Sample records for shrimp branchinecta sandiegonensis

  1. Optimized DNA extraction methods for encysted embryos of the endangered fairy shrimp, Branchinecta sandiegonensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, A.N.; Simovich, M.A.; Pepino, D.; Schroeder, K.M.; Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The San Diego fairy shrimp Branchinecta sandiegonensis is a federally endangered species endemic to vernal pools in southern California, USA. Filling events in these habitats are highly variable, with some pools failing to hold water long enough for reproduction over many successive years. Studies of this species are thus hindered by the relatively rare appearance of aquatically active life history phases. Because diapausing cysts are abundant and present at all times, they provide an underutilized opportunity for both species identification and genetic studies. However, methods for extracting DNA from cysts are technically challenging because of their structure and size. Here we present a protocol for extracting DNA from B. sandiegonensis cysts in sufficient quantities for "DNA Barcoding", microsatellite analysis and other genotyping and sequencing applications. The technique will aid in population genetic studies and species identification (since taxonomic keys only distinguish among adults), and will be applicable to other crustaceans with similar diapausing cysts. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  2. Genetic population structure of the fairy shrimp Branchinecta coloradensis (Anostraca) in the

    E-print Network

    Bohonak, Andrew J.

    Genetic population structure of the fairy shrimp Branchinecta coloradensis (Anostraca) in the Rocky Branchinecta coloradensis in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, U.S.A., using allozymes. Glaciation in this area populations de Branchinecta coloradensis, un anostracé d'eau douce qui vit dans les étangs, dans les montagnes

  3. 77 FR 5045 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ...fairy shrimp (Branchinecta sandiegonensis...shrimp (Lepidurus packardi) in conjunction...fairy shrimp (Branchinecta sandiegonensis...shrimp (Lepidurus packardi) in conjunction...fairy shrimp (Branchinecta sandiegonensis...shrimp (Lepidurus packardi) in...

  4. Branchinecta belki n. sp. (Branchiopoda: Anostraca), a new fairy shrimp from Mexico, hybridizing with B. packardi Pearse under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro M. Maeda-Martinez; Hortencia Obregon-Barboza; Henri J. Dumont

    1992-01-01

    A new fairy shrimp,Branchinecta belki n.sp., endemic to the south of Coahuila state is described and figured. A total of nine species of phyllopods, including the new species, occur in ponds in the type area.

  5. Identification of co-occurring Branchinecta fairy shrimp species from encysted embryos using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Vandergast, A G; Wood, D A; Simovich, M; Bohonak, A J

    2009-05-01

    Morphological identification of many fairy shrimp species is difficult because distinguishing characters are restricted to adults. We developed two multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays that differentiate among three Branchinecta fairy shrimp with distributional overlap in southern California vernal pools. Two of the species are federally listed as threatened. Molecular identification of Branchinecta from cysts allows for species surveys to be conducted during the dry season, expanding the timeframe for population assessment and providing a less intrusive method of sampling sensitive vernal pool habitats. PMID:21564739

  6. Identification of co-occurring Branchinecta fairy shrimp species from encysted embryos using multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Wood, D.A.; Simovich, M.; Bohonak, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Morphological identification of many fairy shrimp species is difficult because distinguishing characters are restricted to adults. We developed two multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays that differentiate among three Branchinecta fairy shrimp with distributional overlap in southern California vernal pools. Two of the species are federally listed as threatened. Molecular identification of Branchinecta from cysts allows for species surveys to be conducted during the dry season, expanding the timeframe for population assessment and providing a less intrusive method of sampling sensitive vernal pool habitats. ?? Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. 77 FR 37700 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ...longhorn fairy shrimp (Branchinecta longiantenna), Riverside...Diego fairy shrimp (Branchinecta sandiegonensis...shrimp (Lepidurus packardi) in conjunction with...Diego fairy shrimp (Branchinecta sandiegonensis...shrimp (Lepidurus packardi) in conjunction...

  8. Dispersal of the fairy shrimp Branchinecta coloradensis (Anostraca): Effects of hydroperiod and salamanders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Bohonak; Howard H. Whiteman

    1999-01-01

    The absence of fairy shrimp (Anostraca) from permanent ponds and lakes is hypothesized to be the result of vertebrate predation. However, hatching cues for anostracan diapausing eggs include factors associated with the filling of temporary pond basins, and desiccation often increases the fraction of eggs that hatch. Thus, it is possible that in some species, eggs dispersed to permanent habitats

  9. A confusing trio of Branchinecta (Crustacea: Anostraca) from the western North America with a description of a new species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denton Belk; D. Christopher Rogers

    2002-01-01

    Confusion exists in the literature of the 1990s among three western North American species: Branchinecta coloradensis, B. dissimilis, and a new species described here as Branchinecta oriena n. sp. This confusion resulted from the very similar appearance of the basal segments of the male's second antennae of these three species, and that the description of B. dissimilis did not illustrate

  10. Functional Ontogenetic Changes in Branchinecta Ferox (Milne-Edwards) (Crustacea: Anostraca)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Freyer

    1983-01-01

    The development of the anostracan Branchinecta ferox is described in a manner that emphasizes how functional continuity is maintained from the earliest nauplius (1) (length generally < 0.5 mm) to the large adult (length at least 45 mm). The first nauplius subsists on yolk. Feeding begins at stage 2(2). Morphological specializations of the stage 2 nauplius include the use of

  11. 77 FR 43577 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Westbrook Project, Corps...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ...including the threatened vernal pool fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi) and endangered Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio) and vernal pool tadpole shrimp (Lepidurus packardi). The suitable habitat for branchiopods...

  12. 76 FR 72187 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Westbrook Project, Corps...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ...including the threatened vernal pool fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi) and endangered Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio) and vernal pool tadpole shrimp (Lepidurus packardi). The suitable habitat for branchiopods...

  13. Punching Shrimp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-06-28

    Legendary boxer Muhammad Ali used to brag that he could "float like a butterfly and sting like a bee." But to be a true champion, a prizefighter should really try to "punch like a mantis shrimp." This Science Update examines the research behind copying this mechanism for application to machinery design.

  14. Foreign Fishery Developments Thailand's Shrimp

    E-print Network

    Foreign Fishery Developments Thailand's Shrimp Culture Growing Pondcultivationofblacktigerprawns-intensive ponds for shrimp raising. Theyhavealsodeveloped animpressiveinfrastructureofelectrical and watersupplies, feeder roads, shrimp hatcheries, shrimp nurseries, feed mills, cold storage, and processing plants

  15. NOAAINMFS Developments Shrimp 1980: Consumption

    E-print Network

    NOAAINMFS Developments Shrimp 1980: Consumption Is Up in a Difficult Year Table 1.-Supplles and uses 01 all shrimp, 1974-78 s.ersge, 1979, anil 1980, hesds oil weight. Data are preliminary shrimp rose to 139 million pounds in 1980, up 12 percent from 1979. Imports of peeled raw shrimp fell 23

  16. SHRIMP MATURATION AND SPAWNING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Granvil D. Treece

    The lack of a reliable supply of disease-resistant postlarvae (PL) continues to contribute to the uncertainty, inefficiency, and economic loss facing shrimp farmers worldwide. Many of the world's estimated 375 913 shrimp farms rely heavily on wild stocks (for brood and seed to stock ponds) and many of the 5777 hatcheries (Rosenberry 1999) rely on ready-to-spawn adult females from the

  17. Shrimp Farming in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lovelle Ruggiero

    2000-01-01

    In inquiry-based instruction, discovery and learning belong to the students. In this exploration, jumbo shrimp are the source of inspiration. The magic in this project lies not in successfully culturing these shrimp, known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii

  18. Beyond biology: understanding regional, multi-species habitat conservation plans from an ecological, economic, and sociopolitical perspective

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Jennifer

    2013-02-22

    gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica californi ca), peregrine falcon (Falco pereg ri nus), Riverside fairy shrimp (Strptocephalus woottoni), southwestern arroyo toad (Bufo mi croscaphus californicus), least Bell's vireo (Vireo belfli pusillus), southwestern... leucocephalus), Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservarl o), vernal pool fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi), valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus), vernal pool tadpole shrimp (Lepi durus packardi), giant garter snake...

  19. Fishery Notes Texas' Brown Shrimp

    E-print Network

    Fishery Notes Texas' Brown Shrimp and 1983-84 Indices National Marine Fisheries Service scientists have concluded that the brown shrimp season offTexas will be poor and the catch for July 1983-June 1984 their historical averages. In the Gulf of Mexico, brown shrimp postlarvae enter the bays and passes when

  20. SHRIMP FARMING by Donald M. Allen

    E-print Network

    ) I ,... SHRIMP FARMING l by Donald M. Allen CONTENTS Introduction···...···.·.. General life history of shrimp Culture methods··...·.·. Page Pond site and construction ··.·····.·.···.···.·. Preparation for stocking··..·.·.·.·...·..··...·....·. Acquisition of seed shrimp

  1. THE SHRIMP AND THE SHRIMP INDUSTRY OF THE SOUTHERN UNIT,ED STATES

    E-print Network

    THE SHRIMP AND THE SHRIMP INDUSTRY OF THE SOUTHERN UNIT,ED STATES FISHERY LEAFLET No. 472 UNITED, D. C. #12;THE SHRIMP AND THE SHRIMP INDUSTRY OF THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES by William W. Anderson Fishery Research Biologist The shrimp fishery of the United States is centered primarily in the eight

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ICED SHRIMP: Excerpts from the 1965 Iced-Shrimp Symposium

    E-print Network

    MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ICED SHRIMP: Excerpts from the 1965 Iced-Shrimp Symposium UNITED STATES of Iced Shrimp: Excerpts from the 1965 Iced-Shrimp Symposium by B. Jo CARROLL, G. Bo REESE, and B o Qo for members of the iced- shrimp industry. The industry representatives participated actively in discus- sions

  3. Color Control in Shrimp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary-Jane O'Halloran (Dalhousie University; )

    1989-06-06

    Sand shrimp, Crangon septemspinosus, are capable of varying their color or shading in response to several environmental changes (background color, light intensity, light wavelength, and temperature). The degree of color change can be determined quantitatively by examining the chromatophores under a dissecting microscope and staging the amount of pigment dispersion, (b) the location or type of receptors involved, and (c) the type of communication between receptors and effectors.

  4. Characteristics of the Texas Shrimp Fleet, 197982

    E-print Network

    Characteristics of the Texas Shrimp Fleet, 1979·82 JUDITH T KRAUTHAMER, WILLIAM E. GRANT, and WADE L. GRIFFIN Introduction The shrimp fishery is the most valu- able commercial fishery in Texas. In the inshore sector fishermen har- vest small, juvenile brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, and white shrimp, P

  5. FOREIGN SHRIMP FISHERIES Other Than Central

    E-print Network

    «l FOREIGN SHRIMP FISHERIES Other Than Central and South America Marine Biological Laboratory and Oceania: 66 Australia 67 111 #12;#12;INTRODUCTION The growth of the domestic shrimp industry since World regarding the shrimp fisheries of foreign countries. Special interest in information about the shrimp

  6. Introduction The Pacific ocean shrimp, Pandalus

    E-print Network

    71(2) 1 Introduction The Pacific ocean shrimp, Pandalus jordani, usually referred to as pink shrimp, is a commercially important pandalid shrimp species harvested with bottom-trawl gear off the Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. They are sold as cocktail or salad shrimp, after being machine cooked, peeled

  7. NOAAlNMFS Developments Shrimp 1981

    E-print Network

    NOAAlNMFS Developments Shrimp 1981 The u.s. shrimp industry in 1981 experienced another difficult year fol- lowing a poor year in 1980. There were some encouraging factors like the rec- ord shrimp, catches of shrimp in the south Atlantic and Pacific were off substantially. Fuel prices were about 20

  8. Substrate Selection by Ghost Shrimp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Sue Diggs (Monterey High School)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to determine if ghost shrimp show a preference for a particular substrate surface under artificial conditions. Ghost shrimp are geographically widespread. They are an important source of food for many fish, mammals, and birds. Ghost shrimp are omnivorous, seldom predaceous. Their preferred food is aquatic vegetation. Ecologically, they are considered scavengers. Therefore, they contribute to an efficient flow of energy within aquatic habitats. Economically, they have become a favorite source of live food for aquarium fish and are sold in pet stores and are harvested for bait for sport fishing.

  9. Science Nation: Disappearing Red Shrimp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Along the shore in Hawaii, the ponds imbedded in lava rocks contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life in these pools are hundreds of tiny red shrimp. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), molecular biologist Scott Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.

  10. Monodon baculovirus of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M; Karunasagar, I

    2012-09-01

    Among the viruses infecting penaeid shrimp, monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) otherwise known as Penaeus monodon singly enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (PmSNPV), is one of the widely reported and well described viruses. It is a rod-shaped, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus, and considered till recently, as the type A baculovirus. Besides MBV, two strains of SNPV are reported-plebejus baculovirus and bennettae baculovirus. MBV was reported to be originated from Taiwan and has wide geographic distribution and is reported to be enzootic in wild penaeids of the Indo-pacific coasts of Asia. The virus also has diverse host-range including a variety of cultured and captured shrimp species and freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MBV has been reported in all life stages of P. monodon with late larval, postlarval and young juvenile as the most susceptible stages/ages. However, MBV has not been documented in early larval stages. Although MBV has been reported to be tolerated well by shrimp, the infection has been attributed to decreased productivity. The target organs or tissues of MBV are the hepatopancreatic tubules and duct epithelium of postlarvae, juveniles and adults, and the anterior midgut epithelium of very young postlarvae. The prominent clinical sign of infection is the presence of multiple spherical inclusion bodies in the hepatopancreas and midgut epithelial cells. The major mode of transmission of the virus is horizontal through oral exposure to occlusion bodies, contaminated tissues or fomites. Minor morphometric variation of the virus has been reported among different isolates. The rod-shaped enveloped virus particles range from 265-324 nm in length and 42-77 nm in diameter. Although complete genome sequence of MBV is not available, nucleic acid of MBV is circular, double-stranded DNA with a genome size ranging from 80 to 160 kbp. The virus codes for a 53 kDa major polyhedrin polypeptide and two minor 47 and 49 kDa polypeptides. A variety of diagnostic tools have been reported for this virus including real-time PCR and LAMP-based detection. Taxonomic position is still uncertain and International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses lists MBV as a tentative species named PemoNPV in the genus Nucleopolyhedrovirus. However, according to the latest genomic information on the virus, it has been suggested to create a new group of non-occluded bacilliform viruses called nudiviruses with MBV as one of the members. The aim of the current work is to describe the knowledge on the status, distribution and host-range, pathology, transmission, virus structure and morphogenesis, genomic characteristics, diagnosis and the latest taxonomic position of MBV. PMID:23997439

  11. Movements of Brown Shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, and Pink Shrimp, P. duorarum, Relative to the

    E-print Network

    Movements of Brown Shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, and Pink Shrimp, P. duorarum, Relative to the U. EMILIANI Introduction The major fishery for brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, occurs in the western Gulf of Mexico. Annual U.S. landings of brown shrimp off Texas averaged 13,800 metric tons (t) between 1970

  12. Inshore Environmental Effects on Brown Shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, and White Shrimp, P. setiferus,

    E-print Network

    Inshore Environmental Effects on Brown Shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, and White Shrimp, P. setiferus, the two commercial species of penaeid shrimp, the brown, Penaeus aztecus, and the white, P. seti- ferus life stages of penaeid shrimp to particular environmental fac- tors and interactions. Table I (brown

  13. Prevalence, persistence and control of Salmonella and Listeria in shrimp and shrimp products: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Wan Norhana; Susan E. Poole; Hilton C. Deeth; Gary A. Dykes

    2010-01-01

    Shrimp are an important commodity in the international fisheries trade and there is an indication of an increase in worldwide consumption of this crustacean. Salmonella and Listeria have been isolated from shrimps and shrimp products on a regular basis since the 1980s. The continued reporting of the presence of these pathogens in fresh and frozen shrimps, and even in the

  14. Marine Fisheries On the cover: Spot shrimp

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries ~~WD~~ On the cover: Spot shrimp photograph by William L. High, NMFS North- west NOAA/NMFS Developments Foreign Fishery Developments Publications Shrimp 1980, NOAA Awards, Satellite Data, Taggart Named, Compensation Changes, Pomfret Eyed, and Bering Sea Fish Charts 27 Japan: Shrimp

  15. STUDIES ON THE MARKING OF COMMERCIAL SHRIMP

    E-print Network

    STUDIES ON THE MARKING OF COMMERCIAL SHRIMP WITH BIOLOGICAL STAINS ...J Biological DECU -1957 WOODS of the Interior, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service STUDIES ON THE MARKING OF COMMERCIAL SHRIMP To determine the effectiveness of biological stains as marking agents for the commercial shrimp Penaeus

  16. Foreign Fishery Developments Japanese Shrimp Import

    E-print Network

    Foreign Fishery Developments Japanese Shrimp Import Trends for 1963·80 Told Japanese imports of frozen shrimp in 1980 amounted to 143,256 metric tons (t), valued at ¥240,353 million ($1,073 million. This was the first decline in shrimp imports since 1974 and the lowest imports in the past 3 years. The decline

  17. Shrimp, Crabs, and Marine Game Fish Records

    E-print Network

    Shrimp, Crabs, and Marine Game Fish Records · ... With high salinities, low rainfall, and no cold spells, 1976 was hailed an "excellent year for shrimp production" by the Texas Parks and Wildlife De- partment. Brown shrimp in Texas bays grew so fast last spring that the de- partment closed the Gulf

  18. Introduction The primary pink shrimp, Farfante-

    E-print Network

    74(1) 1 Introduction The primary pink shrimp, Farfante- penaeus duorarum, fishing grounds con- sist in part by the establishment of sanctuaries which The U.S. Gulf of Mexico Pink Shrimp, Farfantepenaeus.hart@noaa.gov). ABSTRACT--U.S. Gulf of Mexico, pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, catch statistics have been collected

  19. Foreign Fishery Developments Japanese Frozen Shrimp

    E-print Network

    Foreign Fishery Developments Japanese Frozen Shrimp Imports Continue to Climb Japanese imports of frozen shrimp in 1978 amounted to 143,962 t, a new all-time high surpassing by 15 percent the previous import value. The unit import price of shrimp in yen fell in 1978 due to the rise in the value of the yen

  20. OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND HEMOLYMPH OSMOLALITY OF BROWN SHRIMp, PENAEUS AZTECUS

    E-print Network

    OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND HEMOLYMPH OSMOLALITY OF BROWN SHRIMp, PENAEUS AZTECUS JAMES M. BISHOP shrimp was measured under conditions appli- cable to their natural environment orculture. Shrimp were wet m -, . h-'); however, disturbed shrimp consumedoxygennearly four times faster than shrimp at rest

  1. THE BAIT SHRIMP INDUSTRY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO

    E-print Network

    THE BAIT SHRIMP INDUSTRY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO FISHERY LEAFLET No. 480 Revision of Fishery Leaflet FISHERIES WASHINGTON 25, D. C. #12;THE BAIT SHRIMP INDUSTRY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Introduction, Texas CO TE TS Kinds of shrimp in the bait fishery General life history of the white shrimp Bait shrimp

  2. 76 FR 63910 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Excelsior Estates...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...Service (USFWS) as critical habitat for the Federally listed vernal pool fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi), vernal pool tadpole shrimp (Lepidurus packardi), Sacramento Orcutt grass (Orcuttia viscida) and slender Orcutt grass...

  3. OUSEHOlD CONSUMER PREFERENCES ~EADED SHRIMP & BREADED FISH STICKS

    E-print Network

    OUSEHOlD CONSUMER PREFERENCES for ~EADED SHRIMP & BREADED FISH STICKS PART 1 NATIONAL AND REGIONAL·· Contents Introduction · · . . . · · · · · · . . . · · · · · · · · S~. . . · . . . . . . Breaded Shrimp consumer prefe rences for breaded shrimp and breaded fi8h sticks. The survey ",as made by national Family

  4. Development of the mesendoderm in the dendrobranchiate shrimp Sicyonia ingentis

    E-print Network

    Hertzler, Philip L.

    Development of the mesendoderm in the dendrobranchiate shrimp Sicyonia ingentis Philip L. Hertzler Received 2 February 2002; accepted 5 April 2002 Abstract Dendrobranchiate shrimp embryos form a 4-cell reserved. Keywords: Dendrobranchiata; Sicyonia ingentis; Shrimp; Cell lineage; Mesoteloblasts

  5. Recent population expansion and connectivity in the hydrothermal shrimp

    E-print Network

    Teixeira, Sara

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Recent population expansion and connectivity in the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata, which forms high-density local populations on hydrothermal vents along

  6. Biological treatment of shrimp production wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raj Boopathy

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in consumer demand for shrimp, which has resulted in its worldwide aquaculture\\u000a production. In the United States, the stringent enforcement of environmental regulations encourages shrimp farmers to develop\\u000a new technologies, such as recirculating raceway systems. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density\\u000a shrimp yields. The system also

  7. NORMAL POSTMORTEM CHANGES IN THE BROWN SHRIMP, PENAEUS AZTECUSI

    E-print Network

    NORMAL POSTMORTEM CHANGES IN THE BROWN SHRIMP, PENAEUS AZTECUSI DONALD V. LIGHTNER2 ABSTRACT changes in the brown shrimp (Penaells a~.le(,lIs Ives). Experimental shrimp were held at 10°, 20°, or 30°C and cuticular tissue elements. In all tissues the rate of autolysis was temperature-dependent. Shrimp from

  8. EXPLORATORY SHRIMP FISHING IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    E-print Network

    EXPLORATORY SHRIMP FISHING IN THE GULF OF MEXICO 1950 -51 FISHERY LEAFLET 406 FISB AND WILDLIFE ··········································· ······· Dragging Data and Shrimp Fishing Methods ········ ········ · ·· Some Observations on the Oregon Fishing Log, 1950-51······· Whit e Shrimp....·.·......·.........·····..·· ···.········ Bro'Wl1-grooved Shrimp

  9. MFR REPRINT 974 The spot shrimp is the largest

    E-print Network

    MFR REPRINT 974 The spot shrimp is the largest in the North Pacific, mature individuals reaching 12 Shrimp, Pandalus platyceras, at Little Port Walter, Alaska LOUIS BARR The spot shrimp, Pandalus platyceras, is the largest shrimp found in the North Pacific- large individuals may reach 30 cm (12 inches

  10. Proceedings of the Latin American Shrimp Culture Congress

    E-print Network

    Proceedings of the 1st Latin American Shrimp Culture Congress Panama, October 6-10, 1998 Environmental factors affecting burrowing of brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus and white shrimp Litopenaeus Burrowing in the substrate by penaeid shrimps is a common behavior that appears to increase survival rates

  11. MFR PAPER 1267 Development of a Selective Shrimp Trawl

    E-print Network

    MFR PAPER 1267 Development of a Selective Shrimp Trawl for the Southeastern United States Penaeid Shrimp Fisheries JOHN W. WATSON, Jr. and CHARLES McVEA, Jr. ABSTRACT-Preliminary designs and evaluations are presented of experimental selective shrimp trawls for use in the southeastern United States penaeid shrimp

  12. Microbiological quality of Icelandic cooked-peeled shrimp ( Pandalus borealis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grimur Valdimarsson; Hjörleifur Einarsson; Birna Gudbjörnsdottir; Hannes Magnusson

    1998-01-01

    Iceland is a major producer of cold water shrimp, Pandalus borealis. In recent years considerable attention has been given to improve hygiene in the factories producing cooked, peeled and frozen shrimp. To keep track of the bacteriological status of the end product, shrimp from most of the factories is routinely analysed bacteriologically by the request of shrimp exporters. This paper

  13. Shrimp diseases and current diagnostic methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V Lightner; R. M Redman

    1998-01-01

    In less than 30 yr, the penaeid shrimp culture industries of the world developed from their experimental beginnings into major industries providing hundreds of thousands of jobs, billions of U.S. dollars in revenue, and augmentation of the world's food supply with a high value crop. Concomitant with the growth of the shrimp culture industry has been the recognition of the

  14. Microbiological characteristics of Pacific shrimp (Pandalus jordani).

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J S; Pfeifer, D K

    1977-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with Pacific shrimp (Pandalus jordani) were isolated and identified. Those on the iced raw shrimp, which yielded an average count of 1.6 x 10(6), were predominantly Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Flavobacterium-Cytophaga spp. The blanching and peeling reduced the microbial level to 3.3 x 10(4) and also selectively eliminated Moraxella spp. The microbial flora changed after each processing sequence, and the heat sensitivity and growth characteristics of the representative microbial groups suggested that the presence of Arthrobacter and Acinetobacter spp. in peeled shrimp may indicate inadequate cleaning of raw shrimp or a shorter blanching time. The presence of Moraxella and Flavobacterium-Cytophaga spp. would indicate the degree of secondary contamination, and the presence of Pseudomonas spp. would indicate the shelf-age of the processed shrimp. PMID:869532

  15. Molecular mechanisms of the shrimp clotting system.

    PubMed

    Maningas, Mary Beth B; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo

    2013-04-01

    Shrimp, like other invertebrates, relies solely on its innate immune system, to combat invading pathogens. The invertebrate immune system has ancient origins that involve cellular and humoral responses. The clotting system of the humoral immune response is the first line of defense against pathogens and also serves to prevent blood loss during injury and wound healing. Tranglutaminase and clotting protein are molecules involved in the blood clotting system of crayfish and shrimp. Studies have shown that the shrimp clotting system is linked with the activation of antimicrobial peptides, similar to that of the horseshoe crab. Unlike the horseshoe crab and crayfish blood coagulation which are well studied systems, blood clotting in shrimp remains poorly understood. Here we review the shrimp clotting system and its involvement in innate immunity. PMID:23044383

  16. Seasonal movement patterns in a subalpine population of the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum

    E-print Network

    Bohonak, Andrew J.

    Branchinecta coloradensis qui composait 91% du regime alimentaire des adultes h mCtamorphose dans les Ctangs remaining in permanent ponds. This differ- ence was due to the presence of fairy shrimp (Branchinecta coloradensis), which composed 91% of metamorphic adult diets in nonpermanent ponds and accounted for three

  17. MFR PAPER 103 0 An important shrimp

    E-print Network

    . The last mentioned method . wh ich is conduct- ed on a large scale along the east coast of Sumatra increas- in g activities in the local shrimp fish- eries along the north coast of J a\\ a and south Sumatra

  18. Characterization of shrimp Drosha in virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianzhi; Xu, Dandan; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2012-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by microRNA (miRNA) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of posttranscriptional gene regulation in all eukaryotes, involving in natural antiviral immunity. The RNAase III Drosha is a key component for miRNA maturation. To date, however, the roles of Drosha in virus infection remain to be addressed. In this study, the Drosha was characterized in Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp. The sequence analysis revealed that the shrimp Drosha gene encoded a 1081-amino-acid peptide, which comprised two tandem ribonuclease III C terminal domains and a double-stranded RNA binding motif. The shrimp Drosha was homologous with those of other animal species. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the Drosha gene was highly expressed in lymphoid organ and was significantly up-regulated in response to WSSV challenge, suggesting that the Drosha was involved in the antiviral immunity of shrimp. The results showed that the knock down of Drosha gene led to the defect of miRNA maturation, and subsequent higher virus loads in shrimp. Our study presented that Drosha played important roles in the antiviral defense of shrimp. PMID:22796424

  19. Global Changes Impact the Texas Shrimp Changes in the global shrimp industry have created a

    E-print Network

    Global Changes Impact the Texas Shrimp Industry Changes in the global shrimp industry have created of Agriculture again offered the Trade Adjustment Assistance Program (TAA) for those industries, including to maintain their eligibility. Agents then scheduled 26 Intensive Training (IT) meetings so approved

  20. THE SHRIMP AND THE SHRIMP FISHERY OF THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES

    E-print Network

    . --Gulf of Mexico medium sized shrimp trawler. ~h ree s p e cies of shrimp, all members of fam ily (Penae rimp have t he t th ree pairs of thoracic or w a lking leg s which there are f ive pairs in all) ending

  1. Shrimp Antimicrobial Testing. II. Toxicity Testing and Safety Determination for Twelve Antimicrobials with Penaeid Shrimp Larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney R. Williams; Thomas A. Bell; Donald V. Lightner

    1992-01-01

    The need for federally approved chemotherapeutants for use in domestic shrimp culture in the USA is acute. A summary of toxicity testing of 12 antimicrobials against penaeid shrimp larvae is presented. In addition, the toxicity data are examined in concert with previously reported data on minimum inhibitory concentrations to establish a therapeutic index (a measure of margin of safety) for

  2. REVISION OF THE PENAEID SHRIMP GENUS PENAEOPSIS (CRUSTACEA: DECAPODA)

    E-print Network

    REVISION OF THE PENAEID SHRIMP GENUS PENAEOPSIS (CRUSTACEA: DECAPODA) IsABEL PEREZ FARFANTE1 ABSTJ is restricted to the Atlantic, where it is present on both the eastern and west- ern slopes. These shrimps

  3. Investment in Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Vessels, 1965-77

    E-print Network

    . In the 1970's, a few vessels built ofconcrete, aluminum, and metallic alloys were introduced, but they have, cast nets, and traps to harvest shrimp. Today's shrimp vessels, built of wood, steel, or fiberglass

  4. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

  5. A new process for advanced utilisation of shrimp waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asbjørn Gildberg; Even Stenberg

    2001-01-01

    A high quality chitosan for application in cosmetics can be produced from the processing waste of Northern shrimp (Pandalusborealis). A major fraction of the shrimp waste is protein tissues, which are normally wasted during conventional chitosan preparation. The present work shows that the shrimp waste proteins can be hydrolysed by a commercially available protease (Alcalase) and recovered as a protein

  6. INTERSEX ANOMALIES IN SHRIMP OF THE GENUS PENAEOPSIS (CRUSTACEA: PENAEIDAE)

    E-print Network

    NOTES INTERSEX ANOMALIES IN SHRIMP OF THE GENUS PENAEOPSIS (CRUSTACEA: PENAEIDAE) excavate, blunt of the fifth pair of pereopods. The shrimps were poorly preserved-the exoskeletons were soft, rostrums distinct and the external genitalia intact. The discovery of these shrimp elicits several questions

  7. DISTRIBUTION AND YIELD OF THE DEEPWATER SHRIMP HETEROCARPUS RESOURCE

    E-print Network

    DISTRIBUTION AND YIELD OF THE DEEPWATER SHRIMP HETEROCARPUS RESOURCE IN THE MARIANAS ROBERT B. MOFFITT AND JEFFREY J. POLOVINA! ABSTRACf A shrimp trapping survey was conducted at 22 islands and banks in the Mariana Archipelago during a 2-year field period. Three species of deepwater shrimp were found

  8. SURVEY OF SHRIMP FISHERIES OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA

    E-print Network

    SURVEY OF SHRIMP FISHERIES OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA Marine Biological Laboratory LIBH A.R.7br Department of the Interior, Fred A. Seaton, Secretaiy Fish and Wildlife Service SURVEY OF SHRIMP FISHERIES- tialities of the shrimp fisheries of Latin America as a source of supply for the United States market

  9. ELECTROPHORETIC COMPARISON OF FIVE SPECIES OF PANDALID SHRIMP FROM

    E-print Network

    ELECTROPHORETIC COMPARISON OF FIVE SPECIES OF PANDALID SHRIMP FROM THE NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN ALLYN G. JOHNSON, FRED M. UTTER, AND HAROLD O. HODGINS' ABSTRACT Pandalid shrimp from o~ Alaska speCIes mvestIgated. The increase of commercial fishing for shrimp along the Pacific coast of North

  10. Penaeid shrimp fisheries and hatcheries have undergone an accelerated devel-

    E-print Network

    674 Penaeid shrimp fisheries and hatcheries have undergone an accelerated devel- opment during, etc.) countries. Business based on penaeid shrimp trading may be considered as having two components the consumption of imported shrimp has long exceeded landings from their domestic fisheries (Lightner et al., 1997

  11. LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP

    E-print Network

    LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP PENAEUS SETIFERUS Marine Biological, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP, PENAEUS SETIFERUS. C. May 1958 #12;#12;LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP , PENAEUS SETIFERUS

  12. Diel and Seasonal Occurrence of Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum

    E-print Network

    Diel and Seasonal Occurrence of Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum Burkenroad, in Two Divergent Habitats, Director Diel and Seasonal Occurrence of Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum Burkenroad, in Two Divergent and equipment 2 Diel fluctuations of catch and size of pink shrimp in relation to light 2 Seasonal changes

