1. Effect of chitosan-based edible coating on preservation of white shrimp during partially frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan and chitooligosaccharides are preservatives with proven antibacterial activity, while glutathione has antioxidant activity. This study investigated the effects of chitosan coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione (0.8% glutathione+1% chitooligosaccharides+1% chitosan) on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Chitosan-based coating treatments effectively inhibited bacterial growth, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen and malondialdehyde, and basically maintained the sensory properties of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Therefore, chitosan-based edible coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione could be a promising antimicrobial and oxidant method to prevent metamorphism of white shrimp with extended shelf life. PMID:24491494

  2. A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Marya

    1999-12-01

    A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

  3. Retention and tissue damage of PSP and NSP toxins in shrimp: Is cultured shrimp a potential vector of toxins to human population?

    PubMed

    Pérez Linares, Jesús; Ochoa, José Luis; Gago Martínez, Ana

    2009-02-01

    Toxic microalgae outbreaks have caused significant economic losses in the Mexican aquaculture industry. Blooms that involve PSP and NSP phycotoxins are two of the most dangerous, causing harmful effects to the environment, economy and public health. The exact metabolic mechanism of these toxins in shrimp still remains unknown. Because shrimp consume microalgae their edible tissues are clearly possible vectors for human toxic syndrome. This study examined and verified the toxicological effects for white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to different cell densities of Gymnodinium catenatum and Karenia brevis. Acute assays demonstrated good survival rates of shrimp at low densities of dinoflagellates (10(3) cell/L), while mortality and abnormal behavior were observed with higher densities (>10(4) cell/L). Chronic assays showed significant differences in survival rates, percentage of feed and weight gain of organisms exposed to the dinoflagellates with respect to controls. Furthermore, PSP and NSP toxins were detected in all the edible tissues. Gastric glands and muscle retained toxins for a longer period of time compared to other tissues, even after a depuration period. Histology damages were observed in the heart, gastric gland and brain. This study strongly supports that shrimp represent a potential risk for humans as unconventional vectors of phycotoxins. PMID:19028514

  4. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25°C to 80°C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26±0.89GPa at 25°C that reduces to 7.61±0.65GPa at 80°C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38±2.3GPa at 25°C to 24.58±1.71GPa at 80°C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. PMID:25686945

  5. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO CHROMIUM, PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND DITHIOCARBAMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report deals with the histopathological/ultrastructural changes in various tissues of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) exposed to hexavalent chromium, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and two dithiocarbamate formulations: Aquatreat DNM-30 (15% sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate plus 15...

  6. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF INCREASING COSTS IN THE GULF SHRIMP FLEETI,2

    E-print Network

    -vessel shrimp prices were lower. Thus none of the classes of vessels would have experienced a break-even cash. Manuscript accepted December 1975. FISHERY BULLETIN, VOL. 74, NO.2, 1976. index for lumber, metals

  7. Requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis O'sbeck for potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fa-Yi; Li, He-Fang; Wang, Hui-Liang; Liang, De-Hai; Tian, Yu-Chuan

    1995-06-01

    Potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis were studied. Orthogonal design was employed in this experiment. The composition of the basal diet consisted of fish meal, peanut cake, corn meal, soybean cake, wheat bran, vitamin mix and mineral mix, and supplementations of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine in the basal diet were made according to the L9(34) orthogonal table. The results indicated that iodine supplementation improved growth of the shrimp significantly and raised survival very significantly, iodine requirement of the shrimp was 0.003%; sodium requirement was 0.87% or less; and that 1.1 1.3% potassium and 0.18 0.38% magnesium in the diet were proper nutrition supplements for the shrimp.

  8. Seizing a species : the story of the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp harvest

    E-print Network

    Wotipka, Samuel Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1950s, C.C. "Sparkplug" Sanders began harvesting brine shrimp from Utah's Great Salt Lake. Sanders built up a small business selling their eggs, called "cysts, to aquarium stores across the country. During the ...

  9. Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  10. Intraspecific relationships among the stygobitic shrimp Typhlatya mitchelli, by analyzing sequence data from mitochondrial DNA

    E-print Network

    Webb, Michael Scott

    2004-09-30

    Intraspecific relationships among the anchialine cave shrimp Typhlatya mitchelli were examined by sequencing a total of 1505 bp from portions of three mitochondrial DNA genes. Cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase I, and 16S rRNA were partially...

  11. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R.; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H.

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  12. Productivity and Profitability of South Carolina Shrimp Vessels, 1971-75

    E-print Network

    , the productivity of conven- tional capital (i.e., nonlabor capital) and human capital (i.e., labor) were estimtated.l that shrimping labor is earning less than its opportunity income. as is new capital investment, hut

  13. 75 FR 42070 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...Action Committee (``AHSTAC'') is the petitioner in the underlying investigation. The members of AHSTAC are: Nancy Edens; Papa Rod, Inc., Carolina Seafoods; Bosarge Boats, Inc.; Knight's Seafood Inc.; Big Grapes, Inc.; Versaggi Shrimp...

  14. Experimental studies on the bioaccumulation and bioavailability of colloidally-bound trace metals to penaeid shrimp

    E-print Network

    Carvalho, Roberta Anne

    1996-01-01

    in whole shrimp were generally higher for free-ionic forms compared to colloidal forms. However, statistically significant differences in overall rates and extents of uptake were not observed in these experiments. Results indicate that mass specific...

  15. 78 FR 50389 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...Date: August 19, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joshua Morris and Austin Redington, AD/CVD Operations, Import Administration...Tommy's Seafood; Vincent Piazza & Sons Seafood, Inc.; Wood's Fisheries; Mariah Jade Shrimp Company, LLC; David...

  16. REPRODUCTIVE ALTERATIONS IN ADULT GRASS SHRIMP, PALAEMONETES PUGIO, FOLLOWING SUBLETHAL, CHRONIC ENDOSULFAN EXPOSURE. (R827397)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) populations exposed to anthropogenic contaminant sources in South Carolina (SC) have reduced densities when compared with populations at SC-reference sites. This laboratory study examined the effects of a commonly used agricultural inse...

  17. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for identification of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Salla, Venkatesulu; Murray, Kermit K

    2013-09-10

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time of flight mass spectrometry was used to identify shrimp at the species level using commercial mass spectral fingerprint matching software (Bruker Biotyper). In the first step, a mass spectrum reference database was constructed from the analysis of six commercially important shrimp species: Litopenaeus setiferus, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, Sicyonia brevirostris, Pleoticus robustus, Pandalopsis dispar and Pandalus platyceros. This step required a desalting procedure for optimum performance. In the second step, the reference database was tested using 74 unknown shrimp samples from these six species. Correct identification was achieved for 72 of 74 samples (97%): 72 samples were identified at the species level and 2 samples were identified at the genus level using the manufacturer's log score specifications. The MALDI fingerprinting method for the identification of shrimp species was found to be reproducible and accurate with rapid analysis. PMID:23972975

  18. Abstract--The variability in the supply of pink shrimp (Farfante-

    E-print Network

    . Simulation Variability in supply and cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) of Dry Tortugas is one of the most economi- cally and ecologically important spe- cies

  19. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carol Piser

    2010-12-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of

  20. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ...Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination...imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of...Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and...

  1. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ...Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of...Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and...

  2. ASPECTS OF BROWN SHRIMP, PENAEUS AZTECUS, GROWTH IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    E-print Network

    -age relationships are appreciably different for each sex in that females are much larger than malesofthe same age annuli on hard parts. Shrimp molt many times during their life cycle; all hard parts are lost

  3. 78 FR 15686 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...Department selected for individual examination are Marine Gold Products Limited (Marine Gold), and Thai Union Frozen Products Public Co...shrimp from Thailand produced and exported by Marine Gold. Finally, the Department also preliminarily...

  4. Isolation of indole-producing bacteria from white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus)

    E-print Network

    Smith, Rodney Lee

    1981-01-01

    unhindered by bacterial degradation, had reduced the homogenate to Class 4 without the production of detectable indole. The results of this study indicate that the formation of 35 indole ir white shrimp undergoing spoilage is due to bacterial...

  5. Genetic characterization of the burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis) in Washington and Oregon estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ghost shrimp, (Neotrypaea californiensis) are burrowers, which have a wide demographic distribution along the United States Pacific Coast. Our study used genetic analysis to estimate the source populations of larvae recruiting into estuaries to allow a greater understanding ...

  6. DISEASES, PARASITES, AND TOXIC RESPONSES OF COMMERCIAL PENAEID SHRIMPS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO

    E-print Network

    are a virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, hel, minthes, and nematodes. A well·described Baculovirus infects. The ciliate protozoa Zoothamnium sp., Lagenophrys sp., and Parauronema sp. may cause dysfunction in shrimp

  7. 77 FR 38266 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Public Hearing...and wing nets (butterfly trawls) rigged for fishing to use turtle excluder devices (TEDs) in their nets, which was...

  8. 77 FR 37647 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Public Hearing Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ...Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Public Hearing...and wing nets (butterfly trawls) rigged for fishing to use turtle excluder devices (TEDs) in their nets, which was...

  9. 50 CFR Figures 19a and 19b to Part... - Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details 19a Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL...

  10. 50 CFR Figures 19a and 19b to Part... - Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details 19a Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL...

  11. Catch, survey and life-history data for shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) off Jan Mayen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilssen, Einar M.; Aschan, Michaela M.

    2009-10-01

    The Jan Mayen area has an extreme environment with low temperatures and infrequent, but abrupt temperature changes. The shrimp population here is considered to be on its edge of distribution. The life-history parameters are in the same range as in other high-latitude shrimp populations and are characterized by slow growth, large size at maturation and extended longevity. Irregular and sporadic commercial exploitation limit fishing mortality and give the population life-history parameters not previously seen in other areas. The Jan Mayen shrimp are large compared to, e.g., the Barents Sea shrimp and can reach a maximum carapace length ( Lmax) of 37 mm and an age of 10-11 years. The large size at sex transformation ( L50, >24 mm) and analyses of length-frequency distributions indicate that the shrimp may be 6-7 years of age before changing sex. The change in Lmax and L50 observed during the study period is probably caused by increased natural mortality due to sudden temperature changes or due to increased predation, rather than increased growth rates. The life-history strategy of shrimp in the Jan Mayen area can be explained by factors such as depth, temperature and population density variations caused by fluctuation in recruitment and mortality. The shrimp fisheries in the Jan Mayen area began in the late 1970s and reached an annual landing of 2000 tonnes in 1985, and since then landings have oscillated around 500 tonnes depending on a combination of factors. The survey indices of stock biomass varied between 3000 and 6600 tonnes. For most years, the highest shrimp densities are at a depth of 200-299 m, while large shrimp (and therefore also female shrimp) are dominant at depths greater than 300 m. Fish community data were studied as the composition of the demersal fish community is an integrated response to environmental conditions and as predation affects the shrimp stock. Polar cod and capelin are the most abundant fish species in the study area. A high number of blue whiting was registered in 1979, but the number declined in 1980 and 1981 as temperature decreased. During the surveys in 1994 and 1995, no blue whiting was registered. A few individuals were found again in the 1999 samples. The number of Greenland halibut has declined from the beginning of the 1980s to the 1990s.

  12. Stage-Specific Cannibalism and Spontaneous Cyst Hatching in the Freshwater Fairy Shrimp Streptocephalus Proboscideus Frauenfeld

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henri J. Dumont; A. Jawahar Ali

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater fairy shrimp that live in episodically filled rainpools are obligate bisexual animals that produce drought-resistant, encapsulated embryos called cysts. A fraction of these hatches upon each inundation, a bet-hedging strategy, and the resulting larvae grow in a concerted manner, forming a cohort. Here, we show that in the Sudan fairy shrimp, Streptocephalus proboscideus, about one-third of the cysts hatches

  13. Effects of environmental salinity and dietary protein levels on digestibility in four species of penaeid shrimp

    E-print Network

    Coelho, Silvio Romero de C.

    1984-01-01

    EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY AND DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS ON DIGESTIBILITY IN FOUR SPECIES OF PENAEID SHRIMP A Thesis SILVIO ROMERO DE C ~ COELHO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY AND DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS ON DIGESTIBILITY IN FOUR SPECIES OF PENAEID SHRIMP A Thesis SILVIO ROMERO DE C...

  14. Effects of a probiotic bacterium on black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon survival and growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sirirat Rengpipat; Wannipa Phianphak; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul; Piamsak Menasveta

    1998-01-01

    Bacillus S11 bacterium isolated from black tiger shrimp habitats was added to shrimp feed as a probiotic in three forms: fresh cells, fresh cells in normal saline solution, and a lyophilized form. After a 100-day feeding trial with probiotic supplemented and non-supplemented (control) feeds, Penaeus monodon (from PL30) exhibited no significant difference (p>0.05) in growth, survival nor external appearance between

  15. Effects of temperature and salinity on thermal death in postlarval brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus

    E-print Network

    Wiesepape, Larry Milton

    1970-01-01

    EFFECTS Ol'- TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON THERMAL DEATH IN POSTLARVAL BROWN SHRIMP, Penaeus aztecus A Thesis by LARRY MILTON WIESEPAPE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilln:ent of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1970 Major Subject: Wildlife Science EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON THERMAL DEATH IN POSTIARVAL BROWN SHRIMP, Penaeus aztecus A Thesis by IARRY MILTON WIESEPAPE Approved as to style and content by...

  16. Genome-wide discovery of novel and conserved microRNAs in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Xi, Qian-Yun; Xiong, Yuan-Yan; Wang, Yuan-Mei; Cheng, Xiao; Qi, Qi-En; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-Bo; Wang, Li-Na; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Of late years, a large amount of conserved and species-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) have been performed on identification from species which are economically important but lack a full genome sequence. In this study, Solexa deep sequencing and cross-species miRNA microarray were used to detect miRNAs in white shrimp. We identified 239 conserved miRNAs, 14 miRNA* sequences and 20 novel miRNAs by bioinformatics analysis from 7,561,406 high-quality reads representing 325,370 distinct sequences. The all 20 novel miRNAs were species-specific in white shrimp and not homologous in other species. Using the conserved miRNAs from the miRBase database as a query set to search for homologs from shrimp expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 32 conserved computationally predicted miRNAs were discovered in shrimp. In addition, using microarray analysis in the shrimp fed with Panax ginseng polysaccharide complex, 151 conserved miRNAs were identified, 18 of which were significant up-expression, while 49 miRNAs were significant down-expression. In particular, qRT-PCR analysis was also performed for nine miRNAs in three shrimp tissues such as muscle, gill and hepatopancreas. Results showed that these miRNAs expression are tissue specific. Combining results of the three methods, we detected 20 novel and 394 conserved miRNAs. Verification with quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR) and Northern blot showed a high confidentiality of data. The study provides the first comprehensive specific miRNA profile of white shrimp, which includes useful information for future investigations into the function of miRNAs in regulation of shrimp development and immunology. PMID:25227525

  17. Toxicity of Selected Chemicals to the Fairy Shrimp, Streptocephalus seali, under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry L. Moss

    1978-01-01

    Laboratory toxicity tests were conducted with six chemicals to determine their effect on fairy shrimp (Streptocephalus seali). Formalin (15 and 25 mg\\/1) and Diquat (0.25 to 2.0 mg\\/1) were not toxic to fairy shrimp. Paraquat (0.25 to 2.0 mg\\/1) and benzene hexachloride (0.10 and 0.25 mg\\/1) were moderately toxic. Dylox (0.10 and 0.25 mg\\/1) was highly toxic; mortality exceeded 82%

  18. Oxygen, carbon, and sulfur cycling in the sediments of hyper-eutrophic mesocosms (shrimp mariculture ponds)

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Matthew Stewart

    1992-01-01

    OXYGEN, CARBON, AND SULFUR CYCLING IN THE SEDIMENTS OF HYPER-EUTROPHIC MESOCOSMS (SHRIMP MARICULTURE PONDS) A Thesis by MATTHEW STEWART ELLIS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Oceanography OXYGEN, CARBON, AND SULFUR CYCLING IN THE SEDIMENTS OF HYPER-EUTROPHIC MESOCOSMS (SHRIMP MARICULTURE PONDS) A Thesis by MATTHEW STEWART ELLIS Approved as to style...