  13. SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, Penaeus duorarum, AND FLEET

    E-print Network

    56 SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, Penaeus duorarum, AND FLEET CONCENTRATIONS ON THE TORTUGAS of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, Penaeus duorarum Acknowledgments 3 Methods and materials 3 Vessels and gear 3 Observations of fleet activity 5 Shrimp discards 6

  14. Review article Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp Peter J. WALKER 1*, James R. WINTON 2 1 and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular the challenges presented by climate change. disease emergence / shrimp / fish / virus Table of contents 1

  15. ,SHRIMP RESEARCH ABOARD SOVIET SHIP IN GULF OF ALASKA

    E-print Network

    ,SHRIMP RESEARCH ABOARD SOVIET SHIP IN GULF OF ALASKA Robert J . Wolotira Jr . One r esult- gate the shrimp resources in the Gulf of Alaska. The Soviet re s earch ves s e l 'Krill ' surveyed the shrimp species from south of the Alaska Peninsula near Kodiak Island. In 1970, this area yielded

  16. Sanitation Guidelines for the Breaded-Shrimp Industry

    E-print Network

    Sanitation Guidelines for the Breaded-Shrimp Industry UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH for the Breaded-Shrimp Industry By JOE P. CLEM and E. SPENCER GARRETT Circular 308 Washington, D.C. November 1968 Dress 12 Habits 13 Supervision 14 in #12;#12;Sanitation Guidelines for the Breaded-Shrimp Industry

  17. Correlation of winter temperature and landings of pink shrimp

    E-print Network

    Correlation of winter temperature and landings of pink shrimp Penaeus duorarum in North Carolina model was retained. The new re- gression to determine spring pink shrimp landings in North Carolina shrimp Penaeus duorarum in the North Carolina spring fishery, February-July, based on average water

  18. In northern South America, the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus

    E-print Network

    526 In northern South America, the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus sinuensis Lemaitre and Rodrigues), this adaptation also includes sediments of tropical, estuarine ponds in which penaeid shrimp are cultured. Dense accumulations of ghost shrimp in these penaeid culture ponds are favored by their abbrevi- ated larval

  19. DOUBLE-RIG SHRIMP TRAWLING IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    E-print Network

    DOUBLE-RIG SHRIMP TRAWLING IN THE GULF OF MEXICO , , FISB AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Vaited Sial, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director DOUBLE-RIG SHRIMP TRAWLING . . . . . · . . . · Figure 1 2 3 4 lUUSTRATIONS Details of the rigging arrangements req ired for double-rig shrimp trawl ing

  20. Surface-to-Bottom Pot Fishing for Pandalid Shrimp

    E-print Network

    560 Surface-to-Bottom Pot Fishing for Pandalid Shrimp Marlr aboralory library FEB 1 2 1968 WOODS Fisheries, H. E. Crowther, Director Surface-to-Bottom Pot Fishing for Pandalid Shrimp By LOUIS BARR fishing 6 Literature cited 6 #12;#12;Surface-to-Bottom Pot Fishing for Pandalid Shrimp By LOUIS BARR

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION Nitrogen recovery from shrimp pond efuent

    E-print Network

    Lorenzen, Kai

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Nitrogen recovery from shrimp pond ef¯uent: dissolved nitrogen removal has nutrients is widely seen as a key environmental management problem in intensive shrimp farming and other, for example, is incorporated into shrimp tissue, while the remain- der is lost to the pond and, ultimately

  2. Difficult Economic Times Continue for the Shrimp Industry

    E-print Network

    Difficult Economic Times Continue for the Shrimp Industry Calendar year 2011 marked the 10th consecutive year of an industry-wide economic crisis across the Gulf and South Atlantic shrimp industry. In addition to continued low prices for shrimp, the cost of diesel fuel remains relatively high

  3. JANUARY TO APRIL DISTRIBUTION OF THE COMMON SHRIMP ON THE

    E-print Network

    JANUARY TO APRIL DISTRIBUTION OF THE COMMON SHRIMP ON THE SOUTH ATLANTIC CONTINENTAL SHELF Marine L. Farley, Director JANUARY TO APRIL DISTRIBUTION OF THE COMMON SHRIMP ON THE SOUTH ATLANTIC Coast of the United States, are summarized with respect to distribution of Peneid shrimp. It appears

  4. DYNAMICS OF A PENAEID SHRIMP POPULATION AND MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    DYNAMICS OF A PENAEID SHRIMP POPULATION AND MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS By JOSEPH H. KUTKUHN, Fishery utilization of a stock of pink shrimp (Penaeidae) that supports an important com- mercial fishery or not the fishery's production could be improved by postponing the start of fishing until the shrimp reach a size

  5. Burrowing shrimp as foundation species in NE Pacific estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    My talk will be about the my research to characterize the role that burrowing shrimp play as foundation/engineering species in Pacific NW estuaries. My research has focused on measuring the abundance & distribution of two species (ghost shrimp & mud shrimp) at ecosystem scales, ...

  6. Simulation of nitrogen dynamics and shrimp growth in an intensive shrimp culture system: effects of feed and feeding parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruby A. Montoya; A. L. Lawrence; W. E. Grant; M. Velaso

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide increases in shrimp culture have caused concern about potential environmental impacts, particularly water pollution resulting from discharge of nitrogenous wastes from shrimp farms. This study describes development of a simulation model representing the effect of feed nutritional quality, feed physical characteristics, and feeding strategies on nitrogen dynamics and growth of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in intensive systems

  7. Participation of U. S. Trawlers in the Offshore Shrimp Fisheries of

    E-print Network

    Participation of U. S. Trawlers in the Offshore Shrimp Fisheries of French Guiana, Surinam working group met in Panama in 1979 and reviewed the existing knowledge of the Gui- anas-Brazil shrimp-Brazil shrimp grounds (Fig. 1), harbor four commercial species of shrimp: Brown shrimp, Penaeus subti/is; pink

  8. Alkanes in shrimp from the Buccaneer Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.; Chang, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    A total of 36 samples of shrimp were examined from the region of the Buccaneer oil field, eighteen of which were representatives of the commercial species Penaeus aztecus and the rest were various other species: Penaeus duorarum (pink shrimp), Trachypenaeus duorarum (sugar shrimp), Squilla empusa (mantis shrimp), and Sicyonia dorsalis (chevron shrimp). The alkanes and deuteriated alkanes were completely separated by GC, so a mass spectrometer was not required for their detection and quantitation. To confirm the identities of individual compounds, however, some samples were examined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results show that only thirteen of the forty shrimp collected from the region of the Buccaneer oil field contained petroleum alkanes, and the majority of these were obtained from trawls immediately adjacent to the production platforms. It appears that shrimp caught in the region of the Buccaneer oil field are not appreciably tainted with hydrocarbons discharged from the production platforms. (JMT)

  9. Antibiotic-Resistant Vibrios in Farmed Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque Costa, Renata; Araújo, Rayza Lima; Souza, Oscarina Viana; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined in 100 strains of Vibrio isolated from the Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and identified phenotypically. A high antibiotic-resistance index (75%) was observed, with the following phenotypic profiles: monoresistance (n = 42), cross-resistance to ?-lactams (n = 20) and multiple resistance (n = 13). Plasmid resistance was characterized for penicillin (n = 11), penicillin + ampicillin (n = 1), penicillin + aztreonam (n = 1), and ampicillin (n = 1). Resistance to antimicrobial drugs by the other strains (n = 86) was possibly mediated by chromosomal genes. The findings of this study support the conclusion that the cultured shrimps can be vehicles of vibrios resistant to ?-lactam and tetracycline. PMID:25918714

  10. Pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis for penaeid shrimp

    E-print Network

    Lehrer, Janis Ellen

    1979-01-01

    PATHOGENICITY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS FOR PENAEID SHRIMP A Thesis by JANIS ELLEN LEHRER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SC1ENCE August 1979... Major Subject: Biology PATHOGENICITY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS FOR PENAEID SHRIMP A Thesis by JANIS ELLEN LEHRER Approved as to style and content by: r. ohn R. Schwarz (C Chairman of Committee) P4Lf. ks~ Dr. S. M. (C5-Chai n of C 'ttee) Dr...

  11. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Ghost shrimp and blue mud shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Horning, S.; Sterling, A.; Smith, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The profiles are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessments. The ghost shrimp (Callianassa californiensis) and blue mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis) are common residents of intertidal mudflats of the Pacific Northwest, as well as of the entire West Coast of the contiguous United States. These species are decapod crustaceans, but not true shrimp. They are harvested as bait by recreational and commercial oyster-growing operations. Ghost shrimp larvae develop in summer in nearshore coastal waters and settle to the substrate surface, where they rapidly metamorphose; the life cycle of the blue mud shrimp is presumed to be similar. Both species spend their lives in burrows in the mudflat, where the ghost shrimp is primarily a deposit feeder and the blue mud shrimp is a suspension feeder.

  12. Lysozyme gene expression by hemocytes of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after injection with Vibrio

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Louis E.

    Lysozyme gene expression by hemocytes of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after antibacterial protein produced by shrimp hemocytes, within tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in response rights reserved. Keywords: Litopenaeus vannamei; Shrimp; Hemocyte; Vibrio; Lysozyme; Gene expression

  13. 78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing...of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Ecuador. The period of investigation is January...of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador,'' dated concurrently with this...

  14. 78 FR 50389 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from Ecuador. For information on the estimated subsidy...this investigation are the Government of Ecuador (the GOE), and two...

  15. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. 622.201 Section...Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ)....

  16. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. 622.201 Section...Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ)....

  17. Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.L.B.

    1993-01-01

    Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine was measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

  18. MFR PAPER 1171 Shrimp taste and vitamin

    E-print Network

    MFR PAPER 1171 Shrimp taste and vitamin content did not differ markedly in thermal and microwave been done on vitamin anal '>es of \\egetables cooked b) micro~\\ ave and ~onven ti )nalmean hot spot. by employing peliodic stilTing. Vitamin selected for thi "tud) \\~e;e those \\\\ hich had been

  19. Microbial flora of fresh and stored shrimp 

    E-print Network

    Mroz, Eva

    1970-01-01

    of microorganisms from "pond shrimp" sample 1 plated on media with different waters Genus percenta e distribution of isolates from lates with Seawater Dist. water Achromobacter 0 Alcaligenes Bacillus Coryneform Flavobacterium 0 0 32. 5 47. 5 5. 1 28. 2...

  20. GLUCOSE OXIDASE REDUCES OXIDATION IN FROZEN SHRIMP

    E-print Network

    role oxygen can have during storage of foods (Scott, 1958). Glucose oxidase-catalase preparations are used to carry out the net reaction: 2 glucose + oxygen glucose oxidase > 2 gluconic acid. catalase of glucose oxidase -catalase would probably be more obvious in shrimp, which were packed in transparent bags

  1. Probiotics in shrimp aquaculture: avenues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ninawe, A S; Selvin, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    As an alternative strategy to antibiotic use in aquatic disease management, probiotics have recently attracted extensive attention in aquaculture. However, the use of terrestrial bacterial species as probiotics for aquaculture has had limited success, as bacterial strain characteristics are dependent upon the environment in which they thrive. Therefore, isolating potential probiotic bacteria from the marine environment in which they grow optimally is a better approach. Bacteria that have been used successfully as probiotics belong to the genus Vibrio and Bacillus, and the species Thalassobacter utilis. Most researchers have isolated these probiotic strains from shrimp culture water, or from the intestine of different penaeid species. The use of probiotic bacteria, based on the principle of competitive exclusion, and the use of immunostimulants are two of the most promising preventive methods developed in the fight against diseases during the last few years. It also noticed that probiotic bacteria could produce some digestive enzymes, which might improve the digestion of shrimp, thus enhancing the ability of stress resistance and health of the shrimp. However, the probiotics in aquatic environment remain to be a controversial concept, as there was no authentic evidence / real environment demonstrations on the successful use of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in vivo. The present review highlights the potential sources of probiotics, mechanism of action, diversity of probiotic microbes and challenges of probiotic usage in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:19514908

  2. Haemolymph parameters of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) infected with Taura syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yen-Ling Song; Chun-I Yu; Tzu-Wen Lien; Chih-Cheng Huang; Min-Nan Lin

    2003-01-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were injected with Taura syndrome virus (TSV) to assess shrimp immune responses and survival. TSV-infected shrimp suffered high mortality, but mock-infected and untreated shrimp experienced no mortality. Moribund shrimp were a pale, reddish colour and were lethargic and soft-shelled. Their haemolymph was clear red and coagulated poorly. In TSV-infected shrimp, the total haemocyte count (THC),

  3. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  4. Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters 

    E-print Network

    DeWitt, Bernard John

    1982-01-01

    ), serious pollution problems are caused by crude oils, residual fuel oils, lubricating oils and miscel- laneous tank washings, sludges and tarsi known collectively as persis- tant oils, to distinguish them from light fuel oils such as gasoline, kerosene... evaluation by taste was conducted on shrimp boiled in water for three minutes. Each member of the panel was given five sets of three different, color tagged shrimp for each phase (raw and cooked). The shrimp were selected at random, however each set...

  5. Progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kasornchandra; R. Khongpradit; U. Ekpanithanpong; S. Boonyaratpalin

    1999-01-01

    Primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ and ovaries of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in double-strength Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum, 1% glucose, 5 g\\/L NaCl, 15% shrimp meat extract. The optimum conditions for primary culture in vitro were obtained in L-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 730 ± 10 mmol\\/kg, a

  6. Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Flaherty; Choomjet Karnjanakesorn

    1995-01-01

    Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly\\u000a in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The\\u000a growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production\\u000a methods.

  7. Sound production by white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) analysis of another crustacean-like sound from the Gulf of Mexico, and the possible use of passive sonar for dedication and stock assessment of shrimp 

    E-print Network

    Berk, Ilona M.

    1997-01-01

    , no studies have been done to characterize stridulation in the penaeids or solenocerids. The 4 primary species of the Texas Gulf shrimp fishery, the penaeid brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (P. setiferus), and pink shrimp (P. duorarum), and a... deep-water solenocerid, the royal red shrimp (Pleoticus robustus), do not have snapping claws, nor are they among the species of stridulating shrimp. Based on the results of acoustic experiments with individual and small groups of pink shrimp...

  8. Microbial flora of fresh and stored shrimp

    E-print Network

    Mroz, Eva

    1970-01-01

    primarily by the appearance in some samples of high percentages of Bacillus, Lactobacillus and Flavobacterium species. Based upon limited data, sample preparation of shrimp by washing gave somewhat higher viable counts as compared with blending. iv AC... will consist of the following genera: Pseudomonas, Achromo- bacter Co ebacterium, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Uibrio $1, 4, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15) . The level of these bacteria depends on freshness of fish, sanitary conditions during handling...

  9. WSSV infection activates STAT in shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Yu Chen; Kun Chin Ho; Jiann Horng Leu; Kuan Fu Liu; Han Ching Wang; Guang Hsiung Kou; Chu Fang Lo

    2008-01-01

    Summary Although the JAK\\/STAT signaling pathway is usually involved in antiviral defense, a recent study suggested that STAT might be annexed by WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) to enhance the expression of a viral immediate early gene in infected shrimps. In the present study, we clone and report the first full-length cDNA sequence for a crustacean STAT from Penaeus monodon.

  10. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Gräslund; K Holmström; A Wahlström

    2003-01-01

    This study documented the use of chemicals and biological products in marine and brackish water shrimp farming in Thailand, the world’s top producer of farmed shrimp. Interviews were conducted with 76 shrimp farmers in three major shrimp producing regions, the eastern Gulf coast, the southern Gulf coast and the Andaman coast area. Farmers in the study used on average 13

  11. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NX MESSAGE PASSING USING SHRIMP VIRTUAL MEMORY MAPPED COMMUNICATION

    E-print Network

    DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NX MESSAGE PASSING USING SHRIMP VIRTUAL MEMORY MAPPED COMMUNICATION on the Shrimp multicomputer. Unlike traditional methods, our implementation, exploiting Shrimp's virtual memory the bandwidth limit imposed by the Shrimp hardware. 1 INTRODUCTION NX has been a common message

  12. Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus az-tecus) have an estuarine-depen-

    E-print Network

    147 Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus az- tecus) have an estuarine-depen- dent life history; recent shrimp studies in estuaries have focused on loss of marsh nurs- ery habitats (Peterson and Turner shrimp migrations and decrease overall habi- tat area for brown shrimp (Craig et al., 2005). The brown

  13. The NMFS laboratory in Miami is engaged in studies of the shrimp

    E-print Network

    The NMFS laboratory in Miami is engaged in studies of the shrimp fisheries off Mexico, in the Caribbea n, and off South America. Shrimp Research Program at Southeast Fisheries Center Shrimp research at the utheast Fi heries Center, Miami, concerns shrimp stocks off foreign coasts. The United States ha important

  14. Analysis of impulsive biological noise due to snapping shrimp as a point process in time

    E-print Network

    Analysis of impulsive biological noise due to snapping shrimp as a point process in time Matthew W-- Impulsive biological noise produced by snapping shrimp provides an important contribution to the ambient of shrimp noise to reduce its impact on sonar and underwater acoustic telemetry systems. Shrimp snaps

  15. Observations of Deepwater Shrimp, Heterocarpus ensifer, From a Submersible off the Island of Hawaii

    E-print Network

    Observations of Deepwater Shrimp, Heterocarpus ensifer, From a Submersible off the Island caridean shrimps of the genus Het erocarpus. Exploratory trapping surveys have shown that deepwater shrimps ducted surveys of deepwater shrimp re sources in Hawaii (Gooding, 1984) and the Mariana Islands (Ralston

  16. Stream Sockets on SHRIMP Stefanos N. Damianakis, Cezary Dubnicki, Edward W. Felten

    E-print Network

    Stream Sockets on SHRIMP Stefanos N. Damianakis, Cezary Dubnicki, Edward W. Felten Department,dubnicki,felteng@cs.princeton.edu Abstract. This paper describes an implementation of stream sockets for the SHRIMP multicomputer. SHRIMP and for detecting errors. In this paper, we describe an implementation of the sockets interface on the SHRIMP

  17. Physiological and immune responses of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) infected with necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luz Angélica Ávila-Villa; Diana Fimbres-Olivarria; Guillermina García-Sánchez; Teresa Gollas-Galván; Jorge Hernández-López; Marcel Martínez-Porchas

    An eighteen day trial was performed to evaluate the effect of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) disease on the physiological, nutritional and immunological status of adult white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Shrimp were divided into infected and non-infected groups; infected shrimp were fed with hepatopancreas homegenates positive to NHP bacterium, while non-infected shrimp were fed with healthy hepatopancreas. No significant differences were observed

  18. Natronococcus jeotgali sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon isolated from shrimp jeotgal, a traditional

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Natronococcus jeotgali sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon isolated from shrimp jeotgal, a traditional Natronococcus was isolated from shrimp jeotgal, a traditional fermented food from Korea. Colonies of this strain ). Shrimp jeotgal, a traditional fermented food from Korea, is made by combining fresh, tiny shrimps

  19. GEAR MODIFICATION TO REDUCE BY-CATCH IN THE TANZANIAN SHRIMP FISHERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian Boniface Chando; Einar Hreinsson

    There has been a need to improve the selectivity for shrimp and fish in tropical shrimp fisheries areas like Tanzania to reduce by-catch in coastal fisheries. The reduction of juvenile shrimp and fish can constitute a strategy to minimise discard. A study was done to review the literature and to evaluate possible solutions for the Tanzanian shrimp fishery. In this

  20. Improved Shrimp Growout Systems for Disease Prevention and Environmental Sustainability in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piamsak Menasveta

    2002-01-01

    Although a large portion of the world's farmed shrimp is produced in Asia, shrimp culture operations do not succeed over the entire area. There have been several problems and impediments that are yet to be resolved. One of these problems is disease. Several shrimp diseases have threatened shrimp production, but the most devastating ones are the viral diseases, namely, yellow-head

  1. An Economic Analysis of Texas Shrimp Season Closures WADE GRIFFIN, HOLLY HENDRICKSON, CHRIS OLIVER, GARY MATLOCK,

    E-print Network

    20,000 fishermen (Cody et aI., 1989). The Texas shrimp fishery relies primarily on brown shrimp aspect of the inshore fishery relates to the function of bays in the life cycle of shrimp. Penaeid shrimp to them is partially a function of the inshore harvest. Since 1960, Texas has enacted a 45 to 60-day

  2. Nutrient budgets in intensive shrimp ponds: implications for sustainability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon J Funge-Smith; Matthew R. P Briggs

    1998-01-01

    Serious production losses have occurred in shrimp producing countries around the world, principally due to poor rearing environments and pathogenic disease. In response to this, shrimp farmers are changing their culture methods. To understand the source and sink of nutrients which affect pondwater quality and effluent impact, the nitrogen, phosphorus and solids budget have been constructed for water exchange systems.

  3. Shrimp monitor/locator for conservation of fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A demonstration project of a new type Shrimp Detector/Monitor has been completed. The test project proved the efficiency of the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in detecting shrimp, in identifying the number and size, in real time, but indicated that improvement could be effected which would enhance the operation. Data obtained from the test cruises indicate significant savings in diesel fuel will occur for those trawlers using the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in place of the usual trynet operation; 25% savings for the series model number 400, (the prototype tested) and expected 35%+ if the advanced series model number 500 were used. Fabrication and operational costs for the Shrimp Monitor/Detector are reasonable and well within the financial abilities of the usual large offshore trawler. Research and testing during this program resulted in the design of an advanced model incorporating significant improvements, and fabrication was commenced but the extra cost involved beyond the set value of this contract made the further experiments non-viable. Recommendations have been submitted for an extended program to fabricate and test the advanced model series number 500 which may be of more value and interest, market use, to the operating offshore shrimp trawlers. A marketing/sales program will be instituted to place the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in the commercial area serving the shrimp fleet.

  4. Alternative diets for the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elkin Amaya; D. Allen Davis; David B. Rouse

    2007-01-01

    Future use of animal protein sources in shrimp feeds is expected to be considerably reduced as a consequence of increasing economical, environmental and safety issues. Of main concern has been the use of expensive marine protein sources, such as fish meal. Hence, shrimp research has recently focused on the development of practical feeds with minimal levels of fish meal and

  5. Characterization of Sterol Oxidation Products in Two Breaded Shrimp Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two breaded shrimp products were examined for the changes in cholesterol, phytosterols, and fatty acids that occurred during cooking. The products were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in the raw, baked, and fried states after separation into breading and shrimp components. Cholesterol, campest...

  6. Study of Shrimp Distributions by Means of Locally Weighted Regression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yimin Ye; Adel H. Alsaffar

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of shrimp is modeled through the use of locally weighted regression based on survey data. Multivariate local regression was successfully employed to generate distributional surfaces and to construct approximate F-tests for three shrimp species found in waters off Kuwait: Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, and Parapenaeopsis stylifera. Distributional differences among the three species can be clearly visualized with local

  7. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...percentage of shrimp material for those forms...p.m. (iv) Balance accurate to 0...availability of this material at NARA, call...Forceps, blunt points. (viii) Shallow...remove the breading material that may remain...add to shrimp on balance pan and...

  8. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...percentage of shrimp material for those forms...p.m. (iv) Balance accurate to 0...availability of this material at NARA, call...Forceps, blunt points. (viii) Shallow...remove the breading material that may remain...add to shrimp on balance pan and...

  9. Establishing a role for shrimp fortilin in preventing cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Potchanapond Graidist; Kenichi Fujise; Warapond Wanna; Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; Amornrat Phongdara

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a highly virulent and infectious virus to farmed shrimps and represents a serious threat to aquatic industries. Fortilin, also known as translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), protects mammalian cells under stress from cell death. A subtraction hybridization screening in our laboratory between healthy and moribund WSSV-infected Penaeus mondon shrimps has identified a fortilin gene

  10. An Economical, Portable System for Hatching Brine Shrimp Artemia spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard S. Fulford; D. Allen Rutherford

    1998-01-01

    Design and construction of a portable, inexpensive hatching system for brine shrimp Artemia spp. is described. The system design is based on batch culture methodology, which is easily customized to the feeding requirements of a larval system and optimizes the nutritional value of brine shrimp. This system can be set up quickly and provides stable temperature and aeration under a

  11. CUTICULAR LESIONS INDUCED IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult grass shrimp were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ppm) of hexavalent chromium for 38 days. At the end of the exposure period, over 50% of the surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions that had many of the gross characteristics of 'shell disease.' Th...

  12. Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Mark; Karnjanakesorn, Choomjet

    1995-01-01

    Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production methods. The conversion of near-shore areas to shrimp culture, however, is proving to have many consequences that impinge on the environmental integrity of coastal areas. This paper reviews the development of Thailand's marine shrimp culture industry and examines the nature of the environmental impacts that are emerging. It then discusses the implications these have for rural poor and the long-term viability of the culture industry.

  13. Suppression of shrimp melanization during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-03-01

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. PMID:25572398

  14. SHRiMP: Accurate Mapping of Short Color-space Reads

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    SHRiMP: Accurate Mapping of Short Color-space Reads Stephen M. Rumble, Phil Lacroute, Adrian V () SHRiMP Feb 3, 2010 1 / 17 #12;Features SHRiMP features: 1 Both Color-Space and Letter-Space reads () SHRiMP Feb 3, 2010 2 / 17 #12;SHRiMP Pipeline 1 Spaced-seed matching 2 Smith-Waterman Algorithm

  15. Proper use of sodium bisulfite with minimal salt penetration during brine immersion freezing of shrimp 

    E-print Network

    Broussard, Suzanne Rene

    1988-01-01

    produced undesirable shrimp. Acceptability of flavor, texture and overall acceptability as determined by consumer taste tests for shrimp frozen in calcium/sodium chloride mixtures decreased with storage time. Shrimp frozen in calcium/sodium chloride.... Preliminary data indicates shrimp may absorb up to 3% salt from the brine during freezing, decreasing the sodium chloride concentration of the brine. uptake of salt by shrimp is important not only organoleptically because of the salty taste, but also...

  16. On the sound of snapping shrimp

    E-print Network

    Versluis, Michel; von der Heydt, Anna; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Fluid dynamics video: Snapping shrimp produce a snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of their snapper claw. Our high speed imaging of the claw closure has revealed that the sound is generated by the collapse of a cavitation bubble formed in a fast flowing water jet forced out from the claws during claw closure. The produced sound originates from the cavitation collapse of the bubble. At collapse a short flash of light is emitted, just as in single bubble sonoluminescence. A model based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation can quantitatively account for the visual and acoustical observations.

  17. Pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis for penaeid shrimp 

    E-print Network

    Lehrer, Janis Ellen

    1979-01-01

    of borax ranged from 8. 1 to 8. 4 for the metacresol purple indicator to 9. 5 to 9. 7 for the nile blue A indi- cator. Corresponding readings were 7. 6 to 8. 1 for meta- cresol purple and 9. 3 to 9. 6 for nile blue A when 1. 3% borax was added... Major Subject: Biology PATHOGENICITY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS FOR PENAEID SHRIMP A Thesis by JANIS ELLEN LEHRER Approved as to style and content by: r. ohn R. Schwarz (C Chairman of Committee) P4Lf. ks~ Dr. S. M. (C5-Chai n of C 'ttee) Dr...

  18. Transglutaminase regulates immune-related genes in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Fagutao, Fernand F; Maningas, Mary Beth B; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo

    2012-05-01

    Transglutaminase (TGase) is known to be involved in blood coagulation, a conserved defence mechanism among invertebrates. Gene silencing of TGase was previously shown to render shrimp susceptible to both bacterial and viral infections suggesting that TGase is an essential component of the shrimp immune system. Here, we examine the effects of the absence of TGase on the transcriptomic profile of kuruma shrimp by microarray analysis, focussing on genes that are involved in shrimp immunity. Total RNAs from shrimp haemocytes injected with dsRNA specific for TGase and control samples were isolated at 3 and 7 days p.i. and analyzed by microarray. Results revealed that TGase silencing affects the expression of genes in shrimp and caused significant down-regulation of the expressions of crustin and lysozyme. Furthermore, TGase-depleted samples were found to have lower haemocyte counts and higher total bacterial counts in their haemolymph. These results suggest that TGase is an important component of the shrimp immune response and is involved in the regulation of some immune-related genes particularly antimicrobial peptides. PMID:22306779

  19. Beyond Symbiosis: Cleaner Shrimp Clean Up in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Hutson, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to “client” organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  20. Description of three ecology studies on brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus and white shrimp P. setiferus conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service, Galveston, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Diego, Maria Eugenia de

    1984-01-01

    Description of three ecology studies on brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus and white shrimp'P; setiferus conducted by the Mational Marine Fisheries Service, Galveston, Texas. A professional paper by Maria Eugenia de Diego Submitted to the College... shrimp Penaeus aztecus and white shrimp P, set1ferus conducted by the Nat1onal Marine F1sheries Ser- v1ce, Galveston, Texas. (December, 19843 Maria Eugenia de Diego, B. S. , Universidad de Panama Chairman of Adv1sory Committee: Dr. Addison L...

  1. COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

  2. Improved methodology for the estimation of sulfur dioxide in shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, B.J. III

    1987-01-01

    A large portion of the shrimp harvested in the Gulf of Mexico are treated with sodium bisulfite to prevent melanosis. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the need for this additive and regards a one minute dip in a 1.2% sodium bisulfite solution as current good manufacturing practice. Recently, sulfites have come under close scrutiny by regulatory authorities because they have been implicated as causing severe reaction in asthmatics. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, efficient method for determining SO/sub 2/ in shrimp and to determine the stability of SO/sub 2/ in shrimp during frozen storage.

  3. Economic feasibility of commercial shrimp farming in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Robert James

    1973-01-01

    with some supplemental help during harvesting. While the manager oversees the operations, the la'borer is occupied pri- marily with maintenance except during harvest period. s. The investor may wish to manage the shrimp farm himself if he feels he has...-sufficient in this regard. . Feed. In the Texas ASH facility water is cir- culated through the pond system on a continual 'basis; thus food. must be supplied. for the shrimp. The amount of food required. is a function of the size of the shrimp farm, the stocking...

  4. Economic and financial implications of shrimp farming in West Texas

    E-print Network

    Britt, David Westbrook

    1995-01-01

    and Parker 1974) as well as single crop production (Johns et al. 1985; Anderson and Tabb 1970; and Hanson et al. 1985). Juan (1989) has compared the profitability of producing two crops per year to producing one crop per year. Several additional studies...) for the production of pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) and concluded that shrimp farming was not profitable. Hanson et al. (1985) studied the economic feasibility of shrimp farming on the coast of Texas for several farm sizes. The analysis determined that higher...

  5. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BURROWING SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ghost shrimp, (Neotypaea californiensis) are burrowers, whose bioturbation and sediment destabilizations have a negative effect on mariculture of the commercially important oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Oyster farmers in Washington and Oregon estuaries have been poisoning these shr...

  6. Antimicrobial Interventions to Reduce Listeria spp. Contamination on Shrimp 

    E-print Network

    Wong, Tsui-Yin

    2010-01-14

    The effects of selected antimicrobials, applied singularly or in combination, and frozen or refrigerated storage conditions on the survival of Listeria spp. on inoculated shrimp was evaluated in this study. A combination ...

  7. MAPPING BURROWING SHRIMP AND SEAGRASS IN YAQUINA ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp and seagrasses create extensive intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats within Pacific NW estuaries. Maps of their populations are useful to inform estuarine managers of locations that deserve special consideration for conservation, and to inform oyster farmers...

  8. Shrimp and redfish studies, bryan mound brine disposal site off Freeport, Texas, 1979-1981. Volume IV. Interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and effort. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.F.

    1981-06-01

    An interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and fishing effort was conducted at specified ports along the Texas coast to strengthen the information base required to determine the effect of the disposal of brine from the Bryan Mound salt dome off Freeport, Texas on commercial brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) populations in the Gulf of Mexico. The data recorded included port number, vessel name, official vessel number, shrimp dealer number, date of landing, area fished, depth of capture, days fished, and pounds of shrimp caught by species and size categories.

  9. Enhanced Cellular Immunity in Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after ‘Vaccination’

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Emily C.; Shields, Robin J.; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed ‘specific immune priming’, although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1?1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from ‘vaccinated’ shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either ‘immunised’ or non-immunised’ shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that ‘vaccination’ has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of ‘immune priming’ reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens. PMID:21698190

  10. Induction of Shrimp Tropomyosin-Specific Hypersensitivity in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick S. C. Leung; Yuen Shan Lee; Chi Yan Tang; Wing Yee Kung; Ya-Hui Chuang; Bor-Luen Chiang; Ming Chiu Fung; Ka Hou Chu

    2008-01-01

    Background: Shellfish hypersensitivity is amongst the most common food allergies. The major shellfish allergen was identified as tropomyosin. Here, we investigated the immediate hypersensitivity responses, IgE and cell-mediated immune response in mice sensitized with recombinant shrimp tropomyosin. Methods: Shrimp tropomyosin was cloned and expressed as a His-tagged fusion recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. Three- to 4-week-old BALB\\/c mice were sensitized

  11. Diurnal and nocturnal catchability of Kuwait's commercial shrimps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Bishop; Y. Ye; A. H. Alsaffar; H. M. Al-Foudari; S. Al-Jazzaf

    2008-01-01

    In descending order of importance, the shrimps Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan, 1844; Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837); and Parapenaeopsis stylifera (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) account for over 95% of Kuwait's commercial landings. Throughout its range, P. semisulcatus is nocturnal, but Kuwait trawlers are active 24h a day during season. Historically, all scientific shrimp surveys in Kuwait have been conducted during daylight

  12. Detection of virus in shrimp using digital color correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina; Bueno-Ibarra, Mario A.

    1999-07-01

    Detection of virus in shrimp tissue using digital color correlation is presented. Phase filters in three channels (red, green and blue) were used in order to detect HPV virus like target. These first results obtained showed that is possible to detect virus in shrimp tissue. More research must be made with color correlation in order to consider natural morphology of the virus, color, scale and rotation and noise in the samples.

  13. How Snapping Shrimp Snap: Through Cavitating Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versluis, Michel; Schmitz, Barbara; von der Heydt, Anna; Lohse, Detlef

    2000-09-01

    The snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis) produces a loud snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of its snapper claw. One of the effects of the snapping is to stun or kill prey animals. During the rapid snapper claw closure, a high-velocity water jet is emitted from the claw with a speed exceeding cavitation conditions. Hydrophone measurements in conjunction with time-controlled high-speed imaging of the claw closure demonstrate that the sound is emitted at the cavitation bubble collapse and not on claw closure. A model for the bubble dynamics based on a Rayleigh-Plesset-type equation quantitatively accounts for the time dependence of the bubble radius and for the emitted sound.

  14. Performance Monitoring in a Myrinet-Connected Shrimp Cluster Cheng Liao Margaret Martonosi Douglas W. Clark

    E-print Network

    Martonosi, Margaret

    Performance Monitoring in a Myrinet-Connected Shrimp Cluster Cheng Liao Margaret Martonosi Douglas. We present a firmware-based performance monitor we de- signed for a Myrinet-connected Shrimp cluster

  15. UPb SHRIMP zircon geochronology and Ttd history of the Kampa Dome, southern Tibet

    E-print Network

    Sandiford, Mike

    U­Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronology and T­t­d history of the Kampa Dome, southern Tibet M.C. Quigley a­Pb SHRIMP geochronology; Himalaya; Tibet 1. Introduction The North Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD) in southern

  16. The SHRIMP Performance Monitor: Design and Applications Margaret Martonosi Douglas W. Clark Malena Mesarina

    E-print Network

    Clark, Douglas W.

    The SHRIMP Performance Monitor: Design and Applications Margaret Martonosi Douglas W. Clark Malena a performance monitoring sys­ tem for the SHRIMP multicomputer. The system's core is a hardware monitor

  17. Polyculture of indigenous marine fishes stocked with penaeid shrimp in thermally enriched brackish water ponds 

    E-print Network

    Rossberg, Karen Sue

    1979-01-01

    the suitability of cultured shrimp and fishes for human consumption, tissue samples were assayed for concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Hg, Pb) and pesticides (pp'DDE, dieldrin, toxaphene, PCB) Shrimp and pompano samples...

  18. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  19. 75 FR 844 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February...

  20. 76 FR 36519 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...

  1. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...

  2. 78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...Import Administration, ``Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China...Duty Investigation on Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador (C- 331-803)--Request for Scope...

  3. Viral resistance in shrimp that express an antisense Taura syndrome virus coat protein gene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuanan; Sun, Piera S

    2005-09-01

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in shrimp, and has a profound economic impact on commercial U.S. shrimp farming. This paper describes the stable expression of an antisense Taura syndrome virus-coat protein (TSV-CP) gene construct in shrimp zygotes, via transfection using jetPEI reagent, over a period of at least 236 days. The transgenic shrimp showed no statistically significant difference from normal control shrimp in terms of weight gain or their appearance, morphology, swimming and eating activities. When challenged with live TSV, the transgenic shrimp exhibited increased resistance to the TSV infection (83% survival rate) as compared to control animals (44% survival rate). This work demonstrates that transgenic shrimp, which stably express an antisense transcript from the TSV-CP gene, are partially resistant to TSV infection. These data may have an important implication for commercial shrimp farming. PMID:16129499

  4. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF DITHIOCARBAMATE TOXICITY TO THE GRASS SHRIMP, 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of dithiocarbamates (Aquatreat and Busan) to molting grass shrimp and the effects of these fungicides on regenerative limb growth in grass shrimp. Results indicate that both dithiocarbamate formulations caused a dose...

  5. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ...Final)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations...the subject investigations concerning Indonesia (78 FR 50379) and Thailand (78 FR...concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand (investigation Nos....

  6. MORE THAN JUST BAIT: BURROWING SHRIMP AS ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS IN OREGON ESTUARIES - SEPTEMBER 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp may be most widely known as excellent fishing bait, but they also play important roles in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. These shrimps strongly affect carbon and nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, food web structure and dynamics, sediment stability,...

  7. SHRIMP zircon UPb age constraints on Neoproterozoic Quruqtagh diamictites in NW China

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SHRIMP zircon U­Pb age constraints on Neoproterozoic Quruqtagh diamictites in NW China Bei Xua) in the Quruqtagh Group using the SHRIMP (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe) zircon U­Pb method. Volcanic bed

  8. Activation of the prophenoloxidase system of the brown shrimp Penaeus californiensis Holmes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Hernández-López; Teresa Gollas-Galván; Francisco Vargas-Albores

    1996-01-01

    The prophenoloxidase (proPO) system of the brown shrimp Penaeus californiensis was activated using different preparations and inductors. In shrimp, this system is confined inside the hemocytes and can be obtained by lysing or centrifuging the cells. In both cases, the shrimp proPO system showed a high spontaneous activation because the proPO activating enzyme was also released. In addition, the shrimp

  9. Effect of water temperature on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to Vibrio alginolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winton Cheng; Long-Uong Wang; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2005-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei held in 25‰ seawater at 27 °C or 28 °C were injected with TSB-grown Vibrio alginolyticus at 1×104 colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp?1 or 1×105 cfu shrimp?1, and then cultivated onward at water temperatures varying from 20 to 34 °C. Over 24–144 h, mortality of V. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held at 34 °C or 32 °C was significantly

  10. Molecular cloning and characterisation of prophenoloxidase from haemocytes of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Yi Lai; Winton Cheng; Ching-Ming Kuo

    2005-01-01

    cDNA encoding prophenoloxidase (proPO) of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA using oligonucleotide primers based on the proPO sequence of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus (accession no.: AF521949) and kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (accession no.: AB0733223). proPO

  11. The use of indole as a potential quality index for fresh, frozen, cooked and canned shrimp

    E-print Network

    Chang, Olivia Hui-Fen

    1981-01-01

    , E. 1956. Effect of storage on decomposed canned shrimp. J. Assoc. Off. Agric. Chem. 39:801. Beacham, L, M. 19&. A study of decomposition in canned oysters and clams. J. Assoc. Off. Agric. Chem. 29:89. Bethea, C. and Ambrose, M. E. 1962... in the canned shrimp. This study concludes that the absence of indole could not insure good quality in either fresh, frozen, cooked or canned shrimp. How- ever, the presence of indole indicates mishandling of shrimp before processing, eventhough...

  12. Viral resistance in shrimp that express an antisense Taura syndrome virus coat protein gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanan Lu; Piera S. Sun

    2005-01-01

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in shrimp, and has a profound economic impact on commercial U.S. shrimp farming. This paper describes the stable expression of an antisense Taura syndrome virus-coat protein (TSV-CP) gene construct in shrimp zygotes, via transfection using jetPEI reagent, over a period of at least 236 days. The transgenic shrimp

  13. Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain.

    PubMed

    Dabade, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Rob; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management. PMID:25198861

  14. Signalling by the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes longicarpus Lucille Chapuis a,*, Redouan Bshary b,1

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Laurent

    Signalling by the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes longicarpus Lucille Chapuis a,*, Redouan Bshary b,1-00586 Keywords: cleaner shrimp cooperative interaction mutualism Periclimenes longicarpus partner control and demand. In this context, a recent laboratory experiment demonstrated that cleaner shrimps may advertise

  15. Localization and bacteriostasis of Vibrio introduced into the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Louis E.

    Localization and bacteriostasis of Vibrio introduced into the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus a major role in bacterial uptake and bacteriostasis in penaeid shrimp. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lymphoid organ; Vibrio; Real-time PCR; Penaeid shrimp; Decapod crustaceans

  16. Kin structure, ecology and the evolution of social organization in shrimp: a

    E-print Network

    Duffy, J. Emmett

    Kin structure, ecology and the evolution of social organization in shrimp: a comparative analysis J evolved independently in insects, mole-rats and symbiotic shrimp. Historically, eusociality has been species of sponge-dwelling shrimp (Synalpheus) in Belize. Consistent with hypotheses that cooperative

  17. AN APPLICATION OF YIELD MODELS TO A CALIFORNIA OCEAN SHRIMP POPULATION

    E-print Network

    AN APPLICATION OF YIELD MODELS TO A CALIFORNIA OCEAN SHRIMP POPULATION NORMAN J. ABRAMSON California's northern- most bed of ocean shrimp, Pandalus jordani. The Schaefer form of stock production system was proposed. The fishery for ocean shrimp, Pandalus jordani, in California has a unique

  18. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE BIOLOGY OF THE ROYAL RED SHRIMP, Hymenopenaeus robustus SMITH'

    E-print Network

    CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE BIOLOGY OF THE ROYAL RED SHRIMP, Hymenopenaeus robustus SMITH' WILLIAM W. ANDERSON' AND MILTON J. LINDNER" ABSTRACf The royal red shrimp, HymenopenaeuB robuBtus, has been located collections of the M/V Theodore N. Gill. Juveniles under 50 mm total length were not caught. Size of shrimp

  19. Fast RPC on the SHRIMP Virtual Memory Mapped Network Interface Angelos Bilas and Edward W. Felten

    E-print Network

    Fast RPC on the SHRIMP Virtual Memory Mapped Network Interface Angelos Bilas and Edward W. Felten and Network­based Computing, Feb. '97. 1 #12; Fast RPC on the SHRIMP Virtual Memory Mapped Network Interface. This paper evaluates the SHRIMP virtual memory mapped network interface by using it to build two fast

  20. Fishes Taken During Shrimp Trawling Along the South Atlantic Coast of

    E-print Network

    570 Fishes Taken During Shrimp Trawling Along the South Atlantic Coast of the United States, 1931 FISHERIES Fishes Taken During Shrimp Trawling Along the South Atlantic Coast of the United States, 1931, and Florida, Outside Combined 16 Literature Cited 16 Tables 1-13 16-62 #12;Fishes Taken During Shrimp Trawling

  1. Decapsulating Brine Shrimp Eggs 1 Craig Watson and Roy P.E. Yanong2

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    FA18 Decapsulating Brine Shrimp Eggs 1 Craig Watson and Roy P.E. Yanong2 1. This document is FA18 Introduction Brine shrimp eggs are used throughout the world as a food for small fish in hatcheries. These eggs as the eggs are exposed to water, the hatching process begins. When hatching brine shrimp eggs, we not only

  2. Cleavage and gastrulation of the dendrobranchiate shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda)

    E-print Network

    Alwes, Frederike

    Cleavage and gastrulation of the dendrobranchiate shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea, Malacostraca of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was analyzed from the first division until gastrulation. Observations for stereotypic develop- ment is the cleavage pattern in dendrobranchiate shrimps among the Decapoda. Starting

  3. AN INTENSIVE FISHING EXPERIMENT FOR THE CARIDEAN SHRIMp, HETEROCARPUS LAEVIGATUS, AT

    E-print Network

    AN INTENSIVE FISHING EXPERIMENT FOR THE CARIDEAN SHRIMp, HETEROCARPUS LAEVIGATUS, AT ALAMAGAN experiment for the deepwater caridean shrimp, Heterocn.rpus lMl'igatll.8. was conducted near Alamagan Island in the Mariana Archipelago. Twenty standard shrimp traps were set daily, producing a significant decline

  4. DUAL STRUcrURAL EQUILIBRIUM IN THE FLORIDA SHRIMP PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    E-print Network

    DUAL STRUcrURAL EQUILIBRIUM IN THE FLORIDA SHRIMP PROCESSING INDUSTRY JOSE ALVAREZ, CHRIS O. ANDREW of firms in Florida shrimp processing industry for the 1959-71 period were studied by utilizing Markov will be achieved by 1985. The forecasted changes in firm distribution suggest that Florida shrimp industry sales

  5. ASPECTS OF BROWN SHRIMP, PENAEUS AZTECUS, GROWTH IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    E-print Network

    ASPECTS OF BROWN SHRIMP, PENAEUS AZTECUS, GROWTH IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO MICHAEL L. PARRACK' ABSTRACT The growth of brown shrimp, PelU1eus aztecus, was studied by utilizing fonns of growth models in weight. Linear functions are apparently inadequate growth models for brown shrimp. Estimated size

  6. Shrimp Loss Associated with Turtle Excluder Devices: Are the Historical Estimates Statistically Biased?

    E-print Network

    Shrimp Loss Associated with Turtle Excluder Devices: Are the Historical Estimates Statistically Office Box 1125, West Columbia, Texas 77465, USA Abstract.--Estimates of penaeid shrimp losses associated. Comparison of the mean catch rates from the TED and control nets provided an estimate of shrimp loss. However

  7. VERTICAL MIGRATION AND ITS EFFECT ON DISPERSAL OF PENAEID SHRIMP LARVAE IN THE GULF OF CARPENTARIA,

    E-print Network

    VERTICAL MIGRATION AND ITS EFFECT ON DISPERSAL OF PENAEID SHRIMP LARVAE IN THE GULF OF CARPENTARIA, AUSTRALIA PETER C. ROTHLISBERG1 ABSTRACT Penaeid shrimp larvae in the GulfofCarpentaria, Australia, sampled mechanism that brings postlar- val and juvenile penaeid shrimp into shallow- water coastal and estuarine

  8. DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE HUMPY SHRIMP, PANDALUS GONIURUS, REARED IN SITU

    E-print Network

    DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE HUMPY SHRIMP, PANDALUS GONIURUS, REARED IN SITU IN KACHEMAK BAY stages of P. goniurus given by other authors. Studies on the early life history of pandalid shrimp of describing pandalid shrimp larvae reared in the laboratory from known par- entage. I have reported on larvae

  9. Mitochondrial Pseudogenes Are Pervasive and Often Insidious in the Snapping Shrimp Genus Alpheus

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    Mitochondrial Pseudogenes Are Pervasive and Often Insidious in the . Snapping Shrimp Genus Alpheus shrimp from total genomic DNA (gDNA), only one sequence was amplified from cDNA. These results are best been repeatedly transferred from the mtDNA to the nuclear genome of snapping shrimp. Unrecognized

  10. Modeling nitrogen dynamics in intensive shrimp ponds: the role of sediment remineralization

    E-print Network

    Lorenzen, Kai

    Modeling nitrogen dynamics in intensive shrimp ponds: the role of sediment remineralization M on nitrogen (N) dynamics in intensive shrimp culture ponds. The model describes the key processes involved, impact negatively on the shrimp or the adjacent aquatic environment when water is discharged from ponds

  11. DESCRIPTION OF ZOEAE OF COONSTRIPE SHRIMP, PANDALUS HYPSINOTUS, REARED IN THE LABORATORY

    E-print Network

    DESCRIPTION OF ZOEAE OF COONSTRIPE SHRIMP, PANDALUS HYPSINOTUS, REARED IN THE LABORATORY EVAN stages ofP. hypsinotus given by other authora. Although pandalid shrimp form a major fishery resource mentioned briefly the growth and distribution ofthe zoeae. 0f14 species of pandalid shrimps known to occur

  12. Recruitment of the ocean shrimp, Pandalus jordani, to the fishery in

    E-print Network

    482 Recruitment of the ocean shrimp, Pandalus jordani, to the fishery in waters off Oregon has been, is strongly negatively correlated with recruit- ment of age-1 shrimp to the fishery the following year (Hannah shrimp larvae inhabit the near- surface waters shortly after release, occupying progressively deeper

  13. Cleavage and gastrulation in the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Malacostraca, Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata)

    E-print Network

    Hertzler, Philip L.

    Cleavage and gastrulation in the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Malacostraca, Decapoda, and Dendrobranchiata (Decapoda) cleavage is complete. Euphausiaceans and dendrobranchiate shrimp share a similar early in the Dendrobranchiata, embryos of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei were stained with Sytox Green

  14. Abstract--The variability in the supply of pink shrimp (Farfante-

    E-print Network

    60 Abstract--The variability in the supply of pink shrimp (Farfante- penaeus duorarum) postlarvae. Simulation Variability in supply and cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum response become incorporated into the behavior of pink shrimp. Manuscript submitted 16 September 2003

  15. Population genetic structure of Brazilian shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus sp., F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis and

    E-print Network

    Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

    Population genetic structure of Brazilian shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus sp., F. brasiliensis, F and Evolutionary Biology, Port Erin Marine Laboratory, Isle of Man, United Kingdom. Abstract Penaeid shrimps, allozymes. Received: September 25, 2003; Accepted: July 19, 2004. Introduction Penaeid shrimps are important

  16. SHRIMP -Solving Collision and Out of Vocabulary Problems in Mobile Predictive Input with Motion Gesture

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, James F.

    SHRIMP - Solving Collision and Out of Vocabulary Problems in Mobile Predictive Input with Motion-of-vocabulary (OOV) words. In this paper, we present SHRIMP, a system and method that addresses these two problems or movement gesture. SHRIMP (Small Handheld Rapid Input with Motion and Prediction) runs on camera phones

  17. A Review of the Offshore Shrimp Fishery and the 1981 Texas Closure

    E-print Network

    A Review of the Offshore Shrimp Fishery and the 1981 Texas Closure EDWARD F. KLIMA, KENNETH N of the brown shrimp fishery for the first time from the coastline to 200 miles off Texas and was in effect from- view the Texas and Louisiana offshore shrimp fisheries and describe the catch, relative abundance

  18. Experimental Design and Estimation of Growth Rate Distributions in Size-Structured Shrimp Populations

    E-print Network

    Experimental Design and Estimation of Growth Rate Distributions in Size-Structured Shrimp-structured shrimp populations and discuss a computational methodology for the design of exper- iments to validate the model and estimate growth rate distributions in shrimp pop- ulations. Parameter estimation findings

  19. Immune assessment of farm-reared Penaeus vannamei shrimp naturally infected by IMNV in NE Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrezza M. Costa; Celso C. Buglione; Fabiana L. Bezerra; Pedro C. C. Martins; Margherita A. Barracco

    2009-01-01

    Farm-reared shrimp production was growing intensely in Brazil until 2002, when an outbreak of a new disease, caused by the infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), disrupted the production in the northeast region. The aim of this study was to evaluate some hemato–immunological parameters in Penaeus vannamei shrimp during the progress of the disease caused by IMNV. Affected shrimp were separated into

  20. Halalkalicoccus jeotgali sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon from shrimp jeotgal, a traditional Korean

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Halalkalicoccus jeotgali sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon from shrimp jeotgal, a traditional Korean isolated another novel species of this genus from shrimp jeotgal; a traditional fermented food from Korea, designated B3T , was isolated from shrimp jeotgal using the dilution plating technique. It grew slowly

  1. 50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. 622...208 Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod end of a rock shrimp trawl net in the South...

  2. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

  3. 50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. 622...208 Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod end of a rock shrimp trawl net in the South...

  4. Wickliffe & Jodice: Seabirds at shrimp trawlers near South Carolina 31 Marine Ornithology 38: 3139 (2010)

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Wickliffe & Jodice: Seabirds at shrimp trawlers near South Carolina 31 Marine Ornithology 38: 31 in such systems. South Carolina has a long history of shrimp trawling. Despite an economic decline in the shrimp and South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, G-27 Lehotsky Hall, Clemson University

  5. METHOD OF DETERMINING CAROTENOID CONTENTS OF ALASKA PINK SHRIMP AND REPRESENTATIVE VALVES FOR

    E-print Network

    METHOD OF DETERMINING CAROTENOID CONTENTS OF ALASKA PINK SHRIMP AND REPRESENTATIVE VALVES is described for estimating the amount of carotenoids in pink shrimp. The carot- enoid index is useful are reported. The carotenoid content of Alaska pink shrimp is affected by many conditions and can be used

  6. Experimental evaluation of co-culture of juvenile sea cucumbers, Holothuria scabra (Jaeger), with juvenile blue shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven W Purcell; Jacques Patrois; Nicolas Fraisse

    2006-01-01

    The co-culture of juvenile sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Jaeger), or 'sandfish', with juvenile blue shrimp Litopenaeus. stylirostris (Stimpson) was tested by growing groups in co-culture and monoculture for 3 weeks in tanks with enriched sand substratum. Feed was supplied on trays, accessible only to shrimp. Survival of shrimp and sandfish was high in all treatments (73^ 100%). Growth of shrimp

  7. ClientServer Computing on the SHRIMP Multicomputer Stefanos N. Damianakis, Angelos Bilas, Cezary Dubnicki, and Edward W. Felten

    E-print Network

    Client­Server Computing on the SHRIMP Multicomputer Stefanos N. Damianakis, Angelos Bilas, Cezary and one of stream sockets for the SHRIMP multicom­ puter. SHRIMP supports protected, user­level data to user appli­ cations. The SHRIMP project [?, ?, ?] at Princeton University supports user level

  8. An Assessment of the Economic Importance of the San Carlos Island Shrimp Processing Industry to the Lee County Economy

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    An Assessment of the Economic Importance of the San Carlos Island Shrimp Processing Industry the shrimp processing industry on San Carlos Island contributes to the Lee County economy. Most of the shrimp offloading, grading, packing, and processing in Lee County occurs on San Carlos Island. Shrimp-laden vessels

  9. Requirement for shrimp caspase in apoptosis against virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhi, Bin; Wu, Wenlin; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2008-01-01

    Caspases are central effectors in apoptosis. In this investigation, a novel caspase gene (designated as PjCaspase) obtained from the marine shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus was found to be significantly upregulated in survivors of WSSV-challenged shrimp, suggesting that it might be involved in shrimp antiviral immunity. As revealed by RNAi assays, when the PjCaspase gene was silenced by gene-specific siRNA, the WSSV-induced apoptosis was significantly inhibited. The results showed that the PjCaspase gene was essential in the virus-induced apoptosis of shrimp. Based on the quantitative PCR detection, it was shown that the PjCaspase gene silencing resulted in the increase of virus copies, indicating that apoptosis played a key role in antiviral process of shrimp. As well known, caspase-3 and -8 are crucial caspases in apoptosis. The discovery of PjCaspase in this study would contribute another essential caspase involved in apoptosis against virus infection, which might reveal an ancient mechanism of caspase activation in invertebrate immunity against viruses. PMID:18068223

  10. Polyculture of penaeid shrimp in ponds receiving brackish heated effluent from a power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J.L.W.

    1983-01-01

    White shrimp Penaeus setiferus, were grown in monoculture or in polyculture with blue shrimp P. stylirostris, or striped mullet Mugil cephalus in 0.1-ha earthen ponds receiving heated effluent from the Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou Generating Station east of Baytown, Texas during 1978 and 1979. No detrimental effect of either species on white shrimp survival or yield was found. Blue shrimp was greater than that of white shrimp in the same ponds. Total yield was increased by polyculture. An experiment was performed in which blue shrimp were stocked conventionally into ponds, or stocked in three successive increments (staggered stocking study). A preliminary experiment was made in 1978, followed by a more expanded version in 1979. Staggered stocking increased pond yields compared to expected values from the control pond yields. There was no detrimental effect of staggered stocking on shrimp survival. Pond salinities were much lower in 1979 than in 1978, associated with lower shrimp growth, survival and yield. A distribution study performed in the staggered stocking study ponds revealed that blue shrimp in mixed-size culture tend to segregate by size, and that small shrimp show somewhat different distribution patterns and temporal activity patterns than large shrimp. All the organisms used also served as biological monitors of water quality. No detectable levels of pesticides were found in any of the cultured animals. The only heavy metal found in higher concentrations than in previous years at this site was chromium.

  11. Immune gene discovery by expressed sequence tag analysis of hemocytes and hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and the Atlantic White Shrimp, L. setiferus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Gross; T. C. Bartlett; C. L. Browdy; R. W. Chapman; G. W. Warr

    2001-01-01

    A pilot program was undertaken in immune gene discovery in two sister species of litopenaeid shrimp, the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei and the Atlantic white shrimp, L. setiferus. RNA from the hemocytes and hepatopancreas of single individuals from each species was recovered, 4 cDNA libraries (one from each tissue\\/species) were made by a PCR-based method and a total of

  12. Effect of AquaVac TM Vibromax TM on size and health of post larva stage of Pacific White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Black Tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wongtavatchai; M. V. López-Dóriga; M. J. Francis

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of AquaVac™ Vibromax™, an inactivated Vibrio bacterin product, to promote health and resistance to vibriosis in penaeid shrimp post larva (PL). Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and Pacific White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were fed ad libitum with VibromaxTM- enriched Artemia for 10 consecutive days, PL5–PL14. Artemia nauplii were enriched by incubating 150g

  13. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  14. Cost and returns budgets for penaeid shrimp culture operations

    E-print Network

    Johns, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    the method of Primavera (1978). Maturation animals are fed a diet of fresh frozen squid (~Loli o ~s . ), fresh frozen juvenile shrimp (Penaeus ~s . ), and fresh frozen bloodworms (Glycera dibranchiata) in a 2:1:1 ratio. Production per tank 21 td bit b P... for each piece of equipment. The maturation ration for broodstock consists of squid, juven- ile shrimp, and bloodworms and have per kilogram prices of $1. 65, $2. 75, and $22. 00, respectively. Squid are fed twice a day at ap- proximately 150g per...

  15. Issues, Impacts, and Implications of Shrimp Aquaculture in Thailand

    PubMed

    Dierberg; Kiattisimkul

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination.The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32 % of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993.Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies.As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.KEY WORDS: Shrimp aquaculture; Thailand; Historical practices; Environmental impacts; Sustainability; Integrated management; Water treatment; Institutional aspects PMID:8703103

  16. A bio-economic model for penaeid shrimp mariculture systems

    E-print Network

    Adams, Charles M

    1978-01-01

    ). The chief candi- date for culture has been the native white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), with Parker and Holcomb having demonstrated production of up to 1171 pounds per acre at stocking densities of 40, 000 per grow-out s, cres. How'ever, much research... guidelines in decision making in terms of the most, efficient use of fixed resources and in terms of actual mani- pulation and. management of the shrimp crop. The application of such managerial aids to an environment controlled intensive cultural system...

  17. Characterization of some fish and shrimp spoiling bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kitty J. A. van Spreekens

    1977-01-01

    The classification of some important groups of bacteria involved in fish and shrimp spoilage was studied.\\u000a \\u000a Trimethylamine is produced byPseudomonas putrefaciens, a “non-defined” group resemblingPs. putrefaciens, Photobacterium spp. and someMoraxella-like bacteria.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Hypoxanthine is produced by the same groups of bacteria except the last named and also by the “typical shrimp spoilers” (presumptiveAlteromonas).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Strong off-odours are produced on fresh fish byPs.

  18. Larviculture of native white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, and exotic white shrimp, P. vannanmei at Continental Fisheries, Limited, Panama City, Florida 

    E-print Network

    Aranyakananda, Porcham

    1985-01-01

    V1 V111 iX ALGAE Source of Penaeus setiferus broodstocks Source of P. vannamei nauplii Algal Species Grown Algal Culture Methods Environmental Control BRINE SHRIMP Incubation of Artemia cysts 13 14 15 ( con ) TABLE OF CONTENTS Page... Penaeid Shrimp Life Cycle Typical growth of cultured algae 33 34 35 36 LIST OF TABLES Table page I Classes and species of microalgae presently under culture 30 2 Composition of Gui1 I ard ' s enrichment ' f/2 3 Composition of Zeigl er diet...

  19. Fish and opossum shrimp entrainment in the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Impacts of operating the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant on fish and opossum shrimp (mysis relicta) were investigated from 1981 to 1985 at Twin Lakes, Colorado to determine any negative effects on the Twin Lakes fishery. Daytime generation cycles entrained shrimp at densities averaging 0.05 to 0.23 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Eight hour daytime generation cycles would entrain 50,000 to 300,000 shrimp at these rates. Generation cycles which occurred after dark entrained many times more shrimp with densities as high as 1.21 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Entrainment density during nighttime pump-back cycles was much greater; averaging 2 to 17 shrimp/m/sup 3/ discharged. Six to 44 million shrimp were entrained during typical 8 h pump-back cycles. Differences between daytime and nighttime entrainment rates appeared to be caused by migration of shrimp into the water column at night making them more vulnerable to entrainment. Losses were estimated to have reduced Lower Twin Lake shrimp abundance by 39% in 1985.

  20. Design Choices in the SHRIMP System: An Empirical Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias A. Blumrich; Richard D. Alpert; Yuqun Chen; Douglas W. Clark; Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Liviu Iftode; Kai Li; Margaret Martonosi; Robert A. Shillner

    1998-01-01

    The SHRIMP cluster-computing system has progressed to a point of relative maturity; a variety of applications are running on a 16-node system. We have enough experience to understand what we did right and wrong in designing and building the system. In this paper we discuss some of the lessons we learned about computer architecture, and about the challenges involved in

  1. Early Experience with Message-Passing on the SHRIMP Multicomputer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward W. Felten; Richard D. Alpert; Angelos Bilas; Matthias A. Blumrich; Douglas W. Clark; Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Liviu Iftode; Kai Li

    1996-01-01

    The SHRIMP multicomputer provides virtual memory-mapped communication (VMMC), which supports protected, user-level message passing, allows user programs to perform their own buffer management, and separates data transfers from control transfers so that a data transfer can be done without the intervention of the receiving node CPU. An important question is whether such a mechanism can indeed deliver all of the

  2. Microbiological Profile of Pacific Shrimp, Panda/us jordani, Stowed

    E-print Network

    Spray J. S LEE and EDWARD KOLBE Introduction Mechanically refrigerated seawater spray (RSWS) has these effects. Kolbe (1979a, 1980) has described shrimp cooling characteristics and workable sprayer designs. In a companion paper, Kolbe (1979b) described a RSWS system design model that can be used to select ade- quate

  3. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  4. SHRIMP zircon dating of the Permian System of eastern Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Roberts; C. B. Foster

    1996-01-01

    SHRIMP zircon dates from Permian ignimbrites and tuffs associated with fossiliferous strata within the Sydney?Bowen Basin and New England Orogen are used to establish a time scale for the Permian System in eastern Australia. For the first time this enables direct correlation of the eastern Australian Lower Permian succession with similarly measured ages in the Permian type sections in the

  5. Characterization of myosin light chain in shrimp hemocytic phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2010-11-01

    Myosin light chain, a well-known cytoskeleton gene, regulates multiple processes that are involved in material transport, muscle shrink and cell division. However, its function in phagocytosis against invading pathogens in crustacean remains unknown. In this investigation, a myosin light chain gene was obtained from Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp. The full-length cDNA of this gene was of 766 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 462 bp encoding a polypeptide of 153 amino acids. The myosin light chain protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Subsequently the specific antibody was raised using the purified GST fusion protein. As revealed by immuno-electron microscopy, the myosin light chain protein was only expressed in the dark bands of muscle. In the present study, the myosin light chain gene was up-regulated in the WSSV-resistant shrimp as revealed by real-time PCR and western blot. And the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index using FITC-labeled Vibrio parahemolyticus were remarkably increased in the WSSV-resistant shrimp, suggesting that the myosin light chain protein was essential in hemocytic phagocytosis. On the other hand, RNAi assays indicated that the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index were significantly decreased when the myosin light chain gene was silenced by sequence-specific siRNA. These findings suggested that myosin light chain protein was involved in the regulation of hemocytic phagocytosis of shrimp. PMID:20691789

  6. Introducing foreign DNA into tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by electroporation.

    PubMed

    Tseng, F S; Tsai, H J; Liao, I C; Song, Y L

    2000-12-01

    Electroporation was used to introduce pFLAG-CMV-1-BAP, a DNA fragment that includes a bacterial alkaline phosphatase gene driven by a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, into Penaeus monodon zygotes. The transgenic tiger shrimp was achievedby using 10kV, 28 pulses, 120 g sec pulse time, 10 cycles, and a DNA concentration of 37.5 microg/mL. The hatching rate of electroporated zygotes (46%) was significantly lower than that of zygotes in the untreated group (89%). The survival rate of postlarvae in the electroporated group using a DNA concentration of 37.5 microg/mL decreased from 0.6% for postlarva 45 to 0.4% for postlarva 120. Based on dot blot analysis, the rate of gene transfer was 37% in mysis-stage, 23% postlarva 15(PL15), 19% postlarva 45(PL45), and 21% 4-month-old (about PL120). Genomic Southern blotting demonstrated that DNA from transgenic tiger shrimp contained fragments of exogenous DNA that were smaller, larger and of the same molecular size as pFLAG-CMV-1-BAP. Transferred DNA fragments were integrated into the genomes of 31% of the transgenic tiger shrimp. The exogenous DNA was mosaically distributed in a wide variety of tissues. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the FLAG-BAP fused-protein encoded by pFLAG-CMV-1-BAP was present in the ovaries of some transgenic tiger shrimp. PMID:11191866

  7. Cost and returns budgets for penaeid shrimp culture operations 

    E-print Network

    Johns, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    the method of Primavera (1978). Maturation animals are fed a diet of fresh frozen squid (~Loli o ~s . ), fresh frozen juvenile shrimp (Penaeus ~s . ), and fresh frozen bloodworms (Glycera dibranchiata) in a 2:1:1 ratio. Production per tank 21 td bit b P...