  19. Culturing the fairy shrimp Streptocephalus dichotomus Baird using livestock waste – a reclamation study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Munuswamy; A. K. A. Nazar; C. S. Velu; H. J. Dumont

    1997-01-01

    The present study describes a defined culturetechnique for the fairy shrimp, Streptocephalusdichotomus. It emphasizes reclamation of low-cost organiclive-stock waste(cow-dung), lime powder, and urea. These compounds wereused to enrich algal and diatom populations in themedium. These algae and diatoms were fed to filter feedingfairy shrimps to yield anostracanbiomass. A production of 262 ± 6 animals l-1was obtained in an experimental tank

  20. The By-catch From the Artisanal Shrimp Trawl Fishery, Gulf of Paria, Trinidad

    E-print Network

    The By-catch From the Artisanal Shrimp Trawl Fishery, Gulf of Paria, Trinidad VISHWANIE MAHARAJ, an estimated yearly average of 200,000,000 kg of demersal finfish by-catch is thought to be discarded ABSTRACT and 97hauls were sampled. Annual ratio estimates were 9 (SD 1.3) finfish:shrimp and 14. 7 (SD 2.0) by-catch

  1. Fitness and virulence of an ancestral White Spot Syndrome Virus isolate from shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik Marks; Josyanne J. A. van Duijse; Douwe Zuidema; Mariëlle C. W. van Hulten; Just M. Vlak

    2005-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus, the type species of the virus family Nimaviridae, is a large dsDNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. Genomic analysis of three completely sequenced WSSV isolates identified two major polymorphic loci, “variable region ORF14\\/15” and “variable region ORF23\\/24”. Here, we characterize a WSSV isolate originating from shrimp collected in Thailand in 1996 (TH-96-II). This isolate contains

  2. Production and managerial techniques employed at a commercial shrimp farm in South Texas

    E-print Network

    Vizcaino Solares, Jorge Ignacio

    1993-01-01

    ). Some revolutionary breakthroughs include the maturation and spawning of many shrimp species, in captivity and general improvements in seed production. Improvement in other areas of shrimp culture, such as nutrition, feeding, and management practices... of elevated header tanks which will then distribute the water to each of the different systems (postlarvae holding tanks, algae culture tanks, larval rearing tanks, maturation tanks, spawning tanks, and quarantine tanks) as seen in Figure 4...

  3. An analysis of the impact of alternative import management policies for shrimp

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, Jane Chadwick

    1983-01-01

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE IMPORT MANAGEMENT POLICIES FOR SHRIMP A Thesis by 3ANE CHADWICK HOPKINS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE IMPORT MANAGEMENT POLICIES FOR SHRIMP A Thesis JANE CHADWICK HOPKINS approved as to style and content by: John P. Nichols (Chairman of...

  4. Penetration mechanism and distribution gradients of sodium tripolyphosphate in peeled and deveined shrimp

    E-print Network

    Tenhet, Vickie Lynn

    1979-01-01

    should not be changed. At these lower levels the treatment should give the same improved product and avoid the unnecessarily high uptake of STp that treatment at the higher levels yields, Thin La er Chromato ra h Thin layer chromatography was used... encountered in determining a consistent rf value for a standard STP solution. Due to these inconsistent results with non-radioactive STP treated shrimp extracts, thin layer chromatography was performed on P 32 treated shrimp that had been in frozen storage...

  5. Antioxidant enzyme activities in Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) in response to environmental hypoxia and reoxygenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delia Patricia Parrilla-Taylor; Tania Zenteno-Savín

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia–reoxygenation represents a relevant physiological challenge for shrimp culture. The sudden input of oxygen (O2) after environmental hypoxia increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). It has been postulated that a relatively high activity of the main antioxidant enzymes allows several adapted invertebrate species to survive repetitive cycles of hypoxia–reoxygenation by counteracting ROS production and,

  6. Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klerks, P.L.; Felder, D.L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

  7. Toxicity assessment of fumonisins using the brine shrimp ( Artemia salina) bioassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hartl; H.-U. Humpf

    2000-01-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B1 (FB1) (1) and B2 (FB2) (2), their hydrolysed analogues HFB1 (3) and HFB2 (4) and the recently discovered fumonisin derivatives N-palmitoyl-HFB1 (5) and N-carboxymethyl-FB1 (6) were compared for their toxicity in a short term bioassay using brine shrimp (Artemia salina). The brine shrimp were hatched in artificial sea water and exposed to the fumonisins in

  8. Brine shrimp toxicity and antiplasmodial activity of five Kenyan medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Wanyoike; S. C. Chhabra; C. C. Lang’at-Thoruwa; S. A. Omar

    2004-01-01

    The organic extracts of leaves and roots of five plants used for treating malaria in Central, Nairobi and Rift Valley Provinces, Kenya were tested for brine shrimp lethality and in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Of the plants tested, 60% were toxic to the brine shrimp (LC50<30?g\\/ml) and eight out of ten plant

  9. Chronic toxicity of arsenic to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin V. Brix; Rick D. Cardwell; William J. Adams

    2003-01-01

    We determined the chronic toxicity of arsenic (sodium arsenate) to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Chronic toxicity was determined by measuring the adverse effects of arsenic on brine shrimp growth, survival, and reproduction under intermittent flow-through conditions. The study commenced with <24-h-old nauplii, continued through reproduction of the parental generation, and ended after 28 days of exposure.

  10. Do omnivorous shrimp influence mayfly nymph life history traits in a tropical island stream?

    PubMed

    Macías, Nicholas A; Colón-Gaud, Checo; Duggins, Jonathan W; Ramírez, Alonso

    2014-04-01

    Interspecific interactions can play an important role in determining habitat selection and resource use between competing species. We examined interactions between an omnivorous shrimp and a grazing mayfly, two co-dominant taxa found in Puerto Rican headwater streams, to assess how predator presence may influence mayfly resource use and instantaneous growth in a tropical rainforest ecosystem. We conducted a series of behavioral and growth experiments to determine the effects of the freshwater shrimp, Xiphocaris elongata, on the growth rate and resource selection of mayfly nymphs in the family Leptophlebiidae. For resource choice assessments, we conducted a series of five day laboratory experiments where mayflies were given access to two resource substrate choices (cobble vs. leaves) in the presence or absence of shrimp. To assess for the effects of shrimp on mayfly fitness, we measured mayfly growth in laboratory aquaria after five days using four treatments (cobble, leaves, cobble + leaves, no resource) in the presence or absence of shrimp. In resource choice experiments, mayflies showed preference for cobble over leaf substrata (p < 0.05) regardless of the presence of shrimps, however, the preference for cobble was significantly greater when shrimp were present in the leaf habitat. In growth experiments, there were no statistical differences in mayfly growth in the presence or absence of shrimp (p = 0.07). However, we measured increased mayfly nymph growth in the absence of predators and when both cobble and leaves were available. Our results suggest that interspecific interactions between these taxa could potentially influence organic matter resource dynamics (e.g., leaf litter processing and export) in Puerto Rican streams. PMID:25189068

  11. Visualizing Flow Diagrams in WebSphere Studio Using SHriMP Views (Visualizing Flow Diagrams)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Rayside; Marin Litoiu

    Abstract: This paper describes the integration of an information visualization tool, called SHriMPViews, with IBM WebSphere Studio Application Developer Integration Edition, whichwas developed with Eclipse technology. Although SHriMP was originally developedfor visualizing programs, it is content-independent. We have re-targeted SHriMP forvisualizing flow diagrams. Flow diagrams, as supported by WebSphere Studio ApplicationDeveloper Integration Edition, can be hierarchically composed, thus...

  12. First record of a parasitic septate gregarines (Apicomplexa: Sporozoea) in the shrimp Peneaus monodon in Sundarbans of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, J; Bandyopadhyay, P K

    2010-04-01

    Investigations on the incidence of septate gregarines in shrimp have immense importance because of severe pathogenicity of the parasite. The septate gregarines infect the midgut of shrimp Peneaus monodon and severe infection disturbs the intestinal tissues. Mostly gregarines of the genus Nematopsis have been identified from cultured peneaid shrimp. It has worldwide in distribution. In India, gregarine parasites have so far been reported from penaeid shrimps of Bombay and Kerala. The species which was isolated from the midgut of shrimp Peneaus monodon collected from Kharibari area of Sunderbans. 9 out of 20 i.e. 45% of the randomly sampled hosts were found to be infected with a species of the genus Nematopsis. Different developmental stages including trophozoites, sporadins, and gametocysts of the Nematopsis sp. infecting the shrimp have been isolated. No correlations have been established between incidence of infection and environmental parameters. PMID:21526032

  13. Effect of stocking density on extensive production of freshwater shrimp in coal mine reclamation ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, J.H.; Wynne, F.; Coyle, S.D. [Kentucky State Univ., Frankfort, KY (United States). Aquaculture Research Center; Grey, B. [Peabody Coal Co., Rockport, KY (United States); McGuire, J.

    1998-12-31

    The use of post-mining reclamation ponds for the production of freshwater shrimp was evaluated by examining different stocking densities. Juvenile shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) averaging 0.5g each were stocked into four existing ponds at Peabody`s Ken Surface Mine at 6,175; 12,350; 18,500; and 24,700/ha (2,500, 5,000, 7,500, and 10,000/acre) on June 1, 1995. Shrimp were fed twice a week for 103 days, with harvest conducted September 13, 1995. Survival averaged 40%, overall. Average individual weight size was inversely related to stocking density ranging from 52 g (8.7 shrimp/lb) at 6,175/ha to 20.3 g (22.7 shrimp/lb) at 18,500/acre. Total production was directly related to stocking density ranging from 97 kg/ha (86 lbs/acre) at low density to 211 kg/ha (188 lbs/acre) at 18,500/ha shrimp acre. The major difficulty was at harvest due to difficulty in draining ponds. Construction of designed culture ponds with gravity drains during reclamation could greatly enhance survival, harvestability, and commercial feasibility.

  14. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

    2014-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater. PMID:24658782

  15. Prevalence and distribution of White Spot Syndrome Virus in cultured shrimp.

    PubMed

    Hossain, A; Nandi, S P; Siddique, M A; Sanyal, S K; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-02-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a dsDNA virus causing White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD) in shrimp with almost 100% morality rate within 3-10 days. In Bangladesh, WSSD is one of the major impediments of shrimp farming. This study first investigated the prevalence and distribution of WSSV in cultured shrimps of the coastal regions in Bangladesh. A total of 60 shrimp samples, collected from the 25 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar), were analysed during 2013-2014 by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers; 39 of 60 samples were found WSSV positive. SYBR green real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 60 samples were Satkhira 79%, Khulna 50%, Bagerhat 38% and Cox's Bazar 25%. Sequencing of WSSV-positive PCR amplicons of VP28 showed 99% similarity with WSSV NCBI Ref/Seq Sequences. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh. PMID:25402810

  16. Recent insights into host-pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, M S; Ponniah, A G

    2014-06-23

    Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host-pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host-pathogen interaction is discussed. PMID:24953507

  17. Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shouming; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Li, Jun; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2008-08-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection, feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those in healthy shrimp. Secondly, necrotic, broken and disintegrated cells were often observed, and a typical hematolysis was present in the haemolymph smear of WSSV-infected shrimp. Thirdly, necrosis and typical apoptosis of hemocytes were detected with TEM in the peripheral haemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp. Hyalinocytes and semi-granulocytes with masses of WSSVs in their nuclei often appeared, whereas no granular hemocytes with WSSV were found in the hepatopancreas of moribund infected shrimps. All our results supported that hemocytes were the main target cells of WSSV, and hyalinocytes and semigranular hemocytes seemed to be more favorable for WSSV infection in F. chinensis.

  18. Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) play a pivotal trophic role in enhancing Ruppia maritima.

    PubMed

    McCall, Donna Drury; Rakocinski, Chet F

    2007-03-01

    Coupled trophic-engineer interactions are potentially important for maintaining habitat function and ecosystem services. As ephemeral submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), Ruppia maritima has a short well-defined growth-senescence cycle and should benefit from any ecological interaction that enhances its physical condition and longevity. Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) are abundant facultative grazers of epiphytic algae and conveyors of nutrients in tidal marsh and SAV habitats. Grass shrimp addition consistently enhanced Ruppia biomass and shoot density in a series of three field experiments conducted in Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Mississippi, USA. In two experiments, epiphyte grazing by grass shrimp enhanced Ruppia by inhibiting die-back during the mid- and latter stages of the Ruppia life cycle. Despite a nonsignificant epiphyte grazing effect, grass shrimp also enhanced Ruppia during its early growth stage in a third experiment. In that experiment, nutrient addition also significantly increased epiphyte biomass. Grass shrimp may have fostered the early growth of Ruppia through direct deposition of feces to the sediment in the third experiment. Grass shrimp play a pivotal trophic role in the maintenance of Ruppia through context-dependent interactions involving stage of the SAV life cycle, season, and nutrient limitation. PMID:17503590

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical, microbial quality and shelf life of shrimp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocao?lu, Asl?; Sükrü Demirci, Ahmet; Gümüs, Tuncay; Demirci, Mehmet

    2012-12-01

    In the present study the combined effect of gamma irradiation (1, 3 and 5 kGy) and storage at two temperatures: refrigeration (+4 °C) and frozen (-18 °C), on the shelf-life extension of fresh shrimp meat was investigated. The study was based on microbiological and physicochemical changes occuring in the shrimp samples. Total volatile base nitrogen values and trimethylamine values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly lower than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures, and the rate of decrease was more pronounced in samples irradiated at the higher dose (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly higher than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). pH values of shrimp samples were affected significantly by both irradiating dose and storage temperatures (p<0.05). Microbial counts for non-irradiated shrimp samples were higher than the respective irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). The results revealed that irradiation at high dose (5 kGy) might enhance lipid oxidation, although the growth of microorganisms and protein oxidation was inhibited.