  8. Antimicrobial Interventions to Reduce Listeria spp. Contamination on Shrimp

    E-print Network

    Wong, Tsui-Yin

    2010-01-14

    Chloride) with a water wash at room temperature and freezing of the shrimp at -22.3 degrees C was the only treatment that had a significant antimicrobial effect on the Listeria spp. Antimicrobial effects and the mode of action of PEF (Pulsed Electric Field...

  9. Halogenated contaminants in farmed salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, S P J; van Velzen, M J M; Swart, C P; van der Veen, I; Traag, W A; de Boer, J

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America. Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations than omnivorous species. (ii) Contaminant concentrations generally decreased per species in the following order of salmon > trout > tilapia approximately equal to pangasius approximately equal to shrimp. (iii) Most contaminant concentrations decreased in the following order of PCBs approximately equal to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) > hexachlorobenzene approximately equal to pentachlorobenzene approximately equal to dieldrin approximately equal to PBDEs approximately equal to alpha-HBCD approximately equal to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) > World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ) [PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs]. (iv) Contaminant concentrations were very low (mostly <1 ng/g wet weight) and far below the European and Dutch legislative limits. (v) Contaminant concentrations in farmed shrimp, pangasius, and tilapia were lower than those in wild fish, whereas contaminant concentrations in farmed salmon and trout were higher than those in lean wild marine fish. From the five species investigated, salmon is predominantly responsible (97%) for human exposure to the sum of the investigated contaminants. The contribution of trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp is small (3%) because contaminant concentrations and consumption volumes were much lower. PMID:19569323

  10. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y?1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  11. Alaska 's shrimp landings have increased 40-fold in

    E-print Network

    - prO\\ed processing techniques and .t steadil] increasing domestic market. Because the rapid expansion coupled with emergency orders of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game reduced fi hing time. Over Commercial fishing for pandalid shrimp in Alaska began in 1916 in the southeastern area near Petersburg

  12. POLYCYCLIC MUSK FRAGRANCES IN SEDIMENTS AND SHRIMP TISSUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yelena Sapozhnikova; Dan Liebert; Edward Wirth; Michael Fulton

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic musk fragrances are widely used as ingredients in personal care products, shampoos, lotions, and household cleaning agents. These chemicals have relatively high octanol-water partition coefficients, and therefore tend to accumulate in sediments, sludge, and biological tissues. We analyzed shrimp and sediment samples for the presence of synthetic musks. Samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction. Gel permeation chromatography and

  13. Morphometric differentiation in small juveniles of the pink spotted shrimp

    E-print Network

    is also reported from Mauritania to Angola in the eastern Atlantic Ocean (Pérez- Farfante, 1969; Pérez the population (Dall et al., 1990; Pérez-Castañeda and Defeo, 2001). In the western Atlantic Ocean, Pérez environments of the Atlantic Ocean. The pink spot- ted shrimp is distributed within the western Atlantic from

  14. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993. Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies. As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.

  15. Evaluation of Difloxacin for Shrimp Aquaculture: In Vitro Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations, Medicated Feed Palatability, and Toxicity to the Shrimp Penaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric D. Park; Donald V. Lightner; Rodney R. Williams; Leone L. Mohney; John M. Stamm

    1995-01-01

    Standard in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for difloxacin and compared with the MICs of several other antimicrobials, against a standardized battery of 13 gram-negative bacterial isolates associated with shrimp disease. The palatability and safety (toxicity) of difloxacin to the shrimp Penaeus vannamei were also evaluated during 15 d of medicated feeding at 1× (100 mg\\/kg of feed),

  16. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7?35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a “vaccine component” to modulate the immunity of shrimp. PMID:23894531

  17. The culture of Penaeid shrimp in ponds receiving heated discharge water from a steam electric generating station, and their use as indicators of water quality 

    E-print Network

    Reitsema, Lawrence Alan

    1975-01-01

    shrimp in pond 6 stocked at 5, 000 shrimp/ha with a survaval of 80. 6% 48 Growth and condition data for fed brown shrimp in pond 7 stocked at 5, 000 shrimp/ha with a survival of 81. 0% . . 49 Type and composition of food used in all experiments... at 500 shrimp/ha with a survival of 100m 65 17 Growth and condition data for fed white shrimp in pond 7 stocked at 500 shrimp/ha with a survival of 100% 66 18 Summary of results of the white shrimp experiment based on data collected on October 17...

  18. Identification of the Major Brown Shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) Allergen as the Muscle Protein Tropomyosin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Daul; M. Slattery; G. Reese; S. B. Lehrer

    1994-01-01

    Shrimp, a major seafood allergen, was investigated as a model food allergen. Extracts from both shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) meat and cooking fluid contain a substantial and similar amount of allergenic activity. A 36-kD allergen, demonstrated in both extracts by SDS-PAGE\\/Western blot analysis, reacted with 28\\/34 (82%) sera from shrimp-sensitive, skin test and RAST-positive, individuals. This allergen, named Pen a I,

  19. The Bait Shrimp Industry of the Gulf of Mexico UNITED STATES DEPART MENT OF THE INTERIOR

    E-print Network

    The Bait Shrimp Industry of the Gulf of Mexico UNITED STATES DEPART MENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH(NII"II, {J lT/riM The Bait Shrimp Industry of the Gulf of Mexico By ANTHONY INGLIS and EDWARD CHIN "ashin on, D.C . lay 1Q #12;The Bait Shrimp Industry of the Gulf of Mexico by ANTHONY 1 GLlS 1 A ' D E

  20. Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jonas; Folke, Carl; Kautsky, Nils

    1994-09-01

    Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that is required to produce the food inputs, nursery areas, and clean water to the shrimp farms, as well as to process wastes. We also made an estimate of the natural and human-made resources necessary to run a typical semiintensive shrimp farm. The results show that a semiintensive shrimp farm needs a spatial ecosystem support—the ecological footprint—that is 35-190 times larger than the surface area of the farm. A typical such shrimp farm appropriates about 295 J of ecological work for each joule of edible shrimp protein produced. The corresponding figure for industrial energy is 40:1. More than 80% of the ecological primary production required to feed the shrimps is derived from external ecosystems. In 1990 an area of 874-2300 km2 of mangrove was required to supply shrimp postlarvae to the farms in Colombia, corresponding to a total area equivalent to about 20-50% of the country’s total mangrove area. The results were compared with similar estimates for other food production systems, particularly aquacultural ones. The comparison indicates that shrimp farming ranks as one of the most resource-intensive food production systems, characterizing it as an ecologically unsustainable throughput system. Based on the results, we discuss local, national, and regional appropriation of ecological support by the semiintensive shrimp farms. Suggestions are made for how shrimp farming could be transformed into a food production system that is less environmentally degrading and less dependent on external support areas.

  1. Replacement of Marine Animal Protein with Peanut Meal in Diets for Juvenile White Shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chhorn Lim

    1997-01-01

    Six isonitrogenous, isocaloric diets containing 0,11.7, 23.4, 35.1, 46.8, and 58.5% peanut meal as substitutes, on an equal nitrogen basis, for 0,20,40,60,80, and 100% of animal protein mix (53% menhaden fish meal, 34% shrimp waste meal, and 13% squid meal) were fed to juvenile white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, to satiation four times daily for 8 weeks. Shrimp fed the two

  2. Spawning and Larval Survival of the Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, in a Small Culture Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraldine M. Cripe

    1997-01-01

    Eye-enucleated pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, were successfully matured, mated, and spawned in 1.23-m diameter tanks. Broodstock of five to six female shrimp spawned, on average, 50% of days during which expanded ovaries were observed. Average daily spawn of viable eggs ranged from 2,750 (September) to 11,026 (March). In a preliminary experiment, shrimp fed the bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, as well as

  3. Toxicity and Residue Studies of Cultured Blue Shrimp Treated with the Algicide Cutrine-Plus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney R. Williams; J. E. Hose; Donald V. Lightner

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays on the blue shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris) were conducted with Cutrine-Plus, a chelated copper algicide registered for use in fish hatcheries but not for shrimp culture facilities. The 24- and 96-h LC50's for blue shrimp were found to be 151.3 and 19.5 mg\\/L copper as Cutrine-Plus, respectively. Cutrine-Plus was found to be safe (i.e., produced no statistical mortality) at

  4. A freshwater shrimp (Paratya compressa improvisa) as a sensitive test organism to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, S; Sugaya, Y

    1989-01-01

    The susceptibility of 2-week-old individuals of the freshwater shrimp, Paratya compressa improvisa, to five kinds of insecticide and five kinds of herbicide was examined in comparison with that of two species of Cladocera, Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa. The shrimp was especially sensitive to two organophosphorus insecticides. The 48-h LC50 values for fenitrothion and fenthion to the shrimp were 1.15 and 1.04 microg litre(-1) (mean value, n=2), in contrast with 37.8 and 35.3 microg litre(-1) in the case of M. macrocopa, and more than 50 microg litre(-1) with D. magna. The shrimp also showed the higher susceptibility to other insecticides, diazinon, carbaryl (NAC) and BPMC, apart from D. magna to diazinon and NAC. The shrimp also showed higher susceptibility to herbicides. The 48-h LC50 values of CNP, benthiocarb, oxadiazon, butachlor, and symetryne to the shrimp were two to eight times lower than those of two species of Cladocera, except for the LC50 value of oxadiazon to M. macrocopa, which was very slightly higher. However, the shrimp showed a somewhat lower susceptibility to heavy metals than the two species of Cladocera, especially to copper, and to cadmium and zinc in comparison with D. magna. A bioassay using the shrimp with river water, collected from the river adjacent to the paddy field, showed clearly the high mortality of the shrimp following the aerial spraying with pesticides. PMID:15092400

  5. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion reduces the allergic reactivity of shrimp extract proteins and tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Cristina; Zafra, Ma Paz; Sanz, Verónica; Mazzeo, Carla; Ibáñez, Ma Dolores; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-04-15

    Shrimp are highly allergenic foods. Current management are limited to the avoidance of foods. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a safe and effective therapy using modified allergens. This study focuses on assessing the potential for modification of the allergenicity of shrimp proteins following heat treatment or simulated gastric digestion. Shrimp proteins do not reduce their IgE reactivity after heat treatment but it is reduced by simulated gastric digestion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tropomyosin in shrimp extract is worse digested than purified tropomyosin. After 60 min of 10 U/?g pepsin digestion, a strong inhibition was produced in the in vivo skin reactivity of shrimp extracts and in activation of basophils from allergic patients. Immunisation experiments performed in rabbits demonstrated that digested boiled shrimp extract is able to induce IgG antibodies that block the IgE binding to the untreated boiled shrimp extract in shrimp-allergic patients. Building on our observations, digestion treatment could be an effective method for reducing shrimp allergenicity while maintaining the immunogenicity. PMID:25466048

  6. Uncovering the mechanisms of shrimp innate immune response by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Ikuo; Fagutao, Fernand F; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi

    2011-08-01

    Because of the importance of shrimp in world aquaculture, there is much interest in understanding their immune system in order to improve their resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. An effective tool in studying genes involved in the immune response in shrimp is RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi, first recognized as an antiviral response against RNA viruses, is a cellular mechanism that is triggered by double-stranded RNAs and results in the degradation of homologous genes. In this review, we describe the current studies of genes in shrimp that employed RNAi technology to elucidate or confirm their functions. We also review the potential of RNAi to elicit antiviral response in shrimp. PMID:20396922

  7. Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

    2000-04-01

    The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

  8. 75 FR 20548 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...0648-AY58 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

  9. Mating behaviour, epibiotic growth, and the effect of salinity on grooming activity in the hermaphroditic shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni 

    E-print Network

    Giri, Tuhin

    2004-09-30

    Many species of caridean shrimp are protandrous hermaphrodites, maturing initially as males but developing into females as they age and grow. A unique sexual system was recently discovered in the peppermint shrimp, Lysmata ...

  10. 76 FR 56158 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...and UTXI Aquatic Products Processing Corporation (collectively...coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns...a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least...Ltd., Kien Cuong Seafood Processing Import Export...

  11. DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE-SCALE NITROGEN DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

  12. IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

  13. IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON C, N CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

  14. The contribution of flocculated material to shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) nutrition in a high-intensity, zero-exchange system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele A Burford; Peter J Thompson; Robins P McIntosh; Robert H Bauman; Doug C Pearson

    2004-01-01

    High-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp ponds contain a high density of flocculated particles, rich in bacteria and phytoplankton, compared with flow-through systems. The flocculated particles provide a potential food source for shrimp. Short-term tank experiments were conducted to determine the retention of nitrogen (N) from natural biota, dominated by flocculated particles, in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) at a high-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp farm

  15. The immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to Vibrio alginolyticus at different salinity levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long-Uong Wang; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2005-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei held in 25‰ seawater were injected with TSB-grown Vibrio alginolyticus (1×104cfushrimp?1), and then transferred to 5, 15, 25 (control) and 35‰. Over 24–96h, the mortality of V. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held in 5‰ and 15‰ was significantly higher than that of shrimp held in 25‰ and 35‰, and the mortality of V. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held in 5‰

  16. Evolution of neural computations: Mantis shrimp and human color decoding

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Qasim; Marshall, Justin; Thoen, Hanne; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Mantis shrimp and primates both possess good color vision, but the neural implementation in the two species is very different, a reflection of the largely unrelated evolutionary lineages of these creatures. Mantis shrimp have scanning compound eyes with 12 classes of photoreceptors, and have evolved a system to decode color information at the front-end of the sensory stream. Primates have image-focusing eyes with three classes of cones, and decode color further along the visual-processing hierarchy. Despite these differences, we report a fascinating parallel between the computational strategies at the color-decoding stage in the brains of stomatopods and primates. Both species appear to use narrowly tuned cells that support interval decoding color identification.

  17. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L. PMID:21859360

  18. RNA interference-based therapeutics for shrimp viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P; Gireesh-Babu, P; Rajendran, K V; Chaudhari, Aparna

    2009-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool to manipulate gene expression in the laboratory. The presence of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in eukaryotic cells triggers this post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanism, leading to a sequence-specific degradation of the target mRNA. Among its many potential biomedical applications, silencing of viral genes stands out as a promising therapeutic strategy. Marine shrimp viral diseases, especially white spot disease (WSD), represents one of the most attractive targets for the development of therapeutic RNAi owing to its widespread economic impact. This review summarizes the current knowledge in the therapeutic application of RNAi for combating viral diseases in shrimp. The basic principles of RNAi are described, focusing on features important for its therapeutic manipulation. Subsequently, a stepwise strategy for the development of therapeutic RNAi is presented. PMID:20066961

  19. Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Suárez-Jiménez, Guadalupe-Miroslava; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp. PMID:24135910

  20. Antimicrobials in shrimp aquaculture in the United States: regulatory status and safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Park, E D; Lightner, D V; Park, D L

    1994-01-01

    The consumption of seafood, especially shrimp, increases yearly in the U.S. The U.S. is the second largest importer of shrimp in the world, consuming more than 11% of the total world production. Aquaculture is becoming an increasingly important source of the world's shrimp, currently accounting for approximately 30% of the world's supply. Unfortunately, in this era of international trade deficits, U.S. production of aquacultured shrimp is insignificant (< 0.1%) compared with world production. As shrimp aquaculture expands in the U.S., so does the use of intensive farming techniques. Shrimp aquaculture is like any other animal husbandry industry in that shrimp are subject to disease, especially under intensive farming methods. In penaeid shrimp, the primary diseases associated with mortalities are usually viral or bacterial. The majority of bacterial infections in penaeid shrimp are attributable to Vibrio species, with mortalities ranging from insignificant to 100%. However, the rapid growth of this industry has outpaced efforts by researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and federal regulatory agencies to provide approved therapeutants for shrimp disease management. Approval of drugs and their surveillance for compliance with regulations applicable to seafoods, including aquacultured goods, is the responsibility of the FDA. There are three general areas of concern regarding human health when chemotherapeutants are used in aquaculture: (1) residues of drugs in fish destined for human consumption; (2) development of drug resistance in human pathogenic bacteria; and (3) direct toxic effects to humans from handling of drugs. Currently, there are no antibacterials approved for shrimp aquaculture in the U.S. One of the major obstacles in the development and approval of new drugs for aquaculture is the cost of conducting the required studies. The high cost to pharmaceutical companies discourages investment in shrimp chemotherapeutant research, since the current U.S. market for such products is small. Unfortunately, the U.S. shrimp aquaculture industry will remain small without legal availability of chemotherapeutants. Oxytetracycline (OTC) and Romet-30 are two antibacterials currently approved in the U.S. for catfish and salmonid aquaculture. Shrimp aquaculture facilities outside of the U.S. routinely use these drugs, as well as others, in the treatment of bacterial disease outbreaks. Much of the work required for OTC approval by the FDA for penaeid shrimp has been completed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7938783

  1. Virtual memory mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias A. Blumrich; Kai Li; Richard Alpert; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Jonathan Sandberg

    1994-01-01

    The network interfaces of existing multicomputers require a significant amount of software overhead to provide protection and to implement message passing protocols. This paper describes the design of a low-latency, high-bandwidth, virtual memory-mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer project at Princeton University. Without sacrificing protection, the network interface achieves low latency by using virtual memory mapping and write-latency hiding

  2. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Marine Shrimp Penaeus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Baldwin; Anna L. Bass; Brian W. Bowen; Wallis H. Clark

    1998-01-01

    The evolutionary relationships among 13 species representing all six subgenera of the shrimp genusPenaeuswere examined using 558 bp of mitochondrial (mt) DNA from the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Analyses of this sequence revealed high genetic divergence between species (d=8–24%), a finding which contrasts with previous work, which indicated that genetic diversity, based on electrophoretic analysis of allozymes, was extremely

  3. Virtual memory mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias A. Blumrich; Kai Li; Richard Alpert; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Jonathan Sandberg

    1998-01-01

    The network interfaces of existing multicomputers require a significant amount of software overhead to provide protection and to implement message passing protocols. This paper describes the design of a low-latency, high-bandwidth, virtual memory-mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer project at Princeton University. Without sacrificing protection, the network interface achieves low latency by using virtual memory mapping and write-latency hiding

  4. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of uraniferous opals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemchin, A.A.; Neymark, L.A.; Simons, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    U-Pb and U-series analyses of four U-rich opal samples using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) demonstrate the potential of this technique for the dating of opals with ages ranging from several tens of thousand years to millions of years. The major advantages of the technique, compared to the conventional thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), are the high spatial resolution (???20 ??m), the ability to analyse in situ all isotopes required to determine both U-Pb and U-series ages, and a relatively short analysis time which allows obtaining a growth rate of opal as a result of a single SHRIMP session. There are two major limitations to this method, determined by both current level of development of ion probes and understanding of ion sputtering processes. First, sufficient secondary ion beam intensities can only be obtained for opal samples with U concentrations in excess of ???20 ??g/g. However, this restriction still permits dating of a large variety of opals. Second, U-Pb ratios in all analyses drifted with time and were only weakly correlated with changes in other ratios (such as U/UO). This drift, which is difficult to correct for, remains the main factor currently limiting the precision and accuracy of the U-Pb SHRIMP opal ages. Nevertheless, an assumption of similar behaviour of standard and unknown opals under similar analytical conditions allowed successful determination of ages with precisions of ???10% for the samples investigated in this study. SHRIMP-based U-series and U-Pb ages are consistent with TIMS dating results of the same materials and known geological timeframes. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilization of chitosan for preservation of raw shrimp (Pandalus borealis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Simpson; N. Gagné; I. N. A. Ashie; E. Noroozi

    1997-01-01

    Whole and headless shrimp (Pandalus borealis) were dipped in various concentrations of chitosan solution and stored for 20 days at 4–7°C. The effects of chitosan on microbial proliferation, total volatile bases, nucleotide breakdown, and blackspot formation were monitored over this period. Chitosan showed strong antimicrobial properties inhibiting several microorganisms at concentrations ranging between 0.0075 ? 0.01%. The Pseudomonads, however, were

  6. Introducing foreign DNA into tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon ) by electroporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. S. Tseng; H. J. Tsai; I. C. Liao; Y. L. Song

    2000-01-01

    Electroporation was used to introduce pFLAG-CMV-1-BAP, a DNA fragment that includes a bacterial alkaline phosphatase gene driven by a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, into Penaeusmonodon zygotes. The transgenic tiger shrimp was achieved by using 10kV, 28 pulses, 120 ? sec pulse time, 10 cycles, and a DNA concentration of 37.5 ?g\\/mL. The hatching rate of electroporated zygotes (46%) was significantly

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) transglutaminase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Cheng Huang; Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; Kenneth Söderhäll; Yen-Ling Song

    2004-01-01

    Transglutaminases (TG) are important for blood coagulation and post-translation remodeling of proteins. Using a plaque screening assay, we isolated cDNA encoding a novel TG from a shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hemocyte cDNA library. The TG cDNA consists of 2988 bp with an open reading frame of 2271 bp. The deduced protein has 757 amino acid residues, a calculated molecular mass of

  8. Turtle captures in shrimp trawl nets in Bahrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebrahim A. A. Abdulqader

    2010-01-01

    Based on fishermen logbooks, this study assessed turtle captures in Bahrain's shrimp trawl fishery for five fishing seasons during 1998–2003. Estimated total turtle captures were 298 ±184, 264 ±171, 433 ± 243, 394 ± 227, and 234 ± 177 cases which were caught during 39,147 ± 1,269, 35,761 ± 12,400, 42,747 ± 13,637, 37,071 ± 11,781, 43,923 ± 11,994 fishing

  9. Variation of shrimp texture with rigor-mortis 

    E-print Network

    Wilaichon, Wunwiboon

    1976-01-01

    of shear (place) . In each. lot at a given position of shear and storage temperature postmortem time and postmortem pH had a significant effect on stress. Proximate composition and collagen content of fresh and spoiled shrimp tails was determined... (NPN) varied from 0. 64 to 0. 68%. Total nitrogen and non-protein nitrogen increased during room temperature storage and decreased during ice storage. No consistent pattern was observed for change in solu- bility of collagen during room and ice...

  10. An environmental simulation of a shrimp mariculture pond 

    E-print Network

    Whitson, John Lee

    1989-01-01

    Model Trophic Structure Nutrient Pool Dissolved Oxygen . Discussion 16 16 17 BASELINE SIMULATIONS 18 Semi-Intensive Stocking Density Empty Pond (No shrimp) . Comparison Discussion 18 25 25 29 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS 30 Primary Producers... . Zooplankton 30 33 EVALUATION OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES . . 46 Evaluation of Stocking Densities and Feeding Rates 46 SUMMARY . REFERENCES 59 60 VITA 67 vss LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Pond Model Biomass Flows 2 Dissolved Oxygen and Population...

  11. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Forrest E. Dierberg; Woraphan Kiattisimkul

    1996-01-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface\\u000a salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable\\u000a when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond\\u000a sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just

  12. Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-10-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:24780624

  13. Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".

    PubMed

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-02-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:25083808

  14. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

  15. Abundance and Size of Gulf Shrimp in Louisiana's Coastal Estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    van der Ham, Joris L.; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

  16. SHRiMP: Accurate Mapping of Short Color-space Reads Stephen M. Rumble1,2

    E-print Network

    Levis, Philip

    SHRiMP: Accurate Mapping of Short Color-space Reads Stephen M. Rumble1,2 , Phil Lacroute3 genomic studies of non-model species. In this paper we present SHRiMP - the SHort Read Mapping Package hits. We use SHRiMP to map reads from a newly sequenced Ciona savignyi individual to the reference

  17. Metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) from New Caledonia: laboratory and field studies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson and metalloid bioaccumulation in the edible Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, using both laboratory investigated in shrimp exposed via seawater and food, using the corresponding - emitting radiotracers (110m Ag

  18. Population structure of the deep-sea shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in the north-east Atlantic based on allozyme variation

    E-print Network

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    Population structure of the deep-sea shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in the north-east Atlantic based 21 February 2000 Abstract -- In order to elucidate the population structure of the deep-sea shrimp Elsevier SAS Genetic diversity / population genetics / enzymes / deep-sea shrimp / Pandalus borealis Résumé

  19. Design Choices in the SHRIMP System: An Empirical Study Matthias A. Blumrich # , Richard D. Alpert + , Yuqun Chen # , Douglas W. Clark # ,

    E-print Network

    Clark, Douglas W.

    Design Choices in the SHRIMP System: An Empirical Study Matthias A. Blumrich # , Richard D. Alpert # , Liviu Iftode # , Kai Li # , Margaret Martonosi § , and Robert A. Shillner # Abstract The SHRIMP cluster and physical addresses, perform buffer management, create packets, and set up DMA transfers. The SHRIMP project

  20. New insigths on the metabolic diversity among the epibiotic microbial communitiy of the1 hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata.2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata.2 3 Magali Zbindena, , Bruce Shillitoa , Nadine Le Brisb , Constance de: high pressure experiments, hydrothermal vent shrimp, intracellular granules,15 iron, methane, sulfur16 The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata (Williams and Rona, 1986) dominates the megafauna of19 some of the Mid

  1. SurfBoard --A Hardware Performance Monitor for SHRIMP Princeton University Technical Report TR--596--99

    E-print Network

    SurfBoard -- A Hardware Performance Monitor for SHRIMP Princeton University Technical Report TR, implementation, and case studies of a performance moni­ toring system for the SHRIMP multicomputer. This system implemented on the SHRIMP multicomputer. 1 Introduction This technical report describes a performance

  2. IL NUOVO CIMENTO VOL. 109 B, N. 4 Aprile 1994 The Shrimp Strategy in the Treatment of Cosmological Equations

    E-print Network

    Scudellaro, Paolo

    IL NUOVO CIMENTO VOL. 109 B, N. 4 Aprile 1994 The Shrimp Strategy in the Treatment of Cosmological which exhibit the required features and then going back like a shrimp to reconstruct the potential The Klein-Gordon equation is (2.3) ~ + 3H~ + V'(~) = 0, #12;THE SHRIMP STRATEGY IN THE TREATMENT ETC. 405

  3. Inactivation of natural microflora and Listeria innocua on raw whole shrimp by ozonated water, antimicrobial coatings, and cryogenic freezing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp have been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. A survey was conducted to investigate the microbiological safety and quality of frozen raw whole shrimp in local US markets. Results from 32 brands of raw whole shrimp samples available in local retail markets representing 9 countries of ...

  4. 76 FR 26241 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Notice of Court Decision...warmwater shrimp from Thailand covering the period of...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kate Johnson, AD...warmwater shrimp from Thailand covering the POR of February...Chanthaburi Frozen Food Co., Ltd.,...

  5. The effect of feeding frequency on water quality and growth of the black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Smith; M. A. Burford; S. J. Tabrett; S. J. Irvin; L. Ward

    2002-01-01

    The feeding strategy used in the commercial culture of shrimp can have a significant impact on pond water quality and hence growth, health and survival of the shrimp, as well as the efficiency of feed utilization. These factors contribute to the profitability of production and to the environmental impact of shrimp farming. The effect of four different feeding frequencies (3,

  6. Predictive Computer Modeling of Growth and Feeding Rates for Pacific White Shrimp, Penaeus vanammei, in Hard Freshwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony F. Pegel; J. Richard Booth

    If the United States is to find its niche in shrimp aquaculture production, non-traditional methods of shrimp farming must be used to overcome the climatic incompatibility and strict environmental regulations. Non-traditional shrimp production must also find ways to significantly reduce capital and operational costs. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), which support high population densities and precise control of the suitable growth

  7. Effects of the 1981 Closure on the Texas Shrimp Fishery ALBERT C. JONES, EDWARD F. KLIMA, and JOHN R. POFFENBERGER

    E-print Network

    R. POFFENBERGER Introduction Shrimp fisheries in the Fishery Con- servation Zone (FCZ) in the Gulf of Mexico are federally managed by the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan, which was implemented by the Secre coastal areas. It was anticipated that the closure of these areas when juvenile shrimp are migrating

  8. Managing the development of sustainable shrimp farming in Australia: the role of sedimentation ponds in treatment of farm discharge water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Jackson; Nigel Preston; Michele A. Burford; Peter J. Thompson

    2003-01-01

    In Australia, the shrimp farming industry operates within strict environmental guidelines applied at national and state government levels. In this paper, we briefly review the current status of the development of an ecologically sustainable shrimp farming industry in Australia and the future research priorities to assist in maintaining sustainable development. The broad objectives of the current regulations governing shrimp aquaculture

  9. Predation by native brown shrimp on invasive Pacific oyster spat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerman, E. J.; Eriksson, B. K.; Olff, H.; van der Heide, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the invasive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) increased dramatically in the Wadden Sea. One of the driving mechanisms for the success of the Pacific oyster could be a relatively low predation pressure by epibenthic predators and shore birds on oyster spat. Nevertheless, observations and experiments on predation rates on early life-stages of the Pacific oyster are rare. Therefore, we examined predation rates of brown shrimps on Pacific oyster spat in a number of laboratory experiments. Our results demonstrate that spat of Pacific oysters are most susceptible to predation by brown shrimps (Crangon crangon) in the first days after settlement, when attachment to the substrate (unglazed tiles in our study) is still absent or weak. At this stage the shell length of oyster spat is around ~ 300 ?m, and around 50% of the individuals in the experiment were consumed in the two hour trials. Predation rates decreased rapidly as the spat grew larger and reached zero within 10 days after settlement of the spat (shell length > 700 ?m). Additional experiments revealed that the attachment of oysters is probably limiting predation by brown shrimps rather than the size of the spat. This indicates that Pacific oyster spat may limit predation loss faster compared to native bivalves, which commonly depend on size to reduce predation rates. Overall, our results suggest that the invasive success of Pacific oysters may in part be explained by relatively low predation rates throughout their life stages.

  10. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, N. J.; Land, M. F.; Cronin, T. W.

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a ‘primate-like’ awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

  11. Suspended solids removal to improve shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) production and an evaluation of a plant-based feed in minimal-exchange, superintensive culture systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Ray; Beth L. Lewis; Craig L. Browdy; John W. Leffler

    2010-01-01

    In minimal-exchange, superintensive culture systems, the flocculated (biofloc) particles that accumulate may provide benefits for cultured shrimp; however, excessive particle accumulation can hinder shrimp performance. Also, the shrimp aquaculture industry is reliant on marine fish-based feeds. Using these products can lead to exploitation of marine resources, the introduction of contaminants to cultured shrimp, and unstable production costs. This study examined

  12. Arsenic speciation in shrimp and mussel from the Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik H. Larsen; Christophe R. Quétel; Riansares Munoz; Aline Fiala-Medioni; Olivier F. X. Donard

    1997-01-01

    Specimens of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and mussel (Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis) were collected 3500 m below the ocean surface at the hydrothermal vents of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG and Snake Pit sites, respectively). Arsenic, a potentially toxic element, is among the substances emitted by the hydrothermal vents. The hydrothermal vent shrimp, which are known to be a primary consumer of the primary

  13. Mitochondrial Pseudogenes Are Pervasive and Often Insidious in the Snapping Shrimp Genus Alpheus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Williams; N. Knowlton

    2002-01-01

    Here we show that multiple DNA sequences, similar to the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, occur within single individuals in at least 10 species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus. Cloning of amplified products revealed the presence of copies that differed in length and (more frequently) in base substitutions. Although multiple copies were amplified in individual shrimp from total

  14. 75 FR 20563 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is extending the time limit for the final results of the new shipper review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February 1, 2008 through January 31,...

  15. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): Brown shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.C.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Bozeman, E.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) account for about one-third of the commercial shrimp harvest in the South Atlantic Region; the landing were worth $20 million in 1982. In the South Atlantic Region, commercially importance brown shrimp fishing grounds extend from Fort Pierce, Florida, to Pamlico Sound and Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina. Most of the commercial harvest is taken inside the 10-fathom contour. Brown shrimp are omnivorous and eat food items ranging from detritus to small invertebrates and fishes. Many predators, including fishes and crustaceans, feed on brown shrimp. Brown shrimp survival is reduced by adverse temperature or salinities. Intertidal vegetation is an important characteristic of brown shrimp nursery areas. The suitability of some estuaries as nursery areas may be reduced by bulkheading, ditching, disposal of dredged materials, and drainage from agricultural and silvicultural areas. Existing estuarine areas must be preserved to ensure the continued production of brown shrimp. 57 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. 77 FR 2958 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    The Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') is extending the time limit for the preliminary results of the sixth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to February 28, 2012. The period of review (``POR'') is February 1, 2010, through January 31,...

  17. Superoxide dismutase as modulator of immune function in American white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I Campa-Córdova; N. Y Hernández-Saavedra; F Ascencio

    2002-01-01

    The immunomodulatory action of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and its possible use as an indicator of immune responses in American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were studied. Juvenile shrimp were immersed in aerated ?-glucan and sulfated polysaccharide solutions for 6 h. SOD activity in haemocytes and muscle was quantified to evaluate whether ?-glucan and sulfated polysaccharide induce immunostimulatory activity. Haemocytes and muscle

  18. Sperm quality in relation to age and weight of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Ceballos-Vázquez; C. Rosas; I. S. Racotta

    2003-01-01

    Optimal sperm quality is an important feature for management of shrimp broodstock. The understanding of the sperm quality in relation to age and weight of shrimp is useful to select male broodstock. To evaluate the effect of age and weight on sperm quality, Litopenaeus vannamei males from the same cohort at ages of 6, 8, 10, and 12 months were

  19. METALS, PESTICIDES, AND PCBS: TOXICITIES TO SHRIMP SINGLY AND IN COMBINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to assess potential deleterious effects of certain toxicants, singly and in combination, to penaeid shrimp. In nature, these shrimp are exposed to combinations of toxicants from industrial and municipal out-falls, from agricultural runoff or from dr...

  20. FEEDING RATES OF THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the clam Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities of the shrimp and its commensal clam, as well as particle settlement within t...

  1. Effect of cryogenic freezing on salmonella and listeria recovery from inoculated shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, shrimp is number one in seafood consumption. Shrimp is usually imported frozen, and the Food and Drug Administration has isolated Salmonella spp. from this frozen product. This research was conducted to determine the effect of two cryogenic freezing protocols (time and tempe...

  2. Biochemical, physiological and hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Penaeus indicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yoganandhan; S. Thirupathi; A. S. Sahul Hameed

    2003-01-01

    The biochemical and hematological changes provoked by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in hemolymph, hepatopancreas and muscle of Penaeus indicus were examined. Total carbohydrate, glucose, total protein, amino acids, fatty acids and hemocyanin were measured in healthy and WSSV-infected shrimp. There was a significant increase in glucose and total carbohydrate levels in the hemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp in comparison to

  3. Metabolic and immune responses in Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to a repeated handling stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Mercier; Elena Palacios; Ángel I. Campa-Córdova; Dariel Tovar-Ramírez; Roberto Hernández-Herrera; Ilie S. Racotta

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile Pacific whiteleg shrimp reared in either outdoor concrete tanks or indoor plastic tanks were exposed to a repeated stress induced by daily handling for 4 weeks. Metabolic responses (glucose, lactate, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, total lipid, hemocyanin, and carotenoid content) and immune responses (total hemocyte count, superoxide anion production, and superoxide dismutase activity) were compared with unstressed shrimp. Metabolic responses

  4. Biology of the Northern Shrimp, Pandalus borealis, in the Gulf of Maine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan B. Haynes; Roland L. Wigley

    1969-01-01

    Northern shrimp from offshore waters in the Gulf of Maine were studied to determine their occurrence and to learn some major features of their life history. The area sampled extends from Nova Scotia, Canada, to Long Island, New York. Northern shrimp were found only in the western portion of the Gulf of Maine, where they were present throughout the year,

  5. DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE NORTHERN SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, REARED IN SITU IN KACHEMAK BAY, ALASKA

    E-print Network

    DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE NORTHERN SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, REARED IN SITU IN KACHEMAK BAY, ALASKA EVAN HAYNES' ABSTRACT Northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis, were reared in situ in Kachemak Bay juvenile stage. Apparently larvae of P. borealis in Alaska waters have at least one less stage than larvae

  6. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on oxidative changes in frozen stored cold water shrimp ( Pandalus borealis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S Bak; A. B Andersen; E. M Andersen; G Bertelsen

    1999-01-01

    Shrimps caught at sea were boiled in seawater, air blast or nitrogen frozen, glazed and then packed in plastic bags with a low oxygen transmission rate. The bags were either flushed with nitrogen (modified atmosphere packaging) or with atmospheric air before sealing. The shrimps were then stored for up to 12 months in a freezer cabinet at ?17°C with fluctuating

  7. Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

  8. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED REFRIGERATED

    E-print Network

    PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED ahrimp,PandaluB borealis, were held in carbon dioxide modified refrigerated seawater for 12.5 days and in ice for 11.5 days. Chemical tests for spoilage indicated that shrimp held in carbon dioxide modified

  9. Disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, following the dietary

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Louis E.

    feed supplement (Diamond V XP Yeast CultureR, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, Iowa [IA]) was assessed for its impact on disease resistance in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Animals were fed a standard shrimp pellet diet supplemented with 0% (control with 1% grain carrier), 0.5% (with 0.5% carrier

  10. Comparing the efficiency of chitosan with chlorine for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chaiyakosa; W. Charernjiratragul; K. Umsakul; V. Vuddhakul

    2007-01-01

    Thailand is one of the leading exporters of frozen shrimp to many countries. Chlorine is the decontaminating agent most frequently used in the frozen shrimp industries to kill potential pathogens. However, long time contact to chlorine causes severe respiratory tract damage. In this study, chitosan was compared to chlorine for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In vitro investigation, chitosan could reduce more

  11. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on the growth and survival rate of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hadi Zokaei Far; Roos B. Saad; Hassan Mohd Daud; Sharr Azni Harmin

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis, isolated from digestive tract of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated on growth and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei during 60 days of culture. Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and controls. Treatment groups were consisted of ?) shrimp fed diet with B. subtilis (T1), and ii) shrimp fed diet mixed with B. subtilis

  12. An integrated pest management program for burrowing shrimp control in oyster aquaculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett R. Dumbauld; Steven Booth; Daniel Cheney; Andrew Suhrbier; Hector Beltran

    2006-01-01

    Integrated pest management is widely applied in terrestrial agriculture, but less so in aquaculture. Parallels to insect control in agricultural fields were exploited in this application of integrated pest management principles to control burrowing shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis in Pacific Northwest U.S.A. oyster aquaculture. The pesticide carbaryl has been applied to oyster aquaculture tracts to control burrowing shrimp

  13. Daily energy requirements and trophic positioning of the sand shrimp Crangon septemspinosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Taylor; M. A. Peck

    2004-01-01

    Sand shrimp, Crangon septemspinosa Say, are important to the trophic dynamics of coastal systems in the northwestern Atlantic. To evaluate predatory impacts of sand shrimp, daily energy requirements (J ind.?1 day?1) were calculated for this species from laboratory estimates of energy losses due to routine (RR), active (RA), and feeding (RSDA) oxygen consumption rates (J ind.?1 h?1), coupled with measurements

  14. Homologous genetic recombination in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses infecting Penaeus monodon shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priyanjalie K. M. Wijegoonawardane; Nusra Sittidilokratna; Natthida Petchampai; Jeff A. Cowley; Nicholas Gudkovs; Peter J. Walker

    2009-01-01

    Yellow head virus (YHV) is a highly virulent pathogen of Penaeus monodon shrimp. It is one of six known genotypes in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses which also includes mildly pathogenic gill-associated virus (GAV, genotype 2) and four other genotypes (genotypes 3–6) that have been detected only in healthy shrimp. In this study, comparative phylogenetic analyses conducted on replicase-

  15. Sandpipers Select Red Brine Shrimps Rich in Both Carotenoids and Parasites

    E-print Network

    Green, Andy J.

    Sandpipers Select Red Brine Shrimps Rich in Both Carotenoids and Parasites Marta I. Sa of carotenoids which are essential pigments for birds (Hill & McGraw 2006). Strong preference for orange in carotenoid pig- ments. In order to assess whether this coloration increases the chances of shrimp predation

  16. The American brine shrimp as an exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Amat; Francisco Hontoria; Olga Ruiz; Andy J. Green; Marta Sánchez; Jordi Figuerola; Francisco Hortas

    The hypersaline environments and salterns present in the western Mediterranean region (including Italy, southern France, the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco) contain autochthonous forms of the brine shrimp Artemia, with parthenogenetic diploid and tetraploid strains coexisting with the bisexual species A. salina. Introduced populations of the American brine shrimp A. franciscana have also been recorded in these Mediterranean environments since the

  17. 50 CFR Figures 19a and 19b to Part... - Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details 19a Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223...Figs. 19 Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223—Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details ER21MY12.003 [77 FR 29912,...

  18. 50 CFR Figures 19a and 19b to Part... - Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details 19a Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223...Figs. 19 Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223—Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details ER21MY12.003 [77 FR 29912,...

  19. GULF OF MEXICO SHRIMP PRODUCTION: A FOOD WEB HYPOTHESISl R. WARREN FLINT AND NANCY N. RABALAIS'

    E-print Network

    GULF OF MEXICO SHRIMP PRODUCTION: A FOOD WEB HYPOTHESISl R. WARREN FLINT AND NANCY N. RABALAIS populations. These results stimulated us to develop a theoretical food web for the shrimp populations the largest fishery in terms of weight harvested and effort expended along the gulfcoast. For example, from

  20. Presence of multiple viruses in non-diseased, cultivated shrimp at harvest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Flegel; Linda Nielsen; Vitaya Thamavit; Suraphol Kongtim; Tirasak Pasharawipas

    2004-01-01

    Histological examinations were carried out with 400 cultivated black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from 12 commercial rearing ponds from three different areas in Thailand over a period of 3 years. The shrimp were collected at or near harvest time as two arbitrary size groups of 10–20 each from each pond. Aside from size difference, they showed no gross signs of

  1. A Demographic Profile of Participants in Two Gulf of Mexico Inshore Shrimp Fisheries and Their

    E-print Network

    The lifecycleofGulfofMexico shrimp ranges from the inland coastal estuaries into the deeper waters ofthe Gulf. Con of Mexico Fishery Man agement Council, 1980; Leary, 1985). This closure of the exclusive economic zone (EEZA Demographic Profile of Participants in Two Gulf of Mexico Inshore Shrimp Fisheries

  2. Bioaccumulation of cyanuric acid in edible tissues of shrimp following experimental feeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine M. Karbiwnyk; Rodney R. Williams; Wendy C. Andersen; Sherri B. Turnipseed; Mark R. Madson; Keith E. Miller; Renate Reimschuessel

    2010-01-01

    Due to concerns that cyanuric acid (CYA)-contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food chain, a method to quantify CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp was previously developed and validated. This paper provides further data on the deliberate feeding of CYA to shrimp to determine the extent of residue accumulation in

  3. The American brine shrimp as an exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Amat; Francisco Hontoria; Olga Ruiz; Andy J. Green; Marta I. Sánchez; Jordi Figuerola; Francisco Hortas

    2005-01-01

    The hypersaline environments and salterns present in the western Mediterranean region (including Italy, southern France, the\\u000a Iberian Peninsula and Morocco) contain autochthonous forms of the brine shrimp Artemia, with parthenogenetic diploid and tetraploid strains coexisting with the bisexual species A. salina. Introduced populations of the American brine shrimp A. franciscana have also been recorded in these Mediterranean environments since the

  4. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments.

    PubMed

    DeBell, L; Paulsen, A; Spooner, B

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment. PMID:11539112

  5. The reaction of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio Holthuis (1952), to phenol in bio-assay and behavioral tests 

    E-print Network

    Matthews, Geoffrey A

    1969-01-01

    the calibration lines foz analy- sis of phenol conccntrai, ions. . . . . . . . . 34 iiap of upper IW Galveston Bay. 4. Graphical rcprcscni, ai, ion of the bio-assay results for 24 and 18 hour tests. 36 Behavior profile of shrimp l. , subjected to 0. 25ypm... phenol. Behavior profile oE shrimp 2 , subjected to 0. 25ypm phenol. 7. Behavior profile of shrimp 3. , subjected to 0. 50ppm phenol. Behavior prof. i. le of shrimp 4. , subjected to 0. 50ppm phenol. Behavior profile of shrimp 5. , subjected to 1. 0...

  6. Effect of carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio on nitrogen removal from shrimp production waste water using sequencing batch reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhiriti Roy; Komi Hassan; Raj Boopathy

    2010-01-01

    The United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) introduced a new technology for shrimp farming called recirculating\\u000a raceway system. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. However, this system\\u000a produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate due to 40% protein diet for the shrimp at\\u000a a high density of 1,000 shrimp

  7. Description and analysis of the shrimp raceway run for the summer 1990, Shrimp Mariculture Project, Texas A&M University System 

    E-print Network

    Mena, Luis

    1991-01-01

    the rapid growth phase of the phytoplankton community, equivalent to the exponential phase in the curve used by Fogg (1975). The contrary occurs in the presence of an old and dense population of algae that is characterized by a high rate of respiration... stocked at two different densities (4000 and 8000 postlarvae/m ), with three repetitions. The shrimp showed slow and variable growth throughout the experiment, which lasted 33 days. At the last week of the nursery period, the shrimp population suffered...

  8. Crowding of white shrimp Litopenaeus vananmei depresses their immunity to and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Chen, Li-Li; Huang, Chien-Lun; Hsieh, Jen-Fang; Li, Chang-Che

    2015-07-01

    Immunity parameters and the expression levels of several immune-related proteins, including lipopolysaccharide and ?-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), intergin ? (IB), prophenoloxidase (proPO) I, proPO II, ?2-macroglobulin (?2-M), cytosolic mangangese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), mitochondria manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a were examined in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared at stocking densities of 2, 10, 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 3, 6, and 12 h. All immune parameters including haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and haemolymph protein were negatively related to density and time. The PO activity, SOD activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp reared at 10 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h significantly decreased. The transcript levels of these immune-related proteins were down-regulated in shrimp reared at 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Vibrio alginolyticus were significantly lower in shrimp reared at 30 and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. The mortality rates of shrimp reared at 20 and 40 shrimp L(-1) were significantly higher than shrimp reared at 2 shrimp L(-1) over 12-144 h and 12-48 h, respectively. Shrimp reared at high densities (>10 shrimp L(-1)) exhibited decreased resistance against pathogens as evidenced by reductions in immune parameters together with decreased expression levels of immune-related proteins, indicating perturbations of the immune system. PMID:25700787

  9. Isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors in mantis shrimp crustaceans.

    PubMed

    deVries, Maya S; Del Rio, Carlos Martínez; Tunstall, Tate S; Dawson, Todd E

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0-1 ‰ and 3-4 ‰, respectively). Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days) was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days). In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively). We compared the mantis shrimps' incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals. PMID:25835953

  10. Strike mechanics of an ambush predator: the spearing mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    deVries, M S; Murphy, E A K; Patek, S N

    2012-12-15

    Ambush predation is characterized by an animal scanning the environment from a concealed position and then rapidly executing a surprise attack. Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) consist of both ambush predators ('spearers') and foragers ('smashers'). Spearers hide in sandy burrows and capture evasive prey, whereas smashers search for prey away from their burrows and typically hammer hard-shelled, sedentary prey. Here, we examined the kinematics, morphology and field behavior of spearing mantis shrimp and compared them with previously studied smashers. Using two species with dramatically different adult sizes, we found that strikes produced by the diminutive species, Alachosquilla vicina, were faster (mean peak speed 5.72±0.91 m s(-1); mean duration 3.26±0.41 ms) than the strikes produced by the large species, Lysiosquillina maculata (mean peak speed 2.30±0.85 m s(-1); mean duration 24.98±9.68 ms). Micro-computed tomography and dissections showed that both species have the spring and latch structures that are used in other species for producing a spring-loaded strike; however, kinematic analyses indicated that only A. vicina consistently engages the elastic mechanism. In the field, L. maculata ambushed evasive prey primarily at night while hidden in burrows, striking with both long and short durations compared with laboratory videos. We expected ambush predators to strike with very high speeds, yet instead we found that these spearing mantis shrimp struck more slowly and with longer durations than smashers. Nonetheless, the strikes of spearers occurred at similar speeds and durations to those of other aquatic predators of evasive prey. Although counterintuitive, these findings suggest that ambush predators do not actually need to produce extremely high speeds, and that the very fastest predators are using speed to achieve other mechanical feats, such as producing large impact forces. PMID:23175528

  11. Ex-vessel demand by size for the Gulf shrimp

    E-print Network

    Chui, Margaret Kam-Too

    1980-01-01

    , + 82 DL2, + 8 LM. + 84 S it 0 1 it 2 it 3 it 4 it + 8 DSM2, + 66 LL. + By LS. + 86 NPI + 8 EE it 6 it 7 it 6 t 9 t + 810 IMP + 811 STK + 812 LOSM + 6 LM. 1 + t 11 t 12 t 13 i, t-l it' where: i = region 1, . . . , region 3, t = month 1... Subject: Agricultural Economics EX-VESSEL DEMAND BY SIZE FOR SHRIMP IN THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by MARGARET KAM-TOO CHUI Approved as to style and content by: ai an of Committee) (Hea f ep tment) (Member) (Member) August 1980 ABSTRACT Ex...

  12. A sociobioeconomic fisheries simulation model: the Texas inshore shrimp fishery 

    E-print Network

    Krauthamer, Judith T.

    1984-01-01

    A SO CIO BIO EC ONO MIC FISHERIES SIM ULATION MODEL: THE TEXAS INSHORE SHRIMP FISHERY A Thesis JUDITH T ERA UTHA M E R Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences SO CIO BIOS COND MIC PISHERIES SIM ULATION MODEL: THE TEXAS INSHO RE SH RIM P FISHER 7 A Thesis by JUDITH T KRAUTHA MER Approved as to style and content by: b'C. ~ Wilham...

  13. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp. PMID:22417550

  14. Ingestion of bacteria expressing dsRNA triggers specific RNA silencing in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Attasart, Pongsopee; Namramoon, Orathai; Kongphom, Ukrit; Chimwai, Chaweewan; Panyim, Sakol

    2013-01-01

    RNAi activation in shrimp through dsRNA injection has been well demonstrated but oral delivery of dsRNA remains controversial. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether RNAi was induced in shrimp by ingestion of bacteria expressing dsRNA. We fed shrimp, Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei, with inactivated bacteria expressing dsRNA specific to the shrimp genes (Rab7 and STAT). Forty-eight hours after 6 day-continuous feeding, the level of the targeted gene transcript was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Significant reduction of Rab7 as well as STAT transcript was observed when compared to that of control shrimp fed with bacteria containing the empty vector or bacteria expressing non-related dsRNA (GFP). Moreover, the suppression was detected not only in the hepatopancreas but also in the gills indicating the successful systemic induction of RNAi via oral delivery of dsRNA. Our results suggested that RNAi in shrimp could be triggered by ingestion of dsRNA expressing bacteria. Therefore, oral feeding is a practical approach which can be used to deliver dsRNA for further viral inhibition in farmed shrimp. PMID:23201581

  15. Quality of shrimp analogue product as affected by addition of modified potato starch.

    PubMed

    Remya, S; Basu, S; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mohan, C O

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of addition of modified potato starch on the biochemical and textural properties of shrimp analogue/imitation shrimp, a popular value-added product prepared from surimi. Three batches of shrimp analogues were prepared with 0 % (NPS), 50 % (CPS) and 100 % (MPS) of modified starch incorporation and various quality attributes were monitored at regular intervals during frozen storage (-20 °C). Loss of myofibrillar protein was least for the shrimp analogue sample added with 100 % modified potato starch. The expressible moisture content of MPS (2.48 %) was less affected by long term storage compared to CPS (3.38 %) and NPS (3.99 %). During extended low temperature storage, the textural quality of sea food analogue was highly influenced by the type of starch added to it. The percentage of modified potato starch added to shrimp analogue significantly (p???0.05) affected its hardness and fracturability. MPS samples did not show significant changes in hardness during storage as compared to other two samples. Springiness of shrimp analogue increased 2.57, 1.5 and 1.77 times with the storage period for samples with NPS, CPS and MPS, respectively. Addition of modified potato starch improved the sensory quality and textural properties of shrimp analogue and reduced the quality degradation during frozen storage as compared to NPS which contained only native potato starch. PMID:26139909

  16. Application of nucleic-acid-based therapeutics for viral infections in shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Mudagandur S; Lu, Yuanan

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections are one of the major reasons for the huge economic losses in shrimp farming. The control of viral diseases in shrimp remains a serious challenge for the shrimp aquacultural industry, with major pathogens, such as the white spot syndrome virus, yellow head virus, Taura syndrome virus, hepatopancreatic parvovirus, and baculoviruses, being geographically widespread. In the absence of a true adaptive immune response system in invertebrates such as shrimp, one of the alternative and more specific approaches to counteract viral infections in shrimp could be the use of molecular-based gene transfer technologies, such as RNA interference (RNAi). The RNAi mechanism is initiated by double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which are fragmented into shorter 21-23 nucleotides of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by a type III endonuclease, the Dicer. RNAi, which is mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), results in the sequence-specific post-transcriptional silencing of a target gene. This gene-silencing mechanism is universally conserved and is a well-known phenomenon that exists in many eukaryotes, including invertebrates. It has been recently extended to shrimp as an important potential tool in viral disease prevention. RNAi technology shows considerable promise as a therapeutic approach and efficient strategy for shrimp virus control in the aquaculture industry. Further progress in understanding the mechanism of siRNAs at the molecular level, as well as strategies to achieve their tightly regulated, stable, prolonged and tissue-specific expression in an effective manner, will definitely revolutionize therapeutic approaches for counteracting viral diseases of shrimp. In the present review, the recent development and potential use of RNAi in combating shrimp viral infections is discussed. PMID:18941835

  17. Isolation of indole-producing bacteria from white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Rodney Lee

    1981-01-01

    and gratitude is extended to Dr. Gunnar Finne for his kind and patient help in pt'eparing for this study. TABLE OP CONTENTS Section Page Number Abstract Dedication Acknowledgments Table of Contents List of Tables vi Vll Introduction Literature...- tion of the shrimp. REFERENCES 1. Anon. 1979. FDA wins contested shrimp decomposition seizure. Food Chem. News. 21:3:30. 2. Barry, H. C. , J. F. Weeks, Jr. and R. E. Duggan. 1956. Effect of storage on decomposed canned shrimp. J. Assoc. Off. Agr...

  18. The effect of cooking preparations on the residual sulfite concentrations in shrimp

    E-print Network

    Lally, Audrey Ann

    1987-01-01

    %, respectivel y. The average percent loss in the canned shrimp was 52. 7$. The duration of cooking had a significant effect on the residual sulfite in shrimp during all four procedures. The primary differ ence was between the raw and the cooked product... for the boiled shell-on, shell-off and canned methods. However, breaded deep fried shrimp showed a significant difference in sulfite concentrations between 1 to 2 min- utes and 2 to 3 minutes. The loss of sulfite appeared to follow a first-order reaction rate...

  19. The use of indole as a potential quality index for fresh, frozen, cooked and canned shrimp 

    E-print Network

    Chang, Olivia Hui-Fen

    1981-01-01

    : Dr. Gunner Finne In order to investigate the potential use of indole as a quality ind. icator of fresh shrimp, tails of pink shrimp (Penaeus duoranm) were held on ice, at 4 0, 12 C and 22 0 for different time intervals o 0 0 until severely.... Since 1940's, indole levels have been proposed as an indicator of auality for 'both oysters end shrimp (King end Flynn, 1945; Duggan and. Street urger, The citations on the following pages follow the style of the Journal of Fooc. Science. 1946...

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent ghost shrimp Paraglypturus tonganus (Crustacea, Axiidea, Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jonguk; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Ju, Se-Jong; Min, Gi-Sik; Kim, Sanghee

    2014-06-25

    Abstract Ghost shrimps are burrowing decapods that serve as bioturbators and habitat providers in seafloor environments. The hydrothermal vent ghost shrimp, Paraglypturus tonganus, was collected from a hydrothermal vent in the Tonga Arc. This species has a mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of 15,924?bp in length with an AT content of 66.1%. The mitogenome was identical to the typical gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity of the infraorder Axiidea. Paraglypturus tonganus showed 65.3-70.1% nucleotide similarity with the known mitogenomes of other axiid shrimps. These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Axiidea within the decapods. PMID:24963774

  1. One-solvent extraction of astaxanthin from lactic acid fermented shrimp wastes.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Miquel; Ramírez-Hernández, Jessica Yesemite; Mártinez-Ibarra, César; Pacheco, Neith; García-Arrazola, Roeb; Bárzana, Eduardo; Shirai, Keiko

    2007-12-12

    Free astaxanthin one-solvent extractions with ethanol, acetone, and liquid 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane from raw and lactic acid fermented (ensilaged) shrimp residues were investigated. The total carotenoid recovery from ensilaged shrimp wastes was higher than that from non-ensilaged ones as assessed by HPLC analyses. Acetone gave the highest extraction yields of free astaxanthin with up to 115 microg/g of material. Moreover, liquid tetrafluoroethane is reported for the first time in a successful one-solvent extraction of carotenoids from shrimp. PMID:18020413

  2. Yield and chemical composition of fractions from fermented shrimp biowaste.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Bhaskar; Velappan, Suresh Puthanveetil; Zituji, Sakhare Patiram; Manjabhatta, Sachindra Nakkerike; Gowda, Lalitha Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01

    Chemical composition of chitinous residue and fermentation liquor fractions, obtained from fermented shrimp biowaste, was evaluated in order to explore their potential for further utilization. Lyophilization of the liquor fraction obtained after fermentation resulted in a powder rich in both protein (30%) and carotenoids (217.18 +/- 2.89 microg/g). The yield of chitinous residue was 44% (w/w) whereas the yield of lyophilized powder was >25% (w/v). About 69% of total carotenoids were recovered by fermentation. Fermentation resulted in the removal of both protein as well as ash content from the shrimp biowaste, as indicated by approximately 92% deproteination and >76% demineralization, respectively. Post fermentation, the residue had a chitin content of >90%. The lyophilized liquor fraction had all the essential amino acids (except threonine) in quantities comparable to Food & Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization reference protein. The composition of fermentation liquor is indicative of its potential for application as an amino acid supplement in aquaculture feed formulations. PMID:19723823

  3. In vitro antioxidant activity of liquor from fermented shrimp biowaste.

    PubMed

    Sachindra, Nakkarike M; Bhaskar, Narayan

    2008-12-01

    Shrimp waste was fermented using lactic culture and the separated fermented liquor was lyophilized. In vitro antioxidant activities of the lyophilized powder were evaluated with respect scavenging of different radicals and quenching of generated singlet oxygen. The sample showed strong radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching in a dose dependent manner (p<0.001). The sample exhibited 40% scavenging of DPPH radical at 1.0mg/ml concentration while the ABTS radical scavenging was 95% even at 0.5mg/ml concentrations. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as measured by chemiluminescence technique showed 80% scavenging and peroxyl radical scavenging was 65% at 1.0mg/ml concentration. The singlet oxygen quenching ability of the powder was 68.3% at 1.0mg/ml concentration. The sample was found to contain low molecular weight proteins. The formation of peptides and amino acids during hydrolysis of shrimp waste protein during fermentation is expected to be responsible for the antioxidant activity. In addition as the product also contains carotenoids, it can be used as an ingredient in aquaculture feed formulations for beneficial effects. PMID:18513957

  4. Nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Yang, Li-Shi; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2013-09-01

    Vertebrates detect viral infection predominantly by sensing viral nucleic acids to produce type I interferon (IFN). In invertebrates, it has been believed that the IFN system is absent and RNA interference is a sequence-specific antiviral pathway. In this study, we found that injection of nucleic acid mimics poly(I:C), poly(C:G), CL097, poly C and CpG-DNA, afforded shrimp antiviral immunity, which is similar to the vertebrate IFN system. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method, 480 expression sequence tags were identified to be involved in the poly(I:C)-induced antiviral immunity of the model crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei, and 41% of them were new genes. In the SSH libraries, several IFN system-related genes such as dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and IFN?-inducible protein 30 were identified. L. vannamei IKK?, whose vertebrate homologs are central regulators of the IFN-producing pathway, could significantly activate IFN reporter genes in HEK293T cells. In crustacean databases, many genes homologous to genes of the vertebrate IFN response, such as IRFs, PKR, ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific) and other interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were discovered. These results suggest that shrimp may possess nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity. PMID:23773856

  5. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25°C to 80°C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26±0.89GPa at 25°C that reduces to 7.61±0.65GPa at 80°C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38±2.3GPa at 25°C to 24.58±1.71GPa at 80°C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. PMID:25686945

  6. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carol Piser

    2010-12-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of

  7. Nutritional Contribution of Phytoplankton to the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei 

    E-print Network

    Sanchez Corrales, Dagoberto Raul

    2012-07-16

    The goal of this study was to characterize the nutritional contribution of microalgae to white-legged shrimp and optimize fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) inclusion levels in their diets in the presence of microalgae. ...

  8. Sigma E Regulators Control Hemolytic Activity and Virulence in a Shrimp Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi

    E-print Network

    Mekalanos, John

    ,764 mutants screened, five mutants showed reduced hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar and exhibited activity in sheep blood agar, and were 3-to 7-fold attenuated for colonization in shrimp. Comparison

  9. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO CHROMIUM, PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND DITHIOCARBAMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report deals with the histopathological/ultrastructural changes in various tissues of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) exposed to hexavalent chromium, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and two dithiocarbamate formulations: Aquatreat DNM-30 (15% sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate plus 15...

  10. Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  11. 78 FR 50383 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Republic of Indonesia: Final Negative Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...in the Memorandum to Paul Piquado, Assistant Secretary for Import Administration, ``Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Thailand, and Socialist Republic of Vietnam--Final...

  12. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...retarded, by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia,...

  13. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...reason of subsidized imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...to be subsidized by the Governments of Ecuador and Indonesia. 1...

  14. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia,...

  15. 78 FR 50391 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...in the Memorandum to Paul Piquado, Assistant Secretary for Import Administration, ``Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Thailand, and Socialist Republic of Vietnam--Final...

  16. 78 FR 50110 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. Nos. 701-TA-491-497 (Final)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Commission Determination To Deny a Request To Hold a Portion of...

  17. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations...retarded by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen...subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and...