  20. Abundance and seasonal migrations of the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) within Iraqi waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Salman; M. H. Ali; A. H. Y. Al-AdhubI

    1990-01-01

    Migration of Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) from the Arabian Gulf to nursery grounds in the inland waters of Iraq extends from May\\/June to January\\/February. Shrimp ranging in size from 3–125 mm total length were found in inland waters. In the shallow waters of the Al-Assaflya small-sized shrimp only were caught, while in the Marshes large-sized shrimp were abundant. Maximum numbers

  1. Identification of differentially expressed genes in shrimp ( Penaeus stylirostris ) infected with White spot syndrome virus by cDNA microarrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Dhar; A. Dettori; M. M. Roux; K. R. Klimpel; B. Read

    2003-01-01

    Summary. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is currently the most important viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp worldwide. Although considerable progress has been made in characterizing the WSSV genome and developing detection methods, information pertaining to host genes involved in WSSV pathogenesis is limited. We examined the potential of cDNA microarray analysis to study gene expression in WSSV-infected shrimp. Shrimp cDNAs

  2. Peptidomic analysis of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) hemolymph by magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

    2013-03-01

    Peptides in shrimp hemolymph play an important role in the innate immune response. Analysis of hemolymph will help to detect and identify potential novel biomarkers of microbial infection. We used magnetic bead-based purification (ClinProt system) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to characterize shrimp hemolymph peptides. Shrimp serum and plasma were used as the source of samples for comparative analysis, and it was found that serum was more suitable for shrimp hemolymph peptidomic analysis. To screen potential specific biomarkers in serum of immune-challenged shrimps, we applied magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS to serum samples from 10 immune-challenged and 10 healthy shrimps. The spectra were analyzed using FlexAnalysis 3.0 and ClinProTools 2.1 software. Thirteen peptide peaks significantly different between the two groups were selected as candidate biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infection. The diagnostic model established by genetic algorithm using five of these peaks was able to discriminate LPS-challenged shrimps from healthy control shrimps with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. Our approach in MALDITOF MS-based peptidomics is a powerful tool for screening bioactive peptides or biomarkers derived from hemolymph, and will help to enable a better understanding of the innate immune response of shrimps.

  3. 75 FR 61122 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ...shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted [[Page 61123

  4. LINKING HABITAT CHANGE AND NUTRIENT DYNAMICS: COMPARISON OF FOOD WEBS AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN BURROWING SHRIMP- AND OYSTER-DOMINATED HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endemic thalassinid burrowing shrimps are simultaneously dominant ecosystem engineering species and economic pests within Pacific estuaries. Dense populations of two shrimps (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) commonly occupy >75% of intertidal and shallow subti...

  5. Distribution, relative abundance and species composition of shrimp, crabs and fish in the intake area, discharge canal and cooling lake of the Cedar Bayou generating station, Baytown, Texas

    E-print Network

    St. Clair, Lou Ann

    1978-01-01

    similar function for the discharge canal. Species capable of reproducing in the estuary such as bay anchovy, sea catfish and tidewater silverside are finding the cooling lake favor- able for residency. Grass shrimp are decreasing due to dis- appearance... STUDY AREA AND METHODS RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Hydrological Data Biological Data Relative Abundance Brown Shrimp, P. aztecus White Shrimp, P. setiferus Grass Shrimp, P. puuio Blue Crab, C. sapidus. G lf M h d, B. d t Bay Anchovy, A. mitchilli. d...

  6. Detoxification mechanisms in shrimp: comparative approach between hydrothermal vent fields and estuarine environments.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rey, Maria; Serafim, Angela; Company, Rui; Gomes, Tânia; Bebianno, Maria João

    2008-07-01

    Hydrothermal vents are extreme deep-sea habitats that, due to their singular features, still intrigue scientific communities. Swift growth rates and profuse biomass of biological communities can be observed, despite of their inherently unstable physical-chemical and toxic conditions, indicating that organisms inhabiting this environment must be well adapted to these inhospitable conditions. The caridean shrimp, Chorocaris chacei, Mirocaris fortunata and Rimicaris exoculata, together with bathymodiolid mussels, dominate the vent fauna along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Crustacean species are widely used as biological indicators of environmental alterations, since they play a key ecological role as planktivorous grazers, epibenthic scavengers or as prey species. The biological consequences of the hydrothermal metal-rich environment in shrimp species are still largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was the determination of the metal levels (Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), metallothioneins (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in shrimp species collected in Rainbow, Lucky Strike and Menez-Gwen vent sites, in order to evaluate their different adaptation strategies toward metals when compared with two common coastal shrimp species (Palaemon elegans and Palaemonetes varians) from a fairly unpolluted estuarine system in south Portugal (Ria Formosa). Results show significant differences in metal concentrations, MT levels and lipid peroxidation between vent and coastal shrimp and also between shrimp species from the same site. This indicates that biochemical responses in both vent and coastal shrimp are affected not only by the environmental characteristics but also by inter-specific differences. Nevertheless, these responses apparently grant a successful adaptation for the survival in a metal-extreme environment. PMID:18405963

  7. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    PubMed

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens. PMID:25779823

  8. Resistance to the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in two freshwater shrimps.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, J; Mruga?a, A; Kozubíková-Balcarová, E; Kouba, A; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J; Petrusek, A

    2014-09-01

    Aphanomyces astaci, the causal agent of the crayfish plague, has recently been confirmed to infect also freshwater-inhabiting crabs. We experimentally tested the resistance of freshwater shrimps, another important decapod group inhabiting freshwaters, to this pathogen. We exposed individuals of two Asian shrimp species, Macrobrachium dayanum and Neocaridina davidi, to zoospores of the pathogen strain isolated from Procambarus clarkii, a known A. astaci carrier likely to get into contact with shrimps. The shrimps were kept in separate vessels up to seven weeks; exuviae and randomly chosen individuals were sampled throughout the experiment. Shrimp bodies and exuviae were tested for A. astaci presence by a species-specific quantitative PCR. The results were compared with amounts of A. astaci DNA in an inert substrate to distinguish potential pathogen growth in live specimens from persisting spores or environmental DNA attached to their surface. In contrast to susceptible crayfish Astacus astacus, we did not observe mortality of shrimps. The amount of detected pathogen DNA was decreasing steadily in the inert substrate, but it was still detectable several weeks after zoospore addition, which should be considered in studies relying on molecular detection of A. astaci. Probably due to moulting, the amount of A. astaci DNA was decreasing in N. davidi even faster than in the inert substrate. In contrast, high pathogen DNA levels were detected in some non-moulting individuals of M. dayanum, suggesting that A. astaci growth may be possible in tissues of this species. Further experiments are needed to test for the potential of long-term A. astaci persistence in freshwater shrimp populations. PMID:25064254

  9. Putative Promoters Isolated From Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus of Shrimp Drive Expression of a Reporter Gene in Bacteria, Insect Cells, Fish Cells, and Shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) of shrimp contains a linear single-stranded DNA genome of approximately 4.1 kb with three putative open reading frames (ORFs) namely, the left ORF, middle ORF and the right ORF on the same DNA strand. Whereas the left ORF codes for non-s...

  10. Effect of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) muscle stored on ice.

    PubMed

    García-Sifuentes, Celia Olivia; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Scheuren-Acevedo, Susana María; Carvallo-Ruiz, Gisela; Garcia-Sanchez, Guillermina; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    The effect of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of raw and cooked white shrimp was studied. Hue angle was greater (p???0.05) for stressed raw shrimp compared to control (greener color); whereas a lower angle was detected for cooked stressed shrimp (redder/orange coloration). In addition, hue angle increased (p???0.05) over the ice storage period for control and stressed shrimp (raw and/or cooked). Muscle hardness and shear force showed no differences when comparing control and stressed shrimp (raw and/or cooked). However, during ice storage, shear force increased (p???0.05) by 22% and 9% for control and stressed raw shrimp, respectively; in contrast, shear force and muscle hardness decreased for cooked shrimp (p???0.05). Control showed more (p???0.05) elasticity than stressed cooked shrimp. Stressed raw shrimp showed a water holding capacity 10.8% lower (p???0.05) than control. However, during the storage, water holding capacity increased (p???0.05) reaching similar values to control after day 4. Muscle protein solubility of stressed shrimp was 31% lower than control; however, no differences (p?>?0.05) were observed after the second day. The thermal stability of myosin (T max) showed differences (p???0.05) among control and stressed shrimp, whereas no differences for ?H were observed. Results showed the influence of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of white shrimp muscle. PMID:23685566

  11. Fairy, tadpole, and clam shrimps (Branchiopoda) in seasonally inundated clay pans in the western Mojave Desert and effect on primary producers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WN Brostoff; JG Holmquist; J Schmidt-Gengenbach; PV Zimba

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fairy shrimps (Anostraca), tadpole shrimps (Notostraca), clam shrimps (Spinicaudata), algae (primarily filamentous blue-green algae [cyanobacteria]), and suspended organic particulates are dominant food web components of the seasonally inundated pans and playas of the western Mojave Desert in California. We examined the extent to which these branchiopods controlled algal abundance and species composition in clay pans between Rosamond and Rogers

  12. Biotechnology-Aquaculture Interface: The Site of Maximum Impact Workshop Biosecure Zero-Exchange Systems for Intensive Shrimp Culture: Past Experiences, Biocomplexity Challenges, Future Opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun M. Moss

    Shrimp farmers have suffered significant economic losses in recent years due to disease problems that have plagued the global shrimp farming industry. To mitigate crop loss, shrimp farmers and researchers are evaluating biosecure production systems designed to minimize the introduction and spread of pathogens and protect coastal resources. A hallmark of these systems is the elimination of water exchange as

  13. Effects of omnivorous shrimp in a montane tropical stream: sediment removal, disturbance of sessile invertebrates and enhancement of understory algal biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine M. Pringle; Gail A. Blake; Alan P. Covich; Karen M. Buzby; Amy Finley

    1993-01-01

    Freshwater shrimp dominate the faunal biomass of many headwater tropical streams: however, their role in community organization is unclear. Enclosure\\/exclosure experiments in a montane Puerto Rican stream examined direct and indirect effects of two dominant taxa of atyid (Atyidae) shrimp, Atya lanipes Holthuis and Xiphocaris elongata Guerin-Meneville. Both shrimp taxa caused significant reductions in sediment cover on rock substrata, reducing

  14. Investigations on juvenile fish excluder cum shrimp sorting device (JFE-SSD).

    PubMed

    Boopendranath, Menothuparambil Ravunny; Pravin, Puthra; Gibinkumar, Therodath Rajan; Sabu, Sarasan; Madhu, Vettiyattil Ramakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Penaeid shrimp is a major resource in India contributing about 7.4% of the total marine fish landings. They are mostly landed by small mechanized trawlers. Shrimp trawling generates large quantities of bycatch mostly consisting of juvenile fishes, due to use of small mesh size in codends of trawl nets. Juvenile Fish Excluder cum Shrimp Sorting Device (JFE-SSD) is a bycatch reduction device with an in situ sorting mechanism, which replaces the conventional codend in a trawl. The device was designed to catch shrimps and commercially important fish species using a specially designed oval sorting grid with appropriate bar spacing and dual codends. Shrimp sorting efficiency and bycatch exclusion characteristics of JFE-SSD attached to a 29.6 m shrimp trawl, was tested by experimental fishing along the coastal waters off Cochin, India. Out of a total of 317.07 kg of catch encountered in the JFE-SSD installed trawl, 58.22% was retained in lower codend, 17.53% in upper codend and 24.25%, mostly consisting of juveniles and sub-adults of finfishes and shellfishes, was excluded from upper codend. The mean CPUE registered for upper and lower codend were 7.23±1.04 SE and 5.84±0.96 SE kg h(-1) respectively. The CPUE of shrimps retained in upper and lower codends were significantly different (Kruskal-Wallis test (1,62), P<0.001), but the mean CPUE for fishes did not vary significantly. The average escapement of shrimps and juvenile fishes from upper codend were 0.06±0.02 SE kg h(-1) and 2.40±0.44 SE kg h(-1) respectively. Significant differences in the length composition between upper and lower codends were noticed for Megalaspis cordyla, Stolephorus waitei, Metapenaeus dobsoni and Parapenaeopsis stylifera. The experiments demonstrated in situ sorting ability of the device and its potential to reduce the bycatch of juveniles and sub-adults in shrimp trawls. PMID:23875130

  15. Physical and physiological aspects of gear efficiency in North Sea brown shrimp fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghahn, R.; Wiese, K.; Lüdemann, K.

    1995-03-01

    In search of means to reduce the by-catch of juvenile flatfish in the shrimp fishery, vibrations and changes in current velocity caused by shrimp trawls were investigated in the field and in the laboratory. Buried as well as emerged shrimps ( Crangon crangon) exhibit tailflips 5 10 cm before being touched by the rollers of a shrimp gear approaching them at a speed of 0.5 m·sec-1, as was revealed by slow motion video recordings in aquaria under artificial light. Hence, the signal effective in triggering escape must be attenuated strongly with increasing distance. Sediment vibration, commonly assumed to be an important signal in triggering escape of shrimps, was found to decrease by a factor 100·m-1. Signals from the rollers of a commercial shrimp gear in operation (towing speed 1 m·sec-1) were directly recorded with an accelerometer. Their frequency ranged from 50 to 500 Hz and reached an acceleration of 40 m·sec-2 on soft bottom or up to 100 m·sec-2 on hard substrate. Accelerometers, which had been buried right at the surface of a tidal sand flat during low tide, produced only one sharp signal of 100 Hz with an acceleration of 24 m·sec-2, when a shrimp gear swept them on the submerged tidal flats. However, in aquaria short sinusoidal signals (<5 m·sec-2; 20 to 300 Hz) made buried shrimps and flatfish ( Pleuronectes platessa, Solea solea, Microstomus kitt) hide rather than flee. The vibrations recorded directly at the rollers and the underlying jolting movements of the rollers induce corresponding pulses in the water surrounding the rollers in a layer of approximately 10 15 cm. Similar water displacement of high acceleration was experimentally produced by a spring loaded transparent lucite piston (7 cm in diameter) fitted to an accelerometer. Accelerating this piston (12 116 m·sec-2, 50 200 Hz range) from 5 cm above towards the shrimp produced escape responses in up to 94% of the tests. Arthropods are known to perceive medium displacement rather than pressure. Hence, strong and rapidly rising water currents caused by the rollers rather than sediment vibration are assumed to mainly trigger the escape reaction, which makes Crangon accessible to the gear.

  16. Characterization of a ras-related nuclear protein (Ran protein) up-regulated in shrimp antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2007-11-01

    Diseases caused by viruses, especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), are the greatest challenge to worldwide shrimp aquaculture. Therefore, the innate immunity of shrimp has attracted extensive attentions these years. To date, however, no mechanism of immuno-related signal transduction pathway has been reported. In this investigation, an important signal transduction factor-Ran gene encoding ras-related nuclear protein (Ran protein) was characterized in shrimp. The shrimp Ran gene, without introns when compared with genomic DNA, was 645 bp in length. The GTP-binding assay showed that the Ran protein had GTP-binding activity. The results of RT-PCR and Western blot indicated that the transcript and protein of Ran were detected in every tissue of shrimp including hepatopancreas, haemolymph, gill, intestine, heart and muscle. In the WSSV-resistant and WSSV-infected shrimp at 4h postinfection, the Ran gene was obviously up-regulated, indicating that it played a role in shrimp immunity against virus infection. This study, therefore, might provide a clue to elucidate shrimp innate immunity. PMID:17703953

  17. Determination of oxytetracycline residue in shrimp using a portable time-resolved analyzer and HPLC-MS/MS validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is the most prominent antibiotic in shrimp aquaculture. In this work, OTC residue in shrimp muscle is determined using a portable analyzer built in this laboratory based on europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). First, OTC is extracted in McIlvaine buffer at pH 4.0 with 0.1 ...