  18. DESCRIPTION AND BIOLOGY OF A NEW SPECIES OF PELAGIC PENAEID SHRIMP, BENTHEOGENNEMA BURKENROADI,

    E-print Network

    of pelagic penaeid shrimp lacks the richly plumose arthrobranch described for the genus and has a single pair), male, carapace length (c.l.) 18 mm, from Station lat. 'Reference to trade names does not imply

  19. Productivity and Profitability of South Carolina Shrimp Vessels, 1971-75

    E-print Network

    , the productivity of conven- tional capital (i.e., nonlabor capital) and human capital (i.e., labor) were estimtated.l that shrimping labor is earning less than its opportunity income. as is new capital investment, hut

  20. The impact of shrimp farming effluent on bacterial communities in mangrove waters, Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sousa, O V; Macrae, A; Menezes, F G R; Gomes, N C M; Vieira, R H S F; Mendonça-Hagler, L C S

    2006-12-01

    The effects of shrimp farm effluents on bacterial communities in mangroves have been infrequently reported. Classic and molecular biology methods were used to survey bacterial communities from four mangroves systems. Water temperature, salinity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria and maximum probable numbers of Vibrio spp. were investigated. Genetic profiles of bacterial communities were also characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of eubacterial and Vibrio 16S rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Highest heterotrophic counts were registered in the mangrove not directly polluted by shrimp farming. The Enterobacteriaceae and Chryseomonas luteola dominated the heterotrophic isolates. Vibrio spp. pathogenic to humans and shrimps were identified. Eubacterial genetic profiles suggest a shared community structure independent of mangrove system. Vibrio genetic profiles were mangrove specific. Neither microbial counts nor genetic profiling revealed a significant decrease in species richness associated with shrimp farm effluent. The complex nature of mangrove ecosystems and their microbial communities is discussed. PMID:17010386

  1. Silencing of yellow head virus replication in penaeid shrimp cells by dsRNA.

    PubMed

    Tirasophon, Witoon; Roshorm, Yaowaluck; Panyim, Sakol

    2005-08-19

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to inhibit viral replication in some animals and plants. Whether the RNAi is functional in shrimp remains to be demonstrated. In vitro transcribed dsRNAs of YHV helicase, polymerase, protease, gp116, and gp64 were transfected into shrimp primary cell culture and found to inhibit YHV replication. dsRNA targeted to nonstructural genes (protease, polymerase, and helicase) effectively inhibited YHV replication. Those targeted structural genes (gp116 and gp64) were the least effective. These findings are the first evidence that RNAi-mediated gene silencing is operative in shrimp cells. This could be a powerful tool for studying gene function and to develop effective control of viral infection in shrimp. PMID:15992778

  2. A technique for modeling exotic shrimp escapes in Matagorda and San Antonio Bays, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Andrew J

    1999-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model, TXBLEND, was used to simulate operating system. exotic shrimp escapes into Texas coastal wakers. Output from the model runs were reformatted using various scripts for display in Arcview 3.0a. The ...

  3. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin; Heitkönig, Ignas M A

    2013-11-15

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delta using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing (HyMap) and (ii) to investigate links between the variation of foliar nitrogen mapped and local environmental variables. In this study, multivariate prediction models achieved a higher level of accuracy than narrow-band vegetation indices, making multivariate modeling the best choice for mapping. The variation of foliar nitrogen concentration in mangroves was significantly influenced by the local environment: (1) position of mangroves (seaward/landward), (2) distance to the shrimp ponds, and (3) predominant mangrove species. The findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbances, in this case shrimp ponds, influence nitrogen variation in mangroves. Mangroves closer to the shrimp ponds had higher foliar nitrogen concentrations. PMID:24103095

  4. Crassostrea gigas oysters as a shrimp farm bioindicator of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Boucard, C; Escobedo-Fregoso, C; Duran-Avelar, Ma de J; Mercier, L; Llera-Herrera, R; Escobedo-Bonilla, C; Vibanco-Perez, N

    2012-04-26

    This study explored whether Crassostrea gigas oysters can be used as a bioindicator of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp farm water canals. Bioassays showed that C. gigas can accumulate WSSV in their gills and digestive glands but do not become infected, either by exposure to seawater containing WSSV or by cohabitation with infected shrimp. The use of a WSSV nested PCR to screen oysters placed in water canals at the entry of a shrimp farm allowed WSSV to be detected 16 d prior to the disease occurring. The finding that C. gigas can concentrate small amounts of WSSV present in seawater without being harmed makes it an ideal sentinel species at shrimp farms. PMID:22535870

  5. A real-time PCR for the detection of infectious myonecrosis virus in penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Ling; Yan, Dong-Chun; Sun, Hu-Shan; Wang, Yi-Yan; Wang, Lei

    2013-07-01

    Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) is a recently observed shrimp virus, which threats the cultured Litopenaeus vannamei and can cause huge economic loss in shrimp farming industry. The specific aim of this study was to develop a new sensitive real-time PCR method for the specific detection of shrimp IMNV. A real-time PCR assay with a pair of primers to specifically amplify a 101bp IMNV cDNA fragment and a corresponding TaqMan probe was developed, which shown to be specific for IMNV without cross reaction with DNA samples prepared from four other shrimp viruses including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic virus (IHHNV). The method could detect as low as one single copy of IMNV plasmid cDNA. PMID:23639336

  6. First record of a parasitic septate gregarines (Apicomplexa: Sporozoea) in the shrimp Peneaus monodon in Sundarbans of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, J; Bandyopadhyay, P K

    2010-04-01

    Investigations on the incidence of septate gregarines in shrimp have immense importance because of severe pathogenicity of the parasite. The septate gregarines infect the midgut of shrimp Peneaus monodon and severe infection disturbs the intestinal tissues. Mostly gregarines of the genus Nematopsis have been identified from cultured peneaid shrimp. It has worldwide in distribution. In India, gregarine parasites have so far been reported from penaeid shrimps of Bombay and Kerala. The species which was isolated from the midgut of shrimp Peneaus monodon collected from Kharibari area of Sunderbans. 9 out of 20 i.e. 45% of the randomly sampled hosts were found to be infected with a species of the genus Nematopsis. Different developmental stages including trophozoites, sporadins, and gametocysts of the Nematopsis sp. infecting the shrimp have been isolated. No correlations have been established between incidence of infection and environmental parameters. PMID:21526032

  7. Management plan for a penaeid shrimp larviculture facility in Belize, Central America 

    E-print Network

    Skidmore,John D.

    1991-01-01

    progressed, my knowledge of shrimp larviculture became more comprehensive, and I was assigned further responsibilities. In May, 1990, I began working on the culture of algae. While working on this routine, I learned the basic "cook book" methods... of culturing algae. I was responsible for maintaining pure cultures, starting up mass cultures, mixing up nutrients, and regulating the distribution of algae to the tanks containing the larval shrimp. By the end of my internship at the LMSF-TX hatchery, I...

  8. Rapid 13 C\\/ 12 C turnover during growth of brown shrimp ( Penaeus aztecus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Fry; Connie Arnold

    1982-01-01

    Using natural-abundance 13C\\/12C ratios as tracers, carbon turnover rates were determined for postlarval brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, in five laboratory growth experiments. Although tissue turnover in adult animals generally occurs during maintenance metabolism and is a function of time, turnover for young postlarval shrimp was accelerated during growth, and was primarily a function of weight gained rather than time. Metabolic

  9. Genome-wide discovery of novel and conserved microRNAs in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Xi, Qian-Yun; Xiong, Yuan-Yan; Wang, Yuan-Mei; Cheng, Xiao; Qi, Qi-En; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-Bo; Wang, Li-Na; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Of late years, a large amount of conserved and species-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) have been performed on identification from species which are economically important but lack a full genome sequence. In this study, Solexa deep sequencing and cross-species miRNA microarray were used to detect miRNAs in white shrimp. We identified 239 conserved miRNAs, 14 miRNA* sequences and 20 novel miRNAs by bioinformatics analysis from 7,561,406 high-quality reads representing 325,370 distinct sequences. The all 20 novel miRNAs were species-specific in white shrimp and not homologous in other species. Using the conserved miRNAs from the miRBase database as a query set to search for homologs from shrimp expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 32 conserved computationally predicted miRNAs were discovered in shrimp. In addition, using microarray analysis in the shrimp fed with Panax ginseng polysaccharide complex, 151 conserved miRNAs were identified, 18 of which were significant up-expression, while 49 miRNAs were significant down-expression. In particular, qRT-PCR analysis was also performed for nine miRNAs in three shrimp tissues such as muscle, gill and hepatopancreas. Results showed that these miRNAs expression are tissue specific. Combining results of the three methods, we detected 20 novel and 394 conserved miRNAs. Verification with quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR) and Northern blot showed a high confidentiality of data. The study provides the first comprehensive specific miRNA profile of white shrimp, which includes useful information for future investigations into the function of miRNAs in regulation of shrimp development and immunology. PMID:25227525

  10. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a cell adhesion molecule, peroxinectin from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Hung Liu; Winton Cheng; Ching-Ming Kuo; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2004-01-01

    Expression of peroxinectin cDNA was obtained from haemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei using oligonucleotide primers based on the peroxinectin sequence of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. The peroxinectin of L. vannamei was constitutively expressed. The cloning of peroxinectin cDNA fragment was subjected to RT–PCR using degenerated primers. Both 3?- and 5?-regions were isolated by rapid

  11. An economic model incorporating shrimp growth and water quality parameters into a budget-simulation 

    E-print Network

    Hanson, Jerrell Scott

    1979-01-01

    , phyto- planktonic respiration and shrimp respiration to derive an hourly level. These water quality parameters are incorporated into a modi- fied von Bertalanffy equation for growth through the "physiological age" component. If the water quality... severely inhibit profits through the reduction affecting shrimp growth. Phyto- planktonic respiration is an important factor in dissolved oxygen and, thus, the characteristics of phytoplankton types is needed information. Allowing a constant water...

  12. The Use of Crude Shrimp Shell Powder for Chitinase Production by Serratia marcescens WF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús E. Mejía-Saulés; Krzysztof N. Waliszewski; Miguel A. Garcia; Ramon Cruz-Camarillo

    Summary From 102 Serratia marcescens strains screened, 57 strains showed chitinase activity and Serratia marcescens WF showed the highest chitinolytic activity so this strain was selected for further study on the use of crude shrimp waste for chitinase production. The concen- tration of crude shrimp shell content at 10-70 g\\/L, incubation temperature of 28-37 °C, pH=6-9, and time 24-96 h

  13. Presence, growth and survival characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica in oysters, shrimp and crab

    E-print Network

    Staller, Sue

    1979-01-01

    at Austin Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Carl Vanderzant This study dealt with the natural levels and types of Yersinia enterocolitica in oysters, shrimp and crab of the Gulf of Nexico, and the effect of refrigeration, freezing and heating... on this organism in these foods. Y. enterocolitica was recovered from 13. 3% of the oysters, 4% of the shrimp and 18. 9% of the crab samples examined. An extensive study of the biochemical character- istics of these isolates indicate that they belong primarily...

  14. Development of an in vitro binding assay for ecdysone receptor of mysid shrimp ( Americamysis bahia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Yokota; Sayaka Eguchi; Makoto Nakai

    2011-01-01

    A global effort has been made to establish screening and testing methods that can identify the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on invertebrates. The purpose of our study was to develop an in vitro receptor binding assay for ecdysone receptor (EcR) in mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia). We cloned mysid shrimp EcR cDNA (2888 nucleotides) and ultraspiracle (USP) cDNA (2116 nucleotides),

  15. Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shouming Feng; Wenbin Zhan; Jing Xing; Jun Li; Kai Yang; Jing Wang

    2008-01-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV\\u000a (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection,\\u000a feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those\\u000a in

  16. Immune and physiological responses in Pacific white shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei) to Vibrio alginolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Ling Hsieh; Yuan-Hwa Ruan; Yi-Chen Li; Pei-Shan Hsieh; Chin-Hwa Hu; Ching-Ming Kuo

    2008-01-01

    The susceptibility, physiological and immune responses of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei, under challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus were investigated for a 72-h period. The survival of shrimp challenged with V. alginolyticus was 86.7, 75.6, 57.8, 54.4, 48.9 and 44.4% after 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h, respectively. No significant differences in immune parameters were observed among the control

  17. The occurrence of Vibrio species in tropical shrimp culture environments; implications for food safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shubha Gopal; Subhendu K. Otta; Sanath Kumar; Indrani Karunasagar; Matsuaki Nishibuchi; Iddya Karunasagar

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of various Vibrio species in water, sediment and shrimp samples from multiple shrimp farm environments from the east and west coast of India was studied. The relative abundance was higher in west coast farms (ca. 104 cfu\\/ml water) when compared to the east coast (ca. 102 cfu\\/ml water). Vibrio alginolyticus (3–19%), V. parahaemolyticus (2–13%), V. harveyi (1–7%) and

  18. Antibiotic administration by osmotic infiltration in the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

    E-print Network

    Llobrera, Alcestis Trillo

    1980-01-01

    in this study. The shrimp were held in holding facilities at the Texas A&M University, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Aquatic Animal Medicine Laboratory. Ralston Purina Experimental Marine Ration No. 25 (Checkerboard Square, St... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology ANTIBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION BY OSMOTIC INFILTRATION IN THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII A Thesis by ALCESTIS TRILLO LLOBRERA Approved...

  19. Purification and characterization of ? 2-macroglobulin from the white shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Gollas-Galván; Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia; Claudia Vargas-Requena; Francisco Vargas-Albores

    2003-01-01

    ?2-Macroglobulin (?2M) is a broad-spectrum protease-binding protein abundant in plasma from vertebrates and several invertebrate phyla. This protein was purified from cell-free hemolymph of the white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, using Blue-Sepharose and Phenyl-Sepharose chromatography. The shrimp ?2M is a 380 kDa protein, a homodimer of two apparently identical subunits of ?180 kDa linked by disulphide bridges. The amino acid sequence

  20. The effect of environmental salinity on organoleptic characteristics of penaeid shrimp 

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Linda Suter

    1984-01-01

    Papadopoulos, B. S. , Texas AAN University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Gunner Firms The effects of environmental salinity on the moisture content, sodium chloride content, free amino acid (FAA) concentration and organoleptic characteristics... sampling period 29 Duncan's multiple range test comparing moisture content of shrimp from three different salinities over time 31 Duncan's multiple range test comparing sodium chloride content of shrimp from three different salinities at each sampling...

  1. Penetration mechanism and distribution gradients of sodium tripolyphosphate in peeled and deveined shrimp 

    E-print Network

    Tenhet, Vickie Lynn

    1979-01-01

    PENETRATION MECHANISM AND DISTRIBUTION GRADIENTS OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE IN PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP A Thesis by VICKIE LYNN TENHET Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PENETRATION MECHANISM AND DISTRIBUTION GRADIENTS OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE IN PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP A Thesis by VICKIE LYNN TENHET Approved as to style...

  2. Presence, growth and survival characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica in oysters, shrimp and crab 

    E-print Network

    Staller, Sue

    1979-01-01

    PRESENCE, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YERSI NZA ENTEROCOLITI CA IN OYSTERS, SHRIMP AND CRAB A Thesis by SUE STALLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PRESENCE, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YERSZNZA ENTEROCOLZTZCA IN OYSTERS, SHRIMP AND CRAB A Thesis by SUE STALLER Approved as to style and content by: Chairman o f...

  3. Expression of immune-related genes in larval stages of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pikul Jiravanichpaisal; Narongsak Puanglarp; Sasithon Petkon; Seri Donnuea; Irene Söderhäll; Kenneth Söderhäll

    2007-01-01

    Shrimp undergo several morphologically different stages during development and therefore the expression of some immune-related genes such as prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (Prx), crustin (Crus), penaeidin (Pen), transglutaminase (TGase), haemocyanin (Hc) and astakine (Ak) were determined during larval development of the shrimp (Penaeus monodon), i.e. nauplius 4 (N4), protozoea 1 and 3 (Z1 and 3), mysis 3 (My 3), post-larvae 3

  4. Genomic organization of the translationally controlled tumor protein ( TCTP ) gene from shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dandan Chen; Nanhai He; Kaiyu Lei; Xun Xu

    2009-01-01

    The shrimp translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene was previously found up-regulated in response to viral infection.\\u000a In order to further understand the transcriptional regulation of TCTP gene expression under viral challenge, the 5?-flanking promoter region of the TCTP gene in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-TCTP) was cloned by using genomic walking method. The sequence shows that this region contains many

  5. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jayasekara; D. B. Drown; R. P. Sharma

    1986-01-01

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day

  6. Male reproduction in penaeid shrimp: sperm quality and spermatophore production in wild and captive populations

    E-print Network

    Leung-Trujillo, Joanna R

    1990-01-01

    MALE REPRODUCTION IN PENAEID SHRIMP: SPERM QUALITY AND SPERMATOPHORE PRODUCTION IN WILD AND CAPTIVE POPULATIONS A Thesis by JOANNA RUTH TRUJILLO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences MALE REPRODUCTION IN PENAEID SHRIMP: SPERM QUALITY AND SPERMATOPHORE PRODUCTION IN WILD AND CAPTIVE POPULATIONS A Thesis by JOANNA RUTH TRUJILLO...

  7. Culture of penaeid shrimp in brackfish water ponds receiving thermal effluents 

    E-print Network

    Fredieu, Barbara Jane

    1978-01-01

    (temperature, con- ductivity, dissolved oxygen, and pH) were measured at least 6 days a week. Cold weather conditions combined with low conductivity probably posed the biggest problem in the white shrimp experiment. Survival rates in this experiment... research facilities. Ponds numbered 1 through 25, west to east . . . 13 Temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen levels for pond 2 (fed white shrimp) from July, 1976, through November, 1976. Solid line connects surface values; dots represents...

  8. Oxygen, carbon, and sulfur cycling in the sediments of hyper-eutrophic mesocosms (shrimp mariculture ponds) 

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Matthew Stewart

    1992-01-01

    be estimated from feed input rates, in terms of carbon, with a high degree of significance. Significant portions of the nutrition of the shrimp, however, appeared to come from bacteria and phytoplankton in and on the sediment surface, rather than directly... demand. Sulfate reducing bacteria played a relatively minor role in the breakdown of organic matter and consumption of oxygen in King Ranch ponds. At the Laguna Madre Shrimp Farm, sulfide oxidation accounted for greater than 50/o of the sediment...

  9. Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA variation in Cuban populations of the shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. García-Machado; A. Robainas; G. Espinosa; M. Oliva; J. Páez; N. Verdecia; M. Monnerot

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the genetic diversity among populations of the shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis, the most abundant penaeid species around Cuba. A total of 25 allozyme loci were analyzed in samples of shrimps from seven\\u000a localities at the south central platform of the island (Ana Mara Gulf). Samples from three of these localities and from Bataban\\u000a Gulf and Guacanayabo Gulf at the

  10. An economic model incorporating shrimp growth and water quality parameters into a budget-simulation

    E-print Network

    Hanson, Jerrell Scott

    1979-01-01

    AN ECONOMIC MODEL INCORPORATING SHRIMP GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS INTO A BUDGET-SIMULATION A Thesis by JERRELL SCOTT HANSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics AN ECONOMIC MODEL INCORPORATING SHRIMP GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS INTO A BUDGET-SIMULATION A Thesis by JERRELL SCOTT HANSON Approved as to style and content...

  11. Experimental transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from crabs to shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Kanchanaphum, P; Wongteerasupaya, C; Sitidilokratana, N; Boonsaeng, V; Panyim, S; Tassanakajon, A; Withyachumnarnkul, B; Flegel, T W

    1998-09-11

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of the black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon is a recently discovered baculo-like virus disease which is currently the cause of very serious and widespread losses in the shrimp industry in Thailand and elsewhere in Asia. Three suspected crab carriers of this virus commonly found in shrimp-rearing areas were investigated. These were Sesarma sp., Scylla serrata and Uca pugilator. All these crabs could be infected with WSSV by injection and they sustained heavy viral infections for up to 45 d (confirmed by normal histology, specific in situ DNA hybridization and PCR amplification) without visible signs of disease or mortality. All of them also transferred the disease to P. monodon via water while physically separated in aquarium cohabitation tests. Transfer of the virus to the shrimp was monitored using in situ DNA hybridization and PCR assay at 12 h intervals after cohabitation began. With U. pugilator, WSSV could be detected in the shrimp cohabitants after 24 h using PCR amplification and after 60 h using in situ hybridization. With S. serrata, the shrimp were positive for WSSV after 36 h using PCR and after 60 h using DNA in situ hybridization. With Sesarma sp. they were positive after 48 h using PCR and 72 h using in situ hybridization. These laboratory studies demonstrated that crab carriers of WSSV may pose a real threat to cultivated shrimp. However, the studies were carried out in containers with a small volume and with relatively clean sea water as compared to shrimp cultivation ponds. Pond-based studies are now needed to determine whether factors such as pond volume, pond water quality and shrimp and crab behavior can influence the rate and success of transfer. PMID:9789973

  12. Spatial distribution of extractable organohalogens in northern pink shrimp in the North Atlantic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina S. Bottaro; Joe W. Kiceniuk; Amares Chatt

    1999-01-01

    Extractable organohalogens (EOX) are organic compounds that contain chlorine, bromine and\\/or iodine, which can be separated\\u000a from the matrix by liquid\\/liquid or liquid\\/solid extraction. A combination of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)\\u000a and solvent extraction methods has been developed for the determination of EOX from the shrimpPandalus borealis. Levels of EOX were evaluated for spatial trends for shrimp caught in

  13. Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Larsson; Carl Folke; Nils Kautsky

    1994-01-01

    Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand\\u000a for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on\\u000a semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that\\u000a is required

  14. The application of SHRIMP to Phanerozoic geochronology; a critical appraisal of four zircon standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lance P Black; Sandra L Kamo; Ian S Williams; Roland Mundil; Donald W Davis; Russell J Korsch; Chris Foudoulis

    2003-01-01

    Derivation of Phanerozoic zircon 206Pb\\/238U ages by SHRIMP depends on calibration against an independently dated standard. The qualities of four different zircon standards (SL13, QGNG, AS3 and TEMORA 1) are assessed herein. Not all of these behave consistently on SHRIMP with respect to their ages as determined by IDTIMS. SL13, the most commonly used standard over the past decade and

  15. The areal extent of brown shrimp habitat suitability in Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA: targeting vegetated habitat restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M. Smith; Janet A. Nestlerode; Linda C. Harwell; Pete Bourgeois

    2010-01-01

    The availability of wetlands and shallow water habitats significantly influences Gulf of Mexico (GOM) penaeid shrimp fishery\\u000a productivity. However, the GOM region has the highest rate of wetland loss in the USA. Protection and management of these\\u000a vital GOM habitats are critical to sustainable shrimp fisheries. Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a major component of GOM fisheries. We present an

  16. Oxidative stress, DNA damage and osmolality in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to acute low temperature stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Qiu; Wei-Na Wang; Li-juan Wang; Yu-Feng Liu; An-Li Wang

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the genotoxic, physiological and immunological effects of short-term acute low temperature stress on the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, we rapidly transferred shrimp from tanks at 23±2°C to aquaria at the same temperature (controls) or 12±2°C for 12h. Changes in the shrimp hemocyte respiratory burst activity and DNA damage were examined during and after exposure to the temperature

  17. The immune response of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and its susceptibility to Photobacterium damselae subsp . damselae under temperature stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng-I Wang; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2006-01-01

    Tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon held in 25‰ seawater and 26 °C seawater were injected with Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae grown in TSB at a dose of 8.48×104 colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp?1, and then reared onward at water temperatures of 22, 26 (control), 30 and 34 °C. Over 24–96 h, the cumulative mortalities of P. damselae subsp. damselae-injected shrimp held in 22 and 34 °C

  18. Abundance and seasonal migrations of the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) within Iraqi waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Salman; M. H. Ali; A. H. Y. Al-AdhubI

    1990-01-01

    Migration of Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) from the Arabian Gulf to nursery grounds in the inland waters of Iraq extends from May\\/June to January\\/February. Shrimp ranging in size from 3–125 mm total length were found in inland waters. In the shallow waters of the Al-Assaflya small-sized shrimp only were caught, while in the Marshes large-sized shrimp were abundant. Maximum numbers

  19. Effect of dietary protein on muscle collagen, collagenase and shear force of farmed white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JosafatMarina Ezquerra Brauer; JesúsAarón Salazar Leyva; Lorena Bringas Alvarado; Ofelia Rouzaud Sández

    2003-01-01

    The effect of three protein sources (sardine-based diet, squid-based diet and commercial diet) in feed on white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) growth, muscle collagen, collagenase activity and shear force was determined. Shrimp fed on diets with squid and sardine protein exhibited greater growth ( p<0.05) than those fed with commercial feed. Shrimp muscle collagen obtained from each treatment group showed

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of a mammalian homologue of a translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene from Penaeus monodon shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phuwadol Bangrak; Potchanapond Graidist; Wilaiwan Chotigeat; Amornrat Phongdara

    2004-01-01

    White spot syndrome, caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), is a deadly disease of shrimps, causing a catastrophic loss in shrimp industries worldwide. In order to investigate molecular response of shrimp haemocyte to WSSV infection, we performed subtraction hybridization of mRNAs from healthy and WSSV-infected haemocyte. One of the genes that were severely down-regulated in moribund WSSV-infected-haemocyte was translationally

  1. Spatial distributions of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) populations in southeastern estuarine ecosystems influenced by urbanization

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.; Daugomah, J.; Devane, J. [National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States); Porter, D.; Edwards, D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Urbanization of coastal regions has resulted in the increased discharge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons trace metals and habitat changes/modifications in adjacent upland areas which may affect grass shrimp populations. A study was conducted comparing larval abundance and adult grass shrimp biomass, abundance, size structure and sex ratios in an urbanized estuary, Murrells Inlet with pristine North Inlet, a NOAA national estuarine research reserve and sanctuary site. A total of 60 sites were sampled during the peak of grass shrimp abundance and compared in terms of spatial distributions and other relevant ancillary information. Factors such as sediment contaminant levels, physico-chemical parameters and land-use habitat modification were statistically compared using a Geographical Information Processing (GIP) techniques and appropriate spatial statistical methods. GIP results indicated similar levels of larval abundance in both estuaries and identified specific nursery ground regions in both estuaries. Adult grass shrimp abundances were greatly reduced in urban areas and grass shrimp desert regions were identified. These areas were correlated with regions having high levels of chemical contaminants and greatest physical disturbances. The mortality rate between larval and adult stages was much higher in urban areas suggesting that urbanization had a profound impact on grass shrimp.

  2. Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shouming; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Li, Jun; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2008-08-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection, feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those in healthy shrimp. Secondly, necrotic, broken and disintegrated cells were often observed, and a typical hematolysis was present in the haemolymph smear of WSSV-infected shrimp. Thirdly, necrosis and typical apoptosis of hemocytes were detected with TEM in the peripheral haemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp. Hyalinocytes and semi-granulocytes with masses of WSSVs in their nuclei often appeared, whereas no granular hemocytes with WSSV were found in the hepatopancreas of moribund infected shrimps. All our results supported that hemocytes were the main target cells of WSSV, and hyalinocytes and semigranular hemocytes seemed to be more favorable for WSSV infection in F. chinensis.

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical, microbial quality and shelf life of shrimp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocao?lu, Asl?; Sükrü Demirci, Ahmet; Gümüs, Tuncay; Demirci, Mehmet

    2012-12-01

    In the present study the combined effect of gamma irradiation (1, 3 and 5 kGy) and storage at two temperatures: refrigeration (+4 °C) and frozen (-18 °C), on the shelf-life extension of fresh shrimp meat was investigated. The study was based on microbiological and physicochemical changes occuring in the shrimp samples. Total volatile base nitrogen values and trimethylamine values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly lower than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures, and the rate of decrease was more pronounced in samples irradiated at the higher dose (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly higher than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). pH values of shrimp samples were affected significantly by both irradiating dose and storage temperatures (p<0.05). Microbial counts for non-irradiated shrimp samples were higher than the respective irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). The results revealed that irradiation at high dose (5 kGy) might enhance lipid oxidation, although the growth of microorganisms and protein oxidation was inhibited.

  4. Unruly women and invisible workers: the shrimp traders of Mazatlán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Torres, María L

    2012-01-01

    During the 1980s, a group of women from rural communities in the Mexican state of Sinaloa organized a grassroots social movement in order to gain legal access to the sale of shrimp. The movement reached its peak in 1984, with the formation of a shrimp traders union and the establishment of a shrimp marketplace in the tourist city of Mazatlán. Despite the long trajectory of the movement and the success of the shrimp market, these women and their work have been completely ignored by government agencies in charge of the development and management of the fishing industry. For the most part, one gets to read about the shrimp traders only in tourist-oriented brochures depicting them as a “local attraction,” something to be seen while one is touring the city on a private charter bus en route to the Archaeological Museum or to the upscale jewelry shops in the Golden Zone. In this article, I examine how women used their gender and their identity as rural workers to defy the state and its policies, overcome poverty, and take control of the local marketing of shrimp. Another objective of this article is to show why and how women engaged in collective action so they could be legitimized as workers and how gender shaped their individual experiences. PMID:22545273

  5. Silencing shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genes by siRNA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianyang; Han, Fang; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2007-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp pathogen causing large economic losses all over the world. So far, however, there is no efficient approach to control this virus. RNA interference (RNAi), which has been applied to silence virus genes in eukaryotic organisms. In this investigation, a specific 21bp short interfering RNA (vp28-siRNA) targeting a major envelope protein gene (vp28) of WSSV was used to induce gene silencing in vivo in Penaeus japonicus shrimp. It was found that the transcription and expression of vp28 gene were silenced by the sequence-specific vp28-siRNA. However, the RNAi effect disappeared or significantly weakened even if one-nucleotide mutation existed in the vp28-siRNA. As revealed by quantitative PCR, the vp28-siRNA caused a significant reduction in viral DNA production of WSSV-infected shrimp. When treated with the vp28-siRNA, WSSV-infected shrimp had a reduced mortality rate. After three injections of the vp28-siRNA, the virus was completely eradicated from WSSV-infected shrimp. These findings suggest that RNAi is capable of silencing sequence-specific genes of WSSV and might constitute a new therapeutic strategy for WSSV infection in shrimp. PMID:17011052

  6. Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) play a pivotal trophic role in enhancing Ruppia maritima.

    PubMed

    McCall, Donna Drury; Rakocinski, Chet F

    2007-03-01

    Coupled trophic-engineer interactions are potentially important for maintaining habitat function and ecosystem services. As ephemeral submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), Ruppia maritima has a short well-defined growth-senescence cycle and should benefit from any ecological interaction that enhances its physical condition and longevity. Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) are abundant facultative grazers of epiphytic algae and conveyors of nutrients in tidal marsh and SAV habitats. Grass shrimp addition consistently enhanced Ruppia biomass and shoot density in a series of three field experiments conducted in Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Mississippi, USA. In two experiments, epiphyte grazing by grass shrimp enhanced Ruppia by inhibiting die-back during the mid- and latter stages of the Ruppia life cycle. Despite a nonsignificant epiphyte grazing effect, grass shrimp also enhanced Ruppia during its early growth stage in a third experiment. In that experiment, nutrient addition also significantly increased epiphyte biomass. Grass shrimp may have fostered the early growth of Ruppia through direct deposition of feces to the sediment in the third experiment. Grass shrimp play a pivotal trophic role in the maintenance of Ruppia through context-dependent interactions involving stage of the SAV life cycle, season, and nutrient limitation. PMID:17503590

  7. Recent insights into host-pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, M S; Ponniah, A G

    2015-07-01

    Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host-pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host-pathogen interaction is discussed. PMID:24953507

  8. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the processing of shrimp in the Northern contiguous States, including Washington, Oregon, California, Maine, New Hampshire, and...

  9. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the processing of shrimp in the Northern contiguous States, including Washington, Oregon, California, Maine, New Hampshire, and...

  10. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the processing of shrimp in the Northern contiguous States, including Washington, Oregon, California, Maine, New Hampshire, and...

  11. Dietary effect of Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immune gene expression in white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Jang, Yeoung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kang, Bong-Jo; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of a Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immunostimulatory response in white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Shrimps with an average initial weight of 0.5 ± 0.04 g were collected and acclimatized for 10 days. Four experimental diets including a control diet, a probiotic diet and 0.25 and 0.5% of R. coreanus ethanolic extract (RcEE) diets were used to feed the shrimps. After 8 weeks of culture, shrimp fed with probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet had showed significant enhancement in the growth while shrimp fed with 0.5% RcEE diet showed significantly increased expression of immune genes and antioxidant enzymes activities. One week of challenge experiments for all the four diets fed shrimps showed decreased cumulative mortality in the 0.5% RcEE diets fed shrimps, when compared with the probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet fed shrimp groups. The results indicates that R. coreanus ethanolic extract could be used as a herbal immunostimulant for shrimps to increase its immunity and disease resistance against the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus. PMID:23811352

  12. The effect of dietary Panax ginseng polysaccharide extract on the immune responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Long; Xi, Qian-Yun; Yang, Lin; Li, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-Bo; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2011-02-01

    The immunostimulatory effects of orally administered Panax ginseng root or its polysaccharides (GSP) in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were investigated in this study. Shrimp were fed a diet containing 0.4 g kg?¹ GSP over a period of 84 days, during which the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and expressions of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (cyt-SOD), CAT, GSH-Px, and peroxiredoxin (Prx) genes were determined in various tissues of the shrimp. Results showed that the shrimp fed the GSP diet had significantly increased ACP and AKP activities in the gills. The GSP-fed shrimp also displayed significantly increased T-SOD and GSH-Px activities in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp; meanwhile there was enhanced CAT activity in the gills, but decreased MDA content in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscle. The mRNA expressions of cyt-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and Prx were significantly elevated in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp fed the GSP diet for 84 days, compared with that of the control. Therefore, GSP can be used as an immunostimulant for shrimp through dietary administration to increase immune enzyme activity and modify expression of immune genes in shrimp. PMID:21129487

  13. Relating large-scale climate variability to local species abundance: ENSO forcing and shrimp in Breton Sound, Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piazza, B.P.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Keim, B.D.

    2010-01-01

    Climate creates environmental constraints (filters) that affect the abundance and distribution of species. In estuaries, these constraints often result from variability in water flow properties and environmental conditions (i.e. water flow, salinity, water temperature) and can have significant effects on the abundance and distribution of commercially important nekton species. We investigated links between large-scale climate variability and juvenile brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus abundance in Breton Sound estuary, Louisiana (USA). Our goals were to (1) determine if a teleconnection exists between local juvenile brown shrimp abundance and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and (2) relate that linkage to environmental constraints that may affect juvenile brown shrimp recruitment to, and survival in, the estuary. Our results identified a teleconnection between winter ENSO conditions and juvenile brown shrimp abundance in Breton Sound estuary the following spring. The physical connection results from the impact of ENSO on winter weather conditions in Breton Sound (air pressure, temperature, and precipitation). Juvenile brown shrimp abundance effects lagged ENSO by 3 mo: lower than average abundances of juvenile brown shrimp were caught in springs following winter El Niño events, and higher than average abundances of brown shrimp were caught in springs following La Niña winters. Salinity was the dominant ENSO-forced environmental filter for juvenile brown shrimp. Spring salinity was cumulatively forced by winter river discharge, winter wind forcing, and spring precipitation. Thus, predicting brown shrimp abundance requires incorporating climate variability into models.

  14. Peptidomic analysis of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) hemolymph by magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

    2013-03-01

    Peptides in shrimp hemolymph play an important role in the innate immune response. Analysis of hemolymph will help to detect and identify potential novel biomarkers of microbial infection. We used magnetic bead-based purification (ClinProt system) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to characterize shrimp hemolymph peptides. Shrimp serum and plasma were used as the source of samples for comparative analysis, and it was found that serum was more suitable for shrimp hemolymph peptidomic analysis. To screen potential specific biomarkers in serum of immune-challenged shrimps, we applied magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS to serum samples from 10 immune-challenged and 10 healthy shrimps. The spectra were analyzed using FlexAnalysis 3.0 and ClinProTools 2.1 software. Thirteen peptide peaks significantly different between the two groups were selected as candidate biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infection. The diagnostic model established by genetic algorithm using five of these peaks was able to discriminate LPS-challenged shrimps from healthy control shrimps with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. Our approach in MALDITOF MS-based peptidomics is a powerful tool for screening bioactive peptides or biomarkers derived from hemolymph, and will help to enable a better understanding of the innate immune response of shrimps.

  15. Measurement of pollution levels of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in water, soil, sediment, and shrimp to identify possible impacts on shrimp production at Jiquilisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Nomen, Rosa; Sempere, Julià; Chávez, Francisco; de López, Nelly Amaya; Rovira, Ma Dolores

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to identify levels of several organochlorine and organophosphorus compounds in shrimp-raising areas of coastal El Salvador, to assess potential impacts on shrimp growth and survival that hamper the sustainability of aquaculture in the region. The paper reports the current levels of ?-HCH, 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, parathion, methyl parathion, and etoprophos in soils (depth 20 cm), sediments (depth 5 cm), shrimp (Penaeus sp.), and water of three rearing ponds and also in the sediment (depth 5 cm) and water surrounding those ponds in Jiquilisco Bay. Sampling was carried out during the dry (January-March) and rainy (June-August) seasons of 2008. The presence of pesticides in the samples of water, shrimp, and sediment at shrimp ponds was not detected in either season; however, in soil samples (depth 20 cm) taken from these ponds, heptachlor, endrin, dieldrin, 4,4'-DDD, and 4,4'-DDT were identified at concentrations below the method limit of quantification (LOQ), and 4,4'-DDE was found in a concentration falling in the range from 3.85 to 19.61 ng/g. In samples of water taken at the bay water intakes to the rearing ponds, we observed dieldrin concentrations in the range between 0.085 ng/mL and 0.182 ng/mL during the dry season. In the samples of sediments taken in the surrounding areas of shrimp ponds, we found-for both seasons-that in 60 % of the samples, 4,4'-DDE was present in concentrations ranging from 3.75 ng/g to 30.97 ng/g. Additionally, in the rainy season, we observed heptachlor in sediment at concentrations below the method quantification limit. It was concluded that organochlorine compounds from pesticides are still present in Jiquilisco Bay, trapped in deep sediment, even though they have been banned since the 1980s. These were not detected in shrimp tissue, surface water, and shallow sediment in rearing ponds, and hence, we do not believe their presence has any major impact on shrimp production in sampled areas. PMID:22573096

  16. Cation-dependent nutrient transport in shrimp digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Tamla; Mozo, Julie; Wilson, Jennifer; Ahearn, Gregory A

    2012-02-01

    Purified epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were produced from the hepatopancreas of the Atlantic White shrimp, Litopeneaus setiferus, using standard methods originally developed for mammalian tissues and previously applied to other crustacean and echinoderm epithelia. These vesicles were used to study the cation dependency of sugar and amino acid transport across luminal membranes of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. (3)H-D: -glucose uptake by BBMV against transient sugar concentration gradients occurred when either transmembrane sodium or potassium gradients were the only driving forces for sugar accumulation, suggesting the presence of a possible coupled transport system capable of using either cation. (3)H-L: -histidine transport was only stimulated by a transmembrane potassium gradient, while (3)H-L: -leucine uptake was enhanced by either a sodium or potassium gradient. These responses suggest the possible presence of a potassium-dependent transporter that accommodates either amino acid and a sodium-dependent system restricted only to L: -leucine. Uptake of (3)H-L: -leucine was significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) by several metallic cations (e.g., Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), or Co(2+)) at external pH values of 7.0 or 5.0 (internal pH 7.0), suggesting a potential synergistic role of the cations in the transmembrane transfer of amino acids. (3)H-L: -histidine influxes (15 suptakes) were hyperbolic functions of external [zinc] or [manganese], following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent affinity constant (e.g., K (m)) for manganese was an order of magnitude smaller (K (m) = 0.22 ?M Mn) than that for zinc (K (m) = 1.80 ?M Zn), while no significant difference (P > 0.05) occurred between their maximal transport velocities (e.g., J (max)). These results suggest that a number of cation-dependent nutrient transport systems occur on the shrimp brush border membrane and aid in the absorption of these important dietary elements. PMID:21983793

  17. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    PubMed

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens. PMID:25779823

  18. Grow-out of sandfish Holothuria scabra in ponds shows that co-culture with shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris is not viable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johann D. Bell; Natacha N. Agudo; Steven W. Purcell; Pascal Blazer; Mateo Simutoga; Dominique Pham; Luc Della Patrona

    2007-01-01

    We examined the potential for producing the large numbers of sandfish (Holothuria scabra) needed for restocking programmes by co-culturing juveniles with the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris in earthen ponds. Our experiments in hapas within shrimp ponds were designed to detect any deleterious effects of sandfish on shrimp, and vice versa. These experiments showed that a high stocking density of juvenile sandfish

  19. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on HighPerformance Computer Architecture, February, 1996. Protected, Userlevel DMA for the SHRIMP Network Interface

    E-print Network

    Felten, Edward W.

    , February, 1996. Protected, User­level DMA for the SHRIMP Network Interface Matthias A. Blumrich, Cezary in building network interface hardware for the SHRIMP multicomputer. 1 Introduction Direct Memory Access (DMA, user­level DMA mechanism (UDMA) developed at Princeton Univer­ sity as part of the SHRIMP project [4

  20. In Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture, May, 1996, pp. 296307. Early Experience with MessagePassing on the SHRIMP Multicomputer

    E-print Network

    Clark, Douglas W.

    . 296­307. Early Experience with Message­Passing on the SHRIMP Multicomputer Edward W. Felten, Richard D Abstract The SHRIMP multicomputer provides virtual memory­ mapped communication (VMMC), which supports. This paper reports our early experience with message­ passing on a small, working SHRIMP multicomputer. We

  1. Early Experience with MessagePassing on the SHRIMP Multicomputer Edward W. Felten, Richard D. Alpert, Angelos Bilas, Matthias A. Blumrich, Douglas W. Clark,

    E-print Network

    Felten, Edward W.

    Early Experience with Message­Passing on the SHRIMP Multicomputer Edward W. Felten, Richard D Abstract The SHRIMP multicomputer provides virtual memory­ mapped communication (VMMC), which supports. This paper reports our early experience with message­ passing on a small, working SHRIMP multicomputer. We

  2. SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN AN ALPHEID SHRIMP AND A XANTHOID CRAB IN SALT MARSHES OF MID-ATLANTIC STATES, U.S.A.

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN AN ALPHEID SHRIMP AND A XANTHOID CRAB IN SALT MARSHES OF MID-ATLANTIC STATES, U T Instances of mutualism and commensalism between alpheid shrimp and other marine invertebrates and fish snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis) participates in a symbiosis with the black-clawed mud crab

  3. Sequence polymorphism-based identification and quantification of Vibrio nigripulchritudo at the species and subspecies level targeting an emerging pathogen for cultured shrimp in New Caledonia.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    at the species and subspecies level targeting an emerging pathogen for cultured shrimp in New Caledonia. Cyrille-time PCR, mariculture, pathogen, Vibrio, cluster-specific, shrimp. Abstract: In a previous study, we of this molecular diagnostic tool evidenced the colonization of the shrimp pond ecosystem by the pathogenic cluster

  4. Studies on the immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharide gel extracted from Durio zibethinus in Penaeus monodon shrimp against Vibrio harveyi and WSSV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Komsil Pholdaeng; Sunanta Pongsamart

    2010-01-01

    Oral administration of polysaccharide gel (PG) in shrimp diets revealed immunostimulating potential and disease resistance in Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp). PG from the fruit-rind of Durio zibethinus has been characterized to be a pectic polysaccharide with immunomodulating and antibacterial activities. PG inhibited growth of the shrimp bacterial pathogen, Vibrio harveyi 1526, by agar diffusion and broth microdilution tests. Clear

  5. Immune response of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after a concurrent infection with white spot syndrome virus and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinn-Pyng Yeh; Ying-Nan Chen; Shu-Ling Hsieh; Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated immunological changes in viral-infected white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. White shrimp were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or co-infected with WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The complete (100%) mortality rate of shrimp was caused by viral infection due to immune parameters being

  6. Effect of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) muscle stored on ice.

    PubMed

    García-Sifuentes, Celia Olivia; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Scheuren-Acevedo, Susana María; Carvallo-Ruiz, Gisela; Garcia-Sanchez, Guillermina; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    The effect of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of raw and cooked white shrimp was studied. Hue angle was greater (p???0.05) for stressed raw shrimp compared to control (greener color); whereas a lower angle was detected for cooked stressed shrimp (redder/orange coloration). In addition, hue angle increased (p???0.05) over the ice storage period for control and stressed shrimp (raw and/or cooked). Muscle hardness and shear force showed no differences when comparing control and stressed shrimp (raw and/or cooked). However, during ice storage, shear force increased (p???0.05) by 22% and 9% for control and stressed raw shrimp, respectively; in contrast, shear force and muscle hardness decreased for cooked shrimp (p???0.05). Control showed more (p???0.05) elasticity than stressed cooked shrimp. Stressed raw shrimp showed a water holding capacity 10.8% lower (p???0.05) than control. However, during the storage, water holding capacity increased (p???0.05) reaching similar values to control after day 4. Muscle protein solubility of stressed shrimp was 31% lower than control; however, no differences (p?>?0.05) were observed after the second day. The thermal stability of myosin (T max) showed differences (p???0.05) among control and stressed shrimp, whereas no differences for ?H were observed. Results showed the influence of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of white shrimp muscle. PMID:23685566

  7. Antimicrobial effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella contamination of raw shrimp is a food safety concern in the U.S. and other countries. This research evaluated the effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere (MA) and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp. Growth profiles of a Salmonella spp. cocktail (6 strains),...

  8. Emigration of penaeid shrimp from the once-through cooling lake of Cedar Bayou Steam Electric Generating Station, Baytown, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Migration and distribution of two decapod shrimp, Penaeus setiferus and P. aztecus, in the cooling-water system of a power plant on the Texas coast were investigated, with emphasis on the seaward emigration from the cooling lake. Samples were collected every two weeks for a year by straining water leaving the lake over a drop structure, trawling in the cooling lake, and flushed from the intake screen. Shrimp catches at the drop structure were positively correlated with the standing population in the cooling lake. Significantly more shrimp passed over the drop structure nocturnally than diurnally. Shrimp caught at the drop structure diurnally averaged either smaller or similar in size to the shrimp taken there at night. The passage of a cold front enhanced migration and initially increased and then reduced the mean size of shrimp passing the drop structure. Higher percentages of the shrimp population in the cooling lake emigrated near new moon than full moon. The moon-phase effects appeared to be due to the moon cycle itself rather than to the intinsity of moon light. Significantly more shrimp of both species emigrated during the hours of ebbing than incoming tide. As the lake surface was above high tide level, an endogenous timing mechanism rather than evironmental factors associated with tidal rhythms controlled this emigration pattern. A temperature drop of up to 0.23 C/hour significantly increased P. aztecus emigration.

  9. Digestive enzyme activity and food ingesta in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) as a function of body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Gamboa-delgado; Cesar Molina-poveda; Chantal Cahu

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate variations of digestive enzyme activities in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) reared in commercial ponds under semi-intensive conditions. Shrimp were collected at each body weight increase of 2 g. As the shrimp grew (2-12 g), significant increases in the activities of lipase and chymotrypsin were observed. The total protease activity decreased from 6 g onwards. Trypsin

  10. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, osmolality and electrolyte levels of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in relation to size and molt stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu; Da-Fun Yan; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2002-01-01

    The whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) was examined for hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, osmotic and ion concentrations in relation to sex, size and molt stage. No significant difference in hemolymph variables was observed between male and female shrimp with body weight in the range of 4.69–32.57 g. With regard to the molt cycle, hemolymph protein and oxyhemocyanin levels were highest

  11. USE OF GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO LARVAE IN FIELD BIOASSAYS OF THE EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF INTO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations of the effects of runoff from pesticide sprayed fields on survivorship of the larvae of the grass shrimp are described. ravid shrimp were held in cages in the surface waters of two estuarine creeks; one creek received runoff from fields sprayed with the pesticides ...

  12. Dietary ?-Glucan and Nucleotide Effects on Growth, Survival and Immune Responses of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Shivananda Murthy; P. Li; A. L. Lawrence; D. M. Gatlin III

    2009-01-01

    Effects of dietary supplementation of ?-glucans and nucleotides on growth, survival and immune responses of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) at a low salinity (5 ppt) were evaluated during a 30 d feeding trial. Final mean weight of shrimp fed nucleotides at 0.5%?was highest and significantly different from those fed the basal diet or diets supplemented with ?-glucans. Survival

  13. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda; Wiboon Lapjatupon; Suthasinee Chaisilapasung; Dhanapong Sangsue; Chutima Tantikitti

    2008-01-01

    Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg -1 ) were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was

  14. Calcium carbonate crystallization in the ?-chitin matrix of the shell of pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis, during frozen storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mikkelsen; S. B. Engelsen; H. C. B. Hansen; O. Larsen; L. H. Skibsted

    1997-01-01

    Calcium carbonate precipitates in the shell of pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis, during frozen storage (investigated for temperatures above ? 30°C), and as a result white spots appear in the shell. During continued frozen storage the white spots grow in size and eventually cover the entire, originally transparent, shell. Material isolated from shrimp shells was dried and subjected to infrared and

  15. 75 FR 47771 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns...a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least...Ltd., and Western Seafood Processing and Exporting Factory (collectively...Cam Ranh Seafoods Processing Enterprise PTE...

  16. 76 FR 64307 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ...coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns...a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least...Camau Frozen Seafood Processing Import Export Corporation...5 aka Camau Frozen Seafood Processing Import & Export aka...

  17. Screening for potential probiotic bacteria to reduce prevalence of WSSV and IHHNV in whiteleg shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) under experimental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karla Y. Leyva-Madrigal; Antonio Luna-González; César M. Escobedo-Bonilla; Jesús A. Fierro-Coronado; Ignacio E. Maldonado-Mendoza

    This study evaluated the effect of Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus hemolyticus as probiotics in whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei naturally infected with WSSV and IHHNV. All bacteria were isolated from the gut of wild brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus californiensis). Presumptive lactic acid bacteria were characterized for hemolytic and enzymatic activity, hydrophobicity, growth, and molecular identification. Two mixtures of four isolates were tested

  18. 66 FR 14862 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-03-14

    ...the Gulf of Mexico; Prohibition of Trap Gear in the Royal Red Shrimp Fishery in the...interim rule that prohibits the use of trap gear in the royal red shrimp fishery within...days. The intended effect is to prevent gear conflict and overfishing in the royal...

  19. 65 FR 56500 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-09-19

    ...the Gulf of Mexico; Prohibition of Trap Gear in the Royal Red Shrimp Fishery in the...interim rule prohibits the use of trap gear in the royal red shrimp fishery within...this emergency interim rule is to prevent gear conflict and overfishing in the royal...

  20. PARTICLE REMOVAL RATES BY THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS, ITS BURROW, AND A COMMENSAL CLAM: EFFECTS ON ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant intertidal inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the bivalve Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities by the shrimp and by its commensal clam, as well as particle se...

  1. Peroxinectin, a cell adhesive protein associated with the proPO system from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sritunyalucksana; K. Wongsuebsantati; M. W. Johansson; K. Söderhäll

    2001-01-01

    Upon activation of the prophenoloxidase activating system in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon, a cell adhesion activity in the haemolymph is generated. A cell adhesion assay showed that a high number of granular cells (60%) adhered to coverslips coated with a shrimp haemocyte lysate supernatant, whereas a very low number of cells adhered to coverslips coated with bovine serum albumin. Inhibition

  2. Biological pumps at the sediment-water interface: Mechanistic evaluation of the alpheid shrimp Alpheus mackayi and its irrigation pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gust; J. T. Harrison

    1981-01-01

    Deep-burrowing crustaceans are common on all coasts. In a series of model experiments conducted at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology from March to October 1977, the effect of the alpheid shrimp Alpheus mackayi Banner and Banner, on material fluxes across the sediment-water interface has been determined. Viewed as a “biological pump”, the shrimp's irrigation pattern was not random, but

  3. Residues of selected antibiotics in water and mud from shrimp ponds in mangrove areas in Viet Nam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuan Xuan Le; Yukihiro Munekage

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, antibiotics have been used widely in intensive shrimp culture and this may lead to their contamination of the environment. Surveys on residues of trimethoprim (TMP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), norfloxacin (NFXC) and oxolinic acid (OXLA) in water and mud in shrimp ponds in mangrove areas were conducted in the north as well as in south of Viet Nam in

  4. Statistical correlation between severity of hepatopancreatic parvovirus infection and stunting of farmed black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W Flegel; Vitaya Thamavit; Tirasak Pasharawipas; V Alday-Sanz

    1999-01-01

    In response to complaints from shrimp farmers, samples were taken to determine whether stunting in cultured Penaeus monodon was related to the presence of known infectious agents. Shrimp were arbitrarily defined as normal at >8 cm length and stunted at <8 cm (base of the rostrum to base of telson) and 10 of each type were collected at harvest from

  5. Residues of oxytetracycline in cultured juvenile blue shrimp, Penaeus stylirostris (Crustacea: Decapod), fed medicated feed for 14 days

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leone L Mohney; Rodney R Williams; Thomas A Bell; Donald V Lightner

    1997-01-01

    Juvenile shrimp fed for 14 days on oxytetracycline (OTC) medicated feed with a potency of 1500 mg OTC kg?1 of feed reached a level of 3.3 ?g OTC g?1 of shrimp tail muscle within 4 days, as measured by the microbial agar plate diffusion assay method for oxytetracycline in tissues, approved by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The concentration

  6. Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

  7. Redox conditions and heavy metals distribution in mangrove forests receiving shrimp farm effluents (Teremba bay, New Caledonia)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    heavy metals distributions in mangroves receiving shrimp farm effluents. Materials and methods Samples rocks and lateritic soils that are exploited for their richness in some heavy metals. We will endeavour1 Redox conditions and heavy metals distribution in mangrove forests receiving shrimp farm

  8. Investigations on juvenile fish excluder cum shrimp sorting device (JFE-SSD).

    PubMed

    Boopendranath, Menothuparambil Ravunny; Pravin, Puthra; Gibinkumar, Therodath Rajan; Sabu, Sarasan; Madhu, Vettiyattil Ramakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Penaeid shrimp is a major resource in India contributing about 7.4% of the total marine fish landings. They are mostly landed by small mechanized trawlers. Shrimp trawling generates large quantities of bycatch mostly consisting of juvenile fishes, due to use of small mesh size in codends of trawl nets. Juvenile Fish Excluder cum Shrimp Sorting Device (JFE-SSD) is a bycatch reduction device with an in situ sorting mechanism, which replaces the conventional codend in a trawl. The device was designed to catch shrimps and commercially important fish species using a specially designed oval sorting grid with appropriate bar spacing and dual codends. Shrimp sorting efficiency and bycatch exclusion characteristics of JFE-SSD attached to a 29.6 m shrimp trawl, was tested by experimental fishing along the coastal waters off Cochin, India. Out of a total of 317.07 kg of catch encountered in the JFE-SSD installed trawl, 58.22% was retained in lower codend, 17.53% in upper codend and 24.25%, mostly consisting of juveniles and sub-adults of finfishes and shellfishes, was excluded from upper codend. The mean CPUE registered for upper and lower codend were 7.23±1.04 SE and 5.84±0.96 SE kg h(-1) respectively. The CPUE of shrimps retained in upper and lower codends were significantly different (Kruskal-Wallis test (1,62), P<0.001), but the mean CPUE for fishes did not vary significantly. The average escapement of shrimps and juvenile fishes from upper codend were 0.06±0.02 SE kg h(-1) and 2.40±0.44 SE kg h(-1) respectively. Significant differences in the length composition between upper and lower codends were noticed for Megalaspis cordyla, Stolephorus waitei, Metapenaeus dobsoni and Parapenaeopsis stylifera. The experiments demonstrated in situ sorting ability of the device and its potential to reduce the bycatch of juveniles and sub-adults in shrimp trawls. PMID:23875130

  9. Species profiles - life histories and environmental requirements (Gulf of Mexico): brown shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Lassuy, D.R.

    1983-02-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, is the major species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable ($302 million in 1980) commercial fishery in the United States. It is heavily preyed on by many fishes. Spawning occurs offshore from about September to May and most postlarvae move into estuaries from February through April. Within the estuary they occupy shallow water near marshes with soft substrate. Juveniles emigrate from estuaries to offshore areas from May through August. They grow as fast as 3.3 mm per day in estuaries. Adults concentrate around the 55-m contour offshore. Postlarval and juvenile shrimp are normally taken in water temperatures above 10/sup 0/C and rapid growth occurs above 18/sup 0/C. Few shrimp are collected below 5 ppt salinity. Brown shrimp are benthic feeders and prefer soft substrates. High populations are associated with coastal marshes.

  10. Quality evaluation of farmed whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, treated with different slaughter processing by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ling-lin; Chen, Xiaojing; Wang, Yanbo

    2014-05-15

    The present study was to evaluate two slaughter processing methods (ice water immersion (T-1) and individual beheaded (T-2)) on whiteleg shrimp quality farmed in freshwater culture systems using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) technology. In addition, the corresponding physical, chemical and microbial properties of shrimp samples were also determined. No significant differences were observed in pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbutiric acid (TBA) and K value as well as the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash between groups of T-1 and T-2. However, significantly higher springiness and chewiness (P<0.05) were observed in T-1 as compared to those of T-2. As for the result of total viable counts (TVC), significantly lower value (P<0.05) was shown in T-1 than that of T-2, indicating that the quality and shelf life of whiteleg shrimp killed by ice water immersion could be improved and prolonged. Furthermore, all the samples were successfully divided into two categories regarding the two slaughter methods by principal component analysis (PCA) according to the infrared spectra. By analysis of the regression coefficients of PLS-DA, it can be supposed that the quality differences of whiteleg shrimp with different slaughter processing are largely caused by structural changes of their protein and fat. All together, our results indicated that the springiness and chewiness of whiteleg shrimp with different processing could be correctly distinguished using infrared spectroscopy. PMID:24423537

  11. Potential relationship among three antioxidant enzymes in eliminating hydrogen peroxide in penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongdong; Li, Fuhua; Chi, Yanhong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-07-01

    Antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and peroxiredoxin (Prx), are essential components in cells to eliminate excessive reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). GPx, CAT, and Prx genes have been reported in penaeid shrimp, and they showed different expression profiles at transcription or protein level when shrimps were challenged by microbes. In order to learn the relationship among the above three genes in their function, GPx, CAT, and Prx transcripts were analyzed, and the variation of GPx and CAT enzyme activity was detected when shrimp was injected with H(2)O(2) or one antioxidant enzyme gene was silenced in shrimp by double-strand RNA injection. The results indicated that there existed some relationships among three antioxidant enzyme genes, CAT, GPx, and Prx in shrimp at transcriptional level. The transcription of CAT and GPx could be directly induced by H(2)O(2) injection, while the transcription of Prx cannot be induced by H(2)O(2). Decreased transcription level of CAT or GPx could lead to increased transcription of the other two genes, which suggested that there existed some compensation among these three antioxidant enzyme genes. These data can help us to understand the roles of antioxidant enzymes in crustacean. PMID:22249789

  12. The miR-100-mediated pathway regulates apoptosis against virus infection in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Yang, Geng; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2014-09-01

    The process of programmed cell death process or apoptosis can be regulated by microRNAs, 21-25 nt short non-coding RNAs. However, a comprehensive view of apoptosis-associated miRNAs has not been intensively characterized. In this study, the shrimp miRNA microarray data showed that 199 miRNAs were involved in the regulation of apoptosis, among which 8 miRNAs were evolutionarily conserved in animals. The loss-of-function experiments in vivo in shrimp revealed that miR-100 was served as an anti-apoptosis miRNA through targeting the mRNA of trypsin gene. The results indicated that the silencing of miR-100 expression resulted in the increase of apoptotic activity of shrimp hemocytes and further led to the decreases of virus genome copies in shrimp and virus-infected shrimp mortality compared with the controls. The findings showed that miR-100-trypsin signaling pathway played an important role in the antiviral immunity by regulating apoptosis. Therefore, our study presented a novel miR-100-mediated pathway in the regulation of apoptosis. PMID:24972342

  13. Haemocyte apoptosis of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Xian, Jian-An; Li, Bin; Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Ye, Jian-Min; Feng, Li-Na; Ye, Chao-Xia; Pan, Xun-Bin; Wang, An-Li; Hao, Xuan-Ming

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of ambient Cadmium (Cd) on haemocyte apoptosis of the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Cellular response was determined in Cd-exposed (0, 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg L(-1)) shrimp. Results showed that 0.05 mg L(-1) Cd(2+) had no significant effect on the haemocyte parameters during the 48 h exposure. Cadmium at doses of 0.5 and 5 mg L(-1) depressed the total haemocyte count (THC), and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis ratio in haemocytes. Esterase activity increased in shrimp exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) Cd(2+) for 6 h, and decreased to the initial level later. Depressed esterase activity could be observed in shrimp after 24 and 48 h exposure to 5 mg L(-1) Cd(2+). These results demonstrated that Cd(2+) modified esterase activity and induced ROS generation, which led to haemocyte apoptosis and THC reduction. Oxidative stress is one of the induction mechanisms for Cd-caused apoptosis of shrimp haemocytes. PMID:24374743

  14. Growing backwards: an inverted role for the shrimp ortholog of vertebrate myostatin and GDF11.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Christian; Wade, Nicholas M; Jerry, Dean R; Preston, Nigel P; Glencross, Brett D; Sellars, Melony J

    2011-08-15

    Myostatin (MSTN) and growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) are closely related proteins involved in muscle cell growth and differentiation as well as neurogenesis of vertebrates. Both MSTN and GDF11 negatively regulate their functions. Invertebrates possess a single ortholog of the MSTN/GDF11 family. In order to understand the role of MSTN/GDF11 in crustaceans, the gene ortholog was identified and characterized in the penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon. The overall protein sequence and specific functional sites were highly conserved with other members of the MSTN/GDF11 family. Gene transcripts of pmMstn/Gdf11, assessed by real-time PCR, were detected in a variety of tissue types and were actively regulated in muscle across the moult cycle. To assess phenotypic function in shrimp, pmMstn/Gdf11 gene expression was downregulated by tail-muscle injection of sequence-specific double-stranded RNA. Shrimp with reduced levels of pmMstn/Gdf11 transcripts displayed a dramatic slowing in growth rate compared with control groups. Findings from this study place the MSTN/GDF11 gene at the centre of growth regulation in shrimp, but suggest that, compared with higher vertebrates, this gene has an opposite role in invertebrates such as shrimp, where levels of gene expression may positively regulate growth. PMID:21795562

  15. A physical model of the extreme mantis shrimp strike: kinematics and cavitation of Ninjabot.

    PubMed

    Cox, S M; Schmidt, D; Modarres-Sadeghi, Y; Patek, S N

    2014-03-01

    To study the mechanical principles and fluid dynamics of ultrafast power-amplified systems, we built Ninjabot, a physical model of the extremely fast mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda). Ninjabot rotates a to-scale appendage within the environmental conditions and close to the kinematic range of mantis shrimp's rotating strike. Ninjabot is an adjustable mechanism that can repeatedly vary independent properties relevant to fast aquatic motions to help isolate their individual effects. Despite exceeding the kinematics of previously published biomimetic jumpers and reaching speeds in excess of 25 m s(-1) at accelerations of 3.2 × 10(4) m s(-2), Ninjabot can still be outstripped by the fastest mantis shrimp, Gonodactylus smithii, measured for the first time in this study. G. smithii reached 30 m s(-1) at accelerations of 1.5 × 10(5) m s(-2). While mantis shrimp produce cavitation upon impact with their prey, they do not cavitate during the forward portion of their strike despite their extreme speeds. In order to determine how closely to match Ninjabot and mantis shrimp kinematics to capture this cavitation behavior, we used Ninjabot to produce strikes of varying kinematics and to measure cavitation presence or absence. Using Akaike Information Criterion to compare statistical models that correlated cavitation with a variety of kinematic properties, we found that in rotating and accelerating biological conditions, cavitation inception is best explained only by maximum linear velocity. PMID:24503516

  16. Cholesterol oxidation and astaxanthin degradation in shrimp during sun drying and storage.

    PubMed

    Hernández Becerra, Josafat A; Ochoa Flores, Angélica A; Valerio-Alfaro, Gerardo; Soto-Rodriguez, Ida; Rodríguez-Estrada, María T; García, Hugo S

    2014-02-15

    Dried salted shrimps are made from raw shrimps, which are cooked and dried under direct sunlight. The preparation and storage include treatments and conditions that can promote oxidative changes in different components. The aim of this study was to monitor the formation of major cholesterol oxidation products and the changes in the astaxanthin content and fatty acid profile in dried salted shrimp during cooking, sun drying and storage. During sun drying, most of the astaxanthin (75%) was degraded in cooked shrimp, while cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) showed a dramatic increase (8.6-fold), reaching a total concentration of 372.9 ± 16.3 ?g/g of lipids. Further storage favoured both astaxanthin degradation (83%) and COPs formation (886.6 ± 97.9 ?g/g of lipids after 90 days of storage). The high degradation of astaxanthin and the elevated formation of COPs during sun drying and storage indicate the necessity to re-evaluate the processing and storage conditions of salted dried shrimp. PMID:24128553

  17. The importance of supratidal habitats for wintering shorebirds and the potential impacts of shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Yasué, M; Dearden, P

    2009-06-01

    Intensive black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal (N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds. PMID:19189172

  18. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  19. Concentrations of selected chlorinated pesticides in shrimp collected from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.E.; Beck, J.N. (McNeese State Univ., Lake Charles, LA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    For several decades inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems have been affected by a multitude of synthetic chemical substances. This is a consequence of population growth and increased industrial and agricultural activity. Many of these chemicals, the by-products of their production, and degradation products ultimately find their way into the aquatic environment as pollutants. The extent to which these pollutants affect the environment and its inhabitants depends largely upon the quantity and nature of the particular compounds involved. Halogenated hydrocarbons, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the pesticide DDT and its degradation products have received much attention as environmental pollutants. Because of the economic importance of the shrimping industry to southwest Louisiana, the objective of this study was to analyze shrimp collected from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex for the presence of selected chlorinated pesticides. The presence of these compounds within shrimp tissues would serve as an indicator for the extent of pollution throughout this important estuarine system.