  18. Penaeidins, antimicrobial peptides with chitin-binding activity, are produced and stored in shrimp granulocytes and released after microbial challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delphine Destoumieux; Marcello Muñoz; Céline Cosseau; Jenny Rodriguez; Philippe Bulet; Michel Comps; Evelyne Bachère

    2000-01-01

    Penaeidins are members of a new family of antimicrobial peptides isolated from a crustacean, which present both Gram-positive antibacterial and antifungal activities. We have studied the localization of synthesis and storage of penaeidins in the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. The distribution of penaeidin transcripts and peptides in various tissues reveals that penaeidins are constitutively synthesized and stored in the shrimp haemocytes.

  19. PARTICLE REMOVAL RATES BY THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS, ITS BURROW, AND A COMMENSAL CLAM: EFFECTS ON ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant intertidal inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the bivalve Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities by the shrimp and by its commensal clam, as well as particle se...

  20. On predatory tendencies in the feeding ecology of the fairy shrimp Streptocephalus proboscideus (Frauenfeld, 1873) (Crustacea: Anostraca)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Mertens; N. Munuswamy; Christine Walsche; Henri J. Dumont

    1990-01-01

    The feeding habits of the filter-feeding fairy shrimp Streptocephalus proboscideus are documented experimentally by offering them ciliates, Volvox, rotifers, nematodes and small crustaceans as prey. Escape capabilities (e.g. swimming speed) rather than size or shape were found to determine these animals' vulnerability to predation by the fairy shrimp. Ingestion rates for Volvox increased hyperbolically with size and, at the high

  1. Detection of white-spot syndrome in cultured penaeid shrimp in Asia: Microscopic observation and polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Kasornchandra; S Boonyaratpalin; T Itami

    1998-01-01

    Serious disease outbreak caused by a new virus has been occurring among cultured penaeid shrimps in Asian countries since 1993. Typical signs include white spots or patches on the inner surface of the shell and carapace and\\/or reddish coloration of the body. Histopathological changes observed among diseased shrimps collected from various countries exhibited widespread cellular degeneration and severe nuclear hypertrophy

  2. Biological pumps at the sediment-water interface: Mechanistic evaluation of the alpheid shrimp Alpheus mackayi and its irrigation pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gust; J. T. Harrison

    1981-01-01

    Deep-burrowing crustaceans are common on all coasts. In a series of model experiments conducted at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology from March to October 1977, the effect of the alpheid shrimp Alpheus mackayi Banner and Banner, on material fluxes across the sediment-water interface has been determined. Viewed as a “biological pump”, the shrimp's irrigation pattern was not random, but

  3. Considerations of diet, stocking density, distribution, population estimation and economics in the pond culture of blue shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris Stimpson)

    E-print Network

    Hardin, Mark Perry

    1981-01-01

    shrimp) and July 14 (100 shrimp). Finally, on July 17, a sample of 300 postlarvae were preserved in buffered formalin for future measurements. Postlarvae were measured to the nearest 0. 5 mm from 10 x magnification. On July 17 and 18, postlarvae were...

  4. ASPECTS OF THE HOST - COMMENSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A PALAEMONID SHRIMP ('PONTONIA DOMESTICA') AND THE PEN SHELL ('ATRINA RIGIDA')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixty pen shells (Atrina rigida), were collected and examined to determine the prevalence and morphometrics of the commensal shrimp (Pontonia domestica). The spatial and sexual distribution within the shell of the host, and the reproductive states of the shrimp were also investig...

  5. 75 FR 28235 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ...is extending the time limit for the final results...administrative review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...period. Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...administrative review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the PRC within the 120 day time limit because the...

  6. 76 FR 30100 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...is extending the time limit for the final results...administrative review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...period. Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...administrative review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the PRC within the 120 day time limit because the...

  7. Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

  8. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein, and essential amino acid in marine feedstuffs for juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martín Terrazas-Fierro; Roberto Civera-Cerecedo; Lilia Ibarra-Martínez; Ernesto Goytortúa-Bores; Margarita Herrera-Andrade; Armando Reyes-Becerra

    2010-01-01

    Apparent protein and amino acid digestibility coefficients of feedstuffs are needed for more accurate, environmentally friendly, and economical feed formulations for shrimp. Coefficients of digestibility of nine feedstuffs of marine origin were measured, in terms of apparent dry matter, protein, and essential amino acid, for juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using 1% chromic oxide as the inert marker. The tested

  9. Effect of temperature on antioxidant enzyme gene expression and stress protein response in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhou; Lei Wang; Yu Xin; Wei-Na Wang; Wen-Yin He; An-Li Wang; Yuan Liu

    2010-01-01

    The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most important economic species in shrimp farming and are frequently exposed to multiple stressors (including temperature) in aquaculture. The differential expression of seven genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and stressor biomarkers was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR in haemocytes and hepatopancreas and gill extracted from L. vannamei following acute temperature stress. Temperature

  10. Redox conditions and heavy metals distribution in mangrove forests receiving shrimp farm effluents (Teremba bay, New Caledonia)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Redox conditions and heavy metals distribution in mangrove forests receiving shrimp farm rocks and lateritic soils that are exploited for their richness in some heavy metals. We will endeavour heavy metals distributions in mangroves receiving shrimp farm effluents. Materials and methods Samples

  11. REPORT ON THE SHRIMP VIRUS PEER REVIEW AND RISK ASSESSMENT WORKSHOP: DEVELOPING A QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report highlights issues and conclusions from the Shrimp Virus Peer Review and Assessment Workshop. The worskshop focused on the scientific and technical aspects of the likelihood that nonindiginous viruses will become established in the wild shrimp populations in the Gulf o...

  12. Melanization reaction products of shrimp display antimicrobial properties against their major bacterial and fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Amparyup, Piti; Suriyachan, Chawapat; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-11-01

    Melanization is a rapid defense mechanism in invertebrates. The substrate specificity of phenoloxidases (POs) and the role of melanization reaction products were investigated in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Two PmPOs (PmproPO1 and PmproPO2) were found to display a substrate specificity towards monophenols and diphenols, and exhibit relatively weak activity against 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI). Systemic infection of the PmproPO1/2 co-silenced shrimp with the fungus, Fusarium solani, led to a significantly increased mortality, suggesting an important role of PmproPOs in shrimp's defense against fungal infection. Using L-DOPA, dopamine or DHI as a substrate, the melanization reaction products exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activities towards Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Vibrioparahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), whereas the lower effect was detected against the fungus (F. solani). SEM analysis revealed the morphological changes and damage of cell membranes of V. harveyi and F. solani after treatment with shrimp melanization reaction products. Together, these findings demonstrate the crucial functions of the proPO system and the importance of melanization reaction products in the shrimp's immune defense. PMID:25043262

  13. Soil salinity and sodicity in a shrimp farming coastal area of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tho, Nguyen; Vromant, N.; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Hens, L.

    2008-06-01

    Soil salinity and sodicity are environmental problems in the shrimp farming areas of the Cai Nuoc district, Ca Mau province, Vietnam. In 2000, farmers in the district switched en masse from rice cropping to shrimp culture. Due to recent failure in shrimp farming, many farmers wish to revert to a rotational system with rice in the wet season and shrimps in the dry season. So far, all their attempts to grow rice have failed. To assess soil salinity and sodicity, 25 boreholes in shrimp ponds were analysed in four consecutive seasons from 2002 to 2004. The results showed that soil salinity was quite serious (mean ECe 29.25 dS m-1), particularly in the dry season (mean ECe 33.44 dS m-1). In the wet season, significant amounts of salts still remained in the soil (mean ECe 24.65 dS m-1) and the highest soil salinity levels were found near the sea. Soil sodicity is also a problem in the district (exchangeable sodium percentage range 9.63-72.07%). Sodicity is mainly a phenomenon of topsoils and of soils near the sea. Both soil salinity and sodicity are regulated by seasonal rainfall patterns. They could together result in disastrous soil degradation in the Cai Nuoc district.

  14. Quantification of viable Brochothrix thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and salmon by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Macé, Sabrina; Guilbaud, Morgan; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Ferchichi, Mounir; Prévost, Hervé; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier

    2012-05-01

    Brochothrix thermosphacta, a Gram-positive bacterium, is considered as the predominant spoilage microbiota of modified atmosphere packing (MAP) shrimp and fish. Traditional methods currently used to detect B. thermosphacta in foods are time-consuming and labour-intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time PCR quantification method combined with a propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment step to monitor the population of B. thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and salmon. The specificity of the two primers MO405 and MO404 used to amplify a 70 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was demonstrated by using purified DNA from 30 strains, among 21 bacterial species including 22 reference strains. Using these primers for real-time PCR and in pure culture, a good correlation was obtained between real-time PCR and the conventional plating method. Quantification was linear over 7-log units using artificially inoculated samples. The method performed successfully when tested on naturally contaminated cooked shrimp and fresh salmon, with a minimum threshold of 1.9×10² CFU/g for accurate quantification of B. thermosphacta. The correlation between the B. thermosphacta counts obtained by real-time PCR and plate counts on naturally contaminated shrimp and salmon was high (R²=0.895). Thus, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on B. thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and fresh salmon. PMID:22265298

  15. The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasué, M.; Dearden, P.

    2009-06-01

    Intensive black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal ( N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

  16. Phylogeography of marine mutualists: parallel patterns of genetic structure between obligate goby and shrimp partners.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew R; Thacker, Christine E; Shaw, Emily Y

    2005-10-01

    The survival of many organisms depends on interspecific, mutualistic interactions. Hence, it is important to assess the phylogeography of multiple mutualistic species simultaneously to gain insight into how their metapopulations persist, spread and recover from disturbance. Consequently, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b) from a gobiid fish (Ctenogobiops feroculus) and its mutualistic partner, an alpheid snapping shrimp (Alpheus djeddensis). These obligate mutualists are common in shallow coral reef lagoons, and we collected individuals from 11 Indo-Pacific islands that were likely exposed to different disturbance histories due to sea level fluctuations associated with glaciation events [geological studies indicate that eastern oceanic islands (Cook Islands, French Polynesia) were more disturbed than western continental plate islands that have deeper, more extensive lagoons (Okinawa, Fiji)]. Both phylogenetic and population genetic analyses indicated that gobies from Okinawa and Fiji were genetically distinct both from each other and those in the Cook Islands and French Polynesia. Shrimp, by contrast, grouped into two distinct genetic groups that showed no geographic structure. Restricting the analysis to one clade of shrimp, which contained two-thirds of the individuals, showed that these shrimp had very similar phylogeographical structure to the gobies. Mismatch distributions demonstrated that both gobies and shrimp experienced a recent, rapid population expansion into French Polynesia. Finally, nucleotide and haplotype diversities per sample location were significantly correlated between mutualists and tended to be higher on western continental than eastern oceanic islands. Our results suggest that these mutualists recovered from a major disturbance by colonizing South Pacific islands in synchrony. PMID:16156823

  17. A physical model of the extreme mantis shrimp strike: kinematics and cavitation of Ninjabot.

    PubMed

    Cox, S M; Schmidt, D; Modarres-Sadeghi, Y; Patek, S N

    2014-03-01

    To study the mechanical principles and fluid dynamics of ultrafast power-amplified systems, we built Ninjabot, a physical model of the extremely fast mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda). Ninjabot rotates a to-scale appendage within the environmental conditions and close to the kinematic range of mantis shrimp's rotating strike. Ninjabot is an adjustable mechanism that can repeatedly vary independent properties relevant to fast aquatic motions to help isolate their individual effects. Despite exceeding the kinematics of previously published biomimetic jumpers and reaching speeds in excess of 25 m s(-1) at accelerations of 3.2 × 10(4) m s(-2), Ninjabot can still be outstripped by the fastest mantis shrimp, Gonodactylus smithii, measured for the first time in this study. G. smithii reached 30 m s(-1) at accelerations of 1.5 × 10(5) m s(-2). While mantis shrimp produce cavitation upon impact with their prey, they do not cavitate during the forward portion of their strike despite their extreme speeds. In order to determine how closely to match Ninjabot and mantis shrimp kinematics to capture this cavitation behavior, we used Ninjabot to produce strikes of varying kinematics and to measure cavitation presence or absence. Using Akaike Information Criterion to compare statistical models that correlated cavitation with a variety of kinematic properties, we found that in rotating and accelerating biological conditions, cavitation inception is best explained only by maximum linear velocity. PMID:24503516

  18. SHRiMP: Accurate Mapping of Short Color-space Reads

    PubMed Central

    Rumble, Stephen M.; Lacroute, Phil; Dalca, Adrian V.; Fiume, Marc; Sidow, Arend; Brudno, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The development of Next Generation Sequencing technologies, capable of sequencing hundreds of millions of short reads (25–70 bp each) in a single run, is opening the door to population genomic studies of non-model species. In this paper we present SHRiMP - the SHort Read Mapping Package: a set of algorithms and methods to map short reads to a genome, even in the presence of a large amount of polymorphism. Our method is based upon a fast read mapping technique, separate thorough alignment methods for regular letter-space as well as AB SOLiD (color-space) reads, and a statistical model for false positive hits. We use SHRiMP to map reads from a newly sequenced Ciona savignyi individual to the reference genome. We demonstrate that SHRiMP can accurately map reads to this highly polymorphic genome, while confirming high heterozygosity of C. savignyi in this second individual. SHRiMP is freely available at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/shrimp. PMID:19461883

  19. Sampling and evaluation of white spot syndrome virus in commercially important Atlantic penaeid shrimp stocks.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Robert W; Browdy, Craig L; Savin, Suzanne; Prior, Sarah; Wenner, Elizabeth

    2004-06-11

    In 1997, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was discovered in shrimp culture facilities in South Carolina, USA. This disease was known to cause devastating mortalities in cultured populations in Southeast Asia and prompted concern for the health of wild populations in the USA. Our study surveyed wild shrimp populations for the presence of WSSV by utilizing molecular diagnostics and bioassay techniques. A total of 1150 individuals (586 Litopenaeus setiferus, 477 Farfantepenaeus aztecus and 87 F. dourarum) were examined for the presence of WSSV DNA by PCR. A total of 32 individuals tested positive and were used in a bioassay to examine the transmission of disease to healthy individuals of the culture species L. vannamei. DNA sequencing of PCR products from a positive individual confirmed that the positive individuals carried WSSV DNA. Significant mortalities were seen in test shrimp injected with tissue extracts from heavily infected wild shrimp. These data confirm the existence of WSSV in wild shrimp stocks along the Atlantic Coast and that the virus can cause mortalities in cultured stocks. PMID:15264713

  20. Comparative Transcriptomic Characterization of the Early Development in Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Huang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-01-01

    Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research. PMID:25197823

  1. Effect of Thermal Processing on Astaxanthin and Astaxanthin Esters in Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu; Zhou, Qingxin; Yang, Lu; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu

    2015-03-01

    The red color of processed shrimp, one of the most attractive attributes and an important criterion for consumers, is often limited by thermal processing (microwaving, boiling and frying), due to astaxanthin degradation. The effect of thermal processing on astaxanthin in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were investigated. A High-performance liquid chromatographic - atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-(APCI)-MS/MS) method was used to identify and quantify all-trans- and cis-isomers of astaxanthin, and molecular species of astaxanthin esters in fresh and thermal processed shrimps. Total astaxanthin loss ranged from 7.99% to 52.01% in first 3 min under three thermal processing. All-trans-astaxanthin was most affected, with a reduction from 32.81 to 8.72 ?g kg(-1), while 13-cis-astxanthin had a rise (from 2.38 to 4.58 ?g kg(-1)). Esterified astaxanthin was shown to hydrolyze and degrade, furthermore astaxanthin diesters had a better thermostability compare to astaxanthin monoesters. Astaxanthin monoesters with eicosapntemacnioc acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6), had a lower thermal stability than those with saturated fatty acids, however, it was the opposite of astaxanthin diesters. The findings suggested that the method of thermal processing should be carefully used in the manufacturing and domestic cooking of shrimps. The results also could be useful in calculating the dietary intake of astaxanthin and in assessing astaxanthin profiles and contents of shrimp containing products. PMID:25757428

  2. A Three-Year Survey of Penaeid Shrimp and Callinectid Crabs from Texas Coastal Waters for Signs of Disease Caused by White Spot Syndrome Virus or Taura Syndrome Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara A. Dorf; Charlene Hons; Patricia Varner

    2005-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico has the largest shrimp industry in the United States, including both natural fisheries and aquaculture resources. Aquaculture production comes primarily from Texas shrimp farms. With intensification of the farmed shrimp industry and international commerce in aquatic species, the incidence of infectious disease outbreaks has become a growing problem. In 1995, the Texas farmed shrimp industry suffered

  3. Physicochemical and functional characteristics of radiation-processed shrimp chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Quayson, E. T.; Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Quarcoo, E. A.; Asare, D.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Woode, B. K.

    2011-07-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on chitosan samples were determined in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Shrimp chitosan was extracted from shell using a chemical process involving demineralization, deproteinization, decolorization and deacetylation. Commercial snow chitosan was also used. Samples (in a solid state) were given irradiation dose of 25 kGy at a dose rate of 1.1013 kGy/h in air and 0 kGy samples were used as controls. Results showed that moisture contents were between 8.690% and 13.645%. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in the degree of deacetylation of the chitosan samples. Significant differences ( P<0.05) were observed in the viscosity and viscosity-average molecular weight of the chistosan samples. Viscosity and molecular weight decreased when the samples were given the irradiation dose of 25 kGy. Chitosan samples had low antioxidant activity compared with BHT. Water binding capacity ranged from 582.40% to 656.75% and fat binding capacity was between 431.00% and 560.55%. Irradiation had a major effect on the viscosity and the viscosity-average molecular weight of the chitosan samples.

  4. Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp.

    PubMed

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

    2012-10-01

    Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remarkably rare in nature and relatively inaccessible due to its changing habitats over the course of ontogeny. The mid-water marine species Cerataspis monstrosa (Gray 1828) is an armored crustacean larva whose adult identity has remained a mystery for over 180 years. Our phylogenetic analyses, based in part on recent collections from the Gulf of Mexico, provide definitive evidence that the rare, yet broadly distributed larva, C. monstrosa, is an early developmental stage of the globally distributed deepwater aristeid shrimp, Plesiopenaeus armatus. Divergence estimates and phylogenetic relationships across five genes confirm the larva and adult are the same species. Our work demonstrates the diagnostic power of molecular systematics in instances where larval rearing seldom succeeds and morphology and habitat are not indicative of identity. Larval-adult linkages not only aid in our understanding of biodiversity, they provide insights into the life history, distribution, and ecology of an organism. PMID:23145324

  5. Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

    2012-01-01

    Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remarkably rare in nature and relatively inaccessible due to its changing habitats over the course of ontogeny. The mid-water marine species Cerataspis monstrosa (Gray 1828) is an armored crustacean larva whose adult identity has remained a mystery for over 180 years. Our phylogenetic analyses, based in part on recent collections from the Gulf of Mexico, provide definitive evidence that the rare, yet broadly distributed larva, C. monstrosa, is an early developmental stage of the globally distributed deepwater aristeid shrimp, Plesiopenaeus armatus. Divergence estimates and phylogenetic relationships across five genes confirm the larva and adult are the same species. Our work demonstrates the diagnostic power of molecular systematics in instances where larval rearing seldom succeeds and morphology and habitat are not indicative of identity. Larval–adult linkages not only aid in our understanding of biodiversity, they provide insights into the life history, distribution, and ecology of an organism. PMID:23145324

  6. Preliminary mechanism of acidic electrolyzed water ice on improving the quality and safety of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jing Jing; Sun, Xiao Hong; Pan, Ying Jie; Zhao, Yong

    2015-06-01

    Preliminary mechanism of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) ice on improving the quality and safety of shrimp was investigated by examining the physicochemical and microbiological changes, sarcoplasmic proteins and enzymatic activities. The results showed that compared with tap water (TW) ice, AEW ice had an obvious (p<0.05) capability in limiting the changes of pH and shrinkage of muscle fibers in shrimp. Plate count enumeration and PCR-DGGE indicated that AEW greatly inhibited growth of bacteria on shrimp. Additionally, AEW ice had no adverse effects on sarcoplasmic proteins by SDS-PAGE method. And AEW ice displayed inhibitory activity (p<0.05) toward cathepsin B and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), although it did not present positive effects on inhibiting cathepsin D, acid phosphatase and lipase activity. Thus, this study brought new evidence to further demonstrate that AEW ice can serve as a promising technology for improving the quality of aquatic products in food industry. PMID:25624241

  7. Effluents of Shrimp Farms and Its Influence on the Coastal Ecosystems of Bahía de Kino, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón H.; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A.; López-Torres, Marco A.; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Magallón-Barrajas, Francisco; Ibarra-Gámez, Cuauhtemoc

    2013-01-01

    The impact on coastal ecosystems of suspended solids, organic matter, and bacteria in shrimp farm effluents is presented. Sites around Bahía de Kino were selected for comparative evaluation. Effluent entering Bahia Kino (1) enters Laguna La Cruz (2). A control site (3) was outside the influence of effluents. Water quality samples were collected every two weeks during the shrimp culture period. Our data show that the material load in shrimp farm effluents changes biogeochemical processes and aquatic health of the coastal ecosystem. Specifically, the suspended solids, particulate organic matter, chlorophyll a, viable heterotrophic bacteria, and Vibrio-like bacteria in the bay and lagoon were two- to three-fold higher than the control site. This can be mitigated by improvements in the management of aquaculture systems. PMID:23861653

  8. The northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) offshore fishery in the Northeast Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elena Guijarro

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the development and current situation of the offshore shrimp fisheries in Iceland, Greenland, Svalbard, Jan Mayen and the Norwegian Barents Sea area, with information on the biology of Pandalus borealis and its relation to the environment. Some additional information about the inshore shrimp fisheries of Iceland and Greenland of relevance to this study is also included. The Icelandic offshore shrimp fishery started in 1975 and has formed between 68% and 94% of the annual catch of shrimp since 1984. Landings peaked at 66,000 tons in 1997. The offshore fleet increased threefold from 1983 to 1987, and catch per unit of effort doubled. The first signs of overfishing were detected in 1987, when the first total allowable catch (TAC) was set, and catches decreased during the next few years despite the discovery of new fishing grounds. Good recruitment allowed catches to rise steadily from 1990 to 1996. However, catches and stock index have decreased markedly since then, with a minimum catch for the period 1998-2003 of 21,500 tons in 2000. It has been suggested that predation by cod is an important factor affecting shrimp stock size, but mortality from predation is slightly lower than fishing mortality, so that the impact of fishing cannot be disregarded. The Greenland offshore shrimp fishery is one of the largest in the North Atlantic and it generates 90% of the export value of the country. The fishery started in 1970 in West Greenland with landings of 1200 tons, but since 1974 it has formed between 59% and 89% of the annual shrimp catch. In 2004, landings reached 113,000 tons and the fishable stock was estimated at 300,000 tons. The significant spatial expansion of the fishery from the original fishing grounds off the Disko Island area to all of the West coast south of 75 degrees N and the fleet improvement over the past three decades have made possible this spectacular growth. Other fishing grounds off the East coast have been fished since 1978, mostly by foreign vessels. Catches in this area oscillated between 5000 and 15,000 tons during the period 1980-2004. The main problem of the shrimp fishery in Greenland is its overlapping with nursery areas of redfish, Greenland halibut, cod and other groundfish species, some of which show declining trends of biomass and abundance. This led to the implementation in 2000 of sorting grids and laws that forbid fishing when the bycatch exceeds legal limits. However, it is likely that ecological processes only partially understood, such as the trophic web and hydrography of the area, greatly influence the stock abundance of the demersal community. The offshore Norwegian fishery started in 1973. The main fishing grounds are off Svalbard and in the Barents Sea. Catches at Jan Mayen have never exceeded 5% of the total annual catch of northern shrimp. Large fluctuations in catches and stock size are the main characteristic of this fishery. Stock size seems to be largely dependent on the annual hydrographic variability in the area and trends in abundance of predator species, especially cod. However, shrimp mortality due to predation has been estimated to be the same as fishing mortality, and therefore fishing probably accounts for part of the observed variability in stock size. Large populations of juvenile cod, haddock, redfish and Greenland halibut are often found on the shrimp fishing grounds. The implementation of sorting grids in 1991 and a bio-economical model in 1993 to estimate allowable maximum catches of the commercial bycatch species have not solved the bycatch problem. All the commercial fish species present on the shrimp grounds are currently below safe biological limits. This is the only fishery within the studied area that is not regulated by means of a TAC system. PMID:17298891

  9. Concentrations of selected chlorinated pesticides in shrimp collected from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.E.; Beck, J.N. (McNeese State Univ., Lake Charles, LA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    For several decades inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems have been affected by a multitude of synthetic chemical substances. This is a consequence of population growth and increased industrial and agricultural activity. Many of these chemicals, the by-products of their production, and degradation products ultimately find their way into the aquatic environment as pollutants. The extent to which these pollutants affect the environment and its inhabitants depends largely upon the quantity and nature of the particular compounds involved. Halogenated hydrocarbons, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the pesticide DDT and its degradation products have received much attention as environmental pollutants. Because of the economic importance of the shrimping industry to southwest Louisiana, the objective of this study was to analyze shrimp collected from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex for the presence of selected chlorinated pesticides. The presence of these compounds within shrimp tissues would serve as an indicator for the extent of pollution throughout this important estuarine system.

  10. Conformation of phylogenetic relationship of Penaeidae shrimp based on morphometric and molecular investigations.

    PubMed

    Rajakumaran, P; Vaseeharan, B; Jayakumar, R; Chidambara, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of accurate phylogenetic relationship among Penaeidae shrimp is important for academic and fisheries industry. The Morphometric and Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to make the phylogenetic relationsip among 13 Penaeidae shrimp. For morphometric analysis forty variables and total lengths of shrimp were measured for each species, and removed the effect of size variation. The size normalized values obtained was subjected to UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) cluster analysis. For RAPD analysis, the four primers showed reliable differentiation between species, and used correlation coefficient between the DNA banding patterns of 13 Penaeidae species to construct UPGMA dendrogram. Phylogenetic relationship from morphometric and molecular analysis for Penaeidae species found to be congruent. We concluded that as the results from morphometry investigations concur with molecular one, phylogenetic relationship obtained for the studied Penaeidae are considered to be reliable. PMID:25536818

  11. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

  12. Molecular cloning of crustins from the hemocytes of Brazilian penaeid shrimps.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rafael Diego; Bandeira, Paula Terra; Barracco, Margherita Anna

    2007-09-01

    Crustins are antimicrobial peptides initially identified in the hemocytes of the crab Carcinus maenas (11.5-kDa peptide or carcinin) and recently also recognized in penaeid shrimps and other crustacean species. The aim of this study was to identify sequences encoding for crustins from the hemocytes of four Brazilian penaeid species: Farfantepenaeus paulensis, Farfantepenaeus subtilis, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and Litopenaeus schmitti. Using primers based on consensus nucleotide alignment of crustins from different crustaceans, cDNA sequences coding for crustins in all indigenous penaeid species were amplified. The obtained four crustin sequences encoded for peptides containing a hydrophobic N-terminal region rich in glycine repeats and a C-terminal part with 12 cysteine residues and a conserved whey acidic protein domain. All obtained crustin sequences showed high amino acidic similarity among each other and with crustins from litopenaeid shrimps (76-98%). This is the first report of crustins in native Brazilian penaeid shrimps. PMID:17697082

  13. Effect of dandelion polysaccharides on the retardation of the quality changes of white shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bin

    2014-07-01

    Dandelion polysaccharides (DPs) have antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In this study, investigated were the effects of the DPs on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during refrigerated storage. Shrimp samples were untreated or soaked in the DPs solution, and then they were stored under refrigerated conditions. Samples were taken periodically and evaluated for total viable count, pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen, and overall acceptability score. Treatment of the DPs effectively retarded bacterial growth and pH increasing, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen, and increased overall acceptability score of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during refrigerated storage. The results show that the DPs treatment could prolong shelf life for up to 10 days. PMID:24820151

  14. Distribution of hydrothermal Alvinocaridid shrimps: effect of geomorphology and specialization to extreme biotopes.

    PubMed

    Lunina, Anastasia A; Vereshchaka, Alexandr L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review of our knowledge about distribution of recently known species of vent shrimps and to analyze factors influencing distribution patterns. Analyses are based upon (1) original material taken during eight cruises in the Atlantic Ocean (a total of 5861 individuals) and (2) available literature data from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Vent shrimps have two patterns of the species ranges: local (single vent site) and regional (three--six vent sites). Pacific species ranges are mainly of the local type and the Atlantic species ranges are of the regional type. The regional type of species ranges may be associated with channels providing easy larval dispersal (rift valleys, trenches), while the local type is characteristic for other areas. Specialization of a shrimp genus to extreme vent habitats leads to two effects: (1) an increase in the number of vent fields inhabited by the genus and (2) a decrease of species number within the genus. PMID:24676215

  15. Distribution of Hydrothermal Alvinocaridid Shrimps: Effect of Geomorphology and Specialization to Extreme Biotopes

    PubMed Central

    Lunina, Anastasia A.; Vereshchaka, Alexandr L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review of our knowledge about distribution of recently known species of vent shrimps and to analyze factors influencing distribution patterns. Analyses are based upon (1) original material taken during eight cruises in the Atlantic Ocean (a total of 5861 individuals) and (2) available literature data from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Vent shrimps have two patterns of the species ranges: local (single vent site) and regional (three - six vent sites). Pacific species ranges are mainly of the local type and the Atlantic species ranges are of the regional type. The regional type of species ranges may be associated with channels providing easy larval dispersal (rift valleys, trenches), while the local type is characteristic for other areas. Specialization of a shrimp genus to extreme vent habitats leads to two effects: (1) an increase in the number of vent fields inhabited by the genus and (2) a decrease of species number within the genus. PMID:24676215

  16. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO4-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO3-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (Pshrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8 +/-1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (Pshrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system. PMID:12663210

  17. Histopathological and biochemical evidence of hepatopancreatic toxicity caused by cadmium in white shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus.