  20. Ultraviolet irradiation and gradient temperature assisted autolysis for protein recovery from shrimp head waste.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenhong; Tan, Caiyun; Zhan, Xiaojian; Li, Huiyi; Zhang, Chaohua

    2014-12-01

    A novel autolysis method using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and gradient temperature was investigated to efficiently recover proteins from the head of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. The proteolytic activity of shrimp head subjected to 30W UV irradiation for 20 min was increased by 62%, compared with that of untreated samples. After irradiation, the enzymes remained active across a wide range of temperatures (45-60°C) and pH (7-10). An orthogonal design was used to optimize autolysis condition. After 5h autolysis, protein recovery from the UV-heat treated samples was up to 92.1%. These results indicate the potential of using UV irradiation in combination with gradient temperatures to improve recovery of proteins from shrimp head waste. PMID:24996316

  1. Insights into the antiviral functions of the RNAi machinery in penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Labreuche, Yannick; Warr, Gregory W

    2013-04-01

    Over the last decade, RNA interference pathways have emerged in eukaryotes as critical regulators of many diverse biological functions including, among others, transcriptional gene regulation, post-transcriptional gene silencing, heterochromatin remodelling, suppression of transposon activity, and antiviral defences. Although this gene silencing process has been reported to be relatively well conserved in species of different phyla, there are important discrepancies between plants, invertebrates and mammals. In penaeid shrimp, the existence of an intact and functional RNAi machinery is supported by a rapidly growing body of evidence. However, the extent to which this process participates to the host immune responses remains poorly defined in this non-model organism. This review summarizes our current knowledge of RNAi mechanisms in shrimp and focuses on their implication in antiviral activities and shrimp immune defences. PMID:22732509

  2. Distribution of Hydrothermal Alvinocaridid Shrimps: Effect of Geomorphology and Specialization to Extreme Biotopes

    PubMed Central

    Lunina, Anastasia A.; Vereshchaka, Alexandr L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review of our knowledge about distribution of recently known species of vent shrimps and to analyze factors influencing distribution patterns. Analyses are based upon (1) original material taken during eight cruises in the Atlantic Ocean (a total of 5861 individuals) and (2) available literature data from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Vent shrimps have two patterns of the species ranges: local (single vent site) and regional (three - six vent sites). Pacific species ranges are mainly of the local type and the Atlantic species ranges are of the regional type. The regional type of species ranges may be associated with channels providing easy larval dispersal (rift valleys, trenches), while the local type is characteristic for other areas. Specialization of a shrimp genus to extreme vent habitats leads to two effects: (1) an increase in the number of vent fields inhabited by the genus and (2) a decrease of species number within the genus. PMID:24676215

  3. Metals in Some Edible Fish and Shrimp Species Collected in Dry Season from Subarnarekha River, India.

    PubMed

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    2015-08-01

    The concentration of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr, Co and Sr were determined in five fish and one shrimp species collected from the Subarnarekha River during pre-monsoon season using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for a risk assessment and source apportionment study. Concentrations of metals in the fish and shrimp exceeded the recommended food standards for As, Cu, Ni, Cd and Zn in many samples. Principal component analysis suggested both innate and anthropogenic activities as contributing sources of metal in the fish and shrimp. The calculated target hazard quotients and hazard indices indicated that high concentrations of metals in some species at some locations present an appreciable risk to the health of consumers of these species. PMID:26058722

  4. Adaptive radiation and ecological diversification of Sulawesi's ancient lake shrimps.

    PubMed

    Von Rintelen, Kristina; Glaubrecht, Matthias; Schubart, Christoph D; Wessel, Andreas; Von Rintelen, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Ancient lakes are natural laboratories for the study of adaptive radiation. Recently, two lake systems on the Indonesian island Sulawesi have emerged as promising new model systems. A species flock of atyid freshwater shrimps in the Malili lake system comprises 15 colorful endemic taxa. Mitochondrial DNA data suggest two independent colonizations by riverine ancestors. Only one colonization event led to subsequent radiation into 14 species, while the second clade comprises just one species. The vast majority of species (n= 12) are habitat specialists, which are confined to the larger Malili clade and include all taxa with species-specific color patterns and a restricted distribution within the five connected Malili lakes. Morphological, genetic, and ecological data are consistent with the existence of an adaptive radiation in the Malili lakes, involving the habitat-specific diversification of trophic morphology. In addition to testing criteria for the recognition of an adaptive radiation, an ancestral state reconstruction reveals an equal probability for either a riverine generalist or a lacustrine specialist as ancestor of the large Malili clade, which is interpreted as indicative of an early stage of habitat specialization within this radiation. Finally, our results suggest that species diversification may have been primarily driven by ecological specialization and allopatric speciation. PMID:20500216

  5. [Preparation of a spread from shrimp by-catch fish].

    PubMed

    Sena, C; Bello, R A

    1988-12-01

    The composition of shrimp by-catch fish from the Central-Western region of Venezuela at different periods of the year was studied, as well as mean size and weight of same, and the yields obtained during processing, until the edible portion (pulp) was reached. The pulp was also analyzed from the physical, chemical and microbiological (pH, basic volatile N, trimethylamine, thiobarbituric acid test, moisture, fat, protein, ashes content and mesophyll and psychrophilic counts) points of view. The purpose of these studies was to determine its quality and freshness, since said pulp was utilized for the preparation of a canned and sterilized bread spread. Results obtained indicated the pulp to have an acceptable freshness, a fact which reflected in a final product with adequate characteristics. The bread spread was also analyzed from the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory viewpoints (objective analyses of color and texture, pH, rancidity and sterility tests, moisture, fat protein, ashes, carbohydrates, sodium chloride contents, and sensory evaluation). In addition, these analyses were repeated monthly during the three-month storage period at two temperatures. On the basis of the above-mentioned findings, it was possible to determine that the bread spread had adequate acceptability and stability during storage. Furthermore, raw material variations did not affect the final product characteristics, which resulted in a product with commercial potential. PMID:3154297

  6. The role of native salinity regime on grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) sensitivity to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Andrew Y; Klerks, Paul L

    2013-03-01

    In euryhaline crustaceans, sensitivity to toxic trace metals may be linked to osmoregulation and salinity conditions. This study investigated if grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) populations from different salinity regimes differed in sensitivity to cadmium (Cd). Grass shrimp were collected in May 2011 from two marsh sites with average salinities of ~3.0 ppt and 24.0 ppt. Groups were acclimated for 3-32 weeks in either their respective native salinity (3.0 ppt ? 3.0 ppt and 24.0 ppt ? 24.0 ppt), or the average of the salinities of the two collection sites (3.0 ppt ? 13.5 ppt and 24.0 ppt ? 13.5 ppt). After acclimation, groups were exposed to equivalent free-ion Cd concentration (4.8 ± 0.3 mg/L, Cd(2+)) in their respective acclimated salinity to compare survival among salinity treatments. Results of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that 3.0 ppt ? 3.0 ppt shrimp were more sensitive to Cd(2+) than any other group (p < 0.0001). Additionally, 3.0 ppt ? 13.5 ppt shrimp were less sensitive to Cd(2+) than were 24.0 ppt ? 13.5 ppt shrimp (p = 0.0013). These results suggest that sensitivity of grass shrimp to Cd is dependent upon the salinity during exposure, and the salinity regime from which the tested population originated. The implication is that toxicity studies and risk assessments using euryhaline crustaceans should consider the salinity of test population collection sites when interpreting and comparing results. PMID:23212442

  7. Horizontally transferred genes in the genome of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, as the development of next-generation sequencing technology, a growing number of genes have been reported as being horizontally transferred from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, most of them involving arthropods. As a member of the phylum Arthropoda, the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has to adapt to the complex water environments with various symbiotic or parasitic microorganisms, which provide a platform for horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Results In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide HGT events in L. vannamei. Through homology search and phylogenetic analysis, followed by experimental PCR confirmation, 14 genes with HGT event were identified: 12 of them were transferred from bacteria and two from fungi. Structure analysis of these genes showed that the introns of the two fungi-originated genes were substituted by shrimp DNA fragment, two genes transferred from bacteria had shrimp specific introns inserted in them. Furthermore, around other three bacteria-originated genes, there were three large DNA segments inserted into the shrimp genome. One segment was a transposon that fully transferred, and the other two segments contained only coding regions of bacteria. Functional prediction of these 14 genes showed that 6 of them might be related to energy metabolism, and 4 others related to defense of the organism. Conclusions HGT events from bacteria or fungi were happened in the genome of L. vannamei, and these horizontally transferred genes can be transcribed in shrimp. This is the first time to report the existence of horizontally transferred genes in shrimp. Importantly, most of these genes are exposed to a negative selection pressure and appeared to be functional. PMID:23914989

  8. An Integrin from Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Mediated Microbial Agglutination and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Wu, Ning; Zhou, Zhi; Song, Linsheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte migration, and complement receptor-dependent phagocytosis. In invertebrates, as a cell adhesion receptor, ? integrins play an important role for the balanced activation of immune defense responses especially during the encounter of infections. The present study attempts to characterize the immune functions of shrimp integrin (LvIntegrin) to have better understanding on the immune system and its regulation mechanisms in shrimps. Methodology A shrimp integrin was identified from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvIntegrin). Its full-length cDNA was of 2621 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2439 bp encoding a polypeptide of 812 amino acids. The mRNA expression of LvIntegrin was significantly up-regulated at 3, 6 and 12 h after Listonella anguillarum challenge. The cDNA fragment encoding ? integrin domains (?A and hybrid domain) of LvIntegrin was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS. The recombinant protein (rLvIntegrin) could significantly agglutinate the tested microbe including E. coli JM109, L. anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Candida dattiladattila in the presence of divalent cations. Moreover, when NIH3T3 cells were cultured with rLvIntegrin, the proliferation rate increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions LvIntegrin, a shrimp ? integrin was identified from L. vannamei, shared several highly conserved features. LvIntegrin exhibited broad-spectrum agglutination activity towards both bacteria and fungi and could improve the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, indicating that LvIntegrin is involved in the immune response against microbe challenge and regulation of cell proliferation as a cell adhesion receptor in shrimp. PMID:22792387

  9. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO4-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO3-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (Pshrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8 +/-1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (Pshrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system. PMID:12663210

  10. Acquisition of epibiotic bacteria along the life cycle of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata

    PubMed Central

    Guri, Mathieu; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valérie; Zbinden, Magali; Crassous, Philippe; Shillito, Bruce; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    The caridean shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the fauna at several Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites. This shrimp has an enlarged gill chamber, harboring a dense ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with mineral oxide deposits. Until now, their acquisition is not fully understood. At three hydrothermal vent sites, we analyzed the epibionts diversity at different moult stages and also in the first stages of the shrimp life (eggs, hatched eggs (with larvae) and juveniles). Hatched eggs associated with young larvae were collected for the first time directly from gravid females at the Logachev vent site during the Serpentine cruise. An approach using 16S rRNA clone libraries, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used. Molecular results and microscope observations indicated a switch in the composition of the bacterial community between early R. exoculata life cycle stage (egg libraries dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria) and later stages (juvenile/adult libraries dominated by the Epsilonproteobacteria). We hypothesized that the epibiotic phylotype composition could vary according to the life stage of the shrimp. Our results confirmed the occurrence of a symbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, but more complex than previously assumed. We revealed the presence of active type-I methanotrophic bacteria colonizing the cephalothorax of shrimps from the Rainbow site. They were also present on the eggs from the Logachev site. This could be the first ‘epibiotic' association between methanotrophic bacteria and hydrothermal vent crustacean. We discuss possible transmission pathways for epibionts linked to the shrimp life cycle. PMID:21993397

  11. Acute toxicity of Roundup and carbosulfan to the Thai fairy shrimp, Branchinella thailandensis.

    PubMed

    Boonsoong, B; Bullangpoti, V

    2012-01-01

    The potential risk of herbicides and insecticides sprayed near pools to non-target fairy shrimp has not been assessed in Thailand. The acute toxicity of Roundup (isopropylamine salt 48% w/v) herbicide and carbosulfan (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl (dibutylaminothio) methylcabamate 20% w/v) insecticide were evaluated in 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours static bioassay using nauplii fairy shrimp, Branchinella thailandensis. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated after probit transformation of resulting data. Median 24 hours lethal concentrations were 0.319 and 0.702 ppm for Roundup and carbosulfan, respectively. PMID:23885411

  12. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  13. Isolation and characterization of two actins of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piera S. Sun; Marcus Soderlund; Nel C. Venzon Jr; Dailin Ye; Yuanan Lu

    2007-01-01

    Two actin genes named actinT1 and actinT2 were isolated and sequenced from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, by screening from a shrimp eyestalk cDNA library. L. vannamei\\u000a actinT1 cDNA has a 1,128-bp open reading frame encoding for 376 amino acids while L. vannamei\\u000a actinT2 cDNA has a 1,131-bp open reading frame coding for 377 amino acids. Alignment of the

  14. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the distinct gene orders provide further evidences for the divergence between the two mud shrimp infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea, corroborating previous molecular phylogeny and justifying their infraordinal status. Mitochondrial genome sequences appear to be promising markers for resolving phylogenetic issues concerning decapod crustaceans that warrant further investigations and our present study has also provided further information concerning the mt genome evolution of the Decapoda. PMID:23153176

  15. Transformation of the matrix structure of shrimp shells during bacterial deproteination and demineralization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background After cellulose and starch, chitin is the third-most abundant biopolymer on earth. Chitin or its deacetylated derivative chitosan is a valuable product with a number of applications. It is one of the main components of shrimp shells, a waste product of the fish industry. To obtain chitin from Penaeus monodon, wet and dried shrimp shells were deproteinated with two specifically enriched proteolytic cultures M1 and M2 and decalcified by in-situ lactic acid forming microorganisms. The viscosity of biologically processed chitin was compared with chemically processed chitin. The former was further investigated for purity, structure and elemental composition by several microscopic techniques and 13C solid state NMR spectroscopy. Results About 95% of the protein of wet shrimp shells was removed by proteolytic enrichment culture M2 in 68 h. Subsequent decalcification by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) took 48 h. Deproteination of the same amount of dried shrimps that contained a 3 × higher solid content by the same culture was a little bit faster and was finished after 140 h. The viscosity of chitin was in the order of chemically processed chitin > bioprocessed chitin > commercially available chitin. Results revealed changes in fine structure and chemical composition of the epi-, exo- and endocuticle of chitin from shrimp shells during microbial deproteination and demineralization. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) overlays and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis, it was found that most protein was present in the exocuticle, whereas most chitin was present in the endocuticle. The calcium content was higher in the endocuticle than in the exocuticle.13C solid state NMR spectra of different chitin confirmed?shrimp shell waste resulted in a chitin with high purity. Its viscosity was higher than that of commercially available chitin but lower than that of chemically prepared chitin in our lab. Nevertheless, the biologically processed chitin is a promising alternative for less viscous commercially available chitin. Highly viscous chitin could be generated by our chemical method. Comprehensive structural analyses revealed the distribution of the protein and Ca matrix within the shrimp shell cuticle which might be helpful in developing shrimp waste processing techniques. PMID:24093594

  16. Effects of copper, cadmium, and zinc on the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).

    PubMed

    Brix, K V; Gerdes, R M; Adams, W J; Grosell, M

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts is surprisingly sensitive to ambient metal concentrations. These studies estimated median effective concentrations (EC50s) of 7, 5, and 28 microg l-1 for Cd, Cu, and Zn, suggesting that the hatching end point for A. franciscana is the most sensitive tested to date for Cd and Zn in saline environments and comparable in sensitivity with the most sensitive tested to date for Cu. Furthermore, these data suggest that brine shrimp are at significant risk from Cu and Zn in Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT, where ambient concentrations as high as 10 and 14 microg l-1, respectively, have been measured. Given that brine shrimp appear to be successfully reproducing in GSL, we hypothesized that these toxicity values were either biased low as a result of an artifact of the test method used or that site-specific water-quality conditions in the lake had decreased metal bioavailability such that brine shrimp could successfully reproduce. To test these hypotheses, we initiated a step-wise series of experiments. First we investigated the effects of pretreatment of brine shrimp cysts with antibiotics on brine shrimp sensitivity to metals because previous investigators as part of their test methods have used antibiotics. Next we considered the effect of ionic composition of the artificial test media on sensitivity. Finally, we evaluated the effects of the site-specific water quality of the GSL on metal bioavailability and toxicity. Results indicate that pretreatment of cysts with antibiotics had no effect on sensitivity. However, we were unable to repeat the previous values for Cd and Zn, obtaining EC50s of 11,859 and 289 microg l-1 for Cd and Zn, respectively. For Cu, however, we estimated an EC50 of 12 microg l-1, so we conducted further testing on the artificial media, adjusting the media composition to better reflect the Ca2+ and HCO3- concentration of normal seawater. This increased the EC50 to 28 microg l-1. Finally we evaluated the toxicity of Cu in GSL water and obtained an EC50 of 68 microg l-1, suggesting that the increased dissolved organic carbon in GSL has a significant protective effect. Overall, the results of this study suggest that brine shrimp hatching success is not particularly sensitive to Cd and Zn, but it is sensitive to Cu. However, site-specific water-quality conditions ensure that brine shrimp cyst hatching success is not significantly affected by any of these metals at the normal background concentrations that occur in GSL (<15 microg l-1). PMID:16897274

  17. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). White shrimp. [Penaeus setiferus

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, is the second most abundant species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable fishery in the United States. It serves as food for many fishes and is sold in the bait industry. Spawning occurs in at least 27 ppt salinity at water depths of 8 to 31 m, from April through September. Postlarvae move on flood tides into inshore estuarine nursery areas; peak abundances are in June and September. Juvenile white shrimp move farther inland than do brown shrimp and prefer shallow water with soft substrate. Growth of 1.6 mm per day occurs at water temperatures above 20/sup 0/C before the shrimp move offshore when inshore waters begin to cool in fall. Juveniles and adults return inshore when water temperatures increase in fall or the following spring. Survival at 8/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/C was related to temperature and salinities. Juvenile and adult white shrimp are omnivorous, selective-particulate, benthic feeders. Population abundance has been correlated with coastal marshes and freshwater inflows. Maintaining suitable nursery grounds will decide the future of Gulf Coast white shrimp resources. 71 refs. 2 figs.

  18. A novel viral responsive protein is involved in hemocyte homeostasis in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Prapavorarat, Adisak; Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2010-07-01

    A novel viral responsive protein, namely hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP), was characterized for its role in the response of shrimp to white spot syndrome virus infection. The full-length cDNAs of HHAP from the black tiger shrimp (PmHHAP), Penaeus monodon, and the fresh water crayfish (PlHHAP), Pacifastacus leniusculus, were obtained and showed high sequence identity to a hypothetical protein from various organisms, with the highest identity to the hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC006773 from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (54% amino acid sequence identity). Transcripts of PmHHAP were expressed in various shrimp tissues with the highest expression in hematopoietic tissue, whereas the transcripts of PlHHAP were found in the hematopoietic and nerve tissues. Upon white spot syndrome virus infection, a high up-regulation level of shrimp hemocytic HHAP mRNA and protein was observed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. Gene silencing of PmHHAP by RNA interference resulted in a significant decrease in the number of circulating hemocytes and 100% shrimp mortality within 30 h of the double-stranded PmHHAP RNA injection (but not in control shrimp), indicating that HHAP is essential for shrimp survival. Interestingly, severe damage of hemocytes was observed in vivo in the PmHHAP knockdown shrimp and in vitro in shrimp primary hemocyte cell culture, suggesting that PmHHAP plays an important role in hemocyte homeostasis. Thus, it is speculated that the up-regulation of PmHHAP is an important mechanism to control circulating hemocyte levels in crustaceans during viral infection. PMID:20444692

  19. Cloning of profilin (FcPFN) from the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis , a highly expressed protein in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Kong; G. E. Hong; H. K. Cho; B. H. Nam; Y. O. Kim; W. J. Kim; S. J. Lee; K. K. Kim

    2009-01-01

    We isolated and characterized the profilin (FcPFN) cDNA from hemocytes ofFenneropenaeus chinensis, a unique shrimp species from the Yellow Sea. The FcPFN cDNA consists of 830 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 125 amino acids,\\u000a having a predicted isoelectric point of 5.06. The deduced amino acid sequence of FcPFN shows 36% and 90% amino acid sequence\\u000a identity to the profilin

  20. Assessment of the interaction between the white shrimp, Palaemon longirostris , and the exotic oriental shrimp, Palaemon macrodactylus , in a European estuary (SW Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique González-Ortegón; José A. Cuesta; Emilio Pascual; Pilar Drake

    2010-01-01

    Results of field surveys, stomach content analysis, and laboratory measurements of oxygen consumption at different salinities\\u000a in the exotic shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus and its native counterpart P. longirostris from the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain) were used to assess interaction between both species. After its first record in\\u000a this estuary in 1998, P. macrodactylus has shown a gradual increase in density

  1. Description of three ecology studies on brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus and white shrimp P. setiferus conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service, Galveston, Texas

    E-print Network

    Diego, Maria Eugenia de

    1984-01-01

    , select vegetated areas over those without vegetati on ( Zimmerman, et al . , 1984 ) . Other data suggests that such S. arteniflora habitat provides brown shrimp w1th both food and refuge (Minello and Zimmerman, 1984; Zimmerman, et al. , 1984... types. It has proven to be efficient and accurate in both vegetated and non-vegetated areas (Zimmerman, et al. , 1984). In the Louisiana S. ~atens salt marsh, drop samples were taken in three different areas (types of habitat): l. A vegetated area...

  2. The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M.; Beardmore, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to “perceive” forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of Artemia for the well-being of human populations. PMID:22737126

  3. Comparative morphological studies on four populations of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchaka, A. L.

    1997-11-01

    Four populations (a total of 677 specimens) of the hydrothermal shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata from three Mid-Atlantic Ridge vent fields were studied: Broken Spur (29°N), TAG (26°N), and "14-45" (14°N). Five morphological characters were analysed: number of dorsolateral spines on telson, telative carapace width, relative abdominal length, presence of "abnormal telson", and fat content. Dependences of each character upon shrimp size were analysed. Division of the shrimp ontogenesis on the basis of general morphology is proposed. Phenotypic analysis based upon five selected characters revealed statistically significant divergence between two populations within the same vent field TAG. Probable causes of observed divergence are discussed.

  4. Organization and promoter analysis of a tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon single WAP domain-containing protein gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyh Yih Chen; Chen Jian Chyi; Lin Sheng Hwa; Pan Chia Yu; Kuo Ching Ming

    2006-01-01

    The main function of the single whey acidic protein domain (SWD)-containing protein in shrimp is unknown. To elucidate the\\u000a function of the SWD-containing protein in vivo, the SWD-containing protein gene was isolated and characterized. A 9.3-kb shrimp SWD-containing protein gene, and a 3.9-kb\\u000a 3?-flanking region. The shrimp SWD-containing protein gene contained three exons and two introns. Different fragments of the

  5. The stability of adenosine deaminase and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase as potential spoilage indicators for postmortem ice stored shrimp

    E-print Network

    Cheuk, Wai Lun

    1978-01-01

    (Pandalus borealis), caught in Canada, at a level of 92 pmole/100 g of shrimp tissue. Since the activity of the enzymes involved at each step of the metabolic pathway are temperature dependent, Arai (1966b) observed an accumulation and sub- sequent...-life of shrimp from various locations on the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. J. Milk Food Technol. 36(9):463. Collins, J. and Kelley, C. 1969. Alaska pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis: Effects of heat treatment on color and machine peelability. U. S. Fish. Wi' dl...

  6. Silencing VP28 Gene of White Spot Syndrome Virus of Shrimp by Bacterially Expressed dsRNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sarathi; Martin C. Simon; V. P. Ishaq Ahmed; S. Rajesh Kumar; A. S. Sahul Hameed

    2008-01-01

    An in vivo expression system to produce large amounts of virus-derived dsRNAs in bacteria to provide a practical control of\\u000a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp was developed. The bacterially synthesized dsRNA specific to VP28 gene of WSSV\\u000a promoted gene-specific interference with the WSSV infection in shrimp. Virus infectivity was significantly reduced in WSSV-challenged\\u000a shrimp injected with VP28-dsRNA and

  7. Rearing effect of biofloc on antioxidant and antimicrobial transcriptional response in Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp facing an experimental sub-lethal hydrogen peroxide stress.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Emilie; Saulnier, Denis; Lorgeoux, Bénédicte; Chim, Liet; Gueguen, Yannick

    2015-08-01

    This study compares the antioxidant and antimicrobial transcriptional expression of blue shrimps reared according to two different systems, BioFloc Technology (BFT) and Clear sea Water (CW) and their differential responses when facing an experimental sublethal hydrogen peroxide stress. After 30 days of rearing, juvenile shrimps were exposed to H2O2 stress at a concentration of 30 ppm during 6 h. The oxidative stress caused by H2O2 was examined in the digestive glands of the shrimp, in which antioxidant enzyme (AOE) and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that rearing conditions did not affect the expression of genes encoding AOEs or AMPs. However, H2O2 stress induced a differential response in expression between shrimps from the two rearing treatments (BFT and CW). Comparative analysis of the expression profiles indicates that catalase transcripts were significantly upregulated by H2O2 stress for BFT shrimps while no change was observed for CW shrimps. In contrast, H2O2 caused down-regulation of superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase transcripts and of the three AMP transcripts studied (penaeidin 2 and 3, and crustin) for CW shrimps, while no effect was observed on BFT shrimp transcript levels. These results suggested that BFT shrimps maintained antioxidant and AMP responses after stress and therefore can effectively protect their cells against oxidative stress, while CW shrimp immune competence seems to decrease after stress. PMID:26052010

  8. The social and political economy of coastal zone management: Shrimp mariculture in Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Keene Meltzoff; Edward LiPuma

    1986-01-01

    The paper examines the applicability of First World CZM policy for the Third World by focusing on Ecuador's shrimp mariculture, an industry whose explosive growth has reshaped the coastal zone and generated problems threatening loss of the resource base itself. This has led to recognized need for CZM and movement by development agencies to transfer the CZ policies of developed

  9. A technique for modeling exotic shrimp escapes in Matagorda and San Antonio Bays, Texas

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Andrew J

    1999-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model, TXBLEND, was used to simulate operating system. exotic shrimp escapes into Texas coastal wakers. Output from the model runs were reformatted using various scripts for display in Arcview 3.0a. The result of the work completed...

  10. Optimization of bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR against shrimp bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aquaculture is one amongst the growing and major food producing sectors. Shrimp culture is one of the subsectors of aquaculture that attracts more attention because of the economic interest. However, the shrimp culture systems have been facing severe consequences and economical losses due to disease outbreaks. Risk of disease outbreak can be combated with the application of probiotics. For economically viable production of such probiotic products, the present study provides information on the optimization and partial purification of bacteriocin produced by a goat milk isolate Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR against the shrimp bacterial pathogens. Results Bacteriocin production was estimated as a measure of bactericidal activity (arbitrary Unit/ml) over the test strains. The optimum culture conditions and media components for maximum bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR were: pH: 5.0, temperature: 30°C, carbon source: lactose; nitrogen source: ammonium acetate; NaCl: 3.0% and surfactant: Tween 80. MRS medium was found to extend better bacteriocin production than other tested media. Upon partial purification of bacteriocin, the SDS-PAGE analysis had manifested the presence of two peptide bands with the molecular weight of 39.26 and 6.38 kDa, respectively. Conclusion The present results provide baseline trend for the statistical optimization, scale up process and efficient production of bacteriocin by the candidate bacterial strain Lactobacillus sp. MSU3IR which could be used to replace the usage of conventional chemotherapeutics in shrimp culture systems. PMID:23725298

  11. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the processing of shrimp in remote Alaska. The effluent limitations contained in this subpart J are applicable to facilities not covered under subpart I of this part. [40 FR 55781, Dec. 1,...

  12. 76 FR 41760 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is extending the time limit for the final results of the new shipper review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February 1, 2010, through July 31,...

  13. Mercury content of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) reared in a wastewater-seawater aquacultural system

    SciTech Connect

    Landau, M.; Pierce, R.

    1986-10-01

    Penaeus vannamei were reared in two ponds, one receiving 10% wastewater in seawater and no feed, and the other receiving only seawater and a prepared commercial feed. The pond receiving the wastewater had significantly more mercury in the sediment, yet shrimp in this pond did not accumulate significant amounts of the mercury in their edible tissue.

  14. 75 FR 56988 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is extending the time limit for the preliminary results of the administrative review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the period February 1, 2009, through January 31,...

  15. Identification of Two Major Virion Protein Genes of White Spot Syndrome Virus of Shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariëlle C. W van Hulten; Marcel Westenberg; Stephen D Goodall; Just M Vlak

    2000-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus, causing considerable mortality in shrimp. Two structural proteins of WSSV were identified. WSSV virions are enveloped nucleocapsids with a bacilliform morphology with an approximate size of 275 × 120 nm, and a tail-like extension at one end. The double-stranded viral DNA has an approximate size 290 kb. WSSV virions, isolated from

  16. 76 FR 50718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is extending the time limit for the preliminary results of the administrative review of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the period February 1, 2010, through January 31,...

  17. Measurement of reactive oxygen intermediate production in haemocytes of the penaeid shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Muñoz; Ricardo Cedeño; Jenny Rodr??guez; Wil P. W van der Knaap; Eric Mialhe; Evelyne Bachère

    2000-01-01

    A spectrophotometric nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay was used to demonstrate the production of superoxide anions (O2?) by haemocytes of the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. It was found that haemocytes, without receiving an experimental stimulant, showed a rather high background activity. Therefore, optimal parameters (number of haemocytes, type of incubation medium, type and concentration of stimulants) were first established, in

  18. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the processing of shrimp in remote Alaska. The effluent limitations contained in this subpart J are applicable to facilities not covered under subpart I of this part. [40 FR 55781, Dec. 1,...

  19. Toxicity and distribution of Aroclor ® 1254 in the pink shrimp Penaeus duorarum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Nimmo; R. R. Blackman; A. J. Wilson; J. Forester

    1971-01-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor® 1254 was released in an accidental leakage of heat-exchange fluid from an industrial plant, into the Escambia River, near Pensacola, Florida, USA. This material was carried downstream, and is now found in the fauna of Escambia Bay and its contiguous waters, prime nursery areas for fishes and invertebrates such as penaeid shrimp. The significance of pollution

  20. A STUDY OF THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN'S OF THE COMMON MARINE SHRIMP, PENAEUS SETIFERUS (LINNAEUS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH E. KING

    In connection with the investigations of the common commercial shrimp, Penaeus setiferus (Linnaeus) , carried on by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, studies have been made of the structure of the reproductive organs and accessory sex characters and the general nature of the reproductive process. This report gives information on the anatomy and histology of the male and