    PubMed

    Chiodi Boudet, L N; Polizzi, P; Romero, M B; Robles, A; Marcovecchio, J E; Gerpe, M S

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common pollutants in the environment and induces a range of tissue changes or damages and organ dysfunction. The histopathological effects of Cd and lipid peroxidation (LPO) on hepatopancreas of the freshwater shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus, were studied. Shrimp were obtained from two lagoons with contrasting environmental quality, De los Padres (LP, impacted site) and Nahuel Rucá (NR, reference site), and were exposed to 3.06 and 12.24µgCdL(-1) for 3, 7, 10 and 15 days. The health status of both populations was also evaluated by histological analysis of control individuals. After exposure, shrimp were transferred to clean water for 28 days to evaluate the recuperation capacity of hepatopancreas. Control shrimp from NR exhibited a normal hepatopancreas structure; unlike control shrimp from LP which showed several alterations. These results were attributed to the different environmental quality of lagoons. The exposure to Cd resulted in several alterations in the histological structure of the hepatopancreas of both populations. The observed alterations included haemocytic and connective infiltrations in the intertubular space, erosioned microvilli, ripple of basal lamina, atrophied epithelium and necrosis, however, the latter was only observed in shrimp from LP. The exposure also caused an increase of LPO levels in both populations. P. argentinus was able to repair the hepatopancreas structure from the damage caused by Cd, evidenced by the histopathological results and LPO levels. Obtained results are indicating that the histological analysis of the hepatopancreas proved to be a highly sensitive method for evaluating water quality, in both environmental and laboratory conditions. PMID:25521337

  18. Horizontally transferred genes in the genome of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, as the development of next-generation sequencing technology, a growing number of genes have been reported as being horizontally transferred from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, most of them involving arthropods. As a member of the phylum Arthropoda, the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has to adapt to the complex water environments with various symbiotic or parasitic microorganisms, which provide a platform for horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Results In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide HGT events in L. vannamei. Through homology search and phylogenetic analysis, followed by experimental PCR confirmation, 14 genes with HGT event were identified: 12 of them were transferred from bacteria and two from fungi. Structure analysis of these genes showed that the introns of the two fungi-originated genes were substituted by shrimp DNA fragment, two genes transferred from bacteria had shrimp specific introns inserted in them. Furthermore, around other three bacteria-originated genes, there were three large DNA segments inserted into the shrimp genome. One segment was a transposon that fully transferred, and the other two segments contained only coding regions of bacteria. Functional prediction of these 14 genes showed that 6 of them might be related to energy metabolism, and 4 others related to defense of the organism. Conclusions HGT events from bacteria or fungi were happened in the genome of L. vannamei, and these horizontally transferred genes can be transcribed in shrimp. This is the first time to report the existence of horizontally transferred genes in shrimp. Importantly, most of these genes are exposed to a negative selection pressure and appeared to be functional. PMID:23914989

  19. Acquisition of epibiotic bacteria along the life cycle of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata

    PubMed Central

    Guri, Mathieu; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valérie; Zbinden, Magali; Crassous, Philippe; Shillito, Bruce; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    The caridean shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the fauna at several Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites. This shrimp has an enlarged gill chamber, harboring a dense ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with mineral oxide deposits. Until now, their acquisition is not fully understood. At three hydrothermal vent sites, we analyzed the epibionts diversity at different moult stages and also in the first stages of the shrimp life (eggs, hatched eggs (with larvae) and juveniles). Hatched eggs associated with young larvae were collected for the first time directly from gravid females at the Logachev vent site during the Serpentine cruise. An approach using 16S rRNA clone libraries, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used. Molecular results and microscope observations indicated a switch in the composition of the bacterial community between early R. exoculata life cycle stage (egg libraries dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria) and later stages (juvenile/adult libraries dominated by the Epsilonproteobacteria). We hypothesized that the epibiotic phylotype composition could vary according to the life stage of the shrimp. Our results confirmed the occurrence of a symbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, but more complex than previously assumed. We revealed the presence of active type-I methanotrophic bacteria colonizing the cephalothorax of shrimps from the Rainbow site. They were also present on the eggs from the Logachev site. This could be the first ‘epibiotic' association between methanotrophic bacteria and hydrothermal vent crustacean. We discuss possible transmission pathways for epibionts linked to the shrimp life cycle. PMID:21993397

  20. Maladaptive sex ratio adjustment by a sex-changing shrimp in selective-fishing environments.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Susumu; Yoshino, Kenji; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Kawajiri, Toshifumi; Goshima, Seiji

    2013-05-01

    1. Selective harvesting is acknowledged as a serious concern in efforts to conserve wild animal populations. In fisheries, most studies have focused on gradual and directional changes in the life-history traits of target species. While such changes represent the ultimate response of harvested animals, it is also well known that the life history of target species plastically alters with harvesting. However, research on the adaptive significance of these types of condition-dependent changes has been limited. 2. We explored the adaptive significance of annual changes in the age at sex-change of the protandrous (male-first) hermaphroditic shrimp and examined how selective harvesting affects life-history variation, by conducting field observations across 13 years and a controlled laboratory experiment. In addition, we considered whether plastic responses by the shrimp would be favourable, negligible or negative with respect to the conservation of fishery resources. 3. The age at sex-change and the population structure of the shrimp fluctuated between years during the study period. The results of the field observations and laboratory experiment both indicated that the shrimp could plastically change the timing of sex-change in accordance with the age structure of the population. These findings provide the first concrete evidence of adult sex ratio adjustment by pandalid shrimp, a group that has been treated as a model in the sex allocation theory. 4. The sex ratio adjustment by the shrimp did not always seem to be sufficient, however, as the supplement of females is restricted by their annual somatic growth rate. In addition, adjusted sex ratios are further skewed by the unintentional female-selectivity of fishing activity prior to the breeding season, indicating that the occurrence of males that have postponed sex-change causes sex ratio adjustment to become unfavourable. 5. We conclude that the plastic responses of harvested animals in selective fishing environments must be considered in efforts to conserve wild animal resources, because such responses can become maladaptive. PMID:23163795

  1. Endogenous Molecules Induced by a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) Elicit Innate Immunity in Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Kitikiew, Suwaree; Li, Hui-Fang; Bai, Jia-Chin; Tseng, Kuei-Chi; Lin, Bo-Wei; Liu, Po-Chun; Shi, Yin-Ze; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrates rely on an innate immune system to combat invading pathogens. The system is initiated in the presence of cell wall components from microbes like lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ?-1,3-glucan (?G) and peptidoglycan (PG), altogether known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), via a recognition of pattern recognition protein (PRP) or receptor (PRR) through complicated reactions. We show herein that shrimp hemocytes incubated with LPS, ?G, and PG caused necrosis and released endogenous molecules (EMs), namely EM-L, EM-?, and EM-P, and found that shrimp hemocytes incubated with EM-L, EM-?, and EM-P caused changes in cell viability, degranulation and necrosis of hemocytes, and increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity and respiratory burst (RB) indicating activation of immunity in vitro. We found that shrimp receiving EM-L, EM-?, and EM-P had increases in hemocyte count and other immune parameters as well as higher phagocytic activity toward a Vibrio pathogen, and found that shrimp receiving EM-L had increases in proliferation cell ratio and mitotic index of hematopoietic tissues (HPTs). We identified proteins of EMs deduced from SDS-PAGE and LC-ESI-MS/MS analyses. EM-L and EM-P contained damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) including HMGBa, HMGBb, histone 2A (H2A), H2B, and H4, and other proteins including proPO, Rab 7 GPTase, and Rab 11 GPTase, which were not observed in controls (EM-C, hemocytes incubated in shrimp salt solution). We concluded that EMs induced by PAMPs contain DAMPs and other immune molecules, and they could elicit innate immunity in shrimp. Further research is needed to identify which individual molecule or combined molecules of EMs cause the results, and determine the mechanism of action in innate immunity. PMID:25517999

  2. Disparate patterns of population genetic structure and population history in two sympatric penaeid shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus aztecus and Litopenaeus setiferus) in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    McMillen-Jackson, A L; Bert, T M

    2003-11-01

    Analysing the population genetic structures of sympatric species provides opportunities to compare patterns of population genetic structure and phylogeography in order to gain insight into the factors that influence the development of the observed patterns. In this study, we compared the population genetic structures and phylogeographies of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus), two sympatric penaeid shrimp species that inhabit the waters of the eastern USA, using sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Brown shrimp showed no significant phylogenetic structure or population subdivision, and closely related haplotypes were geographically dispersed. Mismatch analysis indicated that brown shrimp experienced a late-Pleistocene era sudden population expansion. In contrast, white shrimp had a complex haplotype phylogeny consisting of two distinct lineages and two less well-defined sublineages, and the haplotypes and lineages were geographically structured. Mismatch analysis for white shrimp also showed evidence of sudden population expansion, albeit for each lineage separately and more recently than in the brown shrimp. These disparate patterns may have developed as a result of species-specific differences in physiological tolerances and habitat preferences that caused greater fluctuations in white shrimp population sizes and reductions in long-term effective population size relative to that of the brown shrimp, and thereby increased the susceptibility of the white shrimp populations to stochastic genetic change. PMID:14629371

  3. Identification of arachidonic acid and its metabolism in Gulf of Mexico shrimp

    E-print Network

    Lilly, Martha Lae

    1980-01-01

    identified as 20:4~6, arachidonic acid. This is curious in view of the fact that only the w3 fatty acids seem to be essential for shrimp. The positive identi- fication and physiological role of this fatty acid in shrimp have not previously been determined... demonstrated that complex unsat. ? urated oils were more effective than a single fatty acid or phospholipid. Burr and Burr hypothesized that warm- blooded animals are unable to synthesize linoleic acid as well as other unsaturated acids, including linolenic...

  4. Pathogenicity of a pseudomonad bacterium to larvae of penaeid and brine shrimp

    E-print Network

    Huang, Chu-Liang

    1982-01-01

    . s(li jd-& lr&$ l?g?~~35 ! I The pathogenicity of the bacterium was ascertained as being a toxin-mediated rather than an invasive process. Temperature treatments that eliminated all viable cells did not significantly alter the toxicity... of the prepara- tion to shrimp larvae. The toxic component was shown to be relatively stable to heat and freeze-thaw treatments. The mortality in shrimp, presumably caused by bacterial toxin(s) was influenced by the presence of neither Ca nor Ng...

  5. Transformation of the matrix structure of shrimp shells during bacterial deproteination and demineralization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background After cellulose and starch, chitin is the third-most abundant biopolymer on earth. Chitin or its deacetylated derivative chitosan is a valuable product with a number of applications. It is one of the main components of shrimp shells, a waste product of the fish industry. To obtain chitin from Penaeus monodon, wet and dried shrimp shells were deproteinated with two specifically enriched proteolytic cultures M1 and M2 and decalcified by in-situ lactic acid forming microorganisms. The viscosity of biologically processed chitin was compared with chemically processed chitin. The former was further investigated for purity, structure and elemental composition by several microscopic techniques and 13C solid state NMR spectroscopy. Results About 95% of the protein of wet shrimp shells was removed by proteolytic enrichment culture M2 in 68 h. Subsequent decalcification by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) took 48 h. Deproteination of the same amount of dried shrimps that contained a 3 × higher solid content by the same culture was a little bit faster and was finished after 140 h. The viscosity of chitin was in the order of chemically processed chitin > bioprocessed chitin > commercially available chitin. Results revealed changes in fine structure and chemical composition of the epi-, exo- and endocuticle of chitin from shrimp shells during microbial deproteination and demineralization. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) overlays and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis, it was found that most protein was present in the exocuticle, whereas most chitin was present in the endocuticle. The calcium content was higher in the endocuticle than in the exocuticle.13C solid state NMR spectra of different chitin confirmed?shrimp shell waste resulted in a chitin with high purity. Its viscosity was higher than that of commercially available chitin but lower than that of chemically prepared chitin in our lab. Nevertheless, the biologically processed chitin is a promising alternative for less viscous commercially available chitin. Highly viscous chitin could be generated by our chemical method. Comprehensive structural analyses revealed the distribution of the protein and Ca matrix within the shrimp shell cuticle which might be helpful in developing shrimp waste processing techniques. PMID:24093594

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment of Shrimp Culture Practice in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. M.; Rouf, M. A.; Hambrey, J.

    2008-12-01

    The rapid unplanned expansion of coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh poses risks in degrading environment. The unsustainable aquaculture practices are suspected to impart significant nutrient load to the ecosystem. Nevertheless, shrimp production is very less and susceptible to sever mortality. For this, the study aimed to understand the management practices and nutrient flux from some represented shrimp ponds in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. A comprehensive study from 2002 to 2004 was done in an aquatic system comprising a river (Semi diurnal tidal system), a canal and 10 shrimp ponds along with wider area survey to verify the issues under a DFID-funded research project involving Nautilus Consultants Ltd. (UK). In the study area (Dumuria under the district Khulna) shrimp culture practices were mostly improved extensive. Shrimp were being produced without proper pond preparation, fry nursing, stocking or feed management due to lack of technical somehow and the risks involved with higher levels of investment. Consequently production rates were very low, averaging only 191 Kg/ha. Very high mortality of shrimp was reported in some of the farms using shallow ponds immediately after heavy rainfall. This may due to the sudden fluctuation of water pH and/or water temperature and salinity. The water quality in shrimp ponds during grow out period was in acceptable range except lower trend of DO and ammonia nitrogen. Year round water quality observations indicated that there were no major differences among the river, canal and pond water that might be due to the high water flushing rate (468%). The nutrient dynamics estimation indicates that 48.7 kg/ha/cycle of nitrogen and 28.96 kg/ha/cycle of phosphorus were added to the pond as an input mostly from fertilizer and feed. Among the inputs, only 33.4% of nitrogen and 6% of phosphorus were removed as harvested form. A large portion, 39.1% N and 92% P were remained in the sediments and unaccounted for. Average intake of nutrients through supply water was slightly higher than nutrient discharged through water outlet, which indicates a net retention of nutrients in the pond ecosystems. A large portion of this sediment nutrient eventually finds its routes into the wider aquatic system every year during pond preparation. Though the aquatic environment is able to accommodate the load from the present level of aquaculture practice, the assimilative power of aquatic environment is in danger of being degraded with the unplanned intensification of shrimp culture areas. In planning aquaculture and future development all the issues and impacts must be considered.

  7. Acute toxicity of Roundup and carbosulfan to the Thai fairy shrimp, Branchinella thailandensis.

    PubMed

    Boonsoong, B; Bullangpoti, V

    2012-01-01

    The potential risk of herbicides and insecticides sprayed near pools to non-target fairy shrimp has not been assessed in Thailand. The acute toxicity of Roundup (isopropylamine salt 48% w/v) herbicide and carbosulfan (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl (dibutylaminothio) methylcabamate 20% w/v) insecticide were evaluated in 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours static bioassay using nauplii fairy shrimp, Branchinella thailandensis. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated after probit transformation of resulting data. Median 24 hours lethal concentrations were 0.319 and 0.702 ppm for Roundup and carbosulfan, respectively. PMID:23885411

  8. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (? 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant ? 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The ? 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant flora indicated that sewage N extended further from the creek mouths than shrimp N. The combination of physical/chemical and biological indicators used in this study was effective in distinguishing the composition and subsequent impacts of aquaculture and sewage effluent on the receiving waters.

  9. Isolation of differentially expressed genes from white spot virus (WSV) infected Pacific blue shrimp ( Penaeus stylirostris )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Astrofsky; M. M. Roux; K. R. Klimpel; J. G. Fox; A. K. Dhar

    2002-01-01

    Summary.  ?To isolate novel cellular factors that are activated or repressed upon WSV infection, the RNA fingerprints of healthy and\\u000a WSV infected blue shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris) were compared using the mRNA differential display technique. Thirty-two unique differentially expressed, and one constitutively\\u000a expressed, cDNA sequences were retrieved. Six of 32 cDNAs showed similarities with the database entries: cDNA 10G32-142 to\\u000a a shrimp

  10. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the distinct gene orders provide further evidences for the divergence between the two mud shrimp infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea, corroborating previous molecular phylogeny and justifying their infraordinal status. Mitochondrial genome sequences appear to be promising markers for resolving phylogenetic issues concerning decapod crustaceans that warrant further investigations and our present study has also provided further information concerning the mt genome evolution of the Decapoda. PMID:23153176

  11. The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M.; Beardmore, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to “perceive” forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of Artemia for the well-being of human populations. PMID:22737126

  12. Allobacillus halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from shrimp paste.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shih-Yi; Arun, A B; Jiang, Sing-Rong; Young, Chiu-Chung; Chen, Wen-Ming

    2011-05-01

    A novel bacterial strain designated B3A(T), isolated from shrimp paste, was investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells stained Gram-positive and were aerobic, non-pigmented, sporulating and rod-shaped with a polar flagellum. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain B3A(T) belonged to the class Bacilli and was a member of the family Bacillaceae. Strain B3A(T) shared low levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (<94.0 %) with members of other genera in the family Bacillaceae and was most closely related to Halalkalibacillus halophilus BH2(T) (93.8 % sequence similarity). The isolate was able to grow at 20-45 °C, with 0.5-15 % NaCl and at pH 6-9. Menaquinone with seven isoprene units (MK-7) was the major respiratory quinone and 16 : 0 iso, 15 : 0 anteiso and 14 : 0 iso were the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The characteristic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 45.3 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in combination with chemotaxonomic and physiological data, strain B3A(T) represents a novel genus and species in the family Bacillaceae for which the name Allobacillus halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Allobacillus halotolerans is B3A(T) (?=?BCRC 17939(T) ?=?LMG 24826(T)). PMID:20511460

  13. Geographical distribution of pelagic decapod shrimp in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Judkins, David C

    2014-01-01

    Ninety-one species of pelagic decapod shrimp were identified in 938 midwater-trawl collections taken between 1963 and 1974 from the North and South Atlantic. Distributional maps are provided for the most frequently occurring species. Nighttime abundance of most species was greatest within the upper 200 m. Degree of geographical overlap was estimated using the geometric mean of the proportion of joint occurrences with a value ? 0.5 deemed significant. Geographical distributions tended to be unique, and only 31 species had values ? 0.5 with one or more other species. Species within genera and within phylogenetic subgroups of Sergia were generally parapatric or partially overlapping in distribution. Five geographical groupings of co-occurring species across genera were identified: Subpolar-Temperate, Southern Hemisphere, Central, Tropical, Eastern Tropical and Western Tropical. The two species of the Southern Hemisphere group are circumpolar at temperate latitudes. The 12 species of the Central group occurred throughout the subtropical and tropical North and South Atlantic. The eight species of the Tropical group occurred broadly across the equatorial Atlantic and Caribbean with ranges usually extending into the Gulf of Mexico and northward in the Gulf Stream. The two species of the Western Tropical group occurred most often in the western tropics, but there were scattered occurrences at subtropical latitudes. The four species of the Eastern Tropical group were endemic to the Mauritanian Upwelling and the Angola-Benguela Frontal zones off western Africa. Two of the three species in the Subpolar-Temperate group had bipolar distributions, and all three occurred in the Mediterranean and in the Mauritanian Upwelling zone. Most Central, Tropical and Western Tropical species were present in the in the Gulf of Mexico. The 10 species from the Mediterranean were a mixture of Subpolar-Temperate, Central and benthopelagic species. Patterns of distribution in Atlantic pelagic decapods closely parallel those of other pelagic taxa, but myctophid fishes from the same collections appear to partition subtropical regions more finely. PMID:25543573

  14. Cadmium concentrations in shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus and Penaeus monodon) caught from the coastal areas in Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, E; Zaker, Sh; Farfani, M H Dehghani; Araghi, M Roghani; Vafaei, M; Goudarzi, M A

    2013-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the concentration of cadmium in two shrimp species, namely, Penaeus semisulcatus and Penaeus monodon caught from the coastal areas in southern Iran. Cadmium concentration was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 91 shrimp samples after nitric acid/perchloric acid digestion. Accuracy of the analysis was checked by various methods including the use of reference material. The mean ± SD of cadmium concentrations in shrimp samples were 0.128 ± 0.144 (?g/g). The cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.010 to 0.96 ?g/g of the muscle tissues of shrimp. Higher cadmium concentration in shrimp samples was found in summer (significant p < 0.05). The results show that the mean concentration of cadmium in shrimp is lower than the maximum allowed levels according to International standards, although the concentration of cadmium in only one sample was more than the amount recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. Therefore, no risk to the consumer arises from the cadmium contents of the shrimp caught in these areas. PMID:22301817

  15. Quantitative and qualitative studies on the bacteriological quality of Indian white shrimp (Penaeus indicus) stored in dry ice.

    PubMed

    Jeyasekaran, G; Ganesan, P; Anandaraj, R; Jeya Shakila, R; Sukumar, D

    2006-09-01

    Indian white shrimp (Penaeus indicus) stored in dry ice at the 1:1 ratio were found to be organoleptically suitable for consumption when they were stored for 24 h without reicing. Shrimp stored in water ice at the 1:1 ratio (as control) were acceptable up to 18 h. Shrimp stored in a combination of dry ice and water ice at the ratio of 1:0.2:0.5 were also found to be acceptable up to 24 h. Total bacterial load ranged from 10(6) to 10(9) cfu g(-1), while total psychrophiles ranged from 10(3) to 10(6) cfu g(-1). Total lactics were found in the levels of 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1). H(2)S producers were from 10(3) to 10(5) cfu g(-1). Lowest temperature of -4.8 degrees C was observed in shrimps stored in dry ice at 1:1 ratio. Bacterial flora associated with fresh raw shrimp were Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Flavobacterium and Serratia. Aeromonas constituted 38% of the flora in raw shrimp. Flavobacterium (43%), Pseudomonas (47%) and Pseudomonas (38%) were the dominant bacterial flora in the shrimp stored in dry ice at 1:1 ratio, in the combination package, and in water ice at 1:1 ratio, respectively. PMID:16943047

  16. A novel viral responsive protein is involved in hemocyte homeostasis in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Prapavorarat, Adisak; Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2010-07-01

    A novel viral responsive protein, namely hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP), was characterized for its role in the response of shrimp to white spot syndrome virus infection. The full-length cDNAs of HHAP from the black tiger shrimp (PmHHAP), Penaeus monodon, and the fresh water crayfish (PlHHAP), Pacifastacus leniusculus, were obtained and showed high sequence identity to a hypothetical protein from various organisms, with the highest identity to the hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC006773 from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (54% amino acid sequence identity). Transcripts of PmHHAP were expressed in various shrimp tissues with the highest expression in hematopoietic tissue, whereas the transcripts of PlHHAP were found in the hematopoietic and nerve tissues. Upon white spot syndrome virus infection, a high up-regulation level of shrimp hemocytic HHAP mRNA and protein was observed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. Gene silencing of PmHHAP by RNA interference resulted in a significant decrease in the number of circulating hemocytes and 100% shrimp mortality within 30 h of the double-stranded PmHHAP RNA injection (but not in control shrimp), indicating that HHAP is essential for shrimp survival. Interestingly, severe damage of hemocytes was observed in vivo in the PmHHAP knockdown shrimp and in vitro in shrimp primary hemocyte cell culture, suggesting that PmHHAP plays an important role in hemocyte homeostasis. Thus, it is speculated that the up-regulation of PmHHAP is an important mechanism to control circulating hemocyte levels in crustaceans during viral infection. PMID:20444692

  17. Distribution and bioturbation effects of the tropical alpheid shrimp Alpheus macellarius in sediments impacted by milkfish farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmer, Marianne; Heilskov, Anna Cecelie

    2008-02-01

    The impact of milkfish fish pens on the distribution of the alpheid shrimp Alpheus macellarius was studied in the Bolinao area, Philippines. In addition, the impact of the alpheid shrimp on sediment biogeochemistry, including organic matter mineralization, nutrient and sulfur cycling was compared in sediments affected and unaffected by fish farming. The fish farming activity had negative impact on the distribution of shrimps by reducing the abundance up to 60% in the vicinity of the net pens, and to almost absence inside the net pens. At a farm site abandoned seven month prior to sampling the abundance of shrimps was still low and sediment pools of reduced sulfur high, indicating a slow benthic recovery. The shrimp had large physical impact on the sediments, and the mineralization rates were stimulated by the presence of the shrimp in pristine sediments, whereas the fish farm impacted sites showed high mineralization rates both in sediments with and without the presence of the shrimp suggesting that the organic matter enrichment stimulated the mineralization in these low-organic sediments, whereas the shrimp had less impact. Sulfate reduction rates and in particular pools of sulfides increased in the farm impacted sediments, and sulfate reduction was an important process for organic matter mineralization (>67%) in all sediments. Although the shrimp had minor effect on the organic matter mineralization and nutrient fluxes in the farm impacted sediments, they appeared to increase the oxidation of sulfides by increasing the zone of oxidized surface sediment and thereby improving the sediment conditions for recolonization after fish farming has ceased.

  18. Bacterial virulence analysis using brine shrimp as an infection model in relation to the importance of quorum sensing and proteases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Nan; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Li, Xi-Hui; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Brine shrimp are aquatic crustaceans belonging to a genus of Artemia. This organism is widely used for testing the toxicity of chemicals. In this study, brine shrimp were evaluated as an infection model organism to study bacterial virulence. Artemia nauplii were infected with various pathogenic bacteria, such as Vibrio vulnificus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, and the susceptibility to these bacteria was investigated by counting the survival of the infected nauplii. While all of the tested bacteria have significant virulence to brine shrimp, killing the nauplii in a few days, V. vulnificus showed the strongest virulence. P. aeruginosa also showed a dose-dependent virulence to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weaker than that of V. vulnificus. The virulence tests using the virulence-attenuated mutants of V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, such as quorum sensing (QS) mutants or protease-deficient mutants showed a significant attenuation of virulence, demonstrating that the QS mechanism is important in the virulence of these bacteria to brine shrimp. B. vietnamiensis, S. aureus, and E. coli were also virulent to brine shrimp and the virulence was correlated with dosage within 24 h under our conditions. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis were also virulent to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weak and slowly exerted compared with that of other bacteria. Taken together, we suggest that brine shrimp are a good infection model to assay bacterial virulence, especially for V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, and QS is important in the bacterial virulence to brine shrimp. PMID:25420421

  19. The recovery of protein hydrolysate during enzymatic isolation of chitin from shrimp Crangon crangon processing discards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Józef Synowiecki; Nadia Ali Abdul Quawi Al-Khateeb

    2000-01-01

    Shell waste from shrimp Crangon crangon processing is a good source of chitin and proteins, contained on a dry basis of the offals in amounts 17.8% and 40.6%, respectively. The digestion of the shells with proteolytic enzymes allow to recovery of the chitin and nutritionally valuable protein hydrolysate. These products were prepared from the shells preliminarily demineralized with 10% HCl

  20. Effects of toxic Alexandrium species on the survival and feeding rates of brine shrimp, Artemia salina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Zhenxing; Zou Yinglin; Zhu Mingyuan; Wang Zongling; Wang Dan

    2006-01-01

    Zooplankton is an important link between phytoplankton and higher consumers in the marine food chain. To investigate the harmful effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium species on zooplankton, 4 strains of Alexandrium spp., isolated from the Chinese coast, were used to test the species' effects on the survival and feeding rates of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina. The experiment was

  1. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-Feng Lin; Shuh-Ren Jing; Der-Yuan Lee

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of

  2. Nutritional Contribution of Phytoplankton to the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    E-print Network

    Sanchez Corrales, Dagoberto Raul

    2012-07-16

    diets were formulated to contain 1, 2 or 3% FO combined with either 1 or 4% LT. Shrimp fed diets containing 1% LT and 1% FO in both systems had significantly lower weight gain and higher feed conversion ratio. Cephalothorax lipids and phospholipids were...

  3. NONINDIGENOUS PATHOGENIC SHRIMP VIRUS INTRODUCTIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES: DEVELOPING A QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonindigenous Pathogenic Shrimp Virus Introductions into the United States: Developing a Qualitative Ecological Risk Assessment. Austin, R.K.; van der Schalie, W.R.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC; Menzie, C.; Menzie-Cura and Associates, Chelmsford, MA; Fair...

  4. Role of natural productivity in modified extensive shrimp pond growing Penaeus monodon (Penaeidae, Crustacea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Suriyanarayana Moorthy; K Altaff

    Hydrobiology of a modified extensive shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture pond was monitored. Qualitative and quanti- tative analyses of plankton population revealed higher phytoplankton population during the first six weeks of culture which declined to low level thereafter and remained at that level till the end of the culture period. Zooplankton was represented mainly by rotifers, copepods and mysids. Dense population

  5. Phylogeny of penaeoid shrimps (Decapoda: Penaeoidea) inferred from nuclear protein-coding genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Y. Ma; T.-Y. Chan; K. H. Chu

    2009-01-01

    Penaeoidea is a diverse group of economically important marine shrimps. Attention to the evolutionary history of the penaeoids has been raised since studies using mitochondrial DNA markers and sperm ultrastructure contradict classification of the penaeoid families based on morphology and hence challenge the long standing taxonomy of this superfamily. In this study, DNA sequences of two nuclear protein-coding genes, phosphoenolpyruvate

  6. A New Species of Streptocephalus Fairy Shrimp (Crustacea, Anostraca) with Tetrahedral Cysts from Central Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanoamuang, La-Orsri; Saengphan, Nukul

    2006-06-01

    A new species of fairy shrimp, Streptocephalus siamensis n. sp., is described from five temporary pools in Suphan Buri and Kanchana Buri Provinces, central Thailand. It sometimes co-occurs with its congener, S. sirindhornae . This new species belongs to the subgenus Parastreptocephalus which is defined by bearing tetrahedral cysts. This is the third anostracan species reported from Thailand.

  7. Application of the microsatellite technique for analyzing genetic diversity in shrimp breeding programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg M. Wolfus; Denise K. Garcia; Acacia Alcivar-Warren

    1997-01-01

    The microsatellite technique was employed to demonstrate the use of genetic markers as a genetic analysis tool to manage breeding programs of cultured species. This technique was used on a total of 312 P. vannamei shrimp from Population 1 (Sinaloa, Mexico), Population 2 (Ecuador), Population 3 (hybrid of Population 1 X Population 2), Population 4 (Oaxaca, Mexico), a Guatemalan stock,

  8. MINUTES OF THE STAKEHOLDER MEETINGS ON THE REPORT OF THE JSA SHRIMP VIRUS WORK GROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Minutes of the Stakeholder Meetings on the Report of the JSA Shrimp Virus Work Group - Availability September 1997 (EPA/600/R-97/136) This document is comprised of five pieces as follows: Minutes of the Stakeholder Meetings on the Report o...

  9. DOSE/DOSE-RATE RESPONSES OF SHRIMP LARVAE TO UV-B RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 W sq m (DNA) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activi...

  10. Identification of Immune-Related Genes in Hemocytes of Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Premruethai Supungul; Sirawut Klinbunga; Rath Pichyangkura; Sarawut Jitrapakdee; Ikuo Hirono; Takashi Aoki; Anchalee Tassanakajon

    2002-01-01

    An expressed sequence tag (EST) library was constructed from hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to identify genes associated with immunity in this economically important species. The number of complementary DNA clones in the constructed library was approximately 4 2 105. Of these, 615 clones having inserts larger than 500 bp were unidirectionally sequenced and analyzed by homology

  11. Genetic mapping of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon with amplified fragment length polymorphism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Wilson; Yutao Li; Vicki Whan; Sigrid Lehnert; Keren Byrne; Stephen Moore; Siriporn Pongsomboon; Anchalee Tassanakajon; George Rosenberg; Elizabeth Ballment; Zahra Fayazi; Jennifer Swan; Matthew Kenway; John Benzie

    2002-01-01

    We report construction of an initial genetic linkage map for the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Mapping was carried out using polymorphic markers derived from 23 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) primer pairs. These were analysed on three reference families of known pedigree. A total of 673 polymorphic AFLP loci that conformed to expected Mendelian segregation ratios were scored in

  12. The effectiveness of fish and shrimp trawls for sampling fish communities in tropical Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Wassenberg; S. J. M. Blaber; C. Y. Burridge; D. T. Brewer; J. P. Salini; N. Gribble

    1997-01-01

    Catches of fish in a Frank and Bryce fish trawl during the day and in a Florida Flyer shrimp trawl at night were compared over 2 years (1992, 1993). The effectiveness of a Frank and Bryce demersal trawl as a sampling tool for demersal fish communities was assessed from 122 stations in the far northern section of the Great Barrier

  13. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON TWO SPECIES OF MYSID SHRIMP: 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' AND 'MYSIDOPSIS BIGELOWI'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of mysid shrimp, the sub-tropical Mysidopsis bahia and the northern temperate Mysidopsis bigelowi, were exposed simultaneously to cadmium (as CdC12) in a continuous-flow bioassay system to determine the effect on survival and reproductive success. Temperature and sali...

  14. The influence of organic carbon on oxygen dynamics and bacterial sulfate reduction in inland shrimp ponds

    E-print Network

    Suplee, Michael Wayne

    1995-01-01

    demands that were abnormally high in comparison to coastal ponds. The results of this study suggest that the west Texas SOD rates are in fact quite similar to clay- bottomed coastal shrimp ponds. Sulfate redt4ction ratex Relative to natural coastal...

  15. DIET OF PACIFIC COD, GADUS MACROCEPHALUS, AND PREDATION ON THE NORTHERN PINK SHRIMp,

    E-print Network

    DIET OF PACIFIC COD, GADUS MACROCEPHALUS, AND PREDATION ON THE NORTHERN PINK SHRIMp, PANDALUS BOREALIS, IN PAVLOF BAY, ALASKA W. D. ALBERS AND P. J. ANDERSON! ABSTRACf Analysis of 455 Pacific cod more frequently with increasing cod size (30-69 cm fork length). Euphausids decreased in frequency

  16. In vitro gastric and intestinal digestions of pulsed light-treated shrimp extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel technology most commonly used for microbial inactivation, has recently been employed to effectively mitigate food allergens in peanuts, soybean, shrimp, and almond. Putative mechanisms for the efficacy of PUV in reducing allergen reactivity, include photother...

  17. U.S. southeastern shrimp and reef fish resources and their management

    E-print Network

    Scott-Denton, Elizabeth

    2009-05-15

    ), and during 2004 and 2005 skimmer trawl vessels in coastal Louisiana. Data from 27,868 tows were collected aboard shrimp vessels. Total catch rates in kilograms per hour were 30.8 in the Gulf, and 27.7 in the southeastern Atlantic. In the Gulf, finfish...

  18. Organic Coasts? Regulatory Challenges of Certifying Integrated Shrimp-Mangrove Production Systems in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Bush, Simon R.; Mol, Arthur P. J.; van Dijk, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Vietnamese government aims to expand the scale of Naturland certified organic production in integrated shrimp-mangrove farming systems across the coast of Ca Mau province by 2015. In doing so the division between public and private regulation has become blurred. We analyze the government's goal by examining the regulatory challenges of using…

  19. ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL FOR AUGMENTATIVE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN ESTUARINE OYSTER AQUACULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of burrowing shrimp cause oyster mortality in aquaculture operations and have been managed using the pesticide carbaryl for the last 40 years, primarily in Washington state coastal estuaries. In a search for alternatives to pesticide use, an assessment of the presence and prevalence of ...

  20. Effect of individual quick freezing (IQF) on Salmonella recovery and texture of shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp ranks first in United States seafood consumption and is imported frozen. The Food and Drug Administration has identified Salmonella spp. as a contaminant of this frozen import product. This research was conducted to determine the effect of various individual quick freezing protocols (time an...

  1. Signalling by the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes longicarpus Lucille Chapuis a,*, Redouan Bshary b,1

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Laurent

    of Neucha^tel a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 10 September 2009 Initial acceptance 16 may also clean (Becker & Grutter 2004), and the cleaner shrimp Urocaridella sp. c advertises mutualism (Becker et al. 2005). Client reef fish signal their willingness to be inspected by taking specific

  2. Endocrine-mediated effects of UVA irradiation on grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio) reproduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C Volz; Edward F Wirth; Michael H Fulton; Geoffrey I Scott; David S Block; G. Thomas Chandler

    2002-01-01

    Although much is known regarding photoperiodic effects on crustacean egg production, the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on reproduction has not been investigated. Likewise, little is known concerning the interaction between UV and xenobiotic exposure on crustacean reproductive cycles. In this study, male and female grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan (200 ng\\/l and 400

  3. Evaluating a quantitative methionine requirement for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-wk feeding trial was conducted as a third study (all conducted in our laboratory) to determine a quantitative requirement of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei for sulfur amino acid methionine. Juvenile shrimp (mean weight 0.61 +/- 0.13 g) were reared in 110-L aquaria in a seawater recirculating sy...

  4. Summary of the Surveillance Data Post Re-opening Grids C01-04 (fish & shrimp)

    E-print Network

    fish and shrimp specimens showed that the seafood from this area was safe for consumption. To support consumer confidence and demonstrate that seafood from the area continues to be safe for consumption analyses provide sufficient information to confirm that the seafood from an area continues to be safe

  5. First report of microsporidiosis in fairy shrimp Branchinella thailandensis (Sanoamuang, Saengphan and Murugan, 2002)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Watchariya Purivirojkul; Siriwan Khidprasert

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of microsporidia infestation in the muscle of the fairy shrimp (Branchinella thailandensis [Sanoamuang, L., Saengphan, N., Murugan, G., 2002. First record of the family Thamnocephalidae, (Crustacea, Anostraca) from Southeast Asia and description of a new species of Branchinella. Hydrobiologia 486, 63–69.]) culture was examined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The clinical sign of microsporidiosis in fairy

  6. Composition and nutritional efficacy of adult fairy shrimp Streptocephalus dichotomus as live feed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chinavenmeni S. Velu; Natesan Munuswamy

    2007-01-01

    Success in aquaculture is based on various criteria, in which selection of a suitable feed and its potential use is important. The suitability and potential use of the adult fairy shrimp, Streptocephalus dichotomus, as a live feed was investigated. S. dichotomus contains 55% protein, 9% carbohydrate, 19% lipids, 10% ash and an energy value of 20kJ\\/g, which is equivalent to

  7. The fairy shrimp Chirocephalus brevipalpis (Orghidan, 1953), (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Yugoslavia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swetozar T. Petkovski

    1991-01-01

    The fairy shrimp Chirocephalus brevipalpis (Orghidan, 1953) has been found in the Srem-district, Northern Yugoslavia, at the southern margin of the Pannonian lowland. It is the second record of the species, which had been reported only from Banat province, Romania.

  8. Global Status and Trends in Ephemeral Pool Invertebrate Conservation: Implications for Californian Fairy Shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DENTON BELK

    The main threat to all ephemeral pool invertebrates throughout the world is habitat loss caused by land uses that destroy or severely damage these wetland ecosystems. Fairy shrimp and other invertebrates restricted to temporary pools are absolutely vulnerable to habitat loss because the subpopulations of each species are contained completely within the con- fines of discrete pool basins. The dormant

  9. A new snapping shrimp (Crustacea Decapoda, Alpheidae, Alpheus) from the estuarine mudflats of Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Anker; Grave De S

    2009-01-01

    A new snapping shrimp, Alpheus lutosus spec. nov., is described from the intertidal mudflats of Bubiyan Island, northern Kuwait, south of the vast Shatt-Al-Arab delta. The new species appears to be closely related to Alpheus hoplocheles Coutière, 1897 from similar estuarine habitats in China and Japan, differing mainly in the absence of a sharp distolateral tooth on the palm of

  10. SHRIMP zircon UPb age constraints on Neoproterozoic Quruqtagh diamictites in NW China

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Department of Applied Geology, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia f, VA 24061, USA c Department of Geology and Geography, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA d ISTO Beijing SHRIMP Center, Institute of Geology, CAGS, Beijing, 100037, China g State Key Laboratory

  11. Growth, survival and salinity tolerances of penaeid shrimp in thermal effluents

    E-print Network

    Berry, Robert Leon

    1982-01-01

    , but thereafter Table 5. --Numbers of miscellaneous organisms collected from white and brown shrimp ponds after harvest. Summer White Shrim Ponds Summer Brown Shrim Ponds S ecies 2 3 4 5 6 7 Rancaia cuneata &1000 &500 Palaemonetes sp, 89 787 Rhithro ano...

  12. Differences in Prey Capture in Grass Shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, Collected Along an Environmental Impact Gradient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Perez; W. G. Wallace

    2004-01-01

    The waterways and associated salt marshes along the western border of Staten Island, New York (Arthur Kill) have long been under environmental duress. Environmental threats include industrial and municipal discharges, oil spills, and possible leachate from landfills. These impacts are compounded due to the low flushing of this body of water. Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, inhabiting the Arthur Kill are,

  13. Evaluation of Gracilaria caudata J. Agardh for bioremediation of nutrients from shrimp farming wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Marinho-Soriano; R. A. Panucci; M. A. A. Carneiro; D. C. Pereira

    2009-01-01

    The accelerated development of shrimp farming in Brazil in recent decades has caused negative impacts to the environment. The most evident effects resulting from this activity is the increase in organic material, the reduction in oxygen and the excessive rise in water nutrients. Thus, there is a need for finding alternative solutions that can mitigate the negative impacts caused by

  14. Identification of Two Major Virion Protein Genes of White Spot Syndrome Virus of Shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariëlle C. W van Hulten; Marcel Westenberg; Stephen D Goodall; Just M Vlak

    2000-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus, causing considerable mortality in shrimp. Two structural proteins of WSSV were identified. WSSV virions are enveloped nucleocapsids with a bacilliform morphology with an approximate size of 275 × 120 nm, and a tail-like extension at one end. The double-stranded viral DNA has an approximate size 290 kb. WSSV virions, isolated from

  15. Identification of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope proteins involved in shrimp infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenlin Wu; Lei Wang; Xiaobo Zhang

    2005-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp pathogen causing large economic losses. In an attempt to identify the envelope proteins involved in virus infection, antisera against six WSSV envelope proteins were used in neutralization assays conducted in vivo. The results showed that the virus infection could be significantly delayed or neutralized by antibodies against three WSSV envelope proteins

  16. Velocity Measurements of a Pistol Shrimp's Micro Water Jet Using High Speed PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J.; Washington, K.; Wong, S.; Zarzecki, M.; Cheng, Y.; Diez, F. J.

    2007-11-01

    The pistol shrimp generates a high speed micro water jet that was studied experimentally using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The pistol shrimp, with an average size of about 5.5 cm, is considered to be one of the loudest animals in the world. The sound generated can reach intensity levels as high as 200 db. In the past, it was believed that the loud noise was produced by the shrimp closing its claws. Recent research has revealed that the sound is actually generated by a bubble that is created when the claw is shut. The generated bubble is followed by a micro jet. This process is used by the shrimp to stunt and attack preys and to defend itself. In this cavitation process, the bubble is created by a sudden drop in pressure as the claw closes at speeds of 100 km/hr. The temperature inside the bubble can range from 5,000 to 10000 degrees Kelvin and generates infrared light. This whole process is estimated to last around 300 microseconds. The phenomenon of the bubble itself is believed to take at most 10 nanoseconds. This research focuses in visualizing the bubble and the micro jet produced during the closing of the claw and characterizing the velocity field generated by the micro jet by taking PIV images at a rate of up to 40,000 frames per second.

  17. The Potential Use of Electricity to Control Burrowing Shrimp in Oyster Aquaculture Beds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thalassinid shrimp cause significant problems for oyster aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest (USA) where oysters succumb to the physical disruption of the sediment by the burrowing activity of these animals. While electrofishing is a commonly used technique to capture fish and some invertebrates i...

  18. One type of VEGFR is involved in WSSV infection to the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Li, Shihao; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-05-01

    VEGF signaling pathway plays vital roles in many physiological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, cell-cell communication, vessel permeability and virus-host interaction in mammalian species. However, the VEGF signaling pathway and its biological function are still poorly understood in crustaceans. In the present study, an essential member of VEGF signaling pathway, VEGF receptor (LvVEGFR), was isolated from Penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its function during virus infection was analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvVEGFR possessed all common features of VEGFRs reported in other species, including a signal peptide, six IG-like domains, one immunoglobulin subtype 2 domain, a transmembrane domain, a juxtamembrane domain, a protein kinase domain separated by a kinase insert sequence, one ATP binding site and one tyrosine-protein kinase active site. LvVEGFR is mainly expressed in hemocytes and intestine. The transcriptional level of LvVEGFR could be obviously up-regulated in hemocytes and intestine after WSSV infection. Silencing of LvVEGFR gene by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) interference could not only lead to a decrease of virus copy number in WSSV infected shrimp, but also reduce the mortality of shrimp during WSSV infection. These data suggested that VEGF signaling pathway might play an important role during viral infection to shrimp. PMID:25576099

  19. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  20. Guianas-Brazil Shrimp Fishery and Related U.S. Research Activity

    E-print Network

    Guianas-Brazil Shrimp Fishery and Related U.S. Research Activity Alexander Dragovich-free fishery began to crumble in 1970, as Brazil declared a 200-mile economic zone. To fish in Brazilian waters in the series of 2- and I-year agreements was signed on 9 May 1972 between the United States and Brazil